WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomass cofiring project

  1. Biomass co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus......Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized......-bed combustion (FBC) systems, and grate-firing systems, which are employed in about 50%, 40% and 10% of all the co-firing plants, respectively. Their basic principles, process technologies, advantages, and limitations are presented, followed by a brief comparison of these technologies when applied to biomass co...

  2. FETC/EPRI BIOMASS COFIRING COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. TILLMAN; E. HUGHES

    1998-08-01

    This quarter much progress was made in promoting cofiring through the many FETC/EPRI backed projects. During January 1, 1998 to March 31st, 1998 significant contractual agreements were arranged for future testing and analyses of previous testing were conducted. Most notable was the analysis done on the testing run at the Tennessee Valley Authority�s Colbert Fossil Plant that showed no significant impacts to the plant boiler due to cofiring. Northern Indiana Public Service Company also identified Bailly #7 as the site of the next series of tests using their plants. Other work done on these projects primarily focused on continued cofiring development. This report summarizes the activities during the first quarter in 1998 of the FETC/EPRI Biomass Cofiring Cooperative Agreement. It focuses upon reporting the results of testing in order to highlight the progress at utilities.

  3. Biomass Co-Firing in Suspension-Fired Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen; Hvid, Søren Lovmand; Baxter, Larry

    The objective of the project is to investigate critical issues associated with cofiring with low-NOx burners and cofiring in advanced suspension-fired plants with for example high-temperature steam cycles. Experience has been gained using biofuels for cofiring in older power plant units. However...... modelling tool adapted to accommodate biomass cofiring combustion features. The CFD tool will be able to predict deposit accumulation, particle conversion, fly ash composition, temperatures, velocities, and composition of furnace gases, etc. The computer model will primarily be used in the development...... of advanced cofired combustion and potentially gasification systems and secondarily to resolve immediate and critical issues associated with cofired systems. Another essential issue is the assessment of fuel flexibility in cofired plants to help keep biomass use competitive compared to other renewable...

  4. USDOE/EPRI BIOMASS COFIRING COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Hughes; D. Tillman

    2000-10-01

    During the period of July 1, 2000 through September 30, 2000, alternatives for relocating the Seward Generating Station cofiring project were investigated. Allegheny Energy Supply Company LLC will accept the separate injection demonstration at its Albright Generating Station. During this period, also, efforts were made at program outreach. Papers were given at the Pittsburgh Coal Conference. This report summarizes the activities during the second calendar quarter in 2000 of the USDOE/EPRI Biomass Cofiring Cooperative Agreement. It focuses upon reporting the results of the relocation of Seward, and on the outreach efforts.

  5. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

  6. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert Toerne; John Bick

    2003-01-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this widespread fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be used as a supplemental fuel in an existing utility boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with a variety of conventional boilers including natural gas and oil fired boilers, pulverized coal fired conventional and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a wider selection of biomass as fuel and providing opportunity in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere through the commercialization of this technology. This study evaluated two plants: Wester Kentucky Energy Corporation's (WKE's) Reid Plant and TXU Energy's Monticello Plant for technical and economical feasibility. These plants were selected for their proximity to large supply of poultry litter in the area. The Reid plant is located in Henderson County in southwest Kentucky, with a large poultry processing facility nearby. Within a fifty-mile radius of the Reid plant, there are large-scale poultry farms that generate over 75,000 tons/year of poultry litter. The local poultry farmers are actively seeking environmentally more benign alternatives to the current use of the litter as landfill or as a farm spread as fertilizer. The Monticello plant is located in Titus County, TX near the town of Pittsburgh, TX, where again a large poultry processor and poultry farmers in the area generate over 110,000 tons/year of poultry litter. Disposal of this litter in the area is also a concern. This project offers a model opportunity to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass co-firing and at the same time eliminate

  7. Cofiring biomass with coal: Opportunities for Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A. A.; Shamsuddin, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Malaysia generated 108,175 GWh of electricity in 2010 where 39.51 % was sourced from coal. Coal power generation is also planned to overtake natural gas as the main fuel for electricity generation within the next two decades. Malaysia also has a vast biomass resource that is currently under-utilised for electricity generation. This paper studies the option of cofiring biomass in existing Malaysian coal power plants to increase the nation's renewable energy mix as well as to reduce its power sector carbon dioxide emission. Benefits of cofiring to the nation were discussed and agricultural residues from palm oil and paddy was identified as a potential source of biomass for cofiring. It was also found that there is a willingness for cofiring by stakeholders but barriers existed in the form of technical issues and lack of clear direction and mechanism.

  8. COFIRING OF BIOMASS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip N. Hutton

    2002-01-01

    A project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory was completed by the Energy & Environmental Research Center to explore the potential for cofiring biomass at the University of North Dakota (UND). The results demonstrate how 25% sunflower hulls can be cofired with subbituminous coal and provide a 20% return on investment or 5-year payback for the modifications required to enable firing biomass. Significant outcomes of the study are as follows. A complete resource assessment presented all biomass options to UND within a 100-mile radius. Among the most promising options in order of preference were sunflower hulls, wood residues, and turkey manure. The firing of up to 28% sunflower hulls by weight was completed at the university's steam plant to identify plant modifications that would be necessary to enable cofiring sunflower hulls. The results indicated investments in a new equipment could be less than $408,711. Data collected from test burns, which were not optimized for biomass firing, resulted in a 15% reduction in sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions, no increase in opacity, and slightly better boiler efficiency. Fouling and clinkering potential were not evaluated; however, no noticeable detrimental effects occurred during testing. As a result of this study, UND has the potential to achieve a cost savings of approximately $100,000 per year from a $1,500,000 annual fossil fuel budget by implementing the cofiring of 25% sunflower hulls.

  9. FETC/EPRI Biomass Cofiring Cooperative Agreement. Quarterly technical report, April 1-June 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, E.; Tillman, D.

    1997-12-01

    The FETC/EPRI Biomass Cofiring Program has accelerated the pace of cofiring development by increasing the testing activities plus the support activities for interpreting test results. Past tests conducted and analyzed include the Allen Fossil Plant and Seward Generating Station programs. On-going tests include the Colbert Fossil Plant precommercial test program, the Greenidge Station commercialization program, and the Blount St. Station switchgrass program. Tests in the formative stages included the NIPSCO cofiring test at Michigan City Generating Station. Analytical activities included modeling and related support functions required to analyze the cofiring test results, and to place those results into context. Among these activities is the fuel availability study in the Pittsburgh, PA area. This study, conducted for Duquesne Light, supports their initial investigation into reburn technology using wood waste as a fuel. This Quarterly Report, covering the third quarter of the FETC/EPRI Biomass Cofiring Program, highlights the progress made on the 16 projects funded under this cooperative agreement.

  10. Biomass co-firing under oxy-fuel conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Álvarez, L.; Yin, Chungen; Riaza, J.

    2014-01-01

    to have favourable synergy effects in all the cases: it significantly improves the burnout and remarkably lowers NOx emissions. The reduced peak temperatures during co-firing can also help to mitigate deposition formation in real furnaces. Co-firing CO2-neutral biomass with coals under oxy-fuel conditions...... can achieve a below-zero CO2 emission if the released CO2 is captured and sequestered. The model-predicted burnout and gaseous emissions were compared against the experimental results. A very good agreement was observed, the differences in a range of ± 5–10% of the experimental values, which indicates...

  11. EPRI-USDOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT: COFIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Tillman

    2001-09-01

    The entire Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) cofiring program has been in existence of some 9 years. This report presents a summary of the major elements of that program, focusing upon the following questions: (1) In pursuit of increased use of renewable energy in the US economy, why was electricity generation considered the most promising target, and why was cofiring pursued as the most effective near-term technology to use in broadening the use of biomass within the electricity generating arena? (2) What were the unique accomplishments of EPRI before the development of the Cooperative Agreement, which made developing the partnership with EPRI a highly cost-effective approach for USDOE? (3) What were the key accomplishments of the Cooperative Agreement in the development and execution of test and demonstration programs-accomplishments which significantly furthered the process of commercializing cofiring?

  12. Potential of cofiring with biomass in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aresta, M.; Tommasi, I.; Galatola, M. [University of Bari (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    Biomass is considered a potential fuel and a renewable source for the future. In Italy, the utilization of biomass nowadays is addressed, above all, towards thermal energy production. In the near future, however, it is predictable a higher differentiation in order to use biomass with the more suitable technology. In this paper we review the utilization of residual biomasses. (Author)

  13. Co-firing of biomass with coal: constraints and role of biomass pretreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maciejewska, A.K.; Veringa, H.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Peteves, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    This report aims at introducing the aspects of co-firing of biomass with coal. The main focus is given to problems and constraints related to utilizing biomass together with coal for power generation, and the potential of biomass pre-treatment in mitigating these constraints. The work is based on a

  14. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2003-07-01

    During the period April 1, 2003--June 30, 2003, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) proceeded with demonstration operations at the Willow Island Generating Station and improvements to the Albright Generating Station cofiring systems. The demonstration operations at Willow Island were designed to document integration of biomass cofiring into commercial operations. The Albright improvements were designed to increase the resource base for the projects, and to address issues that came up during the first year of operations. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations.

  15. FETC/EPRI Biomass Cofiring Cooperative Agreement. Quarterly technical report, July 1-September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, E.; Tillman, D.

    1997-12-01

    The FETC/EPRI Biomass Cofiring Program has completed one year of activity, accelerating the pace of cofiring development. Cofiring tests were completed at the Seward Generating Station of GPU Genco and at the Michigan City Generating Station of NIPSCO. The NYSEG work at Greenidge Station resulted in a workable, low cost method for injecting biofuels into coal-fired PC boilers. Support studies and modeling continued to provide analytics for the cofiring program. This report summarizes the activities during the fourth quarter of the FETC/EPRI Biomass Cofiring Cooperative Agreement. It focuses upon the results of testing in order to highlight the progress at utilities.

  16. Numerical study of co-firing pulverized coal and biomass inside a cement calciner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulčić, Hrvoje; von Berg, Eberhard; Vujanović, Milan; Duić, Neven

    2014-07-01

    The use of waste wood biomass as fuel is increasingly gaining significance in the cement industry. The combustion of biomass and particularly co-firing of biomass and coal in existing pulverized-fuel burners still faces significant challenges. One possibility for the ex ante control and investigation of the co-firing process are computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical analysis of co-firing pulverized coal and biomass in a cement calciner. Numerical models of pulverized coal and biomass combustion were developed and implemented into a commercial CFD code FIRE, which was then used for the analysis. Three-dimensional geometry of a real industrial cement calciner was used for the analysis. Three different co-firing cases were analysed. The results obtained from this study can be used for assessing different co-firing cases, and for improving the understanding of the co-firing process inside the calculated calciner.

  17. Potential high temperature corrosion problems due to co-firing of biomass and fossil fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Vilhelmsen, T.; Jensen, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past years, considerable high temperature corrosion problems have been encountered when firing biomass in power plants due to the high content of potassium chloride in the deposits. Therefore to combat chloride corrosion problems co-firing of biomass with a fossil fuel has been undertaken...... appear such as sulphidation and hot corrosion due to sulphate deposits. At Studstrup power plant Unit 4, based on trials with exposure times of 3000 hours using 0-20% straw co-firing with coal, the plant now runs with a fuel of 10% straw + coal. After three years exposure in this environment......, the internal sulphidation is much more significant than that revealed in the demonstration project. Avedøre 2 main boiler is fuelled with wood pellets + heavy fuel oil + gas. Some reaction products due to the presence of vanadium compounds in the heavy oil were detected, i.e. iron vanadates. However, the most...

  18. Potential high temperature corrosion problems due to co-firing of biomass and fossil fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Vilhelmsen, T.; Jensen, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few years, considerable high temperature corrosion problems have been encountered when firing biomass in power plants due to the high content of potassium chloride in the deposits. Therefore, to combat chloride corrosion problems cofiring of biomass with a fossil fuel has been...... corrosion mechanisms appear such as sulphidation and hot corrosion due to sulphate deposits. At Studstrup power plant Unit 4, based on trials with exposure times of 3000 h using 0–20% straw co-firing with coal, the plant now runs with a fuel mix of 10% strawþcoal. Based on results from a 3 years exposure...... in this environment, the internal sulphidation is much more significant than that revealed in the demonstration project. Avedøre 2 main boiler is fuelled with wood pelletsþheavy fuel oilþgas. Some reaction products resulting from the presence of vanadium compounds in the heavy oil were detected, i.e. iron vanadates...

  19. Comparative life cycle assessment of biomass co-firing plants with carbon capture and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, Wouter; Meerman, Hans; Talaei, Alireza; Ramírez, Andrea; Faaij, André

    2014-01-01

    Combining co-firing biomass and carbon capture and storage (CCS) in power plants offers attractive potential for net removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. In this study, the impact of co-firing biomass (wood pellets and straw pellets) on the emission profile of power plants with carbo

  20. Technical and Economic Aspects of Biomass Co-Firing in Coal-Fired Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzikuć M.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the potential of using biomass and coal co-firing in the Polish electro energetic system and shows the benefits resulting from an increase of biomass amount in electricity production in one of the largest Polish power stations. The paper discusses the most often used technologies for biomass co-firing and the potential of using biomass in electricity production in Poland. It also emphasises the fact that biomass co-firing allows a reduction of greenhouse gases emissions to the atmosphere and helps decrease consumption of energy resources. The article also emphasises the economic meaning of increasing the share of renewable energy resources in energy balance, including biomass, due to costs related to greenhouse gases emissions charges. Finally, conclusions from using biomass and coal co-firing in electricity production are presented

  1. Alkali-activation potential of biomass-coal co-fired fly ash

    OpenAIRE

    Shearer, C.R.; Provis, J.L.; Bernal, S.A.; Kurtis, K.E.

    2016-01-01

    Co-fired fly ash, derived from the co-combustion of coal and biomass, is examined as a potential precursor for geopolymers. Compared to a coal fly ash, two co-fired fly ashes have a lower vitreous content and higher carbon content, primarily due to differing combustion processing variables. As a result, binders produced with these co-fired fly ashes have reduced reaction potential. Nevertheless, compressive strengths are generally highest for all ashes activated with solutions with a molar ra...

  2. Volumetric combustion of torrefied biomass for large percentage biomass co-firing up to 100% fuel switch

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The co-firing of biomass and coal plays an important role in increasing the biomass power capacity and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The challenges of the large percentage biomass co-firing (over 20% on energy basis) in existing pulverized coal boilers are keeping the same steam parameters and having a high boiler efficiency and a stable operating. The primary goal of this thesis is to develop a combustion concept for coal-fired boilers to enablea large percentage of biomass co-fir...

  3. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2003-10-01

    During the period July 1, 2003-September 30, 2003, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) proceeded with demonstration operations at the Willow Island Generating Station and improvements to the Albright Generating Station cofiring systems. The demonstration operations at Willow Island were designed to document integration of bio mass cofiring into commercial operations, including evaluating new sources of biomass supply. The Albright improvements were designed to increase the resource base for the projects, and to address issues that came up during the first year of operations. During this period, a major presentation summarizing the program was presented at the Pittsburgh Coal Conference. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations.

  4. BENEFIT COST FOR BIOMASS CO-FIRING IN ELECTRICITY GENERATION: CASE OF UTAH, U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Keun Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy making regarding biomass co-firing is difficult. The article provides a benefit-cost analysis for decision makers to facilitate policy making process to implement efficient biomass co-firing policy. The additional cost is the sum of cost of the biomass procurement and biomass transportation. Co-benefits are sales of greenhouse gas emission credits and health benefit from reducing harmful air pollutants, especially particulate matter. The benefit-cost analysis is constructed for semi-arid U.S. region, Utah, where biomass supply is limited. Results show that biomass co-firing is not economically feasible in Utah but would be feasible when co-benefits are considered. Benefit-cost ratio is critically dependent upon biomass and carbon credit prices. The procedure to build the benefit-cost ratio can be applied for any region with other scenarios suggested in this study.

  5. Energy Analysis of a Biomass Co-firing Based Pulverized Coal Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The results are reported of an energy analysis of a biomass/coal co-firing based power generation system, carried out to investigate the impacts of biomass co-firing on system performance. The power generation system is a typical pulverized coal-fired steam cycle unit, in which four biomass fuels (rice husk, pine sawdust, chicken litter, and refuse derived fuel and two coals (bituminous coal and lignite are considered. Key system performance parameters are evaluated for various fuel combinations and co-firing ratios, using a system model and numerical simulation. The results indicate that plant energy efficiency decreases with increase of biomass proportion in the fuel mixture, and that the extent of the decrease depends on specific properties of the coal and biomass types.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush; Stephen Niksa

    2003-04-30

    In full-scale boilers, the effect of biomass cofiring on NO{sub x} and unburned carbon (UBC) emissions has been found to be site-specific. Few sets of field data are comparable and no consistent database of information exists upon which cofiring fuel choice or injection system design can be based to assure that NOX emissions will be minimized and UBC be reduced. This report presents the results of a comprehensive project that generated an extensive set of pilot-scale test data that were used to validate a new predictive model for the cofiring of biomass and coal. All testing was performed at the 3.6 MMBtu/hr (1.75 MW{sub t}) Southern Company Services/Southern Research Institute Combustion Research Facility where a variety of burner configurations, coals, biomasses, and biomass injection schemes were utilized to generate a database of consistent, scalable, experimental results (422 separate test conditions). This database was then used to validate a new model for predicting NO{sub x} and UBC emissions from the cofiring of biomass and coal. This model is based on an Advanced Post-Processing (APP) technique that generates an equivalent network of idealized reactor elements from a conventional CFD simulation. The APP reactor network is a computational environment that allows for the incorporation of all relevant chemical reaction mechanisms and provides a new tool to quantify NOx and UBC emissions for any cofired combination of coal and biomass.

  7. Potential of Co-firing of Woody Biomass in Coal Fired Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Yosuke; Kato, Takeyoshi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    Taking the distributing woody biomass supply into account, this paper assesses the potential of a co-firing of woody biomass in utility's coal power plant from the both energy-saving and economical view points. Sawmill wastes, trimming wastes from fruit farms and streets, and thinning residues from forests in Aichi Prefecture are taken into account. Even though transportation energy is required, almost all of woody biomass can be more efficiently used in co-firing with coal than in a small-scale fuel cell system with gasification as a distributed utilization. When the capital cost of fuel cell system with 25% of total efficiency, including preprocess, gasification and power generation, is higher than 170× 103yen/kW, almost all of thinning residues can be more economically used in co-firing. The cost of woody biomass used in co-firing is also compared with the transaction cost of renewable power in the current RPS scheme. The result suggests the co-firing of woody biomass in coal fired power plant can be feasible measure for effective utilization of woody biomass.

  8. Comparison of the energy and environmental performances of nine biomass/coal co-firing pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Ruhul; Kumar, Amit

    2012-11-01

    Life cycle energy and environmental performances of nine different biomass/coal co-firing pathways to power generation were compared. Agricultural residue (AR), forest residue (FR), and whole trees (WT) as feedstock were analyzed for direct (DC) and parallel co-firing (PC) in various forms (e.g., chip, bale and pellet). Biomass co-firing rate lies in the range of 7.53-20.45% (energy basis; rest of the energy comes from coal) for the co-firing pathways, depending on type of feedstock and densification. Net energy ratios (NER) for FR-, WT-, and AR-based co-firing pathways were 0.39-0.42, 0.39-0.41, and 0.37-0.38, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were 957-1004, 967-1014, and 1065-1083 kg CO(2eq)/MWh, acid rain precursor (ARP) emissions were 5.16-5.39, 5.18-5.41, and 5.77-5.93 kgSO(2eq)/MWh, and ground level ozone precursor (GOP) emissions were 1.79-1.89, 1.82-1.93, and 1.88-1.91 kg (NO(x)+VOC)/MWh, respectively. Biomass/coal co-firing life cycle results evaluated in this study are relevant for any jurisdiction around the world.

  9. Rat inhalation test with particles from biomass combustion and biomass co-firing exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Bellmann; O. Creutzenberg; H. Ernst; H. Muhle [Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The health effects of 6 different fly ash samples from biomass combustion plants (bark, wood chips, waste wood, and straw), and co-firing plants (coal, co-firing of coal and sawdust) were investigated in a 28-day nose-only inhalation study with Wistar WU rats. Respirable fractions of carbon black (Printex 90) and of titanium dioxide (Bayertitan T) were used as reference materials for positive and negative controls. The exposure was done 6 hours per day, 5 days per week at an aerosol concentration of 16 mg/m{sup 3}. The MMAD of all fly ash samples and reference materials in the inhalation unit were in the range from 1.5 to 3 {mu}m. The investigations focused predominantly on the analysis of inflammatory effects in the lungs of rats using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and histopathology. Different parameters (percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), interleukin-8 and interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung tissue) indicating inflammatory effects in the lung, showed a statistically significant increase in the groups exposed to carbon black (positive control), C1 (coal) and C1+BM4 (co-firing of coal and sawdust) fly ashes. Additionally, for the same groups a statistically significant increase of cell proliferation in the lung epithelium was detected. No significant effects were detected in the animal groups exposed to BM1 (bark), BM2 (wood chips), BM3 (waste wood), BM6 (straw) or titanium dioxide. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Rat inhalation test with particles from biomass combustion and biomass co-firing exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellmann, B; Creutzenberg, O; Ernst, H; Muhle, H, E-mail: bernd.bellmann@item.fraunhofer.d [Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Nikolai-Fuchs-Str.1, 30625 Hannover (Germany)

    2009-02-01

    The health effects of 6 different fly ash samples from biomass combustion plants (bark, wood chips, waste wood, and straw), and co-firing plants (coal, co-firing of coal and sawdust) were investigated in a 28-day nose-only inhalation study with Wistar WU rats. Respirable fractions of carbon black (Printex 90) and of titanium dioxide (Bayertitan T) were used as reference materials for positive and negative controls. The exposure was done 6 hours per day, 5 days per week at an aerosol concentration of 16 mg/m{sup 3}. The MMAD of all fly ash samples and reference materials in the inhalation unit were in the range from 1.5 to 3 mum. The investigations focused predominantly on the analysis of inflammatory effects in the lungs of rats using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and histopathology. Different parameters (percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), interleukin-8 and interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung tissue) indicating inflammatory effects in the lung, showed a statistically significant increase in the groups exposed to carbon black (positive control), C1 (coal) and C1+BM4 (co-firing of coal and sawdust) fly ashes. Additionally, for the same groups a statistically significant increase of cell proliferation in the lung epithelium was detected. No significant effects were detected in the animal groups exposed to BM1 (bark), BM2 (wood chips), BM3 (waste wood), BM6 (straw) or titanium dioxide.

  11. Rat inhalation test with particles from biomass combustion and biomass co-firing exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellmann, B.; Creutzenberg, O.; Ernst, H.; Muhle, H.

    2009-02-01

    The health effects of 6 different fly ash samples from biomass combustion plants (bark, wood chips, waste wood, and straw), and co-firing plants (coal, co-firing of coal and sawdust) were investigated in a 28-day nose-only inhalation study with Wistar WU rats. Respirable fractions of carbon black (Printex 90) and of titanium dioxide (Bayertitan T) were used as reference materials for positive and negative controls. The exposure was done 6 hours per day, 5 days per week at an aerosol concentration of 16 mg/m3. The MMAD of all fly ash samples and reference materials in the inhalation unit were in the range from 1.5 to 3 μm. The investigations focused predominantly on the analysis of inflammatory effects in the lungs of rats using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and histopathology. Different parameters (percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), interleukin-8 and interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung tissue) indicating inflammatory effects in the lung, showed a statistically significant increase in the groups exposed to carbon black (positive control), C1 (coal) and C1+BM4 (co-firing of coal and sawdust) fly ashes. Additionally, for the same groups a statistically significant increase of cell proliferation in the lung epithelium was detected. No significant effects were detected in the animal groups exposed to BM1 (bark), BM2 (wood chips), BM3 (waste wood), BM6 (straw) or titanium dioxide.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION: BIOMASS CO-FIRING IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS--UNIVERSITY OF IOWA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA operates the Environmental and Sustainable Technology Evaluation (ESTE) program to facilitate the deployment of innovative technologies through performance verification and information dissemination. This ESTE project involved evaluation of co-firing common woody bio...

  13. A review on biomass classification and composition, cofiring issues and pretreatment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-08-01

    Presently around the globe there is a significant interest in using biomass for power generation as power generation from coal continues to raise environmental concerns. Biomass alone can be used for generation of power which can bring lot of environmental benefits. However the constraints of using biomass alone can include high investments costs for biomass feed systems and also uncertainty in the security of the feedstock supply due to seasonal variations and in most of the countries biomass is dispersed and the infrastructure for biomass supply is not well established. Alternatively cofiring biomass along with coal offer advantages like (a) reducing the issues related to biomass quality and buffers the system when there is insufficient feedstock quantity and (b) costs of adapting the existing coal power plants will be lower than building new systems dedicated only to biomass. However with the above said advantages there exists some technical constrains including low heating and energy density values, low bulk density, lower grindability index, higher moisture and ash content to successfully cofire biomass with coal. In order to successfully cofire biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications need to be established to direct pretreatment options that may include increasing the energy density, bulk density, stability during storage and grindability. Impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation and boiler tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications including composition and blend ratios if necessary. Some of these limitations can be overcome by using pretreatment methods. This paper discusses the impact of feedstock pretreatment methods like sizing, baling, pelletizing, briquetting, washing/leaching, torrefaction, torrefaction and pelletization and steam explosion in attainment of optimum feedstock characteristics to successfully cofire biomass with coal.

  14. Experimental analysis of a combustion reactor under co-firing coal with biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Fabyo Luiz; Bazzo, Edson; Oliveira Junior, Amir Antonio Martins de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). LabCET], e-mail: ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia S.A., Complexo Termeletrico Jorge Lacerda, Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil)], e-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Mitigation of greenhouse gases emission is one of the most important issues in energy engineering. Biomass is a potential renewable source but with limited use in large scale energy production because of the relative smaller availability as compared to fossil fuels, mainly to coal. Besides, the costs concerning transportation must be well analysed to determine its economic viability. An alternative for the use of biomass as a primary source of energy is the co-firing, that is the possibility of using two or more types of fuels combined in the combustion process. Biomass can be co-fired with coal in a fraction between 10 to 25% in mass basis (or 4 to 10% in heat-input basis) without seriously impacting the heat release characteristics of most boilers. Another advantage of cofiring, besides the significant reductions in fossil CO{sub 2} emissions, is the reduced emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}. As a result, co-firing is becoming attractive for power companies worldwide. This paper presents results of some experimental analysis on co-firing coal with rice straw in a combustion reactor. The influence of biomass thermal share in ash composition is also discussed, showing that alkali and earth alkaline compounds play the most important role on the fouling and slagging behavior when co-firing. Some fusibility correlations that can assist in the elucidation of these behavior are presented and discussed, and then applied to the present study. Results show that for a biomass thermal share up to 20%, significant changes are not expected in fouling and slagging behavior of ash. (author)

  15. Use of numerical modeling in design for co-firing biomass in wall-fired burners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2004-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with coal or gas in the existing units has gained increasing interest in the recent past to increase the production of environmentally friendly, renewable green power. This paper presents design considerations for co-firing biomass with natural gas in wall-fired burners by use...... of numerical modeling. The models currently used to predict solid fuel combustion rely on a spherical particle shape assumption, which may deviate a lot from reality for big biomass particles. A sphere gives a minimum in terms of the surface-area-to-volume ratio, which impacts significantly both motion....... To better model the reaction of biomass particles, the actual particle surface area available and the average oxygen mass flux at particle surface are considered, both of which are shape factor-dependent. (2) The non-spherical biomass particles are simplified as equal-volume spheres, without any...

  16. International seminar on biomass and fossil fuels co-firing in power plants and heating plants in Europe; Seminaire international sur la cocombustion de biomasse et d'energies fossiles dans les centrales electriques et les chaufferies en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the European commission which has fixed to 12% the share of renewable energies in the total energy consumption up to 2010, is to develop the biomass sector. Co-firing is a solution that allows to increase significantly the use of biomass because it does not require important investments. Today, about 150 power plants in Europe use co-firing. An Altener project named 'Cofiring' has ben settled in order to bring together and analyze the European experience in this domain and to sustain and rationalize the design of future projects. The conclusions of this study, coordinated by VTT Energy and which involves CARMEN (Germany), CBE (Portugal), the Danish centre for landscape and planning, ITEBE (France), KOBA (Italy), SLU (Sweden), and EVA (Austria), were presented during this international seminar. (J.S.)

  17. CO-FIRING COAL, FEEDLOT, AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND LFB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thien; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan

    2002-01-15

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. In this project a co-firing technology is proposed which would use manure that cannot be used for fertilizer, for power generation. Since the animal manure has economic uses as both a fertilizer and as a fuel, it is properly referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) for cow manure, or litter biomass (LB) for chicken manure. The biomass will be used a as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in existing coal fired combustion devices. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Therefore, it is the goal of the current research to develop an animal biomass cofiring technology. A cofiring technology is being developed by performing: (1) studies on fundamental fuel characteristics, (2) small scale boiler burner experiments, (3) gasifier experiments, (4) computer simulations, and (5) an economic analysis. The fundamental fuel studies reveal that biomass is not as high a quality fuel as coal. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, higher in moisture, higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution), and lower in heat content than coal. Additionally, experiments indicate that the biomass fuels have higher gas content, release gases more readily than coal, and less homogeneous. Small-scale boiler experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} pollutant emissions produced will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. This is a surprising

  18. Increased electricity production from straw by co-firing with woody biomass; Oekad elproduktion med halm genom sameldning med traedbraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedman, Henry; Nordgren, Daniel; Bostroem, Dan; Oehman, Marcus; Padban, Nader

    2011-01-15

    The use of straw in pulverised fuel-fired boiler is great technical challenge, especially when it comes to dealing with problems from slagging and fouling. Introduction of straw in the fuel mix of Swedish boilers will most likely be done by co-firing of woody biomass with straw, and this can provide a means to reduce the (well-documented) problems with fouling and slagging from straw. The project will focus on the faith of alkali metals (K and Na) as well as studies on the slagging and fouling propensity in pulverised fuel-fired boilers when straw is co-fired with woody biomass. A total of 5 different fuel mixtures has been fired in a 150 kW pilot-scale pulverised fuel-fired burner: (i) straw 100 %, (ii) straw/bark 50/50 %, (iii) straw/bark 75/25 % (iv) straw/wood 75/25 % (v) straw/wood 50/50 % (wt-%). The adding of woody biomass to straw has in all of the above-mentioned cases had some positive effect. In general, in all of the ash deposits, an increase in the concentration of Calcium (Ca) has been observed as well as a decrease in the concentrations of Potassium (K) and Silicon (Si). These general trends should be considered as a positive when combustion of straw is considered. Out of all ash deposits collected in the furnace, the characteristics of the bottom ash displayed the largest (positive) change and visual inspections and chemical analysis of the bottom ash showed that the ash had become more porous and contained more Calcium as more woody biomass was introduced in the fuel mix. The deposit build-up rate on the air cooled probes was reduced when more woody biomass was co-fired with straw. The reduction was highest in the trial where 50% woody biomass was used and the most apparent changes in composition could be seen in Calcium (increase) and Potassium (decrease). Danish experiences from introducing straw in pulverised fuel-fired boiler indicate that extra soot-blowers should be considered at the furnace walls and in connection to screen-tubes (if any

  19. Logistics, Costs, and GHG Impacts of Utility Scale Cofiring with 20% Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, Richard D.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Nichol, Corrie; Searcy, Erin M.; Westover, Tyler; Wood, Richard; Bearden, Mark D.; Cabe, James E.; Drennan, Corinne; Jones, Susanne B.; Male, Jonathan L.; Muntean, George G.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Widder, Sarah H.

    2014-07-22

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of utility-scale biomass cofiring in large pulverized coal power plants. The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the cost and greenhouse gas reduction benefits of substituting relatively high volumes of biomass in coal. Two scenarios for cofiring up to 20% biomass with coal (on a lower heating value basis) are presented; (1) woody biomass in central Alabama where Southern Pine is currently produced for the wood products and paper industries, and (2) purpose-grown switchgrass in the Ohio River Valley. These examples are representative of regions where renewable biomass growth rates are high in correspondence with major U.S. heartland power production. While these scenarios may provide a realistic reference for comparing the relative benefits of using a high volume of biomass for power production, this evaluation is not intended to be an analysis of policies concerning renewable portfolio standards or the optimal use of biomass for energy production in the U.S.

  20. Formulation, Pretreatment, and Densification Options to Improve Biomass Specifications for Co-Firing High Percentages with Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; J Richard Hess; Richard D. Boardman; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Tyler L. Westover

    2012-06-01

    There is a growing interest internationally to use more biomass for power generation, given the potential for significant environmental benefits and long-term fuel sustainability. However, the use of biomass alone for power generation is subject to serious challenges, such as feedstock supply reliability, quality, and stability, as well as comparative cost, except in situations in which biomass is locally sourced. In most countries, only a limited biomass supply infrastructure exists. Alternatively, co-firing biomass alongwith coal offers several advantages; these include reducing challenges related to biomass quality, buffering the system against insufficient feedstock quantity, and mitigating the costs of adapting existing coal power plants to feed biomass exclusively. There are some technical constraints, such as low heating values, low bulk density, and grindability or size-reduction challenges, as well as higher moisture, volatiles, and ash content, which limit the co-firing ratios in direct and indirect co-firing. To achieve successful co-firing of biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications must be established to direct pretreatment options in order to modify biomass materials into a format that is more compatible with coal co-firing. The impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation, and boiler-tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications, which may include developing new feedstock composition by formulation or blending. Some of the issues, like feeding, co-milling, and fouling, can be overcome by pretreatment methods including washing/leaching, steam explosion, hydrothermal carbonization, and torrefaction, and densification methods such as pelletizing and briquetting. Integrating formulation, pretreatment, and densification will help to overcome issues related to physical and chemical composition, storage, and logistics to successfully co-fire higher percentages of biomass ( > 40

  1. Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Cogasification/cofiring of Biomass and Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ping; Howard, Bret; Hedges, Sheila; Morreale, Bryan; Van Essendelft, Dirk; Berry, David

    2013-10-29

    Utilization of biomass as a co-feed in coal and biomass co-firing and co-gasification requires size reduction of the biomass. Reducing biomass to below 0.2 mm without pretreatment is difficult and costly because biomass is fibrous and compressible. Torrefaction is a promising thermal pretreatment process and has the advantages of increasing energy density, improving grindability, producing fuels with more homogenous compositions and hydrophobic behavior. Temperature is the most important factor for the torrefaction process. Biomass grindability is related to cell wall structure, thickness and composition. Thermal treatment such as torrefaction can cause chemical changes that significantly affect the strength of biomass. The objectives of this study are to understand the mechanism by which torrefaction improves the grindability of biomass and discuss suitable temperatures for thermal pretreatment for co-gasification/cofiring of biomass and coal. Wild cherry wood was selected as the model for this study. Samples were prepared by sawing a single tangential section from the heartwood and cutting it into eleven pieces. The samples were consecutively heated at 220, 260, 300, 350, 450 and 550oC for 0.5 hr under flowing nitrogen in a tube furnace. Untreated and treated samples were characterized for physical properties (color, dimensions and weight), microstructural changes by SEM, and cell wall composition changes and thermal behaviors by TGA and DSC. The morphology of the wood remained intact through the treatment range but the cell walls were thinner. Thermal treatments were observed to decompose the cell wall components. Hemicellulose decomposed over the range of ~200 to 300oC and resulted in weakening of the cell walls and subsequently improved grindability. Furthermore, wood samples treated above 300oC lost more than 39% in mass. Therefore, thermal pretreatment above the hemicelluloses decomposition temperature but below 300oC is probably sufficient to improve

  2. TASK 3.4--IMPACTS OF COFIRING BIOMASS WITH FOSSIL FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Melanie D. Hetland; Mark A. Musich; Charlene R. Crocker; Jonas Dahl; Stacie Laducer

    2001-08-01

    With a major worldwide effort now ongoing to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, cofiring of renewable biomass fuels at conventional coal-fired utilities is seen as one of the lower-cost options to achieve such reductions. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has undertaken a fundamental study to address the viability of cofiring biomass with coal in a pulverized coal (pc)-fired boiler for power production. Wheat straw, alfalfa stems, and hybrid poplar were selected as candidate biomass materials for blending at a 20 wt% level with an Illinois bituminous coal and an Absaloka subbituminous coal. The biomass materials were found to be easily processed by shredding and pulverizing to a size suitable for cofiring with pc in a bench-scale downfired furnace. A literature investigation was undertaken on mineral uptake and storage by plants considered for biomass cofiring in order to understand the modes of occurrence of inorganic elements in plant matter. Sixteen essential elements, C, H, O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, B, Mo, and Cl, are found throughout plants. The predominant inorganic elements are K and Ca, which are essential to the function of all plant cells and will, therefore, be evenly distributed throughout the nonreproductive, aerial portions of herbaceous biomass. Some inorganic constituents, e.g., N, P, Ca, and Cl, are organically associated and incorporated into the structure of the plant. Cell vacuoles are the repository for excess ions in the plant. Minerals deposited in these ubiquitous organelles are expected to be most easily leached from dry material. Other elements may not have specific functions within the plant, but are nevertheless absorbed and fill a need, such as silica. Other elements, such as Na, are nonessential, but are deposited throughout the plant. Their concentration will depend entirely on extrinsic factors regulating their availability in the soil solution, i.e., moisture and soil content. Similarly, Cl content is determined

  3. Numerical modelling of a stoker furnace operated under indirect co-firing of biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litka Rafał

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the CFD analysis presented in this paper is the process of biomass indirect co-firing carried out in a system composed of a stoker-fired furnace coupled with a gasification reactor. The installation is characterised by its compact structure, which makes it possible to minimise heat losses to the environment and enhance the physical enthalpy of the oxidising agent – flue gases – having a favourable chemical composition with oxygen and water vapour. The test results provided tools for modelling of biomass thermal processing using a non-standard oxidiser in the form of flue gases. The obtained models were used to optimise the indirect co-combustion process to reduce emissions. An overall effect of co-combustion of gas from biomass gasification in the stoker furnace is the substantial reduction in NO emissions by about 22%.

  4. Study of a 30 MW bubbling fluidized bed combustor based on co-firing biomass and coal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hemant Kumar; S K Mohapatra; Ravi Inder Singh

    2015-06-01

    Today’s power generation sources are largely dependent on fossil fuels due to which the future sustainable development has become a challenge. A significant amount of the pollutant emissions such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide from the power sector is related to the use of fossil fuels for power generation. As the demand for electricity is growing rapidly, emissions of carbon dioxide and other pollutants from this sector can be expected to increase unless other alternatives are made available. Among the energy sources that can substitute fossil fuels, biomass fuels appear as one of the options with a high worldwide potential. In the Punjab region of India, Fluidized-bed combustion technology is being used for converting biomass into thermal energy and power generation in various small scale units. The investigation of biomass-based plant through experimental activities and numerical simulation is the scope of this study. The investigations were done at Captive Power Plant (CPP), Ambuja Cement Limited, a project of Holcim, District Ropar, India. During experimental investigations, the study of bed temperatures and steam temperatures at different zones has been done for coal fired and biomass fired combustors with 30% share. No clear effects of co-firing on boiler performance are observed. However, the operational behavior of the boiler in terms of bed temperature and stack emissions shows a different trend. During simulation, the contours of temperature have been obtained for both the boilers and the trends are found in agreement with real process.

  5. Effect of biomass on burnouts of Turkish lignites during co-firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Dept., 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    Co-firing of some low quality Turkish lignites with woody shells of sunflower seed was investigated via non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis method. For this purpose, Yozgat-Sorgun, Erzurum-Askale, Tuncbilek, Gediz, and Afsin-Elbistan lignites were selected, and burnouts of these lignites were compared with those of their blends. Biomass was blended as much as 10 and 20 wt.% of the lignites, and heating was performed up to 900 C at a heating rate of 40 C/min under dry air flow of 40 mL/min. This study revealed that the same biomass species may have different influences on the burnout yields of the lignites. Burnouts of Erzurum-Askale lignite increased at any temperature with the increasing ratio of biomass in the blend, whereas burnout yields of other lignites decreased to some extent. Nevertheless, the blends of Turkish lignites with sunflower seed shell did not behave in very different way, and it can be concluded that they are compatible in terms of burnouts for co-combustion in a combustion system. Although the presence of biomass in the lignite blends caused to some decreases in the final burnouts, the carbon dioxide neutral nature of biomass should be taken into account, and co-combustion is preferable for waste-to-energy-management. (author)

  6. Cleaning of biomass derived product gas for engine applications and for co-firing in PC-boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Laatikainen-Luntama, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies] [and others

    1997-10-01

    The conventional fluidized-bed combustion has become commercially available also to relatively small scale (5 MWe), but this technology has rather low power-to-heat ratio and consequently it`s potential is limited to applications where district or process heat is the main product. Thus, there seems to be a real need to develop more efficient methods for small-scale power production from biomass. Gasification diesel power plant is one alternative for the small-scale power production, which has clearly higher power-to-heat ratio than can be reached in conventional steam cycles. The main technical problem in this process is the gas cleaning from condensable tars. In addition to the diesel-power plants, there are several other interesting applications for atmospheric-pressure clean gas technology. One alternative for cost-effective biomass utilization is co-firing of biomass derived product gas in existing pulverized coal fired boilers (or other types of boilers and furnaces). The aim of the project is to develop dry gas cleaning methods for gasification-diesel power plants and for other atmospheric-pressure applications of biomass and waste gasification. The technical objectives of the project are as follows: To develop and test catalytic gas cleaning methods for engine. To study the removal of problematic ash species of (CFE) gasification with regard to co-combustion of the product gas in PC boilers. To evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of different small-scale power plant concepts based on fixed-bed updraft and circulating fluidized- bed gasification of biomass and waste. (orig.)

  7. Development of a modeling approach to predict ash formation during co-firing of coal and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doshi, V. [School of Engineering, Monash University Sunway Campus, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor (Malaysia); Vuthaluru, H.B. [Curtin University of Technology, Kent Street, Bentley 6104, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Korbee, R. [HRL Technology, Ipswich, Queensland (Australia); Kiel, J.H.A. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    The scope of this paper includes the development of a modelling approach to predict the ash release behaviour and chemical composition of inorganics during co-firing of coal and biomass. In the present work, an advanced analytical method was developed and introduced to determine the speciation of biomass using pH extraction analysis. Biomass samples considered for the study include wood chips, wood bark and straw. The speciation data was used as an input to the chemical speciation model to predict the behaviour and release of ash. It was found that the main gaseous species formed during the combustion of biomass are KCl, NaCl, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Calculations of gas-to-particle formation were also carried out to determine the chemical composition of coal and biomass during cooling which takes place in the boiler. It was found that the heterogeneous condensation occurring on heat exchange surfaces of boilers is much more than homogeneous condensation. Preliminary studies of interaction between coal and biomass during ash formation process showed that Al, Si and S elements in coal may have a 'buffering' effect on biomass alkali metals, thus reducing the release of alkali-gases which act as precursors to ash deposition and corrosion during co-firing. The results obtained in this work are considered to be valuable and form the basis for accurately determining the ash deposition during co-firing. (author)

  8. Corrosion Testing of Thermal Spray Coatings in a Biomass Co-Firing Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Oksa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale use of biomass and recycled fuel is increasing in energy production due to climate and energy targets. A 40% cut in greenhouse gas emission compared to 1990 levels and at least a 27% share of renewable energy consumption are set in EU Energy Strategy 2030. Burning fuels with high content of corrosive species such as chlorine and heavy metals causes deterioration of boiler components, shortened lifetime, limited availability of a plant and hence higher maintenance and investment costs and lower thermal and economic efficiency. Coatings can be applied to protect the critical boiler components against high temperature corrosion. In this study, five thermal spray coatings were tested in an actual biomass co-firing boiler for 1300 h with a measurement probe. The coatings were analyzed after the exposure by metallographic means and scanning electron microscope/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope (SEM/EDX. The deposits formed on the specimens were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence. At 550 °C, the coatings showed excellent corrosion performance compared to reference material ferritic steel T92. At 750 °C, tube material A263 together with NiCr and NiCrTi had the highest corrosion resistance. To conclude, thermal spray coatings can offer substantial corrosion protection in biomass and recycled fuel burning power plants.

  9. Thermal Spray Coatings for High-Temperature Corrosion Protection in Biomass Co-Fired Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksa, M.; Metsäjoki, J.; Kärki, J.

    2015-01-01

    There are over 1000 biomass boilers and about 500 plants using waste as fuel in Europe, and the numbers are increasing. Many of them encounter serious problems with high-temperature corrosion due to detrimental elements such as chlorides, alkali metals, and heavy metals. By HVOF spraying, it is possible to produce very dense and well-adhered coatings, which can be applied for corrosion protection of heat exchanger surfaces in biomass and waste-to-energy power plant boilers. Four HVOF coatings and one arc sprayed coating were exposed to actual biomass co-fired boiler conditions in superheater area with a probe measurement installation for 5900 h at 550 and 750 °C. The coating materials were Ni-Cr, IN625, Fe-Cr-W-Nb-Mo, and Ni-Cr-Ti. CJS and DJ Hybrid spray guns were used for HVOF spraying to compare the corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr coating structures. Reference materials were ferritic steel T92 and nickel super alloy A263. The circulating fluidized bed boiler burnt a mixture of wood, peat and coal. The coatings showed excellent corrosion resistance at 550 °C compared to the ferritic steel. At higher temperature, NiCr sprayed with CJS had the best corrosion resistance. IN625 was consumed almost completely during the exposure at 750 °C.

  10. TASK 3.4--IMPACTS OF COFIRING BIOMASS WITH FOSSIL FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Melanie D. Hetland; Mark A. Musich; Charlene R. Crocker; Jonas Dahl; Stacie Laducer

    2001-08-01

    With a major worldwide effort now ongoing to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, cofiring of renewable biomass fuels at conventional coal-fired utilities is seen as one of the lower-cost options to achieve such reductions. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has undertaken a fundamental study to address the viability of cofiring biomass with coal in a pulverized coal (pc)-fired boiler for power production. Wheat straw, alfalfa stems, and hybrid poplar were selected as candidate biomass materials for blending at a 20 wt% level with an Illinois bituminous coal and an Absaloka subbituminous coal. The biomass materials were found to be easily processed by shredding and pulverizing to a size suitable for cofiring with pc in a bench-scale downfired furnace. A literature investigation was undertaken on mineral uptake and storage by plants considered for biomass cofiring in order to understand the modes of occurrence of inorganic elements in plant matter. Sixteen essential elements, C, H, O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, B, Mo, and Cl, are found throughout plants. The predominant inorganic elements are K and Ca, which are essential to the function of all plant cells and will, therefore, be evenly distributed throughout the nonreproductive, aerial portions of herbaceous biomass. Some inorganic constituents, e.g., N, P, Ca, and Cl, are organically associated and incorporated into the structure of the plant. Cell vacuoles are the repository for excess ions in the plant. Minerals deposited in these ubiquitous organelles are expected to be most easily leached from dry material. Other elements may not have specific functions within the plant, but are nevertheless absorbed and fill a need, such as silica. Other elements, such as Na, are nonessential, but are deposited throughout the plant. Their concentration will depend entirely on extrinsic factors regulating their availability in the soil solution, i.e., moisture and soil content. Similarly, Cl content is determined

  11. Closed-loop biomass co-firing in a laboratory reactor and in a full-scale boiler.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Bryan M. (University of California, Davis, CA); Williams, Robert B. (University of California, Davis, CA); Turn, Scott Q. (Hawaii Natural Energy Institute.); Jakeway, Lee A. (Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Company); Blevins, Linda Gail

    2004-05-01

    Co-firing tests were conducted in a pilot-scale reactor at Sandia National Laboratories and in a boiler at the Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar factory at Puunene, Hawaii. Combustion tests were performed in the Sandia Multi-Fuel Combustor using Australian coal, whole fiber cane including tops and leaves processed at three different levels (milled only, milled and leached, and milled followed by leaching and subsequent milling), and fiber cane stripped of its tops and leaves and heavily processed through subsequent milling, leaching, and milling cycles. Testing was performed for pure fuels and for biomass co-firing with the coal at levels of 30% and 70% by mass. The laboratory tests revealed the following information: (1) The biomass fuels convert their native nitrogen into NO more efficiently than coal because of higher volatile content and more reactive nitrogen complexes. (2) Adding coal to whole fiber cane to reduce its tendency to form deposits should not adversely affect NO emissions. ( 3 ) Stripped cane does not offer a NO advantage over whole cane when co-fired with coal. During the field test, Sandia measured 0 2 , C02, CO, SO2, and NO concentrations in the stack and gas velocities near the superheater. Gas concentrations and velocities fluctuated more during biomass co-firing than during coal combustion. The mean 0 2 concentration was lower and the mean C02 concentration was higher during biomass co-firing than during coal combustion. When normalized to a constant exhaust 0 2 concentration, mean CO concentration was higher and mean NO concentration was lower for biomass co-firing than for coal. The SO2 concentration tracked the use of Bunker C fuel oil. When normalized by the amount of boiler energy input, the amounts of NO and SO2 formed were lower during biomass co-firing than during coal combustion. The difference between NOx trends in the lab and in the field are most likely a result of less effective heat and mass transfer in the boiler. Particles were

  12. Logistics, Costs, and GHG Impacts of Utility-Scale Co-Firing with 20% Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichol, Corrie Ian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This study analyzes the possibility that biopower in the U.S. is a cost-competitive option to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In 2009, net greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted in the United States was equivalent to 5,618 million metric tons CO2, up 5.6% from 1990 (EPA 2011). Coal-fired power generation accounted for 1,748 million metric tons of this total. Intuitively, life-cycle CO2 emissions in the power sector could be reduced by substituting renewable biomass for coal. If just 20% of the coal combusted in 2009 had been replaced with biomass, CO2 emissions would have been reduced by 350 million metric tons, or about 6% of net annual GHG emission. This would have required approximately 225 million tons of dry biomass. Such an ambitious fuel substitution would require development of a biomass feedstock production and supply system tantamount to coal. This material would need to meet stringent specifications to ensure reliable conveyance to boiler burners, efficient combustion, and no adverse impact on heat transfer surfaces and flue gas cleanup operations. Therefore, this report addresses the potential cost/benefit tradeoffs of co-firing 20% specification-qualified biomass (on an energy content basis) in large U.S. coal-fired power plants. The dependence and sensitivity of feedstock cost on source of material, location, supply distance, and demand pressure was established. Subsequently, the dependence of levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) on feedstock costs, power plant feed system retrofit, and impact on boiler performance was determined. Overall life-cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas emissions saving were next evaluated and compared to wind and solar energy to benchmark the leading alternatives for meeting renewable portfolio standards (or RPS).

  13. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when

  14. Trace elements partitioning during co-firing biomass with lignite in a pilot-scale fluidized bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogebakan, Zuhal [Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: zuhalgogebakan@hotmail.com; Selcuk, Nevin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: selcuk@metu.edu.tr

    2009-03-15

    This study describes the partitioning of 18 trace elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, Zn) and 9 major and minor elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Si, Ti) during co-firing of olive residue, hazelnut shell and cotton residue with high sulfur and ash content lignite in 0.3 MW{sub t} Middle East Technical University (METU) Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustor (ABFBC) test rig with limestone addition. Concentrations of trace elements in coal, biomass, limestone, bottom ash, cyclone ash and filter ash were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission and mass spectroscopy (ICP-OES and ICP-MS). Partitioning of major and minor elements are influenced by the ash split between the bottom ash and fly ash and that the major proportion of most of the trace elements (As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Tl, V and Zn) are recovered in fly ash when firing lignite only. Co-firing lignite with biomass enhances partitioning of these elements to fly ash. Co-firing also shifts the partitioning of Cd, P, Sb and Sn from bottom to fly ash.

  15. Evaluation of ash deposits during experimental investigation of co-firing of Bosnian coal with wooden biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smajevic, Izet; Kazagic, Anes [JP Elektroprivreda BiH d.d., Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Sarajevo Univ. (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The paper is addressed to the development and use different criteria for evaluation of ash deposits collected during experimental co-firing of Bosnian coals with wooden biomass. Spruce saw dust was used for the co-firing tests with the Kakanj brown coal and with a lignite blend consisted of the Dubrave lignite and the Sikulje lignite. The coal/biomass mixtures at 93:7 %w and at 80:20 %w were tested. Experimental lab-scale facility PF entrained flow reactor is used for the co-firing tests. The reactor allows examination of fouling/slagging behaviors and emissions at various and infinitely variable process temperature which can be set at will in the range from ambient to 1560 C. Ash deposits are collected on two non-cooled ceramic probes and one water-cooled metal surface. Six different criteria are developed and used to evaluate behavior of the ash deposits on the probes: ash deposit shape, state and structure, which are analyzed visually - photographically and optically by a microscope, rate of adhesion and ash deposit strength, analyzed by physic acting to the ash deposits, and finally deposition rate, determined as a mass of the deposit divided by the collecting area and the time of collecting. Furthermore, chemical composition analysis and AFT of the ash deposits were also done to provide additional information on the deposits. (orig.)

  16. Assessment of the most adequate pre-treatments and woody biomass sources intended for direct co-firing in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Saloni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in replacing coal with woody biomass in co-firing plants for electrical power. A variety of pre-treatments can be used to make biomass more suitable for co-firing. This research presents a model that evaluates the delivered costs of various pre-treated biomass sources, electricity production costs, and constraints, and calculates a least cost mix. Results of the scenario presented indicate that wood chips are the most economical co-firing option for delivering biomass to direct-fired boilers. Apart from potential feeding and processing issues, the wood-chips options of forest residues present the lowest cost of electricity production for small-scale co-firing applications. From the options that will ensure minimum processing issues in the co-firing cycle, wood pellets from southern yellow pine represent the most economical choice. Based on coal displacement from the facility, torrefied wood pellets from southern yellow pine is a preferred option as compared to other choices evaluated. An alternative to torrefied wood pellets from southern yellow pine is dark torrefied Eucalyptus benthamii, providing similar electricity production costs while reducing coal utilization.

  17. Corrosion and Materials Performance in biomass fired and co-fired power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, OH; Biede, O

    2003-01-01

    not previously encountered in coal-fired power plants. The type of corrosion attack can be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. In woodchip boilers, a similar corrosion rate and corrosion mechanism has on some occasions been observed. Co-firing of straw (10....... Results from 100% straw-firing, woodchip and co-firing of straw with coal will be reported. The corrosion mechanisms observed are summarized and the corrosion rates for 18-8 type stainless steels are compared....

  18. Ash transformation and deposition behavior during co-firing biomass with sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Liang; Wu, Hao; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    to sewage sludge addition. However, the ash deposition propensity decreased significantly. In addition, the content of water soluble K and Cl in the deposits reduced as a result of sewage sludge addition. The results from present work suggest co-firing of sewage sludge could alleviate deposit formation...

  19. Influence of biomass cofiring on the optimal coefficient of the cogeneration share in a district heating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziębik Andrzej

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a modified algorithm for choosing the optimal coefficient of the share of cogeneration in district heating systems taking into account additional benefits concerning the promotion of highefficiency cogeneration and biomass cofiring. The optimal coefficient of the share of cogeneration depends first of all on the share of the heat required for preparing the hot tap water. The final result of investigations is an empirical equation describing the influence of the ratio of the heat flux for the production of hot tap water to the maximum flux for space heating and ventilation, as well as the share of chemical energy of biomass in the fuel mixture on the optimal value of the share of cogeneration in district heating systems. The approach presented in the paper may be applied both in back-pressure combined heat and power (CHP plants and in extraction-condensing CHP plants.

  20. Experimental Investigation into the Combustion Characteristics on the Co-firing of Biomass with Coal as a Function of Particle Size and Blending Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lkhagvadorj, Sh; Kim, Sang In; Lim, Ho; Kim, Seung Mo; Jeon, Chung Hwan [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byoung Hwa [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Co-firing of biomass with coal is a promising combustion technology in a coal-fired power plant. However, it still requires verifications to apply co-firing in an actual boiler. In this study, data from the Thermogravimetric analyzer(TGA) and Drop tube furnace(DTF) were used to obtain the combustion characteristics of biomass when co-firing with coal. The combustion characteristics were verified using experimental results including reactivity from the TGA and Unburned carbon(UBC) data from the DTF. The experiment also analyzed with the variation of the biomass blending ratio and biomass particle size. It was determined that increasing the biomass blending ratio resulted in incomplete chemical reactions due to insufficient oxygen levels because of the rapid initial combustion characteristics of the biomass. Thus, the optimum blending condition of the biomass based on the results of this study was found to be 5 while oxygen enrichment reduced the increase of UBC that occurred during combustion of blended biomass and coal.

  1. Investigation of ash deposition in a pilot-scale fluidized bed combustor co-firing biomass with lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogebakan, Z.; Gogebakan, Y.; Selcuk, N.; Seliuk, E. [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-01-15

    This study presents the results from investigation of ash deposition characteristics of a high ash and sulfur content lignite co-fired with three types of biomass (olive residue, 49 wt%; hazelnut shell, 42 wt%; and cotton residue, 41 wt%) in 0.3 MWt Middle East Technical University (METU) Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustion (ABFBC) Test Rig. Deposit samples were collected on all air-cooled probe at a temperature of 500{degree}C. Samples were analyzed by SEM/EDX and XRD methods. The results reveal that co-firing lignite with olive residue, hazelnut shell and cotton residue show low deposition rates. High concentrations of silicon, calcium, sulfur, iron, and aluminum were found in deposit samples. No chlorine was detected in deposits. Calcium sulfate and potassium sulfate were detected as major and minor components of the deposits, respectively. High sulfur and alumina-silicate content of lignite resulted in formation of alkali sulfates instead of alkali chlorides. Therefore, fuel blends under consideration can be denoted to have low-fouling propensity.

  2. Investigation of ash deposition in a pilot-scale fluidized bed combustor co-firing biomass with lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogebakan, Zuhal; Gogebakan, Yusuf; Selçuk, Nevin; Selçuk, Ekrem

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the results from investigation of ash deposition characteristics of a high ash and sulfur content lignite co-fired with three types of biomass (olive residue, 49 wt%; hazelnut shell, 42 wt%; and cotton residue, 41 wt%) in 0.3 MW(t) Middle East Technical University (METU) Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustion (ABFBC) Test Rig. Deposit samples were collected on an air-cooled probe at a temperature of 500 degrees C. Samples were analyzed by SEM/EDX and XRD methods. The results reveal that co-firing lignite with olive residue, hazelnut shell and cotton residue show low deposition rates. High concentrations of silicon, calcium, sulfur, iron, and aluminum were found in deposit samples. No chlorine was detected in deposits. Calcium sulfate and potassium sulfate were detected as major and minor components of the deposits, respectively. High sulfur and alumina-silicate content of lignite resulted in formation of alkali sulfates instead of alkali chlorides. Therefore, fuel blends under consideration can be denoted to have low-fouling propensity.

  3. Co-firing of Coal with Biomass and Waste in Full-scale Suspension-fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Johansen, Kim; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    The energy policy in Denmark has for many years focused on lowering the net CO2 emission from heat and power production by replacing fossil fuels by renewable resources. This has been done by developing dedicated grate-fired boilers for biomass and waste fuels but also by developing coal-based su......The energy policy in Denmark has for many years focused on lowering the net CO2 emission from heat and power production by replacing fossil fuels by renewable resources. This has been done by developing dedicated grate-fired boilers for biomass and waste fuels but also by developing coal......-based suspension-fired boilers to accept still higher fractions of biomass or waste material as fuels. This last development has been challenging of many reasons, including pre-treatment of fuels, and solving potential emission and operational problems during the simultaneous development of supercritical steam...... an overview of research activities, aiming at increasing biomass shares during co-firing in suspension, conducted in close collaboration with the Danish power industry. The research has lead to an improved understanding of the alternative fuels interaction with coal in the boiler chamber. Further, the applied...

  4. Co-firing of coal with biomass and waste in full-scale suspension-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam-Johansen, Kim; Frandsen, Flemming J.; Jensen, Peter A.; Jensen, Anker D. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of chemical and Biochemical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The energy policy in Denmark has for many years focused on lowering the net CO{sub 2} emission from heat and power production by replacing fossil fuels by renewable resources. This has been done by developing dedicated grate-fired boilers for biomass and waste fuels but also by developing coal-based suspension-fired boilers to accept still higher fractions of biomass or waste material as fuels. This last development has been challenging of many reasons, including pre-treatment of fuels, and solving potential emission and operational problems during the simultaneous development of supercritical steam cycles with steam temperatures close to 600 C, providing power efficiencies close to 50% (Hein KRG, Sustainable energy supply and environment protection - strategies, resources and technologies. In: Gupta R, Wall T, Hupa M, Wigley F, Tillman D, Frandsen FJ (eds) Proceedings of international conference on impact of fuel quality on power production and the environment, Banff Conference Centre, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 29 Sept-4 Oct, 2008). For 25 years the CHEC (Combustion and Harmful Emission Control) Research Centre at DTU Chemical Engineering, has attained a leading role in research, supporting power producing industry, plant owners and boiler manufacturers to optimize design and operation and minimize cost and environmental impact using alternative fuels in suspension fired boilers. Our contribution has been made via a combination of full-scale measuring campaigns, pilot-scale studies, lab-scale measurements and modeling tools. The research conducted has addressed many issues important for co-firing, i.e. fuel processing, ash induced boiler deposit formation and corrosion, boiler chamber fuel conversion and emission formation, influence on flue gas cleaning equipment and the utilization of residual products. This chapter provides an overview of research activities, aiming at increasing biomass shares during co-firing in suspension, conducted in close collaboration with

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

    2002-01-31

    This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. One additional biomass co-firing test burn was conducted during this quarter. In this test (Test 9), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and switchgrass was injected through the center of the single-register burner with Jacobs Ranch coal. Jacobs Ranch coal is a low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal ({approx} 0.5% S). The results from Test 9 as well as for Test 8 (conducted late last quarter) are presented in this quarterly report. Significant progress has been made in implementing a modeling approach to combine reaction times and temperature distributions from computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace with char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics to predict NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. Additional results of CFD modeling efforts have been received and preparations are under way for continued pilot-scale combustion experiments with the dual-register burner. Finally, a project review was held at NETL in Pittsburgh, on November 13, 2001.

  6. THE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ASSESSMENT FOR THE CO-FIRING OF BIO-REFINERY SUPPLIED LIGNIN PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ted Berglund; Jeffrey T. Ranney; Carol L. Babb; Jacqueline G. Broder

    2001-07-01

    The major aspects of this project are proceeding toward completion. Prior to this quarter, design criteria, tentative site selection, facility layout, and preliminary facility cost estimates were completed and issued. Processing of bio-solids was completed, providing material for the pilot operations. Pilot facility design, equipment selection, and modification were completed during the fourth quarter of 2000. Initial pilot facility shakedown was completed during the fourth quarter. After some unavoidable delays, a suitable representative supply of MSW feed material was procured. During this first quarter of 2001, shredding of the feed material and final feed conditioning were completed. Pilot facility hydrolysis production was completed to produce lignin for co-fire testing. During this quarter, TVA completed the washing and dewatering of the lignin material produced from the MSW hydrolysis. Seven drums of lignin material were washed to recover the acid and sugar from the lignin and provide an improved fuel for steam generation. Samples of both the lignin and bio-solids fuel materials for co-fire testing were sent to the co-fire facility (EERC) for evaluation. After sample evaluation, EERC approved sending the material and all of the necessary fuel for testing was shipped to EERC. EERC has requested and will receive coal typical of the fuel to the TVA-Colbert boilers. This material will be used at EERC as baseline material and for mixing with the bio-fuel for combustion testing. EERC combustion testing of the bio based fuels is scheduled to begin in August of 2001. The TVA-Colbert facility has neared completion of the task to evaluate the co-location of the Masada facility on the operation of the power generation facility. The TVA-Colbert fossil plant is fully capable of providing a reliable steam supply. The preferred steam supply connection points and steam pipeline routing have been identified. The environmental review of the pipeline routing has been completed

  7. CFD simulation of coal and straw co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Helle; Hvid, Søren L.; Larsen, Ejvind;

    This paper presents the results of a major R&D program with the objective to develop CFD based tools to assess the impact of biomass co-firing in suspension fired pulverized coal power plants. The models have been developed through a series of Danish research projects with the overall objective t...

  8. Emissions of SO2, NO and N2O in a circulating fluidized bed combustor during co-firing coal and biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian-jun; Yang, Xue-min; Zhang, Lei; Ding, Tong-li; Song, Wen-li; Lin, Wei-gang

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental investigations of the emissions of SO2, NO and N20 in a bench scale circulating fluidized bed combustor for coal combustion and co-firing coal and biomass. The thermal capacity of the combustor is 30 kW. The setup is electrically heated during startup. The influence of the excess air, the degree of the air staging, the biomass share and the feeding position of the fuels on the emissions of SO2, NO and N2O were studied. The results showed that an increase in the biomass shares resulted in an increase of the CO concentration in the flue gas, probably due to the high volatile content of the biomass. In co-firing, the emission of SO2 increased with increasing biomass share slightly, however, non-linear increase relationship between SO2 emission and fuel sulfur content was observed. Air staging significantly decreased the NO emission without raising the SO2 level. Although the change of the fuel feeding position from riser to downer resulted in a decrease in the NO emission level, no obvious change was observed for the SO2 level. Taking the coal feeding position R as a reference, the relative NO emission could significantly decrease during co-firing coal and biomass when feeding fuel at position D and keeping the first stage stoichiometry greater than 0.95. The possible mechanisms of the sulfur and nitrogen chemistry at these conditions were discussed and the ways of simultaneous reduction of SO2, NO and N20 were proposed.

  9. Emissions of SO2,NO and N2O in a circulating fluidized bed combustor during co-firing coal and biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Jian-jun; YANG Xue-min; ZHANG Lei; DING Tong-li; SONG Wen-li; LIN Wei-gang

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental investigations of the emissions of SO2, NO and N2O in a bench scale circulating fluidized bed combustor for coal combustion and co-firing coal and biomass. The thermal capacity of the combustor is 30 kW. The setup is electrically heated during startup. The influence of the excess air, the degree of the air staging, the biomass share and the feeding position of the fuels on the emissions of SO2, NO and N2O are studied. The results show that an increase in the biomass shares results in an increase of the CO concentration in the flue gas, probably due to the high volatile content of the biomass. In co-firing, the emission of SO2 increased with the increasing biomass share slightly however, non-linear increase relationship between SO2 emission and fuel sulfur content is observed. Air staging decreases the NO emission significantly without raising the SO2 level. Though change the fuel feeding position from riser to downer results in a decrease in the NO emission level, no obvious change is observed for the SO2 level. Taking the coal feeding position R as a reference, the relative NO emission can significantly decrease during co-firing coal and biomass when feeding fuel at position D and keeping the first stage stoichiometry greater than 0.95. The possible mechanisms of the sulfur and nitrogen chemistry at these conditions are discussed and the ways of simultaneous reduction of SO2, NO and N2O are proposed.

  10. Chemical challenges to structural materials in oxyfuel-cofiring of coal and biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Mayoral

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxy-firing of solid fuels is one of the most relevant technological alternatives aiming at the CO2 capture in large-scale power plants. If oxy-firing is carried out in a fluidized bed reactor, the possibilities for application are extended to low-rank coals, difficult wastes, or biomass. The oxy-co-combustion of coal and biomass in circulating fluidized bed (CFB reactors would result in a negative balance for the CO2 emissions.

  11. Co-firing biomass and coal-progress in CFD modelling capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Yin, Chungen

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of user defined FLUENT™ sub models to improve the modelling capabilities in the area of large biomass particle motion and conversion. Focus is put on a model that includes the influence from particle size and shape on the reactivity by resolving intra-particle...... particle conversion patterns. The improved model will impact the simulation capabilities of biomass fired boilers in the areas of thermal conditions, NOx formation and particle deposition behaviour.......This paper discusses the development of user defined FLUENT™ sub models to improve the modelling capabilities in the area of large biomass particle motion and conversion. Focus is put on a model that includes the influence from particle size and shape on the reactivity by resolving intra-particle...... gradients. The advanced reaction model predicts moisture and volatiles release characteristics that differ significantly from those found from a 0-dimensional model partly due to the processes occurring in parallel rather than sequentially. This is demonstrated for a test case that illustrates single...

  12. Forestry and biomass energy projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swisher, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive and consistent methodology to account for the costs and net carbon flows of different categories of forestry and biomass energy projects and describes the application of the methodology to several sets of projects in Latin America. The results suggest that both...... is sufficient as either a national or global strategy for sustainable land use or carbon emission reduction. The methodology allows consistent comparisons of the costs and quantities of carbon stored in different types of projects and/or national programs, facilitating the inclusion of forestry and biomass...... biomass energy development and forestry measures including reforestation and forest protection can contribute significantly to the reduction of global CO2 emissions, and that local land-use capacity must determine the type of project that is appropriate in specific cases. No single approach alone...

  13. Co-firing Bosnian coals with woody biomass: Experimental studies on a laboratory-scale furnace and 110 MWe power unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajevic Izet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of research into cofiring two Bosnian cola types, brown coal and lignite, with woody biomass, in this case spruce sawdust. The aim of the research was to find the optimal blend of coal and sawdust that may be substituted for 100% coal in large coal-fired power stations in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Two groups of experimental tests were performed in this study: laboratory testing of co-firing and trial runs on a large-scale plant based on the laboratory research results. A laboratory experiment was carried out in an electrically heated and entrained pulverized-fuel flow furnace. Coal-sawdust blends of 93:7% by weight and 80:20% by weight were tested. Co-firing trials were conducted over a range of the following process variables: process temperature, excess air ratio and air distribution. Neither of the two coal-sawdust blends used produced any significant ash-related problems provided the blend volume was 7% by weight sawdust and the process temperature did not exceed 1250ºC. It was observed that in addition to the nitrogen content in the co-fired blend, the volatile content and particle size distribution of the mixture also influenced the level of NOx emissions. The brown coal-sawdust blend generated a further reduction of SO2 due to the higher sulphur capture rate than for coal alone. Based on and following the laboratory research findings, a trial run was carried out in a large-scale utility - the Kakanj power station, Unit 5 (110 MWe, using two mixtures; one in which 5%/wt and one in which 7%/wt of brown coal was replaced with sawdust. Compared to a reference firing process with 100% coal, these co-firing trials produced a more intensive redistribution of the alkaline components in the slag in the melting chamber, with a consequential beneficial effect on the deposition of ash on the superheater surfaces of the boiler. The outcome of the tests confirms the feasibility of using 7%wt of sawdust in combination

  14. Cleaning of biomass derived product gas for engine applications and for co-firing in PC-boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-01

    The main constituents rendering the engine use of gas produced from biomass are the tar content of the gases (condensing hydrocarbons), which cause problems for pipings, nozzles, and control of combustion. Purification methods, based on catalytic cracking of tars are investigated in the research in order to eliminate these problems. The target of the project is to demonstrate the developed gasification/gas purification process with engine test using PDU-scale equipment. Impurities of biomasses and biomass wastes (alkalis, chlorine, heavy metals), and the ash melting properties restrict in many cases the combined utilisation of biomasses and coal in power plant boilers. The second main task of this research is to investigate the removal of the problematic gas and ash components from the product gas. The sufficient degree of purification should be achieved by as simple and as cheap purification methods as possible. The main tasks of the first year of the project were (a) determination of the dimensioning characteristics of ambient pressure PDU scale cell-catalyst reactor (tests with laboratory-scale equipment), designing and construction of the reactor, (b) to investigate the operation of a cell-catalyst in purification of pre-cracked down-draft gasification gas, (c) acquisition of dimensioning data for dolomite-cracker based on fluidized bed principle, and (d) gasification of the Dutch building demolition waste and Danish straw, and the purification tests with the gases

  15. Fiscalini Farms Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Stringfellow; Mary Kay Camarillo; Jeremy Hanlon; Michael Jue; Chelsea Spier

    2011-09-30

    In this final report describes and documents research that was conducted by the Ecological Engineering Research Program (EERP) at the University of the Pacific (Stockton, CA) under subcontract to Fiscalini Farms LP for work under the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001895 'Measurement and Evaluation of a Dairy Anaerobic Digestion/Power Generation System' from the United States Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. Fiscalini Farms is operating a 710 kW biomass-energy power plant that uses bio-methane, generated from plant biomass, cheese whey, and cattle manure via mesophilic anaerobic digestion, to produce electricity using an internal combustion engine. The primary objectives of the project were to document baseline conditions for the anaerobic digester and the combined heat and power (CHP) system used for the dairy-based biomass-energy production. The baseline condition of the plant was evaluated in the context of regulatory and economic constraints. In this final report, the operation of the plant between start-up in 2009 and operation in 2010 are documented and an interpretation of the technical data is provided. An economic analysis of the biomass energy system was previously completed (Appendix A) and the results from that study are discussed briefly in this report. Results from the start-up and first year of operation indicate that mesophilic anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass, combined with an internal combustion engine, is a reliable source of alternative electrical production. A major advantage of biomass energy facilities located on dairy farms appears to be their inherent stability and ability to produce a consistent, 24 hour supply of electricity. However, technical analysis indicated that the Fiscalini Farms system was operating below capacity and that economic sustainability would be improved by increasing loading of feedstocks to the digester. Additional operational modifications, such as increased utilization of

  16. Field test corrosion experiments in Denmark with biomass fuels Part II Co-firing of straw and coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, OH

    2002-01-01

    superheaters. A range of austenitic and ferritic steels was exposed in the steam temperature range of 520-580°C. The flue gas temperature ranged from 925-1100°C. The rate of corrosion was assessed by precision measurement of material loss and measurement of oxide thickness. Corrosion rates are lower than...... and potassium sulphate. These components give rise to varying degrees of accelerated corrosion. This paper concerns co-firing of straw with coal to reduce the corrosion rate from straw to an acceptable level. A field investigation at Midtkraft Studstrup suspension-fired power plant in Denmark has been...... undertaken where coal has been co-fired with 10% straw and 20% straw (% energy basis) for up to approx. 3000 hours. Two types of exposure were undertaken to investigate corrosion: a) the exposure of metal rings on water/air cooled probes, and b) the exposure of a range of materials built into the existing...

  17. Fiscalini Farms Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Stringfellow; Mary Kay Camarillo; Jeremy Hanlon; Michael Jue; Chelsea Spier

    2011-09-30

    In this final report describes and documents research that was conducted by the Ecological Engineering Research Program (EERP) at the University of the Pacific (Stockton, CA) under subcontract to Fiscalini Farms LP for work under the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001895 'Measurement and Evaluation of a Dairy Anaerobic Digestion/Power Generation System' from the United States Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. Fiscalini Farms is operating a 710 kW biomass-energy power plant that uses bio-methane, generated from plant biomass, cheese whey, and cattle manure via mesophilic anaerobic digestion, to produce electricity using an internal combustion engine. The primary objectives of the project were to document baseline conditions for the anaerobic digester and the combined heat and power (CHP) system used for the dairy-based biomass-energy production. The baseline condition of the plant was evaluated in the context of regulatory and economic constraints. In this final report, the operation of the plant between start-up in 2009 and operation in 2010 are documented and an interpretation of the technical data is provided. An economic analysis of the biomass energy system was previously completed (Appendix A) and the results from that study are discussed briefly in this report. Results from the start-up and first year of operation indicate that mesophilic anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass, combined with an internal combustion engine, is a reliable source of alternative electrical production. A major advantage of biomass energy facilities located on dairy farms appears to be their inherent stability and ability to produce a consistent, 24 hour supply of electricity. However, technical analysis indicated that the Fiscalini Farms system was operating below capacity and that economic sustainability would be improved by increasing loading of feedstocks to the digester. Additional operational modifications, such as increased utilization of

  18. Development of low cost systems for co-utilisation of biomass in large power plant. Mid term review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, W.R.

    2003-07-01

    Interest in the cofiring of biomass materials with coal in large coal-fired power stations in the UK has increased significantly in recent years in response to the potential additional income from Renewables Obligation Certificates (ROCs). It is anticipated that most coal-fired power stations in the UK will have the capability to cofire biomass materials by the end of 2003. This mid-term review report examines the various stages in the route to fully commercial operation of biomass cofiring at coal-fired power stations, the availability of suitable biomass materials in the UK and the technical options for cofiring. The factors affecting the economics of biomass cofiring in large coal-fired boilers are discussed including the delivered price of biofuels, the future value of ROCs, the development costs of cofiring projects, the 25% ceiling on cofiring imposed by the Renewables Obligation Order 2002 and the use of preblending. An overview of the current status of cofiring in the UK is presented, which includes a summary of the results of trials already carried out by operators of coal-fired power stations and a discussion of the future prospects for biomass cofiring in the UK.

  19. A better understanding of biomass co-firing by developing an advanced non-spherical particle tracking model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Kær, Søren Knudsen;

    2004-01-01

    -area-to-volume ratio and thus experiences a totally different motion and reaction as a non-spherical particle. Therefore, an advanced non-spherical particle-tracking model is developed to calculate the motion and reaction of nonspherical biomass particles. The biomass particles are assumed as solid or hollow cylinders......-gradient force. Since the drag and lift forces are both shape factor- and orientation-dependent, coupled particle rotation equations are resolved to update particle orientation. In the reaction of biomass particles, the actual particle surface area available and the average oxygen mass flux at particle surface...

  20. Decreased PCDD/F formation when co-firing a waste fuel and biomass in a CFB boiler by addition of sulphates or municipal sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Åmand, Lars-Erik [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Gothenburg (Sweden); Kassman, Håkan, E-mail: hakan.kassman@vattenfall.com [Vattenfall Research and Development AB, Nyköping (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Two strategies to reduce PCDD/F formation when co-firing solid recovered fuel (SRF) and biomass. • They were co-combustion with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and addition of ammonium sulphate. • PCDD/Fs were significantly reduced for a biomass rich in chlorine when adding ammonium sulphate. • MSS had a suppressing effect on PCDD/F formation during co-combustion with SRF. • A link is presented between gaseous alkali chlorides, chlorine in deposits and PCDD/F formation. - Abstract: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are formed during waste incineration and in waste-to-energy boilers. Incomplete combustion, too short residence times at low combustion temperatures (<700 °C), incineration of electronic waste and plastic waste containing chlorine are all factors influencing the formation of PCDD/Fs in boilers. The impact of chlorine and catalysing metals (such as copper and iron) in the fuel on PCDD/F formation was studied in a 12 MW{sub th} circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler. The PCDD/F concentrations in the raw gas after the convection pass of the boiler and in the fly ashes were compared. The fuel types were a so-called clean biomass with low content of chlorine, biomass with enhanced content of chlorine from supply of PVC, and solid recovered fuel (SRF) which is a waste fuel containing higher concentrations of both chlorine, and catalysing metals. The PCDD/F formation increased for the biomass with enhanced chlorine content and it was significantly reduced in the raw gas as well as in the fly ashes by injection of ammonium sulphate. A link, the alkali chloride track, is demonstrated between the level of alkali chlorides in the gas phase, the chlorine content in the deposits in the convection pass and finally the PCDD/F formation. The formation of PCDD/Fs was also significantly reduced during co-combustion of SRF with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) compared to when SRF was fired without MSS

  1. Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertjens, Steve; Wright, Angie; Lieurance, Mike; berguson, bill; Buchman, Dan

    2012-12-31

    The Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project evaluated the potential for biomass energy production and utilization throughout the Driftless Region of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The research and demonstration aspect of the project specifically focused on biomass energy feedstock availability and production potential in the region, as well as utilization potential of biomass feedstocks for heat, electrical energy production, or combined heat and power operations. The Driftless Region was evaluated because the topography of the area offers more acres of marginal soils on steep slopes, wooded areas, and riparian corridors than the surrounding “Corn Belt”. These regional land characteristics were identified as potentially providing opportunity for biomass feedstock production that could compete with traditional agriculture commodity crops economically. The project researched establishment methods and costs for growing switchgrass on marginal agricultural lands to determine the economic and quantitative feasibility of switchgrass production for biomass energy purposes. The project was successful in identifying the best management and establishment practices for switchgrass in the Driftless Area, but also demonstrated that simple economic payback versus commodity crops could not be achieved at the time of the research. The project also analyzed the availability of woody biomass and production potential for growing woody biomass for large scale biomass energy production in the Driftless Area. Analysis determined that significant resources exist, but costs to harvest and deliver to the site were roughly 60% than that of natural gas at the time of the study. The project contributed significantly to identifying both production potential of biomass energy crops and existing feedstock availability in the Driftless Area. The project also analyzed the economic feasibility of dedicated energy crops in the Driftless Area. High commodity crop prices and

  2. Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Angie [Northeast Iowa Resource Conservation & Development, Inc., Postville, IA (United States); Bertjens, Steve [Natural Resources Conservation Service, Madison, WI (United States); Lieurance, Mike [Northeast Iowa Resource Conservation & Development, Inc., Postville, IA (United States); Berguson, Bill [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Natural Resources Research Inst.; Buchman, Dan [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Natural Resources Research Inst.

    2012-12-31

    The Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project evaluated the potential for biomass energy production and utilization throughout the Driftless Region of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The research and demonstration aspect of the project specifically focused on biomass energy feedstock availability and production potential in the region, as well as utilization potential of biomass feedstocks for heat, electrical energy production, or combined heat and power operations. The Driftless Region was evaluated because the topography of the area offers more acres of marginal soils on steep slopes, wooded areas, and riparian corridors than the surrounding “Corn Belt”. These regional land characteristics were identified as potentially providing opportunity for biomass feedstock production that could compete with traditional agriculture commodity crops economically. The project researched establishment methods and costs for growing switchgrass on marginal agricultural lands to determine the economic and quantitative feasibility of switchgrass production for biomass energy purposes. The project was successful in identifying the best management and establishment practices for switchgrass in the Driftless Area, but also demonstrated that simple economic payback versus commodity crops could not be achieved at the time of the research. The project also analyzed the availability of woody biomass and production potential for growing woody biomass for large scale biomass energy production in the Driftless Area. Analysis determined that significant resources exist, but costs to harvest and deliver to the site were roughly 60% greater than that of natural gas at the time of the study. The project contributed significantly to identifying both production potential of biomass energy crops and existing feedstock availability in the Driftless Area. The project also analyzed the economic feasibility of dedicated energy crops in the Driftless Area. High commodity crop prices

  3. Support mechanisms for cofiring secondary fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This report discusses the enabling and supporting mechanisms for coal/biomass cofiring in selected countries that have either considerable operational experience or potential in this technology. It investigates Europe, the USA, Australia and China as case studies and discusses the main supporting incentives adopted in consideration of the specific characteristics of renewable energy markets and the government’s position in clean energy and climate change in each of these countries. As such, this report provides not only a policy overview but also a collation of the measures adopted by the policymakers in each country to promote cofiring biomass in coal-fired power stations.

  4. Bioenergy Project Development and Biomass Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Modern biomass, and the resulting useful forms of bioenergy produced from it, are anticipated by many advocates to provide a significant contribution to the global primary energy supply of many IEA member countries during the coming decades. For non-member countries, particularly those wishing to achieve economic growth as well as meet the goals for sustainable development, the deployment of modern bioenergy projects and the growing international trade in biomass-based energy carriers offer potential opportunities.

  5. Fireside Corrosion Behavior of HVOF and Plasma-Sprayed Coatings in Advanced Coal/Biomass Co-Fired Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, T.; Dudziak, T.; Simms, N. J.; Nicholls, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a systematic evaluation of coatings for advanced fossil fuel plants and addresses fireside corrosion in coal/biomass-derived flue gases. A selection of four candidate coatings: alloy 625, NiCr, FeCrAl and NiCrAlY were deposited onto superheaters/reheaters alloy (T91) using high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and plasma spraying. A series of laboratory-based fireside corrosion exposures were carried out on these coated samples in furnaces under controlled atmosphere for 1000 h at 650 °C. The tests were carried out using the "deposit-recoat" test method to simulate the environment that was anticipated from air-firing 20 wt.% cereal co-product mixed with a UK coal. The exposures were carried out using a deposit containing Na2SO4, K2SO4, and Fe2O3 to produce alkali-iron tri-sulfates, which had been identified as the principal cause of fireside corrosion on superheaters/reheaters in pulverized coal-fired power plants. The exposed samples were examined in an ESEM with EDX analysis to characterize the damage. Pre- and post-exposure dimensional metrologies were used to quantify the metal damage in terms of metal loss distributions. The thermally sprayed coatings suffered significant corrosion attack from a combination of aggressive combustion gases and deposit mixtures. In this study, all the four plasma-sprayed coatings studied performed better than the HVOF-sprayed coatings because of a lower level of porosity. NiCr was found to be the best performing coating material with a median metal loss of ~87 μm (HVOF sprayed) and ~13 μm (plasma sprayed). In general, the median metal damage for coatings had the following ranking (in the descending order: most to the least damage): NiCrAlY > alloy 625 > FeCrAl > NiCr.

  6. DOE Biomass Power Program: Strategic Plan 1996-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    gasification com- bined-cycle ( IGCC ) systems, where biomass can be uniquely used as fuel in combined heat and power applications. n The cofiring and...resource supply by a factor of ten. The projects will demonstrate the essential ele- ments for repowering facilities with an IGCC system fired by biomass...Capacity 2000 2010 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 40,000 1990 2020 Steam Cofiring IGCC 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 1990 2000 2010 2020 0

  7. Transfer characteristics of heavy metals under biomass waste and plastics waste co-firing conditions%生物质与塑料类垃圾混烧过程的重金属迁移特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢明超; 马晓茜; 曾广博

    2015-01-01

    To study the weight loss rate and transfer behavior of heavy metals (Pb,Cu,Zn)under biomass wastes and plastic wastes co-firing conditions,experiments about seven components (wood,paper,rubber,recycled PE,re-cycled PP,recycled PS and recycled PVC)were conducted on a tube furnace and a atomic absorption spectropho-tometer.The results show that,co-combustion of biomass and plastic wastes causes a decrease in weight loss rate of the samples,especially the paper.When the sample is burned alone,the volatilization rate of Pb can reach over 85%at 900 ℃,that of Cu in four plastic wastes can reach over 85% at 1 000 ℃,and that of Zn rises significantly at high temperatures.Pb can be captured in bottom ash when the paper is co-fired with the plastics except the PVC.Cu can be captured in bottom ash when the wood and paper are co-fired with the PVC and the rubber.Zn can be captured in bottom ash when the wood is co-fired with the plastics except the rubber or the paper with the PS.%为了研究生物质与塑料类垃圾混烧对失重率和重金属 Pb,Cu,Zn 迁移特性的影响,利用管式炉和原子吸收分光光度计对木、纸、橡胶、再生 PE、再生 PP、再生 PS 和再生 PVC 7种组分进行燃烧试验。结果表明:1)生物质与塑料类垃圾混烧会不同程度地降低样品失重率,纸比木降幅更明显;2)单样燃烧时,900℃下 Pb 的挥发率可达85%以上,1000℃下4种塑料中 Cu的挥发率可达85%以上,高温阶段 Zn 的挥发率明显上升;3)纸与除 PVC 外的塑料混烧可以使 Pb 固定在底灰中;4)木、纸分别与 PVC 和橡胶混烧,可以使 Cu 固定在底灰中;5)木与除橡胶外的塑料混烧、纸与 PS 混烧,均可使 Zn 固定在底灰中。

  8. Ash transformation in suspension fired boilers co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    In this literature report is provided a status for the present knowledge level on ash properties when co-firing coal and biomass. The fly ash formed in boilers using co-firing of coal and straw do have a large influence on ash deposit formation, boiler corrosion, fly ash utilization and operation...

  9. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz

    2002-07-12

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives.

  10. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke; Joseph J. Battista

    2001-03-31

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute and the Office of Physical Plant, Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc., and Cofiring Alternatives.

  11. Long term deactivation test of high dust SCR catalysts by straw co-firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigang Lin; Degn Jensen, A.; Bjerkvig, J.

    2009-12-15

    The consequences of carbon dioxide induced global warming cause major concern worldwide. The consumption of energy produced with fossil fuels is the major factor that contributes to the global warming. Biomass is a renewable energy resource and has a nature of CO{sub 2} neutrality. Co-combustion of biomass in existing coal fired power plants can maintain high efficiency and reduce the emission of CO{sub 2} at same time. However, one of the problems faced by co-firing is deactivation of the SCR catalysts. Understanding of the mechanisms of deactivation of the catalyst elements at co-firing conditions is crucial for long term runs of the power plants. Twenty six SCR catalyst elements were exposed at two units (SSV3 and SSV4) in the Studstrup Power Plant for a long period. Both units co-fire coal and straw with a typical fraction of 8-10% straw on an energy basis during co-firing. SSV4 unit operated in co-firing mode most of the time; SSV3 unit co-fired straw half of the operating time. The main objective of this PSO-project is to gain knowledge of a long term influence on catalyst activity when co-firing straw in coal-fired power plants, thus, to improve the basis for operating the SCR-plants for NO{sub x}-reduction. The exposure time of the applied catalyst elements (HTAS and BASF) varied from approximately 5000 to 19000 hours in the power plant by exchanging the element two times. The activity of all elements was measured before and after exposure in a bench scale test rig at the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. The results show that the activity, estimated by exclusion of channel clogging of the elements, decreases gradually with the total exposure time. It appears that the exposure time under co-firing condition has little effect on the deactivation of the catalyst elements and no sharp decrease of the activity was observed. The average deactivation rate of the catalyst elements is 1.6 %/1000 hours. SEM

  12. AgraPure Mississippi Biomass Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell,D.A; Broadhead, L.W.; Harrell, W.J.

    2006-03-31

    The AgraPure Mississippi Biomass project was a congressionally directed project, initiated to study the utilization of Mississippi agricultural byproducts and waste products in the production of bio-energy and to determine the feasibility of commercialization of these agricultural byproducts and waste products as feedstocks in the production of energy. The final products from this project were two business plans; one for a Thermal plant, and one for a Biodiesel/Ethanol plant. Agricultural waste fired steam and electrical generating plants and biodiesel plants were deemed the best prospects for developing commercially viable industries. Additionally, oil extraction methods were studied, both traditional and two novel techniques, and incorporated into the development plans. Mississippi produced crop and animal waste biomasses were analyzed for use as raw materials for both industries. The relevant factors, availability, costs, transportation, storage, location, and energetic value criteria were considered. Since feedstock accounts for more than 70 percent of the total cost of producing biodiesel, any local advantages are considered extremely important in developing this particular industry. The same factors must be evaluated in assessing the prospects of commercial operation of a steam and electrical generation plant. Additionally, the access to the markets for electricity is more limited, regulated and tightly controlled than the liquid fuel markets. Domestically produced biofuels, both biodiesel and ethanol, are gaining more attention and popularity with the consuming public as prices rise and supplies of foreign crude become less secure. Biodiesel requires no major modifications to existing diesel engines or supply chain and offers significant environmental benefits. Currently the biodiesel industry requires Federal and State incentives to allow the industry to develop and become self-sustaining. Mississippi has available the necessary feedstocks and is

  13. A New Agro/Forestry Residues Co-Firing Model in a Large Pulverized Coal Furnace: Technical and Economic Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shien Hui

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the existing biomass co-firing technologies and the known innate drawbacks of dedicated biomass firing, including slagging, corrosion and the dependence on fuel, a new model of agro/forestry residue pellets/shreds and coal co-fired in a large Pulverized Coal (PC furnace was proposed, and the corresponding technical and economic assessments were performed by co-firing testing in a 300 MW PC furnace and discounted cash flow technique. The developed model is more dependent on injection co-firing and combined with co-milling co-firing. Co-firing not only reduces CO2 emission, but also does not significantly affect the fly ash use in cement industry, construction industry and agriculture. Moreover, economic assessments show that in comparison with dedicated firing in grate furnace, agro/forestry residues and coal co-firing in a large PC furnace is highly economic. Otherwise, when the co-firing ratio was below 5 wt%, the boiler co-firing efficiency was 0.05%–0.31% higher than that of dedicated PC combustion, and boiler efficiencies were about 0.2% higher with agro/forestry residues co-firing in the bottom and top burner systems than that in a middle burner system.

  14. Quinault Indian Nation Comprehensive Biomass Strategic Planning Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Jesus [American Community Enrichment, Elma, WA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The overall purposes of the Quinault Indian Nation’s Comprehensive Biomass Strategic Planning Project were to: (1) Identify and confirm community and tribal energy needs; (2) Conducting an inventory of sustainable biomass feedstock availability; (3) Development of a biomass energy vision statement with goals and objectives; (4) Identification and assessment of biomass options for both demand-side and supply side that are viable to the Quinault Indian Nation (QIN); and (5) Developing a long-term biomass strategy consistent with the long-term overall energy goals of the QIN. This Comprehensive Biomass Strategic Planning Project is consistent with the QIN’s prior two-year DOE Renewable Energy Study from 2004 through 2006. That study revealed that the most viable options to the QIN’s renewable energy options were biomass and energy efficiency best practices. QIN's Biomass Strategic Planning Project is focused on using forest slash in chipped form as feedstock for fuel pellet manufacturing in support of a tribal biomass heating facility. This biomass heating facility has been engineered and designed to heat existing tribal facilities as well as tribal facilities currently being planned including a new K-12 School.

  15. Decreased PCDD/F formation when co-firing a waste fuel and biomass in a CFB boiler by addition of sulphates or municipal sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åmand, Lars-Erik; Kassman, Håkan

    2013-08-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are formed during waste incineration and in waste-to-energy boilers. Incomplete combustion, too short residence times at low combustion temperatures (boilers. The impact of chlorine and catalysing metals (such as copper and iron) in the fuel on PCDD/F formation was studied in a 12 MW(th) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler. The PCDD/F concentrations in the raw gas after the convection pass of the boiler and in the fly ashes were compared. The fuel types were a so-called clean biomass with low content of chlorine, biomass with enhanced content of chlorine from supply of PVC, and solid recovered fuel (SRF) which is a waste fuel containing higher concentrations of both chlorine, and catalysing metals. The PCDD/F formation increased for the biomass with enhanced chlorine content and it was significantly reduced in the raw gas as well as in the fly ashes by injection of ammonium sulphate. A link, the alkali chloride track, is demonstrated between the level of alkali chlorides in the gas phase, the chlorine content in the deposits in the convection pass and finally the PCDD/F formation. The formation of PCDD/Fs was also significantly reduced during co-combustion of SRF with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) compared to when SRF was fired without MSS as additional fuel.

  16. Biomass Burning Observation Project Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, KI [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Sedlacek, AJ [Brookhaven National Laboratory

    2013-09-01

    Aerosols from biomass burning perturb Earth’s climate through the direct radiative effect (both scattering and absorption) and through influences on cloud formation and precipitation and the semi-direct effect. Despite much effort, quantities important to determining radiative forcing such as the mass absorption coefficients (MAC) of light-absorbing carbon, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation rates, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity remain in doubt. Field campaigns in northern temperate latitudes have been overwhelmingly devoted to other aerosol sources in spite of biomass burning producing about one-third of the fine particles (PM2.5) in the U.S.

  17. Biomass - Activities and projects in 2002; Biomasse Aktivitaeten und Projekte 2002. Ueberblicksbericht zum Forschungsprogramm 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2003-07-01

    This annual report made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy reviews the activities carried out under the Biomass Research Programme in 2002 and describes the various projects that were active during the year. The situation concerning energy supply from biomass is discussed and figures are presented on its share in total Swiss energy consumption. Three categories of biomass use are presented - burning, fermentation of wastes and biofuels. >From each of these categories, several pilot and demonstration projects are described that cover a wide range of technologies and research activities, ranging from the pre-processing of biogenic wastes through to the optimisation of biogas-based combined heat and power installations and the operational economics of compact biogas installations. The report is completed with lists of research and development projects and pilot and demonstration projects.

  18. Materials Problems and Solutions in Biomass Fired Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Hede; Montgomery, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    Due to Denmark’s pledge to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, biomass is utilised increasingly as a fuel for generating energy. Extensive research and demonstration projects especially in the area of material performance for biomass fired boilers have been undertaken to make biomass a viable fuel....... With both 10 and 20% straw, no chlorine corrosion was seen. This paper will describe the results from in situ investigations undertaken in Denmark on high temperature corrosion in biomass fired plants. Results from 100% straw-firing, woodchip and co-firing of straw with fossil fuels are summarised...

  19. Materials Problems and Solutions in Biomass fired plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Hede; Montgomery, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    Owing to Denmark's pledge to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, biomass is being increasingly utilised as a fuel for generating energy. Extensive research and development projects, especially in the area of material performance for biomass fired boilers, have been undertaken to make biomass a viable...... plants. With both 10 and 20% straw, no chlorine corrosion was seen. The present paper will describe the results from in situ investigations undertaken in Denmark on high temperature corrosion in biomass fired plants. Results from 100% straw firing, woodchip and cofiring of straw with fossil fuels...

  20. Clean and efficient application of biomass for production of power and heat - Phase 3 in a long-term strategic research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.J.; Jensen, A.D.; Jensen, P.A.; Johnsson, J.E.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    2002-06-01

    This project contains activities on: Rheology of ashes from co-firing of coal and biomass; Investigation of ash and deposit formation in full-scale utility boilers; and Selective catalytic reduction: Deactivation under biomass combustion. A fly ash and deposit investigation was carried out as part of the SK Power Company test programme on co-firing of biomasses in a grate-fired boiler. The alternative biomasses (wood chips, olive stones and shea nuts) contain more K, S, and Cl, than wheat straw, and higher fly ash mass loading (mass of fly ash/volume of flue gas) was observed when co-firing alternative biomasses with wheat straw. Anyhow, no significant change in deposit structure when co-firing alkali-rich biomass was observed: KCl is glues residual ash particles together, independent of the feedstock mixture. Thus it can be concluded that co-firing of the actual biomasses in boilers designed for straw-firing, at the present shares is not problematic, from an ash formation and/or deposit build-up point-of-view. Anyhow the increase in ash mass loading in the flue gas, may cause increased build-up of particulate deposits in the convective pass of the boiler. Mature deposit samples from the Masnedoe and Ensted straw-fired boilers were investigated by SEM and EDX. Each deposit sample was classified into an inner, an intermediate, and an outer main layer. The outermost deposit layers at Masnedoe and Ensted looked chemically quite similar, even though they were of different colours. The intermediate layer at Ensted contained many Si- and Ca-rich particles glued together by melted KCI, while the intermediate deposit layers at Masnedoe were different. Since the straw fuels probably are similar, the differences observed in the deposit chemistry must be induced by the higher temperature of the Masnedoe deposit. An experimental method has been set up for viscosity determinations on ashes from co-firing with wheat straw. The method contains a pre-treatment of the ashes, where

  1. Clean and efficient application of biomass for production of power and heat - Phase 3 in a long-term strategic research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.J.; Jensen, A.D.; Jensen, P.A.; Johnsson, J.E.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    2002-06-01

    This project contains activities on: Rheology of ashes from co-firing of coal and biomass; Investigation of ash and deposit formation in full-scale utility boilers; and Selective catalytic reduction: Deactivation under biomass combustion. A fly ash and deposit investigation was carried out as part of the SK Power Company test programme on co-firing of biomasses in a grate-fired boiler. The alternative biomasses (wood chips, olive stones and shea nuts) contain more K, S, and Cl, than wheat straw, and higher fly ash mass loading (mass of fly ash/volume of flue gas) was observed when co-firing alternative biomasses with wheat straw. Anyhow, no significant change in deposit structure when co-firing alkali-rich biomass was observed: KCl is glues residual ash particles together, independent of the feedstock mixture. Thus it can be concluded that co-firing of the actual biomasses in boilers designed for straw-firing, at the present shares is not problematic, from an ash formation and/or deposit build-up point-of-view. Anyhow the increase in ash mass loading in the flue gas, may cause increased build-up of particulate deposits in the convective pass of the boiler. Mature deposit samples from the Masnedoe and Ensted straw-fired boilers were investigated by SEM and EDX. Each deposit sample was classified into an inner, an intermediate, and an outer main layer. The outermost deposit layers at Masnedoe and Ensted looked chemically quite similar, even though they were of different colours. The intermediate layer at Ensted contained many Si- and Ca-rich particles glued together by melted KCI, while the intermediate deposit layers at Masnedoe were different. Since the straw fuels probably are similar, the differences observed in the deposit chemistry must be induced by the higher temperature of the Masnedoe deposit. An experimental method has been set up for viscosity determinations on ashes from co-firing with wheat straw. The method contains a pre-treatment of the ashes, where

  2. Port Graham Community Building Biomass Heating Design Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, Patrick [Port Graham Village Corporation, Anchorage, AK (United States); Sink, Charles [Chugachmiut, Anchorage, Alaska (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Native Village of Port Graham completed preconstruction activities to prepare for construction and operations of a cord wood biomass heating system to five or more community buildings in Port Graham, Alaska. Project Description Native Village of Port Graham (NVPG) completed preconstruction activities that pave the way towards reduced local energy costs through the construction and operations of a cord wood biomass heating system. NVPG plans include installation of a GARN WHS 3200 Boiler that uses cord wood as fuel source. Implementation of the 700,000 Btu per hour output biomass community building heat utility would heat 5-community buildings in Port Graham, Alaska. Heating system is estimated to displace 85% of the heating fuel oil or 5365 gallons of fuel on an annual basis with an estimated peak output of 600,000 Btu per hour. Estimated savings is $15,112.00 per year. The construction cost estimate made to install the new biomass boiler system is estimated $251,693.47 with an additional Boiler Building expansion cost estimated at $97,828.40. Total installed cost is estimated $349,521.87. The WHS 3200 Boiler would be placed inside a new structure at the old community Water Plant Building site that is controlled by NVPG. Design of the new biomass heat plant and hot water loop system was completed by Richmond Engineering, NVPG contractor for the project. A hot water heat loop system running off the boiler is designed to be placed underground on lands controlled by NVPG and stubbed to feed hot water to existing base board heating system in the following community buildings: 1. Anesia Anahonak Moonin Health and Dental Clinic 2. Native Village of Port Graham offices 3. Port Graham Public Safety Building/Fire Department 4. Port Graham Corporation Office Building which also houses the Port Graham Museum and Head Start Center 5. North Pacific Rim Housing Authority Workshop/Old Fire Hall Existing community buildings fuel oil heating systems are to be retro-fitted to

  3. Ash transformation in suspension fired boilers co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    of flue gas cleaning equipment. This survey includes discussions on the inorganic constituents transformation during straw and coal combustion, alkali-ash and alkali sulfur reactions, a survey of power plant and test rig co-firing experiments, a discussion of equilibrium calculations, a discussion......In this literature report is provided a status for the present knowledge level on ash properties when co-firing coal and biomass. The fly ash formed in boilers using co-firing of coal and straw do have a large influence on ash deposit formation, boiler corrosion, fly ash utilization and operation...... of alkali getter experiments and a discussion of modeling of alkali reaction with kaolin. Presently there is still a need for a better understanding of especially the reaction of potassium with coal ash, thereby making better predictions of co-firing ash properties....

  4. Biomass - Activities and projects in 2004; Biomasse - Aktivitaeten und Projekte 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2005-07-01

    This annual report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of the Swiss research programme on biomass and its efficient use both as a source of heat and electrical power and as a fuel. Work done and results obtained in the year 2004 are looked at. Topics covered include combustion and gasification of wood, the fermentation of biogenic wastes and developments in the bio-fuels area. Several projects in each of these areas are discussed. National co-operation with various universities, private organisations and other federal offices is discussed, as are contributions made to symposia and exhibitions in the biomass area. International co-operation within the framework of International Energy Agency (IEA) tasks is mentioned. Various pilot and demonstration projects in the combustion, gasification and fermentation areas are listed and discussed.

  5. BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Darren D. Schmidt; Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2001-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is conducting a project to examine the fundamental issues limiting the use of biomass in small industrial steam/power systems in order to increase the future use of this valuable domestic resource. Specifically, the EERC is attempting to elucidate the ash-related problems--grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling--associated with cofiring coal and biomass in grate-fired systems. Utilization of biomass in stoker boilers designed for coal can be a cause of concern for boiler operators. Boilers that were designed for low volatile fuels with lower reactivities can experience damaging fouling when switched to higher volatile and more reactive lower-rank fuels, such as when cofiring biomass. Higher heat release rates at the grate can cause more clinkering or slagging at the grate because of higher temperatures. Combustion and loss of volatile matter can start too early for biomass fuels compared to the design fuel, vaporizing alkali and chlorides which then condense on rear walls and heat exchange tube banks in the convective pass of the stoker, causing noticeable increases in fouling. In addition, stoker-fired boilers that switch to biomass blends may encounter new chemical species such as potassium sulfates and various chlorides, in combination with different flue gas temperatures because of changes in fuel heating value which can adversely affect ash deposition behavior. The goal of this project is to identify the primary ash mechanisms related to grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling associated with cofiring coal and biomass--specifically wood and agricultural residuals--in grate-fired systems, leading to future mitigation of these problems. The specific technical objectives of the project are: Modification of an existing EERC pilot-scale combustion system to simulate a grate-fired system; Verification testing of the simulator; Laboratory-scale testing and fuel characterization to determine ash

  6. Port Graham Community Building Biomass Heating Design Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, Patrick [Port Graham Village Corporation, Anchorage, AK (United States); Sink, Charles [Chugachmiut, Anchorage, Alaska (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Native Village of Port Graham completed preconstruction activities to prepare for construction and operations of a cord wood biomass heating system to five or more community buildings in Port Graham, Alaska. Project Description Native Village of Port Graham (NVPG) completed preconstruction activities that pave the way towards reduced local energy costs through the construction and operations of a cord wood biomass heating system. NVPG plans include installation of a GARN WHS 3200 Boiler that uses cord wood as fuel source. Implementation of the 700,000 Btu per hour output biomass community building heat utility would heat 5-community buildings in Port Graham, Alaska. Heating system is estimated to displace 85% of the heating fuel oil or 5365 gallons of fuel on an annual basis with an estimated peak output of 600,000 Btu per hour. Estimated savings is $15,112.00 per year. The construction cost estimate made to install the new biomass boiler system is estimated $251,693.47 with an additional Boiler Building expansion cost estimated at $97,828.40. Total installed cost is estimated $349,521.87. The WHS 3200 Boiler would be placed inside a new structure at the old community Water Plant Building site that is controlled by NVPG. Design of the new biomass heat plant and hot water loop system was completed by Richmond Engineering, NVPG contractor for the project. A hot water heat loop system running off the boiler is designed to be placed underground on lands controlled by NVPG and stubbed to feed hot water to existing base board heating system in the following community buildings: 1. Anesia Anahonak Moonin Health and Dental Clinic 2. Native Village of Port Graham offices 3. Port Graham Public Safety Building/Fire Department 4. Port Graham Corporation Office Building which also houses the Port Graham Museum and Head Start Center 5. North Pacific Rim Housing Authority Workshop/Old Fire Hall Existing community buildings fuel oil heating systems are to be retro-fitted to

  7. BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay R. Gunderson; Bruce C. Folkedahl; Darren D. Schmidt; Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2002-05-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is conducting a project to examine the fundamental issues limiting the use of biomass in small industrial steam/power systems in order to increase the future use of this valuable domestic resource. Specifically, the EERC is attempting to elucidate the ash-related problems--grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling--associated with cofiring coal and biomass in grate-fired systems. Utilization of biomass in stoker boilers designed for coal can be a cause of concern for boiler operators. Boilers that were designed for low-volatile fuels with lower reactivities can experience damaging fouling when switched to higher-volatile and more reactive lower-rank fuels, such as when cofiring biomass. Higher heat release rates at the grate can cause more clinkering or slagging at the grate because of higher temperatures. Combustion and loss of volatile matter can start too early with biomass fuels compared to design fuel, vaporizing alkali and chlorides which then condense on rear walls and heat exchange tube banks in the convective pass of the boiler, causing noticeable increases in fouling. In addition, stoker-fired boilers that switch to biomass blends may encounter new chemical species such as potassium sulfates and various chlorides in combination with different flue gas temperatures because of changes in fuel heating value, which can adversely affect ash deposition behavior.

  8. Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, LI [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sedlacek, A. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) was conducted to obtain a better understanding of how aerosols generated from biomass fires affect the atmosphere and climate. It is estimated that 40% of carbonaceous aerosol produced originates from biomass burning—enough to affect regional and global climate. Several biomass-burning studies have focused on tropical climates; however, few campaigns have been conducted within the United States, where millions of acres are burned each year, trending to higher values and greater climate impacts because of droughts in the West. Using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility (AAF), the BBOP deployed the Gulfstream-1 (G-1) aircraft over smoke plumes from active wildfire and agricultural burns to help identify the impact of these events and how impacts evolve with time. BBOP was one of very few studies that targeted the near-field time evolution of aerosols and aimed to obtain a process-level understanding of the large changes that occur within a few hours of atmospheric processing.

  9. Overview of the Chariton Valley switchgrass project: A part of the biomass power for rural development initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.; Braster, M. [Chariton Valley Resource Conservation and Development, Inc., Centerville, IA (United States); Woolsey, E. [E.L. Woolsey and Associates, Prole, IA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Investigation of renewable energy in Iowa is centering on the use of agricultural crops to generate electricity. Switchgrass, a native grass of Iowa, is one of the most promising biomass producers. Chariton Valley RC and D Inc., a USDA affiliated rural development organization based in southern Iowa and Alliant Power, a major Iowa energy company, are leading a statewide coalition of public and private interests to develop a sustainable biomass industry. Chariton Valley RC and D is working with local producers and the agricultural professionals to develop a biomass supply infrastructure. Alliant Power is working to develop the technology to convert agricultural crops to energy to serve as the basis for sustainable commercial energy production. Iowa State University and others are assessing the long-term potential of gasification for converting switchgrass to energy. Plans call for modifications to a 750 MW Alliant Power coal plant that will allow switchgrass to be co-fired with coal. A 5% co-fire rate would produce 35 MW of electrical power production and require 50,000 acres of dedicated biomass supply in southern Iowa. Growing biomass crops on erosive lands, then using them as a substitute fuel in coal-fired boilers can potentially reduce air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, soil erosion and water pollution.

  10. Cofiring lignite with hazelnut shell and cotton residue in a pilot-scale fluidized bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuhal Gogebakan; Nevin Selcuk [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-05-15

    In this study, cofiring of high ash and sulfur content lignite with hazelnut shell and cotton residue was investigated in 0.3 MWt METU Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustion (ABFBC) Test Rig in terms of combustion and emission performance of different fuel blends. The results reveal that cofiring of hazelnut shell and cotton residue with lignite increases the combustion efficiency and freeboard temperatures compared to those of lignite firing with limestone addition only. CO{sub 2} emission is not found sensitive to increase in hazelnut shell and cotton residue share in fuel blend. Cofiring lowers SO{sub 2} emissions considerably. Cofiring of hazelnut shell reduces NO and N{sub 2}O emissions; on the contrary, cofiring cotton residue results in higher NO and N{sub 2}O emissions. Higher share of biomass in the fuel blend results in coarser cyclone ash particles. Hazelnut shell and cotton residue can be cofired with high ash and sulfur-containing lignite without operational problems. 32 refs., 12 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Regulation possibilities of biomass combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzdalenko, Vera; Gedrovics, Martins; Zake, Maija; Barmina, Inesa

    2012-11-01

    The focus of the recent experimental research is to analyze the regulation possibilities of biomass combustion. Three possibilities were chosen as part of this research: a) biomass cofiring with propane, b) swirling flow with re-circulation zone, and c) use of a permanent magnet. The aim of the research is to provide stable, controllable and effective biomass combustion with minimum emissions. The special pilot device was created where biomass can be combusted separately and co-fired with propane. Wood pellets were used during the experiments.

  12. BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Jay R. Gunderson; Darren D. Schmidt; Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2002-09-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has completed a project to examine fundamental issues that could limit the use of biomass in small industrial steam/power systems in order to increase the future use of this valuable domestic resource. Specifically, the EERC attempted to elucidate the ash-related problems--grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling--associated with cofiring coal and biomass in grate-fired systems. Utilization of biomass in stoker boilers designed for coal can be a cause of concern for boiler operators. Boilers that were designed for low-volatile fuels with lower reactivities can experience problematic fouling when switched to higher-volatile and more reactive coal-biomass blends. Higher heat release rates at the grate can cause increased clinkering or slagging at the grate due to higher temperatures. Combustion and loss of volatile matter can start much earlier for biomass fuels compared to design fuel, vaporizing alkali and chlorides which then condense on rear walls and heat exchange tube banks in the convective pass of the stoker, causing noticeable increases in fouling. In addition, stoker-fired boilers that switch to biomass blends may encounter new chemical species such as potassium sulfates, various chlorides, and phosphates. These species in combination with different flue gas temperatures, because of changes in fuel heating value, can adversely affect ash deposition behavior. The goal of this project was to identify the primary ash mechanisms related to grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling associated with cofiring coal and biomass--specifically wood and agricultural residuals--in grate-fired systems, leading to future mitigation of these problems. The specific technical objectives of the project were: (1) Modification of an existing pilot-scale combustion system to simulate a grate-fired system. (2) Verification testing of the simulator. (3) Laboratory-scale testing and fuel characterization to

  13. Biomass power for rural development. Quarterly report, July 3--December 4, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.T.

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes progress in several projects related to biomass power. These include switchgrass conversion development; switchgrass gasification development; production activities including soil studies, carbon studies, switchgrass production economics, watershed impacts, and prairie lands bio-products; information and education; and geographical information system. Attachments describe switchgrass co-firing test; switchgrass production in Iowa; cooperative agreements with ISU; Rathbun Lake watershed project; newspaper articles and information publications; Secretary of Agriculture Glickman`s visit; integration of technical aspects of switchgrass production in Iowa; and evaluation of an integrated biomass gasification/fuel cell power plant.

  14. Co-fired magnetoelectric transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Yan, Yongke; Priya, Shashank

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a co-fired magnetoelectric (ME) laminate consisting of piezoelectric/magnetostrictive/piezoelectric layers with unipoled piezoelectric transformer structure. The ME transformer was characterized by quantifying the voltage gain variation and resonance frequency shift as a function of applied DC magnetic field. We delineate the magnetic tunability feature by considering the magnetoelectric coupling and delta-E effect, where E represents the modulus of magnetic material. The ME response of the composite structure was found to be 473 mV/cm.Oe exhibiting DC field sensitivity of 100 nT under AC field of 1 Oe at 1 kHz. At a magnetic bias of 60 Oe, the transformer exhibited large frequency tunability of the order of 1.4 Hz/Oe. These results present significant advancement towards developing on-chip magnetic-field-tunable devices.

  15. Biomass fly ash in concrete: Mixture proportioning and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuangzhen Wang; Amber Miller; Emilio Llamazos; Fernando Fonseca; Larry Baxter [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    ASTM C 618 prohibits use of biomass fly ashes in concrete. This document compares the properties of biomass fly ashes from cofired (herbaceous with coal), pure wood combustion and blended (pure wood fly ash blended with coal fly ash) to those of coal fly ash in concrete. The results illustrate that with 25% replacement (wt%) of cement by fly ash, the compressive strength (one day to one year) and the flexure strength (at 56th day curing) of cofired and blended biomass fly ash concrete is statistically equal to that of two coal fly ash concrete in this investigation (at 95% confidence interval). This implies that biomass fly ash with co-firing concentration within the concentration interest to commercial coal-biomass co-firing operations at power plants and blended biomass fly ash within a certain blending ratio should be considered in concrete. 37 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. National-level infrastructure and economic effects of switchgrass cofiring with coal in existing power plants for carbon mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, William R; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2008-05-15

    We update a previously presented Linear Programming (LP) methodology for estimating state level costs for reducing CO2 emissions from existing coal-fired power plants by cofiring switchgrass, a biomass energy crop, and coal. This paper presents national level results of applying the methodology to the entire portion of the United States in which switchgrass could be grown without irrigation. We present incremental switchgrass and coal cofiring carbon cost of mitigation curves along with a presentation of regionally specific cofiring economics and policy issues. The results show that cofiring 189 million dry short tons of switchgrass with coal in the existing U.S. coal-fired electricity generation fleet can mitigate approximately 256 million short tons of carbon-dioxide (CO2) per year, representing a 9% reduction of 2005 electricity sector CO2 emissions. Total marginal costs, including capital, labor, feedstock, and transportation, range from $20 to $86/ton CO2 mitigated,with average costs ranging from $20 to $45/ton. If some existing power plants upgrade to boilers designed for combusting switchgrass, an additional 54 million tons of switchgrass can be cofired. In this case, total marginal costs range from $26 to $100/ton CO2 mitigated, with average costs ranging from $20 to $60/ton. Costs for states east of the Mississippi River are largely unaffected by boiler replacement; Atlantic seaboard states represent the lowest cofiring cost of carbon mitigation. The central plains states west of the Mississippi River are most affected by the boiler replacement option and, in general, go from one of the lowest cofiring cost of carbon mitigation regions to the highest. We explain the variation in transportation expenses and highlight regional cost of mitigation variations as transportation overwhelms other cofiring costs.

  17. Co-firing straw with coal in a swirl-stabilized dual-feed burner: modelling and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling study of co-firing wheat straw with coal in a 150 kW swirl-stabilized dual-feed burner flow reactor, in which the pulverized straw particles (mean diameter of 451μm) and coal particles (mean diameter of 110.4μm) are ...... burnout of the two fuels is predicted: about 93% for coal char vs. 73% for straw char. As the conclusion, a reliable modelling methodology for pulverized biomass/coal co-firing and some useful co-firing design considerations are suggested....... conversion. It is found that for pulverized biomass particles of a few hundred microns in diameter the intra-particle heat and mass transfer is a secondary issue at most in their conversion, and the global four-step mechanism of Jones and Lindstedt may be better used in modelling volatiles combustion...

  18. Development of cofired type planar SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taira, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Sadaaki; Zhou, Hua-Bing [Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    We have developed fabrication process for planar SOFC fabricated with cofired anode/electrolyte/cathode multilayers and interconnects. By cofiring technique for the multilayers, we expect to reduce the thickness of the electrolyte layers, resulting in decrease of innerimpedance, and achieve low production cost. On the other hand, the cofiring technique requires that the sintering temperature, the shrinkage profiles and the thermal expansion characteristics of all component materials should be compatible with the other. It is, therefore, difficult to cofire the multilayers with large area. Using the multilayers with surface area of 150cm{sup 2}, we fabricated the multiple cell stacks. The maximum power of 5x4 multiple cell stack (5 planes of cells in series, 4 cells in parallel in each planes 484cm{sup 2} effective electrode area of each cell planes) was 601W (0.25Wcm{sup -2}, Uf=40%). However, the terminal voltage of the multiple cell stack decreased by the cause of cell cracking, gas leakage and degradation of cofired multilayers. This paper presents the improvements of cofired multilayers, and the performance of multiple cell stacks with the improved multilayers.

  19. Experimental Study of the Combustion Dynamics of Renewable & Fossil Fuel Co-Fire in Swirling Flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaķe, M.; Barmina, I.; Kriško, V.; Gedrovičs, M.; Descņickis, A.

    2009-01-01

    The complex experimental research into the combustion dynamics of rene-wable (wood biomass) and fossil (propane) fuel co-fire in a swirling flame flow has been carried out with the aim to achieve clean and effective heat production with reduced carbon emissions. The effect of propane co-fire on the formation of the swirling flame velocity, temperature and composition fields as well as on the combustion efficiency and heat output has been analysed. The results of experimental study show that the propane supply into the wood biomass gasifier provides faster wood fuel gasification with active release of volatiles at the primary stage of swirling flame flow formation, while the swirl-induced recirculation with enhanced mixing of the flame components results in a more complete burnout of wood volatiles downstream of the combustor with reduced mass fraction of polluting impurities in the emissions.

  20. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, April 1, 1997--June 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, E.

    1997-08-01

    Detailed task progress reports and schedules are provided for the DOE/USDA sponsored Biomass Power for Rural Development project. The focus of the project is on developing commercial energy crops for power generation by the year 2000. The New York based Salix Consortium project is a multi-partner endeavor, implemented in three stages. Phase-I, Final Design and Project Development, will conclude with the preparation of construction and/or operating permits, feedstock production plans, and contracts ready for signature. Field trials of willow (Salix) have been initiated at several locations in New York (Tully, Lockport, King Ferry, La Fayette, Massena, and Himrod) and co-firing tests are underway at Greenidge Station (NYSEG) and Dunkirk Station (NMPC). Phase-H of the project will focus on scale-up of willow crop acreage, construction of co-firing facilities at Dunkirk Station (NMPC), and final modifications for Greenidge Station. Cofiring willow is also under consideration for GPU`s Seward Station where testing is under way. There will be an evaluation of the energy crop as part of the gasification trials occurring at BED`s McNeill power station. Phase-III will represent fullscale commercialization of the energy crop and power generation on a sustainable basis.

  1. A survey of state clean energy fund support for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, Garrett; Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2004-08-20

    This survey reviews efforts by CESA member clean energy funds to promote the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. For each fund, details are provided regarding biomass eligibility for support, specific programs offering support to biomass projects, and examples of supported biomass projects (if available). For the purposes of this survey, biomass is defined to include bio-product gasification, combustion, co-firing, biofuel production, and the combustion of landfill gas, though not all of the programs reviewed here take so wide a definition. Programs offered by non-CESA member funds fall outside the scope of this survey. To date, three funds--the California Energy Commission, Wisconsin Focus on Energy, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority--have offered programs targeted specifically at the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. We begin by reviewing efforts in these three funds, and then proceed to cover programs in other funds that have provided support to biomass projects when the opportunity has arisen, but otherwise do not differentially target biomass relative to other renewable technologies.

  2. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  3. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aden, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Uriarte, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Inman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpkins, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Argo, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  4. Combustion Properties of Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Oils: Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. R. Shaddix; D. R. Hardesty

    1999-04-01

    Thermochemical pyrolysis of solid biomass feedstocks, with subsequent condensation of the pyrolysis vapors, has been investigated in the U.S. and internationally as a means of producing a liquid fuel for power production from biomass. This process produces a fuel with significantly different physical and chemical properties from traditional petroleum-based fuel oils. In addition to storage and handling difficulties with pyrolysis oils, concern exists over the ability to use this fuel effectively in different combustors. The report endeavors to place the results and conclusions from Sandia's research into the context of international efforts to utilize pyrolysis oils. As a special supplement to this report, Dr. Steven Gust, of Finland's Neste Oy, has provided a brief assessment of pyrolysis oil combustion research efforts and commercialization prospects in Europe.

  5. Hydrogen Sulfide Micro-Sensor for Biomass Fouling Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)is the leading chemical agent causing human fatalities following inhalation exposures. The overall aim of this project is to develop and...

  6. A review: Fly ash and deposit formation in PF fired biomass boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Wu, Hao;

    2016-01-01

    In recent years suspension fired boilers have been increasingly used for biomass based heat and power production in several countries. This has included co-firing of coal and straw, up to 100% firing of wood or straw and the use of additives to remedy problems with biomass firing. In parallel...... in biomass suspension fired boilers is provided. Furthermore the influence of co-firing and use of additives on ash chemistry, deposit properties and boiler operation is discussed....

  7. Torrefaction of herbaceous biomass: A study of product, process and technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, Y.V.

    2015-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with coal in pulverized fuel boilers is a readily implementable means for attaining renewable electricity generation targets. Even as utilities have gained considerable operational experience over the past years with co-firing small quantities (0-3% on energy basis) of assorted bio

  8. Ethanol Production from Biomass: Large Scale Facility Design Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berson, R. Eric [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)

    2009-10-29

    High solids processing of biomass slurries provides the following benefits: maximized product concentration in the fermentable sugar stream, reduced water usage, and reduced reactor size. However, high solids processing poses mixing and heat transfer problems above about 15% for pretreated corn stover solids due to their high viscosities. Also, highly viscous slurries require high power consumption in conventional stirred tanks since they must be run at high rotational speeds to maintain proper mixing. An 8 liter scraped surface bio-reactor (SSBR) is employed here that is designed to efficiently handle high solids loadings for enzymatic saccharification of pretreated corn stover (PCS) while maintaining power requirements on the order of low viscous liquids in conventional stirred tanks. Saccharification of biomass exhibit slow reaction rates and incomplete conversion, which may be attributed to enzyme deactivation and loss of activity due to a variety of mechanisms. Enzyme deactivation is classified into two categories here: one, deactivation due to enzyme-substrate interactions and two, deactivation due to all other factors that are grouped together and termed “non-specific” deactivation. A study was conducted to investigate the relative extents of “non-specific” deactivation and deactivation due to “enzyme-substrate interactions” and a model was developed that describes the kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis by considering the observed deactivation effects. Enzyme substrate interactions had a much more significant effect on overall deactivation with a deactivation rate constant about 20X higher than the non-specific deactivation rate constant (0.35 h-1 vs 0.018 h-1). The model is well validated by the experimental data and predicts complete conversion of cellulose within 30 hours in the absence of enzyme substrate interactions.

  9. Analysis of results of biomass forest inventory in northeastern Amazon for development of REDD+ carbon project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONEL N.C. MELLO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, a significant reduction in deforestation rates occurred during the last decade. In spite of that fact, the average annual rates are still too high, approximately 400.000 ha/year (INPE/Prodes. The projects of emissions reduction through avoided deforestation (REED+ are an important tool to reduce deforestation rates in Brazil. Understanding the amazon forest structure, in terms of biomass stock is key to design avoided deforestation strategies. In this work, we analyze data results from aboveground biomass of 1,019.346,27 hectares in the state of Pará. It was collected data from 16,722 trees in 83 random independent plots. It was tested 4 allometric equations, for DBH > 10cm: Brown et al. (1989, Brown and Lugo (1999, Chambers et al. (2000, Higuchi et al. (1998. It revealed that the biggest carbon stock of above ground biomass is stocked on the interval at DBH between 30cm and 80cm. This biomass compartment stocks 75.70% of total biomass in Higuchi et al. (1998 equation, 75.56% of total biomass in Brown et al. (1989 equation, 78.83% of total biomass in Chambers et al. (2000 equation, and 73.22% in Brown and Lugo (1999 equation.

  10. Biomass power for rural development. Revised design report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, Edward

    1999-10-03

    The retrofit of Dunkirk Steam Station to fire biomass fuels is an important part of the Consortium's goal--demonstrating the viability of commercial scale willow energy crop production and conversion to power. The goal for th biomass facilities at Dunkirk is to reliably cofire a combination of wood wastes and willow biomass with coal at approximately 20% by heat input.

  11. Biomass gasification technology nationalization and human resources formation in North region: GASEIBRAS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Santos, Sandra Maria Apolinario dos; Lora, Beatriz Acquaro [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: suani@iee.usp.br, e-mail: sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, e-mail: sandra@iee.usp.br, e-mail: blora@iee.usp.br

    2008-07-01

    Gasification systems already developed in Brazil are not adjusted to the electricity production at isolated communities, because this models that supply a gas with satisfactory properties to this end, are projected to operate with coal and not with biomass in natura, what implies in the biomass transformation in coal with all the environmental impacts and loss of thermodynamic income associates to this practical. These problems had been surpassed with the GASEIFAMAZ Project development realized by CENBIO in the last two years. The project, that it aimed to make possible the electricity supply expansion in communities without energy access in the country north region, consisted of two gasification systems importation from the Indian Institute of Science, tests accomplishment and its transference to an isolated community. (author)

  12. State-level infrastructure and economic effects of switchgrass cofiring with coal in existing power plants for carbon mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, William R; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents a linear programming (LP) methodology for estimating the cost of reducing a state's coal-fired power plant carbon dioxide emissions by cofiring switchgrass and coal. LP modeling allows interplay between regionally specific switchgrass production forecasts, coal plant locations, and individual coal plant historic performance data to determine an allocation of switchgrass minimizing cost or maximizing carbon reduction. The LP methodology is applied to two states, Pennsylvania (PA) and Iowa (IA), and results are presented with a discussion of modeling assumptions, techniques, and carbon mitigation policy implications. The LP methodology estimates that, in PA, 4.9 million tons of CO2/year could be mitigated at an average cost of less than $34/ton of CO2 and that, in IA, 7 million tons of CO2/year could be mitigated at an average Cost of Mitigation of $27/ton of CO2. Because the factors determining the cofiring costs vary so much between the two states, results suggest that cofiring costs will also vary considerably between different U.S. regions. A national level analysis could suggest a lowest-cost cofiring region. This paper presents techniques and assumptions that can simplify biomass energy policy analysis with little effect on analysis conclusions.

  13. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass

  14. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass

  15. Switchgrass biomass energy storage project. Final report, September 23, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.A.; Teel, A.; Brown, S.S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project, sponsored by the Chariton Valley RC&D Inc., a USDA-sponsored rural development organization, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources Energy Bureau (IDNR-EB), and IES Utilities, a major Iowa energy company, is directed at the development of markets for energy crops in southern Iowa. This effort is part of a statewide coalition of public and private interests cooperating to merge Iowa`s agricultural potential and its long-term energy requirements to develop locally sustainable sources of biomass fuel. The four-county Chariton Valley RC&D area (Lucas, Wayne, Appanoose and Monroe counties) is the site of one of eleven NREL/EPRI feasibility studies directed at the potential of biomass power. The focus of renewable energy development in the region has centered around the use of swithgrass (Panicum virgatum, L.). This native Iowa grass is one of the most promising sustainable biomass fuel crops. According to investigations by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), switchgrass has the most potential of all the perennial grasses and legumes evaluated for biomass production.

  16. Validation of a FBC model for co-firing of hazelnut shell with lignite against experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulah, Gorkem [Middle East Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-07-15

    Performance of a comprehensive system model extended for modelling of co-firing of lignite and biomass was assessed by applying it to METU 0.3 MW{sub t} Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustor co-firing lignite with hazelnut shell and validating its predictions against on-line temperature and concentration measurements of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2} and NO along the same test rig fired with lignite only, lignite with limestone addition and lignite with biomass and limestone addition. The system model accounts for hydrodynamics; volatiles release and combustion, char combustion, particle size distribution for lignite and biomass; entrainment; elutriation; sulfur retention and NO formation and reduction, and is based on conservation equations for energy and chemical species. Special attention was paid to different devolatilization characteristics of lignite and biomass. A volatiles release model based on a particle movement model and a devolatilization kinetic model were incorporated into the system model separately for both fuels. Kinetic parameters for devolatilization were determined via thermogravimetric analysis. Predicted and measured temperatures and concentrations of gaseous species along the combustor were found to be in good agreement. Introduction of biomass to lignite was found to decrease SO{sub 2} emissions but did not affect NO emissions significantly. The system model proposed in this study proves to be a useful tool in qualitatively and quantitatively simulating the processes taking place in a bubbling fluidized bed combustor burning lignite with biomass. (author)

  17. Bioenergy guide. Projecting, operation and economic efficiency of biomass power plants; Leitfaden Bioenergie. Planung, Betrieb und Wirtschaftlichkeit von Bioenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deimling, S. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER); Kaltschmitt, M; Schneider, B. [and others

    2000-07-01

    This guide gives an survey over planning, operation and economics of biomass conversion plants. Main topics are: production and supply of biomass fuels, combustion properties, licensing, cost and financing. It shows planning and management of projects and the legal background for Germany and the European Union.

  18. Base Metal Co-Fired Multilayer Piezoelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisheng Gao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectrics have been widely used in different kinds of applications, from the automobile industry to consumer electronics. The novel multilayer piezoelectrics, which are inspired by multilayer ceramic capacitors, not only minimize the size of the functional parts, but also maximize energy efficiency. Development of multilayer piezoelectric devices is at a significant crossroads on the way to achieving low costs, high efficiency, and excellent reliability. Concerning the costs of manufacturing multilayer piezoelectrics, the trend is to replace the costly noble metal internal electrodes with base metal materials. This paper discusses the materials development of metal co-firing and the progress of integrating current base metal chemistries. There are some significant considerations in metal co-firing multilayer piezoelectrics: retaining stoichiometry with volatile Pb and alkaline elements in ceramics, the selection of appropriate sintering agents to lower the sintering temperature with minimum impact on piezoelectric performance, and designing effective binder formulation for low pO2 burnout to prevent oxidation of Ni and Cu base metal.

  19. Energy utilisation of biowaste - Sunflower-seed hulls for co-firing with coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raclavska, Helena; Juchelkova, Dagmar; Roubicek, Vaclav; Matysek, Dalibor [VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, CZ-70833 Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2011-01-15

    Sunflower-seed hulls (SSH) represent a source of combustible biomass characterised by high contents of potassium and phosphorus and a low silica content. The relatively high net calorific value of 20 MJ/kg d.m. is mainly influenced by the lignin content. Potassium and phosphorus are very important elements in biomass combustion for fuel, influencing slagging and fouling problems. Mixtures with different ratios of brown coal and sunflower-seed hulls (0-22% SSH) were co-fired in the Olomouc power plant. The behaviour of elements in the fly ash and the bottom ash (SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, K{sub 2}O, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Zn, Cu and Cd) varied in relation to the amount of SSH added to the coal. The fly ash from the co-firing of 20% SSH with coal had a high content of water-leachable sulphates and total dissolved solids. The utilisation of fly ash in civil engineering (land reclamation) should fulfil criteria established by the Council Decision 2003/33/EC for non-hazardous waste. To ensure that the required water-leachable sulphate concentrations are within regulatory limits the fuel may contain a maximum of 14% SSH. (author)

  20. Solar-assisted biomass-district heating: projects in Austria and operational data; Solarunterstuetzte Biomasse-Fernwaermeversorgung: Projekte in Oesterreich und Betriebsdaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faninger, G. [Institut fuer Interdisziplinaere Forschung und Fortbildung der Universitaeten Klagenfurt, Innsbruck und Wien (IFF), Klagenfurt (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    In recent years small-volume biomass district heating systems (district heat grids) have attracted increasing interest in Austria. By the end of 1997 some 359 biomass-district heating systems with an overall capacity of approximately 483 MW were in operation. If a biomass-district heating plant and a solar plant are combined the solar plant can supply most of the heat required outside the heating season. At present Austria runs 12 solar-assisted biomass-district heating grids with collector areas between 225 square metres and 1,250 square metres. In order to run these biomass-district heating systems in an economically and technically efficient way it is necessary to assure high quality in terms of planning, construction and operation. A list of criteria is set up on the basis of first operational data in order to evaluate energy efficiency and economic performance. These criteria should be applied in order to ensure that energy, environment and economy are equally considered in the planning and construction of solar-assisted biomass-district heating plants. They should also be helpful for the approval procedures of projects. (orig.) [Deutsch] Kleinraeumige Biomasse-Fernwaermeanlagen (Nahwaermenetze) fanden in den letzten Jahren zunehmendes Interesse in Oesterreich. So waren Ende 1997 insgesamt 359 Biomasse-Fernwaermeanlagen mit einer installierten Gesamtleistung von etwa 483 MW in Betrieb. Die Kombination einer Biomasse-Fernwaermeanlage mit einer Solaranlage bringt den Vorteil, dass die Waermebereitstellung ausserhalb der Heizsaison zu einem hohen Anteil ueber die Solaranlage vorgenommen werden kann. Derzeit werden in Oesterreich 12 solarunterstuetzte Biomasse-Nahwaermenetze mit Kollektorflaechen von 225 m{sup 2} bis 1.250 m{sup 2} betrieben. Um einen moeglichst effizienten und damit auch wirtschaftlichen Betrieb von solarunterstuetzten Biomasse-Fernwaermeanlagen zu gewaehrleisten, werden hohe Anforderungen an Planung, Ausfuehrung und Betrieb gestellt. Auf der

  1. A comparison of cost-benefit analysis of biomass and natural gas CHP projects in Denmark and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groth, Tanja; Scholtens, Bert

    2016-01-01

    We investigate what drives differences in the project appraisal of biomass and natural gas combined heat and power (CHP) projects in two countries with very similar energy profiles. This is of importance as the European Commission is assessing the potential scope of harmonizing renewable electricity

  2. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz

    2002-10-14

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. During this reporting period, the final technical design and cost estimate were submitted to Penn State by Foster Wheeler. In addition, Penn State initiated the internal site selection process to finalize the site for the boiler plant.

  3. Co-firing of coal and paper mill sludge in a 103 MWth CFB boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.T.; Lee, H.T. [Industrial Technology Research Inst., Hsinchu, (China). Energy and Resources Laboratories; Tsai, M.Y.; Huang, C.C. [Hsin Wu Mill, Yuen Foong Yu Paper Mfg. Co. Ltd., Taoyuan, (China)

    2002-07-01

    One of the advantages of circulating fluidized bed coal combustion technology is the ability to use a wide range of fuels with low atmospheric emissions. Co-firing coal with other solid wastes such as sludge, municipal waste systems (MWS) and biomass has been recently considered as an environmentally and economically sound method to produce energy while managing wastes. In this study, paper mill sludge from the Hsin Wu Mill in Taiwan was co-fired with coal in a 103 MW circulating fluidized bed boiler. The effect of the sludge feeding rate on emissions of SO{sub x}, NO{sub x} and CO was examined. The circulating fluidized bed was originally designed for burning coal only. Preliminary results indicate that emissions of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} decrease with increasing sludge feeding rate. However, the reverse is true for CO emissions because of the decrease in combustion temperature resulting from a high moisture content in the sludge. All emissions met Taiwanese environmental standards. The study also showed that combustion ash can be recycled as a raw material for cement production. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. A Path Forward for Low Carbon Power from Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D. Cuellar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The two major pathways for energy utilization from biomass are conversion to a liquid fuel (i.e., biofuels or conversion to electricity (i.e., biopower. In the United States (US, biomass policy has focused on biofuels. However, this paper will investigate three options for biopower: low co-firing (co-firing scenarios refer to combusting a given percentage of biomass with coal (5%–10% biomass, medium co-firing (15%–20% biomass, and dedicated biomass firing (100% biomass. We analyze the economic and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions impact of each of these options, with and without CO2 capture and storage (CCS. Our analysis shows that in the absence of land use change emissions, all biomass co-combustion scenarios result in a decrease in GHG emissions over coal generation alone. The two biggest barriers to biopower are concerns about carbon neutrality of biomass fuels and the high cost compared to today’s electricity prices. This paper recommends two policy actions. First, the need to define sustainability criteria and initiate a certification process so that biomass providers have a fixed set of guidelines to determine whether their feedstocks qualify as renewable energy sources. Second, the need for a consistent, predictable policy that provides the economic incentives to make biopower economically attractive.

  5. Sustainable biomass products development and evaluation, Hamakua project. Final draft report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The PICHTR Sustainable Biomass Energy Program was developed to evaluate the potential to cultivate crops for energy production as an alternative use of lands made available by the closing of large sugar plantations. In particular, the closing of the Hamakua Sugar Company on the island of Hawaii brought a great deal of attention to the future of agriculture in this region and in the state. Many options were proposed. Several promising alternatives had been proposed for cane lands. These included dedicated feedstock supply systems (DFSS) for electrical energy production, cultivation of sugarcane to produce ethanol and related by-products, and the production of feed and crops to support animal agriculture. Implementation of some of the options might require preservation of large tracts of land and maintenance of the sugar mills and sugar infrastructure. An analysis of the technical, financial, and other issues necessary to reach conclusions regarding the optimal use of these lands was required. At the request of the Office of State Planning and Senator Akaka`s office, the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR) established and coordinated a working group composed of state, county, federal, and private sector representatives to identify sustainable energy options for the use of idle sugar lands on the island of Hawaii. The Sustainable Biomass Energy Program`s Hamakua Project was established to complete a comprehensive evaluation of the most viable alternatives and assess the options to grow crops as a source of raw materials for the production of transportation fuel and/or electricity on the island of Hawaii. The motivation for evaluating biomass to energy conversion embraced the considerations that Hawaii`s energy security would be improved by diversifying the fuels used for transportation and reducing dependency on imported fossil fuels. The use of waste products as feedstocks could divert wastes from landfills.

  6. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke

    2001-10-12

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels.

  7. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; Rhett McLaren; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz; Joseph J. Battista

    2003-03-26

    The Pennsylvania State University, utilizing funds furnished by the U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Power Program, investigated the installation of a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The study was performed using a team that included personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. The activities included assessing potential feedstocks at the University Park campus and surrounding region with an emphasis on biomass materials, collecting and analyzing potential feedstocks, assessing agglomeration, deposition, and corrosion tendencies, identifying the optimum location for the boiler system through an internal site selection process, performing a three circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler design and a 15-year boiler plant transition plan, determining the costs associated with installing the boiler system, developing a preliminary test program, determining the associated costs for the test program, and exploring potential emissions credits when using the biomass CFB boiler.

  8. Ash transformation during co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn;

    2007-01-01

    Co-firing straw with coal in pulverized fuel boilers can cause problems related to fly ash utilization, deposit formation, corrosion and SCR catalyst deactivation due to the high contents of Cl and K in the ash. To investigate the interaction between coal and straw ash and the effect of coal...... quality on fly ash and deposit properties, straw was co-fired with three kinds of coal in an entrained flow reactor. The compositions of the produced ashes were compared to the available literature data to find suitable scaling parameters that can be used to predict the composition of ash from straw...... importantly, by reaction with Al and Si in the fly ash. About 70-80% K in the fly ash appears as alumina silicates while the remainder K is mainly present as sulphate. Lignite/straw co-firing produces fly ash with relatively high Cl content. This is probably because of the high content of calcium...

  9. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in

  10. Introduction to the Biomass Project: An Illustration of Evidence-Centered Assessment Design and Delivery Capability. CSE Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Linda S.; Mislevy, Robert J.; Almond, Russell G.; Baird, Andrew B.; Cahallan, Cara; Dibello, Louis V.; Senturk, Deniz; Yan, Duanli; Chernick, Howard; Kindfield, Ann C. H.

    This paper describes the design rationale for a prototype of an innovative assessment product, and the process that led to the design. The goals of the Biomass project were to demonstrate: (1) an assessment product designed to serve two new purposes in the transition from high school to college; and (2) the capability needed to produce this kind…

  11. Wood Pellet-Fired Biomass Boiler Project at the Ketchikan Federal Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomberlin, Gregg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Biomass boiler systems have existed for many years, but the technology has advanced in recent decades and can now provide automated and efficient operation for a relatively modest investment. Key advances in system monitoring and control allow for lower operating costs, since the control systems run all aspects of the boiler, including feed, load reduction and even tube cleaning. These advances have made such systems economical on a small scale in situations where inexpensive fuels like natural gas are not available. This creates an opportunity for building operators in remote, cold-climate locations to reduce the use of expensive fuels for heating buildings. GSA Region 10 installed the system at the federal building in Ketchikan, Alaska and submitted the project to the Green Proving Ground (GPG) program. GSA's GPG program contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess the installation and the technology. The system serves as a demonstration to assess actual system efficiencies, as well as operating characteristics and financial benefits. In addition to installation and operational issues, the project team/researchers examined other issues, including fuel transportation costs, building energy savings, and overall economics.

  12. OxyFuel combustion of Coal and Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Maja Bøg

    investigations on the combustion of coal, biomass (straw), and blends of coal and straw in air and O2/CO2 mixtures. The experiments have been performed in semi-technical scale in a once-through 30 kWth swirl-stabilized flame. The work has focused on improving the fundamental knowledge on oxyfuel combustion...... the important aspects of ash and deposit formation during co-firing of coal and biomass and combustion of pure biomass in oxyfuel atmospheres in semi-technical scale. The presented work has lead to the identification of reference operating conditions which enables a direct comparison of combustion in air...... and oxyfuel atmospheres. Apart from slightly improved burnout and reduced emissions of NO during oxyfuel combustion these operating conditions yield similar combustion characteristics in both environments. Co-firing coal and biomass or combustion of pure biomass in an oxyfuel power plant could yield...

  13. Climate impacts on agricultural biomass production in the CORDEX.be project context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne; Van Schaeybroeck, Bert; Termonia, Piet; Willems, Patrick; Van Lipzig, Nicole; Marbaix, Philippe; van Ypersele, Jean-Pascal; Fettweis, Xavier; De Ridder, Koen; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Luyten, Patrick; Pottiaux, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The most important coordinated international effort to translate the IPCC-AR5 outcomes to regional climate modelling is the so-called "COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment" (CORDEX, http://wcrp-cordex.ipsl.jussieu.fr/). CORDEX.be is a national initiative that aims at combining the Belgian climate and impact modelling research into a single network. The climate network structure is naturally imposed by the top-down data flow, from the four participating upper-air Regional Climate Modelling groups towards seven Local Impact Models (LIMs). In addition to the production of regional climate projections following the CORDEX guidelines, very high-resolution results are provided at convection-permitting resolutions of about 4 km across Belgium. These results are coupled to seven local-impact models with severity indices as output. A multi-model approach is taken that allows uncertainty estimation, a crucial aspect of climate projections for policy-making purposes. The down-scaled scenarios at 4 km resolution allow for impact assessment in different Belgian agro-ecological zones. Climate impacts on arable agriculture are quantified using REGCROP which is a regional dynamic agri-meteorological model geared towards modelling climate impact on biomass production of arable crops (Gobin, 2010, 2012). Results from previous work show that heat stress and water shortages lead to reduced crop growth, whereas increased CO2-concentrations and a prolonged growing season have a positive effect on crop yields. The interaction between these effects depend on the crop type and the field conditions. Root crops such as potato will experience increased drought stress particularly when the probability rises that sensitive crop stages coincide with dry spells. This may be aggravated when wet springs cause water logging in the field and delay planting dates. Despite lower summer precipitation projections for future climate in Belgium, winter cereal yield reductions due to drought

  14. Life cycle assessment of biochar cofiring with coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Fong; Syu, Fu-Siang; Chiueh, Pei-Te; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2013-03-01

    This study used life cycle assessment software SimaPro 7.2 and impact assessment model IMPACT 2002+ to evaluate the environmental impact and benefits of a biochar cofiring supply chain used for electricity generation. The biochar was assumed to be produced by rice straw torrefaction and the case study was located in Taoyuan County, Taiwan. This supply chain may provide impact reduction benefits in five categories (aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, land occupation, global warming, and non-renewable energy) but cause higher impacts than coal firing systems in other categories. Damage assessment of cofiring systems indicated that damage to human health was higher while the damage categories of ecosystem quality, climate change, and resources were lower. Carbon reduction could be 4.32 and 4.68metric tons CO2eq/ha/yr at 10% and 20% cofiring ratios, respectively. The improvement of electricity generation efficiency of cofiring systems may be the most important factor for reducing its environmental impact.

  15. Circulator Integrated in Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, R. van; Bent, G. van der; Ashari, M.; McKay, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a demonstration of an integrated circulator for TR modules using low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology. Two different circulators have been realised to be used in TR modules in two different frequency bands, C-and Ku-band. The circulator is a three-port junction microstrip ty

  16. Localized temperature stability of low temperature cofired ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Steven Xunhu

    2013-11-26

    The present invention is directed to low temperature cofired ceramic modules having localized temperature stability by incorporating temperature coefficient of resonant frequency compensating materials locally into a multilayer LTCC module. Chemical interactions can be minimized and physical compatibility between the compensating materials and the host LTCC dielectrics can be achieved. The invention enables embedded resonators with nearly temperature-independent resonance frequency.

  17. The impact of co-firing sunflower husk pellets with coal in a boiler on the chemical composition of flue gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zajemska Monika

    2017-01-01

    The calculations showed that the most important influence on the composition of the flue gas from the co-firing process of coal with sunflower husk has a composition of biomass. It should be emphasized that the results of computer simulations obtained by the authors have an useful aspect and can be applied in practice, especially to the analysis of the mechanism of chloride corrosion which is possible to occur due to the chlorine content in the biomass. They may also be useful for evaluating the unburned hydrocarbons produced by combustion of rich mixtures (λ < 1.0.

  18. Biomass production by fescue and switchgrass alone and in mixed swards with legumes. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Univ. of Agronomy

    1994-06-01

    In assessing the role of biomass in alleviating potential global warming, the absence of information on the sustainability of biomass production on soils of limited agricultural potential is cited as a major constraint to the assessment of the role of biomass. Research on the sustainability of yields, recycling of nutrients, and emphasis on reduced inputs of agricultural chemicals in the production of biomass are among the critical research needs to clarify optimum cropping practice in biomass production. Two field experiments were conducted between 1989 and 1993. One study evaluated biomass production and composition of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) grown alone and with bigflower vetch (Vicia grandiflora L.) and the other assessed biomass productivity and composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grown alone and with perennial legumes. Switchgrass received 0, 75 or 150 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of N annually as NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} or was interseeded with vetch. Tall fescue received 0, 75, 150 or 225 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of N annually or was interseeded with alfalfa (Medicago L.) or birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). It is hoped that production systems can be designed to produce high yields of biomass with minimal inputs of fertilizer N. Achievement of this goal would reduce the potential for movement of NO{sub 3} and other undesirable N forms outside the biomass production system into the environment. In addition, management systems involving legumes could reduce the cost of biomass production.

  19. Biomass energy: Sustainable solution for greenhouse gas emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrul Islam, A. K. M.; Ahiduzzaman, M.

    2012-06-01

    Biomass is part of the carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide is produced after combustion of biomass. Over a relatively short timescale, carbon dioxide is renewed from atmosphere during next generation of new growth of green vegetation. Contribution of renewable energy including hydropower, solar, biomass and biofuel in total primary energy consumption in world is about 19%. Traditional biomass alone contributes about 13% of total primary energy consumption in the world. The number of traditional biomass energy users expected to rise from 2.5 billion in 2004 to 2.6 billion in 2015 and to 2.7 billion in 2030 for cooking in developing countries. Residential biomass demand in developing countries is projected to rise from 771 Mtoe in 2004 to 818 Mtoe in 2030. The main sources of biomass are wood residues, bagasse, rice husk, agro-residues, animal manure, municipal and industrial waste etc. Dedicated energy crops such as short-rotation coppice, grasses, sugar crops, starch crops and oil crops are gaining importance and market share as source of biomass energy. Global trade in biomass feedstocks and processed bioenergy carriers are growing rapidly. There are some drawbacks of biomass energy utilization compared to fossil fuels viz: heterogeneous and uneven composition, lower calorific value and quality deterioration due to uncontrolled biodegradation. Loose biomass also is not viable for transportation. Pelletization, briquetting, liquefaction and gasification of biomass energy are some options to solve these problems. Wood fuel production is very much steady and little bit increase in trend, however, the forest land is decreasing, means the deforestation is progressive. There is a big challenge for sustainability of biomass resource and environment. Biomass energy can be used to reduce greenhouse emissions. Woody biomass such as briquette and pellet from un-organized biomass waste and residues could be used for alternative to wood fuel, as a result, forest will be saved and

  20. EVALUATION OF A PROCESS TO CONVERT BIOMASS TO METHANOL FUEL - PROJECT SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a review of the design of a reactor capable of gasifying approximately 50 lb/hr of biomass for a pilot-scale facility to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate the Hynol Process, a high-temperature, high-pressure method for converting biomass into methanol...

  1. Plant Biomass Leaching for Nutrient Recovery in Closed Loop Systems Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Nancy P.; Wheeler, Raymond (Compiler); Lunn, Griffin

    2015-01-01

    Plants will be important for food and O2 production during long term human habitation in space. Recycling of nutrients (e.g., from waste materials) could reduce the resupply costs of fertilizers for growing these plants. Work at NASA's Kennedy Space Center has shown that ion exchange resins can extract fertilizer (plant essential nutrients) from human waste water, after which the residual brine could be treated with electrodialysis to recover more water and produce high value chemicals (e.g., acids and bases). In habitats with significant plant production, inedible biomass becomes a major source of solid waste. To "close the loop" we also need to recover useful nutrients and fertilizer from inedible biomass. We are investigating different approaches to retrieve nutrients from inedible plant biomass, including physical leaching with water, processing the biomass in bioreactors, changing the pH of leaching processing, and/or conducting multiple leaches of biomass residues.

  2. Gasification in a CFB reactor : a simple and economic way of co-firing renewable fuels in existing power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, H.; Zotter, T. [AE Energietechnik, Graz (Austria)

    2002-07-01

    The use of biomass for power generation offers many environmental advantages and shorter carbon dioxide cycles compared to fossil fuels. However, biomass is not suitable as the principal fuel in large biomass-fired power plants because of its low specific volumetric energy density and the high transport and handling volume. Biomass is suitable for decentralized, small power plants but these often require high investment and operational costs. This paper discussed the suitability of biomass for co-firing in existing coal-fired thermal power plants. AE Energietechnik and partners, implemented a pilot biomass gasifier in Zeltweg, Austria in 1997. The plant operates a circulating fluidized bed reactor with a hot, low-calorific product gas produced and transported into an existing coal-fired boiler. The thermal capacity is up to 20 MW compared to the thermal capacity of 344 MW for the PC-boiler. This represents a coal substitution of 5 per cent. Commercial production began in December 1997 following gasification tests with alternative fuels such as wood wastes and plastics. The demonstration program has increased the awareness for the potential to use renewable fuels in fossil-fired power plants not originally designed to accept such fuels. 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  3. An investigation of co-fired varistor-ferrite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Rafferty, Aran; Gun'ko, Yurii; Raghavendra, Ramesh

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to co-fire crack-free varistor-ferrite ceramic multilayers fabricated via a dry pressing route. Multilayers were sintered using a standard industrial grade varistor sintering regime. Sinter shrinkages of both varistor and ferrite materials were measured using dilatometry and showed that the varistor shrunk significantly more than the ferrite material. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that no significant phase changes occurred in the materials under in...

  4. JV 58-Effects of Biomass Combustion on SCR Catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Joshua R. Strege; Donald P. McCollor; Jason D. Laumb; Lingbu Kong

    2006-08-31

    A portable slipstream selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactor was installed at a biomass cofired utility boiler to examine the rates and mechanisms of catalyst deactivation when exposed to biomass combustion products. The catalyst was found to deactivate at a much faster rate than typically found in a coal-fired boiler, although this may have been the result of high ash loading rather than a general property of biomass combustion. Deactivation was mainly the result of alkali and alkaline-earth sulfate formation and growth in catalyst pores, apparently caused by alkaline-earth ash deposition on or near the pore sites. The high proportion of biomass in the fuel contributed to elevated levels of alkali and alkaline-earth material in the ash when compared to coal ash, and these higher levels provided more opportunity for sulfate formation. Based on laboratory tests, neither catalyst material nor ammonia contributed measurably to ash mass gains via sulfation. A model constructed using both field and laboratory data was able to predict catalyst deactivation of catalysts under subbituminous coal firing but performed poorly at predicting catalyst deactivation under cofiring conditions. Because of the typically higher-than coal levels of alkali and alkaline-earth elements present in biomass fuels that are available for sulfation at typical SCR temperatures, the use of SCR technology and biomass cofiring needs to be carefully evaluated prior to implementation.

  5. AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital waste. Quarterly report, February - April, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    The project objective is to design, construct, install provide operator training and start-up a circulating fluidized bed combustion system at the Lebanon Pennsylvania Veteran`s Affairs Medical Center. This unit will co-fire coal and hospital waste providing lower cost steam for heating and possibly cooling (absorption chiller) and operation of a steam turbine-generator for limited power generation while providing efficient destruction of both general and infectious hospital waste. The steam generated is as follows: steam = 20,000 lb/hr; temperature = 353 F (saturated); pressure = 125 psig; and steam quality = {approximately}98.5%. During this reporting period: structural corrections have been made to make the facility meet the required building costs; and refractory bakeout was successfully completed during April 23-25, 1996 over a 54 -hour period. Operating permits will be obtained after construction has been completed.

  6. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, May 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, E.

    1996-02-01

    Developing commercial energy crops for power generation by the year 2000 is the focus of the DOE/USDA sponsored Biomass Power for Rural Development project. The New York based Salix Consortium project is a multi-partner endeavor, implemented in three stages. Phase-I, Final Design and Project Development, will conclude with the preparation of construction and/or operating permits, feedstock production plans, and contracts ready for signature. Field trials of willow (Salix) have been initiated at several locations in New York (Tully, Lockport, King Ferry, La Facette, Massena, and Himrod) and co-firing tests are underway at Greenidge Station (NYSEG). Phase-II of the project will focus on scale-up of willow crop acreage, construction of co-firing facilities at Dunkirk Station (NMPC), and final modifications for Greenidge Station. There will be testing of the energy crop as part of the gasification trials expected to occur at BED`s McNeill power station and potentially at one of GPU`s facilities. Phase-III will represent full-scale commercialization of the energy crop and power generation on a sustainable basis. Willow has been selected as the energy crop of choice for many reasons. Willow is well suited to the climate of the Northeastern United States, and initial field trials have demonstrated that the yields required for the success of the project are obtainable. Like other energy crops, willow has rural development benefits and could serve to diversify local crop production, provide new sources of income for participating growers, and create new jobs. Willow could be used to put a large base of idle acreage back into crop production. Additionally, the willow coppicing system integrates well with current farm operations and utilizes agricultural practices that are already familiar to farmers.

  7. Co-firing of pine chips with Turkish lignites in 750kWth circulating fluidized bed combustion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atimtay, Aysel T; Kayahan, Ufuk; Unlu, Alper; Engin, Berrin; Varol, Murat; Olgun, Hayati; Atakul, Husnu

    2017-01-01

    Two Turkish lignites which have different sulfur levels (2-2.9% dry) and ash levels (17-25% dry) were combusted with a Turkish forest red pine chips in a 750kW-thermal capacity circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) system. The combustion temperature was held at 850±50°C. Flue gas emissions were measured by Gasmet DX-4000 flue gas analyzer. Two lignites were combusted alone, and then limestone was added to lignites to reduce SO2 emissions. Ca/S=3 was used. 30% percent of red pine chips were added to the lignites for co-firing experiments without limestone in order to see the biomass effects. The results showed that with limestone addition SO2 concentration was reduced below the limit values for all lignites. CO emissions are high at low excess air ratios, gets lower as the excess air ratio increases. During co-firing experiments the temperature in the freeboard was 100-150°C higher as compared to coal combustion experiments.

  8. Projecting demand and supply of forest biomass for heating in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromborg, Erik, E-mail: erik.tromborg@umb.no [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 As (Norway); Havskjold, Monica; Lislebo, Ole [Xrgia as, P.O. Box 329, NO-1301, Sandvika (Norway); Rorstad, Per Kristian [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 As (Norway)

    2011-11-15

    This paper assesses the increase in demand and supply for forest biomass for heating in Norway in 2020. By then there is a political aim to double the national production of bioenergy from the level in 2008. The competitiveness of woody biomass in central and district heating is analyzed in a model selecting the least-cost heating technology and scale in municipalities given a set of constraints and under different fuels price scenarios. The supply of forest biomass from roundwood is estimated based on data of forest inventories combined with elasticities regarding price and standing volumes. The supply of biomass from harvesting residues is estimated in an engineering approach based on data from the national forest inventories and roundwood harvest. The results show how the production of bioenergy is affected by changes in energy prices and support schemes for bioenergy. One conclusion from the analyses is that the government target of 14 TWh more bioenergy by 2020 is not likely to be met by current technologies and policy incentives. The contribution of the analysis is the detailed presentation of the heat market potentials and technology choices combined with supply functions for both roundwood and harvesting residues. - Highlights: > This paper accesses the demand and supply for forest biomass for heating in Norway in 2020. > Market share for wood in central and new district heating is analyzed in a cost-minimizing model. > The supply of forest biomass includes wood chips from import, roundwood and harvesting residues. > The production of bioenergy is affected by changes in energy prices and support schemes. > The government target for bioenergy is not met by current technologies and policy incentives.

  9. The effect of Co-firing with Straw and Coal on High Temperature Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Frandsen, Flemming; Larsen, OH

    2001-01-01

    As a part of ELSAMS development programme into alternative energy sources, various concepts of straw-firing have been investigated. This paper concerns co-firing of straw with coal to reduce the corrosion rate observed in straw-fired power plants. Co-firing with coal reduces the amount of potassi...

  10. Biomass collection. A survey of municipal and regional projects on locally collected biomass; Inzameling biomassa. Een inventarisatie naar gemeentelijke en regionale projecten op basis van regionaal ingezamelde biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Laat, P.; Verhagen, B.

    2005-11-15

    The aim of the title survey was to list all the projects with regard to collecting biomass in the Netherlands, carried out by municipalities, provinces and other parties, and providing insight in the progress and bottlenecks. [Dutch] Doel van het onderzoek was het in kaart brengen van alle projecten op het gebied van inzameling en het verschaffen van inzicht in de voortgang en eventuele knelpunten. De inventarisatie heeft zicht niet beperkt tot de inzamelings-projecten van gemeenten alleen. Ook projecten gericht op het realiseren van een installatie op basis van regionaal ingezamelde biomassa zijn in kaart gebracht. En ook andere marktpartijen dan gemeenten en provincies zijn benaderd. Met behulp van de kennis van deze marktpartijen kon het beeld van de gemeentelijke projecten compleet worden gemaakt. Maar tegelijkertijd zijn deze marktpartijen ook van belang bij de uitvoering van de gemeentelijke projecten. In hoofdstuk 1 wordt de methodiek van het onderzoek toegelicht. In hoofdstuk 2 wordt op basis van een telefonische enquete, de telefoonronde, een compleet beeld van de gemeentelijke en regionale biomassa projecten gegeven. In hoofdstuk 3 worden aan de hand van interviews een zestal projecten beschreven. Tenslotte worden in hoofdstuk 4 enkele conclusies getrokken.

  11. Project on Biomass Gasification and Power Generation Wins BlueSky Award

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ After a strict scrutiny by an international jury, a . system for biomass gasification and power generation developed by the CAS Guanzhou Institute of Energy Conversion (IEC) has been chosen as one of the eight winners of the BlueSky Award in 2005. The event was jointly sponsored by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization and the International Technology Promotion Center for Sustainable Development in Shenzhen, in south China's Guangdong Province.

  12. Energy from biomass. Summaries of the Biomass Projects carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme. Vol. 3: converting wood fuel to energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    These volumes of summaries provide easy access to the many projects carried out in the Energy from Biomass programme area as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme. The summaries in this volume cover contractor reports on the subject published up to December 1997. (author)

  13. Energy from biomass. Summaries of the Biomass Projects carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry`s New and Renewable Energy Programme. Vol. 4: anaerobic digestion for biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    These volumes of summaries provide easy access to the many projects carried out in the Energy from Biomass programme area as part of the Department of Trade and Industry`s New and Renewable Energy Programme. The summaries in this volume cover contractor reports on the subject published up to December 1997. (author)

  14. Energy from biomass. Summaries of the Biomass Projects carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme. Vol. 5: straw, poultry litter and energy crops as energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    These volumes of summaries provide easy access to the many projects carried out in the Energy from Biomass programme area as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme. The summaries in this volume cover contractor reports on the subject published up to December 1997. (author)

  15. Using CORE Model-Based Systems Engineering Software to Support Program Management in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Project: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, C.; Sandor, D.; Simpkins, P.

    2006-11-01

    This paper describes how a model-based systems engineering software, CORE, is helping the U. S. Department of Energy's Office of Biomass Program assist with bringing biomass-derived biofuels to the market. This software tool provides information to guide informed decision-making as biomass-to-biofuels systems are advanced from concept to commercial adoption. It facilitates management and communication of program status by automatically generating custom reports, Gantt charts, and tables using the widely available programs of Microsoft Word, Project and Excel.

  16. Modelling fireside corrosion of heat exchangers in co-fired pulverised fuel power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, N.J. [Cranfield Univ. (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Centre; Fry, A.T. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    As a result of concerns about the effects of CO{sub 2} emissions on the global environment, there is increasing pressure to reduce such emissions from power generation systems. The use of biomass co-firing with coal in conventional pulverised fuel power stations has provided the most immediate route to introduce a class of fuel that is regarded as both sustainable and carbon neutral. In the future it is anticipated that increased levels of biomass will need to be used in such systems to achieve the desired CO{sub 2} emission targets. However there are concerns over the risk of fireside corrosion damage to the various heat exchangers and boiler walls used in such systems. Future pulverised fuel power systems will need to be designed to cope with the effects of using a wide range of coal-biomass mixes. However, such systems will also need to use much higher heat exchanger operating temperatures to increase their conversion efficiencies and counter the effects of the CO{sub 2} capture technologies that will need to be used in them. Higher operating temperatures will also increase the risk of fireside corrosion damage to the critical heat exchangers. This paper reports work that has been carried out to develop quantitative corrosion models for heat exchangers in pulverised fuel power systems. These developments have been particularly targeted at producing models that enable the evaluation of the effects of using different coal-biomass mixtures and of increasing heat exchanger operating conditions. Models have been produced that have been targeted at operating conditions and materials used in (a) superheaters/reheaters and (b) waterwalls. Data used in the development of these models has been produced from full scale and pilot scale plants in the UK using a wide range of coal and biomass mixtures, as well as from carefully targeted series of laboratory corrosion tests. Mechanistic and neural network based models have been investigated during this development process to

  17. Progress on optimizing miscanthus biomass production for the European bioeconomy: Results of the EU FP7 project OPTIMISC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Lewandowski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the complete findings of the EU-funded research project OPTIMISC, which investigated methods to optimize the production and use of miscanthus biomass. Miscanthus bioenergy and bioproduct chains were investigated by trialing fifteen diverse germplasm types in a range of climatic and soil environments across central Europe, Ukraine, Russia and China. The abiotic stress tolerances of a wider panel of 100 germplasm types to drought, salinity and low temperatures were measured in the laboratory and a field trial in Belgium. A small selection of germplasm types was evaluated for performance in grasslands on marginal sites in Germany and the UK. The growth traits underlying biomass yield and quality were measured to improve regional estimates of feedstock availability. Several potential high-value bioproducts were identified. The combined results provide recommendations to policymakers, growers and industry. The major technical advances in miscanthus production achieved by OPTIMISC include: 1 demonstration that novel hybrids can out-yield the standard commercially grown genotype Miscanthus x giganteus; 2 characterisation of the interactions of physiological growth responses with environmental variation within and between sites; 3 quantification of biomass-quality-relevant traits; 4 abiotic stress tolerances of miscanthus genotypes; 5 selections suitable for production on marginal land; 6 field establishment methods for seeds using plugs; 7 evaluation of harvesting methods; and 8 quantification of energy used in densification (pellet technologies with a range of hybrids with differences in stem wall properties. End-user needs were addressed by demonstrating the potential of optimizing miscanthus biomass composition for the production of ethanol and biogas as well as for combustion. The costs and life-cycle assessment of seven miscanthus-based value chains, including small- and large-scale heat and power, ethanol, biogas and

  18. Physical characterization of biomass fuels prepared for suspension firing in utility boilers for CFD modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Lasse; Yin, Chungen; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2007-01-01

    shapes. The sample is subdivided by straw type, and coherent size, type and mass distribution parameters are reported for the entire sample. This type of data is necessary in order to use CFD reliably as a design and retrofit tool for co-firing biomass with fossil fuels, as the combustion processes...

  19. Risks and chances of combined forestry and biomass projects under the Clean Development Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutschke, Michael; Kapp, Gerald; Lehmann, Anna; Schaefer, Volkmar (Hamburg Inst. International Economics (Germany))

    2006-06-15

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) aims at reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, while at the same time taking up CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere in vegetation by means of afforestation and reforestation. In spite of these options being complementary, rules and modalities for both project classes are being treated separately in the relevant decisions by the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The present study reviews the state of bioenergy use in developing countries, modalities and procedures under the CDM, and the potential for transaction cost reduction in climate mitigation projects. There are four potential types of combinations in the matrix between small-scale - large-scale / afforestation and reforestation - bioenergy activities. We develop criteria for assessing sustainable development benefits and present an example project for each of the potential project types. We find that the individual risks of single-category projects do not increase when combining project categories and that each combination holds potential for integrated sustainability benefits. Risks for local livelihoods do increase with project size, but a transparent, participatory planning phase is able to counterbalance smallholders' lack of negotiation power. Further research will have to develop concrete project examples and blueprints with approved CDM methodologies, thereby decreasing transaction costs and risk for all potential project partners. (au)

  20. European bioconversion projects and realizations for macroalgal biomass: Saint-Cast-Le-Guildo (France) experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Morand, Ph.; Charlier, R.H.; Mazé, J.

    1990-01-01

    Proliferation of macroalgae is a world-wide problem with 50,000 m3 of drift Ulva harvested per year in Brittany and about 1.0 to 1.2 million tons growing in the Venice lagoon. This biomass may be treated by bioconversion (aerobic or anaerobic fermentation) to give useful products (gas, fertilizers or others) and to remove a source of environmental pollution. Such a treatment also may be applied to cultivated or harvested seaweds and to seaweed industry residues.Studies of seaweed methanizatio...

  1. Biomass for iron ore sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zandi, M.; Martinez-Pacheco, M.; Fray, T.A.T. [Corus Research Development & Technology, Rotherham (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Within an integrated steelworks, iron ore sinter making is an energy intensive process. In recent years, biomass is becoming an attractive alternative source of energy to traditional fossil fuels such as coal. In this study, commercially available biomass materials suited to sinter making have been identified as an alternative source of fuel to coke breeze. Olive residues, sunflower husk pellets, almond shells, hazelnut shells and Bagasse pellets have been characterised and prepared for sintering. A laboratory sinter pot has been employed for studying sintering behaviour of biomass material. On average, the calorific values of selected biomass materials, on a dry basis, are about 65% of dry coke breeze. It was found that less of this energy would be available in sinter making due to the evaporation of some of the volatile matter ahead of the flame front. At a replacement rate of 25%, the crushed sunflower husk pellets showed the closest thermal profile to that of coke breeze alone in the size range of -0.8 to +0.6 mm. A specification of less than 1 mm has been recommended for the studied biomass materials when co-firing biomass with coke breeze for iron ore sintering.

  2. Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) co-firing of coal and hospital waste. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    The proposed project involves co-firing of coal and medical waste (including infectious medical waste) in an atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) to safely dispose of medical waste and produce steam for hospital needs. Combustion at the design temperature and residence time (duration) in the AFBC has been proven to render infectious medical waste free of disease producing organisms. The project would be located at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center in Lebanon, Pennsylvania. The estimated cost of the proposed AFBC facility is nearly $4 million. It would be jointly funded by DOE, Veterans Affairs, and Donlee Technologies, Inc., of York, Pennsylvania, under a cooperative agreement between DOE and Donlee. Under the terms of this agreement, $3.708 million in cost-shared financial assistance would be jointly provided by DOE and the Veterans Affairs (50/50), with $278,000 provided by Donlee. The purposes of the proposed project are to: (1) provide the VA Medical Center and the Good Samaritan Hospital (GSH), also of Lebanon, Pennsylvania, with a solution for disposal of their medical waste; and (2) demonstrate that a new coal-burning technology can safely incinerate infectious medical waste, produce steam to meet hospital needs, and comply with environmental regulations.

  3. Ash transformation in suspension fired boilers co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn;

    The properties of the ash from co-firing of coal and straw have a large influence on boiler operation, flue gas cleaning equipment and appropriate utilization of the fly ash. A study on the fuel composition and local conditions influence on fly ash properties has been done by making entrained flow...... reactor experiments with co-firing of coal and straw, making mineral and alkali vapor laboratory reactor experiments and by developing a model of KCl reaction with kaolin. The results include correlations that can be used to estimate the speciation of potassium in the fly ash when co-firing straw...

  4. Synergistic evaluation of the biomass/coal blends for co-gasification purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gaqa, S Mamphweli, D Katwire, E Meyer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 95% of electricity in South Africa is generated from coal, which is a fossil fuel that has detrimental environmental impacts. Eskom has started investigating the possibility of co-firing coal with biomass to improve their carbon footprint. However, co-firing utilizes approximately 80% of water and results in extensive environmental impacts. This research seeks to investigate the possibility of co-gasification of coal and biomass, which is a thermochemical process that uses about a third of the water required by a coal-fired power station, and results in much lower emissions. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA was conducted to investigate the existence of a synergy between coal and biomass during gasification. Various coal/biomass blends were investigated using TGA. The synergistic effect between the two feedstock as determined through TGA allowed the prediction of the gasification characteristics of the blends that most likely gave the highest conversion efficiency. Preliminary results suggested the existence of this synergy.

  5. Camber Evolution and Stress Development of Porous Ceramic Bilayers During Co-Firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, De Wei; Esposito, Vincenzo; Schmidt, Cristine Grings;

    2013-01-01

    Camber evolution and stress development during co-firing of asymmetric bilayer laminates, consisting of porous Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 gadolinium-doped cerium oxide (CGO) and La0.85Sr0.15MnO3 lanthanum strontium manganate (LSM)-CGO were investigated. Individual layer shrinkage was measured by optical...... dilatometer, and the uniaxial viscosities were determined as a function of layer density using a vertical sintering approach. The camber evolution in the bilayer laminates was recorded in situ during co-firing and it was found to correspond well with the one predicted by the theoretical model. The estimated...... sintering mismatch stress in co-fired CGO-LSM/CGO bilayer laminates was significantly lower than general sintering stresses expected for free sintering conditions. As a result, no co-firing defects were observed in the bilayer laminates, illustrating an acceptable sintering compatibility of the ceramic...

  6. Electromagnetic Isolation Solutions in Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Daniel; Peterson, Ken; Euler, Laurie

    2011-10-09

    Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC) is a commercial ceramic-glass multilayer technology with compelling advantages for microelectronics, microsystems and sensors. High frequency applications require good electrical properties such as low dielectric loss and newer applications require extreme isolation from electromagnetic interference (EMI) that is even difficult to measure (-150db). Approaches to providing this isolation, once provided by via fences, have included sidewall coating and full tape thickness features (FTTF) that have been introduced by the filling of slots with via-fill compositions. Several techniques for creating these structures have been modeled for stress and temperature effects in the face of other necessary attachments, such as metallic seal frames. The relative effects of attachment media, FTTF geometry, and alternative measures will be reported. Approaches for thick film and thin film implementations are described.

  7. Development and application of ferrite materials for low temperature co-fired ceramic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huai-Wu; Li, Jie; Su, Hua; Zhou, Ting-Chuan; Long, Yang; Zheng, Zong-Liang

    2013-11-01

    Development and application of ferrite materials for low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology are discussed, specifically addressing several typical ferrite materials such as M-type barium ferrite, NiCuZn ferrite, YIG ferrite, and lithium ferrite. In order to permit co-firing with a silver internal electrode in LTCC process, the sintering temperature of ferrite materials should be less than 950 °C. These ferrite materials are research focuses and are applied in many ways in electronics.

  8. Novel Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic Material System Composed of Dielectrics with Different Dielectric Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Sadaaki; Adachi, Hiroshige; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Sugimoto, Yasutaka; Takada, Takahiro

    2013-09-01

    We found that the co-firing low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) materials of different dielectric constants (ɛr) with Cu wiring is achievable using a novel, original design. It was confirmed that the dielectric characteristics of the dielectrics designed in this study are very suitable for the use of the dielectrics in electronic components such as filters mounted in high-speed radio communication equipment. The dielectric constants of the lower- and higher-dielectric-coefficient materials were 8.1 and 44.5, respectively, which are sufficiently effective for downsizing LTCC components. Observing the co-fired interface, it was confirmed that excellent co-firing conditions resulted in no mechanical defects such as delamination or cracks. On the basis of the results of wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometry (WDX) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD), it was confirmed that co-firing with minimal interdiffusion was realized using the same glass for both dielectrics. It is concluded that the materials developed are good for co-firing in terms of the mechanical defects and interdiffusion that appear in them.

  9. Continuous countercurrent chromatographic separator for the purification of sugars from biomass hydrolyzate. Final project report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooley, R J

    1997-12-01

    Production of pure sugars is required to enable production of fuels and chemicals from biomass feedstocks. Hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose (principal constituents of biomass) produces sugars that can be utilized in various fermentation process to produce valuable chemicals. Unfortunately, the hydrolysis process also liberates chemicals from the biomass that can be toxic to the fermenting organisms. The two primary toxic components of biomass hydrolyzate are sulfuric acid (catalyst used in the hydrolysis) and acetic acid (a component of the feed biomass). In the standard batch chromatographic separation of these three components, sugar elutes in the middle. Batch chromatographic separations are not practical on a commercial scale, because of excess dilution and high capital costs. Because sugar is the {open_quotes}center product,{close_quotes} a continuous separation would require two costly binary separators. However, a single, slightly larger separator, configured to produce three products, would be more economical. This FIRST project develops a cost-effective method for purifying biomass hydrolyzate into fermentable sugars using a single continuous countercurrent separator to separate this ternary mixture.

  10. Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Reginald [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    2014-09-01

    A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co-produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle

  11. The economics of biomass for power and greenhouse gas reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jay Brooker

    The power cost and optimum plant size for power plants using straw fuel in western Canada was determined. The optimum size for agricultural residues is 450 MW (the largest single biomass unit judged feasible in this study), and the power cost is 50.30 MWh-1. If a larger biomass boiler could be built, the optiμm project size for straw would be 628 MW. For a market power price of 40 MWh-1 the cost of the GHG credit generated by a straw-fired plant is 11 tonne-1 CO2. Straw was evaluated as a possible supplement to the primary coal fuel at the Genesee power station in order to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity. Cofiring straw at the Genesee power station does not compete favorably with other GHG abatement technologies, even the lowest cost option is estimated at 22 tonne-1 CO2. The cost of transporting wood chips by truck and by pipeline as a water slurry is determined. The pipeline would be economical at large capacity (>0.5 M dry tonnes per year for a one way pipeline, and >1.25 M dry tonnes per year for a two way pipeline that returns the carrier fluid to the pipeline inlet), and at medium to long distances (>75 km (one way) and >470 km (two way) at a capacity of 2 M dry tonnes per year). Pipelining was determined to be unsuitable for combustion applications. Pipeline transport of corn is evaluated against a range of truck transport costs. At 20% solids, pipeline transport of corn stover costs less than trucking at capacities in excess of 1.4 M dry tonnes/yr when compared to a mid range of truck transport. Pipelining of corn stover gives the opportunity to conduct simultaneous transport and saccharification (STS) but would require a source of waste heat at the pipeline inlet in order to be economical. Transport of corn stover in multiple pipelines offers the opportunity to develop a large ethanol fermentation plant, avoiding some of the diseconomies of scale that arise from smaller plants whose capacities are limited by issues of truck congestion

  12. Hydrothermal pretreatment of biomass for pellet production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tooyserkani, Z. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Clean Energy Research Centre, Biomass and Bioenergy Research Group

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed innovative technologies for the production of wood pellets using the hydrothermal pre-treatment of biomass. Conventional techniques use low-cost mill residues, such as saw dust and shavings, as feedstock to produce durable, low-ash pellets. However, mill residues are becoming less available as a result of fewer saw mills, increased pellet production, and increased competition for saw dust. Advanced techniques use mixed biomass such as logging residue as feedstock, creating pellets that are durable for handling and long-term storage, of a higher energy density for transport and mixing with coal for co-firing, and a choice feedstock for biofuels. Advanced pellet production uses steam explosion/pre-treatment in which biomass receives a short-term high-pressure steam treatment followed by sudden decompression. Mild torrefaction seems to have positive feedback, and steam-treated pellets are durable with superior hydrophobicity. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2001-05-01

    In summary, stoker-fired boilers that cofire or switch to biomass fuel may potentially have to deal with ash behavior issues such as production of different concentrations and quantities of fine particulate or aerosols and ash-fouling deposition. Stoker boiler operators that are considering switching to biomass and adding potential infrastructure to accommodate the switch may also at the same time be looking into upgrades that will allow for generating additional power for sale on the grid. This is the case for the feasibility study being done currently for a small (<1-MW) stoker facility at the North Dakota State Penitentiary, which is considering not only the incorporation of a lower-cost biomass fuel but also a refurbishing of the stoker boiler to burn slightly hotter with the ability to generate more power and sell excess energy on the grid. These types of fuel and boiler changes can greatly affect ash behavior issues.

  14. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILER PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb Jr.

    2005-02-10

    gasification project at its site. Throughout much of this total project the Principal Investigator has counseled two small businesses in developing a waxed cardboard pellet business. A recent test burn of this biofuel appears successful and a purchase contract is anticipated soon. During the past two months a major tree-trimming firm has shown an active interest in entering the wood-chip fuel market in the Pittsburgh area and has contacted the NBP, among others, as potential customers. The NBP superintendent is currently in discussion with the facilities management of the Bruceton Research Center about resuming their interest in cofiring this renewable fuel to the stoker there.

  15. Oxy-fuel combustion of coal and biomass, the effect on radiative and convective heat transfer and burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, John P.; Patel, Rajeshriben; Riley, Gerry S. [RWEnpower, Windmill Hill Business Park, Whitehill Way, Swindon, Wiltshire SN5 6PB, England (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    This paper focuses on results of co-firing coal and biomass under oxy-fuel combustion conditions on the RWEn 0.5 MWt Combustion Test Facility (CTF). Results are presented of radiative and convective heat transfer and burnout measurements. Two coals were fired: a South African coal and a Russian Coal under air and oxy-fuel firing conditions. The two coals were also co-fired with Shea Meal at a co-firing mass fraction of 20%. Shea Meal was also co-fired at a mass fraction of 40% and sawdust at 20% with the Russian Coal. An IFRF Aerodynamically Air Staged Burner (AASB) was used. The thermal input was maintained at 0.5 MWt for all conditions studied. The test matrix comprised of varying the Recycle Ratio (RR) between 65% and 75% and furnace exit O{sub 2} was maintained at 3%. Carbon-in-ash samples for burnout determination were also taken. Results show that the highest peak radiative heat flux and highest flame luminosity corresponded to the lowest recycle ratio. The effect of co-firing of biomass resulted in lower radiative heat fluxes for corresponding recycle ratios. Furthermore, the highest levels of radiative heat flux corresponded to the lowest convective heat flux. Results are compared to air firing and the air equivalent radiative and convective heat fluxes are fuel type dependent. Reasons for these differences are discussed in the main text. Burnout improves with biomass co-firing under both air and oxy-fuel firing conditions and burnout is also seen to improve under oxy-fuel firing conditions compared to air. (author)

  16. Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Reginald

    2013-09-30

    A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co- produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle

  17. Slow pyrolysis for rural small biomass energy by joint project developments of Brazil and Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampegowda, Rajesh; Chandayot, Pongchan [Asian University, Chonburi (Thailand)], email: rkempegowda@asianust.ac.th; Pannirselvam, Pagandai V.; Humberto, Maricy; Santos, Joao Matias [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DEQ/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Pesquisa em Engenharia de Custos], email: pannirbr@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    The efficiency for carbonization by slow pyrolysis is still low in the current method studied using rice straw in Thailand and cashewnut shell in Brazil, however direct heating process yields better char yield of 17% as compared to indirect heating with 15% process using horizontal metal drum kiln.where as vertical kiln were mainly used in Brazil. Higher yield is made possible from Brasilian cashew nut shell to make oil and char. Carbon and energy balance was also carried out and the results were compared for the direct and indirect process. Burning by indirect draft gives better results like more char, faster process. Direct draft gives less char, but higher quality (higher C and H2). Also a lot of straw is left unburnt in the direct draft kiln, because of bad temperature distribution and flow inside. The kiln design is found to be more suitable for indirect draft rather than direct draft. Both methods still give rice straw charcoal that has low calorific value with an output char LHV of 4337 kcal/kg as compared to fresh rice straw of 3412 kcal/kg. In the direct heating method output char is enriched to 45% with a still unburnt rice straw left out as compared to indirect heating method with carbon enrichment of 39%. There is a loss of 13% of carbon through the ash in the both the methods. The carbon content in the condensate is in the order of 18.5% for the indirect process as compared to 13.9% in the direct process due to less exhaust and carbon enrichment inside the kiln. There is a loss of 43% of carbon in the exhaust from indirect heating process as compared to direct heating process which is reduced to 26%. The energy balance predicts a heat loss of 14% in exhaust gases. A practical small scale slow pyrolysis project was developed to meet rural energy and heat requirements. to make the clean energy from waste resources possible by the joint project. (author)

  18. Localized temperature stability in Low Temperature Cofired Ceramics (LTCC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Steven Xunhu; Hsieh, Lung-Hwa.

    2012-04-01

    The base dielectrics of commercial low temperature cofired ceramics (LTCC) systems have a temperature coefficient of resonant frequency ({tau}{sub f}) in the range -50 {approx} -80 ppm/C. In this research we explored a method to realize zero or near zero {tau}{sub f} resonators by incorporating {tau}{sub f} compensating materials locally into a multilayer LTCC structure. To select composition for {tau}{sub f} adjustment, {tau}{sub f} compensating materials with different amount of titanates were formulated, synthesized, and characterized. Chemical interactions and physical compatibility between the {tau}{sub f} modifiers and the host LTCC dielectrics were investigated. Studies on stripline (SL) resonator panels with multiple compensating dielectrics revealed that: 1) compositions using SrTiO{sub 3} provide the largest {tau}{sub f} adjustment among titanates, 2) the {tau}{sub f} compensation is proportional to the amount of SrTiO{sub 3} in compensating materials, as well as the thickness of the compensating layer, and 3) the most effective {tau}{sub f} compensation is achieved when the compensating dielectric is integrated next to the SL. Using the effective dielectric constant of a heterogeneous layered dielectric structure, results from Method of Momentum (MoM) electromagnetic simulations are consistent with the experimental observations.

  19. A review on biomass as a fuel for boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidur, R.; Abelaziz, E.A.; Demirbas, A.; Hossain, M.S.; Mekhilef, S. [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-06-15

    Currently, fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas represent the prime energy sources in the world. However, it is anticipated that these sources of energy will deplete within the next 40-50 years. Moreover, the expected environmental damages such as the global warming, acid rain and urban smog due to the production of emissions from these sources have tempted the world to try to reduce carbon emissions by 80% and shift towards utilizing a variety of renewable energy resources (RES) which are less environmentally harmful such as solar, wind, biomass etc. in a sustainable way. Biomass is one of the earliest sources of energy with very specific properties. In this review, several aspects which are associated with burning biomass in boilers have been investigated such as composition of biomass, estimating the higher heating value of biomass, comparison between biomass and other fuels, combustion of biomass, co-firing of biomass and coal, impacts of biomass, economic and social analysis of biomass, transportation of biomass, densification of biomass, problems of biomass and future of biomass. It has been found that utilizing biomass in boilers offers many economical, social and environmental benefits such as financial net saving, conservation of fossil fuel resources, job opportunities creation and CO{sub 2} and NO emissions reduction. However, care should be taken to other environmental impacts of biomass such as land and water resources, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity and deforestation. Fouling, marketing, low heating value, storage and collections and handling are all associated problems when burning biomass in boilers. The future of biomass in boilers depends upon the development of the markets for fossil fuels and on policy decisions regarding the biomass market.

  20. Cooperative research on the combustion characteristics of cofired desulfurized Illinois coal and char with natural gas. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckius, R.O.; Wu, Cheng-Kang; Krier, H.; Peters, J.E.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the contributions of coal type, sulfur type, temperature, and residence time on the coal combustion behavior (especially the effects on ash constituents) during cofiring with natural gas. The Drop Tube Furnace Facility at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is the chief apparatus to be used in this investigation, with additional diagnostic tools including scanning electron microscopy and other chemical analyses. A complete review of literature related to the project was performed, and a detailed strategy outlined for carrying out the research. It was determined that the DTFF would be modified to extend the operating range to larger sample collection capabilities and higher temperatures (up to 2000K). The modification of the DTFF has been completed. The specific ash characterization experiments are reported in the quarterly TECHNICAL REPORT for the project entitled ``Combustion of Illinois coals and chars with Natural Gas``. Note that preliminary runs with IBC106 coal with and without methane cofiring in the furnace have produced consistent results with the sulfur analyzed by the LECO Sulfur Determinator. A series of tests will be performed to determine how the overall operating conditions affect sulfur transformation. The furnace will then be tested with the plasma heater to reach the designed gas temperature of 2000K.

  1. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John M; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C.; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B.; Stewart, B. A.

    2012-05-03

    . Category 1 -- Renewable Energy Conversion. This category addressed mostly in volume I involves developing. Thermo-chemical conversion technologies including cofiring with coal, reburn to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO, N2O, NOx, etc.) and Hg emissions and gasification to produce low-BTU gas for on-site power production in order to extract energy from waste streams or renewable resources. Category 2 -- Biomass Resource Technology. This category, addressed mostly in Volume II, deals with the efficient and cost-effective use of CB as a renewable energy source (e.g. through and via aqueous-phase, anaerobic digestion or biological gasification). The investigators formed an industrial advisory panel consisting fuel producers (feedlots and dairy farms) and fuel users (utilities), periodically met with them, and presented the research results; apart from serving as dissemination forum, the PIs used their critique to re-direct the research within the scope of the tasks. The final report for the 5 to 7 year project performed by an interdisciplinary team of 9 professors is arranged in three volumes: Vol. I (edited by Kalyan Annamalai) addressing thermo-chemical conversion and direct combustion under Category 1 and Vol. II and Vol. III ( edited by J M Sweeten) addressing biomass resource Technology under Category 2. Various tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume I were performed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering (a part of TEES; see Volume I), while other tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume II and IIII were conducted by Texas AgriLife Research at Amarillo; the TAMU Biological & Agricultural Engineering Department (BAEN) College Station; and West Texas A&M University (WTAMU) (Volumes II and III). The three volume report covers the following results: fuel properties of low ash and high ash CB (particularly DB) and MB (mortality biomass and coals, non-intrusive visible infrared (NVIR) spectroscopy techniques for ash determination, dairy energy use surveys at 14 dairies in Texas

  2. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B; Stewart, B A

    2012-05-02

    1 – Renewable Energy Conversion. This category addressed mostly in volume I involves developing. Thermo-chemical conversion technologies including cofiring with coal, reburn to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO, N2O, NOx, etc.) and Hg emissions and gasification to produce low-BTU gas for on-site power production in order to extract energy from waste streams or renewable resources. Category 2 – Biomass Resource Technology. This category, addressed mostly in Volume II, deals with the efficient and cost-effective use of CB as a renewable energy source (e.g. through and via aqueous-phase, anaerobic digestion or biological gasification). The investigators formed an industrial advisory panel consisting fuel producers (feedlots and dairy farms) and fuel users (utilities), periodically met with them, and presented the research results; apart from serving as dissemination forum, the PIs used their critique to red-direct the research within the scope of the tasks. The final report for the 5 to 7 year project performed by an interdisciplinary team of 9 professors is arranged in three volumes: Vol. I (edited by Kalyan Annamalai) addressing thermo-chemical conversion and direct combustion under Category 1 and Vol. II and Vol. III ( edited by J M Sweeten) addressing biomass resource Technology under Category 2. Various tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume I were performed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering (a part of TEES; see Volume I), while other tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume II and IIII were conducted by Texas AgriLife Research at Amarillo; the TAMU Biological & Agricultural Engineering Department (BAEN) College Station; and West Texas A&M University (WTAMU) (Volumes II and III). The three volume report covers the following results: fuel properties of low ash and high ash CB (particularly DB) and MB (mortality biomass and coals, non-intrusive visible infrared (NVIR) spectroscopy techniques for ash determination, dairy energy use surveys at 14 dairies in

  3. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai, John M. Sweeten,

    2012-05-03

    . Category 1 - Renewable Energy Conversion. This category addressed mostly in volume I involves developing. Thermo-chemical conversion technologies including cofiring with coal, reburn to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO, N2O, NOx, etc.) and Hg emissions and gasification to produce low-BTU gas for on-site power production in order to extract energy from waste streams or renewable resources. Category 2 - Biomass Resource Technology. This category, addressed mostly in Volume II, deals with the efficient and cost-effective use of CB as a renewable energy source (e.g. through and via aqueous-phase, anaerobic digestion or biological gasification). The investigators formed an industrial advisory panel consisting fuel producers (feedlots and dairy farms) and fuel users (utilities), periodically met with them, and presented the research results; apart from serving as dissemination forum, the PIs used their critique to red-direct the research within the scope of the tasks. The final report for the 5 to 7 year project performed by an interdisciplinary team of 9 professors is arranged in three volumes: Vol. I (edited by Kalyan Annamalai) addressing thermo-chemical conversion and direct combustion under Category 1 and Vol. II and Vol. III ( edited by J M Sweeten) addressing biomass resource Technology under Category 2. Various tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume I were performed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering (a part of TEES; see Volume I), while other tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume II and IIII were conducted by Texas AgriLife Research at Amarillo; the TAMU Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department (BAEN) College Station; and West Texas A and M University (WTAMU) (Volumes II and III). The three volume report covers the following results: fuel properties of low ash and high ash CB (particularly DB) and MB (mortality biomass) and coals, non-intrusive visible infrared (NVIR) spectroscopy techniques for ash determination, dairy energy use surveys at 14 dairies in

  4. Particulate and PCDD/F emissions from coal co-firing with solid biofuels in a bubbling fluidised bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Lopes; I. Gulyurtlu; P. Abelha; T. Crujeira; D. Salema; M. Freire; R. Pereira; I. Cabrita [INETI, Lisbon (Portugal). DEECA

    2009-12-15

    In the scope of the COPOWER project SES6-CT-2004 to investigate potential synergies of co-combustion of different biofuels with coal, a study of emissions of particulate matter and PCDD/F was carried out. The biofuels tested were meat and bone meal (MBM), sewage sludge biopellets (BP), straw pellets (SP), olive bagasse (OB) and wood pellets (WP). The tests performed include co-firing of 5%, 15% and 25% by weight of biofuels with coals of different origin. Both monocombustion and co-firing were carried out. Combustion tests were performed on a pilot fluidised bed, equipped with cyclones and air staging was used in order to achieve almost complete combustion of fuels with high volatile contents and to control gaseous emissions. Particulate matter emissions were isokinetically sampled in the stack and their particle size analysis was performed with a cascade impactor (Mark III). The results showed that most particles emitted were below 10 {mu}m (PM10) for all the tests, however, with the increasing share of biofuels and also during combustion of pure biofuels, especially olive bagasse, straw and MBM, very fine particles, below about 1 {mu}m were present. With the exception of sewage sludge, greater amounts of biofuels appeared to give rise to the decrease in particulate mean diameters and increase in PM percentages below 1 {mu}m. The formation of very fine particles could be related with the presence of aerosol forming elements such as K, Na (in the case of MBM) and Cl in biofuels, which even resulted in higher PM emissions when the ash content of fuels decreased. A correlation wasverified between the increase of PCDD/F with the decrease of PM mean diameter. This may be due to higher specific surface area and greater Cu concentration in the fly ashes. 33 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Field test corrosion experiences when co-firing straw and coal: 10 year status within Elsam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rasmus Berg; Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, Ole Hede

    2007-01-01

    to 575 degrees C and for the flue gas from 1025 to 1300 degrees C. All these test tubes have been removed during the last three years at one year intervals for corrosion studies. The corrosion studies performed on all investigated tubes included measurements of the corrosion attack, light optical...... sulphate on superheater tubes resulting in increased corrosion rates. From field experimental results this paper show, that by co-firing straw with coal, corrosion rates can be brought down to an acceptable level. This paper firstly deals with the results from a demonstration program co-firing coal...... and straw at the 150 MW pulverized coal fired boiler Studstrup unit 1. Two exposure series lasting 3000 hours each were performed for co-firing 10 and 20% of straw (% energy basis) with coal. Using built in test tubes in the hot end of the actual superheaters and air/water cooled corrosion probes...

  6. Giant self-biased magnetoelectric coupling in co-fired textured layered composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yongke; Zhou, Yuan; Priya, Shashank

    2013-02-01

    Co-fired magnetostrictive/piezoelectric/magnetostrictive laminate structure with silver inner electrode was synthesized and characterized. We demonstrate integration of textured piezoelectric microstructure with the cost-effective low-temperature co-fired layered structure to achieve strong magnetoelectric coupling. Using the co-fired composite, a strategy was developed based upon the hysteretic response of nickel-copper-zinc ferrite magnetostrictive materials to achieve peak magnetoelectric response at zero DC bias, referred as self-biased magnetoelectric response. Fundamental understanding of self-bias phenomenon in composites with single phase magnetic material was investigated by quantifying the magnetization and piezomagnetic changes with applied DC field. We delineate the contribution arising from the interfacial strain and inherent magnetic hysteretic behavior of copper modified nickel-zinc ferrite towards self-bias response.

  7. Noise characteristics of resistors buried in low-temperature co-fired ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Kolek, A; Dziedzic, A

    2003-01-01

    The comparison of noise properties of conventional thick film resistors prepared on alumina substrates and resistors embedded in low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCCs) is presented. Both types of resistors were prepared from commercially available resistive inks. Noise measurements of LTCC resistors below 1 kHz show Gaussian 1/f noise. This is concluded from the calculations of the second spectra as well as from studying the volume dependence of noise intensity. It has occurred that noise index of LTCC resistors on average is not worse than that of conventional resistors. A detailed study of co-fired surface resistors and co-fired buried resistors show that burying a resistor within LTCC substrate usually leads to (significant) enhancement of resistance but not of noise intensity. We interpret this behaviour as another argument in favour of tunnelling as the dominant conduction mechanism in LTCC resistors.

  8. A Hybrid Life-Cycle Assessment of Nonrenewable Energy and Greenhouse-Gas Emissions of a Village-Level Biomass Gasification Project in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Pang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale bio-energy projects have been launched in rural areas of China and are considered as alternatives to fossil-fuel energy. However, energetic and environmental evaluation of these projects has rarely been carried out, though it is necessary for their long-term development. A village-level biomass gasification project provides an example. A hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA of its total nonrenewable energy (NE cost and associated greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is presented in this paper. The results show that the total energy cost for one joule of biomass gas output from the project is 2.93 J, of which 0.89 J is from nonrenewable energy, and the related GHG emission cost is 1.17 × 10−4 g CO2-eq over its designed life cycle of 20 years. To provide equivalent effective calorific value for cooking work, the utilization of one joule of biomass gas will lead to more life cycle NE cost by 0.07 J and more GHG emissions by 8.92 × 10−5 g CO2-eq compared to natural gas taking into consideration of the difference in combustion efficiency and calorific value. The small-scale bio-energy project has fallen into dilemma, i.e., struggling for survival, and for a more successful future development of village-level gasification projects, much effort is needed to tide over the plight of its development, such as high cost and low efficiency caused by decentralized construction, technical shortcomings and low utilization rate of by-products.

  9. Cofiring coal-water slurry fuel with pulverized coal as a NOx reduction strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Morrison, J.L.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A low solids, low viscosity coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) was formulated and produced from impounded bituminous coal fines and burned in a utility-scale boiler to investigate NOx emissions reduction during the cofiring of CWSF with pulverized coal. Tests were conducted at the Pennsylvania Electric Company (Penelec) Seward Station, located near Seward, Pennsylvania in a Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), front-wall fired, pulverized coal boiler (34 MWe). Two B and W pulverizers feed coal to six burners (two burner levels each containing three low-NOx burners). Approximately 20% of the thermal input was provided by CWSF, the balance by pulverized coal. There was a significant reduction of NOx emissions when cofiring CWSF and pulverized coal as compared to firing 100% pulverized coal. The level of reduction was dependent upon the cofiring configuration (i.e., cofiring in the upper three, lower three, or all six burners), with NOx emissions being reduced by as much as 26.5%. The reduction in NOx emissions was not due to the tempering effect of the water in the CWSF, because a greater reduction in NOx occurred when cofiring CWSF than when injecting the same quantity of water at the same boiler firing rate. This paper discusses the tests in detail and the proposed reburn mechanism for the NOx reduction. In addition, combustion test results from the front-wall fired unit at the Seward Station will be compared to CWSF cofire tests that have been conducted at cyclone-fired units at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Paradise Station (704 MWe), Drakesboro, Kentucky and Southern Illinois Power Cooperative`s (SIPC) Marion, Illinois Station (33 MWe).

  10. National implications of high solar and biomass energy growth. Final report of the TASE project. A technology assessment of solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Y.M.; D' Alessio, G.

    1982-09-01

    The Technology Assessment of Solar Energy (TASE) Project is a comprehensive multi-year analysis of the environmental, resource and community impacts which could result in the year 2000 if major national incentives were adopted to accelerate solar and biomass energy use. The study uses a comparative approach to examine: (a) the potential impacts of large numbers of solar and biomass units, and (b) the potential reductions in the impacts of new conventional technologies which they would displace. In addition, TASE examines the indirect pollution impacts associated with the manufacturing of solar systems at greater and lesser rates. Overall, massive incentives for solar and biomass energy over the next 20 years can lead to major stress on national capital and finished materials resources as well as to significant air pollution and safety problems. Rapid growth rates for solar systems could markedly increase energy damand in the manufacturing sector. The capital resource and materials problems would derive from emphasis on high, near term growth of solar technologies. The potential environmental and safety problems would derive largely from emphasis on decentralized, uncontrolled biomass combustion. A range of less costly general approaches lies in greater near term emphasis on more mature, competitive technologies, and specifically on biomass rather than solar technologies.In particular this emphasis should be on larger scale biomass technologies with economical pollution controls rather than on small, uncontrolled units; on bio-harvesting safety measures; on larger scale solar technologies which are far less energy and materials intensive and hence less costly than smaller solar technologies per unit energy output; on more gradual growth rates for active solar energy systems, especially small systems.

  11. Co-firing straw and coal in a 150-MWe utility boiler: in situ measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P. F.B.; Andersen, Karin Hedebo; Wieck-Hansen, K.;

    1998-01-01

    A 2-year demonstration program is carried out by the Danish utility I/S Midtkraft at a 150-MWe PF-boiler unit reconstructed for co-firing straw and coal. As a part of the demonstration program, a comprehensive in situ measurement campaign was conducted during the spring of 1996 in collaboration...... deposition propensities and high temperature corrosion during co-combustion of straw and coal in PF-boilers. Danish full scale results from co-firing straw and coal, the test facility and test program, and the potential theoretical support from the Technical University of Denmark are presented in this paper...

  12. Cofiring behavior of NiCuZn ferrite/PMN ferroelectrics di-layer composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Chun-lin; ZHOU Ji; YUE Zhen-xing; LI Long-tu

    2005-01-01

    The cofiring compatibility between ferrite and relaxor ferroelectrics materials is the key issue in the production of multilayer chip LC filters. The cofiring behavior, interfacial microstructure and diffusion of di-layer composites of NiCuZn ferrite/PMN relaxor ferroelectrics are studied. In order to analyze the matching condition of thermodynamic properties between ferrite and relaxor ferroelectric ceramics, TMA is performed on PMN ferroelectrics and NiCuZn ferrite with certain percentage of Bi2 O3, respectively. EDS results demonstrate that serious element diffusions exist at the interface, which is in accordance with the phase analysis based on XRD patterns.

  13. Biomass power for rural development. Quarterly report, January 1--April 2, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.T.

    1998-07-01

    During the period of January 2 to April 2, 1998, efforts revolved around the design of the switchgrass materials handling/feeding system for the co-fire test and permanent system, the development of a revised statement of work and budget for fiscal years 1998--1999 and, the continuation of farmer/land conversion, and public relations efforts. The weather continues to be a major problem with an unprecedented warm winter. Much of Iowa has had little or no frost in the ground. This lack of frost has prevented farmers from getting into their fields and harvesting switchgrass. Farmers are hesitant to drive processing equipment into unfrozen fields due to the large ruts left by the wheels. The producers group has continued to gather information and develop resources necessary to supply the switchgrass to the facility in a competitive manner. Information and contacts are starting to be gathered which will help establish a market for the dedicated biomass generated electricity. The report describes the progress in the following tasks: Switchgrass conversion development including fuel analysis and engineering; Production activities which include: soil studies, carbon studies, switchgrass production economics, and switchgrass yield improvements; Information and education; and Miscellaneous which includes legislation and regulatory activities. Appendices contain the following: Switchgrass sample analysis; Chariton Valley biomass project cooperator agreement; Soil and landscape characterization status report for switchgrass project; Agreement with Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research; A literature review of reed canarygrass utility for biomass; Prairie Lands Bio-Products, Inc. agenda; Feasibility analysis and cooperative structure for value-added switchgrass products; and Information and education efforts.

  14. Clean and efficient utilization of biomass for production of electricity and heat. Phase 1 in a long-term strategic research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.J.; Jensen, P.A.; Jensen, A.; Lin, W.; Johnsson, J.E.; Nielsen, H.P.; Andersen, K.H.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    1999-03-01

    The project constists basically of three different parts: 1) pre-treatment processes of straw for power production, 2) biofuel combustion in fluidized beds and 3) formation of ash and deposits in biofuel-fired thermal conversion processes. The study of pre-treatment of biofuels for power production may be subdivided into the following activities: a) release of K and Cl from straw during pyrolysis, b) extraction of K and Cl from straw char, c) particle characterization, pyrolysis kinetics and char combustion, and, finally, d) a technical and economical evaluation in order to evaluate an industrial scale pre-treatment process capable of treating 20 tons of straw per hour. The study of biofuel thermal conversion in fluidized bed combustors (FBCs), consist of: a) agglomeration in FBCs, b) reduction and decompositon of NO and N{sub 2}O over char and bed material, c) NOx eissions from biofuel-fired FBCs, and, finally, d) the hydrodynamics of the 80 MW{sub th} Grenaa CFB boiler. Full-scale measurements of ash and deposit formation in biofuel-fired boilers have been conducted at several power plants. A number of bottom and fly ashes, and deposits have been collected and analyses by means of standard wet chemical analyses and advanced scanning electron microscopy analyses. A number of thermodynamic modelling activities have been conducted. First, an outline of potassium chemistry in systems fired with straw or co-fired with straw and coal is provided. Secondly, biofuel ash chemistry is outlined considering thermal conversion of salix, straw and wood fuels in a number of combustion and gasification concepts. A number of models for non-ideal liquid mixtures of ash compounds have been investigated. A round-robin comparison of the performance of four well-documented algorithms and databases for minimization of the total Gibbs energy of a mass-balance constrained system is also described. Finally, three cases of application of the in-house Gibbs energy minimization algorithm

  15. Biomass integrated CFB gasification combined cycle plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greil, C.; Hirschfelder, H. (Lurgi Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an overview on the Lurgi-Circulating Fluidized Bed technology (CFB). CFB units are state of the art and have proven their capability of converting biomass, waste or coal into power and/or steam. CFB reactors are in commercial operation for reduction processes and for combustion and gasification of solid fuels. In this paper reduction processes are not considered. The fact, that world-wide over 80 CFB combustion plants using Lurgi technology are commercially operating proves that this technology is well accepted. Lurgi's CFB gasification technology is at present applied in two industrial plants. It is the key process for the advanced biomass or waste utilisation plants. The paper focuses on CFB fuel gas production for combined cycle plants (IGCC) and for cofiring into existing boiler plants. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Fuel gas from biomass - utilisation concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greil, C.; Vierrath, H. [Lurgi Envirotherm GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents an overview on the Lurgi-Circulating Fluidized Bed technology (CFB). CFB units are state of the art and have proven their capability of converting biomass, waste of coal into power and/or steam. CFB reactors are in commercial operation for reduction processes and for combustion and gasification of solid fuels. In this paper reduction processes are not considered. The fact, that world-wide over 80 CFB combustion plants using Lurgi technology are commercially operating proves that this technology is well accepted. Lurgi's CFB gasification technology is at present applied in two industrial plants. It is the key process for our advanced biomass or waste utilisation plants. The subject paper will focus on CFB fuel gas production for combined cycle plants (IGCC) and for co-firing into existing boiler plants. (orig.)

  17. Biomass integrated CFB gasification combined cycle plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greil, C.; Hirschfelder, H. [Lurgi Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents an overview on the Lurgi-Circulating Fluidized Bed technology (CFB). CFB units are state of the art and have proven their capability of converting biomass, waste or coal into power and/or steam. CFB reactors are in commercial operation for reduction processes and for combustion and gasification of solid fuels. In this paper reduction processes are not considered. The fact, that world-wide over 80 CFB combustion plants using Lurgi technology are commercially operating proves that this technology is well accepted. Lurgi`s CFB gasification technology is at present applied in two industrial plants. It is the key process for the advanced biomass or waste utilisation plants. The paper focuses on CFB fuel gas production for combined cycle plants (IGCC) and for cofiring into existing boiler plants. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Biomass Scenarios, Present and Future: Evaluation of WEC's and Hall's Projections and Comparisons to IEW Poll Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Swinehart, S.

    1994-01-01

    Biomass, renewable plant or animal material used for energy consumption, is currently an important energy source in many countries and may have a more prominent future role globally, especially if greenhouse gas reduction programs are implemented. Quantitative forecasts are difficult because present and past biomass usage is not well documented, mainly because of the difficulty of measuring the amount of non-commercial usage. This document reports current usage estimates and offers possible s...

  19. Zooplankton biomass (displacement volume, dry mass, ash-free dry mass) data collected in Eastern Central Atlantic during CIPREA project from 1978-07-25 to 1978-09-12 by France (NODC Accession 0070783)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton biomass (displacement volume, dry mass, and ashfree dry mass) data collected in Eastern Central Atlantic during CIPREA project in Jul - Sep 1978 by...

  20. Combustion behavior of different kinds of torrefied biomass and their blends with lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toptas, Asli; Yildirim, Yeliz; Duman, Gozde; Yanik, Jale

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the combustion behavior of different kinds of torrefied biomass (lignocellulosic and animal wastes) and their blends with lignite was investigated via non-isothermal thermogravimetric method under air atmosphere. For comparison, combustion characteristics of raw biomasses were also determined. Torrefaction process improved the reactivity of char combustion step of biomasses. Characteristic combustion parameters for blends showed non-additivity behavior. It was found that the mixture of torrefied biomasses and lignite at a ratio of 1:1 had a lower ignition and burnout temperature than the coal-only sample. Although no interactions were observed between the lignite and torrefied biomass at initial step of combustion, a certain degree of interaction between the components occurred at char combustion step. Kinetic parameters of combustion were calculated by using the Coats Redfern model. Overall, this study showed that poultry litters can be used as a substitute fuel in coal/biomass co-firing systems by blending with lignocellulosic biomass.

  1. Impact of torrefaction on the grindability and fuel characteristics of forest biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanphanich, Manunya; Mani, Sudhagar

    2011-01-01

    Thermal pretreatment or torrefaction of biomass under anoxic condition can produce an energy dense and consistent quality solid biomass fuel for combustion and co-firing applications. This paper investigates the fuel characteristics and grindability of pine chips and logging residues torrefied at temperatures ranging from 225 °C to 300 °C and 30 min residence time. Grinding performance of torrefied biomass evaluated by determining energy required for grinding, particle size distribution and average particle size were compared with raw biomass and coal. Specific energy required for grinding of torrefied biomass decreased significantly with increase in torrefaction temperatures. The grinding energy of torrefied biomass was reduced to as low as 24 kW h/t at 300 °C torrefaction temperature. The gross calorific value of torrefied chips increased with increase in torrefaction temperature. Torrefaction of biomass clearly showed the improved fuel characteristics and grinding properties closer to coal.

  2. Short review on the origin and countermeasure of biomass slagging in grate furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming eZhu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the increasing demand for energy consumption, biomass has been more and more important as a new type of clean renewable energy source. Biomass direct firing is the most mature and promising utilization method to date, while it allows a timely solution to slagging problems. Alkali metal elements in the biomass fuel and the ash fusion behavior, as the two major origins contributing to slagging during biomass combustion, are analyzed in this paper. The slag presents various layered structures affected by the different compositions of ash particles. Besides, the high-temperature molten material which provides a supporting effect on the skeletal structure in biomass ash was proposed to evaluate the ash fusion characteristics. In addition, numerous solutions to biomass slagging, such as additives, fuel pretreatment and biomass co-firing, were also discussed.

  3. Electrodialytic removal of Cd from biomass combustion fly ash suspensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor M.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Damoe, Anne J.

    2013-01-01

    Due to relatively high concentrations of Cd, biomass combustion fly ashes often fail to meet Danish legislative requirements for recycling as fertilizer. In this study, the potential of using electrodialytic remediation for removal of Cd from four different biomass combustion fly ashes was invest......Due to relatively high concentrations of Cd, biomass combustion fly ashes often fail to meet Danish legislative requirements for recycling as fertilizer. In this study, the potential of using electrodialytic remediation for removal of Cd from four different biomass combustion fly ashes...... the final Cd concentration was below 2.0. mg Cd/kg DM in at least one experiment done with each ash. This was obtained within 2 weeks of remediation and at liquid to solid (L/S) ratios of L/S 16 for the pre-washed straw ash and L/S 8 for the straw, co-firing and wood ash. © 2013 Elsevier B.V....

  4. Climate-change driven range shifts of anchovy biomass projected by bio-physical coupling individual based model in the marginal seas of East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sukgeun; Pang, Ig-Chan; Lee, Joon-ho; Lee, Kyunghwan

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies in the western North Pacific reported a declining standing stock biomass of anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) in the Yellow Sea and a climate-driven southward shift of anchovy catch in Korean waters. We investigated the effects of a warming ocean on the latitudinal shift of anchovy catch by developing and applying individual-based models (IBMs) based on a regional ocean circulation model and an IPCC climate change scenario. Despite the greater uncertainty, our two IBMs projected that, by the 2030s, the strengthened Tsushima warm current in the Korea Strait and the East Sea, driven by global warming, and the subsequent confinement of the relatively cold water masses within the Yellow Sea will decrease larval anchovy biomass in the Yellow Sea, but will increase it in the Korea Strait and the East Sea. The decreasing trend of anchovy biomass in the Yellow Sea was reproduced by our models, but further validation and enhancement of the models is required together with extended ichthyoplankton surveys to understand and reliably project range shifts of anchovy and the impacts such range shifts will have on the marine ecosystems and fisheries in the region.

  5. N2O and NO Emissions from CFBC Cofiring Dried Sewage Sludge, Wet Sewage Sludge with Coal and PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on cofiring dried sewage sludge, wet sewage sludge with coal and polyethylene (PE were carried out on a pilot scale 0.15MWt circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC plant, and the influence of furnace temperatures, cofiring rates on N2O and NO emissions was investigated. Temperature is an effective parameter influencing N2O emission, and higher temperature leads to significant N2O reduction and decrease of conversion ratio of fuel-N to N2O. Increasing in cofiring rates leads to higher nitrogen content in the mixed fuel, which could result in higher NO and N2O emissions from combustion. With more sewage sludge addition, higher NO but lower N2O emissions are observed. N2O emission from cofiring wet sewage sludge with coal is higher than that from cofiring dried sewage sludge with coal and PE, and fuel-N conversion ratio to N2O and NO is much higher in cofiring wet sewage sludge with coal than that in cofiring dried sewage sludge with coal and PE.

  6. Ash transformation in suspension fired boilers co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    The properties of the ash from co-firing of coal and straw have a large influence on boiler operation, flue gas cleaning equipment and appropriate utilization of the fly ash. A study on the fuel composition and local conditions influence on fly ash properties has been done by making entrained flo...

  7. Low SO2 emission from CFB co-firing MSW and bituminous

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Qing-gang; LI Zhi-wei; NA Yong-jie; BAO Shao-lin; SUN Yun-kai; HE Jun

    2004-01-01

    Influence of co-firing rate on SO2 emission from co-firing municipal solid waste(MSW) and bituminous containing high amount of sulfur(1.79%) was studied in a 0.15 MWt circulating fluidized bed(CFB). The temperature selected is 1123 K, typical for MSW incineration using CFB. The particle concentration in the dilution zone of the furnace, the alkali metal concentration and sulfate concentration in the recirculating ash and fly ash, and flue gas composition were determined. The results showed that the addition of MSW leads to a significant decrease in SO2 emission. Concentration of SO2 in flue gas decreased to 0 with the co-firing rate greater than 51%. This reduction in SO2 emission is attributed both to the high particle concentration in the dilution zone of the furnace, the high content of alkali metals in the bed material, and to the comparatively high concentration of HCl in flue gas during co-firing of MSW and bituminous.

  8. Ash chemistry aspects of straw and coal-straw co-firing in utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.; Nielsen, H.P.; Hansen, L.A.; Hansen, P.F.B.; Andersen, K.H.; Soerensen, H.S.

    1998-12-01

    Deposits formed in straw-fired grate-boilers showed significant amounts of KCl ( 40 - 80 % (w/w)) and KCl-coated Ca-Si-rich particles. CFB co-firing of straw and coal caused deposits in the convective pass containing predominantly K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (50 - 60 % (w/w)) with small amounts of KCl close to the metal surface. In pulverized coal-straw co-fired boilers, deposits almost free of KCl were found. Most of the potassium in these deposits is derived from K-Al-Si-rich fly ash particles and the rest occurs as K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The presence of K-Al-Si-rich fly ash particles indicates that solid residue quality and reuse of fly ash in cement and concrete production rather than deposit formation may be of concern when utilizing straw in pulverized fuel boilers. This paper provides a review of Danish experiences with high-temperature ash deposit formation in the following full-scale utility boilers: Slagelse CHP (31 MW{sub th}), Haslev CHP (23 MW{sub th}) and Rudkoebing CHP (10.7 MW{sub th}), all straw-fired grate-boilers; Grenaa CHP (80 MW{sub th}), a coal-straw co-fired Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler; and the Midtkraft-Studstrup Power Station, Unit l (380 MW{sub th}), a coal-straw co-fired pf-boiler. (au)

  9. Seaweed potentials – evaluation of year-round biomass composition of commercial cultivated sugarkelp- results from project KOMBI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Silva Marinho, Goncalo; Angelidaki, Irini

    In this study, the year-round protein, amino acid, fatty acid, pigments, mineral and vitamin content and profiles were considered to evaluate the nutritional value and harvest time of the Saccharina latissima biomass for optimized value and application. Sugarkelp was cultivated both in close prox...

  10. Electric power generation using biomass gasification systems in nature in isolated communities of the Amazon region: project GASEIBRAS; Geracao de eletricidade utilizando sistemas de gaseificacao de biomassa in natura em comunidades isoladas da regiao amazonica: projeto GASEIBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia M. Stortini Goncalves; Santos, Sandra M. Apolinario dos; Lora, Beatriz Acquaro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Referencia Nacional em Biomassa], e-mails: suani@iee.usp.br, sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, sandra@iee.usp.br, blora@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper will present the pioneering project of electric energy generation from renewable sources 'GASEIBRAS - Nationalization of the Biomass Gasification Technology and Formation of Human Resources in the Amazon Region', recently approved by the National Advice of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and for the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME). The GASEIBRAS project intends to use the experience previously acquired in the project GASEIFAMAZ - Comparison between Existing Technologies of Biomass Gasification in Brazil and Exterior and Formation of Human Resources in the North Region, sponsored by FINEP/CTENERG, to develop and construct a 20 kWe biomass gasification system, with total national technology, easy to operate and to maintain, and fed with local available biomass residues. Apart from contributing for the development of the national technology, this project will provide the sustainable development of the isolated communities in the Amazon region. The ongoing development of this project will enable to consolidate the national biomass gasification technology for electricity generation. The implemented prototype will allow the response of this project in other regions of the country, due its tailor made characteristic to attend to small isolated communities, thus supplying decentralized energy from renewable sources, to Amazon region. (author)

  11. Mobility chains analysis of technologies for passenger cars and light duty vehicles fueled with biofuels : application of the Greet model to project the role of biomass in America's energy future (RBAEF) project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.; Wu, Y.; Wang, M; Energy Systems

    2008-01-31

    The Role of Biomass in America's Energy Future (RBAEF) is a multi-institution, multiple-sponsor research project. The primary focus of the project is to analyze and assess the potential of transportation fuels derived from cellulosic biomass in the years 2015 to 2030. For this project, researchers at Dartmouth College and Princeton University designed and simulated an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity using the ASPEN Plus{trademark} model. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted, for the RBAEF project, a mobility chains or well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at ANL. The mobility chains analysis was intended to estimate the energy consumption and emissions associated with the use of different production biofuels in light-duty vehicle technologies.

  12. Energy production from marine biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Daugbjerg Jensen, P.; Svane Bech, K. [Danish Technological Institute (DTI), Taastrup (Denmark)] [and others

    2011-11-15

    In this project, methods for producing liquid, gaseous and solid biofuel from the marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca has been studied. To get an understanding of the growth conditions of Ulva lactuca, laboratory scale growth experiments describing N, P, and CO{sub 2} uptake and possible N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} production are carried out. The macroalgae have been converted to bioethanol and methane (biogas) in laboratory processes. Further the potential of using the algae as a solid combustible biofuel is studied. Harvest and conditioning procedures are described together with the potential of integrating macroalgae production at a power plant. The overall conclusions are: 1. Annual yield of Ulva lactuca is 4-5 times land-based energy crops. 2. Potential for increased growth rate when bubbling with flue gas is up to 20%. 3. Ethanol/butanol can be produced from pretreated Ulva of C6 and - for butanol - also C5 sugars. Fermentation inhibitors can possibly be removed by mechanical pressing. The ethanol production is 0,14 gram pr gram dry Ulva lactuca. The butanol production is lower. 4. Methane yields of Ulva are at a level between cow manure and energy crops. 5. Fast pyrolysis produces algae oil which contains 78 % of the energy content of the biomass. 6. Catalytic supercritical water gasification of Ulva lactuca is feasible and a methane rich gas can be obtained. 7. Thermal conversion of Ulva is possible with special equipment as low temperature gasification and grate firing. 8. Co-firing of Ulva with coal in power plants is limited due to high ash content. 9. Production of Ulva only for energy purposes at power plants is too costly. 10. N{sub 2}O emission has been observed in lab scale, but not in pilot scale production. 11. Analyses of ash from Ulva lactuca indicates it as a source for high value fertilizers. 12. Co-digestion of Ulva lactuca together with cattle manure did not alter the overall fertilization value of the digested cattle manure alone. (LN)

  13. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  14. Biomass Suspension Combustion: Effect of Two-Stage Combustion on NOx Emissions in a Laboratory-Scale Swirl Burner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Weigang; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2009-01-01

    result from the homogeneous reaction, by comparing the NO emissions when firing natural gas with NH3 addition and co-firing natural gas and biomass. The experimental results also show no significant increase of incomplete combustion of gas and char by applying optimized two-stage combustion.......A systematic study was performed in a suspension fired 20 kW laboratory-scale swirl burner test rig for combustion of biomass and co-combustion of natural gas and biomass. The main focus is put on the effect of two-stage combustion on the NO emission, as well as its effect on the incomplete...

  15. Three-dimensional low-temperature co-fired ceramic shells for miniature systems applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Ananthasuresh, G. K.

    2002-05-01

    Low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) tapes (DuPont, 951 series), originally developed for monolithic packaging of interconnects and hybrid microelectronic circuitry, have been used in the past five years to develop a meso-scale integrated fluidic technology. The LTCC fluidic technology is shown to be versatile, inexpensive, fast, and free of packaging problems. The manufacturing basis for this technology is the patterning of individual tapes, which are laminated and co-fired to create a layered three-dimensional (3D) structure. In this paper, we present another attractive facet of this technology by creating 3D shell structures with a single layer of LTCC tape. The processing technique is illustrated with actuated hemispherical and cylindrical shells that have internal 3D conduits. In order to demonstrate the application of an active device using magnetostatically actuated curved LTCC shells we also present a novel three degrees-of-freedom spherical stepper motor.

  16. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE BELLEFIELD BOILERPLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; William P. Barry; Jun Wang; Hongming Li

    2004-04-08

    An Environmental Questionnaire for the demonstration at the Bellefield Boiler Plant (BBP) was submitted to the national Energy Technology Laboratory. An R&D variance for the air permit at the BBP was sought from the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD). R&D variances for the solid waste permits at the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC), and Emery Tree Service (ETS) were sought from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). Construction wood was acquired from Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation. Verbal authorizations were received in all cases. Memoranda of understanding were executed by the University of Pittsburgh with BBP, JARC and ETS. Construction wood was collected from Thompson Properties and from Seven D Corporation. Forty tons of pallet and construction wood were ground to produce BioGrind Wood Chips at JARC and delivered to Mon Valley Transportation Company (MVTC). Five tons of construction wood were hammer milled at ETS and half of the product delivered to MVTC. Blends of wood and coal, produced at MVTC by staff of JARC and MVTC, were shipped by rail to BBP. The experimental portion of the project was carried out at BBP in late March and early April 2001. Several preliminary tests were successfully conducted using blends of 20% and 33% wood by volume. Four one-day tests using a blend of 40% wood by volume were then carried out. Problems of feeding and slagging were experienced with the 40% blend. Light-colored fly ash was observed coming from the stack during all four tests. Emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOx and total particulates, measured by Energy Systems Associates, decreased when compared with combusting coal alone. A procedure for calculating material and energy balances on BBP's Boiler No.1 was developed, using the results of an earlier compliance test at the plant. Material and energy balances were then calculated for the four test periods. Boiler efficiency was found to decrease slightly when the fuel was shifted from

  17. High Temperature Pt/Alumina Co-Fired System for 500 C Electronic Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Gold thick-film metallization and 96 alumina substrate based prototype packaging system developed for 500C SiC electronics and sensors is briefly reviewed, the needs of improvement are discussed. A high temperature co-fired alumina material system based packaging system composed of 32-pin chip-level package and printed circuit board is discussed for packaging 500C SiC electronics and sensors.

  18. Integrated microfluidic devices based on low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology

    OpenAIRE

    Maeder, Thomas; Birol, Hansu; Jacq, Caroline; Ryser, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in integrated fluidic mesosystems, based on low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology, in this laboratory and elsewhere. LTCC is shown to be an advantageous technique for integrated fluidic systems, due to its simplicity, low cost and ease of integration with other technologies and components (silicon, polymer, circuit boards. Also, the techniques utilized in making the structures are presented.

  19. Fabrication and Characterization of Multilayer Capacitors Buried in a Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Y. C.; G. Y. Li

    1998-01-01

    Multilayer ceramic capacitors designed to be embedded in a low temperature co-fired ceramic substrate have been successfully fabricated. Low and high value capacitors were respectively embedded in the low K multilayer substrate and high K dielectric layer. The buried capacitor has a capacitance density range (1 kHz) from about 220 pF/cm2 to 30 nF/cm2. The design took material compatibility and shrinkage characteristics specifically into account. The effects of heating rat...

  20. Implications of biomass pretreatment to cost and carbon emissions: case study of rice straw and Pennisetum in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiueh, Pei-Te; Lee, Kun-Chou; Syu, Fu-Sians; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of feedstock collection and torrefaction pretreatment on the efficiency of a biomass co-firing system. Considering the transformation of existing municipal solid waste incinerators, several scenarios in which biomass supply chains depend on centralised pretreatment and transportation alternatives are presented. The cost, net energy output, and greenhouse gas effects of these scenarios were analysed using a spreadsheet model. Based on the Taoyuan County case in Taiwan, the mitigation costs of carbon emissions for rice straw and Pennisetum are 77.0 $/Mg CO(2) and 63.8 $/Mg CO(2), respectively. Results indicate that transporting feedstock from its source to the pretreatment and co-firing stations contributes the most to logistical costs for both straw and Pennisetum, regardless of whether torrefaction was adopted. Nonetheless, torrefaction requires more demonstrated cases at various scales to obtain the technical and economic data required for further analysis.

  1. Prospects for co-firing of clean coal and creosote-treated waste wood at small-scale power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandersons Janis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available If a small-scale clean coal fueled power plant is co-fueled with 5% of creosote-treated used-up sleeper wood, the decontamination by carbonisation at 500 °C in an indirectly heated rotary kiln with the diameter 1.7 m and effective length 10 m can be realized. It should be included in the "3R Clean Coal Carbonisation Plant" system, which processes coal. It will improve the heat balance of the system, since the carbonisation of wood will deliver a lot of high caloricity pyroligneous vapour to the joint furnace of the "3R Clean Coal Carbonisation Plant". Pine wood sleeper sapwood contains 0.25% of sulphur, but the average pine sleeper wood (sapwood and heartwood 0.05% of sulphur. Most of the sulphur is lost with the pyroligneous vapour and burned in the furnace. Since the "3R Clean Coal Carbonisation Plant" is equipped with a flue gases cleaning system, the SO2 emission level will not exceed 5 mg/m3. The charcoal of the sapwood portion of sleepers and that of the average sleeper wood will contain 0.22% and 0.035% of sulphur, respectively. The increase of the carbonisation temperature does not substantially decrease the sulphur content in charcoal, although it is sufficiently low, and the charcoal can be co-fired with clean coal. The considered process is suitable for small power plants, if the biomass input in the common energy balance is 5 to 10%. If the mean distance of sleepers transportation for Central and Eastern Europe is estimated not to exceed 200 km, the co-combustion of clean coal and carbonized sleepers would be an acceptable option from the environmental and economic points of view.

  2. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    , enzymatic hydrolysis, and product fermentation options. Biomass Recalcitrance is essential reading for researchers, process chemists and engineers working in biomass conversion, also plant scientists working in cell wall biology and plant biotechnology. This book examines the connection between biomass...... - this collective resistance is known as "biomass recalcitrance." Breakthrough technologies are needed to overcome barriers to developing cost-effective processes for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals. This book examines the connection between biomass structure, ultrastructure, and composition......, to resistance to enzymatic deconstruction, with the aim of discovering new cost-effective technologies for biorefineries. It contains chapters on topics extending from the highest levels of biorefinery design and biomass life-cycle analysis, to detailed aspects of plant cell wall structure, chemical treatments...

  3. Are bioenergy production systems carbon neutral? An overview of the work of IEA Bioenergy Task 38 on greenhouse gas balances of biomass and bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowie, A.; George, B. [Univ. of New England, Armidale, NSW (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    The bioenergy industry is growing rapidly in response to concerns over climate change and high oil prices. However, there are serious concerns about the sustainability of the industry, as well as about the environmental impacts of off-site activities. The International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 38 was established to develop a method of calculating the net greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation benefit of bioenergy and sequestration projects. Task 38 focuses on the methods used to assess the GHG benefits of bioenergy systems when compared with fossil fuel systems. A full life cycle approach was used to assess the GHG emissions associated with the production and handling of biomass, as well as the nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions emitted from fertilized soils, and emissions resulting from the production of fertilizer, herbicide, and the manufacture and construction of power stations. Methods for including indirect land use change where biomass production is displacing food production are also being discussed as part of the task. To date, the study has indicated that materials substitution or co-firing applications have greater mitigation benefits than other bioenergy systems.

  4. Biomass feedstock analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The overall objectives of the project `Feasibility of electricity production from biomass by pressurized gasification systems` within the EC Research Programme JOULE II were to evaluate the potential of advanced power production systems based on biomass gasification and to study the technical and economic feasibility of these new processes with different type of biomass feed stocks. This report was prepared as part of this R and D project. The objectives of this task were to perform fuel analyses of potential woody and herbaceous biomasses with specific regard to the gasification properties of the selected feed stocks. The analyses of 15 Scandinavian and European biomass feed stock included density, proximate and ultimate analyses, trace compounds, ash composition and fusion behaviour in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The wood-derived fuels, such as whole-tree chips, forest residues, bark and to some extent willow, can be expected to have good gasification properties. Difficulties caused by ash fusion and sintering in straw combustion and gasification are generally known. The ash and alkali metal contents of the European biomasses harvested in Italy resembled those of the Nordic straws, and it is expected that they behave to a great extent as straw in gasification. Any direct relation between the ash fusion behavior (determined according to the standard method) and, for instance, the alkali metal content was not found in the laboratory determinations. A more profound characterisation of the fuels would require gasification experiments in a thermobalance and a PDU (Process development Unit) rig. (orig.) (10 refs.)

  5. Use of biomass for clean and efficient production of heat and power. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glarborg, P.; Lans, R. van der; Frandsen, J.B.F.; Johnsson, J.E.; Jensen, A.; Kiil, S.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    2001-03-01

    The present EFP98 project is the second phase of a long-term, strategic research project, the aim of which is to facilitate the use of significant amounts of biomass in the production of power and heat. The project deals with combustion and emission issues related to the use of biomass, specifically combustion of straw on a grate and wet flue gas desulphurization. A mathematical model for combustion of straw on a grate is developed as a tool to improve the understanding of this process. The model includes heat transfer to and in the bed as well as pyrolysis and char oxidation. To verify the model and to obtain a better understanding of fixed-bed straw combustion, a number of bench-scale laboratory experiments have been conducted at TNO in Holland. Predicted combustion rates and bed temperatures were in fairly good agreement with experimental fixed-bed data. A parameter analysis has identified the sensitivity of modeling predictions towards important parameters in the model. Measuring programs on straw firing have been conducted at Enstedvaerket and Masnedoe. Measuring results include gas temperature and gas composition (O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO. SO{sub 2}, NO) from different positions in the boiler. Data from Masnedoe include also results from co-firing of straw with other biomass fuels (25-35%). The results indicate that co-firing in the quantities does not significantly affect emissions. Nitrogen oxides emissions from Masnedoevaerket were found to be significantly higher than those of Ensted. The work on wet flue gas desulphurization on aimed to provide the information necessary to optimize and further develop the process. The main focus was fuel and sorbent flexibility, use of the waste product from the semi-dry FGD process as a sorbent in wet FGD, and ways of optimizing the Wet FGD process with respect to a high degree of desulphurization, a low content of residual limestone in the gypsum and a continuous steady state operation of the FGD plant. Laboratory

  6. The importance of ash for the favourable properties of sewage sludge in co-firing; Askans betydelse foer roetslams goda samfoerbraenningsegenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidsson, K.; Jones, F.; Niklasson, F.; Ryde, D. [SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Boraas, (Sweden); Gustafsson, G. [Boraas Energi och Miljoe, Boraas (Sweden); Herstad Svaerd, S. [WSP Kraft and Vaerme, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    Sewage sludge has been shown to have positive properties during cofiring with difficult fuels. The sludge mitigates deposition and corrosion which occur because of the fuels content of chlorine and alkali. The reason for the positive properties of sludge are its content of sulphur, phosphorus and aluminium silicates. Its high content of ash has also been discussed because the fly ash would constitute a large surface for alkali chlorides to condensate on and thereby avoid condensation on e.g. superheater surfaces. The ash could also blast the surface and thereby keeping them clean. The present project aims at testing the hypothesis that the ash in the sludge mitigates the deposition. Tests have been performed with synthetically produced waste pellets of which some were doped with inert particles in form of aluminium oxide. The tests were done in a lab-scale bubbling fluidised bed. Deposit probes collected deposits during the combustion of doped and un-doped waste pellets, and the deposits were chemically analysed. The result shows that the inert particles do not have any effect on the amount of hard attached deposits. The particles ended up on the lee side of the probe where they deposited because of gravitation, but they could be easily removed. The remaining deposit was analysed and the effect of inert particles was a small decrease of the content of chlorine. Tests were also performed with pellets doped with sludge. In this case the amount of deposit and its content of chlorine decreased significantly. Different sewage sludges have different properties. The present results show that sludge for cofiring should not be chosen for its amount of ash but rather for its content of sulphur, phosphorous and aluminium.

  7. The importance of ash for the favourable properties of sewage sludge in co-firing; Askans betydelse foer roetslams goda samfoerbraenningsegenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidsson, K.; Jones, F.; Niklasson, F.; Ryde, D. [SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Boraas (Sweden); Gustafsson, G. [Boraas Energi och Miljoe, Boraas (Sweden); Herstad Svaerd, S. [WSP Kraft and Vaerme, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Sewage sludge has been shown to have positive properties during cofiring with difficult fuels. The sludge mitigates deposition and corrosion which occur because of the fuels content of chlorine and alkali. The reason for the positive properties of sludge are its content of sulphur, phosphorus and aluminium silicates. Its high content of ash has also been discussed because the fly ash would constitute a large surface for alkali chlorides to condensate on and thereby avoid condensation on e.g. superheater surfaces. The ash could also blast the surface and thereby keeping them clean. The present project aims at testing the hypothesis that the ash in the sludge mitigates the deposition. Tests have been performed with synthetically produced waste pellets of which some were doped with inert particles in form of aluminium oxide. The tests were done in a lab-scale bubbling fluidised bed. Deposit probes collected deposits during the combustion of doped and un-doped waste pellets, and the deposits were chemically analysed. The result shows that the inert particles do not have any effect on the amount of hard attached deposits. The particles ended up on the lee side of the probe where they deposited because of gravitation, but they could be easily removed. The remaining deposit was analysed and the effect of inert particles was a small decrease of the content of chlorine. Tests were also performed with pellets doped with sludge. In this case the amount of deposit and its content of chlorine decreased significantly. Different sewage sludges have different properties. The present results show that sludge for cofiring should not be chosen for its amount of ash but rather for its content of sulphur, phosphorous and aluminium.

  8. Fire protection countermeasures of project of biomass cogeneration%生物质热电联产项目消防对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏丹; 付永涛

    2012-01-01

    The production process and main fire disaster of straw direct combustion power generation were introduced with the example of biomass cogeneration project. The fire protection measures were put forward from the accept of production process, fire protection layout, fire separation, evacuation, au to fire extinguishing facility and fire monitoring, accord to the process characteristics and fire protection requirement, to enhance the fire safely level of combined heal and power genera-lion project.%以某生物质秸秆直接燃烧热电联产工程为例,介绍秸秆直接燃烧发电的生产工艺及主要火灾危险.针对其工艺特点和消防需求,从生产过程、消防布局、防火分隔、疏散、自动灭火设施、火灾监控等方面提出消防安全对策,提高热电联产项目的消防安全水平.

  9. Investigation of low-temperature cofired ceramics packages for high-temperature SAW sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Bardong, Jochen; Binder, Alfred; Toskov, Sasa; Miskovic, Goran; Radosavljevic, Goran

    2016-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) temperature sensor devices have been developed for operating temperatures up to and above 1000 °C. A challenging task to make these devices available on the market is to develop an appropriate housing concept. A concept based on low-temperature cofired ceramics (LTCC) has been investigated and tested under elevated temperatures up to 600 °C. The devices showed promising results up to 450 °C. Thorough analysis of the possible failure mechanisms was do...

  10. Co-firing of paper mill sludge and coal in an industrial circulating fluidized bed boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Yuan; Wu, Keng-Tung; Huang, Chin-Cheng; Lee, Hom-Ti

    2002-01-01

    Co-firing of coal and paper mill sludge was conducted in a 103 MWth circulating fluidized bed boiler to investigate the effect of the sludge feeding rate on emissions of SOx, NOx, and CO. The preliminary results show that emissions of SOx and Nx decrease with increasing sludge feeding rate, but CO shows the reverse tendency due to the decrease in combustion temperature caused by a large amount of moisture in the sludge. All emissions met the local environmental requirements. The combustion ashes could be recycled as feed materials in the cement manufacturing process.

  11. Durability of biomass fly ash concrete: Freezing and thawing and rapid chloride permeability tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuangzhen Wang; Emilio Llamazos; Larry Baxter; Fernando Fonseca [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    Strict interpretation of ASTM C 618 excludes non-coal fly ashes, such as biomass fly ashes from addition in concrete. Biomass fly ash in this investigation includes (1) cofired fly ash from burning biomass with coal; (2) wood fly ash and (3) blended fly ash (wood fly ash mixing with coal fly ash). A set of experiments conducted on concrete from pure cement and cement with fly ash provide basic data to assess the effects of several biomass fly ashes on the performances of freezing and thawing (F-T) and rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT). The F-T tests indicate that all fly ash concrete has statistically equal or less weight loss than the pure cement concrete (control). The RCPT illustrate that all kinds of fly ash concrete have lower chloride permeability than the pure cement control concrete. 37 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Biomass pyrolysis for biochar or energy applications? A life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jens F; Iribarren, Diego; Dufour, Javier

    2015-04-21

    The application of biochar as a soil amendment is a potential strategy for carbon sequestration. In this paper, a slow pyrolysis system for generating heat and biochar from lignocellulosic energy crops is simulated and its life-cycle performance compared with that of direct biomass combustion. The use of the char as biochar is also contrasted with alternative use options: cofiring in coal power plants, use as charcoal, and use as a fuel for heat generation. Additionally, the influence on the results of the long-term stability of the biochar in the soil, as well as of biochar effects on biomass yield, is evaluated. Negative greenhouse gas emissions are obtained for the biochar system, indicating a significant carbon abatement potential. However, this is achieved at the expense of lower energy efficiency and higher impacts in the other assessed categories when compared to direct biomass combustion. When comparing the different use options of the pyrolysis char, the most favorable result is obtained for char cofiring substituting fossil coal, even assuming high long-term stability of the char. Nevertheless, a high sensitivity to biomass yield increase is found for biochar systems. In this sense, biochar application to low-quality soils where high yield increases are expected would show a more favorable performance in terms of global warming.

  13. Co-utilisation of coal and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michal Kubacki; Andrew B. Ross; Jenny M. Jones; Alan Williams [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom). Energy and Resources Research Institute, School of Process

    2007-07-01

    Co-utilisation of coal and biomass for energy production results in pollutant reduction. Most notable is the impact on NOx, SOx, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The aim of this study is to improve our understanding of the synergy in toxic organic emission reduction from co-firing or co-gasifying coal and biomass. A new technique was developed to study co-pyrolysis, heated wire mesh pyrolysis coupled to a GC-mass-spectrometer via a probe, which can sample at varying heights from the pyrolysing fuel. The results from this technique were compared to more conventional pyrolysis-GC-MS as well as thermogravimetric (TGA) and batch reactor studies. Co-combustion was studied by TGA and by burning briquettes supported on a needle in a methane air flame. A range of coals of varying rank, different biomass, as well as model compounds were used. Results show that non-additive combustion behaviour is not easily explained by studying devolatilisation because of the difficulty in replicating the conditions of temperature profile and residence time experienced by the volatiles. Thus, conflicting behaviour is exhibited depending upon pyrolysis technique. However, the atmosphere during experiments appears to be more important. Non-additive combustion for both powdered and pelletised fuels was seen by TGA and studies in a methane-air burner. The coal ignites and burns at a lower temperature because of the interaction with the biomass volatile combustion region. Thus it is proposed that the reduction in emissions from co-combustion arises from enhanced reaction of the coal volatiles by mixing with biomass volatiles in a hot oxidising atmosphere. 14 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. ALTENER - Biomass event in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The publication contains the lectures held in the Biomass event in Finland. The event was divided into two sessions: Fuel production and handling, and Co-combustion and gasification sessions. Both sessions consisted of lectures and the business forum during which the companies involved in the research presented themselves and their research and their equipment. The fuel production and handling session consisted of following lectures and business presentations: AFB-NETT - business opportunities for European biomass industry; Wood waste in Europe; Wood fuel production technologies in EU- countries; new drying method for wood waste; Pellet - the best package for biofuel - a view from the Swedish pelletmarket; First biomass plant in Portugal with forest residue fuel; and the business forum of presentations: Swedish experiences of willow growing; Biomass handling technology; Chipset 536 C Harvester; KIC International. The Co-combustion and gasification session consisted of following lectures and presentations: Gasification technology - overview; Overview of co-combustion technology in Europe; Modern biomass combustion technology; Wood waste, peat and sludge combustion in Enso Kemi mills and UPM-Kymmene Rauma paper mill; Enhanced CFB combustion of wood chips, wood waste and straw in Vaexjoe in Sweden and Grenaa CHP plant in Denmark; Co-combustion of wood waste; Biomass gasification projects in India and Finland; Biomass CFB gasifier connected to a 350 MW{sub t}h steam boiler fired with coal and natural gas - THERMIE demonstration project in Lahti (FI); Biomass gasification for energy production, Noord Holland plant in Netherlands and Arbre Energy (UK); Gasification of biomass in fixed bed gasifiers, Wet cleaning and condensing heat recovery of flue gases; Combustion of wet biomass by underfeed grate boiler; Research on biomass and waste for energy; Engineering and consulting on energy (saving) projects; and Research and development on combustion of solid fuels

  15. Chromium speciation in coal and biomass co-combustion products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Arthur F; Meij, Ruud; Te Winkel, Henk; Eijk, Ronald J van; Huggins, Frank E; Brem, Gerrit

    2011-03-15

    Chromium speciation is vital for the toxicity of products resulting from co-combustion of coal and biomass. Therefore, understanding of formation processes has been studied using a combination of X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. The influence of cofiring on Cr speciation is very dependent on the type of fuel. Cr(VI) contents in the investigated fly ash samples from coal and cofiring average around 7% of the total chromium. An exception is cofiring 7-28% wood for which ashes exhibited Cr(VI) concentrations of 12-16% of the total chromium. Measurements are in line with thermodynamic predictions: RE factors of Cr around 1 are in line with volatile Cr only above 1400 °C; lower Cr(VI) concentrations with lower oxygen content and Cr(III) dissolved in aluminosilicate glass. Stability of Cr(VI) below 700 °C does not correlate with Cr(VI) concentrations found in the combustion products. It is indicated that Cr(VI) formation is a high-temperature process dependent on Cr evaporation (mode of occurrence in fuel, promoted by organic association), oxidation (local oxygen content), and formation of solid chromates (promoted by presence of free lime (CaO) in the ash). CaCrO(4)(s) is a probable chemical form but, given different leachable fractions (varying from 25 to 100%), different forms of Cr(VI) must be present. Clay-bound Cr is likely to dissolve in the aluminosilicate glass phase during melting of the clay.

  16. Biomass [updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Biomass resources and conversion technologies are diverse. Substantial biomass resources exist including woody crops, herbaceous perennials and annuals, forest resources, agricultural residues, and algae. Conversion processes available include fermentation, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, combustion, and transesterification. Bioderived products include liquid fuels (e.g. ethanol, biodiesel, and gasoline and diesel substitutes), gases, electricity, biochemical, and wood pellets. At present the major sources of biomass-derived liquid fuels are from first generation biofuels; ethanol from maize and sugar cane (89 billion L in 2013) and biodiesel from vegetable oils and fats (24 billion liters in 2011). For other than traditional uses, policy in the forms of mandates, targets, subsidies, and greenhouse gas emission targets has largely been driving biomass utilization. Second generation biofuels have been slow to take off.

  17. Use of grey relational analysis to assess and optimize small biomass boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J.; Granada, E.; Miguez, J.L.; Porteiro, J. [Universidad de Vigo E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales. Lagoas-Marcosende, s/n., Dpto. Ing. Mecanica Maquinas y Motores Termicos, 36200 Vigo (Pontevedra) (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    This paper presents a new methodology for the evaluation of the environmental and economic feasibility of combustion of different biomass fuels in small boilers. The study focuses on pellets as the basic co-firing product and forest residues as the complementary product. Although the co-firing of forest residues can be economically profin, it is difficult to evaluate the general economic advantages due to the worsening of combustion in terms of performance and emissions caused by the presence of the forest residues in the fuel mixture. The grey relational analysis of different energetic and emission variables and also residue prices allows for the definition of a new single variable called the grey relational grade. Thus, evaluation and optimization of complicated multiple responses can be converted into the optimization of a standardised single variable. Experimental analyses by means of the Grey theory of different forest residues have revealed the possibility of co-firing crust of pine combined with wood pellets as a way of reducing fuel costs, keeping performance and emissions within average standards in small pellet boilers. (author)

  18. Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-09-23

    CQ Inc. and its industry partners--PBS Coals, Inc. (Friedens, Pennsylvania), American Fiber Resources (Fairmont, West Virginia), Allegheny Energy Supply (Williamsport, Maryland), and the Heritage Research Group (Indianapolis, Indiana)--addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that is applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provides environmental benefits compared with coal. During Phase I of this project (January 1999 to July 2000), several biomass/waste materials were evaluated for potential use in a composite fuel. As a result of that work and the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production, paper mill sludge and coal were selected for further evaluation and demonstration

  19. Short-rotation Willow Biomass Plantations Irrigated and Fertilised with Wastewaters. Results from a 4-year multidisciplinary field project in Sweden, France, Northern Ireland and Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Stig [Svaloef Weibull AB, Svaloef (Sweden); Cuingnet, Christian; Clause, Pierre [Association pour le Developpement des Culture Energetiques, Lille (France); Jakobsson, Ingvar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Dawson, Malcolm [Queens Univ., Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Backlund, Arne [A and B Backlund ApS, Charlottenlund (Denmark); Mavrogianopoulus, George [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    2003-01-01

    This report summarises results and experiences gathered from field trials with recycling of pre-treated wastewater, diverted human urine mixed with water, and municipal sludge, within plantations of willow species specifically selected for biomass production. Experimental sites were established in Sweden (Roma), France (Orchies), Northern Ireland (Culmore) and Greece (Larissa). The project was carried out during a 4-year period with financial support from the EU FAIR Programme. The experimental sites were supplied with primary effluent from municipal treatment plants (Culmore and Larissa), stored industrial effluent from a chicory processing plant (Orchies), biologically treated and stored municipal wastewater (Roma) and human urine mixture from diverting low-flush toilets mixed with water (Roma). Application rates of the wastewaters or the urine mixture were equivalent to the calculated evapotranspiration rate at each site. Wastewaters were also applied up to three times this value to evaluate any possible negative effects. Estimations and evaluations were carried out mainly concerning: biomass growth, potential biological attacks of the plantations, plant water requirements, fertilisation effects of the wastewater, plant uptake of nutrients and heavy metals from applied wastewater, possible soil or groundwater impact, sanitary aspects, and potentials for removal in the soil-plant filter of nutrients and biodegradable organic material from applied wastewater. The results clearly indicated that biomass production in young willow plantations could be enhanced substantially after recycling of wastewater resources. The impact on soil and groundwater of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead and cadmium) was limited, even when the application of water and nutrients exceeded the plant requirements. Also, the soil-plant system seemed to function as a natural treatment filter for pre-treated (primary settled) wastewater, with a treatment

  20. Nitric oxide reduction over biomass and coal chars under fluidized bed combustion conditions: the role of thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piero Salatino; Anna Di Somma; Roberto Solimene; Riccardo Chirone [Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy). Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica

    2008-07-01

    The de-NOx potential of biomass-and waste-derived fuels candidate for cofiring with coal is assessed. The experimental procedure is based on operation of a bench scale fluidized bed reactor where NO-doped nitrogen is contacted with batches of the fuel. A second type of experiment has been purposely designed to assess the extent of thermodeactivation of biogenous fuels, i.e. the loss of reactivity toward the NOx-char reaction as char is annealed for pre-set times at temperatures typical of fluidized bed combustion. A simple phenomenological model is developed to shed light on the basic features of the interaction between heterogeneous char-NOx reaction and thermal annealing of the char. Results are discussed in the light of the potential exploitation of synergistic effects on NOx emission associated with cofiring with coal. 21 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. A review on advances of torrefaction technologies for biomass processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, Bimal; Sule, Idris; Dutta, Animesh [University of Guelph, School of Engineering, Guelph, ON (Canada)

    2012-12-15

    Torrefaction is a thermochemical pretreatment process at 200-300 C in an inert condition which transforms biomass into a relatively superior handling, milling, co-firing and clean renewable energy into solid biofuel. This increases the energy density, water resistance and grindability of biomass and makes it safe from biological degradation which ultimately makes easy and economical on transportation and storing of the torrefied products. Torrefied biomass is considered as improved version than the current wood pellet products and an environmentally friendly future alternative for coal. Torrefaction carries devolatilisation, depolymerization and carbonization of lignocellulose components and generates a brown to black solid biomass as a productive output with water, organics, lipids, alkalis, SiO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO and CH{sub 4}. During this process, 70 % of the mass is retained as a solid product, and retains 90 % of the initial energy content. The torrefied product is then shaped into pellets or briquettes that pack much more energy density than regular wood pellets. These properties minimize on the difference in combustion characteristics between biomass and coal that bring a huge possibility of direct firing of biomass in an existing coal-fired plant. Researchers are trying to find a solution to fire/co-fire torrefied biomass instead of coal in an existing coal-fired based boiler with minimum modifications and expenditures. Currently available torrefied technologies are basically designed and tested for woody biomass so further research is required to address on utilization of the agricultural biomass with technically and economically viable. This review covers the torrefaction technologies, its' applications, current status and future recommendations for further study. (orig.)

  2. Zooplankton biomass and fish eggs/larva count data collected from North Pacific Ocean in 1993 - 2006 years during CALCOFI project and received from NMFS (NODC Accession 0053039)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton biomass (displacement volume) sampled during the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) program.

  3. Biomass potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Biomass resources of the industrialised countries are enormous, if only a small fraction of set-aside fields were used for energy crops. Forest resources could also be utilised more efficiently than at present for large-scale energy production. The energy content of the annual net growth of the total wood biomass is estimated to be 180 million toe in Europe without the former USSR, and about 50 million toe of that in the EC area, in 1990. Presently, the harvesting methods of forest biomass for energy production are not yet generally competitive. Among the most promising methods are integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to the industry and wood fuel for energy production. Several new methods for separate harvesting of energy wood are being developed in many countries. (orig.)

  4. Potassium Sodium Niobate-Based Lead-Free Piezoelectric Multilayer Ceramics Co-Fired with Nickel Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Kawada

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although lead-free piezoelectric ceramics have been extensively studied, many problems must still be overcome before they are suitable for practical use. One of the main problems is fabricating a multilayer structure, and one solution attracting growing interest is the use of lead-free multilayer piezoelectric ceramics. The paper reviews work that has been done by the authors on lead-free alkali niobate-based multilayer piezoelectric ceramics co-fired with nickel inner electrodes. Nickel inner electrodes have many advantages, such as high electromigration resistance, high interfacial strength with ceramics, and greater cost effectiveness than silver palladium inner electrodes. However, widely used lead zirconate titanate-based ceramics cannot be co-fired with nickel inner electrodes, and silver palladium inner electrodes are usually used for lead zirconate titanate-based piezoelectric ceramics. A possible alternative is lead-free ceramics co-fired with nickel inner electrodes. We have thus been developing lead-free alkali niobate-based multilayer ceramics co-fired with nickel inner electrodes. The normalized electric-field-induced thickness strain (Smax/Emax of a representative alkali niobate-based multilayer ceramic structure with nickel inner electrodes was 360 pm/V, where Smax denotes the maximum strain and Emax denotes the maximum electric field. This value is about half that for the lead zirconate titanate-based ceramics that are widely used. However, a comparable value can be obtained by stacking more ceramic layers with smaller thicknesses. In the paper, the compositional design and process used to co-fire lead-free ceramics with nickel inner electrodes are introduced, and their piezoelectric properties and reliabilities are shown. Recent advances are introduced, and future development is discussed.

  5. Materials for Waste Incinerators and Biomass Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademakers, P.; Grossmann, G.; Karlsson, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13.......This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13....

  6. Viewls - Biomass production potentials in Central and Eastern Europe under different scenarios. Final report of WP3 of the VIEWLS project, funded by DG-Tren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam, J. van; Faaij, A.; Lewandowski, I. (and others)

    2006-01-15

    The EU has set ambitious targets to increase the use of Renewable Energy Sources from which a large part has to come from biomass To meet these targets, a large amount of biomass resources is needed which requires large areas of land in the EU. This article discusses a methodology and results for a regional biomass potential assessment in Central and Eastern European Accession countries (CEEC). The biomass potential assessment is implemented for a defined set of scenarios. The scenarios are based on the main drivers in Europe relevant for agriculture and land use change, i.e. World Trade Negotiations or Common Agricultural Policy. The methodology for the biomass potential assessment is based on land use changes over time. A certain amount of land is needed to meet the required production for food (derived from agricultural crops and livestock) and wood products. The surplus available land can possibly be used for biomass production. Results of the biomass potential assessment are available on a Nuts-3 region level in the CEEC for different scenarios. As the concept of large-scale biomass production is only feasible when production is profitable for the stakeholders involved, price and cost-relations are included in the assessment. Final deliverable are cost-supply curves from different sources (energy crops, residues) and scenarios for the CEEC. (au)

  7. Biomass IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, K.; Keraenen, H. [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Enviropower Inc. is developing a modern power plant concept based on pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC). The process is capable of maximising the electricity production with a variety of solid fuels - different biomass and coal types - mixed or separately. The development work is conducted on many levels. These and demonstration efforts are highlighted in this article. The feasibility of a pressurised gasification based processes compared to competing technologies in different applications is discussed. The potential of power production from biomass is also reviewed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  8. 48 CFR 1452.237-71 - Utilization of Woody Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Biomass. 1452.237-71 Section 1452.237-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Utilization of Woody Biomass. As prescribed in § 1437.7202, insert the following clause: Utilization of Woody Biomass (MAY 2005) (a) The contractor may remove and utilize woody biomass, if: (1) Project work...

  9. A study on the char burnout characteristics of coal and biomass blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behdad Moghtaderi [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Discipline of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment

    2007-10-15

    The char burnout characteristics of coal/biomass blends under conditions pertinent to pulverised fuel combustors were investigated by a combined modelling and experimental approach. Results indicate that blending of coal with biomass increases the likelihood of char extinction (i.e. extinction potential of the char particle in the blend), in turn, decreasing the char burnout level. Our modelling results attribute this to a reduction in the char particle size to levels below a critical dimension which appears to be a strong function of the fuel blending ratio (the weight percentage of biomass in the blend), fuel reactivity, char cloud shape and particle density number. It is demonstrated here that the drop in the char burnout level during co-firing can be effectively resolved when a more reactive secondary coal is added to the blend to minimise its extinction potential. 22 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Biomass combustion gas turbine CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, D.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to develop a small scale biomass combustor generating system using a biomass combustor and a micro-gas turbine indirectly fired via a high temperature heat exchanger. Details are given of the specification of commercially available micro-turbines, the manufacture of a biomass converter, the development of a mathematical model to predict the compatibility of the combustor and the heat exchanger with various compressors and turbines, and the utilisation of waste heat for the turbine exhaust.

  11. Microchip electrophoresis in low-temperature co-fired ceramics technology with contactless conductivity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fercher, Georg; Smetana, Walter; Vellekoop, Michiel J

    2009-07-01

    In this paper a novel micromachined contactless conductivity CE device produced in low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) is introduced. The application of LTCC multilayer technology provides a promising method for the contactless detection of conductive compounds because of its increased dielectric constant compared with glass or plastics. The capacitive coupling of the excitation signal into the microchannel across the LTCC substrate is improved, resulting in better detection sensitivity. Two silver electrodes located externally at opposite sides at the end of the separation channel act as detector. Impedance variations in the channel are measured without galvanic contact between electrodes and fluid. Inorganic ions are separated in less than 1 min with this novel ceramic device. The limit of detection is 10 microM for potassium.

  12. Fine structuration of low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) microreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Haber, Julien; Renken, Albert; Muralt, Paul; Kiwi-Minsker, Lioubov; Maeder, Thomas

    2015-01-21

    The development of microreactors that operate under harsh conditions is always of great interest for many applications. Here we present a microfabrication process based on low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology for producing microreactors which are able to perform chemical processes at elevated temperature (>400 °C) and against concentrated harsh chemicals such as sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid. Various micro-scale cavities and/or fluidic channels were successfully fabricated in these microreactors using a set of combined and optimized LTCC manufacturing processes. Among them, it has been found that laser micromachining and multi-step low-pressure lamination are particularly critical to the fabrication and quality of these microreactors. Demonstration of LTCC microreactors with various embedded fluidic structures is illustrated with a number of examples, including micro-mixers for studies of exothermic reactions, multiple-injection microreactors for ionone production, and high-temperature microreactors for portable hydrogen generation.

  13. A novel electrolytic ignition monopropellant microthruster based on low temperature co-fired ceramic tape technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Hsun; Yetter, Richard A

    2009-04-07

    A planar 2-D liquid monopropellant microthruster fabricated from low temperature co-fired ceramic tapes and ignited by electrolysis is reported. The volume of the combustion chamber was 820 nL (0.82 mm(3)). Silver electrodes were screen printed and positioned on the top and bottom surfaces of the combustion chamber. A DC voltage potential applied across the electrodes was used to initiate decomposition of hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) based liquid monopropellants. A thrust output of 150 mN was obtained using a voltage input of 45 V. Measured ignition energies were as small as 1.9 J. Ignition delays, as short as a few hundred milliseconds, were found dependent on the type of HAN-based propellant and the voltage potential.

  14. Considerations on valorization of biomass origin materials in co-combustion with coal in fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Gulyurtlu; P. Abelha; H. Lopes; A. Crujeira; I. Cabrita [DEECA-INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2007-07-01

    Co-combustion of biomass materials with coal is currently gaining increasing importance, in order to meet the targets on greenhouse gas emissions, defined in the Kyoto protocol. Co-firing of coal with biomass materials could be the short-term solution in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from power stations. The work undertaken studied co-firing of meat and bone meal (MBM), olive cake and straw pellets with bituminous coals from Colombia (CC) and Poland (PC), which are commonly used in European power stations. The co-combustion studies were carried out on the pilot fluidized bed installation of INETI. Gaseous pollutants and solid concentration in flue gases and ashes from different locations were monitored. Results obtained indicate that the co-feeding of biomass materials did not present any problem and ensured stable combustion conditions and high efficiency. However, for temperatures above 800{sup o}C, bed agglomeration could be observed for all biomass species studied. Most of the combustion of biomass material, contrary to that of coal, was observed to take place in the riser where the temperature was as high as 150-250{sup o}C above that of the bed. SO{sub 2} and NOx levels were found to be lower. The emissions of dioxins could be considerable with fuels with high Cl as is the case with straw. However, mixing of fuels with high S content could lead to a strong reduction in dioxin emissions. Ashes produced from biomass combustion may be considered for further reutilization or landfilling. Other options depend on their characteristics, chemical composition and leaching behaviour. This was evaluated in this study.

  15. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John M; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C.; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B.; Stewart, B. A.

    2012-05-03

    . Category 1 -- Renewable Energy Conversion. This category addressed mostly in volume I involves developing. Thermo-chemical conversion technologies including cofiring with coal, reburn to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO, N2O, NOx, etc.) and Hg emissions and gasification to produce low-BTU gas for on-site power production in order to extract energy from waste streams or renewable resources. Category 2 -- Biomass Resource Technology. This category, addressed mostly in Volume II, deals with the efficient and cost-effective use of CB as a renewable energy source (e.g. through and via aqueous-phase, anaerobic digestion or biological gasification). The investigators formed an industrial advisory panel consisting fuel producers (feedlots and dairy farms) and fuel users (utilities), periodically met with them, and presented the research results; apart from serving as dissemination forum, the PIs used their critique to re-direct the research within the scope of the tasks. The final report for the 5 to 7 year project performed by an interdisciplinary team of 9 professors is arranged in three volumes: Vol. I (edited by Kalyan Annamalai) addressing thermo-chemical conversion and direct combustion under Category 1 and Vol. II and Vol. III ( edited by J M Sweeten) addressing biomass resource Technology under Category 2. Various tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume I were performed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering (a part of TEES; see Volume I), while other tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume II and IIII were conducted by Texas AgriLife Research at Amarillo; the TAMU Biological & Agricultural Engineering Department (BAEN) College Station; and West Texas A&M University (WTAMU) (Volumes II and III). The three volume report covers the following results: fuel properties of low ash and high ash CB (particularly DB) and MB (mortality biomass and coals, non-intrusive visible infrared (NVIR) spectroscopy techniques for ash determination, dairy energy use surveys at 14 dairies in Texas

  16. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Sweeten, Kalyan Annamalai

    2012-05-03

    . Category 1 - Renewable Energy Conversion. This category addressed mostly in volume I involves developing. Thermo-chemical conversion technologies including cofiring with coal, reburn to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO, N2O, NOx, etc.) and Hg emissions and gasification to produce low-BTU gas for on-site power production in order to extract energy from waste streams or renewable resources. Category 2 - Biomass Resource Technology. This category, addressed mostly in Volume II, deals with the efficient and cost-effective use of CB as a renewable energy source (e.g. through and via aqueous-phase, anaerobic digestion or biological gasification). The investigators formed an industrial advisory panel consisting fuel producers (feedlots and dairy farms) and fuel users (utilities), periodically met with them, and presented the research results; apart from serving as dissemination forum, the PIs used their critique to red-direct the research within the scope of the tasks. The final report for the 5 to 7 year project performed by an interdisciplinary team of 9 professors is arranged in three volumes: Vol. I (edited by Kalyan Annamalai) addressing thermo-chemical conversion and direct combustion under Category 1 and Vol. II and Vol. III ( edited by J M Sweeten) addressing biomass resource Technology under Category 2. Various tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume I were performed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering (a part of TEES; see Volume I), while other tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume II and IIII were conducted by Texas AgriLife Research at Amarillo; the TAMU Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department (BAEN) College Station; and West Texas A and M University (WTAMU) (Volumes II and III). The three volume report covers the following results: fuel properties of low ash and high ash CB (particularly DB) and MB (mortality biomass) and coals, non-intrusive visible infrared (NVIR) spectroscopy techniques for ash determination, dairy energy use surveys at 14 dairies in

  17. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B; Stewart, B A

    2012-05-02

    1 – Renewable Energy Conversion. This category addressed mostly in volume I involves developing. Thermo-chemical conversion technologies including cofiring with coal, reburn to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO, N2O, NOx, etc.) and Hg emissions and gasification to produce low-BTU gas for on-site power production in order to extract energy from waste streams or renewable resources. Category 2 – Biomass Resource Technology. This category, addressed mostly in Volume II, deals with the efficient and cost-effective use of CB as a renewable energy source (e.g. through and via aqueous-phase, anaerobic digestion or biological gasification). The investigators formed an industrial advisory panel consisting fuel producers (feedlots and dairy farms) and fuel users (utilities), periodically met with them, and presented the research results; apart from serving as dissemination forum, the PIs used their critique to red-direct the research within the scope of the tasks. The final report for the 5 to 7 year project performed by an interdisciplinary team of 9 professors is arranged in three volumes: Vol. I (edited by Kalyan Annamalai) addressing thermo-chemical conversion and direct combustion under Category 1 and Vol. II and Vol. III ( edited by J M Sweeten) addressing biomass resource Technology under Category 2. Various tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume I were performed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering (a part of TEES; see Volume I), while other tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume II and IIII were conducted by Texas AgriLife Research at Amarillo; the TAMU Biological & Agricultural Engineering Department (BAEN) College Station; and West Texas A&M University (WTAMU) (Volumes II and III). The three volume report covers the following results: fuel properties of low ash and high ash CB (particularly DB) and MB (mortality biomass and coals, non-intrusive visible infrared (NVIR) spectroscopy techniques for ash determination, dairy energy use surveys at 14 dairies in

  18. Compacting biomass waste materials for use as fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ou

    Every year, biomass waste materials are produced in large quantity. The combustibles in biomass waste materials make up over 70% of the total waste. How to utilize these waste materials is important to the nation and the world. The purpose of this study is to test optimum processes and conditions of compacting a number of biomass waste materials to form a densified solid fuel for use at coal-fired power plants or ordinary commercial furnaces. Successful use of such fuel as a substitute for or in cofiring with coal not only solves a solid waste disposal problem but also reduces the release of some gases from burning coal which cause health problem, acid rain and global warming. The unique punch-and-die process developed at the Capsule Pipeline Research Center, University of Missouri-Columbia was used for compacting the solid wastes, including waste paper, plastics (both film and hard products), textiles, leaves, and wood. The compaction was performed to produce strong compacts (biomass logs) under room temperature without binder and without preheating. The compaction conditions important to the commercial production of densified biomass fuel logs, including compaction pressure, pressure holding time, back pressure, moisture content, particle size, binder effects, and mold conditions were studied and optimized. The properties of the biomass logs were evaluated in terms of physical, mechanical, and combustion characteristics. It was found that the compaction pressure and the initial moisture content of the biomass material play critical roles in producing high-quality biomass logs. Under optimized compaction conditions, biomass waste materials can be compacted into high-quality logs with a density of 0.8 to 1.2 g/cm3. The logs made from the combustible wastes have a heating value in the range 6,000 to 8,000 Btu/lb which is only slightly (10 to 30%) less than that of subbituminous coal. To evaluate the feasibility of cofiring biomass logs with coal, burn tests were

  19. EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygarlicke, Christopher J. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Hurley, John P. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Aulich, Ted R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Folkedahl, Bruce C. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Strege, Joshua R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Patel, Nikhil [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center; Shockey, Richard E. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    2009-05-27

    The Center for Biomass Utilization® 2006 project at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) consisted of three tasks related to applied fundamental research focused on converting biomass feedstocks to energy, liquid transportation fuels, and chemicals. Task 1, entitled Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Syngas and Chemical Feedstocks, involved three activities. Task 2, entitled Crop Oil Biorefinery Process Development, involved four activities. Task 3, entitled Management, Education, and Outreach, focused on overall project management and providing educational outreach related to biomass technologies through workshops and conferences.

  20. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  1. Zooplankton biomass (displacement volume) data collected in Indian Ocean, Southern Pacific and Southern Atlantic Ocean during Discovery Investigations project from 1931-01-02 to 1951-10-18 by Discovery II, data were acquired from the NMFS-COPEPOD database (NODC Accession 0071064)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton biomass (displacement volume) data collected in Indian Ocean, Southern Pacific and Southern Atlantic Ocean during Discovery Investigations project from...

  2. Exergetic analysis of a steam power plant using coal and rice straw in a co-firing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, Alvaro; Miyake, Raphael Guardini; Bazzo, Edson [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], e-mails: arestrep@labcet.ufsc.br, miyake@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia S.A., Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil). U.O. Usina Termeletrica Jorge Lacerda C.], e-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an exergetic analysis concerning an existing 50 M We steam power plant, which operates with pulverized coal from Santa Catarina- Brazil. In this power plant, a co-firing rice straw is proposed, replacing up to 10% of the pulverized coal in energy basis required for the boiler. Rice straw has been widely regarded as an important source for bio-ethanol, animal feedstock and organic chemicals. The use of rice straw as energy source for electricity generation in a co-firing process with low rank coal represents a new application as well as a new challenge to overcome. Considering both scenarios, the change in the second law efficiency, exergy destruction, influence of the auxiliary equipment and the greenhouse gases emissions such as CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} were considered for analysis. (author)

  3. Health and environmental effects of refuse derived fuel (RDF) production and RDF/coal co-firing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Toole, J.J.; Wessels, T.E.; Lynch, J.F.; Fassel, V.A.; Lembke, L.L.; Kniseley, R.N.; Norton, G.A.; Junk, G.A.; Richard, J.J.; Dekalb, E.L.; Dobosy, R.J.

    1981-10-01

    Six facilities, representing the scope of different co-firing techniques with their associated RDF production systems were reviewed in detail for combustion equipment, firing modes, emission control systems, residue handling/disposal, and effluent wastewater treatment. These facilities encompass all currently operational or soon to be operational co-firing plants and associated RDF production systems. Occupational health and safety risks for these plants were evaluated on the basis of fatal and nonfatal accidents and disease arising from the respective fuel cycles, coal and RDF. Occupational risks include exposure to pathogenic organisms in the workplace. Unusual events that are life threatening in the RDF processing industry (e.g., explosions) are also discussed and remedial and safety measures reviewed. 80 refs., 4 figs., 30 tabs.

  4. Ultra-low percolation threshold in ferrite-metal cofired ceramics brings both high permeability and high permittivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Bai, Yang; Lu, Xuefei; Cao, Jiang-Li; Qiao, Li-Jie

    2015-01-05

    High permeability and high permittivity are hard to be achieved simultaneously, either in single-phased materials or in composite materials, such as ferrite-ferroelectric ceramic composites and ferrite-metal percolative composites. In this work, ultra-low percolation threshold is achieved in NiZnCu ferrite-Ag cofired ceramics, which endows the composite with both high permeability and high permittivity by minimizing the negative effect of nonmagnetic conductive fillers on magnetic properties. The percolation threshold is controlled by the temperature matching between ferrite densification and Ag melting. A thin and long percolative net forms between large ferrite grains under a proper cofiring process, which brings a low percolation threshold of 1.21vol%, more than one order of magnitude lower than the theoretical value of 16vol%. Near the ultra-low threshold, the composite exhibits a high permeability of 585 and a high permittivity of 78.

  5. EnerGEO biomass pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tum, M.; Guenther, K.P. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Wessling (Germany). German Remote Sensing Data Center (DFD); McCallum, I.; Balkovic, J.; Khabarov, N.; Kindermann, G.; Leduc, S. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg (Austria); Biberacher, M. [Research Studios Austria AG (RSA), Salzburg (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    In the framework of the EU FP7 project EnerGEO (Earth Observations for Monitoring and Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Energy Use) sustainable energy potentials for forest and agricultural areas were estimated by applying three different model approaches. Firstly, the Biosphere Energy Transfer Hydrology (BETHY/DLR) model was applied to assess agricultural and forest biomass increases on a regional scale with the extension to grassland. Secondly, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) - a cropping systems simulation model - was used to estimate grain yields on a global scale and thirdly the Global Forest Model (G4M) was used to estimate global woody biomass harvests and stock. The general objective of the biomass pilot is to implement the observational capacity for using biomass as an important current and future energy resource. The scope of this work was to generate biomass energy potentials for locations on the globe and to validate these data. Therefore, the biomass pilot was focused to use historical and actual remote sensing data as input data for the models. For validation purposes, forest biomass maps for 1987 and 2002 for Germany (Bundeswaldinventur (BWI-2)) and 2001 and 2008 for Austria (Austrian Forest Inventory (AFI)) were prepared as reference. (orig.)

  6. Fuels from biomass program. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the ongoing research, development, and demonstration efforts of the period Oct. 1, 1976--Sept. 30, 1977 is presented. Accomplishments are highlighted and plans for continued activities are included. Discussion is presented under the following section headings: the Fuels from Biomass Program; organizational and functional responsibilities; program funding; fiscal year 1977 summary tables; current projects: production and collection of biomass and conversion of biomass; bibliography; index of contractors; and, appendix--unsolicited proposal requirements. (JGB)

  7. Reduction of fuel side costs due to biomass co-combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wils, Andrea; Calmano, Wolfgang; Dettmann, Peter; Kaltschmitt, Martin; Ecke, Holger

    2012-03-15

    The feasibility and influence of co-combustion of woody biomass on the fuel side costs is discussed for three hard coal power plants located in Berlin, Germany. Fuel side costs are defined as the costs resulting from flue gas cleaning and by-products. To have reliable data, co-firing tests were conducted in two power plants (i.e., slag tap furnace and circulating fluidising bed combustion). The amount of wood which was co-fired varied at levels below 11% of the fuel heat input. Wood chips originating from landscape management were used. The analyses show that co-combustion of woody biomass can lower the fuel side costs and that the co-combustion at a level below 10% of the thermal capacity is technically feasible without major problems. Furthermore, a flexible spreadsheet tool was developed for the calculation of fuel side costs and suggestions for operational improvements were made. For example, the adaptation of the Ca/S ratio (mass ratio of calcium in limestone to sulphur in the fuel) in one plant could reduce the fuel side costs up to 135 k€ yr(-1) (0.09 €M Wh(-1)).

  8. Lessons learned from existing biomass power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    2000-02-24

    This report includes summary information on 20 biomass power plants, which represent some of the leaders in the industry. In each category an effort is made to identify plants that illustrate particular points. The project experiences described capture some important lessons learned that lead in the direction of an improved biomass power industry.

  9. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  10. Low temperature co-fired ceramic packaging of CMOS capacitive sensor chip towards cell viability monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina Halonen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell viability monitoring is an important part of biosafety evaluation for the detection of toxic effects on cells caused by nanomaterials, preferably by label-free, noninvasive, fast, and cost effective methods. These requirements can be met by monitoring cell viability with a capacitance-sensing integrated circuit (IC microchip. The capacitance provides a measurement of the surface attachment of adherent cells as an indication of their health status. However, the moist, warm, and corrosive biological environment requires reliable packaging of the sensor chip. In this work, a second generation of low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC technology was combined with flip-chip bonding to provide a durable package compatible with cell culture. The LTCC-packaged sensor chip was integrated with a printed circuit board, data acquisition device, and measurement-controlling software. The packaged sensor chip functioned well in the presence of cell medium and cells, with output voltages depending on the medium above the capacitors. Moreover, the manufacturing of microfluidic channels in the LTCC package was demonstrated.

  11. Robustness and Versatility of Thin Films on Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, J. Ambrose; Vianco, P. T.; Johnson, M. H.; Goldammer, S.

    2011-10-09

    Thin film multilayers have previously been introduced on multilayer low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC). The ruggedness of a multipurpose Ti-Cu-Pt-Au stack has continued to benefit fabrication and reliability in state-of-theart modules. Space optimization is described, preserving miniaturization of critical spaces and component pads. Additional soldering details are also presented, including trends with solder-stop materials. Feature compensation becomes a simple step in the normal manufacturing flow which enables exact targeting of desired feature sizes. In addition, fine details of the manufacturing process, including ion milling, will be discussed. We will discuss full long-term aging results and structural details that reinforce the reliability and function. Different thin film materials for specific applications can be exploited for additional capabilities such as filters and other integral components. Cross sections verify the results shown. This successful integration of thin films on LTCC points to higher frequencies which require finer lines and spaces. Advancements of these applications become possible due to the associated progression of smaller skin depth and thinner metallic material.

  12. Fabrication and performance evaluation of a high temperature co-fired ceramic vaporizing liquid microthruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    How Cheah, Kean; Low, Kay-Soon

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the study of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-scaled microthruster using ceramic as the structural material. A vaporizing liquid microthruster (VLM) has been fabricated using the high temperature co-fired ceramic (HTCC) technology. The developed microthruster consists of five components, i.e. inlet, injector, vaporizing chamber, micronozzle and microheater, all integrated in a chip with a dimension of 30 mm × 26 mm × 8 mm. In the dry test, the newly developed microheater which is deposited on zirconia substrate consumes 21% less electrical power than those deposited on silicon substrate to achieve a temperature of 100 °C. Heating temperature as high as 409.1 °C can be achieved using just 5 W of electrical power. For simplicity and safety, a functional test of the VLM with water as propellant has been conducted in the laboratory. Full vaporization of water propellant feeding at different flow rates has been successfully demonstrated. A maximum thrust of 633.5 µN at 1 µl s-1 propellant consumption rate was measured using a torsional thrust stand.

  13. Fully Integrated Applications of Thin Films on Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrose Wolf; Ken Peterson; Matt O' Keefe; Wayne Huebner; Bill Kuhn

    2012-04-19

    Thin film multilayers have previously been introduced on multilayer low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC), as well as initial thin film capacitors on LTCC. The ruggedness of a multipurpose Ti-Cu-Pt-Au stack for connectivity and RF conductivity has continued to benefit fabrication and reliability in state of-the-art modules, while the capacitors have followed the traditional Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) style. The full integration of thin film passives with thin film connectivity traces is presented. Certain passives, such as capacitors, require specifically tailored and separately patterned thin film (multi-)layers, including a dielectric. Different capacitance values are achieved by variation of both the insulator layer thickness and the active area of the capacitor. Other passives, such as filters, require only the conductor - a single thin film multilayer. This can be patterned from the same connectivity thin film material (Ti-Cu-Pt-Au), or a specially tailored thin film material (e.g. Ti-Cu-Au) can be deposited. Both versions are described, including process and integration details. Examples are discussed, ranging from patterning for maximum tolerances, to space and performance-optimized designs. Cross-sectional issues associated with integration are also highlighted in the discussion.

  14. Characterisation of meat and bone mill for coal co-firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osvalda Senneca [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, Napoli (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    A most interesting solution for the disposal of meat and bone meal (MBM) is co-feeding with coal in combustion plants. MBM, is however, quite different from any other traditional or alternative solid fuel in terms of chemical composition, ash content and microstructural properties. Its effects on the performance of a boiler are largely unexplored. The present paper addresses the characteristics of MBM as alternative solid fuel and the effects of co-feeding MBM (6%) and coal (94%) in a utility boiler. A first activity consisted in the characterisation of the physico-chemical properties and the reactivity of MBM. The experimental campaign included ultimate and proximate analysis, granulometric analysis, ICP, SEM, XRD. An extensive campaign of isothermal and non isothermal thermogravimetric experiments was carried out to assess the reactivity of MBM upon pyrolysis, combustion and gasification and to obtain appropriate kinetic expressions. A second activity focused on co-firing of MBM and coal. Bottom and fly ashes were collected from an industrial boiler operated with MBM and coal. Ash samples were characterised by SEM, XRD, ICP, TGA and granulometric analysis. Results of this activity showed that MBM contributes mostly to bottom ash, however also the fly ashes are different from those typically encountered when the boiler is operated with coal alone. Differences concern the chemical composition and particle size distribution of ashes, in particular a large population of very fine particles characterised by perfectly spherical shape and non negligible carbon content is observed. 20 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Carbon, energy and forest biomass: new opportunities and needs for forest management in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest biomass provides a relevant fraction of world energy needs, not only in developing Countries. In Italy, several factors are presently contributing to a new interest for this resource, ranging from regulatory quotas for renewables to the increasing price of fossil fuel to the emergence of a European carbon stock exchange. This focus on renewable resources constitutes an important opportunity for the forest sector and for society by and large, but because of the potential dimensions of the emerging market it also requires new planning instruments, in order to avoid a sudden and widespread resumption of coppice management and a reduction of standing carbon stock in forest ecosystems, which would run contrary to the objectives of the Kyoto Protocol. An example of the future demand for biomasses in Central Italy is presented, based on the possible use of fuelwood in new coal-fired power plants by the 'co-firing' technology.

  16. Effect of large aspect ratio of biomass particles on carbon burnout in a utility boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Gera; M.P. Mathur; M.C. Freeman; Allen Robinson [Fluent, Inc./NETL, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2002-12-01

    This paper reports on the development and validation of comprehensive combustion sub models that include the effect of large aspect ratio of biomass (switchgrass) particles on carbon burnout and temperature distribution inside the particles. Temperature and carbon burnout data are compared from two different models that are formulated by assuming (i) the particles are cylindrical and conduct heat internally, and (ii) the particles are spherical without internal heat conduction, i.e., no temperature gradient exists inside the particle. It was inferred that the latter model significantly underpredicted the temperature of the particle and, consequently, the burnout. Additionally, some results from cofiring biomass (10% heat input) with pulverized coal (90% heat input) are compared with the pulverized coal (100% heat input) simulations and coal experiments in a tangentially fired 150 MW{sub e} utility boiler. 26 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  18. Energy from Biomass for Conversion of Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolins, J.; Gravitis, J.

    2009-01-01

    Along with estimates of minimum energy required by steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass some general problems concerning biomass conversion into chemicals, materials, and fuels are discussed. The energy necessary for processing biomass by steam explosion auto-hydrolysis is compared with the heat content of wood and calculated in terms of the amount of saturated steam consumed per unit mass of the dry content of wood biomass. The fraction of processed biomass available for conversion after steam explosion pre-treatment is presented as function of the amount of steam consumed per unit mass of the dry content of wood. The estimates based on a simple model of energy flows show the energy required by steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass being within 10% of the heat content of biomass - a realistic amount demonstrating that energy for the process can be supplied from a reasonable proportion of biomass used as the source of energy for steam explosion pre-treatment.

  19. Wind, biomass, hydrogen: renewable energies; Vent, biomasse, hydrogene: energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakotosson, V.; Brousse, Th.; Guillemet, Ph.; Scudeller, Y.; Crosnier, O.; Dugas, R.; Favier, F.; Zhou, Y.; Taberna, P.M.; Simon, P.; Toupin, M.; Belanger, D.; Ngo, Ch.; Djamie, B.; Guyard, Ch.; Tamain, B.; Ruer, J.; Ungerer, Ph.; Bonal, J.; Flamant, G

    2007-06-15

    This press kit gathers a series of articles about renewable energies: the compared availabilities of renewable energy sources (comparison at a given time); offshore wind turbines (projects under development, cost optimisation); hydrogen for transports: present day situation (production, transport and storage, hydrogen conversion into mechanical energy, indirect use in biomass conversion); biomass: future carbon source (resource potential in France, pyrolysis and fermentation, development of biofuels and synthetic fuels, stakes for agriculture); beneficial standards for the heat pumps market (market organization and quality approach); collecting solar energy (solar furnaces and future solar power plants, hydrogen generation). (J.S.)

  20. My Biomass, Your Biomass, Our Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US is pursuing an array of renewable energy sources to reduce reliance on imported fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass energy and biomass ethanol are key components in the pursuit. The need for biomass feedstock to produce sufficient ethanol to meet any of the numerous stat...

  1. Direct identification of hazardous elements in ultra-fine and nanominerals from coal fly ash produced during diesel co-firing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinello, Kátia; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Molossi, Fernando A; Ramos, Claudete G; Teixeira, Elba C; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Silva, Luis F O

    2014-02-01

    This study has provided an initial assessment of the environmental impacts and potential health effects associated with coal fly ash produced during diesel co-firing. Many hazardous elements that are typically detected by multifaceted chemical characterization by XRD, petrology, FE-SEM/EDS, and HR-TEM/SEAD/FFT/EDS in ultra-fine compounds and nanominerals from the co-fired coal fly ashes (CFAs). It provided an in-depth understanding of coal ash produced during diesel co-firing. Several of the neoformed ultra-fine compounds and nano-minerals found in the coal ashes are the same as those commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of aluminosilicates, carbonates, sulphides and phosphates.

  2. Combustion aerosols from co-firing of coal and solid recovered fuel in a 400 mw pf-fired power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Wu, Hao; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming;

    2010-01-01

    to be bi-modal, with an ultrafine (vaporization) mode centered around 0.1 μm, and a coarser (finefragmentation) mode above 2 μm. Co-firing of SRF tended to increase the formation of ultrafine particles as compared with dedicated coal combustion, while the coarse mode tended to decrease. The increased...... formation of ultrafine particles was probably caused by a relatively higher volatility (and subsequent enhanced homogeneous condensation) of Ca, P and K during co-firing of SRF. The influence of SRF type, thermal fraction, particle size and injection position was however not evident from our data, probably...... due to the inhomogeneous characteristics of SRF. S was found to be a special case. While the concentration of S was decreased in the ultrafine particles from co-firing (in consistence with a low initial concentration in SRF), the concentration of S in the electrostatic precipitator ash was higher...

  3. EUBIONET III - Solutions to biomass trade and market barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alakangas, E.; Junginger, H.M.; Dam, J.M.C. van; Hinge, J.; Keränen, J.; Olsson, O.; Porsö, C.; Martikainen, A.; Rathbauer, J.; Sulzenbacher, L.; Vesterinen, P.; Vinterbäck, J.

    2012-01-01

    The EUBIONET III project has boosted (i) sustainable, transparent international biomass fuel trade, (ii) investments in best practice technologies and (iii) new services on biomass heat sector. Furthermore, it identified cost-efficient and value-adding use of biomass for energy and industry. The aim

  4. Biomass Gasifier Facility (BGF). Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR) is planning, to design, construct and operate a Biomass Gasifier Facility (BGF). This facility will be located on a site easement near the Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar company (KC&S) Paia Sugar Factory on Maui, Hawaii. The proposed BGF Project is a scale-up facility, intended to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of emerging biomass gasification technology for commercialization. This Executive Summary summarizes the uses of this Environmental Assessment, the purpose and need for the project, project,description, and project alternatives.

  5. Analysis of the sintering stresses and shape distortion produced in co-firing of CGO-LSM/CGO bi-layer porous structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, De Wei; Esposito, Vincenzo; Schmidt, Cristine Grings;

    electrochemical flue gas purification devices, multilayer structures with alternating porous layers of CGO and a LSM/CGO mixture are used to achieve specific functional requirements. In a manufacturing process of such ceramic multilayer devices, co-firing is one of the critical steps as many defects...... such as cracks, de-lamination and shape distortion can result as a consequence of sintering mismatch stresses caused by the strain rate difference between layers. This work seeks to understand the underlying mechanisms that occur during the co-firing of porous CGO-LSM/CGO bi-layer laminates, by evaluating...

  6. Full Scale Deposition Trials at 150 MWe PF-boiler Co-firing COal and Straw: Summary of Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karin Hedebo; Frandsen, Flemming; Hansen, Peter Farkas Binderup

    1999-01-01

    . In the visual analysis, a significant increase in amount and tenacity of primarily the upstream deposit was observed as a function of increased straw share, exposure time and/or boiler load.The chemical analysis of the deposits suggest an increased participation of K and S in the formation of the deposits...... for the coal types utilised in the tests.The deposit formation observed during co-firing with up to 20% straw (energy basis), does not lead to fouling and slagging problems which cannot be overcome by increased sootblowing when firing the two coals used in the demonstration programme. However, slagging...

  7. Swiss Biomass Programme - Overview report on the 2007 research programme; Programm Biomasse: Ueberblicksbericht zum Forschungsprogramm 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2008-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of the results obtained in 2007 within the framework of the Swiss Biomass research programme. The potential for biomass use in Switzerland is reviewed and the emphases of the national programme are discussed. The results obtained are noted for the following areas: process optimisation, including - amongst others - particle emissions and control aspects as well as combined wood-pellets and solar heating systems. Projects involving non-wood biomass are reported on, including biomass digesters and various biogas systems. Further reports deal with the analysis and optimisation of material flows, organic pollutants and methane losses. New conversion technologies are reported on. Further reports deal with basic strategies and concepts in the area of biomass usage. National and international co-operation is also discussed. A selection of innovative pilot and demonstration projects is also presented and research and development projects are listed.

  8. Characterization of low-temperature cofired ceramic tiles as platforms for gas chromatographic separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darko, Ernest; Thurbide, Kevin B; Gerhardt, Geoff C; Michienzi, Joseph

    2013-06-04

    A gas chromatography (GC) column is fabricated within a low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) tile, and its analytical properties are characterized. By using a dual-spiral design, a 100 μm wide square channel up to 15 m in length is produced within an 11 cm × 5.5 cm LTCC tile. The channel is dynamically coated with an OV-101 stationary phase that is cross-linked with dicumyl peroxide. While the uncoated LTCC tiles were able to separate a mixture of n-alkanes, the peak shapes were broad (base width of ~2 min) and tailing. In contrast to this, the coated LTCC tiles produced sharp (base width of ~8-10 s), symmetrical, well-resolved peaks for the same analytes. By using a 7.5 m long channel, about 15,000 plates were obtained for a dodecane test analyte. Further, the coated LTCC tiles were found to produce plate heights that were about 3-fold smaller than those obtained from a conventional capillary GC column of similar length, dimension, and coating operated under the same conditions. As a result, test analyte separations were slightly improved in the LTCC tiles, and their overall performance fared well. In terms of temperature programming, it was found that a series of n-alkanes separated on the LTCC tile provided a cumulative peak capacity of around 54 peaks when using C₈ to C₁₃ as analyte markers. Results indicate that LTCC tiles provide a viable and useful alternative platform for performing good quality GC separations.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of low temperature co-fired cordierite glass–ceramics from potassium feldspar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jianfang; Li, Zhen, E-mail: zhenli@cug.edu.cn; Huang, Yanqiu; Li, Fei; Yang, Qiuran

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Low cost cordierite glass–ceramics were fabricated from potassium feldspar. • The glass–ceramics could be highly densified below 950 °C. • The glass–ceramics exhibit extraordinary properties. • The glass–ceramics can be used as LTCC substrates. • The excess SiO{sub 2} improved the microstructure and properties of the glass–ceramics. -- Abstract: Cordierite glass–ceramics for low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrates were fabricated successfully using potassium feldspar as the main raw material. The sintering and crystallization behaviors of the glass–ceramics were investigated by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The results indicated that the glass–ceramics could be highly densified at 850 °C and the cordierite was the main crystalline phase precipitated from the glasses in the temperature range between 900 and 925 °C. The study also evaluated the physical properties including dielectric properties, thermal expansion and flexural strength of the glass–ceramics. The glass–ceramics showed low dielectric constants in the range of 6–8 and low dielectric losses in the range of 0.0025–0.01. The coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) are between 4.32 and 5.48 × 10{sup −6} K{sup −1} and flexural strength of the glass–ceramics are 90–130 MPa. All of those qualify the glass–ceramics for further research to be used as potential LTCC substrates in the multilayer electronic substrate field. Additionally, the excess SiO{sub 2} acted as a great role in improving the sinterability of the glasses, and the microstructure and dielectric properties of the relevant glass–ceramics.

  10. Biomass treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.

    2010-10-26

    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  11. The relative cost of biomass energy transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searcy, Erin; Flynn, Peter; Ghafoori, Emad; Kumar, Amit

    2007-04-01

    Logistics cost, the cost of moving feedstock or products, is a key component of the overall cost of recovering energy from biomass. In this study, we calculate for small- and large-project sizes, the relative cost of transportation by truck, rail, ship, and pipeline for three biomass feedstocks, by truck and pipeline for ethanol, and by transmission line for electrical power. Distance fixed costs (loading and unloading) and distance variable costs (transport, including power losses during transmission), are calculated for each biomass type and mode of transportation. Costs are normalized to a common basis of a giga Joules of biomass. The relative cost of moving products vs feedstock is an approximate measure of the incentive for location of biomass processing at the source of biomass, rather than at the point of ultimate consumption of produced energy. In general, the cost of transporting biomass is more than the cost of transporting its energy products. The gap in cost for transporting biomass vs power is significantly higher than the incremental cost of building and operating a power plant remote from a transmission grid. The cost of power transmission and ethanol transport by pipeline is highly dependent on scale of project. Transport of ethanol by truck has a lower cost than by pipeline up to capacities of 1800 t/d. The high cost of transshipment to a ship precludes shipping from being an economical mode of transport for distances less than 800 km (woodchips) and 1500 km (baled agricultural residues).

  12. HCl emission characteristics and BP neural networks prediction in MSW/coal co-fired fluidized beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Yong; WEN Jun-ming; ZHANG Dong-ping; YAN Jian-hua; NI Ming-jiang; CEN Ke-fa

    2005-01-01

    The HCl emission characteristics of typical municipal solid waste(MSW) components and their mixtures have been investigated in a ф150 mm fluidized bed. Some influencing factors of HCl emission in MSW fluidized bed incinerator was found in this study. The Hclemission is increasing with the growth of bed temperature, while it is decreasing with the increment of oxygen concentration at furnace exit.When the weight percentage of auxiliary coal is increased, the conversion rate of Cl to HCl is increasing. The HCl emission is decreased,if the sorbent(CaO) is added during the incineration process. Based on these experimental results, a 14 x 6 × 1 three-layer BP neural networks prediction model of HCl emission in MSW/coal co-fired fluidized bed incinerator was built. The numbers of input nodes and hidden nodes were fixed on by canonical correlation analysis technique and dynamic construction method respectively. The prediction results of this model gave good agreement with the experimental results, which indicates that the model has relatively high accuracy and good generalization ability. It was found that BP neural network is an effectual method used to predict the HCl emission of MSW/coal cofired fluidized bed incinerator.

  13. HCl emission characteristics and BP neural networks prediction in MSW/coal co-fired fluidized beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yong; Wen, Jun-Ming; Zhang, Dong-Ping; Yan, Jian-Hua; Ni, Ming-Jiang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2005-01-01

    The HCl emission characteristics of typical municipal solid waste (MSW) components and their mixtures have been investigated in a phi 150 mm fluidized bed. Some influencing factors of HCl emission in MSW fluidized bed incinerator was found in this study. The HCl emission is increasing with the growth of bed temperature, while it is decreasing with the increment of oxygen concentration at furnace exit. When the weight percentage of auxiliary coal is increased, the conversion rate of Cl to HCl is increasing. The HCl emission is decreased, if the sorbent (CaO) is added during the incineration process. Based on these experimental results, a 14 x 6 x 1 three-layer BP neural networks prediction model of HCl emission in MSW/coal co-fired fluidized bed incinerator was built. The numbers of input nodes and hidden nodes were fixed on by canonical correlation analysis technique and dynamic construction method respectively. The prediction results of this model gave good agreement with the experimental results, which indicates that the model has relatively high accuracy and good generalization ability. It was found that BP neural network is an effectual method used to predict the HCl emission of MSW/coal co-fired fluidized bed incinerator.

  14. Co-firing of oil sludge with coal-water slurry in an industrial internal circulating fluidized bed boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianguo; Jiang, Xiumin; Zhou, Lingsheng; Wang, Hui; Han, Xiangxin

    2009-08-15

    Incineration has been proven to be an alternative for disposal of sludge with its unique characteristics to minimize the volume and recover energy. In this paper, a new fluidized bed (FB) incineration system for treating oil sludge is presented. Co-firing of oil sludge with coal-water slurry (CWS) was investigated in the new incineration system to study combustion characteristics, gaseous pollutant emissions and ash management. The study results show the co-firing of oil sludge with CWS in FB has good operating characteristic. CWS as an auxiliary fuel can flexibly control the dense bed temperatures by adjusting its feeding rate. All emissions met the local environmental requirements. The CO emission was less than 1 ppm or essentially zero; the emissions of SO(2) and NO(x) were 120-220 and 120-160 mg/Nm(3), respectively. The heavy metal analyses of the bottom ash and the fly ash by ICP/AES show that the combustion ashes could be recycled as soil for farming.

  15. Mobile Biomass Pelletizing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Mason

    2009-04-16

    This grant project examines multiple aspects of the pelletizing process to determine the feasibility of pelletizing biomass using a mobile form factor system. These aspects are: the automatic adjustment of the die height in a rotary-style pellet mill, the construction of the die head to allow the use of ceramic materials for extreme wear, integrating a heat exchanger network into the entire process from drying to cooling, the use of superheated steam for adjusting the moisture content to optimum, the economics of using diesel power to operate the system; a break-even analysis of estimated fixed operating costs vs. tons per hour capacity. Initial development work has created a viable mechanical model. The overall analysis of this model suggests that pelletizing can be economically done using a mobile platform.

  16. Biomass production by freshwater and marine macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, W.J.; Gerard, V.A.; Kuwabara, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    Research on aquatic macrophytes as producers of biomass has been undertaken at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) on the east coast and on the west coast by a group of collaborators in a joint effort known as the Marine Biomass Project. Studies at WHOI have focused on estuarine and coastal situations with some attention recently to freshwater plants. The Marine Farm Project has primarily been concerned with oceanic biomass production. A group at WHOI has undertaken a wide variety of studies concerning aquatic macrophytes including nutrient uptake, growth, yields, and environmental factors affecting yields. Aquatic biomass production systems have been surveyed on a worldwide basis and currently the role of carbon as a potential limiting nutrient in biomass culturing is being examined. The Marine Farm Project is presently attempting to grow giant kelp in offshore waters off southern California. Other work related to aquatic biomass production includes an investigation at the University of California, Berkeley, of microalgae in ponds. This paper will emphasize discussion of the kelp production phases of the Marine Farm Project. Activities by the WHOI are briefly summarized.

  17. Research on Jiangxi Yongxin County Water Resources Assessment for Construction Project of Kaidi Biomass Energy Power Station%江西永新凯迪生物质能发电厂水资源论证建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万小庆; 胡磊; 邓坤

    2013-01-01

    For strengthening the water resources management of Ganjiang river basin , guaranteeing the reasonable use of water of the construction project of Kaidi biomass energy power station , this paper have done some research on water resources assesment for constraction project from the following aspect regional water resources situation , the source of water of the project ,the affect of the water taking and withdrawal,putting forword the protection measures and suggestions on Water conservation.%为加强赣江流域水资源管理,保障江西永新凯迪生物质能发电厂(1×30MW)建设项目的合理用水,对建设项目所在区域水资源状况、取水水源、取水和退水的影响提出相应的水资源保护措施及水资源论证建议。

  18. Ultra-Low Carbon Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants through Bio-Oil Co-Firing and Biochar Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Qi; Mba Wright, Mark; Brown, Robert C

    2015-12-15

    This study investigates a novel strategy of reducing carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants through co-firing bio-oil and sequestering biochar in agricultural lands. The heavy end fraction of bio-oil recovered from corn stover fast pyrolysis is blended and co-fired with bituminous coal to form a bio-oil co-firing fuel (BCF). Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kWh electricity produced vary from 1.02 to 0.26 kg CO2-eq among different cases, with BCF heavy end fractions ranging from 10% to 60%, which corresponds to a GHG emissions reduction of 2.9% to 74.9% compared with that from traditional bituminous coal power plants. We found a heavy end fraction between 34.8% and 37.3% is required to meet the Clean Power Plan's emission regulation for new coal-fired power plants. The minimum electricity selling prices are predicted to increase from 8.8 to 14.9 cents/kWh, with heavy end fractions ranging from 30% to 60%. A minimum carbon price of $67.4 ± 13 per metric ton of CO2-eq was estimated to make BCF power commercially viable for the base case. These results suggest that BCF co-firing is an attractive pathway for clean power generation in existing power plants with a potential for significant reductions in carbon emissions.

  19. Effects of laminating and co-firing conditions on the performance of anode-supported Ce0.8Sm0.201.9 film electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the laminating and co-firing technique on the performance of anode-supported Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 (SDC film electrolyte and its single cell, NiO-YSZ and NiOSDC anode-supported SDC film electrolytes were fabricated by laminating 24 sheets of anode plus one sheet of electrolyte and co-firing. La0.4Sr0.6Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF-SDC cathode was coated on the SDC electrolytes to form a single cell. The lamination was tried at different laminating temperatures and pressures and the co-firing was carried out at different temperatures. The results showed that the laminating temperature should above the glass transition temperature (Tg of the binder. The laminating pressure of 70 MPa resulted in warp of the samples. The best co-firing temperature of the anode-supported SDC film electrolyte was 1400°C. The SDC film electrolyte formed well adherence to the anode. The NiO-YSZ anode had larger flexural strength than the NiO-SDC anode. The NiO-YSZ anode-supported SDC film electrolyte single cell had an open circuit voltage of 0.803 V and a maximum power density of 93.03 mW/cm2 with hydrogen as fuel at 800°C.

  20. High Temperature Corrosion in Biomass Incineration Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Gotthjælp, K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project is to study the role of ash deposits in high temperature corrosion of superheater materials in biomass and refuse fire combined heat and power plants. The project has included the two main activities: a) A chemical characterisation of ash deposits collected from a major...

  1. Investigation of a zirconia co-fired ceramic calorimetric microsensor for high-temperature flow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekholm, Ville; Persson, Anders; Klintberg, Lena; Thornell, Greger

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and characterization of a flow sensor for high-temperature, or otherwise aggressive, environments, like, e.g. the propulsion system of a small spacecraft. The sensor was fabricated using 8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ8) high-temperature co-fired ceramic (HTCC) tape and screen printed platinum paste. A calorimetric flow sensor design was used, with five 80 µm wide conductors, separated by 160 µm, in a 0.4 mm wide, 0.1 mm deep and 12.5 mm long flow channel. The central conductor was used as a heater for the sensor, and the two adjacent conductors were used to resistively measure the heat transferred from the heater by forced convection. The two outermost conductors were used to study the influence of an auxiliary heat source on the sensor. The resistances of the sensor conductors were measured using four-point connections, as the gas flow rate was slowly increased from 0 to 40 sccm, with different power supplied through the central heater, as well as with an upstream or downstream heater powered. In this study, the thermal and electrical integrability of microcomponents on the YSZ8 substrate was of particular interest and, hence, the influence of thermal and ionic conduction in the substrate was studied in detail. The effect of the ion conductivity of YSZ8 was studied by measuring the resistance of a platinum conductor and the resistance between two adjacent conductors on YSZ8, in a furnace at temperatures from 20 to 930 °C and by measuring the resistance with increasing current through a conductor. With this design, the influence of ion conductivity through the substrate became apparent above 700 °C. The sensitivity of the sensor was up to 1 mΩ sccm-1 in a range of 0-10 sccm. The results show that the signal from the sensor is influenced by the integrated auxiliary heating conductors and that these auxiliary heaters provide a way to balance disturbing heat sources, e.g. thrusters or other electronics, in

  2. Tunable ferroelectric meta-material phase shifter embedded inside low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tork, Hossam S.

    This dissertation describes electrically tunable microwave devices utilizing low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) and thick film via filled with the ferroelectric materials barium strontium titanate (BST) and barium zirconate titanate (BZT). Tunable ferroelectric capacitors, zero meta-material phase shifters, and tunable meta-material phase shifters are presented. Microwave phase shifters have many applications in microwave devices. They are essential components for active and passive phased array antennas and their most common use is in scanning phased array antennas. They are used in synthetic aperture radars (SAR), low earth orbit (LEO) communication satellites, collision warning radars, and intelligent vehicle highway systems (IVHS), in addition to various other applications. Tunable ferroelectric materials have been investigated, since they offer the possibility of lowering the total cost of phased arrays. Two of the most promising ferroelectric materials in microwave applications are BST and BZT. The proposed design and implementation in this research introduce new types of tunable meta-material phase shifters embedded inside LTCC, which use BST and BZT as capacitive tunable dielectric material controlled by changing the applied voltage. This phase shifter has the advantages of meta-material structures, which produce little phase error and compensation while having the simultaneous advantage of using LTCC technology for embedding passive components that improve signal integrity (several signal lines, power planes, and ground planes) by using different processes like via filling, screen printing, laminating and firing that can be produced in compact sizes at a low cost. The via filling technique was used to build tunable BST, BZT ferroelectric material capacitors to control phase shift. Finally, The use of the proposed ferroelectric meta-material phase shifter improves phase shifter performance by reducing insertion loss in both transmitting and receiving

  3. Market potential of Ukrainian herbaceous biomass : analyzing market obstacles and promoting business strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamblinne, de P.; Poppens, R.P.; Elbersen, H.W.; Schoonewille, W.

    2013-01-01

    The Pellets for Power project, funded by Agentschap NL under the Sustainable Biomass Import program, is defining ways for sustainable biomass production in Ukraine. It is focused on three biomass sources: straw, switchgrass and reed. However, so far commercialization of Ukrainian non-wood biomass ha

  4. Pellets for Power: sustainable biomass import from Ukraine : public final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Poppens, R.P.; Lesschen, J.P.; Sluis, van der T.; Galytska, M.; Kulyk, M.; Jamblinne, de P.; Kraisvitnii, P.; Rii, O.; Hoekstra, T.

    2013-01-01

    This project responds to the mismatch between on the one hand a growing demand for biomass on the Dutch and EU energy markets with a limited biomass potential and on the other hand large amounts of biomass and biomass potential currently underutilised in Ukraine. Ukraine itself is seen as a very pro

  5. Combustion properties of biomass residues rich in phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotrowska, P.

    2012-07-01

    particles. Entrained fine rapeseed cake ash particles also aggravated deposit formation. In order to improve the problematic behaviour two strategies were used: co-combustion and the use of limestone. Three different base fuels were used: bark, wood, and coal. Co-firing of rapeseed cake with a minimum of 60 wt% of bark in a bench-scale BFB reactor increased the defluidization temperatures compared to the pure rapeseed cake case. This was correlated with the increase of the Ca/P molar, which increased with a higher proportion of bark in the fuel mixture. During co-firing with wood in a semi-industrial scale CFB combustor, the addition of limestone was found to be necessary in order to improve the bed sintering tendency of the fuel mixture. Co-firing of rapeseed cake with coal in a semi-industrial CFB combustor did not show any significant operational problems. Therefore co-combustion with coal is considered to be one of the strategies to improve combustion of phosphorus-rich biomass. The experimental work in this study revealed that phosphorus has a role during combustion which cannot be neglected when phosphorus-rich fuels are entering the energy market. Challenges during fluidized bed combustion of the residues were defined and countermeasures were investigated. (orig.)

  6. Energy from Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carioca, J. O. B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses how biomass in the form of fuelwood, crop residues, and animal dung can be converted into fuels such as biogas and ethanol to replace or supplement fossil fuels. Argues for future decentralized, integrated biomass energy development. (TW)

  7. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: 2012 State of Technology and Projections to 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.

    2013-08-27

    This report summarizes the economic impact of the work performed at PNNL during FY12 to improve fast pyrolysis oil upgrading via hydrotreating. A comparison is made between the projected economic outcome and the actual results based on experimental data. Sustainability metrics are also included.

  8. BIOMASS REBURNING - MODELING/ENGINEERING STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir Zamansky; Chris Lindsey; Vitali Lissianski

    2000-01-28

    This project is designed to develop engineering and modeling tools for a family of NO{sub x} control technologies utilizing biomass as a reburning fuel. During the ninth reporting period (September 27--December 31, 1999), EER prepared a paper Kinetic Model of Biomass Reburning and submitted it for publication and presentation at the 28th Symposium (International) on Combustion, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, July 30--August 4, 2000. Antares Group Inc, under contract to Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, evaluated the economic feasibility of biomass reburning options for Dunkirk Station. A preliminary report is included in this quarterly report.

  9. Engineering verification of the biomass production chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M., III; Sager, J. C.; Jones, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    The requirements for life support systems, both biological and physical-chemical, for long-term human attended space missions are under serious study throughout NASA. The KSC 'breadboard' project has focused on biomass production using higher plants for atmospheric regeneration and food production in a special biomass production chamber. This chamber is designed to provide information on food crop growth rate, contaminants in the chamber that alter plant growth requirements for atmospheric regeneration, carbon dioxide consumption, oxygen production, and water utilization. The shape and size, mass, and energy requirements in relation to the overall integrity of the biomass production chamber are under constant study.

  10. Pretreated densified biomass products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  11. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, H.; Morris, M.; Rensfelt, E. [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  12. Comparative evaluation of biomass power generation systems in China using hybrid life cycle inventory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huacai; Yin, Xiuli; Wu, Chuangzhi

    2014-01-01

    There has been a rapid growth in using agricultural residues as an energy source to generate electricity in China. Biomass power generation (BPG) systems may vary significantly in technology, scale, and feedstock and consequently in their performances. A comparative evaluation of five typical BPG systems has been conducted in this study through a hybrid life cycle inventory (LCI) approach. Results show that requirements of fossil energy savings, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, as well as emission reductions of SO2 and NOx, can be best met by the BPG systems. The cofiring systems were found to behave better than the biomass-only fired system and the biomass gasification systems in terms of energy savings and GHG emission reductions. Comparing with results of conventional process-base LCI, an important aspect to note is the significant contribution of infrastructure, equipment, and maintenance of the plant, which require the input of various types of materials, fuels, services, and the consequent GHG emissions. The results demonstrate characteristics and differences of BPG systems and help identify critical opportunities for biomass power development in China.

  13. Comparative Evaluation of Biomass Power Generation Systems in China Using Hybrid Life Cycle Inventory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huacai Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid growth in using agricultural residues as an energy source to generate electricity in China. Biomass power generation (BPG systems may vary significantly in technology, scale, and feedstock and consequently in their performances. A comparative evaluation of five typical BPG systems has been conducted in this study through a hybrid life cycle inventory (LCI approach. Results show that requirements of fossil energy savings, and greenhouse gas (GHG emission reductions, as well as emission reductions of SO2 and NOx, can be best met by the BPG systems. The cofiring systems were found to behave better than the biomass-only fired system and the biomass gasification systems in terms of energy savings and GHG emission reductions. Comparing with results of conventional process-base LCI, an important aspect to note is the significant contribution of infrastructure, equipment, and maintenance of the plant, which require the input of various types of materials, fuels, services, and the consequent GHG emissions. The results demonstrate characteristics and differences of BPG systems and help identify critical opportunities for biomass power development in China.

  14. Making alcohol fuels for transportation via biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, I. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)], email: ilkka.hannula@vtt.fi

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this project was to examine and identify process configurations that prove most promising for the largescale production of transportation fuels via biomass gasification. Special attention was given to the production of alcohol fuels. Other objectives of the project included: reviewing the status of biomass-to-syngas technology in the US, strengthening of networks between Finland and the US in the area of biomass gasification, deepening VTT's process evaluation know-how in the biomass-to-liquids area, and investigation of availability and gasification properties of selected North American agricultural residues and energy crops.

  15. Demonstration of organic volatile decomposition and bacterial sterilization by miniature dielectric barrier discharges on low-temperature cofired ceramic electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duk-jae; Shim, Yeun-keun; Park, Jeongwon; Kim, Hyung-jun; Han, Jeon-geon

    2016-04-01

    Nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma discharge is designed with low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) electrodes to achieve dielectric barrier surface discharge (DBSD). The environmental requirement (below 0.05 ppm) of the amount of byproducts (ozone and NO x ) produced during the process was met by optimizing the electrode design to produce a high dielectric barrier discharge for low-voltage (∼700 V) operation and minimizing the distance between electrodes to improve the plasma discharging efficiency. The concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within interior cabins of commercial vehicles were significantly reduced after 1-h treatment to improve air quality cost-effectively. This atmospheric-pressure plasma process was demonstrated for the sterilization of Escherichia coli to prevent food poisoning during the preservation of food in refrigerators.

  16. A High-Performance LC Wireless Passive Pressure Sensor Fabricated Using Low-Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An LC resonant pressure sensor with improved performance is presented in this paper. The sensor is designed with a buried structure, which protects the electrical components from contact with harsh environments and reduces the resonant-frequency drift of the sensor in high-temperature environments. The pressure-sensitive membrane of the sensor is optimized according to small-deflection-plate theory, which allows the sensor to operate in high-pressure environments. The sensor is fabricated using low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC technology, and a fugitive film is used to create a completed sealed embedded cavity without an evacuation channel. The experimental results show that the frequency drift of the sensor versus the temperature is approximately 0.75 kHz/°C, and the responsivity of the sensor can be up to 31 kHz/bar within the pressure range from atmospheric pressure to 60 bar.

  17. A high-performance LC wireless passive pressure sensor fabricated using low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Tan, Qiulin; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Wendong; Li, Yunzhi; Xiong, Jijun

    2014-12-05

    An LC resonant pressure sensor with improved performance is presented in this paper. The sensor is designed with a buried structure, which protects the electrical components from contact with harsh environments and reduces the resonant-frequency drift of the sensor in high-temperature environments. The pressure-sensitive membrane of the sensor is optimized according to small-deflection-plate theory, which allows the sensor to operate in high-pressure environments. The sensor is fabricated using low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology, and a fugitive film is used to create a completed sealed embedded cavity without an evacuation channel. The experimental results show that the frequency drift of the sensor versus the temperature is approximately 0.75 kHz/°C, and the responsivity of the sensor can be up to 31 kHz/bar within the pressure range from atmospheric pressure to 60 bar.

  18. A low temperature Co-fired ceramic-based dielectrophoretic device for manipulating micro and nanostructure materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seon, Ji-Yun; Yoon, Young Joon; Choi, Jaekyoung; Kim, Hyo Tae; Kim, Chang-Yeoul; Kim, Jong-Hee; Baik, Hong Koo

    2013-11-01

    A dielectophoretic (DEP) device fabricated by a conventional low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) process, for manipulating micro and nanostructure materials, such as spherical polystyrene microspheres, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes, and silver (Ag) nanowires, is described. To generate a non-uniform electric field, a castellated electrode configuration was applied to the LTCC-based DEP device using a screen printing method. The actual motions of the micro and nanostructure materials under both a positive and a negative DEP force were observed in detail and the findings compared with numerical simulation data for the electric field distribution. The performance of the LTCC-based DEP device for separating and trapping was evaluated and potential applications are discussed.

  19. Measurement of ion swarm distribution functions in miniature low-temperature co-fired ceramic ion mobility spectrometer drift tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N

    2005-08-15

    Measurements of the performance of a miniature, portable 12-mm-diameter, 57-mm-length low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) ion mobility spectrometer drift tube were undertaken to verify models of ion transport and determine the physical shape of the ion "swarms" in the LTCC tube. Simplified two-dimensional Gaussian models of ion swarm shape were fit to measured data to extract geometrical shape parameters. Results indicate that tube-transfer function effects that produce asymmetric ion swarms are minimized in the tube reducing temporal dispersion. Data are presented that illustrate the swarm shape as a function of gate time, electric field magnitude, and total charge in the ion swarm. Characterization and understanding of the ion transport mechanisms and effects that limit the resolution and other performance parameters of miniature IMS drift tubes is essential to the development of practical, robust, portable systems for "first responder" and homeland security missions.

  20. EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygarlicke, C J; Schmidt, D D; Olson, E S; Leroux, K M; Wocken, C A; Aulich, T A; WIlliams, K D

    2008-07-28

    Biomass utilization is one solution to our nation’s addiction to oil and fossil fuels. What is needed now is applied fundamental research that will cause economic technology development for the utilization of the diverse biomass resources in the United States. This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) applied fundamental research project contributes to the development of economical biomass utilization for energy, transportation fuels, and marketable chemicals using biorefinery methods that include thermochemical and fermentation processes. The fundamental and basic applied research supports the broad scientific objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program, especially in the area of developing alternative renewable biofuels, sustainable bioenergy, technologies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and environmental remediation. Its deliverables include 1) identifying and understanding environmental consequences of energy production from biomass, including the impacts on greenhouse gas production, carbon emission abatement, and utilization of waste biomass residues and 2) developing biology-based solutions that address DOE and national needs related to waste cleanup, hydrogen production from renewable biomass, biological and chemical processes for energy and fuel production, and environmental stewardship. This project serves the public purpose of encouraging good environmental stewardship by developing biomass-refining technologies that can dramatically increase domestic energy production to counter current trends of rising dependence upon petroleum imports. Decreasing the nation’s reliance on foreign oil and energy will enhance national security, the economy of rural communities, and future competitiveness. Although renewable energy has many forms, such as wind and solar, biomass is the only renewable energy source that can be governed through agricultural methods and that has an energy density that can realistically compete with

  1. Investigations into the pyrolytic behaviour of coal/biomass blends using thermogravimetric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuthaluru, H.B. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Perth, WA (Australia)

    2004-04-01

    Investigations into the pyrolytic behaviour during co-pyrolysis of coal, biomass materials and coal/biomass blends prepared at different ratios (10:90, 20:80, 30:70 and 50:50) have been conducted using a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus. The coal sample selected was Collie sub-bituminous coal from Western Australia, while wood waste (WW) and wheat straw (WS) were used as biomass samples. Three thermal events were identified during the pyrolysis. The first two were dominated by the biomass pyrolysis, while the third was linked to the coal pyrolysis, which occurred at much higher temperatures. No interactions were seen between the coal and biomass during co-pyrolysis. The pyrolytic characteristics of the blends followed those of the parent fuels in an additive manner. Among the tested blends, 20:80 blends showed the lowest activation energies of 90.9 and 78.7 kJ mol{sup -1} for coal/WW and coal/WS blends respectively. The optimum blend ratio for pyrolysis of coal/WS was 50:50 with a high degradation rate in all the thermal events and a higher mass loss over the course of the co-pyrolysis compared to coal/WW blends examined. The reaction orders in these experiments were in the range of 0.21-1.60, thus having a significant effect on the overall reaction rate. Besides the pyrolysis of coal alone, the 50:50 coal/biomass blends had the highest reaction rate, ranging 1x10{sup 9}-2x10{sup 9} min{sup -1}. The experimental results may provide useful data for power generation industries for the development of co-firing options with biomass. (Author)

  2. A Review on Biomass Torrefaction Process and Product Properties for Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; J. Richard Hess; Christopher T. Wright; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-10-01

    Torrefaction of biomass can be described as a mild form of pyrolysis at temperatures typically ranging between 200 and 300 C in an inert and reduced environment. Common biomass reactions during torrefaction include devolatilization, depolymerization, and carbonization of hemicellulose, lignin and cellulose. Torrefaction process produces a brown to black solid uniform product and also condensable (water, organics, and lipids) and non condensable gases (CO2, CO, and CH4). Typically during torrefaction, 70% of the mass is retained as a solid product, containing 90% of the initial energy content, and 30% of the lost mass is converted into condensable and non-condensable products. The system's energy efficiency can be improved by reintroducing the material lost during torrefaction as a source of heat. Torrefaction of biomass improves its physical properties like grindability; particle shape, size, and distribution; pelletability; and proximate and ultimate composition like moisture, carbon and hydrogen content, and calorific value. Carbon and calorific value of torrefied biomass increases by 15-25%, and moisture content reduces to <3% (w.b.). Torrefaction reduces grinding energy by about 70%, and the ground torrefied biomass has improved sphericity, particle surface area, and particle size distribution. Pelletization of torrefied biomass at temperatures of 225 C reduces specific energy consumption by two times and increases the capacity of the mill by two times. The loss of the OH group during torrefaction makes the material hydrophobic (loses the ability to attract water molecules) and more stable against chemical oxidation and microbial degradation. These improved properties make torrefied biomass particularly suitable for cofiring in power plants and as an upgraded feedstock for gasification.

  3. The carbonization of biomass waste: an exploration with exciting prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Quesada Kimzey, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a general view of the subject of carbonization of waste biomass. Just as well, it briefly describes two related projects currently under execution at the TEC. Both projects are focused on carbonization of waste biomass from the industrial processing of coffee, in a joint effort with Coopetarrazú.The project initiated in 2011 is dedicated to carbonization of dried wastes and will explore energetic as well as agricultural use of the charcoal. The one initiating in 2012 focuses...

  4. JV 38-APPLICATION OF COFIRING AND COGENERATION FOR SOUTH DAKOTA SOYBEAN PROCESSORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-11-01

    Cogeneration of heat and electricity is being considered by the South Dakota Soybean Processors for its facility in Volga, South Dakota, and a new facility to be located in Brewster, Minnesota. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed a feasibility study, with 40% funding provided from the U.S. Department of Energy's Jointly Sponsored Research Program to determine the potential application of firing biomass fuels combined with coal and comparative economics of natural gas-fired turbines. Various biomass fuels are available at each location. The most promising options based on availability are as follows. The economic impact of firing 25% biomass with coal can increase return on investment by 0.5 to 1.5 years when compared to firing natural gas. The results of the comparative economics suggest that a fluidized-bed cogeneration system will have the best economic performance. Installation for the Brewster site is recommended based on natural gas prices not dropping below a $4.00/MMBtu annual average delivered cost. Installation at the Volga site is only recommended if natural gas prices substantially increase to $5.00/MMBtu on average. A 1- to 2-year time frame will be needed for permitting and equipment procurement.

  5. Biomass Business Opportunities Viet Nam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwebe, D. [SNV Netherlands Development Organisation, Ha Noi (Viet Nam)

    2012-03-15

    The goal of this survey is to provide a more specific and integral perspective in which niches, relevant policy development by the Vietnamese government, legislation and sustainability criteria are clearly addressed to benefit both the Dutch Private sector as well as to stimulate Dutch-Vietnamese cooperation and support the Vietnamese government in its search for tangible options to develop the desired enabling environment for a sustainable biomass/biofuel market. The following activities are defined to be executed to reach the goal of the project: Biomass availability in Vietnam (Chapter 2); Government of Vietnam and Energy (Chapter 3); The opportunities and barriers to enter the market in Vietnam (Chapter 4 and 5); Stakeholder analysis of the bio-energy sector (Chapter 6); and Recommendations (Chapter 7)

  6. 生物质混燃的新型旋流燃烧器特性分析%Feature Analysis of the New-type Swirl Burner with Mixing Combustion of Biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志坚; 刘晓晴; 王泽璞; 周磊

    2012-01-01

    This study designed a kind of swirl burner applying to mixing combustion of biomass and pulverized coal. The CFD software was used to simulate the co-firing characteristics in the boiler, so as to make sure the combustion process and corresponding combustion parameters, which can offer strong reference for practically manufacturing this co-firing swirl burner. Compared with coal burner, this co-firing swirl burner is much better economically, environmentally, and efficiently.%设计了一种适用于生物质和煤粉混燃的旋流燃烧器,并用CFD软件对其混燃的燃烧特性进行数值模拟,明晰其燃烧过程及相应的燃烧参数,得到最佳混燃比和最佳燃烧状态。分析结果表明:生物质和煤粉混燃与燃煤锅炉相比,其经济性、环保性、效率性等都有明显提高,

  7. Emergy synthesis for scale breeding waste biomass integrated utilization project%规模养殖废弃物生物质能综合利用工程能值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁雄

    2013-01-01

    In the case of Jiangxi Yinhe Scale Eucommia Pig Breeding Base,the environmental load and local sustainability of the scale breeding waste biomass integrated utilization project was evaluated by using the emergy theory and method.The results indicated that the integrated project transfered the breeding waste into the efficient bio-energy embedded in biogas,biogas slurry and biogas residue through the process of anaerobic digestion,which in turns feedbacked into the system through the bio-energy utilization engineering.In Yinhe scale pig breeding waste biomass integrated utilization project,more reliance on the local recycling renewable resource input reduced the systematical demand for the non-renewable emergy purchased.The recycling utilization of the breeding waste,such as pig manure,urine,etc.,decreased the negative output of the system contaminants.All these make the breeding waste integrated project system illustrated an obvious advantage in the value of indices of R%,EYR,and ELR.In addition,the project realized both the green pig breeding and the organic planting via the circulating energy between the breeding and planting.The output of Eucommia pig and green vegetables would bring a considerable premium income for the enterprises.%应用能值理论和方法,以江西银河杜仲规模绿色生猪养殖基地为例,对规模养殖废弃物生物质综合利用工程的环境承载力及可持续能力进行分析评价.研究结果表明:综合利用工程通过沼气工程将规模养殖废弃物转化为沼气、沼液、沼渣等高效生物能,而这些生物能又通过“三沼”利用工程反馈回系统.大量废弃物再生能值的反馈投入不仅减少了系统对不可再生辅助能投入的需求,且减少了系统污染物的负产出,从而综合利用工程系统在资源系统的可更新率、能值产出率和环境承载率等方面都有明显的优势.同时,工程通过能量在养殖业和种植业间循环流

  8. Electricity production by advanced biomass power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solantausta, Y. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies; Bridgwater, T. [Aston Univ. Birmingham (United Kingdom); Beckman, D. [Zeton Inc., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-11-01

    This report gives the results of the Pyrolysis Collaborative Project organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) under Biomass Agreement. The participating countries or organizations were Canada, European Community (EC), Finland, United States of America, and the United Kingdom. The overall objective of the project was to establish baseline assessments for the performance and economics of power production from biomass. Information concerning the performance of biomass-fuelled power plants based on gasification is rather limited, and even less data is available of on pyrolysis based power applications. In order to gain further insight into the potential for these technologies, this study undertook the following tasks: (1) Prepare process models to evaluate the cost and performance of new advanced biomass power production concepts, (2) Assess the technical and economic uncertainties of different biomass power concepts, (3) Compare the concepts in small scale and in medium scale production (5 - 50 MW{sub e}) to conventional alternatives. Processes considered for this assessment were biomass power production technologies based on gasification and pyrolysis. Direct combustion technologies were employed as a reference for comparison to the processes assessed in this study. Wood was used a feedstock, since the most data was available for wood conversion

  9. Electricity from biomass: A development strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to review the current status of biomass power technology and to evaluate the future directions for development that could significantly enhance the contribution of biomass power to U.S. production of electricity. This document reviews the basic principles of biomass electric systems, the previous contributions of industry and the National Biomass Energy Programs to technology development, and the options for future technology development. It discusses the market for biomass electric technology and future needs for electric power production to help establish a market-oriented development strategy. It projects trends in the performance and cost of the technology and examines the changing dynamics of the power generation market place to evaluate specific opportunities for biomass power development. In a separate document, the Biomass Power Program Five Year R&D Plan, the details of schedules, funding, and roles of participating R&D organizations within the R&D program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are presented. In evaluating the future directions for research and development, two cases are examined.

  10. Development of Solar Biomass Drying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atnaw Samson Mekbib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper focuses on the experimental pre-treatment of biomass in agricultural site using solar energy as power source and contribution of common use and efficiency solar dryer system for consumer. The main purpose of this design for solar cabinet dryer is to dry biomass via direct and indirect heating. Direct heating is the simplest method to dry biomass by exposing the biomass under direct sunlight. The solar cabinet dryer traps solar heat to increase the temperature of the drying chamber. The biomass absorbs the heat and transforms the moisture content within the biomass into water vapour and then leaves the chamber via the exhaust air outlet. This problem however can be solved by adopting indirect solar drying system. High and controllable temperatures can be achieved as a fan is used to move the air through the solar collector. This project has successfully created a solar cabinet dryer that combines both direct and indirect solar drying systems and functions to dry biomass as well as crops effectively and efficiently with minimal maintenance. Hence, it is indeed a substitution for conventional dryers which are affordable to local farmers.

  11. Advanced Systems for Preprocessing and Characterizing Coal-Biomass Mixtures as Next-Generation Fuels and Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmis, Michael [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Luttrell, Gerald [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Ripepi, Nino [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Bratton, Robert [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Dohm, Erich [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The research activities presented in this report are intended to address the most critical technical challenges pertaining to coal-biomass briquette feedstocks. Several detailed investigations were conducted using a variety of coal and biomass feedstocks on the topics of (1) coal-biomass briquette production and characterization, (2) gasification of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, (3) combustion of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, and (4) conceptual engineering design and economic feasibility of briquette production. The briquette production studies indicate that strong and durable co-firing feedstocks can be produced by co-briquetting coal and biomass resources commonly available in the United States. It is demonstrated that binderless coal-biomass briquettes produced at optimized conditions exhibit very high strength and durability, which indicates that such briquettes would remain competent in the presence of forces encountered in handling, storage and transportation. The gasification studies conducted demonstrate that coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes are exceptional gasification feedstocks, particularly with regard to the synergistic effects realized during devolatilization of the blended materials. The mixture combustion studies indicate that coal-biomass mixtures are exceptional combustion feedstocks, while the briquette combustion study indicates that the use of blended briquettes reduces NOx, CO2, and CO emissions, and requires the least amount of changes in the operating conditions of an existing coal-fired power plant. Similar results were obtained for the physical durability of the pilot-scale briquettes compared to the bench-scale tests. Finally, the conceptual engineering and feasibility analysis study for a commercial-scale briquetting production facility provides preliminary flowsheet and cost simulations to evaluate the various feedstocks, equipment selection and operating parameters.

  12. Advanced Systems for Preprocessing and Characterizing Coal-Biomass Mixtures as Next-Generation Fuels and Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmis, Michael; Luttrell, Gerald; Ripepi, Nino; Bratton, Robert; Dohm, Erich

    2014-06-30

    The research activities presented in this report are intended to address the most critical technical challenges pertaining to coal-biomass briquette feedstocks. Several detailed investigations were conducted using a variety of coal and biomass feedstocks on the topics of (1) coal-biomass briquette production and characterization, (2) gasification of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, (3) combustion of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, and (4) conceptual engineering design and economic feasibility of briquette production. The briquette production studies indicate that strong and durable co-firing feedstocks can be produced by co-briquetting coal and biomass resources commonly available in the United States. It is demonstrated that binderless coal-biomass briquettes produced at optimized conditions exhibit very high strength and durability, which indicates that such briquettes would remain competent in the presence of forces encountered in handling, storage and transportation. The gasification studies conducted demonstrate that coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes are exceptional gasification feedstocks, particularly with regard to the synergistic effects realized during devolatilization of the blended materials. The mixture combustion studies indicate that coal-biomass mixtures are exceptional combustion feedstocks, while the briquette combustion study indicates that the use of blended briquettes reduces NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, and CO emissions, and requires the least amount of changes in the operating conditions of an existing coal-fired power plant. Similar results were obtained for the physical durability of the pilot-scale briquettes compared to the bench-scale tests. Finally, the conceptual engineering and feasibility analysis study for a commercial-scale briquetting production facility provides preliminary flowsheet and cost simulations to evaluate the various feedstocks, equipment selection and operating parameters.

  13. Community assessment of tropical tree biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, Ida; Rutishauser, Ervan; Poulsen, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Background REDD+ programs rely on accurate forest carbon monitoring. Several REDD+ projects have recently shown that local communities can monitor above ground biomass as well as external professionals, but at lower costs. However, the precision and accuracy of carbon monitoring conducted by local...... communities have rarely been assessed in the tropics. The aim of this study was to investigate different sources of error in tree biomass measurements conducted by community monitors and determine the effect on biomass estimates. Furthermore, we explored the potential of local ecological knowledge to assess...... measurement, with special attention given to large and odd-shaped trees. A better understanding of traditional classification systems and concepts is required for local tree identifications and wood density estimates to become useful in monitoring of biomass and tree diversity....

  14. Gasification of Woody Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jianjun; Saayman, Jean; Grace, John R; Ellis, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Interest in biomass to produce heat, power, liquid fuels, hydrogen, and value-added chemicals with reduced greenhouse gas emissions is increasing worldwide. Gasification is becoming a promising technology for biomass utilization with a positive environmental impact. This review focuses specifically on woody biomass gasification and recent advances in the field. The physical properties, chemical structure, and composition of biomass greatly affect gasification performance, pretreatment, and handling. Primary and secondary catalysts are of key importance to improve the conversion and cracking of tars, and lime-enhanced gasification advantageously combines CO2 capture with gasification. These topics are covered here, including the reaction mechanisms and biomass characterization. Experimental research and industrial experience are investigated to elucidate concepts, processes, and characteristics of woody biomass gasification and to identify challenges.

  15. Complex pendulum biomass sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Perrenoud, Ben C.

    2007-12-25

    A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

  16. Catalytic gasification of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertus, R. J.; Mudge, L. K.; Sealock, L. J., Jr.; Mitchell, D. H.; Weber, S. L.

    1981-12-01

    Methane and methanol synthesis gas can be produced by steam gasification of biomass in the presence of appropriate catalysts. This concept is to use catalysts in a fluidized bed reactor which is heated indirectly. The objective is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the concept. Technically the concept has been demonstrated on a 50 lb per hr scale. Potential advantages over conventional processes include: no oxygen plant is needed, little tar is produced so gas and water treatment are simplified, and yields and efficiencies are greater than obtained by conventional gasification. Economic studies for a plant processing 2000 T/per day dry wood show that the cost of methanol from wood by catalytic gasification is competitive with the current price of methanol. Similar studies show the cost of methane from wood is competitive with projected future costs of synthetic natural gas. When the plant capacity is decreased to 200 T per day dry wood, neither product is very attractive in today's market.

  17. Process for treating biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Timothy J; Teymouri, Farzaneh

    2015-11-04

    This invention is directed to a process for treating biomass. The biomass is treated with a biomass swelling agent within the vessel to swell or rupture at least a portion of the biomass. A portion of the swelling agent is removed from a first end of the vessel following the treatment. Then steam is introduced into a second end of the vessel different from the first end to further remove swelling agent from the vessel in such a manner that the swelling agent exits the vessel at a relatively low water content.

  18. Torrefaction of biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    The objective of this project was to investigate and understand some of the basics of the process of torrefaction and explore the true characteristics of this new type of solid biomass fuel. Tests with torrefaction of different biomass have thus been conducted in both laboratory scale as well as bench scale investigating samples from milligram up to >100 kg. Test in TGA-FTIR and a lab scale pyro-ofen was used to understand the basic chemistry of the influence of torrefaction temperature on the kinetics of the process as well as the condensable gases leaving the process. The results reveal a process that above 250 deg. C is exothermic and that the major condensable gases consist mainly of methanol, acetic acid and water. Significant amounts of methyl-chloride were detected in the condensable gases and do thereby suggest that a certain amount of corrosive Cl could be reduced from the fuel by means of torrefaction. It was also concluded that great care has to be taken during and after production as the torrefied material was seen to self-ignite in an air environment at temperatures above 200 deg. C. The grindability of the material (energy consumption during milling) is indeed significantly improved by torrefaction and can be reduced up to 6 times compared to raw biomass. The results from test in bench scale as well as in lab scale mills suggested that in order to reach grindability similar to coal a torrefaction temperature above 240 deg. C is required for wood chips and above 290 deg. C for wood pellets. These figures will however differ with the type of biomass torrefied and the particle size of the material torrefied and milled. Moisture uptake in torrefied materials is decreased compared to raw biomass. However, due to formation of cavities in the material during torrefaction, the full effect is met first after densification. The hydrophobicity of the material increases with higher torrefaction temperature, but still a rather significant moisture uptake is

  19. Investigating combustion as a method of processing inedible biomass produced in NASA's biomass production chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.; Hinkle, C. R.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project at the John F. Kennedy Space Center is a research program to integrate and evaluate biological processes to provide air, water, and food for humans in closed environments for space habitation. This project focuses on the use of conventional crop plants as grown in the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) for the production and recycling of oxygen, food, and water. The inedible portion of these crops has the potential to be converted to edible biomass or directly to the elemental constituents for direct recycling. Converting inedible biomass directly, by combustion, to carbon dioxide, water, and minerals could provide a baseline for estimating partitioning of the mass balance during recycling in a CELSS. Converting the inedible biomass to carbon dioxide and water requires the same amount of oxygen that was produced by photosynthesis. The oxygen produced during crop growth is just equal to the oxygen required to oxidize all the biomass produced during growth. Thus, the amount of oxygen produced that is available for human consumption is in proportion to the amount of biomass actually utilized by humans. The remaining oxygen must be available to oxidize the rest of the biomass back to carbon dioxide and water or the system will not be a regenerative one.

  20. Zooplankton biomass (displacement and settled volume) data collected during the International Cooperative Investigations of the Tropical Atlantic EQUALANT I, EQUALANT II, and EQUALANT III projects from 1963-02-15 to 1964-07-09 (NODC Accession 0071432)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton biomass (displacement and settled volume) data collected during the International Cooperative Investigations of the Tropical Atlantic EQUALANT I,...

  1. Zooplankton biomass (displacement volume) data collected in North Atlantic during ICNAF NORWESTLANT projects I-III in 1963 by different countries, data were acquired from the NMFS-COPEPOD database (NODC Accession 0070201)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton biomass data (displacement volume) collected in North Atlantic during ICNAF (International Convention for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries) NORWESTLANT...

  2. Biomass fuelled indirect fired micro turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, D.

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project to further develop and improve a system based on the Bowman TG50 50kWe turbine and a C3(S) combustor with a high temperature heat exchanger for the production of electricity from biomass. Details are given of the specific aims of the project, the manufacture of a new larger biomass combustor, the development of startup and shutdown procedures, waste heat recuperation, adaption of a PC-based mathematical model, and capital equipment costs. The significant levels of carbon emission savings and the commercial prospects of the biomass generator gas turbine combined heat and power (CHP) system are considered, and recommendations are presented.

  3. Torrefied biomass for use in power station sector; Torrefizierte Biomasse zum Einsatz im Kraftwerkssektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Janet; Schaubach, Kay [Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ) gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Bioenergiesysteme; Kiel, Jaap; Carbo, Michiel [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Wojcik, Magdalena [OFI Austrian Research Institute for Chemistry and Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-10-01

    In the torrefaction process biomass is heated up in the absence of oxygen to a temperature of at least 250 C. By combining torrefaction with pelletisation or briquetting, biomass materials can be converted into a high-energy-density bioenergy carrier with improved behaviour in (long-distance) transport, handling and storage. Torrefaction also creates superior properties for biomass in many major end-use applications. The process has the potential to provide a significant contribution to an enlarged raw material portfolio for sustainable biomass fuel production inside Europe by including both agricultural and forestry biomass (residues). The article will briefly introduce the concept and objectives of the project and the different torrefaction technologies involved and then focus on the results obtained within the first project phase of the EU-project SECTOR. This comprises production of torrefied biomass batches, subsequent densification (pelletisation and briquetting), characterisation and Round Robin testing of characterisation methods, initial logistics and end-use performance testing, material safety data sheet preparation and sustainability assessment along the value chain. (orig.)

  4. First biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this third volume deal with Environmental Issues, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. Concerning Environmental Issues, the following topics are emphasized: Global Climate Change, Biomass Utilization, Biofuel Test Procedures, and Commercialization of Biomass Products. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Grate Firing of Biomass: Measurements, Validation and Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    , they are not yet totally problem-free. More efforts are required to further improve and optimize biomass grate-firing technology. This part of the project focuses on the CFD modelling of two industrial biomass grate-fired furnaces (AVV2 & EV3). The grate fired furnace is an overfeed stoker and can be interpreted...

  6. Biomass CFB gasifier connected to a 350 MW{sub t}h steam boiler fired with coal and natural gas - THERMIE demonstration project in Lahti in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J. [Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Varkaus (Finland). Varkaus Global New Products

    1997-12-31

    Laempoevoima Oy`s Kymijaervi power plant gasification project is to demonstrate the direct gasification of wet biofuel and the use of hot, raw and very low-calorific gas directly in the existing coal-fired boiler. The gasification of biofuels and co-combustion of gases in the existing coal-fired boiler offers many advantages such as: recycling of CO{sub 2}, decreased SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, efficient way to utilize biofuels and recycled refuse fuels, low investment and operation costs, and utilization of the existing power plant capacity. Furthermore, only small modifications are required in the boiler, possible disturbances in the gasifier do not shut down the power plant. (author)

  7. Dual Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-30

    The dual fluidized bed reactor is a recirculating system in which one half of the unit operates as a steam pyrolysis device for biomass. The pyrolysis occurs by introducing biomass and steam to a hot fluidized bed of inert material such as coarse sand. Syngas is produced during the pyrolysis and exits the top of the reactor with the steam. A crossover arm, fed by gravity, moves sand and char from the pyrolyzer to the second fluidized bed. This sand bed uses blown air to combust the char. The exit stream from this side of the reactor is carbon dioxide, water and ash. There is a second gravity fed crossover arm to return sand to the pyrolysis side. The recirculating action of the sand and the char is the key to the operation of the dual fluidized bed reactor. The objective of the project was to design and construct a dual fluidized bed prototype reactor from literature information and in discussion with established experts in the field. That would be appropriate in scale and operation to measure the relative performance of the gasification of biomass and low ranked coals to produce a high quality synthesis gas with no dilution from nitrogen or combustion products.

  8. Wallowa County Integrated Biomass Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoffersen, Nils [Wallowa Resources Community Solutions Inc., Wallowa, OR (United States)

    2014-05-02

    The Integrated Biomass Energy Center (IBEC) is an approximately 0.1 MW CHP integrated biorefinery in Northeastern Oregon which will demonstrate and validate small-scale combined heat and power from lignin intermediates/residues. IBEC will be co-located with feedstock suppliers and thermal and power customers for distributed generation. The project was developed by Wallowa Resources Community Solutions Inc.

  9. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased rapidly in

  10. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, Dragan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of wat

  11. Energetische Verwertung von Biomasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoransky, Richard; Allelein, Hans-Josef; Bollin, Elmar; Oehler, Helmut; Schelling, Udo

    Etwa 0,1% der Solarenergie wandeln sich durch Photosynthese aus dem Kohlendioxid der Luft in Biomasse um. Die Biomassen sind als Festbrennstoff nutzbar oder zu gasförmigen Brennstoffen weiterverarbeitbar. Zwei Arten von Biomassen sind zu unterscheiden: Anfallende Biomasse

  12. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  13. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Rudolf, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass with the aim of describing the current status of the technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a medium-temperature, high-pressure thermochemical process, which produces a liquid product, often called bio-oil or bi-crude. During...... the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the macromolecules of the biomass are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive and can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed...... by dehydration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of bio-oil are highly dependent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass constitutes of various components such as protein; carbohydrates, lignin and fat, and each of them produce distinct spectra of compounds during hydrothermal liquefaction...

  14. Termisk forgasning af biomasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2005-01-01

    The title of this Ph.D. thesis is: Thermal Gasification of Biomass. Compilation of activities in the ”Biomass Gasification Group” at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). This thesis gives a presentation of selected activities in the Biomass Gasification Group at DTU. The activities are related...... to thermal gasification of biomass. Focus is on gasification for decentralised cogeneration of heat and power, and on related research on fundamental processes. In order to insure continuity of the presentation the other activities in the group, have also been described. The group was started in the late...... nineteen eighties. Originally, the main aim was to collect and transfer knowledge about gasification of straw. Very quickly it became clear, that knowledge was insufficient and the available technology, in most cases, unsuitable for converting the Danish biomass. The need for such technology...

  15. Biomass - Overview of Swiss Research Programme 2003; Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2003-07-01

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results obtained in 2003 in various research projects worked on in Switzerland on the subject of biomass. In the biomass combustion area, subjects discussed include system optimisation for automatic firing, combustion particles, low-particle pellet furnaces, design and optimisation of wood-fired storage ovens, efficiency of filtering techniques and methane generation from wood. Also, an accredited testing centre for wood furnaces is mentioned and measurements made on an installation are presented. As far as the fermentation of biogenic wastes is concerned, biogas production from dairy-product wastes is described. Other projects discussed include a study on eco-balances of energy products, certification and marketing of biogas, evaluation of membranes, a measurement campaign for solar sludge-drying, the operation of a percolator installation for the treatment of bio-wastes, the effects of compost on the environment and the fermentation of coffee wastes. Also, statistics on biogas production in 2002 is looked at. Finally, a preliminary study on biofuels is presented.

  16. Computational Analysis of Mixing and Transport of Air and Fuel in Co-Fired Combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational analysis for air fuel mixing and transport in a combustor used for co fired burner has been done by RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier?Stokes model comparing with 3D (Three Dimensional LES (Large Eddy Simulation. To investigate the better turbulence level and mixing within co fired combustor using the solid fuel biomass with coal is main purpose of this research work. The results show the difference in flow predicted by the two models, LES give better results than the RANS. For compressible flow the LES results show more swirling effect, The velocity decays along axial and radial distance for both swirling and non-swirling jet. Because of no slip condition near boundary the near the wall velocity is about zero

  17. GHG Emissions and Costs of Developing Biomass Energy in Malaysia: Implications on Energy Security in the Transportation and Electricity Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 48% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This study addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions from land use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270 - 530 g and 120 -190 g CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 to 85 g CO2-eq per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. Fossil fuels contributed about 93% to Malaysia's electricity generation mix and emit about 65 million tonnes (Mt) or 36% of the country's 2010 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The government has set a target to install 330 MW biomass electricity by 2015, which is hoped to avoid 1.3 Mt of GHG emissions annually. The availability of seven types of biomass residues in Peninsular Malaysia is estimated based on residues-to-product ratio, recoverability and accessibility factor and other competing uses. It was found that there are approximately 12.2 Mt/yr of residues. Oil-palm residues contribute about 77% to the total availability with rice and forestry residues at 17%. Electricity from biomass can be produced via direct combustion in dedicated power plants or co-fired with coal. The co-firing of the residues at four existing coal plants in

  18. Superheater Corrosion In Biomass Boilers: Today's Science and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, William (Sandy) [SharpConsultant

    2011-12-01

    the measured first melting point of fly ash deposits does not necessarily produce a step increase in corrosion rate. Corrosion rate typically accelerates at temperatures below the first melting temperature and mixed deposits may have a broad melting temperature range. Although the environment at a superheater tube surface is initially that of the ash deposits, this chemistry typically changes as the deposits mature. The corrosion rate is controlled by the environment and temperature at the tube surface, which can only be measured indirectly. Some results are counter-intuitive. Two boiler manufacturers and a consortium have developed models to predict fouling and corrosion in biomass boilers in order to specify tube materials for particular operating conditions. It would be very useful to compare the predictions of these models regarding corrosion rates and recommended alloys in the boiler environments where field tests will be performed in the current program. Manufacturers of biomass boilers have concluded that it is more cost-effective to restrict steam temperatures, to co-fire biofuels with high sulfur fuels and/or to use fuel additives rather than try to increase fuel efficiency by operating with superheater tube temperatures above melting temperature of fly ash deposits. Similar strategies have been developed for coal fired and waste-fired boilers. Additives are primarily used to replace alkali metal chloride deposits with higher melting temperature and less corrosive alkali metal sulfate or alkali aluminum silicate deposits. Design modifications that have been shown to control superheater corrosion include adding a radiant pass (empty chamber) between the furnace and the superheater, installing cool tubes immediately upstream of the superheater to trap high chloride deposits, designing superheater banks for quick replacement, using an external superheater that burns a less corrosive biomass fuel, moving circulating fluidized bed (CFB) superheaters from the

  19. TG-FTIR pyrolysis of coal and secondary biomass fuels: Determination of pyrolysis kinetic parameters for main species and NOx precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. de Jong; G. Di Nola; B.C.H. Venneker; H. Spliethoff; M.A. Wojtowicz [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Process and Energy Department, Energy Technology Section

    2007-10-15

    Co-firing of secondary biomass fuels with coal in coal-fired pulverized fuel boilers is facing increased application in large-scale power production. Fundamental knowledge on the thermochemical behavior of biomass and waste fuels is still lacking, especially regarding the release of the fuel bound nitrogen. Characterization of chicken litter (CL), biomass mix (BM) and meat and bone meal (MBM) and an HV coal blend was performed using TG-FTIR analysis. Three heating rate profiles were applied (10, 30 and 100{sup o}C/min), with a final temperature of 900 {sup o}C. NH{sub 3} was found to be the major gaseous N-product, while HCN and HNCO were also released in substantial amounts. Kinetic parameters for the pyrolysis of biomass fuels were obtained using a model based on parallel first-order reactions with a Gaussian distribution of activation energies. Input files for the coal FG-DVC (functional group-devolatilization, vaporization, cross-linking) and FG-BioMass pyrolysis models were prepared. The fit of model parameters to TG-FTIR product-evolution data was found to be generally good, but the model-predicted yields for some species did not fit experimental data at all heating rates equally well. This problem can be overcome by improvements in the FG-BioMass model. The results of this study can be used to have an improved input of initial pyrolysis in CFD modeling of co-fired boilers. 45 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Torrefaction of woody and agro biomasses as energy carriers for European markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)], email: carl.wilen@vtt.fi

    2012-07-01

    New large scale bioenergy carriers are coming to the industrial demonstration phase, such as torrefaction and pyrolysis technologies. Torrefied wood pellets (TOP pellets) will give high energy volumetric density and properties similar to coal in large scale utility boilers. Torrefaction offer an interesting opportunity to replace fossil fuels by co-firing TOP pellets in coal fired pulverized combustion (PC) boilers. The production units can operate in standalone mode or integrated to industrial CHP or forest industry fluidised bed boilers. There are currently more than 950 saw, paper and pulp mills in Europe. They offer attractive business options for energy carrier investment based on existing raw material and forest residue logistics. This project creates good understanding of TOP pellet production, properties, potential uses, and competitiveness and European business opportunities. The project also aims at introducing and promoting Finnish solutions for these markets.

  1. PCDD/FS EMISSION IN A 150T/D MSW AND COAL CO-FIRING FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Incineration as a method of reducing Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) volume and recovery of energy has been developed gradually in China. More attention is paid on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) formed in MSW incineration process. This paper presents results of the analysis of PCDD/Fs in the residues of a fluidized bed incinerator co-firing MSW and coal in the Yuhang Thermal Power Plant. The effects of operation conditions and the wet scrubber system on PCDD/Fs formation were also analyzed. PCDD/Fs emitting from the smoke stack was 0.92 I-TEQ ng/Nm3. After the wet scrubber emission of dioxins increased and the shifting of homologue profiles in flue gas was also observed, PCDFs were not detected in the incinerator residues. From this, we can see that in the MSW incineration process, the formation mechanism of PCDFs was different from that of PCDDs. The results will benefit further research on the optimal operation of incinerator and control of PCDD/Fs emission from the MSW incinerator.

  2. Alkali activated solidification/stabilisation of air pollution control residues and co-fired pulverised fuel ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Robin; Black, Leon

    2011-10-30

    This paper examines the potential treatment by solidification/stabilisation (S/S) of air pollution control (APC) residues using only waste materials otherwise bound for disposal, namely a pulverised fuel ash (PFA) from a co-fired power station and a waste caustic solution. The use of waste materials to stabilise hazardous wastes in order to meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) would offer an economical and efficient method for reducing the environmental impact of the hazardous waste. The potential is examined against leach limits for chlorides, sulphates and total dissolved solids, and compressive strength performance described in the WAC for stable non-reactive (SNR) hazardous waste landfill cells in England and Wales. The work demonstrates some potential for the treatment, including suitable compressive strengths to meet regulatory limits. Monolithic leach results showed good encapsulation compared to previous work using a more traditional cement binder. However, consistent with previous work, SNR WAC for chlorides was not met, suggesting the need for a washing stage. The potential problems of using a non-EN450 PFA for S/S applications were also highlighted, as well as experimental results which demonstrate the effect of ionic interactions on the mobility of phases during regulatory leach testing.

  3. Miniaturized total analysis systems: integration of electronics and fluidics using low-temperature co-fired ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cisneros, Cynthia S; Ibáñez-García, Núria; Valdés, Francisco; Alonso, Julián

    2007-11-01

    The advantages of microanalyzers, usually fabricated in silicon, glass, or polymers, are well-known. The design and construction of fluidic platforms are well-developed areas due to the perfectly established microfabrication technologies used. However, there is still the need to achieve devices that include not only the fluid management system but also the measurement electronics, so that real portable miniaturized analyzers can be obtained. Low-temperature co-fired ceramics technology permits the incorporation of actuators, such as micropumps and microvalves, controlled either magnetically, piezoelectrically, or thermally. Furthermore, electronic circuits can be also easily built exploiting the properties of these ceramics and the fact that they can be fabricated using a multilayer approach. In this work, taking advantage of the possibility of combining fluidics and electronics in a single substrate and using the same fabrication methodology, a chemical microanalyzer that integrates microfluidics, the detection system, and also the data acquisition and digital signal processing electronics is presented. To demonstrate the versatility of the technology, two alternative setups have been developed. In the first one, a modular configuration is proposed. In this case, the same electronic module can be used to determine different chemical parameters by simply exchanging the chemical module. In the second one, the monolithic integration of all the elements was accomplished, allowing the construction of compact and dedicated devices. Chloride ion microanalyzers have been constructed to demonstrate the operability of both device configurations. In all cases, the results obtained showed adequate analytical features.

  4. Fabrication and evaluation of the thin NiFe supported solid oxide fuel cell by co-firing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyeong Hyun; Kim, Haekyoung [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Min [Fuel Cell Project, Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang 790-330 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Metal supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are one of the most promising candidates for power plants as well as portable applications due to their good mechanical and thermal properties. In this study, the thin NiFe supported SOFC, which consisted of thin metal support (NiFe, {proportional_to}70 {mu}m), anode functional layer (Ni-YSZ, {proportional_to}30 {mu}m), electrolyte (YSZ, {proportional_to}15 {mu}m), and cathode (LSCF, {proportional_to}30 {mu}m), was fabricated through tape casting and co-firing method. The cell showed 1.05-1.1 V of open circuit voltage and 1.4 W cm{sup -2} of maximum power density at 800 C with the ohmic resistance (R{sub ohm}) of 0.12 {omega} cm{sup 2} and the polarization resistance (R{sub p}) of 0.38 {omega} cm{sup 2}. The high performance and the successful measurement of thin metal supported cell showed the possibility for mobile applications through the large area cell fabrications. (author)

  5. Transport and supply logistics of biomass fuels: Vol. 2. Biomass and strategic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J.; Browne, M.; Cook, A.; Wicks, N.; Palmer, H.; Hunter, A.; Boyd, J.

    1996-10-01

    This document forms part of the United Kingdom Department of Trade and Industry project ''Transport and Logistics of Biomass Fuels'', which aimed to describe the distribution of existing and potential biomass resources in terms of their supply potential for power stations. Fixed areas of supply, or catchments, have been identified on colour maps of Britain showing the distribution of forest fuel, short rotation coppices, and various types of straw and animal slurry, using a specially written strategic modelling program. Adequate supplies of biomass resources are shown to exist in Britain, but siting of power stations to exploit these resources, will depend on transport and economic considerations appropriate at the time of construction. Biomass power stations in the megawatt capacity range could be resourced. (UK)

  6. Biomass_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Biomass data found in this data set are broken into four regions of the Northeast US Continental Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem: Gulf of Maine, Georges Bank,...

  7. Biomass Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Biomass carbon includes carbon stored in above- and below-ground live plant components (such as leaf, branch, stem and root) as well as in standing and down dead...

  8. Biomass for bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott

    for displacing fossil resources and is perceived as one of the main pillars of a future low-carbon or no-carbon energy supply. However, biomass, renewable as it is, is for any relevant, time horizon to be considered a finite resource as it replenishes at a finite rate. Conscientious stewardship of this finite......Across the range of renewable energy resources, bioenergy is probably the most complex, as using biomass to support energy services ties into a number of fields; climate change, food production, rural development, biodiversity and environmental protection. Biomass offer several options...... the undesirable impacts of bioenergy done wrong. However, doing bioenergy right is a significant challenge due to the ties into other fields of society. Fundamentally plant biomass is temporary storage of solar radiation energy and chemically bound energy from nutrients. Bioenergy is a tool to harness solar...

  9. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Biomass is one of the most abundant sources of renewable energy, and will be an important part of a more sustainable future energy system. In addition to direct combustion, there is growing attention on conversion of biomass into liquid en-ergy carriers. These conversion methods are divided...... into liquid biofuels, with the aim of describing the current status and development challenges of the technology. During the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the biomass macromolecules are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive...... into biochemical/biotechnical methods and thermochemical methods; such as direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction etc. This chapter will focus on hydrothermal liquefaction, where high pressures and intermediate temperatures together with the presence of water are used to convert biomass...

  10. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  11. Physical, chemical, net haul, bird surveys, and other observations (BIOMASS data) from the British Antarctic Survey FIBEX and SIBEX Projects from 01 November 1980 to 30 April 1985 (NODC Accession 9400053)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession includes observations of physical, chemical, and biomass properties from three field experiments conducted by the British Antarctic Survey: the First...

  12. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Gasification with gas turbine/engine for power plants; Incl. English lang. appendix of 24 p. titled 'Status of large-scale biomass gasification for power production'; Inventering av framtidens el och vaermeproduktionstekniker. Delrapport Foergasning med gasturbin/motor foer kraftvaerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldheim, Lars; Larsson, Eva K. (TPS Termiska Processer, Nykoeping (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This subproject is limited to applications with gas turbines or engines from approximately 1 MWe and firing of gas in a boiler either as indirect cofiring or as separate firing of gas from waste gasification. Gasification with gas engine, BIG-ICE (Biomass Integrated Gasification Internal-Combustion Engine) is realized in approximately 10 plants in Europe between 1 and 7 MWe. The gas needs to be cleaned from particles and tar before it is fed to the engine. A number of different gasifiers and gas cleaning technologies are applied in these prototypes, and in certain cases a second generation is being built. Gas engines from GE Jenbacher are most common, but there are also other producers with engines for low-calorific-value gas. The exhausts from engines must, unlike gas turbines, be cleaned catalytically, but emissions of hydrocarbons in particular are still higher than from gas turbines. It is possible to increase the electricity generation by applying a 'bottoming cycle' in the form of a steam or an ORC cycle. Such a plant with ORC has been started in Austria this year. During the 1990's expectations were high concerning the development of biomass gasification with gas turbine in a combined cycle BIG-CC (Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) towards commercialisation. Two demonstration plants were built for the same gas turbine model, Siemens SGT 100 (earlier Typhoon); Vaernamo with pressurised gasification and ARBRE in Eggborough, England, with atmospheric gasification. The atmospheric technology has basically the same demands on gas cleaning as in the engine application, but downstream the gas is compressed to the pressure required by the gas turbine. In pressurised gasification, the gasifier pressure is set by the gas turbine. The gas is not cooled below 350-400 deg C and is cleaned in a high-temperature filter. Despite successful demonstration in Vaernamo, no more plants have been built. The ARBRE plant was never put into regular

  13. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILERPLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; Thomas Stickle; Jun Wang; Hongming Li; William P. Barry

    2002-06-13

    During the third quarter, the experimental portion of the project was carried out. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NIOSH Boiler Plant (NBP). Blends using hammer-milled wood were operationally successful and can form the basis of Phase II. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and the mathematical modeling of mercury speciation reactions continued, yielding many interesting results. Material and energy balances for the test periods at the NBP, as well as at the Bellefield Boiler Plant, were prepared. Steps were taken to remove severe constraints from the Pennsylvania Switchgrass Energy and Conservation Project and to organize the supplying of landfill gas to the Bruceton federal complex. Two presentations were made to meetings of the Electric Power Research Institute and the National Energy Technology Laboratory.

  14. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1997-11-30

    This project was designed to evaluate the combustion performance of and emissions from a fluidized bed combustor during the combustion of mixtures of high sulfur and/or high chlorine coals and municipal solid waste (MSW). The project included four major tasks, which were as follows: (1) Selection, acquisition, and characterization of raw materials for fuels and the determination of combustion profiles of combination fuels using thermal analytical techniques; (2) Studies of the mechanisms for the formation of chlorinated organics during the combustion of MSW using a tube furnace; (3) Investigation of the effect of sulfur species on the formation of chlorinated organics; and (4) Examination of the combustion performance of combination fuels in a laboratory scale fluidized bed combustor. Several kinds of coals and the major combustible components of the MSW, including PVC, newspaper, and cellulose were tested in this project. Coals with a wide range of sulfur and chlorine contents were used. TGA/MS/FTIR analyses were performed on the raw materials and their blends. The possible mechanism for the formation of chlorinated organics during combustion was investigated by conducting a series of experiments in a tube furnace. The effect of sulfur dioxide on the formation of molecular chlorine during combustion processes was examined in this study.

  15. Production of methanol/DME from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrenfeldt, J.; Birk Henriksen, U.; Muenster-Swendsen, J.; Fink, A.; Roengaard Clausen, L.; Munkholt Christensen, J.; Qin, K.; Lin, W.; Arendt Jensen, P.; Degn Jensen, A.

    2011-07-01

    In this project the production of DME/methanol from biomass has been investigated. Production of DME/methanol from biomass requires the use of a gasifier to transform the solid fuel to a synthesis gas (syngas) - this syngas can then be catalytically converted to DME/methanol. Two different gasifier types have been investigated in this project: 1) The Two-Stage Gasifier (Viking Gasifier), designed to produce a very clean gas to be used in a gas engine, has been connected to a lab-scale methanol plant, to prove that the gas from the gasifier could be used for methanol production with a minimum of gas cleaning. This was proved by experiments. Thermodynamic computer models of DME and methanol plants based on using the Two-Stage Gasification concept were created to show the potential of such plants. The models showed that the potential biomass to DME/methanol + net electricity energy efficiency was 51-58% (LHV). By using waste heat from the plants for district heating, the total energy efficiencies could reach 87-88% (LHV). 2) A lab-scale electrically heated entrained flow gasifier has been used to gasify wood and straw. Entrained flow gasifiers are today the preferred gasifier type for commercial coal gasification, but little information exists on using these types of gasifiers for biomass gasification. The experiments performed provided quantitative data on product and gas composition as a function of operation conditions. Biomass can be gasified with less oxygen consumption compared to coal. The organic fraction of the biomass that is not converted to gas appears as soot. Thermodynamic computer models of DME and methanol plants based on using entrained flow gasification were created to show the potential of such plants. These models showed that the potential torrefied biomass to DME/methanol + net electricity energy efficiency was 65-71% (LHV). Different routes to produce liquid transport fuels from biomass are possible. They include production of RME (rapeseed oil

  16. Microfabrication of a Novel Ceramic Pressure Sensor with High Sensitivity Based on Low-Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC) Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Li; Qiulin Tan; Wendong Zhang; Chenyang Xue; Yunzhi Li; Jijun Xiong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel capacitance pressure sensor based on Low-Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology is proposed for pressure measurement. This approach differs from the traditional fabrication process for a LTCC pressure sensor because a 4J33 iron-nickel-cobalt alloy is applied to avoid the collapse of the cavity and to improve the performance of the sensor. Unlike the traditional LTCC sensor, the sensitive membrane of the proposed sensor is very flat, and the deformation of the se...

  17. Review: Assessing the climate mitigation potential of biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Moriarty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For many millennia, humans have used biomass for three broad purposes: food for humans and fodder for farm animals; energy; and materials. Food has always been exclusively produced from biomass, and in the year 1800, biomass still accounted for about 95% of all energy. Biomass has also been a major source of materials for construction, implements, clothing, bedding and other uses, but some researchers think that total human uses of biomass will soon reach limits of sustainability. It is thus important to select those biomass uses that will maximise global climate change benefits. With a ‘food first’ policy, it is increasingly recognised that projections of food needs are important for estimating future global bioenergy potential, and that non-food uses of biomass can be increased by both food crop yield improvements and dietary changes. However, few researchers have explicitly included future biomaterials production as a factor in bioenergy potential. Although biomaterials’ share of the materials market has roughly halved over the past quarter-century, we show that per tonne of biomass, biomaterials will usually allow greater greenhouse gas reductions than directly using biomass for bioenergy. particularly since in many cases, biomaterials can be later burnt for energy after their useful life.

  18. Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

    2009-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

  19. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  20. SERI Biomass Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, P. W.; Corder, R. E.; Hill, A. M.; Lindsey, H.; Lowenstein, M. Z.

    1983-02-01

    The biomass with which this report is concerned includes aquatic plants, which can be converted into liquid fuels and chemicals; organic wastes (crop residues as well as animal and municipal wastes), from which biogas can be produced via anerobic digestion; and organic or inorganic waste streams, from which hydrogen can be produced by photobiological processes. The Biomass Program Office supports research in three areas which, although distinct, all use living organisms to create the desired products. The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) supports research on organisms that are themselves processed into the final products, while the Anaerobic Digestion (ADP) and Photo/Biological Hydrogen Program (P/BHP) deals with organisms that transform waste streams into energy products. The P/BHP is also investigating systems using water as a feedstock and cell-free systems which do not utilize living organisms. This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the SERI Biomass Program during FY 1982.

  1. Environmental assessment of biomass based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel

    non-standard impacts from land use and land use change (LULUC) Some of the impacts associated with LULUC for biomass production, which are often not addressed in LCAs have been addressed through a theoretic case study in this PhD project. These impacts are changes in surface albedo, biogenic carbon...... with temporary carbon storage in biomaterials, in a way that quantifies the potential climate change benefit in relation to avoiding crossing near-term climatic targets. The geographical scope in this PhD project is global, as the focus is on methodology development and assessment of biomaterials at a global...... materials. Background The society today is highly dependent on fossil oil and gas for producing fuels, chemicals and materials, however many of those can alternatively be produced from biomass. The potential of biomaterials to substitute fossil based materials receives increased attention, and their global...

  2. Biomass District Heat System for Interior Rural Alaska Villages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, William A.; Parker, Charles R.

    2014-09-01

    Alaska Village Initiatives (AVI) from the outset of the project had a goal of developing an integrated village approach to biomass in Rural Alaskan villages. A successful biomass project had to be ecologically, socially/culturally and economically viable and sustainable. Although many agencies were supportive of biomass programs in villages none had the capacity to deal effectively with developing all of the tools necessary to build a complete integrated program. AVI had a sharp learning curve as well. By the end of the project with all the completed tasks, AVI developed the tools and understanding to connect all of the dots of an integrated village based program. These included initially developing a feasibility model that created the capacity to optimize a biomass system in a village. AVI intent was to develop all aspects or components of a fully integrated biomass program for a village. This meant understand the forest resource and developing a sustainable harvest system that included the “right sized” harvest equipment for the scale of the project. Developing a training program for harvesting and managing the forest for regeneration. Making sure the type, quality, and delivery system matched the needs of the type of boiler or boilers to be installed. AVI intended for each biomass program to be of the scale that would create jobs and a sustainable business.

  3. Biomass stoves in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    and analyzed in this session. Experimental results regarding the performance of biomass combustion stoves and the effects of real-life practices in terms of thermal efficiency, particulate and gaseous emissions will be addressed. This research is based on the development of a new testing approach that combines...... laboratory and field measurements established in the context of the implications of the upcoming eco-design directive. The communication will cover technical aspects concerning the operating performance of different types of biomass stoves and building envelopes, in order to map the ongoing opportunities...

  4. TG-FTIR characterization of coal and biomass single fuels and blends under slow heating rate conditions: Partitioning of the fuel-bound nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Nola, G.; de Jong, W.; Spliethoff, H. [Energy Technology Section, Process and Energy Department, Faculty 3me, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    The devolatilization behavior of a bituminous coal and different biomass fuels currently applied in the Dutch power sector for co-firing was experimentally investigated. The volatile composition during single fuel pyrolysis as well as during co-pyrolysis was studied using TG-FTIR characterization with the focus on the release patterns and quantitative analysis of the gaseous bound nitrogen species. It was shown that all investigated biomass fuels present more or less similar pyrolysis behavior, with a maximum weight loss between 300 and 380 C. Woody and agricultural biomass materials show higher devolatilization rates than animal waste. When comparing different fuels, the percentage of fuel-bound nitrogen converted to volatile bound-N species (NH{sub 3}, HCN, HNCO) does not correlate with the initial fuel-N content. Biomass pyrolysis resulted in higher volatile-N yields than coal, which potentially indicates that NO{sub x} control during co-firing might be favored. No significant interactions occurred during the pyrolysis of coal/biomass blends at conditions typical of TG analysis (slow heating rate). Evolved gas analysis of volatile species confirmed the absence of mutual interactions during woody biomass co-pyrolysis. However, non-additive behavior of selected gas species was found during slaughter and poultry litter co-pyrolysis. Higher CH{sub 4} yields between 450 and 750 C and higher ammonia and CO yields between 550 and 900 C were measured. Such a result is likely to be attributed to catalytic effects of alkali and alkaline earth metals present in high quantity in animal waste ash. The fact that the co-pyrolysis of woody and agricultural biomass is well modeled by simple addition of the individual behavior of its components permits to predict the mixture's behavior based on experimental data available for single fuels. On the other hand, animal waste co-pyrolysis presented in some cases synergistic effects in gas products although additive behavior

  5. Non-thermal production of pure hydrogen from biomass: HYVOLUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, P.A.M.; Vrije, de G.J.; Koukios, E.G.; Niel, van E.W.J.; Eroglu, I.; Modigell, M.; Friedl, A.; Wukovits, W.; Ahrer, W.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives and methodology of the EU-funded research project HYVOLUTION devoted to hydrogen production from biomass are reviewed. The main scientific objective of this project is the development of a novel two-stage bioprocess employing thermophilic and phototrophic bacteria, for the cost-effect

  6. Assessment of the externalities of biomass energy for electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, P.; Leal, J.; Saez, R.M.

    1996-10-01

    This study presents a methodology for the quantification of the socioeconomic and environmental externalities of the biomass fuel cycle. It is based on the one developed by the ExternE Project of the European Commission, based in turn in the damage function approach, and which has been extended and modified for a better adaptation to biomass energy systems. The methodology has been applied to a 20 MW biomass power plant, fueled by Cynara cardunculus, in southern Spain. The externalities addressed have been macroeconomic effects, employment, CO{sub 2}, fixation, erosion, and non-point source pollution. The results obtained should be considered only as subtotals, since there are still other externalities to be quantified. anyway, and in spite of the uncertainty existing, these results suggest that total cost (those including internal and external costs) of biomass energy are lower than those of conventional energy sources, what, if taken into account, would make biomass more competitive than it is now. (Author)

  7. Assessment of the externalise of biomass energy for electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, P.; Leal, J.; Saez, R.M.

    1996-07-01

    This study presents a methodology for the quantification of the socioeconomic and environmental externalities of the biomass fuel cycle. It is based on the one developed by the ExternE Project of the European Commission, based in turm in the damage function approach, and which has been extended and modified for a better adaptation to biomass energy systems. The methodology has been applied to a 20 MW biomass power plant, fueled by Cynara cardunculus, in southern Spain. The externalities addressed have been macroeconomic effects, employment, CO2, fixation, erosion, and non-point source pollution. The results obtained should be considered only as subtotals, since there are still other externalities to be quantified. Anyway, and in spite of the uncertainty existing, these results suggest that the total cost (those including internal and external costs) of biomass energy are lower than those of conventional energy sources, what, if taken into account, would make biomass more competitive than it is now. (Author) 44 refs.

  8. Coupling of energy and agricultural policies on promoting the production of biomass energy from energy crops and grasses in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien [Graduate Institute of Bioresources, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912 (China)

    2009-08-15

    This paper examined promotion programs and implementing regulations that provide a framework for the application of energy and agricultural policies for the local energy crops cultivation by the reactivation of fallow land (about 100,000 ha) and their utilizations in the bioenergy production in Taiwan. The contents were thus addressed on current energy supply and biomass energy production, estimation of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from energy use (consumption) using the Reference Approach of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) method, national energy goal in biomass energy supply in the near future, and government policies and measures for encouraging bioenergy production and consumption. For the promotion of biofuels, the incentive programs were initiated in the period of 2006-2011. The potential benefits of the program include the upgrade of industrial investment in the bioenergy plants, the reactivation of fallow land (about 100,000 ha), the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, and so on. Concerning the utilization of napier grass (a potential energy grass) as biomass energy (electricity generation) for co-firing, its impacts on ambient air quality and non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases (i.e., CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O) emissions were also discussed in the paper. (author)

  9. Biomass programme: Overview of the 2006 Swiss research programme; Programm Biomasse. Ueberblicksbericht zum Forschungsprogramm 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2007-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews work done within the framework of the Swiss biomass research programme in 2006. The programme concentrates on the efficient conversion of biomass into heat, electrical power and motor fuels. Projects concerned with the optimisation of processes are reported on, including low-particle-emission systems, control systems for bivalent heating installations, use of demanding biomass fuels, combined pellets and solar heating systems and the elimination of ammonia emissions. In the material flow area, measurement campaigns, organic pollutants in compost, the effects of fermented wastes in agriculture and methane losses in biogas conditioning are reported on. New conversion technologies are reviewed, including hydro-thermal gasification, plant-oil fuelled combined heat and power units, flameless burners and catalytic direct liquefaction. In the area of basics, studies and concepts, eco-balances and life-cycle analyses are reported on; the production of synthetic natural gas and the influence of combustion particles are discussed and decentralised power generation from solid biomass is reported on. National and international co-operation is reviewed. The report is concluded with a review of eight pilot and demonstration projects, a review of work to be done in 2007 and a list of research and demonstration projects.

  10. Novel ultra-low temperature co-fired microwave dielectric ceramic at 400 degrees and its chemical compatibility with base metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    di, Zhou; Li-Xia, Pang; Ze-Ming, Qi; Biao-Bing, Jin; Xi, Yao

    2014-08-01

    A novel NaAgMoO4 material with spinel-like structure was synthesized by using the solid state reaction method and the ceramic sample was well densified at an extreme low sintering temperature about 400°C. Rietveld refinement of the crystal structure was performed using FULLPROF program and the cell parameters are a = b = c = 9.22039 Å with a space group F D -3 M (227). High performance microwave dielectric properties, with a permittivity ~7.9, a Qf value ~33,000 GHz and a temperature coefficient of resonant frequency ~-120 ppm/°C, were obtained. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) analysis of the co-fired sample, it was found that the NaAgMoO4 ceramic is chemically compatible with both silver and aluminum at the sintering temperature and this makes it a promising candidate for the ultra-low temperature co-fired ceramics technology. Analysis of infrared and THz spectra indicated that dielectric polarizability at microwave region of the NaAgMoO4 ceramic was equally contributed by ionic displasive and electronic polarizations. Its small microwave dielectric permittivity can also be explained well by the Shannon's additive rule.

  11. Evaluation of AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this program is to expand the use of coal by utilizing CFB (circulating fluidized bed) technology to provide an environmentally safe method for disposing of waste materials. Hospitals are currently experiencing a waste management crisis. In many instances, they are no longer permitted to burn pathological and infectious wastes in incinerators. Older hospital incinerators are not capable of maintaining the stable temperatures and residence times necessary in order to completely destroy toxic substances before release into the atmosphere. In addition, the number of available landfills which can safely handle these substances is decreasing each year. The purpose of this project is to conduct necessary research investigating whether the combustion of the hospital wastes in a coal-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler will effectively destroy dioxins and other hazardous substances before release into the atmosphere. If this is proven feasible, in light of the quantity of hospital wastes generated each year, it would create a new market for coal -- possibly 50 million tons/year.

  12. Operating Experience from two new Biomass Fired FBC-Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolhar-Nordenkampf, M.; Tschanun, I.; Kaiser, S. [Austrian Energy and Environment AG, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-15

    The use of renewable fuels in industrial power plants is rising continuously. The driving forces are the Kyoto protocol for CO{sub 2} reduction resulting in government support for green power electricity, substitution of imported primary energy and multi-fuel concepts together with RDF. Biomass fuel exists in various forms, traditionally as wood, bark, harvesting residues sewage sludge and organic waste. A favourable combustion technology is Austrian Energy's 'ECOFLUID' bubbling fluidized bed. Advantageous is the principle of a substoichiometric bed operation which allows bed temperature control in the range between 650 deg C - 850 deg C. Therefore, also fuel with low ash melting temperature can be burned. The applied staged combustion concept results in a homogenous temperature profile in the furnace and first pass of the boiler and thus low NO{sub x} emission. One new plant, owned by Energie AG in Timelkam/Austria has been commissioned in winter 2005. The main fuel of this 57 t/h boiler is bark, wood residues and waste wood up to 30% of the total thermal capacity. Grinding dust and saw dust can be co-fired, too. Optionally, sludge and animal wastes can be fired. The boiler is designed for 42 barg at live steam temperature of 440 deg C. The other new 30 MW{sub th} plant, owned by M-real Hallein AG in Hallein/Austria has been commissioned in winter 2005, too. The boiler is fired with wood chips, bark, rejects and other paper mill residues and furthermore it is able to burn the sludge of the mills own waste water treatment plant. Beside the boiler works as a post combustion system for exhaust gases from a 1 MW Biogas Otto-Engine, or alternatively it is able to burn the biogas directly. The boiler is designed for 61 barg at live steam temperature of 450 deg C.

  13. Platform chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasrendra, Carolus Borromeus

    2012-01-01

    Hoogwaardige chemicaliën uit houtafval De ontwikkeling van nieuwe routes voor (bulk)chemicaliën uit biomassa is van groot belang voor toekomstige biobased societies. In dit proefschrift worden katalytische routes beschreven voor platformchemicaliën uit de suikerfractie van lignocellulosische biomass

  14. Switchgrass for biomass energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a native warm-season grass and is the model herbaceous perennial biomass energy feedstock for the USA. More than 75-years of experience confirm that switchgrass will be productive and sustainable on rain-fed marginally-productive cropland east of the 100th meridian....

  15. Marine biomass research advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, E.

    1980-08-01

    This paper reports on research in California, New York and elsewhere into marine biomass. A manmade marine farm moored four miles off the coast of southern California pumps deep water up a 450 m pipe to fertilize giant kelp. After harvesting and chopping by existing commercial methods, the kelp would be converted, by either anaerobic bacteria or thermal processes, into methane and other products.

  16. Biomass Conversion Factsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-05

    To efficiently convert algae, diverse types of cellulosic biomass, and emerging feedstocks into renewable fuels, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports research, development, and demonstration of technologies. This research will help ensure that these renewable fuels are compatible with today’s vehicles and infrastructure.

  17. Biomass Scenario Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a unique, carefully validated, state-of-the-art dynamic model of the domestic biofuels supply chain which explicitly focuses on policy issues, their feasibility, and potential side effects. It integrates resource availability, physical/technological/economic constraints, behavior, and policy. The model uses a system dynamics simulation (not optimization) to model dynamic interactions across the supply chain.

  18. Pyrolysis of chitin biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Yan; Chen, Shuai; Liu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The thermal degradation of chitin biomass with various molecular structures was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TG), and the gaseous products were analyzed by connected mass spectroscopy (MS). The chemical structure and morphology of char residues collected at 750°C using the model...

  19. Carbon Fiber from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, Anelia [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States); Booth, Samuel [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Carbon fiber (CF), known also as graphite fiber, is a lightweight, strong, and flexible material used in both structural (load-bearing) and non-structural applications (e.g., thermal insulation). The high cost of precursors (the starting material used to make CF, which comes predominately from fossil sources) and manufacturing have kept CF a niche market with applications limited mostly to high-performance structural materials (e.g., aerospace). Alternative precursors to reduce CF cost and dependence on fossil sources have been investigated over the years, including biomass-derived precursors such as rayon, lignin, glycerol, and lignocellulosic sugars. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of CF precursors from biomass and their market potential. We examine the potential CF production from these precursors, the state of technology and applications, and the production cost (when data are available). We discuss their advantages and limitations. We also discuss the physical properties of biomass-based CF, and we compare them to those of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based CF. We also discuss manufacturing and end-product considerations for bio-based CF, as well as considerations for plant siting and biomass feedstock logistics, feedstock competition, and risk mitigation strategies. The main contribution of this study is that it provides detailed technical and market information about each bio-based CF precursor in one document while other studies focus on one precursor at a time or a particular topic (e.g., processing). Thus, this publication allows for a comprehensive view of the CF potential from all biomass sources and serves as a reference for both novice and experienced professionals interested in CF production from alternative sources.

  20. Biomass Feedstock National User Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Bioenergy research at the Biomass Feedstock National User Facility (BFNUF) is focused on creating commodity-scale feed-stocks from native biomass that meet the needs...

  1. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  2. Enhancing Cellulase Commercial Performance for the Lignocellulosic Biomass Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarnigan, Alisha [Danisco, US Inc., Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2016-06-07

    Cellulase enzyme loading (Bt-G) for the economic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol is on of the key challenges identified in the Biomass Program of DOE/EERE. The goal of Danisco’s project which ran from 2008 to 2012, was to address the technical challenge by creating more efficient enzyme that could be used at lower doses, thus reducing the enzymes’ cost contribution to the conversio process. We took the approach of protein engineering of cellulase enzymes to overcome the enzymati limitations in the system of cellulosic-hydrolyzing enzymes to improve performance in conversion o biomass, thereby creating a more effective enzyme mix.

  3. Substrate Integrated Waveguide Based Phase Shifter and Phased Array in a Ferrite Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic Package

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Ahmed A.

    2014-03-01

    Phased array antennas, capable of controlling the direction of their radiated beam, are demanded by many conventional as well as modern systems. Applications such as automotive collision avoidance radar, inter-satellite communication links and future man-portable satellite communication on move services require reconfigurable beam systems with stress on mobility and cost effectiveness. Microwave phase shifters are key components of phased antenna arrays. A phase shifter is a device that controls the phase of the signal passing through it. Among the technologies used to realize this device, traditional ferrite waveguide phase shifters offer the best performance. However, they are bulky and difficult to integrate with other system components. Recently, ferrite material has been introduced in Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) multilayer packaging technology. This enables the integration of ferrite based components with other microwave circuitry in a compact, light-weight and mass producible package. Additionally, the recent concept of Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) allowed realization of synthesized rectangular waveguide-like structures in planar and multilayer substrates. These SIW structures have been shown to maintain the merits of conventional rectangular waveguides such as low loss and high power handling capabilities while being planar and easily integrable with other components. Implementing SIW structures inside a multilayer ferrite LTCC package enables monolithic integration of phase shifters and phased arrays representing a true System on Package (SoP) solution. It is the objective of this thesis to pursue realizing efficient integrated phase shifters and phased arrays combining the above mentioned technologies, namely Ferrite LTCC and SIW. In this work, a novel SIW phase shifter in ferrite LTCC package is designed, fabricated and tested. The device is able to operate reciprocally as well as non-reciprocally. Demonstrating a measured maximum

  4. The development and biocompatibility of low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) for microfluidic and biosensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jin

    Low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) electronic packaging materials are applied for their electrical and mechanical properties, high reliability, chemical stability and ease of fabrication. Three dimensional features can also be prepared allowing integration of microfluidic channels and cavities inside LTCC modules. Mechanical, optical, electrical, microfluidic functions have been realized in single LTCC modules. For these reasons LTCC is attractive for biomedical microfluidics and Lab-on-a-Chip systems. However, commercial LTCC systems, optimized for microelectrics applications, have unknown cytocompatibility, and are not compatible with common surface functionalization chemistries. The first goal of this work is to develop biocompatible LTCC materials for biomedical applications. In the current work, two different biocompatible LTCC substrate materials are conceived, formulated and evaluated. Both materials are based from wellknown and widely utilized biocompatible materials. The biocompatibilities of the developed LTCC materials for in-vitro applications are studied by cytotoxicity assays, including culturing endothelial cells (EC) both in LTCC leachate and directly on the LTCC substrates. The results demonstrate the developed LTCC materials are biocompatible for in-vitro biological applications involving EC. The second goal of this work is to develop functional capabilities in LTCC microfluidic systems suitable for in-vitro and biomedical applications. One proposed application is the evaluation of oxygen tension and oxidative stress in perfusion cell culture and bioreactors. A Clark-type oxygen sensor is successfully integrated with LTCC technique in this work. In the current work, a solid state proton conductive electrolyte is used to integrate an oxygen sensor into the LTCC. The measurement of oxygen concentration in Clark-type oxygen sensor is based on the electrochemical reaction between working electrode and counter electrode. Cyclic voltammetry and

  5. Biomass gasification in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Drift, A. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This reports summarizes the activities, industries, and plants on biomass gasification in the Netherlands. Most of the initiatives somehow relate to waste streams, rather than clean biomass, which may seem logic for a densely populated country as the Netherlands. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest for the production of SNG (Substitute Natural Gas) from biomass, both from governments and industry.

  6. Towards a better understanding of biomass suspension co-firing impacts via investigating a coal flame and a biomass flame in a swirl-stabilized burner flow reactor under same conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the combustion characteristics of firing pure coal and firing pure wheat straw in a 150 kW swirl-stabilized burner flow reactor under nearly same conditions. The results indicate very different combustion characteristics between the coal flame and straw flame. In the straw...... char....

  7. The potential for biomass to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in the Northeastern US. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernow, S.S.; Gurney, K.; Prince, G.; Cyr, M.

    1992-04-01

    This study, for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) of the Coalition of Northeast Governors (CONEG), evaluates the potential for local, state and regional biomass policies to contribute to an overall energy/biomass strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas releases in the Northeastern United States. Biomass is a conditionally renewable resource that can play a dual role: by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in meeting our energy needs; and by removing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in standing biomass stocks and long-lived products. In this study we examine the contribution of biomass to the energy system in the Northeast and to the region`s net releases of carbon dioxide and methane, and project these releases over three decades, given a continuation of current trends and policies. We then compare this Reference Case with three alternative scenarios, assuming successively more aggressive efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through strategic implementation of energy efficiency and biomass resources. Finally, we identify and examine policy options for expanding the role of biomass in the region`s energy and greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

  8. Best Available Techniques (BAT) in solid biomass fuel processing, handling, storage and production of pellets from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, J.P.; Tana, J. [AaF-Industri Ab, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-09-15

    With the increasing use of biomass fuels the varieties of sources for biomass have expanded to almost all possible combustible matter with biological origin. The increasing scale in solid biomass fuel production and utilization at the combustion plants of the wide variety of biomass fuels have contributed to littering, dust, odor and noise emissions of the production chain. The report aims to provide information for operators, environmental consultants and competent environmental authorities on what is considered BAT, as defined in the IPPC directive (2008/1/EC), in biomass processing and handling as well as the production of pellets from biomass. The project gives a brief description of commonly used solid biomass fuels and the processes, handling and storage of these biomasses in the Nordic countries covering processes from production site to the point of use. Environmental emissions, sources of waste and other relevant environmental aspects from commonly used processes, included raw material and energy use, chemical use and emissions to soil are also included in the report. (Author)

  9. Biomass energy in the making; La biomasse: une energie en devenir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2008-07-01

    Wood, straw, agricultural residues, organic wastes, biomass is everywhere you look. But the efficient use of this source of green electricity - the world's second largest renewable energy source - requires optimization of biomass collection and combustion processes. Biomass is back on the political agenda. In mid-June of this year, the French government gave this renewable energy a boost by selecting twenty-two projects to generate power and heat with biomass. The plants, to be commissioned by 2010, will be located in eleven different regions and will consume energy from organic plant matter. The power generated will be bought at a firm price of 128 euros per megawatt-hour. Most of the fuel will come from forest and paper industry waste, but straw and even grape pomace will be used in some cases. The plants will have a combined generating capacity of 300 MWh, raising France's installed biomass capacity to a total of 700 MWe. A drop of water in the ocean in the overall scheme of France's electricity. It is true that France has long neglected biomass. In 2004, electricity generated from biological resources represented a mere 1.74 TWhe in France, just 0.3% of its power consumption. This will rise to 0.6% once the new plants have come on line. The trend is the same in all of the EU's 27 member states, according to Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Communities: the amount of electricity generated from biomass (including biogas, municipal waste and wood) has practically doubled in six years, rising from 40 to 80 TWhe between 2000 and 2005. This is an improvement, but it still only represents 2.5% of the electricity supplied to Europeans. On a global scale, biomass contributes just 1% of total electric power generation. Yet biomass is an energy resource found all over the world, whether as agricultural waste, wood chips, or dried treatment plant sludge, to name but a few. Biomass power plants have managed to gain a foothold mainly in

  10. Establishing biomass heating in the UK: phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The Biomass Heat Working Group, first set up in 1995, was taken on by British BioGen in 1996. Over the summer of 1996 British BioGen, supported by DTI, worked with the group to produce 'A Strategy to Develop the UK Market for Biomass Heating Installations'. In the spring of 1997 British BioGen agreed a two-year programme with ETSU (for the DTI) to 'Establish Biomass Heating in the UK'. The DTI's New and Renewable Energy Programme has supported this two-year programme which aims to bring together industry stakeholders and assist in the development of a significant biomass heat market in the UK. Overall we believe the project has been successful in its aim to increase the volume of biomass heating enquiries and enable greater use of the industry 'knowledge base'. Throughout the duration of the project a number of new biomass heating systems have been installed, including Shenstone Lodge School, Boughton Pumping Station and Elvendon Priory. In addition, an efficient system of information exchange has been established for customers and industry. British BioGen believe that the benefits of this system will be a crucial factor in achieving bioenergy industry targets of 2MWt for domestic heating, 2MWt for industrial and commercial heating and 2MWt for CHP by the end of 2001. The remainder of this summary offers highlights of the activities undertaken within the project, outlines the conclusions of the project and makes brief recommendations for further actions to assist the further deployment of biomass heating in the UK. (author)

  11. Overview of the Biomass Scenario Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Steve [Lexidyne, LLC, Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the structure of the October 2012 version of the Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) in considerable detail, oriented towards readers with a background or interest in the underlying modeling structures. Readers seeking a less-detailed summary of the BSM may refer to Peterson (2013). BSM aims to provide a framework for exploring the potential contribution of biofuel technologies to the transportation energy supply for the United States over the next several decades. The model has evolved significantly from the prototype developed as part of the Role of Biomass in America" tm s Energy Future (RBAEF) project. BSM represents the supply chain surrounding conversion pathways for multiple fuel products, including ethanol, butanol, and infrastructure-compatible biofuels such as diesel, jet fuel, and gasoline.

  12. Biomass to energy; La valorisation energetique de la biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the biomass to energy. It explains the biomass principle, the possibility of biomass to energy conversion, the first generation of biofuels (bio ethanol, ETBE, bio diesel, flex fuel) and their advantages and limitations, the european regulatory framework and policy with the evolutions and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  13. Microfabrication of a Novel Ceramic Pressure Sensor with High Sensitivity Based on Low-Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel capacitance pressure sensor based on Low-Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC technology is proposed for pressure measurement. This approach differs from the traditional fabrication process for a LTCC pressure sensor because a 4J33 iron-nickel-cobalt alloy is applied to avoid the collapse of the cavity and to improve the performance of the sensor. Unlike the traditional LTCC sensor, the sensitive membrane of the proposed sensor is very flat, and the deformation of the sensitivity membrane is smaller. The proposed sensor also demonstrates a greater responsivity, which reaches as high as 13 kHz/kPa in range of 0–100 kPa. During experiments, the newly fabricated sensor, which is only about 6.5 cm2, demonstrated very good performance: the repeatability error, hysteresis error, and nonlinearity of the sensor are about 4.25%, 2.13%, and 1.77%, respectively.

  14. Continuous flow analytical microsystems based on low-temperature co-fired ceramic technology. Integrated potentiometric detection based on solvent polymeric ion-selective electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez-Garcia, Nuria; Mercader, Manel Bautista; Mendes da Rocha, Zaira; Seabra, Carlos Antonio; Góngora-Rubio, Mario Ricardo; Chamarro, Julian Alonso

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, the low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology, which has been commonly used for electronic applications, is presented as a useful alternative to construct continuous flow analytical microsystems. This technology enables not only the fabrication of complex three-dimensional structures rapidly and at a realistic cost but also the integration of the elements needed to carry out a whole analytical process, such as pretreatment steps, mixers, and detection systems. In this work, a simple and general procedure for the integration of ion-selective electrodes based on liquid ion exchanger is proposed and illustrated by using ammonium- and nitrate-selective membranes. Additionally, a screen-printed reference electrode was easily incorporated into the microfluidic LTCC structure allowing a complete on-chip integration of the potentiometric detection. Analytical features of the proposed systems are presented.

  15. A low-temperature co-fired ceramic micro-reactor system for high-efficiency on-site hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Maeder, Thomas; Santis-Alvarez, Alejandro J.; Poulikakos, Dimos; Muralt, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A ceramic-based, meso-scale fuel processor for on-board production of syngas fuel was demonstrated for applications in micro-scale solid-oxide fuel cells (μ-SOFCs). The processor had a total dimension of 12 mm × 40 mm × 2 mm, the gas reforming micro reactor occupying the hot end of a cantilever had outer dimensions of 12 × 18 mm. The device was fabricated through a novel progressive lamination process in low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology. Both, heating function and desired fluidic structures were integrated monolithically into the processor. Using catalytic partial oxidation of a hydrocarbon fuel (propane) as a reaction model, a thermally self-sustaining hydrogen production was achieved. The output flow is sufficiently high to drive an optimized single membrane μSOFC cell of about the same footprint as the micro reactor. Microsystem design, fabrication, catalyst integration as well as the chemical characterization are discussed in detail.

  16. Northeast regional biomass program. Retrospective, 1983--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savitt, S.; Morgan, S. [eds.] [Citizens Conservation Corp., Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Ten years ago, when Congress initiated the Regional Biomass Energy Program, biomass fuel use in the Northeast was limited primarily to the forest products industry and residential wood stoves. An enduring form of energy as old as settlement in the region, residential wood-burning now takes its place beside modern biomass combustion systems in schools and other institutions, industrial cogeneration facilities, and utility-scale power plants. Biomass today represents more than 95 percent of all renewable energy consumed in the Northeast: a little more than one-half quadrillion BTUs yearly, or five percent of the region`s total energy demand. Yet given the region`s abundance of overstocked forests, municipal solid waste and processed wood residues, this represents just a fraction of the energy potential the biomass resource has to offer.This report provides an account of the work of the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) over it`s first ten years. The NRBP has undertaken projects to promote the use of biomass energy and technologies.

  17. Biomass process handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Descriptions are given of 42 processes which use biomass to produce chemical products. Marketing and economic background, process description, flow sheets, costs, major equipment, and availability of technology are given for each of the 42 processes. Some of the chemicals discussed are: ethanol, ethylene, acetaldehyde, butanol, butadiene, acetone, citric acid, gluconates, itaconic acid, lactic acid, xanthan gum, sorbitol, starch polymers, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, glycerol, soap, azelaic acid, perlargonic acid, nylon-11, jojoba oil, furfural, furfural alcohol, tetrahydrofuran, cellulose polymers, products from pulping wastes, and methane. Processes include acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, Purox process, and anaerobic digestion.

  18. Biomass Deconstruction and Recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Heng

    reflections of plant species, tissue or organ types, genetic traits and environment. Effects of cultivar type, anatomical distribution, chemical composition, fertilizer level and growth year have been observed during in vitro and in vivo trials. A similar approach is here taken to further investigate: 1). How...... system, a plate incubator and a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. In comparison with the reported HTS platforms, the Copenhagen platform is featured by the fully automatic biomass sample preparation system, the bench-scale hydrothermal pretreatment setup, and precise sugar measurement...

  19. Synthesis of Nanocrystalline CaWO4 as Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic Material: Processing, Structural and Physical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidya, S.; Solomon, Sam; Thomas, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystalline scheelite CaWO4, a promising material for low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) applications, has been successfully synthesized through a single-step autoignition combustion route. Structural analysis of the sample was performed by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The XRD analysis revealed that the as-prepared sample was single phase with scheelite tetragonal structure. The basic optical properties and optical constants of the CaWO4 nanopowder were studied using ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption spectroscopy, which showed that the material was a wide-bandgap semiconductor with bandgap of 4.7 eV at room temperature. The sample showed poor transmittance in the ultraviolet region but maximum transmission in the visible/near-infrared regions. The photoluminescence spectra recorded at different temperatures showed intense emission in the green region. The particle size estimated from transmission electron microscopy was 23 nm. The feasibility of CaWO4 for LTCC applications was studied from its sintering behavior. The sample was sintered at a relatively low temperature of 810°C to high density, without using any sintering aid. The surface morphology of the sintered sample was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The dielectric constant and loss factor of the sample measured at 5 MHz were found to be 10.50 and 1.56 × 10-3 at room temperature. The temperature coefficient of the dielectric constant was -88.71 ppm/°C. The experimental results obtained in this work demonstrate the potential of nano-CaWO4 as a low-temperature co-fired ceramic as well as an excellent luminescent material.

  20. Entrained Flow Gasification of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke

    of different fuels on syngas products was investigated at 1400 °C with steam addition. The yields of residual particulates (char and/or soot) decreased with increasing straw fraction during straw/wood co-gasification and with increasing biomass fraction (straw or wood) during biomass/coal co......, char-gas and soot-gas reactions, detailed gas-phase reactions, and mass and heat transfer. The model could reasonable predict the yields of syngas products obtained in the biomass gasification experiments. Moreover, the simulation results suggest that the soot can be completely converted and thereby......The present Ph. D. thesis describes experimental and modeling investigations on entrained flow gasification of biomass and an experimental investigation on entrained flow cogasification of biomass and coal. A review of the current knowledge of biomass entrained flow gasification is presented...

  1. 掺烧稻壳对煤粉炉飞灰特性的影响%EFFECT OF CO-FIRING ON THE CHARACTERISTIC OF FLY ASH IN 300MWel PC BOILER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁许鳌; 阎维平; 沈冶; 袁光福; 蒋国平

    2011-01-01

    在某300MW机组煤粉锅炉上进行稻壳掺烧试验,掺烧后飞灰的性质发生变化.对掺烧后锅炉飞灰的微观形貌、化学性质和稻壳灰的孔隙结构等性质进行试验分析.发现:掺烧稻壳后飞灰的物相中出现鳞石英和方石英晶形,飞灰中稻壳灰呈现熔融后块状的不规则颗粒物和黑色的大粒径的不规则片状灰粒,SiO2的含量从掺烧前的55.93%增加到75.05%.利用压汞仪对稻壳灰的孔隙特性进行分析.稻壳和煤共燃的飞灰的利用方式需要重新评估,而分离的稻壳灰可用作多孔材料.%The test of co-firing of rice husk and coal was carried on PC boiler of 300MWel unit. The characteristics of the flying ash of co-firing change. The microscopic appearance, the chemical property of the fly ash and the pore structure of the rice husk ash(RHA) were studied. During co-firing, there are the cristobalite and tridymite crystal in the fly ash.RHA presents two kinds: massive anomalous particles and black size laminated ash power; the Si02 content of the fly ash of co-firing to increasing from 55.93% to 75.05%. The pore characteristics of RHA was studied by mercury porosimeter.The using methods of the fly ash of co-firing will be re-evaluated. However, the dee husk ash separated of co-firing can be use for porous material.

  2. Enrichment of cadmium in biomasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwenner, C.; Wittig, H.; Glombitza, F.

    1986-01-01

    The uptake of cadmium ions from an aqueous solution by living, resting, and dead biomasses was investigated. The dependence of the uptaked amounts on pH-value of the medium, temperature and concentration of cadmium ions is demonstrated as well as the rate of uptake. Maximum realisable concentrations were 12 mg/g biomass in living cells and about 20 mg/g biomass in resting or dead cells, respectively.

  3. Energy Recovery from Contaminated Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Moskalík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on thermal gasification methods of contaminated biomass in an atmospheric fluidized bed, especially biomass contaminated by undesirable substances in its primary use. For the experiments, chipboard waste was chosen as a representative sample of contaminated biomass. In the experiments, samples of gas and tar were taken for a better description of the process of gasifying chipboard waste. Gas and tar samples also provide information about the properties of the gas that is produced.

  4. PHA recovery from biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Mohamed H; Heinrich, Daniel; Alghamdi, Mansour A; Shabbaj, Ibraheem I; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2013-09-09

    The recovery of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from biomass, that is, from bacterial cells, is one of the major obstacles in the industrial production of these polyesters. Since PHAs are naturally synthesized as intracellular storage compounds for carbon and energy and are for this deposited in the cytoplasm of the bacterial cell, PHAs are more or less tightly linked with the entire biomass, and the polyesters must be released from the cells before their isolation and purification can be conducted. This additional step, that is, the release from the cells, is a major difference from most other biotechnological processes where the product occurs outside of the cells because it is secreted into the medium in a bioreactor or because it is synthesized in vitro in an enzyme reactor in a cell free system. This additional step contributes significantly to the overall costs of production. In this review we provide an overview about the different processes that result in the release of PHA from the cells, and we evaluate these processes with regard to the suitability at large scale in the industry.

  5. Hydrothermal carbonisation of biomass. Results and perspectives; Hydrothermale Carbonisierung von Biomasse. Ergebnisse und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Christiane (ed.)

    2013-06-01

    Due to the ambitious political targets for the utilization of renewable energy in the energy supply, climate protection and resource conservation, biomass gained increasing attention. With the aim of developing new and more efficient ways of recycling organic waste, the Federal Foundation for the Environment (Osnabrueck, Federal Republic of Germany) supports funding projects for the technological development of the hydrothermal carbonization with respect to the optimization of reaction processes and targeted production of certain qualities of biochar. The results of the funded projects of Federal Foundation for the Environment are presented in this conference proceedings.

  6. Modelling tree biomasses in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repola, J.

    2013-06-01

    Biomass equations for above- and below-ground tree components of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L), Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) and birch (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were compiled using empirical material from a total of 102 stands. These stands (44 Scots pine, 34 Norway spruce and 24 birch stands) were located mainly on mineral soil sites representing a large part of Finland. The biomass models were based on data measured from 1648 sample trees, comprising 908 pine, 613 spruce and 127 birch trees. Biomass equations were derived for the total above-ground biomass and for the individual tree components: stem wood, stem bark, living and dead branches, needles, stump, and roots, as dependent variables. Three multivariate models with different numbers of independent variables for above-ground biomass and one for below-ground biomass were constructed. Variables that are normally measured in forest inventories were used as independent variables. The simplest model formulations, multivariate models (1) were mainly based on tree diameter and height as independent variables. In more elaborated multivariate models, (2) and (3), additional commonly measured tree variables such as age, crown length, bark thickness and radial growth rate were added. Tree biomass modelling includes consecutive phases, which cause unreliability in the prediction of biomass. First, biomasses of sample trees should be determined reliably to decrease the statistical errors caused by sub-sampling. In this study, methods to improve the accuracy of stem biomass estimates of the sample trees were developed. In addition, the reliability of the method applied to estimate sample-tree crown biomass was tested, and no systematic error was detected. Second, the whole information content of data should be utilized in order to achieve reliable parameter estimates and applicable and flexible model structure. In the modelling approach, the basic assumption was that the biomasses of

  7. Biomass Rapid Analysis Network (BRAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-10-01

    Helping the emerging biotechnology industry develop new tools and methods for real-time analysis of biomass feedstocks, process intermediates and The Biomass Rapid Analysis Network is designed to fast track the development of modern tools and methods for biomass analysis to accelerate the development of the emerging industry. The network will be led by industry and organized and coordinated through the National Renewable Energy Lab. The network will provide training and other activities of interest to BRAN members. BRAN members will share the cost and work of rapid analysis method development, validate the new methods, and work together to develop the training for the future biomass conversion workforce.

  8. Fundamental mechanisms for conversion of volatiles in biomass and waste combustion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glarborg, P.; Hindiyarti, L.; Marshall, P.; Livbjerg, H.; Dagaut, P.; Jensen, Anker; Frandsen, Flemming

    2007-03-15

    This project deals with the volatile oxidation chemistry in biomass and waste fired systems, emphasizing reactions important for pollutants emissions (NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, HCl, aerosols). The project aims to extend existing models and databases with a number of chemical subsystems that are presently not well understood, but are particularly important in connection with combustion of biomass and waste. The project is divided into 3 tasks. Task 1: Conversion of chlorine, sulfur and alkali gas phase components in combustion of biomass. Task 2: Formation mechanisms for NO{sub x} in the freeboard of grate combustion of biomass. Task 3: Oxidation mechanisms for oxygenated hydrocarbons in the volatiles from pyrolysis of biomass. (au)

  9. Greenridge Multi-Pollutant Control Project Preliminary Public Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Daniel P

    2009-01-12

    the commercial readiness of an emissions control system that is specifically designed to meet the environmental compliance requirements of these smaller coal-fired EGUs. The multi-pollutant control system is being installed and tested on the AES Greenidge Unit 4 (Boiler 6) by a team including CONSOL Energy Inc. as prime contractor, AES Greenidge LLC as host site owner, and Babcock Power Environmental Inc. as engineering, procurement, and construction contractor. All funding for the project is being provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, through its National Energy Technology Laboratory, and by AES Greenidge. AES Greenidge Unit 4 is a 107 MW{sub e} (net), 1950s vintage, tangentially-fired, reheat unit that is representative of many of the 440 smaller coal-fired units identified above. Following design and construction, the multi-pollutant control system will be demonstrated over an approximately 20-month period while the unit fires 2-4% sulfur eastern U.S. bituminous coal and co-fires up to 10% biomass. This Preliminary Public Design Report is the first in a series of two reports describing the design of the multi-pollutant control facility that is being demonstrated at AES Greenidge. Its purpose is to consolidate for public use all available nonproprietary design information on the Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project. As such, the report includes a discussion of the process concept, design objectives, design considerations, and uncertainties associated with the multi-pollutant control system and also summarizes the design of major process components and balance of plant considerations for the AES Greenidge Unit 4 installation. The Final Public Design Report, the second report in the series, will update this Preliminary Public Design Report to reflect the final, as-built design of the facility and to incorporate data on capital costs and projected operating costs.

  10. Vegetal and animal biomass; Les biomasses vegetales et animales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combarnous, M. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Lab. Energetique et Phenomenes de Transfert, UMR CNRS ENSAM, 33 - Talence (France)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation concerns all types of biomass of the earth and the seas and the relative implicit consumptions. After an evaluation of the food needs of the human being, the author discusses the solar energy conversion, the energetic flux devoted to the agriculture production, the food chain and the biomass. (A.L.B.)

  11. Thermogravimetric and Kinetic Analysis of Raw and Torrefied Biomass Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopczyński Marcin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of torrefied biomass as a substitute for untreated biomass may decrease some technological barriers that exist in biomass co-firing technologies e.g. low grindability, high moisture content, low energy density and hydrophilic nature of raw biomass. In this study the TG-MS-FTIR analysis and kinetic analysis of willow (Salix viminalis L. and samples torrefied at 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300 °C (TSWE 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300, were performed. The TG-DTG curves show that in the case of willow and torrefied samples TSWE 200, 220, 240 and 260 there are pyrolysis and combustion stages, while in the case of TSWE 280 and 300 samples the peak associated with the pyrolysis process is negligible, in contrast to the peak associated with the combustion process. Analysis of the TG-MS results shows m/z signals of 18, 28, 29 and 44, which probably represent H2O, CO and CO2. The gaseous products were generated in two distinct ranges of temperature. H2O, CO and CO2 were produced in the 500 K to 650 K range with maximum yields at approximately 600 K. In the second range of temperature, 650 K to 800 K, only CO2 was produced with maximum yields at approximately 710 K as a main product of combustion process. Analysis of the FTIR shows that the main gaseous products of the combustion process were H2O, CO2, CO and some organics including bonds: C=O (acids, aldehydes and ketones, C=C (alkenes, aromatics, C-O-C (ethers and C-OH. Lignin mainly contributes hydrocarbons (3000-2800 cm−1, while cellulose is the dominant origin of aldehydes (2860-2770 cm−1 and carboxylic acids (1790-1650 cm−1. Hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones and various acids were also generated from hemicellulose (1790-1650 cm−1. In the kinetic analysis, the two-steps first order model (F1F1 was assumed. Activation energy (Ea values for the first stage (pyrolysis increased with increasing torrefaction temperature from 93 to 133 kJ/mol, while for the second stage (combustion it

  12. System and process for biomass treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B; Tucker, III, Melvin P; Elander, Richard T; Lyons, Robert C

    2013-08-20

    A system including an apparatus is presented for treatment of biomass that allows successful biomass treatment at a high solids dry weight of biomass in the biomass mixture. The design of the system provides extensive distribution of a reactant by spreading the reactant over the biomass as the reactant is introduced through an injection lance, while the biomass is rotated using baffles. The apparatus system to provide extensive assimilation of the reactant into biomass using baffles to lift and drop the biomass, as well as attrition media which fall onto the biomass, to enhance the treatment process.

  13. Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Benjamin W.; Jones, Jeremy B.; Schuur, Edward A. G.;

    2016-01-01

    -region experts of the response of biomass, wildfire, and hydrologic carbon flux to climate change. Results suggest that contrary to model projections, total permafrost-region biomass could decrease due to water stress and disturbance, factors that are not adequately incorporated in current models. Assessments...

  14. Energy Efficiency and Air Quality Repairs at Lyonsdale Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, Michael R; Morrison, James A; Spomer, Eric; Thimot, Carol A

    2012-07-31

    This project enabled Lyonsdale Biomass, LLC to effect analyses, repairs and upgrades for its biomass cogeneration facility located in Lewis County, New York and close by the Adirondack Park to reduce air emissions by improving combustion technique and through the overall reduction of biomass throughput by increasing the system's thermodynamic efficiency for its steam-electrical generating cycle. Project outcomes result in significant local, New York State, Northeast U.S. and national benefits including improved renewable energy operational surety, enhanced renewable energy efficiency and more freedom from foreign fossil fuel source dependence. Specifically, the reliability of the Lyonsdale Biomass 20MWe woody biomass combined-heat and power (CHP) was and is now directly enhanced. The New York State and Lewis County benefits are equally substantial since the facility sustains 26 full-time equivalency (FTE) jobs at the facility and as many as 125 FTE jobs in the biomass logistics supply chain. Additionally, the project sustains essential local and state payment in lieu of taxes revenues. This project helps meet several USDOE milestones and contributes directly to the following sustainability goals:  Climate: Reduces greenhouse gas emissions associated with bio-power production, conversion and use, in comparison to fossil fuels. Efficiency and Productivity: Enhances efficient use of renewable resources and maximizes conversion efficiency and productivity. Profitability: Lowers production costs. Rural Development: Enhances economic welfare and rural development through job creation and income generation. Standards: Develop standards and corresponding metrics for ensuring sustainable biopower production. Energy Diversification and Security: Reduces dependence on foreign oil and increases energy supply diversity. Net Energy Balance: Ensures positive net energy balance for all alternatives to fossil fuels.

  15. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Gasification with gas turbine/engine for power plants; Incl. English lang. appendix of 24 p. titled 'Status of large-scale biomass gasification for power production'; Inventering av framtidens el och vaermeproduktionstekniker. Delrapport Foergasning med gasturbin/motor foer kraftvaerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldheim, Lars; Larsson, Eva K. (TPS Termiska Processer, Nykoeping (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This subproject is limited to applications with gas turbines or engines from approximately 1 MWe and firing of gas in a boiler either as indirect cofiring or as separate firing of gas from waste gasification. Gasification with gas engine, BIG-ICE (Biomass Integrated Gasification Internal-Combustion Engine) is realized in approximately 10 plants in Europe between 1 and 7 MWe. The gas needs to be cleaned from particles and tar before it is fed to the engine. A number of different gasifiers and gas cleaning technologies are applied in these prototypes, and in certain cases a second generation is being built. Gas engines from GE Jenbacher are most common, but there are also other producers with engines for low-calorific-value gas. The exhausts from engines must, unlike gas turbines, be cleaned catalytically, but emissions of hydrocarbons in particular are still higher than from gas turbines. It is possible to increase the electricity generation by applying a 'bottoming cycle' in the form of a steam or an ORC cycle. Such a plant with ORC has been started in Austria this year. During the 1990's expectations were high concerning the development of biomass gasification with gas turbine in a combined cycle BIG-CC (Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) towards commercialisation. Two demonstration plants were built for the same gas turbine model, Siemens SGT 100 (earlier Typhoon); Vaernamo with pressurised gasification and ARBRE in Eggborough, England, with atmospheric gasification. The atmospheric technology has basically the same demands on gas cleaning as in the engine application, but downstream the gas is compressed to the pressure required by the gas turbine. In pressurised gasification, the gasifier pressure is set by the gas turbine. The gas is not cooled below 350-400 deg C and is cleaned in a high-temperature filter. Despite successful demonstration in Vaernamo, no more plants have been built. The ARBRE plant was never put into regular

  16. Biomass plantations - energy farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S.

    1981-02-01

    Mounting oil import bills in India are restricting her development programmes by forcing the cutting down of the import of other essential items. But the countries of the tropics have abundant sunlight and vast tracts of arable wastelands. Energy farming is proposed in the shape of energy plantations through forestry or energy cropping through agricultural media, to provide power fuels for transport and the industries and also to provide fuelwoods for the domestic sector. Short rotation cultivation is discussed and results are given of two main species that are being tried, ipil-ipil and Casuarina. Evaluations are made on the use of various crops such as sugar cane, cassava and kenaf as fuel crops together with hydrocarbon plants and aquatic biomass. (Refs. 20)

  17. A review of biomass gasification technologies in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    This report provides an overview of existing technologies and projects in Denmark and Sweden with a focus on the Öresund region. Furthermore it presents the research and development of biomass gasification in the region and these two countries. The list of existing gasification plants from labora...

  18. Progress on optimizing miscanthus biomass production for the european bioeconomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewandowski, Iris; Clifton-Brown, John; Trindade, Luisa M.; Linden, van der Gerard C.; Schwarz, Kai Uwe; Müller-Sämann, Karl; Anisimov, Alexander; Chen, C.L.; Dolstra, Oene; Donnison, Iain S.; Farrar, Kerrie; Fonteyne, Simon; Harding, Graham; Hastings, Astley; Huxley, Laurie M.; Iqbal, Yasir; Khokhlov, Nikolay; Kiesel, Andreas; Lootens, Peter; Meyer, Heike; Mos, Michal; Muylle, Hilde; Nunn, Chris; Özgüven, Mensure; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Schüle, Heinrich; Tarakanov, Ivan; Weijde, van der Tim; Wagner, Moritz; Xi, Qingguo; Kalinina, Olena

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the complete findings of the EU-funded research project OPTIMISC, which investigated methods to optimize the production and use of miscanthus biomass. Miscanthus bioenergy and bioproduct chains were investigated by trialing 15 diverse germplasm types in a range of climatic and s

  19. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Program Summary Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document summarizes the comments provided by the peer reviewers at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program’s Peer Review meeting, held on November 14-15, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and Platform Reviews conducted over the summer of 2007. The Platform Reviews provide evaluations of the Program’s projects in applied research, development, and demonstration.

  20. Department of Energy Recovery Act Investment in Biomass Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-11-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) provided more than $36 billion to the Department of Energy (DOE) to accelerate work on existing projects, undertake new and transformative research, and deploy clean energy technologies across the nation. Of this funding, $1029 million is supporting innovative work to advance biomass research, development, demonstration, and deployment.

  1. Non-thermal production of pure hydrogen from biomass : HYVOLUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, P.A.M.; Vrije, de G.J.

    2006-01-01

    HYVOLUTION is the acronym of an Integrated Project ¿Non-thermal production of pure hydrogen from biomass¿ which has been granted in the Sixth EU Framework Programme on Research, Technological Development and Demonstration, Priority 6.1.ii, Sustainable Energy Systems. The aim of HYVOLUTION: ¿Developm

  2. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Full Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document summarizes the comments provided by the peer reviewers at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program’s Peer Review meeting, held on November 14-15, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and Platform Reviews conducted over the summer of 2007. The Platform Reviews provide evaluations of the Program’s projects in applied research, development, and demonstration.

  3. Refining fast pyrolysis of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil produced from biomass is a promising renewable alternative to crude oil. Such pyrolysis oil has transportation, storage, and processing benefits, none of which are offered by the bulky, inhomogeneous solid biomass from which it originates. However, pyrolysis oil has both a different co

  4. Conditioning biomass for microbial growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodie, Elizabeth A; England, George

    2015-03-31

    The present invention relates to methods for improving the yield of microbial processes that use lignocellulose biomass as a nutrient source. The methods comprise conditioning a composition comprising lignocellulose biomass with an enzyme composition that comprises a phenol oxidizing enzyme. The conditioned composition can support a higher rate of growth of microorganisms in a process. In one embodiment, a laccase composition is used to condition lignocellulose biomass derived from non-woody plants, such as corn and sugar cane. The invention also encompasses methods for culturing microorganisms that are sensitive to inhibitory compounds in lignocellulose biomass. The invention further provides methods of making a product by culturing the production microorganisms in conditioned lignocellulose biomass.

  5. Fusion characterization of biomass ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Teng; Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang;

    2016-01-01

    The ash fusion characteristics are important parameters for thermochemical utilization of biomass. In this research, a method for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash by Thermo-mechanical Analyzer, TMA, is described. The typical TMA shrinking ratio curve can be divided into two...... stages, which are closely related to ash melting behaviors. Several characteristics temperatures based on the TMA curves are used to assess the ash fusion characteristics. A new characteristics temperature, Tm, is proposed to represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. The fusion...... characteristics of six types of biomass ash have been measured by TMA. Compared with standard ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) test, TMA is more suitable for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. The glassy molten areas of the ash samples are sticky and mainly consist of K-Ca-silicates....

  6. Energy from biomass. Teaching material; Energie aus Biomasse. Ein Lehrmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    The textbook discusses the available options for power and heat generation from biomass as well as the limits of biomass-based power supply. The main obstacle apart from the high cost is a lack of knowledge, which the book intends to remedy. It addresses students of agriculture, forestry, environmental engineering, heating systems engineering and apprentice chimney sweepers, but it will also be useful to all other interested readers. [German] Biomasse kann aufgrund seiner vielfaeltigen Erscheinungs- und Umwandlungsformen sowohl als Brennstoff zur Waerme- und Stromgewinnung oder als Treibstoff eingesetzt werden. Die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse birgt zudem nicht zu verachtende Vorteile. Zum einen wegen des Beitrags zum Klimaschutz aufgrund der CO{sub 2}-Neutralitaet oder einfach, weil Biomasse immer wieder nachwaechst und von fossilen Ressourcen unabhaengig macht. All den bisher erschlossenen Moeglichkeiten der energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse moechte dieses Lehrbuch Rechnung tragen. Es zeigt aber auch die Grenzen auf, die mit der Energieversorgung durch Bioenergie einhergehen. Hohe Kosten und ein erhebliches Informationsdefizit behinderten bisher eine verstaerkte Nutzung dieses Energietraeges. Letzterem soll dieses Lehrbuch entgegenwirken. Das vorliegende Lehrbuch wurde fuer die Aus- und Weiterbildung erstellt. Es richtet sich vor allem an angehende Land- und Forstwirte, Umwelttechniker, Heizungsbauer und Schornsteinfeger, ist aber auch fuer all diejenigen interessant, die das Thema ''Energie aus Biomasse'' verstehen und ueberblicken moechten. (orig.)

  7. Biomass power for rural development: Phase 2. Technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, E.

    1998-11-01

    The project undertaken by the Salix Consortium is a multi-phased, multi-partner endeavor. Phase-1 focused on initial development and testing of the technology and agreements necessary to demonstrate commercial willow production in Phase-2. The Phase-1 objectives have been successfully completed: preparing final design plans for two utility pulverized coal boilers, developing fuel supply plans for the project, obtaining power production commitments from the power companies for Phase-2, obtaining construction and environmental permits, and developing an experimental strategy for crop production and power generation improvements needed to assure commercial success. The R and D effort also addresses environmental issues pertaining to introduction of the willow energy system. Beyond those Phase-1 requirements the Consortium has already successfully demonstrated cofiring at Greenidge Station and developed the required nursery capacity for acreage scale-up. This past summer 105 acres were prepared in advance for the spring planting in 1998. Having completed the above tasks, the Consortium is well positioned to begin Phase-2. In phase-2 every aspect of willow production and power generation from willow will be demonstrated. The ultimate objective of Phase-2 is to transition the work performed under the Rural Energy for the Future project into a thriving, self-supported energy crop enterprise.

  8. Resource Assessment for Microalgal/Emergent Aquatic Biomass Systems in the Arid Southwest: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigon, B. W.; Arthur, M. F.; Taft, L. G.; Wagner, C. K.; Lipinsky, E. S.; Litchfield, J. H.; McCandlish, C. D.; Clark, R.

    1982-12-23

    This research project has been designed to facilitate the eventual selection of biomass production systems using aquatic species (microalgal and emergent aquatic plant species (MEAP) which effectively exploit the potentially available resources of the Southwest.

  9. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin; Elander, Richard; Hennessey, Susan M.

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  10. THE POTENTIAL FOR BIOMASS ENERGY IN THREE ALBANIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jupe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass combustion is amongst the oldest and the most mature technique for conversion of biomass to energy; but still a great challenge lies ahead in developing new; more efficient and environmentally sustainable -systems. In light of the European Action and the National Strategy in the energy sector; Albania has enacted a friendly policy regarding renewable energy sources; including biomass. Execution of such projects is delegated to both regional and local authorities for various technical; economic and socio-environmental considerations as well as for an integrated approach to the land use planning. This paper identifies the main sources of biomass energy in three different regions of Albania i.e. Korça; Tirana and Vlora. It shows the weight of each possibility on the total potential for energy production by biomass as well as the type and distribution of each biomass. The manner how the potential offered by forestry; agriculture and agro-industry would be utilized will; apart from availability of appropriate technology; also depend on the ability of economic operators to organize themselves efficiently while respecting environmental sustainability.

  11. Adding gas from biomass to the gas grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Martin; Polman, Erik [GASTEC NV (Netherlands); Jensen, Jan K.; Myken, Asger [Danish Gas Technology Center A/S, Hoersholm (Denmark); Joensson, Owe; Dahl, Anders [Swedish Gas Center AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this project carried out in the framework of the Altener programme is to provide an overview of technologies for cleaning and upgrading of biogas for remote use. A further aim is to determine to what extent gases produced from biomass (digestion or gasification)can be added to the gas grid and what additional safety regulations are necessary. Finally, existing European standards and national legislation have been studied in order to determine the possibility of conflicting and/or missing regulations with the intended approach.The information collected in this project can be used to select promising technologies and may serve as background information for developing harmonised standards. This report describes the various production and cleaning techniques and the present requirements for the use of biogas. The technology for adding gas from biomass to the gas grid on a larger scale can contribute to a higher share of biomass in the energy supply and will also allow a highly efficient use of the energy contained in the biomass.Moderate tax incentives will make the use of gas from biomass economically attractive for large groups of end-users.

  12. Biomass gasification, stage 2 LTH. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerle, I.; Chambert, L.; Hallgren, A.; Hellgren, R.; Johansson, Anders; Mirazovic, M.; Maartensson, R.; Padban, N.; Ye Zhicheng [comps.] [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering II

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the final report of the first phase of a project dealing with a comprehensive investigation on pressurized biomass gasification. The intention with the project first phase was firstly to design, install and to take in operation a PCFB biomass gasifier. A thorough feasibility study was made during the first half year including extensive calculations on an internal circulating fluidized bed concept. The experimental phase was intended to study pressurized gasification up to 2.5 MPa (N{sub 2}, air) at temperatures in the interval 850-950 deg C. The more specific experimental objective was to examine the impact from various process conditions on the product formation as well as on the function of the different systems. The technical concept has been able to offer novel approaches regarding biomass feeding and PCFB gasification. The first gasification test run was made in December 1993 after almost 18 months of installation work. Extensive work was made during 1994 and the first half of 1995 to find the balance of the PCFB gasifier. It turned out to be very difficult to find operating parameters such that gave a stable circulation of the bed material during gasification mode. Apparently, the produced gas partly changed the pressure profile over the riser which in turn gave unstable operation. After a comprehensive investigation involving more than 100 hours of tests runs it was decided to leave the circulating bed concept and focus on bubbling bed operations. The test rig is currently operating as a bubbling bed gasifier. 4 refs, 24 figs, 6 tabs

  13. WOOD BIOMASS FOR ENERGY IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradimir Danon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood biomass has got its place in the energy balance of Montenegro. A little more than 6% of the total energy consumption is obtained by burning wood. Along with the appropriate state measures, it is economically and environmentally justified to expect Montenegro to more than double the utilization of the existing renewable energy sources including wood biomass, in the near future. For the purpose of achieving this goal, ‘Commercial Utilisation of the Wood Residue as a Resource for Economic Development in the North of Montenegro' project was carried out in 2007. The results of this project were included in the plan of the necessary interventions of the Government and its Agencies, associations or clusters, non-government organisations and interested enterprises. The plan was made on the basis of the wood residue at disposal and the attitude of individual subjects to produce and/or use solid bio-fuels and consists of a proposal of collection and utilisation of the wood residue for each individual district in the north of Montenegro. The basic factors of sustainability of future commercialisation of the wood residue were: availability of the wood raw material, and thereby the wood residue; the development of wood-based fuel markets, and the size of the profit.

  14. Northeast regional biomass program. First quarter report, October--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    This progress report presents summaries of various projects which were in operation or being planned during this quarter period. Projects included testing the efficiency of using wood chips as fuel in heating systems, barriers to commercial development of wood pellet fuels, studies of more efficient and less polluting wood stoves, work on landfill gas utilization, directories of facilities using biomass fuels, surveys of biomass conversion processes to liquid fuels, for commercial development, etc.

  15. Biogenic methane from hydrothermal gasification of biomass; Biogenes Methan durch hydrothermale Vergasung von Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, M.; Vogel, F.

    2007-09-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work done in the area of gasification of biomass. The use of dung, manure and sewage sludge as sources of energy is described and discussed. Hydrothermal gasification is proposed as an alternative to conventional gas-phase processes. The aim of the project in this respect is discussed. Here, a catalytic process that demonstrates the gasification of wet biomass to synthetic natural gas (SNG) in a continuously operating plant on a laboratory scale is being looked at. Difficulties encountered in preliminary tests are discussed. Long-term catalyst stability and the installations for the demonstration of the process are discussed, and gasification tests with ethanol are commented on.

  16. Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luche, J.; Falcoz, Q.; Bastien, T.; Leninger, J. P.; Arabi, K.; Aubry, O.; Khacef, A.; Cormier, J. M.; Lédé, J.

    2012-02-01

    Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to a pyrolysis cyclone reactor. The role of the plasma is twofold: it acts as a purification stage by reducing production of tars and aerosols, and simultaneously produces a rich hydrogen syngas. In a first part of the paper we present results obtained from plasma treatment of pyrolysis oils. The outlet gas composition is given for various types of oils obtained at different experimental conditions with a pyrolysis reactor. Given the complexity of the mixtures from processing of biomass, we present a study with methanol considered as a model molecule. This experimental method allows a first modeling approach based on a combustion kinetic model suitable to validate the coupling of plasma with conventional biomass process. The second part of the paper is summarizing results obtained through a plasma-pyrolysis reactor arrangement. The goal is to show the feasibility of this plasma-pyrolysis coupling and emphasize more fundamental studies to understand the role of the plasma in the biomass treatment processes.

  17. Thermochemical behavior of pretreated biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Amit Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Mankind has to provide a sustainable alternative to its energy related problems. Bioenergy is considered as one of the potential renewable energy resources and as a result bioenergy market is also expected to grow dramatically in future. However, logistic issues are of serious concern while considering biomass as an alternative to fossil fuel. It can be improved by introducing pretreated wood pellet. The main objective of this thesis is to address thermochemical behaviour of steam exploded pretreated biomass. Additionally, process aspects of torrefaction were also considered in this thesis. Steam explosion (SE) was performed in a laboratory scale reactor using Salix wood chips. Afterwards, fuel and thermochemical aspects of SE residue were investigated. It was found that Steam explosion pretreatment improved both fuel and pellet quality. Pyrolysis of SE residue reveals that alerted biomass composition significantly affects its pyrolysis behaviour. Contribution from depolymerized components (hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin) of biomass was observed explicitly during pyrolysis. When devolatilization experiment was performed on pellet produced from SE residue, effect of those altered components was observed. In summary, pretreated biomass fuel characteristics is significantly different in comparison with untreated biomass. On the other hand, Process efficiency of torrefaction was found to be governed by the choice of appropriate operating conditions and the type of biomass.

  18. Tree species richness affecting fine root biomass in European forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finér, Leena; Domisch, Timo; Vesterdal, Lars; Dawud, Seid M.; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Fine roots are an important factor in the forest carbon cycle, contributing significantly to below-ground biomass and soil carbon storage. Therefore it is essential to understand the role of the forest structure, indicated by tree species diversity in controlling below-ground biomass and managing the carbon pools of forest soils. We studied how tree species richness would affect fine root biomass and its distribution in the soil profile and biomass above- and below-ground allocation patterns of different tree species. Our main hypothesis was that increasing tree species richness would lead to below-ground niche differentiation and more efficient soil exploitation by the roots, resulting in a higher fine root biomass in the soil. We sampled fine roots of trees and understorey vegetation in six European forest types in Finland, Poland, Germany, Romania, Italy and Spain, representing boreal, temperate and Mediterranean forests, established within the FunDivEUROPE project for studying the effects of tree species diversity on forest functioning. After determining fine root biomasses, we identified the percentages of different tree species in the fine root samples using the near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) method. Opposite to our hypothesis we did not find any general positive relationship between tree species richness and fine root biomass. A weak positive response found in Italy and Spain seemed to be related to dry environmental conditions during Mediterranean summers. At the Polish site where we could sample deeper soil layers (down to 40 cm), we found more tree fine roots in the deeper layers under species-rich forests, as compared to the monocultures, indicating the ability of trees to explore more resources and to increase soil carbon stocks. Tree species richness did not affect biomass allocation patterns between above- and below-ground parts of the trees.

  19. Demonstration of Pressurizing Coal/Biomass Mixtures Using Posimetric Solids Pump Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany; Acharya, Harish; Cui, Zhe; Furman, Anthony; Giammattei, Mark; Rader, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo

    2012-12-31

    This document is the Final Technical Report for a project supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FE0000507), GE Global Research, GE Energy, and Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This report discusses key project accomplishments for the period beginning August 7, 2009 and ending December 31, 2012. In this project, pressurized delivery of coal/biomass mixtures using GE Posimetric* solids pump technology was achieved in pilot scale experiments. Coal/biomass mixtures containing 10-50 wt% biomass were fed against pressures of 65-450 psi. Pressure capability increased with decreasing biomass content for a given pump design, and was linked to the interaction of highly compressible coal/biomass mixtures with the pump outlet design. Biomass pretreatment specifications for particle size and moisture content were defined based on bench-scale flowability, compressibility, friction, and permeability experiments that mimic the behavior of the Posimetric pump. A preliminary economic assessment of biomass pretreatment and pump operation for coal/biomass mixtures (CBMs) was conducted.

  20. Biomass energy and marginal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassany, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the conditions and effects of a possible development of the biomass energy upgrading in uneconomical or not rentable areas. The physical, social and economical characteristics of these regions (in France) are described; then the different types of biomass are presented (agricultural wastes, energetic cultures, forest and land products and residues, food processing effluents, municipal wastes) as well as the various energy process (production of alcohol, methane, thermochemical processes, vegetable oils). The development and the feasability of these processes in marginal areas are finally analyzed taking into account the accessibility of the biomass and the technical and commercial impacts.

  1. Bearings for the biomass boom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2011-03-15

    Biomass energy is booming –– more than two billion people depend on biomass for their energy and the International Energy Agency predicts that biomass' share of the global energy supply will treble by 2050. But in many developing countries it is still regarded as a traditional and dirty solution that is often criminalised, unsustainable and poorly paid. A more sophisticated approach that legalises and secures sustainable production by and for local people could help improve energy security, cut carbon emissions, protect forests and reduce poverty.

  2. Ash Properties of Alternative Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capablo, Joaquin; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Pedersen, Kim Hougaard

    2009-01-01

    The ash behavior during suspension firing of 12 alternative solid biofuels, such as pectin waste, mash from a beer brewery, or waste from cigarette production have been studied and compared to wood and straw ash behavior. Laboratory suspension firing tests were performed on an entrained flow...... analysis into three main groups depending upon their ash content of silica, alkali metal, and calcium and magnesium. To further detail the biomass classification, the relative molar ratio of Cl, S, and P to alkali were included. The study has led to knowledge on biomass fuel ash composition influence...... on ash transformation, ash deposit flux, and deposit chlorine content when biomass fuels are applied for suspension combustion....

  3. Biomass catalysis and solvents; Biomasse catalyse et solvants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioch, D. [CIRAD-AMIS, programme Agro-Alimentaire, 34 - Montpellier (France); Pouilloux, Y.; Barrault, J. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS UMR 6503), ESIP, Lab. de Catalyse en Chimie Organique, 86 - Poitiers (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    How to develop new technics and products and at the same time to respect the environment? The biomass seems to be an interesting domain in this framework and this document allows the selection of performing products obtain by biomass. Among these products the solvents economic and environmental advantages or consequences are discussed. A great part is also devoted to the voc emissions, bound to the solvents.

  4. Landscape ecological planning: Integrating land use and wildlife conservation for biomass crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, A.

    1995-12-31

    What do a mussel shoat, a zoo, and a biomass plantation have in common? Each can benefit from ecology-based landscape planning. This paper provides examples of landscape ecological planning from some diverse projects the author has worked on, and discusses how processes employed and lessons learned from these projects are being used to help answer questions about the effects of biomass plantings (hardwood tree crops and native grasses) on wildlife habitat. Biomass environmental research is being designed to assess how plantings of different acreage, composition and landscape context affect wildlife habitat value, and is addressing the cumulative effect on wildlife habitat of establishing multiple biomass plantations across the landscape. Through landscape ecological planning, answers gleaned from research can also help guide biomass planting site selection and harvest strategies to improve habitat for native wildlife species within the context of economically viable plantation management - thereby integrating the needs of people with those of the environment.

  5. First Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this second volume cover Transportation Fuels, and Chemicals and Products. Transportation Fuels topics include: Biodiesel, Pyrolytic Liquids, Ethanol, Methanol and Ethers, and Commercialization. The Chemicals and Products section includes specific topics in: Research, Technology Transfer, and Commercial Systems. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  7. Co-gasification of biomass and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, L.; Hein, K.R.G. [Lab. for Thermal Power Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The Laboratory for Thermal Power Engineering of the Delft University of Technology is participating in an EU funded, international, R + D project which is designed to aid European industry in addressing issues regarding co-utilisation of biomass and/or waste in advanced coal conversion processes. The project comprises three main programmes, each of which includes a number of smaller subprogrammes. The three main programmes are: Coal-biomass systems component development and design; Coal-biomass environmental studies; Techno-economic assessment studies. (orig)

  8. Biomass thermochemical conversion. Overview of results; Biomassan jalostus. Tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The BIOENERGY Programme comprised two research institute projects, one enterprise project and two demonstration projects in 1996. The studies focused on the development of flash pyrolysis technology for biomass, and on the study of the storage stability of imported wood oils and of their suitability for use in oil-fired boilers and diesel power plants. Development of biomass gasification/gas engine concepts suitable for diesel power plants was also initiated. In addition to techno-economic assessments, experimental work was carried out focusing on the cleaning of gasification gas for engine use. Conversion of by-products from the pulping industry, in particular crude soap, into liquid fuels was studied by laboratory tests. Results obtained within IEA Bioenergy Agreement are also surveyed and a new three-year work plan is presented in the overview. (orig.)

  9. Plant biomass degradation by fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Donofrio, Nicole; de Vries, Ronald P

    2014-11-01

    Plant biomass degradation by fungi has implications for several fields of science. The enzyme systems employed by fungi for this are broadly used in various industrial sectors such as food & feed, pulp & paper, detergents, textile, wine, and more recently biofuels and biochemicals. In addition, the topic is highly relevant in the field of plant pathogenic fungi as they degrade plant biomass to either gain access to the plant or as carbon source, resulting in significant crop losses. Finally, fungi are the main degraders of plant biomass in nature and as such have an essential role in the global carbon cycle and ecology in general. In this review we provide a global view on the development of this research topic in saprobic ascomycetes and basidiomycetes and in plant pathogenic fungi and link this to the other papers of this special issue on plant biomass degradation by fungi.

  10. Washington State biomass data book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    This is the first edition of the Washington State Biomass Databook. It assess sources and approximate costs of biomass fuels, presents a view of current users, identifies potential users in the public and private sectors, and lists prices of competing energy resources. The summary describes key from data from the categories listed above. Part 1, Biomass Supply, presents data increasing levels of detail on agricultural residues, biogas, municipal solid waste, and wood waste. Part 2, Current Industrial and Commercial Use, demonstrates how biomass is successfully being used in existing facilities as an alternative fuel source. Part 3, Potential Demand, describes potential energy-intensive public and private sector facilities. Part 4, Prices of Competing Energy Resources, shows current suppliers of electricity and natural gas and compares utility company rates. 49 refs., 43 figs., 72 tabs.

  11. ROE Carbon Storage - Forest Biomass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This polygon dataset depicts the density of forest biomass in counties across the United States, in terms of metric tons of carbon per square mile of land area....

  12. ADVANCED BIOMASS REBURNING FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY NOx CONTROL AND BIOMASS REBURNING - MODELING/ENGINEERING STUDIES JOINT FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir M. Zamansky; Mark S. Sheldon; Vitali V. Lissianski; Peter M. Maly; David K. Moyeda; Antonio Marquez; W. Randall Seeker

    2000-10-01

    This report presents results of studies under a Phase II SBIR program funded by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and a closely coordinated project sponsored by the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL, formerly FETC). The overall Phase II objective of the SBIR project is to experimentally optimize the biomass reburning technologies and conduct engineering design studies needed for process demonstration at full scale. The DOE project addresses supporting issues for the process design including modeling activities, economic studies of biomass handling, and experimental evaluation of slagging and fouling. The performance of biomass has been examined in a 300 kW (1 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr) Boiler Simulator Facility under different experimental conditions. Fuels under investigation include furniture waste, willow wood and walnut shells. Tests showed that furniture pellets and walnut shells provided similar NO{sub x} control as that of natural gas in basic reburning at low heat inputs. Maximum NO{sub x} reduction achieved with walnut shell and furniture pellets was 65% and 58% respectively. Willow wood provided a maximum NO{sub x} reduction of 50% and was no better than natural gas at any condition tested. The efficiency of biomass increases when N-agent is injected into reburning and/or burnout zones, or along with OFA (Advanced Reburning). Co-injection of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} with N-agent further increases efficiency of NO{sub x} reduction. Maximum NO{sub x} reduction achieved with furniture pellets and willow wood in Advanced Reburning was 83% and 78% respectively. All combustion experiments of the Phase II project have been completed. All objectives of the experimental tasks were successfully met. The kinetic model of biomass reburning has been developed. Model agrees with experimental data for a wide range of initial conditions and thus correctly represents main features of the reburning process. Modeling suggests that the most important factors that provide

  13. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  14. Refinery Upgrading of Hydropyrolysis Oil From Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Michael [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Marker, Terry [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Ortiz-Toral, Pedro [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Linck, Martin [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Felix, Larry [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Wangerow, Jim [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Swanson, Dan [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); McLeod, Celeste [CRI Catalyst, Houston, TX (United States); Del Paggio, Alan [CRI Catalyst, Houston, TX (United States); Urade, Vikrant [CRI Catalyst, Houston, TX (United States); Rao, Madhusudhan [CRI Catalyst, Houston, TX (United States); Narasimhan, Laxmi [CRI Catalyst, Houston, TX (United States); Gephart, John [Johnson Timber, Hayward, WI (United States); Starr, Jack [Cargill, Wayzata, MN (United States); Hahn, John [Cargill, Wayzata, MN (United States); Stover, Daniel [Cargill, Wayzata, MN (United States); Parrish, Martin [Valero, San Antonio, TX (United States); Maxey, Carl [Valero, San Antonio, TX (United States); Shonnard, David [MTU, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Handler, Robert [MTU, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Fan, Jiquig [MTU, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2015-08-31

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be converted to bio-oils containing less than 10% oxygen by a hydropyrolysis process. Hydropyrolysis is the first step in Gas Technology Institute’s (GTI) integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion IH2®. These intermediate bio-oils can then be converted to drop-in hydrocarbon fuels using existing refinery hydrotreating equipment to make hydrocarbon blending components, which are fully compatible with existing fuels. Alternatively, cellulosic or woody biomass can directly be converted into drop-in hydrocarbon fuels containing less than 0.4% oxygen using the IH2 process located adjacent to a refinery or ethanol production facility. Many US oil refineries are actually located near biomass resources and are a logical location for a biomass to transportation fuel conversion process. The goal of this project was to work directly with an oil refinery partner, to determine the most attractive route and location for conversion of biorenewables to drop in fuels in their refinery and ethanol production network. Valero Energy Company, through its subsidiaries, has 12 US oil refineries and 11 ethanol production facilities, making them an ideal partner for this analysis. Valero is also part of a 50- 50 joint venture with Darling Ingredients called Diamond Green Diesel. Diamond Green Diesel’s production capacity is approximately 11,000 barrels per day of renewable diesel. The plant is located adjacent to Valero’s St Charles, Louisiana Refinery and converts recycled animal fats, used cooking oil, and waste corn oil into renewable diesel. This is the largest renewable diesel plant in the U.S. and has successfully operated for over 2 years For this project, 25 liters of hydropyrolysis oil from wood and 25 liters of hydropyrolysis oils from corn stover were produced. The hydropyrolysis oil produced had 4-10% oxygen. Metallurgical testing of hydropyrolysis liquids was completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratories (Oak Ridge) and showed the

  15. Biogas from lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund Odhner, Peter; Schabbauer, Anna [Grontmij AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sarvari Horvath, Ilona; Mohseni Kabir, Maryam [Hoegskolan i Boraas, Boraas (Sweden)

    2012-01-15

    Grontmij AB has cooperated with the University of Boraas to evaluate the technological and economical possibilities for biogas production from substrates containing lignocellulose, such as forest residues, straw and paper. The state of knowledge regarding biogas production from cellulosic biomass has been summarized. The research in the field has been described, especially focusing on pretreatment methods and their results on increased gas yields. An investigation concerning commercially available pretreatment methods and the cost of these technologies has been performed. An economic evaluation of biogas production from lignocellulosic materials has provided answers to questions regarding the profitability of these processes. Pretreatment with steam explosion was economically evaluated for three feedstocks - wood, straw and paper - and a combination of steam explosion and addition of NaOH for paper. The presented costs pertain to costs for the pretreatment step as it, in this study, was assumed that the pretreatment would be added to an existing plant and the lignocellulosic substrates would be part of a co-digestion process. The results of the investigation indicate that it is difficult to provide a positive net result when comparing the cost of pretreatment versus the gas yield (value) for two of the feedstocks - forest residues and straw. This is mainly due to the high cost of the raw material. For forest residues the steam pretreatment cost exceeded the gas yield by over 50 %, mainly due to the high cost of the raw material. For straw, the production cost was similar to the value of the gas. Paper showed the best economic result. The gas yield (value) for paper exceeded the pretreatment cost by 15 %, which makes it interesting to study paper further.

  16. Experiences with biomass in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregg, Jay Sterling; Bolwig, Simon; Solér, Ola;

    The Bioenergy Department in SENER have requested assistance with planning for the deployment of bioenergy (Biomass, biogas and waste incineration) in Mexico and information on Danish experiences with developing policy initiatives promoting bioenergy. This introduction to the Danish experiences...... with biomass use is compiled as preparation for SENER’s potential visit to Denmark in 2014. This report was prepared 19 June, 2014 by DTU System Analysis to Danish Energy Agency (DEA) as part of a frame contract agreement....

  17. Bromine and Chlorine in Aerosols and Fly Ash when Co-Firing Solid Recovered Fuel, Spruce Bark and Paper Mill Sludge in a 80MWth BFB Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainikka, P.; Silvennoinen, J.; Yrjas, P.; Frantsi, A.; Hietanen, L.; Hupa, M.; Taipale, R.

    Aerosol and fly ash sampling was carried out at a 80MWth bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) boiler plant co-firing solid recovered fuel (SRF), spruce bark and paper mill wastewater sludge in two experimental conditions. The SRF-Bark ratio in the fuel mix was kept constant at 50%-50% on dry mass basis in both experiments but two sludge proportions were used: 15% and 4% on dry mass basis. Aerosol samples were collected from the superheater region of the boiler furnace and fly ash from the electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Na, K, Cl and S were found to be in mainly water soluble compounds in the aerosols sampled by means of a Dekati type Low Pressure Impactor (DLPI). Bromine was found in several weight percentages in aerosols and it was amongst the main elements in some of the samples collected. Bromine is assumed to mainly originate from flame retarded plastics and textiles in the SRF. According to the measurements, the fate of Br seems to be analogous to the other main halogen, Cl, and its conversion from fuel to aerosols was high, indicating a strong tendency to form bromine salts.

  18. Composition, microstructures, and magnetic properties of Bi-modified NiCuZn-ferrite for low temperature Co-fired ceramic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suna; Jia, Lijun; Zhang, Huaiwu; Li, Jie; Zhou, Tingchuan; Liu, Baoyuan

    2014-05-01

    The effects of Ni2+ and Bi3+ substitution on the microstructural development and magnetic properties of low-temperature-fired NiCuZn ferrites with nominal compositions of NixCu0.21 Zn0.79-xBiyFe2-yO4 (x = 0.1-0.5, y = 0-0.05) were investigated in order to develop low-temperature-cofired ferrite technology and to produce high-frequency devices with a multilayer process. For the Bi-modified NiCuZn ferrites, increasing x decreased the average grain size due to lattice contraction; meanwhile, the saturation flux density first increased and then decreased. We attributed this behavior to the change of superexchange between A-B sites and B-B sites in the spinel structure. We found that Bi3+ ions could enter into the ferrite lattice, which enhanced the grain growth and densification during sintering due to the activation of the lattice. A study of the solid-state reaction kinetics of Bi-modified NiCuZn ferrites revealed that Bi3+ modification decreased the early activation temperature and the ferrite formation temperature; thus, Bi3+ modification could reduce the activation energy of the solid-state reaction. The Bi-substituted samples with x = 0.35 and y = 0.02 had compact, uniform microstructures, and high sintering densities, leading to relatively high values of permeability and Q-factor.

  19. Effect of Ca–Al–Si–O common glass on dielectric properties of low-temperature co-fired ceramic materials with different fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Zee-hoon; Yeo, Dong-hun; Shin, Hyo-soon

    2014-01-01

    High-density integration in single component used for mobile communication is highly demanded with the miniaturization trend in multi-functional light-weighted mobile communication devices. Embedding passive components into multi-layered ceramic chips is also increasingly needed for high integrity. The need for high strength materials to be used in handheld devices has also increased. To this end, many attempts to join different low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) materials with different dielectric constants have been made, but failed with de-laminations or internal cracks mainly due to difference of thermal expansion coefficients. It is thought that this difference could be minimized with the use of common glass in different LTCC materials. In this study, several candidates of common glass were mixed with various fillers of LTCC to have various dielectric constants in the radio-frequency, and to minimize the mismatch in joining. Ca–Al–Si–O glass was mixed with 1.3MgO-TiO2, cordierite and CaTiO3. Mixtures were tape-cast and sintered to be compared with their micro-structures, dielectric properties and thermo-mechanical characteristics. When 1.3MgO-TiO2 with volumetric ratio of 30% was mixed with Ca–Al–Si–O glass, the measured dielectric constant was 7.9, the quality factor was 3708. With 45 volumetric percent of cordierite, the dielectric constant was 5 and the quality factor was 1052. PMID:26019606

  20. A comparative overview of coal-water slurry fuels produced from waste coal fines for utility-scale co-firing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    The recovery and utilization of coal fines, both impounded and in cleaning plant effluent streams, have received close attention from both coal producers and coal-fixed utilities during the last few years. Many coal producers view impounded fines as an environmental liability and the discarded fines in plant effluent streams as contributing to a loss in Btu recovery. In addition, the rejected coal fines increase the quantity and cost of refuse disposal. The handleability of fine coal has always been a problem. Dewatering cleaned fine coal is costly. Excessive fugitive dust emissions are commonly associated with handling dry fine coal. Wet fine coal sticks to conveyor belts, blocks fuel chutes, and may limit pulverizer capacity. The preparation of coal water slurry fuel (CWSF) from wet coal fines alleviates the necessity of drying while at the same time eliminates the flow problems that wet fine coal poses to the end user. Furthermore, the utilization of CWSF as an opportunity fuel converts coal fines into a revenue source rather than a liability. Several utilities are evaluating the co-firing of low solids, low viscosity CWSF with their normal coal feedstock in an effort to lower fuel cost and/or as a NO{sub x} reduction technique. The utilization of this opportunity fuel is being driven by a changing electric industry in which utilities continually strive to reduce plant emissions while simultaneously reducing their operating costs to become more competitive as the generation side of the industry prepares for deregulation.