WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomass burning contrails

  1. Impact of biofuels on contrail warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Fabio; Agarwal, Akshat; Speth, Raymond L.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2017-11-01

    Contrails and contrail-cirrus may be the largest source of radiative forcing (RF) attributable to aviation. Biomass-derived alternative jet fuels are a potentially major way to mitigate the climate impacts of aviation by reducing lifecycle CO2 emissions. Given the up to 90% reduction in soot emissions from paraffinic biofuels, the potential for a significant impact on contrail RF due to the reduction in contrail-forming ice nuclei (IN) remains an open question. We simulate contrail formation and evolution to quantify RF over the United States under different emissions scenarios. Replacing conventional jet fuels with paraffinic biofuels generates two competing effects. First, the higher water emissions index results in an increase in contrail occurrence (~ +8%). On the other hand, these contrails are composed of larger diameter crystals (~ +58%) at lower number concentrations (~ -75%), reducing both contrail optical depth (~ -29%) and albedo (~ -32%). The net changes in contrail RF induced by switching to biofuels range from -4% to +18% among a range of assumed ice crystal habits (shapes). In comparison, cleaner burning engines (with no increase in water emissions index) result in changes to net contrail RF ranging between -13% and +5% depending on habit. Thus, we find that even 67% to 75% reductions in aircraft soot emissions are insufficient to substantially reduce warming from contrails, and that the use of biofuels may either increase or decrease contrail warming—contrary to previous expectations of a significant decrease in warming.

  2. Biomass burning in Africa: As assessment of annually burned biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, R.A.; Loudjani, P.; Podaire, A.; Menaut, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    It is now established that biomass burning is the dominant phenomenon that controls the atmospheric chemistry in the tropics. Africa is certainly the continent where biomass burning under various aspects and processes is the greatest. Three different types of burnings have to be considered-bush fires in savanna zones which mainly affect herbaceous flora, forest fires due to forestation for shifting agriculture or colonization of new lands, and the use of wood as fuel. The net release of carbon resulting from deforestation is assumed to be responsible for about 20% of the CO 2 increase in the atmosphere because the burning of forests corresponds to a destorage of carbon from the biospheric reservoir. The amount of reactive of greenhouse gases emitted by biomass burning is directly proportional, through individual emission factors, to the biomass actually burned. This chapter evaluates the biomass annually burned on the African continent as a result of the three main burning processes previously mentioned

  3. Burning of biomass waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm Christensen, B.; Evald, A.; Buelow, K.

    1997-01-01

    The amounts of waste wood from the Danish wood processing industry available for the energy market has been made. Furthermore a statement of residues based on biomass, including waste wood, used in 84 plants has been made. The 84 plants represent a large part of the group of purchasers of biomass. A list of biomass fuel types being used or being potential fuels in the future has been made. Conditions in design of plants of importance for the environmental impact and possibility of changing between different biomass fuels are illustrated through interview of the 84 plants. Emissions from firing with different types of residues based on biomass are illustrated by means of different investigations described in the literature of the composition of fuels, of measured emissions from small scale plants and full scale plants, and of mass balance investigations where all incoming and outgoing streams are analysed. An estimate of emissions from chosen fuels from the list of types of fuels is given. Of these fuels can be mentioned residues from particle board production with respectively 9% and 1% glue, wood pellets containing binding material with sulphur and residues from olive production. (LN)

  4. Global biomass burning: Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    As a significant source of atmospheric gases, biomass burning must be addressed as a major environmental problem. Biomass burning includes burning forests and savanna grasslands for land clearing and conversion, burning agricultural stubble and waste after harvesting, and burning biomass fuels. The editor discusses the history of biomass burning and provides an overview of the individual chapters

  5. Astronaut observations of global biomass burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.A.; Nelson, R.

    1991-01-01

    One of the most fundamental inputs for understanding and modeling possible effects of biomass burning is knowledge of the size of the area burned. Because the burns are often very large and occur on all continents (except Antarctica), observations from space are essential. Information is presented in this chapter on another method for monitoring biomass burning, including immediate and long-term effects. Examples of astronaut photography of burning during one year give a perspective of the widespread occurrence of burning and the variety of biological materials that are consumed. The growth of burning in the Amazon region is presented over 15 years using smoke as a proxy for actual burning. Possible climate effects of smoke palls are also discussed

  6. Cloud condensation nuclei from biomass burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.F.; Hudson, J.G.; Zielinska, B.; Tanner, R.L.; Hallett, J.; Watson, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    In this work, the authors have analyzed biomass and crude oil smoke samples for ionic and organic species. The cloud condensation nuclei activities of the smoke particles are discussed in terms of the measured chemical compositions of the smoke samples. The implications of biomass burning to global climatic change are discussed

  7. Biomass Burning Observation Project Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, KI [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Sedlacek, AJ [Brookhaven National Laboratory

    2013-09-01

    Aerosols from biomass burning perturb Earth’s climate through the direct radiative effect (both scattering and absorption) and through influences on cloud formation and precipitation and the semi-direct effect. Despite much effort, quantities important to determining radiative forcing such as the mass absorption coefficients (MAC) of light-absorbing carbon, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation rates, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity remain in doubt. Field campaigns in northern temperate latitudes have been overwhelmingly devoted to other aerosol sources in spite of biomass burning producing about one-third of the fine particles (PM2.5) in the U.S.

  8. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  9. Global biomass burning. Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Biomass burning is a significant source of atmospheric gases and, as such, may contribute to global climate changes. Biomass burning includes burning forests and savanna grasslands for land clearing, burning agricultural stubble and waste after harvesting, and burning biomass fuels. The chapters in this volume include the following topics: remote sensing of biomass burning from space;geographical distribution of burning; combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; impacts of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions. A total of 1428 references are cited for the 63 chapters. Individual chapters are indexed separately for the data bases

  10. Emissions from biomass burning in the Yucatan

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. J. Yokelson; J. D. Crounse; P. F. DeCarlo; T. Karl; S. Urbanski; E. Atlas; T. Campos; Y. Shinozuka; V. Kapustin; A. D. Clarke; A. Weinheimer; D. J. Knapp; D. D. Montzka; J. Holloway; P. Weibring; F. Flocke; W. Zheng; D. Toohey; P. O. Wennberg; C. Wiedinmyer; L. Mauldin; A. Fried; D. Richter; J. Walega; J. L. Jimenez; K. Adachi; P. R. Buseck; S. R. Hall; R. Shetter

    2009-01-01

    In March 2006 two instrumented aircraft made the first detailed field measurements of biomass burning (BB) emissions in the Northern Hemisphere tropics as part of the MILAGRO project. The aircraft were the National Center for Atmospheric Research C-130 and a University of Montana/ US Forest Service Twin Otter. The initial emissions of up to 49 trace gas or particle...

  11. Biomass Burning Emissions from Fire Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the emission source strengths of different (particulate and gaseous) atmospheric constituents is one of the principal ingredients upon which the modeling and forecasting of their distribution and impacts depend. Biomass burning emissions are complex and difficult to quantify. However, satellite remote sensing is providing us tremendous opportunities to measure the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP), which has a direct relationship with the rates of biomass consumption and emissions of major smoke constituents. In this presentation, we will show how the satellite measurement of FRP is facilitating the quantitative characterization of biomass burning and smoke emission rates, and the implications of this unique capability for improving our understanding of smoke impacts on air quality, weather, and climate. We will also discuss some of the challenges and uncertainties associated with satellite measurement of FRP and how they are being addressed.

  12. Biomass burning fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, T.T.; van der Werf, G.R.; Hoffmann, A.A.; Detmers, R.G.; Ruecker, G.; French, N.H.F.; Archibald, S.; Carvalho Jr., J.A.; Cook, G.D.; de Groot, J.W.; Hely, C.; Kasischke, E.S.; Kloster, S.; McCarty, J.L.; Pettinari, M.L.; Savadogo, P.

    2014-01-01

    Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit area burned. Fuel consumption (FC) depends on the biomass available to burn and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can be combined with estimates of area burned to assess emissions.

  13. Burning characteristics of chemically isolated biomass ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S.

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the burning characteristics of isolated fractions of a biomass species. So, woody shells of hazelnut were chemically treated to obtain the fractions of extractives-free bulk, lignin, and holocellulose. Physical characterization of these fractions were determined by SEM technique, and the burning runs were carried out from ambient to 900 o C applying thermal analysis techniques of TGA, DTG, DTA, and DSC. The non-isothermal model of Borchardt-Daniels was used to DSC data to find the kinetic parameters. Burning properties of each fraction were compared to those of the raw material to describe their effects on burning, and to interpret the synergistic interactions between the fractions in the raw material. It was found that each of the fractions has its own characteristic physical and thermal features. Some of the characteristic points on the thermograms of the fractions could be followed definitely on those of the raw material, while some of them seriously shifted to other temperatures or disappeared as a result of the co-existence of the ingredients. Also, it is concluded that the presence of hemicellulosics and celluloses makes the burning of lignin easier in the raw material compared to the isolated lignin. The activation energies can be arranged in the order of holocellulose < extractives-free biomass < raw material < lignin.

  14. Impact of biomass burning on the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dignon, J.

    1993-03-01

    Fire has played an important part in biogeochemical cycling throughout most of the history of our planet. Ice core studies have been very beneficial in paleoclimate studies and constraining the budgets of biogeochemical cycles through the past 160,000 years of the Vostok ice core. Although to date there has been no way of determining cause and effect, concentration of greenhouse gases directly correlates with temperature in ice core analyses. Recent ice core studies on Greenland have shown that significant climate change can be very rapid on the order of a decade. This chapter addresses the coupled evolution of our planet's atmospheric composition and biomass burning. Special attention is paid to the chemical and climatic impacts of biomass burning on the atmosphere throughout the last century, specifically looking at the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Information from ice core measurements may be useful in understanding the history of fire and its historic affect on the composition of the atmosphere and climate

  15. Methoxyphenols in smoke from biomass burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaellstrand, J

    2000-07-01

    Wood and other forest plant materials were burned in laboratory experiments with the ambition to simulate the natural burning course in a fireplace or a forest fire. Smoke samples were taken and analysed with respect to methoxyphenols, using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Different kinds of bio pellets, intended for residential heating were studied in the same way. The aim of a first study was to establish analytical data to facilitate further research. Thirty-six specific methoxyphenols were identified, and gas chromatographic retention and mass spectrometric data were determined for these. In a subsequent study, the methoxyphenol emissions from the burning of wood and other forest plant materials were investigated. Proportions and concentrations of specific methoxyphenols were determined. Methoxyphenols and anhydrosugars, formed from the decomposition of lignin and cellulose respectively, were the most prominent semi-volatile compounds in the biomass smoke. The methoxyphenol compositions reflected the lignin structures of different plant materials. Softwood smoke contained almost only 2-methoxyphenols, while hardwood smoke contained both 2-methoxyphenols and 2,6-dimethoxyphenols. The methoxyphenols in smoke from pellets, made of sawdust, bark and lignin, reflected the source of biomass. Although smoke from incompletely burned wood contains mainly methoxyphenols and anhydrosugars, there is also a smaller amount of well-known hazardous compounds present. The methoxyphenols are antioxidants. They appear mainly condensed on particles and are presumed to be inhaled together with other smoke components. As antioxidants, phenols interrupt free radical chain reactions and possibly counteract the effect of hazardous smoke components. Health hazards of small-scale wood burning should be re-evaluated considering antioxidant effects of the methoxyphenols.

  16. Global biomass burning - Atmospheric, climatic, and biospheric implicati ons [Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zhiliang; Teuber, K.B.

    1991-01-01

    On a global scale, the total biomass consumed by annual burning is about 8680 million tons of dry material; the estimated total biomass consumed by the burning of savanna grasslands, at 3690 million tons/year, exceeds all other biomass burning (BMB) components. These components encompass agricultural wastes burning, forest burning, and fuel wood burning. BMB is not restricted to the tropics, and is largely anthropogenic. Satellite measurements indicate significantly increased tropospheric concentrations of CO and ozone associated with BMB. BMB significantly enhances the microbial production and emission of NO(x) from soils, and of methane from wetlands

  17. Biomass Burning: Major Uncertainties, Advances, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokelson, R. J.; Stockwell, C.; Veres, P. R.; Hatch, L. E.; Barsanti, K. C.; Liu, X.; Huey, L. G.; Ryerson, T. B.; Dibb, J. E.; Wisthaler, A.; Müller, M.; Alvarado, M. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Robinson, A. L.; Toon, O. B.; Peischl, J.; Pollack, I. B.

    2014-12-01

    Domestic and open biomass burning are poorly-understood, major influences on Earth's atmosphere composed of countless individual fires that (along with their products) are difficult to quantify spatially and temporally. Each fire is a minimally-controlled complex phenomenon producing a diverse suite of gases and aerosols that experience many different atmospheric processing scenarios. New lab, airborne, and space-based observations along with model and algorithm development are significantly improving our knowledge of biomass burning. Several campaigns provided new detailed emissions profiles for previously undersampled fire types; including wildfires, cooking fires, peat fires, and agricultural burning; which may increase in importance with climate change and rising population. Multiple campaigns have better characterized black and brown carbon and used new instruments such as high resolution PTR-TOF-MS and 2D-GC/TOF-MS to improve quantification of semi-volatile precursors to aerosol and ozone. The aerosol evolution and formation of PAN and ozone, within hours after emission, have now been measured extensively. The NASA DC-8 sampled smoke before and after cloud-processing in two campaigns. The DC-8 performed continuous intensive sampling of a wildfire plume from the source in California to Canada probing multi-day aerosol and trace gas aging. Night-time plume chemistry has now been measured in detail. Fire inventories are being compared and improved, as is modeling of mass transfer between phases and sub-grid photochemistry for global models.

  18. Spatial and temporal distribution of tropical biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wei Min; Liu, Mei-Huey

    1994-12-01

    A database for the spatial and temporal distribution of the amount of biomass burned in tropical America, Africa, and Asia during the late 1970s is presented with a resolution of 5° latitude × 5° longitude. The sources of burning in each grid cell have been quantified. Savanna fires, shifting cultivation, deforestation, fuel wood use, and burning of agricultural residues contribute about 50, 24, 10, 11, and 5%, respectively, of total biomass burned in the tropics. Savanna fires dominate in tropical Africa, and forest fires dominate in tropical Asia. A similar amount of biomass is burned from forest and savanna fires in tropical America. The distribution of biomass burned monthly during the dry season has been derived for each grid cell using the seasonal cycles of surface ozone concentrations. Land use changes during the last decade could have a profound impact on the amount of biomass burned and the amount of trace gases and aerosol particles emitted.

  19. Biomass Burning 5x5 degree data in Native Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The BIO_MASS_5X5_HAO_NAT data set contains data representing the geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass burned. The data were collected by...

  20. Working group report: methane emissions from biomass burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, R.A.; Ahuja, D.

    1993-01-01

    Biomass burning is a significant source of atmospheric methane. Like most other sources of methane, it has both natural and anthropogenic causes, although anthropogenic causes now predominate. Most of the estimates of methane emissions from biomass burning in the past have relied on a uniform emission factor for all types of burning. This results in the share of trace gas emissions for different types of burning being the same as the amounts of biomass burned in those types. The Working Group endorsed the extension of an approach followed for Africa by Delmas et al. (1991) to use different emission factors for different types of biomass burning to estimate national emissions of methane. This is really critical as emission factors present important variations. While the focus of discussions of the Working Group was on methane emissions from biomass burning, the Group endorsed the IPCC-OECD methodology of estimating all greenhouse related trace gases from biomass burning. Neither the IPCC-OECD nor the methodology suggested here applies to estimation of trace gas emissions from the processing of biomass to upgraded fuels. They must be estimated separately. The Group also discussed technical options for controlling methane emissions from biomass. 12 refs

  1. Emissions from Biomass Burning in the Yucatan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokelson, R.; Crounse, J. D.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Karl, T.; Urbanski, S.; Atlas, E.; Campos, T.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kapustin, V.; Clarke, A. D.; hide

    2009-01-01

    In March 2006 two instrumented aircraft made the first detailed field measurements of biomass burning (BB) emissions in the Northern Hemisphere tropics as part of the MILAGRO project. The aircraft were the National Center for Atmospheric Research C-130 and a University of Montana/US Forest Service Twin Otter. The initial emissions of up to 49 trace gas or particle species were measured from 20 deforestation and crop residue fires on the Yucatan peninsula. This included two trace gases useful as indicaters of BB (HCN and acetonitrile) and several rarely, or never before, measured species: OH, peroxyacetic acid, propanoic acid, hydrogen peroxide, methane sulfonic acid, and sulfuric acid. Crop residue fires emitted more organic acids and ammonia than deforestation fires, but the emissions from the main fire types were otherwise fairly similar. The Yucatan fires emitted unusually amounts of SO2 and particle chloride, likely due to a strong marine influence on the peninsula.

  2. Biomass burning: Combustion emissions, satellite imagery, and biogenic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, J.S.; Cofer, W.R III; Rhinehart, R.P.; Cahoon, D.R. J.; Winstead, E.L.; Sebacher, S.; Sebacher, D.I.; Stocks, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter deals with two different, but related, aspects of biomass burning. The first part of the chapter deals with a technique to estimate the instantaneous emissions of trace gases produced by biomass burning using satellite imagery. The second part of the chapter concerns the recent discovery that burning results in significantly enhanced biogenic emissions of N 2 O, NO, and CH 4 . Hence, biomass burning has both an immediate and long-term impact on the production of trace gases to the atmosphere. The objective of this research is to better assess and quantify the role of this research is to better assess and quantify the role and impact of biomass as a driver for global change. It will be demonstrated that satellite imagery of fires may be used to estimate combustion emissions and may in the future be used to estimate the long-term postburn biogenic emissions of trace gases to the atmosphere

  3. How important is biomass burning in Canada to mercury contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Annemarie; Dastoor, Ashu; Ryjkov, Andrei

    2018-05-01

    Wildfire frequency has increased in past four decades in Canada and is expected to increase in future as a result of climate change (Wotton et al., 2010). Mercury (Hg) emissions from biomass burning are known to be significant; however, the impact of biomass burning on air concentration and deposition fluxes in Canada has not been previously quantified. We use estimates of burned biomass from FINN (Fire INventory from NCAR) and vegetation-specific emission factors (EFs) of mercury to investigate the spatiotemporal variability of Hg emissions in Canada. We use Environment and Climate Change Canada's GEM-MACH-Hg (Global Environmental Multi-scale, Modelling Air quality and Chemistry model, mercury version) to quantify the impact of biomass burning in Canada on spatiotemporal variability of air concentrations and deposition fluxes of mercury in Canada. We use North American gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) observations (2010-2015), GEM-MACH-Hg, and an inversion technique to optimize the EFs for GEM for five vegetation types represented in North American fires to constrain the biomass burning impacts of mercury. The inversion results suggest that EFs representing more vegetation types - specifically peatland - are required. This is currently limited by the sparseness of measurements of Hg from biomass burning plumes. More measurements of Hg concentration in the air, specifically downwind of fires, would improve the inversions. We use three biomass burning Hg emissions scenarios in Canada to conduct three sets of model simulations for 2010-2015: two scenarios where Hg is emitted only as GEM using literature or optimized EFs and a third scenario where Hg is emitted as GEM using literature EFs and particle bound mercury (PBM) emitted using the average GEM/PBM ratio from lab measurements. The three biomass burning emission scenarios represent a range of possible values for the impacts of Hg emissions from biomass burning in Canada on Hg concentration and deposition. We find

  4. Biomass burning - Combustion emissions, satellite imagery, and biogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Winstead, Edward L.; Rhinehart, Robert P.; Cahoon, Donald R., Jr.; Sebacher, Daniel I.; Sebacher, Shirley; Stocks, Brian J.

    1991-01-01

    After detailing a technique for the estimation of the instantaneous emission of trace gases produced by biomass burning, using satellite imagery, attention is given to the recent discovery that burning results in significant enhancement of biogenic emissions of N2O, NO, and CH4. Biomass burning accordingly has an immediate and long-term impact on the production of atmospheric trace gases. It is presently demonstrated that satellite imagery of fires may be used to estimate combustion emissions, and could be used to estimate long-term postburn biogenic emission of trace gases to the atmosphere.

  5. Impact of deforestation on biomass burning in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, W.M.; Liu, M.H.; Ward, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Fires are widely used for various land use practices in tropical countries. Large amounts of trace gases and aerosol particles are produced during the fires. It is important to assess the potential impact of these gases and particulate matter on the chemistry of the atmosphere and global climate. One of the largest uncertainties in quantifying the effects is the lack of information on the source strengths. The authors quantify the amount of biomass burned due to deforestation in each tropical country on basis of the deforestation rate, the above ground density, and the fraction of above ground biomass burned. Approximately 725 Tg of biomass were burned in 1980 and 984 Tg were burned in 1990. The 36% increase took place mostly in Latin America and tropical Asia. The largest source was Brazil, contributing about 29% of the total biomass burned in the tropics. The second largest source was Indonesia accounting for 10%, followed by Zaire accounting for about 8%. The burning of biomass due to increased deforestation has resulted in an additional 33 Tg CO and 2.5 Tg CH 4 emitted annually to the atmosphere from 1980 to 1990

  6. Methyl halide emission estimates from domestic biomass burning in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, M. I.; Khan, M. A. H.; White, I. R.; Nickless, G.; Shallcross, D. E.

    Inventories of methyl halide emissions from domestic burning of biomass in Africa, from 1950 to the present day and projected to 2030, have been constructed. By combining emission factors from Andreae and Merlet [2001. Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 15, 955-966], the biomass burning estimates from Yevich and Logan [2003. An assessment of biofuel use and burning of agricultural waste in the developing world. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 17(4), 1095, doi:10.1029/2002GB001952] and the population data from the UN population division, the emission of methyl halides from domestic biomass usage in Africa has been estimated. Data from this study suggest that methyl halide emissions from domestic biomass burning have increased by a factor of 4-5 from 1950 to 2005 and based on the expected population growth could double over the next 25 years. This estimated change has a non-negligible impact on the atmospheric budgets of methyl halides.

  7. Biomass burning: A significant source of nutrients for Andean rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, P. F.; Rollenbeck, R.; University Of Marburg, Germany

    2010-12-01

    Regular rain and fogwater sampling in the Podocarpus National Park,on the humid eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes,has been carried out since 2002.The samples,accumulated over about 1-week intervals,were analysed for pH,conductivity,and major ions (K+, Na+, NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3-, PO4 3- ).Annual deposition rates of these ions which, due to poor acidic soils with low mineralization rates,constitute the dominant nutrient supply to the mountaineous rainforests, and major ion sources could be determined using back trajectories,along with satellite data. While most of the Na, Cl, and K as well as Ca and Mg input was found to originate from natural oceanic and desert dust sources,respectively (P.Fabian et al.,Adv.Geosci.22,85-94, 2009), NO3, NH4, and about 90% of SO4 (about 10 % is from active volcanoes) are almost entirely due to anthropogenic sources,most likely biomass burning. Industrial and transportation emissions and other pollutants,however,act in a similar way as the precursors produced by biomass burning.For quantifying the impacts of biomass burning vs. those of anthropogenic sources other than biomass burning we used recently established emission inventories,along with simplified model calculations on back trajectories.First results yielding significant contributions of biomass burning will be discussed.

  8. Emission factors from residential combustion appliances burning Portuguese biomass fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A P; Alves, C A; Gonçalves, C; Tarelho, L; Pio, C; Schimdl, C; Bauer, H

    2011-11-01

    Smoke from residential wood burning has been identified as a major contributor to air pollution, motivating detailed emission measurements under controlled conditions. A series of experiments were performed to compare the emission levels from two types of wood-stoves to those of fireplaces. Eight types of biomass were burned in the laboratory: wood from seven species of trees grown in the Portuguese forest (Pinus pinaster, Eucalyptus globulus, Quercus suber, Acacia longifolia, Quercus faginea, Olea europaea and Quercus ilex rotundifolia) and briquettes produced from forest biomass waste. Average emission factors were in the ranges 27.5-99.2 g CO kg(-1), 552-1660 g CO(2) kg(-1), 0.66-1.34 g NO kg(-1), and 0.82-4.94 g hydrocarbons kg(-1) of biomass burned (dry basis). Average particle emission factors varied between 1.12 and 20.06 g kg(-1) biomass burned (dry basis), with higher burn rates producing significantly less particle mass per kg wood burned than the low burn rates. Particle mass emission factors from wood-stoves were lower than those from the fireplace. The average emission factors for organic and elemental carbon were in the intervals 0.24-10.1 and 0.18-0.68 g kg(-1) biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. The elemental carbon content of particles emitted from the energy-efficient "chimney type" logwood stove was substantially higher than in the conventional cast iron stove and fireplace, whereas the opposite was observed for the organic carbon fraction. Pinus pinaster, the only softwood species among all, was the biofuel with the lowest emissions of particles, CO, NO and hydrocarbons.

  9. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randerson, J.T; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G.R.; Rogers, B.M.; Morton, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often

  10. Chemical characterisation of fine particles from biomass burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarnio, K.

    2013-10-15

    Biomass burning has lately started to attract attention because there is a need to decrease the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels. Biomass is considered as CO{sub 2} neutral fuel. However, the burning of biomass is one of the major sources of fine particles both at the local and global scale. In addition to the use of biomass as a fuel for heat energy production, biomass burning emissions can be caused, e.g. by slash-and-burn agriculture and wild open-land fires. Indeed, the emissions from biomass burning are crucially important for the assessment of the potential impacts on global climate and local air quality and hence on human health. The chemical composition of fine particles has a notable influence on these impacts. The overall object of this thesis was to gain knowledge on the chemistry of fine particles that originate from biomass burning as well as on the contribution of biomass burning emissions to the ambient fine particle concentrations. For this purpose novel analytical methods were developed and tested in this thesis. Moreover, the thesis is based on ambient aerosol measurements that were carried out in six European countries at 12 measurement sites during 2002-2011. Additionally, wood combustion experiments were conducted in a laboratory. The measurements included a wide range of techniques: filter and impactor samplings, offline chemical analyses (chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques, thermal-optical method), and online measurements of particles' physical properties and chemical composition (incl. particle number and mass concentrations and size distributions, concentrations of carbonaceous components, water-soluble ions, and tracer compounds). This thesis presents main results of different studies aimed towards chemical characterisation of fine particle emissions from biomass burning. It was found that wood combustion had a significant influence on atmospheric fine particle concentrations in

  11. Functional Group Analysis of Biomass Burning Particles Using Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrell, K.; Lau, A.; Bond, T.; Iraci, L. T.

    2008-12-01

    Biomass burning is a significant source of particulate organic carbon in the atmosphere. These particles affect the energy balance of the atmosphere directly by absorbing and scattering solar radiation, and indirectly through their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The chemical composition of biomass burning particles influences their ability to act as CCN, thus understanding the chemistry of these particles is required for understanding their effects on climate and air quality. As climate change influences the frequency and severity of boreal forest fires, the influence of biomass burning aerosols on the atmosphere may become significantly greater. Only a small portion of the organic carbon (OC) fraction of these particles has been identified at the molecular level, although several studies have explored the general chemical classes found in biomass burning smoke. To complement those studies and provide additional information about the reactive functional groups present, we are developing a method for polarity-based separation of compound classes found in the OC fraction, followed by infrared (IR) spectroscopic analysis of each polarity fraction. It is our goal to find a simple, relatively low-tech method which will provide a moderate chemical understanding of the entire suite of compounds present in the OC fraction of biomass burning particles. Here we present preliminary results from pine and oak samples representative of Midwestern United States forests burned at several different temperatures. Wood type and combustion temperature are both seen to affect the composition of the particles. The latter seems to affect relative contributions of certain functional groups, while oak demonstrates at least one additional chemical class of compounds, particularly at lower burning temperatures, where gradual solid-gas phase reactions can produce relatively large amounts of incompletely oxidized products.

  12. Health impacts of anthropogenic biomass burning in the developed world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsgaard, Torben; Forsberg, Bertil; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Blomberg, Anders; Bølling, Anette; Boman, Christoffer; Bønløkke, Jakob; Brauer, Michael; Bruce, Nigel; Héroux, Marie-Eve; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Kelly, Frank; Künzli, Nino; Lundbäck, Bo; Moshammer, Hanns; Noonan, Curtis; Pagels, Joachim; Sallsten, Gerd; Sculier, Jean-Paul; Brunekreef, Bert

    2015-12-01

    Climate change policies have stimulated a shift towards renewable energy sources such as biomass. The economic crisis of 2008 has also increased the practice of household biomass burning as it is often cheaper than using oil, gas or electricity for heating. As a result, household biomass combustion is becoming an important source of air pollutants in the European Union.This position paper discusses the contribution of biomass combustion to pollution levels in Europe, and the emerging evidence on the adverse health effects of biomass combustion products.Epidemiological studies in the developed world have documented associations between indoor and outdoor exposure to biomass combustion products and a range of adverse health effects. A conservative estimate of the current contribution of biomass smoke to premature mortality in Europe amounts to at least 40 000 deaths per year.We conclude that emissions from current biomass combustion products negatively affect respiratory and, possibly, cardiovascular health in Europe. Biomass combustion emissions, in contrast to emissions from most other sources of air pollution, are increasing. More needs to be done to further document the health effects of biomass combustion in Europe, and to reduce emissions of harmful biomass combustion products to protect public health. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  13. Biomass burning and the disappearing tropical rainforest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovejoy, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    The author discusses the implications of reduced biological diversity as a result of slash and burn agriculture in the tropical rainforest. The importance of global management of forests to prevent a buildup of carbon dioxide and the resulting greenhouse effect is emphasized

  14. OH-initiated Aging of Biomass Burning Aerosol during FIREX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C. Y.; Hagan, D. H.; Cappa, C. D.; Kroll, J. H.; Coggon, M.; Koss, A.; Sekimoto, K.; De Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning emissions represent a major source of fine particulate matter to the atmosphere, and this source will likely become increasingly important in the future due to changes in the Earth's climate. Understanding the effects that increased fire emissions have on both air quality and climate requires understanding the composition of the particles emitted, since chemical and physical composition directly impact important particle properties such as absorptivity, toxicity, and cloud condensation nuclei activity. However, the composition of biomass burning particles in the atmosphere is dynamic, as the particles are subject to the condensation of low-volatility vapors and reaction with oxidants such as the hydroxyl radical (OH) during transport. Here we present a series of laboratory chamber experiments on the OH-initiated aging of biomass burning aerosol performed at the Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, MT as part of the Fire Influences on Regional and Global Environments Experiment (FIREX) campaign. We describe the evolution of biomass burning aerosol produced from a variety of fuels operating the chamber in both particle-only and gas + particle mode, focusing on changes to the organic composition. In particle-only mode, gas-phase biomass burning emissions are removed before oxidation to focus on heterogeneous oxidation, while gas + particle mode includes both heterogeneous oxidation and condensation of oxidized volatile organic compounds onto the particles (secondary organic aerosol formation). Variability in fuels and burning conditions lead to differences in aerosol loading and secondary aerosol production, but in all cases aging results in a significant and rapid increases in the carbon oxidation state of the particles.

  15. Research on burning of biomass fuels, KTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagstroem, U.; Zoukatas, N.; Kutscher, E.; Megas, L.

    1983-05-01

    The three main principles of combustion, namely burning over the fuel bed, under the bed, and the inverted flame have been investigated. Combustion under the fuel bed rendered the lowest emission of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, benzopyrene, particulates and tar. Emission is also reduced by preheating the primary incoming air. Burning of pine gives variable emissions whereas birch tree and lying log gives satisfactory combustion. High flame intensity and Reynolds number of the flame zone in the interval 5 to 8 x 10/sup 3/ also give low emission. A conventional wood burner with its flame over the fuel bed and with a water cooled combustion chamber produces 100 times more carbon monoxide than an advanced construction.

  16. Emissions from biomass burning in the Yucatan [Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Yokelson; J. D. Crounse; P. F. DeCarlo; T. Karl; S. Urbanski; E. Atlas; T. Campos; Y. Shinozuka; V. Kapustin; A. D. Clarke; A. Weinheimer; D. J. Knapp; D. D. Montzka; J. Holloway; P. Weibring; F. Flocke; W. Zheng; D. Toohey; P. O. Wennberg; C. Wiedinmyer; L. Mauldin; A. Fried; D. Richter; J. Walega; J. L. Jimenez; K. Adachi; P. R. Buseck; S. R. Hall; R. Shetter

    2009-01-01

    In March 2006 two instrumented aircraft made the first detailed field measurements of biomass burning (BB) emissions in the Northern Hemisphere tropics as part of the MILAGRO project. The aircraft were the National Center for Atmospheric Research C-130 and a University of Montana/US Forest Service Twin Otter. The initial emissions of up to 49 trace gas or particle...

  17. Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, LI [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sedlacek, A. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) was conducted to obtain a better understanding of how aerosols generated from biomass fires affect the atmosphere and climate. It is estimated that 40% of carbonaceous aerosol produced originates from biomass burning—enough to affect regional and global climate. Several biomass-burning studies have focused on tropical climates; however, few campaigns have been conducted within the United States, where millions of acres are burned each year, trending to higher values and greater climate impacts because of droughts in the West. Using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility (AAF), the BBOP deployed the Gulfstream-1 (G-1) aircraft over smoke plumes from active wildfire and agricultural burns to help identify the impact of these events and how impacts evolve with time. BBOP was one of very few studies that targeted the near-field time evolution of aerosols and aimed to obtain a process-level understanding of the large changes that occur within a few hours of atmospheric processing.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Brown Carbon in Biomass Burning Aerosol Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Peng; Aiona, Paige K.; Li, Ying; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Emissions from biomass burning are a significant source of brown carbon (BrC) in the atmosphere. In this study, we investigate the molecular composition of freshly-emitted biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) samples collected during test burns of selected biomass fuels: sawgrass, peat, ponderosa pine, and black spruce. We characterize individual BrC chromophores present in these samples using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array detector and a high-resolution mass spectrometer. We demonstrate that both the overall BrC absorption and the chemical composition of light-absorbing compounds depend significantly on the type of biomass fuels and burning conditions. Common BrC chromophores in the selected BBOA samples include nitro-aromatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives, and polyphenols spanning a wide range of molecular weights, structures, and light absorption properties. A number of biofuel-specific BrC chromophores are observed, indicating that some of them may be used as potential markers of BrC originating from different biomass burning sources. On average, ~50% of the light absorption above 300 nm can be attributed to a limited number of strong BrC chromophores, which may serve as representative light-absorbing species for studying atmospheric processing of BrC aerosol. The absorption coefficients of BBOA are affected by solar photolysis. Specifically, under typical atmospheric conditions, the 300 nm absorbance decays with a half-life of 16 hours. A “molecular corridors” analysis of the BBOA volatility distribution suggests that many BrC compounds in the fresh BBOA have low volatility (<1 g m-1) and will be retained in the particle phase under atmospherically relevant conditions.

  19. Constraining Absorption of Organic Aerosol from Biomass Burning with Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Y.; Liu, X.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning emissions contribute to a large fraction of global organic aerosol (OA) emissions. In most models, radiative forcing of black carbon (BC) and OA from biomass burning offsets each other to give a small or close to zero total forcing, i.e., an estimate of 0 (-0.2 to +0.2) W m-2 by IPCC-AR5. Recent observational and modeling studies have shown the absorbing part of OA, referred to as "brown" carbon (BrC), to be a significant source of direct absorption of solar radiation thus positive forcing, in particular over regions dominated by biomass burning and biofuel emissions. Here we implement optical treatment for the BrC absorption in the CESM1/CAM5 model, and compare the calculated aerosol spectral absorption with ground-based AERONET and DOE/ARM observations. In this version of CAM5, biomass burning and biofuel OA are treated separately from fossil fuel OA with different imaginary refractive index. Because the absorption of BrC is highly variable and uncertain depending on source, aging, and mixing state, sensitivity studies of BrC refractive index parameterized by fuel type and ratio of BC to OA mass will be examined and the resulting uncertainty in the estimated forcing will be discussed. Preliminary results suggest the simulated wavelength dependence of aerosol absorption, as measured by the absorption Ångström exponent (AAE), increases from 0.9 for non-absorbing OA to 1.2 (or 1.0) for strongly (or moderately) absorbing BrC. The AAE calculated for the strongly absorbing BrC agrees with AERONET spectral observations at 440-870 nm over most regions but overpredicts for the open biomass burning-dominated South America and southern Africa, in which inclusion of moderately absorbing BrC exhibits better agreement.

  20. Do supersonic aircraft avoid contrails?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stenke

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of a potential future fleet of supersonic aircraft on contrail coverage and contrail radiative forcing is investigated by means of simulations with the general circulation model ECHAM4.L39(DLR including a contrail parameterization. The model simulations consider air traffic inventories of a subsonic fleet and of a combined fleet of sub- and supersonic aircraft for the years 2025 and 2050, respectively. In case of the combined fleet, part of the subsonic fleet is replaced by supersonic aircraft. The combined air traffic scenario reveals a reduction in contrail cover at subsonic cruise levels (10 to 12 km in the northern extratropics, especially over the North Atlantic and North Pacific. At supersonic flight levels (18 to 20 km, contrail formation is mainly restricted to tropical regions. Only in winter is the northern extratropical stratosphere above the 100 hPa level cold enough for the formation of contrails. Total contrail coverage is only marginally affected by the shift in flight altitude. The model simulations indicate a global annual mean contrail cover of 0.372% for the subsonic and 0.366% for the combined fleet in 2050. The simulated contrail radiative forcing is most closely correlated to the total contrail cover, although contrails in the tropical lower stratosphere are found to be optically thinner than contrails in the extratropical upper troposphere. The global annual mean contrail radiative forcing in 2050 (2025 amounts to 24.7 mW m−2 (9.4 mW m−2 for the subsonic fleet and 24.2 mW m−2 (9.3 mW m−2 for the combined fleet. A reduction of the supersonic cruise speed from Mach 2.0 to Mach 1.6 leads to a downward shift in contrail cover, but does not affect global mean total contrail cover and contrail radiative forcing. Hence the partial substitution of subsonic air traffic leads to a shift of contrail occurrence from mid to low latitudes, but the resulting change in

  1. Brown carbon in fresh and aged biomass burning emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, R.; Robinson, E.; Tkacik, D. S.; Ahern, A.; Liu, S.; Aiken, A. C.; Sullivan, R. C.; Presto, A. A.; Dubey, M.; Donahue, N. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    To date, most climate forcing calculations treat black carbon (BC) and dust as the only particulate light absorbers. Numerous studies have shown that some organic aerosols (OA), referred to as brown carbon (BrC), also absorb light. BrC has been identified in biomass burning emissions; however, its light absorption properties are poorly constrained. Literature values of the imaginary part of the refractive indices of biomass burning OA (kOA) span two orders of magnitude. This variability, attributed to differences in fuel type and burning conditions, complicates the representation of biomass burning BrC in climate models. Proper accounting for BrC absorption in climate forcing calculations is of great importance. It can enhance the models' performance, bringing estimates of climate sensitivity to better agreement with observations. Here, we investigate the source of variability in absorptivity of biomass-burning OA observed in this study. We show that absorptivity is closely linked to OA volatility. Specifically, low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs) are responsible for most of the light absorption, with effective kOA 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than the semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). The effective kOA of biomass-burning emissions thus depends on the extent to which SVOCs partition to the condensed phase, which is sensitive to OA loading. kOA increases by a factor of 3-4 when the emissions are diluted from source concentrations (1-10 mg/m3) to atmospheric-like concentrations (1-10 μg/m3), as the partitioning of SVOCs shifts towards the gas phase. More importantly, we demonstrate that the effective kOA depends largely on burn conditions, and not fuel type. Burns which produce high levels of BC emit OA that is more absorptive than burns which produce low levels of BC. The dependence of kOA on OA loading and burn conditions can be parameterized as a function of a single property of the emissions, namely the BC-to-OA ratio. Specifically, kOA at

  2. Biomass burning aerosols characterization from ground based and profiling measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Cristina; Vasilescu, Jeni; Marmureanu, Luminita; Ene, Dragos; Preda, Liliana; Mihailescu, Mona

    2018-04-01

    The study goal is to assess the chemical and optical properties of aerosols present in the lofted layers and at the ground. The biomass burning aerosols were evaluated in low level layers from multi-wavelength lidar measurements, while chemical composition at ground was assessed using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and an Aethalometer. Classification of aerosol type and specific organic markers were used to explore the potential to sense the particles from the same origin at ground base and on profiles.

  3. Volatility and mixing states of ultrafine particles from biomass burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruf Hossain, A.M.M.; Park, Seungho; Kim, Jae-Seok; Park, Kihong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Size distribution, volatility, and mixing states of ultrafine particles emitted from rice straw, oak, and pine burning under different burning conditions were investigated. ► Smoldering combustion emitted larger mode particles in higher numbers than smaller mode particles, while the converse was true for flaming combustion. ► While the flaming combustion and open burning results imply there is internal mixing of OC and BC, smoldering combustion in rice straw produced ultrafine particles devoid of BC. ► Mixing state of ultrafine particles from biomass burning can alter the single scattering albedo, and might even change the sign of radiative forcing. - Abstract: Fine and ultrafine carbonaceous aerosols produced from burning biomasses hold enormous importance in terms of assessing radiation balance and public health hazards. As such, volatility and mixing states of size-selected ultrafine particles (UFP) emitted from rice straw, oak, and pine burning were investigated by using volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) technique in this study. Rice straw combustion produced unimodal size distributions of emitted aerosols, while bimodal size distributions from combustions of oak (hardwood) and pine (softwood) were obtained. A nearness of flue gas temperatures and a lower CO ratio of flaming combustion (FC) to smoldering combustion (SC) were characteristic differences found between softwood and hardwood. SC emitted larger mode particles in higher numbers than smaller mode particles, while the converse was true for FC. Rice straw open burning UFPs exhibited a volatilization behavior similar to that between FC and SC. In addition, internal mixing states were observed for size-selected UFPs in all biomasses for all combustion conditions, while external mixing states were only observed for rice straw combustion. Results for FC and open burning suggested there was an internal mixing of volatile organic carbon (OC) and non-volatile core (e

  4. Characterization of biomass burning aerosols from forest fire in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Y.; Iriana, W.; Okumura, M.; Lestari, P.; Tohno, S.; Akira, M.; Okuda, T.

    2012-12-01

    Biomass burning (forest fire, wild fire) is a major source of pollutants, generating an estimate of 104 Tg per year of aerosol particles worldwide. These particles have adverse human health effects and can affect the radiation budget and climate directly and indirectly. Eighty percent of biomass burning aerosols are generated in the tropics and about thirty percent of them originate in the tropical regions of Asia (Andreae, 1991). Several recent studies have reported on the organic compositions of biomass burning aerosols in the tropical regions of South America and Africa, however, there is little data about forest fire aerosols in the tropical regions of Asia. It is important to characterize biomass burning aerosols in the tropical regions of Asia because the aerosol properties vary between fires depending on type and moisture of wood, combustion phase, wind conditions, and several other variables (Reid et al., 2005). We have characterized PM2.5 fractions of biomass burning aerosols emitted from forest fire in Indonesia. During the dry season in 2012, PM2.5 aerosols from several forest fires occurring in Riau, Sumatra, Indonesia were collected on quartz and teflon filters with two mini-volume samplers. Background aerosols in forest were sampled during transition period of rainy season to dry season (baseline period). Samples were analyzed with several analytical instruments. The carbonaceous content (organic and elemental carbon, OC and EC) of the aerosols was analyzed by a thermal optical reflectance technique using IMPROVE protocol. The metal, inorganic ion and organic components of the aerosols were analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), ion chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. There was a great difference of chemical composition between forest fire and non-forest fire samples. Smoke aerosols for forest fires events were composed of ~ 45 % OC and ~ 2.5 % EC. On the other hand, background aerosols for baseline periods were

  5. Does chronic nitrogen deposition during biomass growth affect atmospheric emissions from biomass burning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R Giordano; Joey Chong; David R Weise; Akua A Asa-Awuku

    2016-01-01

    Chronic nitrogen deposition has measureable impacts on soil and plant health.We investigate burning emissions from biomass grown in areas of high and low NOx deposition. Gas and aerosolphase emissions were measured as a function of photochemical aging in an environmental chamber at UC-Riverside. Though aerosol chemical speciation was not...

  6. Modeling of the solar radiative impact of biomass burning aerosols during the Dust and Biomass-burning Experiment (DABEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, G.; Hoyle, C. R.; Berglen, T. F.; Johnson, B. T.; Haywood, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    The radiative forcing associated with biomass burning aerosols has been calculated over West Africa using a chemical transport model. The model simulations focus on the period of January˜February 2006 during the Dust and Biomass-burning Experiment (DABEX). All of the main aerosol components for this region are modeled including mineral dust, biomass burning (BB) aerosols, secondary organic carbon associated with BB emissions, and carbonaceous particles from the use of fossil fuel and biofuel. The optical properties of the BB aerosol are specified using aircraft data from DABEX. The modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) is within 15-20% of data from the few available Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurement stations. However, the model predicts very high AOD over central Africa, which disagrees somewhat with satellite retrieved AOD from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR). This indicates that BB emissions may be too high in central Africa or that very high AOD may be incorrectly screened out of the satellite data. The aerosol single scattering albedo increases with wavelength in our model and in AERONET retrievals, which contrasts with results from a previous biomass burning aerosol campaign. The model gives a strong negative radiative forcing of the BB aerosols at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) in clear-sky conditions over most of the domain, except over the Saharan desert where surface albedos are high. The all-sky TOA radiative forcing is quite inhomogeneous with values varying from -10 to 10 W m-2. The regional mean TOA radiative forcing is close to zero for the all-sky calculation and around -1.5 W m-2 for the clear-sky calculation. Sensitivity simulations indicate a positive regional mean TOA radiative forcing of up to 3 W m-2.

  7. Emissions of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur from biomass burning in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akeredolu, F.; Isichei, A.O.

    1991-01-01

    The atmospheric implications of the effects of burning of vegetation in Nigeria are discussed. The following topics are explored: the extent of biomass burning by geographical area; estimates of emission rates of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur; and the impact on biogeochemical cycling of elements. The results suggest that biomass burning generates a measurable impact on the cycling of carbon and nitrogen

  8. Aerosol Properties Downwind of Biomass Burns Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buseck, Peter R [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We determined the morphological, chemical, and thermal properties of aerosol particles generated by biomass burning during the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) campaign during the wildland fire season in the Pacific Northwest from July to mid-September, 2013, and in October, 2013 from prescribed agricultural burns in the lower Mississippi River Valley. BBOP was a field campaign of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The morphological information was both two-dimensional, as is typical of most microscopy images and that have many of the characteristic of shadows in that they lack depth data, and three-dimensional (3D). The electron tomographic measurements will provided 3D data, including the presence and nature of pores and interstices, and whether the individual particles are coated by or embedded within other materials. These microphysical properties were determined for particles as a function of time and distance from the respective sources in order to obtain detailed information regarding the time evolution of changes during aging.

  9. Fuel characteristics and trace gases produced through biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAMBANG HERO SAHARJO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Saharjo BH, Sudo S, Yonemura S, Tsuruta H (2010 Fuel characteristics and trace gases produced through biomass burning. Biodiversitas 11: 40-45. Indonesian 1997/1998 forest fires resulted in forest destruction totally 10 million ha with cost damaged about US$ 10 billion, where more than 1 Gt CO2 has been released during the fire episode and elevating Indonesia to one of the largest polluters of carbon in the world where 22% of world’s carbon dioxide produced. It has been found that 80-90% of the fire comes from estate crops and industrial forest plantation area belongs to the companies which using fire illegally for the land preparation. Because using fire is cheap, easy and quick and also support the companies purpose in achieving yearly planted area target. Forest management and land use practices in Sumatra and Kalimantan have evolved very rapidly over the past three decades. Poor logging practices resulted in large amounts of waste will left in the forest, greatly elevating fire hazard. Failure by the government and concessionaires to protect logged forests and close old logging roads led to and invasion of the forest by agricultural settlers whose land clearances practices increased the risk of fire. Several field experiments had been done in order to know the quality and the quantity of trace produced during biomass burning in peat grass, peat soil and alang-alang grassland located in South Sumatra, Indonesia. Result of research show that different characteristics of fuel burned will have the different level also in trace gasses produced. Peat grass with higher fuel load burned produce more trace gasses compared to alang-alang grassland and peat soil.

  10. Biomass burning aerosol detection over Buenos Aires City, August 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, L A; Ristori, P R; Pawelko, E E; Pallotta, J V; D'Elia, R L; Quel, E J

    2011-01-01

    At the end of August 2009, a biomass burning aerosol intrusion event was detected at the Laser and Applications Research Center, CEILAP (CITEFA-CONICET) (34.5 deg. S - 58.5 deg. W) at Villa Martelli, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. This center has a sunphotometer from the AERONET-NASA global network, UV solar radiation sensors, a meteorological station and an aerosol lidar system. The aerosol origin was determined by means of back-trajectories and satellite images. This work studies the aerosol air mass optical characterization and their effect in UV solar radiation.

  11. Improving satellite retrievals of NO2 in biomass burning regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousserez, N.; Martin, R. V.; Lamsal, L. N.; Mao, J.; Cohen, R. C.; Anderson, B. E.

    2010-12-01

    The quality of space-based nitrogen dioxide (NO2) retrievals from solar backscatter depends on a priori knowledge of the NO2 profile shape as well as the effects of atmospheric scattering. These effects are characterized by the air mass factor (AMF) calculation. Calculation of the AMF combines a radiative transfer calculation together with a priori information about aerosols and about NO2 profiles (shape factors), which are usually taken from a chemical transport model. In this work we assess the impact of biomass burning emissions on the AMF using the LIDORT radiative transfer model and a GEOS-Chem simulation based on a daily fire emissions inventory (FLAMBE). We evaluate the GEOS-Chem aerosol optical properties and NO2 shape factors using in situ data from the ARCTAS summer 2008 (North America) and DABEX winter 2006 (western Africa) experiments. Sensitivity studies are conducted to assess the impact of biomass burning on the aerosols and the NO2 shape factors used in the AMF calculation. The mean aerosol correction over boreal fires is negligible (+3%), in contrast with a large reduction (-18%) over African savanna fires. The change in sign and magnitude over boreal forest and savanna fires appears to be driven by the shielding effects that arise from the greater biomass burning aerosol optical thickness (AOT) above the African biomass burning NO2. In agreement with previous work, the single scattering albedo (SSA) also affects the aerosol correction. We further investigated the effect of clouds on the aerosol correction. For a fixed AOT, the aerosol correction can increase from 20% to 50% when cloud fraction increases from 0 to 30%. Over both boreal and savanna fires, the greatest impact on the AMF is from the fire-induced change in the NO2 profile (shape factor correction), that decreases the AMF by 38% over the boreal fires and by 62% of the savanna fires. Combining the aerosol and shape factor corrections together results in small differences compared to the

  12. Physiochemical characterisation of biomass burning plumes in Brazil during SAMBBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, William; Allan, James; Flynn, Michael; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Hodgson, Amy; Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Artaxo, Paulo; Coe, Hugh

    2013-04-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, which results in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious negative impacts on public health. Globally, biomass burning aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect of 0.03 Wm-2, however the uncertainty is 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months (usually from August-October). Furthermore, a growing number of people live within the Amazon region, which means that they are subject to the deleterious effects on their health from exposure to substantial volumes of polluted air. Results are presented here from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA), which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil. A suite of instrumentation was flown on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft. Measurements from the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) form the major part of the analysis presented here. The aircraft sampled several fires in close proximity (approximately 150m above the most intense fires) in different areas of Brazil. This included two extensive areas of burning, which occurred in the states of Rondonia and Tocantins. The Rondonia fire was largely dominated by smouldering combustion of a huge single area of rainforest with a visible plume of smoke extending approximately 80km downwind. The Tocantins example contrasted with this as it was a collection of a large number of smaller fires, with flaming combustion being more prevalent. Furthermore, the burned area was largely made up of agricultural land in a cerrado (savannah-like) region of Brazil. Initial results suggest that the chemical nature of these fires differed

  13. The contribution of biomass burning to global warming: An integrated assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashof, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of studies of emissions form biomass burning suggests that while biomass burning is less significant than fossil fuel combustion on global basis, it is a major contributor to the greenhouse gas buildup, responsible for perhaps 10% to 15% of the total forcing from current emissions. Uncertainties about emissions and the relative impact of different gases are large, yielding a range of 5% to 30%. Nonetheless, biomass burning is probably the dominant source of greenhouse gases in some regions. A comprehensive policy to limit global climate change must, therefore, address biomass burning

  14. Flight-based chemical characterization of biomass burning aerosols within two prescribed burn smoke plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Pratt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning represents a major global source of aerosols impacting direct radiative forcing and cloud properties. Thus, the goal of a number of current studies involves developing a better understanding of how the chemical composition and mixing state of biomass burning aerosols evolve during atmospheric aging processes. During the Ice in Clouds Experiment-Layer Clouds (ICE-L in the fall of 2007, smoke plumes from two small Wyoming Bureau of Land Management prescribed burns were measured by on-line aerosol instrumentation aboard a C-130 aircraft, providing a detailed chemical characterization of the particles. After ~2–4 min of aging, submicron smoke particles, produced primarily from sagebrush combustion, consisted predominantly of organics by mass, but were comprised primarily of internal mixtures of organic carbon, elemental carbon, potassium chloride, and potassium sulfate. Significantly, the fresh biomass burning particles contained minor mass fractions of nitrate and sulfate, suggesting that hygroscopic material is incorporated very near or at the point of emission. The mass fractions of ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate increased with aging up to ~81–88 min and resulted in acidic particles. Decreasing black carbon mass concentrations occurred due to dilution of the plume. Increases in the fraction of oxygenated organic carbon and the presence of dicarboxylic acids, in particular, were observed with aging. Cloud condensation nuclei measurements suggested all particles >100 nm were active at 0.5% water supersaturation in the smoke plumes, confirming the relatively high hygroscopicity of the freshly emitted particles. For immersion/condensation freezing, ice nuclei measurements at −32 °C suggested activation of ~0.03–0.07% of the particles with diameters greater than 500 nm.

  15. The biomass burning contribution to climate–carbon-cycle feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Harrison

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Temperature exerts strong controls on the incidence and severity of fire. All else equal, warming is expected to increase fire-related carbon emissions, and thereby atmospheric CO2. But the magnitude of this feedback is very poorly known. We use a single-box model of the land biosphere to quantify this positive feedback from satellite-based estimates of biomass burning emissions for 2000–2014 CE and from sedimentary charcoal records for the millennium before the industrial period. We derive an estimate of the centennial-scale feedback strength of 6.5 ± 3.4 ppm CO2 per degree of land temperature increase, based on the satellite data. However, this estimate is poorly constrained, and is largely driven by the well-documented dependence of tropical deforestation and peat fires (primarily anthropogenic on climate variability patterns linked to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Palaeo-data from pre-industrial times provide the opportunity to assess the fire-related climate–carbon-cycle feedback over a longer period, with less pervasive human impacts. Past biomass burning can be quantified based on variations in either the concentration and isotopic composition of methane in ice cores (with assumptions about the isotopic signatures of different methane sources or the abundances of charcoal preserved in sediments, which reflect landscape-scale changes in burnt biomass. These two data sources are shown here to be coherent with one another. The more numerous data from sedimentary charcoal, expressed as normalized anomalies (fractional deviations from the long-term mean, are then used – together with an estimate of mean biomass burning derived from methane isotope data – to infer a feedback strength of 5.6 ± 3.2 ppm CO2 per degree of land temperature and (for a climate sensitivity of 2.8 K a gain of 0.09 ± 0.05. This finding indicates that the positive carbon cycle feedback from increased fire provides a substantial

  16. Annual and diurnal african biomass burning temporal dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Roberts

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Africa is the single largest continental source of biomass burning emissions. Here we conduct the first analysis of one full year of geostationary active fire detections and fire radiative power data recorded over Africa at 15-min temporal interval and a 3 km sub-satellite spatial resolution by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI imaging radiometer onboard the Meteosat-8 satellite. We use these data to provide new insights into the rates and totals of open biomass burning over Africa, particularly into the extremely strong seasonal and diurnal cycles that exist across the continent. We estimate peak daily biomass combustion totals to be 9 and 6 million tonnes of fuel per day in the northern and southern hemispheres respectively, and total fuel consumption between February 2004 and January 2005 is estimated to be at least 855 million tonnes. Analysis is carried out with regard to fire pixel temporal persistence, and we note that the majority of African fires are detected only once in consecutive 15 min imaging slots. An investigation of the variability of the diurnal fire cycle is carried out with respect to 20 different land cover types, and whilst differences are noted between land covers, the fire diurnal cycle characteristics for most land cover type are very similar in both African hemispheres. We compare the Fire Radiative Power (FRP derived biomass combustion estimates to burned-areas, both at the scale of individual fires and over the entire continent at a 1-degree scale. Fuel consumption estimates are found to be less than 2 kg/m2 for all land cover types noted to be subject to significant fire activity, and for savanna grasslands where literature values are commonly reported the FRP-derived median fuel consumption estimate of 300 g/m2 is well within commonly quoted values. Meteosat-derived FRP data of the type presented here is now available freely to interested users continuously and in near

  17. Enhanced biogenic emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide following surface biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iris C.; Levine, Joel S.; Poth, Mark A.; Riggan, Philip J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent measurements indicate significantly enhanced biogenic soil emissions of both nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) following surface burning. These enhanced fluxes persisted for at least six months following the burn. Simultaneous measurements indicate enhanced levels of exchangeable ammonium in the soil following the burn. Biomass burning is known to be an instantaneous source of NO and N2O resulting from high-temperature combustion. Now it is found that biomass burning also results in significantly enhanced biogenic emissions of these gases, which persist for months following the burn.

  18. What could have caused pre-industrial biomass burning emissions to exceed current rates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, G. R.; Peters, W.; van Leeuwen, T. T.; Giglio, L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies based on trace gas mixing ratios in ice cores and charcoal data indicate that biomass burning emissions over the past millennium exceeded contemporary emissions by up to a factor of 4 for certain time periods. This is surprising because various sources of biomass burning are linked

  19. Case study of water-soluble metal containing organic constituents of biomass burning aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandra L. Chang-Graham; Luisa T. M. Profeta; Timothy J. Johnson; Robert J. Yokelson; Alexander Laskin; Julia Laskin

    2011-01-01

    Natural and prescribed biomass fires are a major source of aerosols that may persist in the atmosphere for several weeks. Biomass burning aerosols (BBA) can be associated with long-range transport of water-soluble N-, S-, P-, and metal-containing species. In this study, BBA samples were collected using a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) from laboratory burns of...

  20. What could have caused pre-industrial biomass burning emissions to exceed current rates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der G.R.; Peters, W.; Leeuwen, van T.T.; Giglio, L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies based on trace gas mixing ratios in ice cores and charcoal data indicate that biomass burning emissions over the past millennium exceeded contemporary emissions by up to a factor of 4 for certain time periods. This is surprising because various sources of biomass burning are linked

  1. Inorganic markers, carbonaceous components and stable carbon isotope from biomass burning aerosols in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, F.; Zhang, Y.; Kawamura, K.

    2015-12-01

    To better characterize the sources of fine particulate matter (i.e. PM2.5) in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China, aerosol chemical composition such total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and inorganic ions were studied as well as stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of TC. Intensively open biomass burning episodes were identified from late September to early October by satellite fire and aerosol optical depth maps. During the biomass burning episodes, concentrations of PM2.5, OC, EC, and WSOC increased by a factor of 4-12 compared to non-biomass-burning periods. Non-sea-salt potassium is strongly correlated with PM2.5, OC, EC and WSOC, suggesting an important contribution of biomass burning emission. The enrichment in both the non-sea-salt potassium and chlorine is significantly larger than other inorganic species, indicating that biomass burning aerosols in Sanjiang Plain is mostly fresh and less aged. In addition, WSOC to OC ratio is relatively lower compared to that reported in biomass burning aerosols in tropical regions, supporting that biomass burning aerosols in Sanjiang Plain is mostly primary and secondary organic aerosols is not significant. A lower average δ13C value (-26.2‰) is found for the biomass-burning aerosols, suggesting a dominant contribution from combustion of C3 plants in the studied region.

  2. A comparison of particulate matter from biomass-burning rural and non-biomass-burning urban households in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ruoting; Bell, Michelle L

    2008-07-01

    Biomass fuel is the primary source of domestic fuel in much of rural China. Previous studies have not characterized particle exposure through time-activity diaries or personal monitoring in mainland China. In this study we characterized indoor and personal particle exposure in six households in northeastern China (three urban, three rural) and explored differences by location, cooking status, activity, and fuel type. Rural homes used biomass. Urban homes used a combination of electricity and natural gas. Stationary monitors measured hourly indoor particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter urban kitchens, urban sitting rooms, and outdoors. Personal monitors for PM with an aerodynamic diameter urban kitchens during cooking. PM10 was 6.1 times higher during cooking periods than during noncooking periods for rural kitchens. Personal PM2.5 levels for rural cooks were 2.8-3.6 times higher than for all other participant categories. The highest PM2.5 exposures occurred during cooking periods for urban and rural cooks. However, rural cooks had 5.4 times higher PM2.5 levels during cooking than did urban cooks. Rural cooks spent 2.5 times more hours per day cooking than did their urban counterparts. These findings indicate that biomass burning for cooking contributes substantially to indoor particulate levels and that this exposure is particularly elevated for cooks. Second-by-second personal PM2.5 exposures revealed differences in exposures by population group and strong temporal heterogeneity that would be obscured by aggregate metrics.

  3. The global impact of biomass burning on tropospheric reactive nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, H. II; Moxim, W.J.; Kasibhatla, P.S.; Logan, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter the authors first review their current understanding of both the anthropogenic and natural sources of reactive nitrogen compounds in the troposphere. Then the available observations of both surface concentration and wet deposition are summarized for regions with significant sources, for locations downwind of strong sources, and for remote sites. The obvious sparsity of the data leads to the next step: an attempt to develop a more complete global picture of surface concentrations and deposition of NO y with the help of global chemistry transport model (GCTM). The available source data are inserted into the GCTM and the resulting simulations compared with surface observations. The impact of anthropogenic sources, both downwind and at remote locations, is discussed and the particular role of biomass burning is identified

  4. Investigating biomass burning aerosol morphology using a laser imaging nephelometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfred, Katherine M.; Washenfelder, Rebecca A.; Wagner, Nicholas L.; Adler, Gabriela; Erdesz, Frank; Womack, Caroline C.; Lamb, Kara D.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Franchin, Alessandro; Selimovic, Vanessa; Yokelson, Robert J.; Murphy, Daniel M.

    2018-02-01

    Particle morphology is an important parameter affecting aerosol optical properties that are relevant to climate and air quality, yet it is poorly constrained due to sparse in situ measurements. Biomass burning is a large source of aerosol that generates particles with different morphologies. Quantifying the optical contributions of non-spherical aerosol populations is critical for accurate radiative transfer models, and for correctly interpreting remote sensing data. We deployed a laser imaging nephelometer at the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory to sample biomass burning aerosol from controlled fires during the FIREX intensive laboratory study. The laser imaging nephelometer measures the unpolarized scattering phase function of an aerosol ensemble using diode lasers at 375 and 405 nm. Scattered light from the bulk aerosol in the instrument is imaged onto a charge-coupled device (CCD) using a wide-angle field-of-view lens, which allows for measurements at 4-175° scattering angle with ˜ 0.5° angular resolution. Along with a suite of other instruments, the laser imaging nephelometer sampled fresh smoke emissions both directly and after removal of volatile components with a thermodenuder at 250 °C. The total integrated aerosol scattering signal agreed with both a cavity ring-down photoacoustic spectrometer system and a traditional integrating nephelometer within instrumental uncertainties. We compare the measured scattering phase functions at 405 nm to theoretical models for spherical (Mie) and fractal (Rayleigh-Debye-Gans) particle morphologies based on the size distribution reported by an optical particle counter. Results from representative fires demonstrate that particle morphology can vary dramatically for different fuel types. In some cases, the measured phase function cannot be described using Mie theory. This study demonstrates the capabilities of the laser imaging nephelometer instrument to provide realtime, in situ information about dominant particle

  5. Emissions of fine particulate nitrated phenols from the burning of five common types of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinfeng; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Liwei; Xu, Wenxue; Zhang, Yating; Chen, Bing; Li, Weijun; Xue, Likun; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Wenxing

    2017-11-01

    Nitrated phenols are among the major constituents of brown carbon and affect both climates and ecosystems. However, emissions from biomass burning, which comprise one of the most important primary sources of atmospheric nitrated phenols, are not well understood. In this study, the concentrations and proportions of 10 nitrated phenols, including nitrophenols, nitrocatechols, nitrosalicylic acids, and dinitrophenol, in fine particles from biomass smoke were determined under three different burning conditions (flaming, weakly flaming, and smoldering) with five common types of biomass (leaves, branches, corncob, corn stalk, and wheat straw). The total abundances of fine nitrated phenols produced by biomass burning ranged from 2.0 to 99.5 μg m -3 . The compositions of nitrated phenols varied with biomass types and burning conditions. 4-nitrocatechol and methyl nitrocatechols were generally most abundant, accounting for up to 88-95% of total nitrated phenols in flaming burning condition. The emission ratios of nitrated phenols to PM 2.5 increased with the completeness of combustion and ranged from 7 to 45 ppmm and from 239 to 1081 ppmm for smoldering and flaming burning, respectively. The ratios of fine nitrated phenols to organic matter in biomass burning aerosols were comparable to or lower than those in ambient aerosols affected by biomass burning, indicating that secondary formation contributed to ambient levels of fine nitrated phenols. The emission factors of fine nitrated phenols from flaming biomass burning were estimated based on the measured mass fractions and the PM 2.5 emission factors from literature and were approximately 0.75-11.1 mg kg -1 . According to calculations based on corn and wheat production in 31 Chinese provinces in 2013, the total estimated emission of fine nitrated phenols from the burning of corncobs, corn stalks, and wheat straw was 670 t. This work highlights the apparent emission of methyl nitrocatechols from biomass burning and

  6. Advanced Characterization of Semivolatile Organic Compounds Emitted from Biomass Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, L. E.; Liu, Y.; Rivas-Ubach, A.; Shaw, J. B.; Lipton, M. S.; Barsanti, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) emits large amounts of non-methane organic gases (NMOGs) and primary (directly emitted) particulate matter (PM). NMOGs also react in plume to form secondary PM (i.e., SOA) and ozone. BB-PM has been difficult to represent accurately in models used for chemistry and climate predictions, including for air quality and fire management purposes. Much recent research supports that many previously unconsidered SOA precursors exist, including oxidation of semivolatile compounds (SVOCs). Although many recent studies have characterized relatively volatile BB-derived NMOGs and relatively non-volatile particle-phase organic species, comparatively few studies have performed detailed characterization of SVOCs emitted from BB. Here we present efforts to expand the volatility and compositional ranges of compounds measured in BB smoke. In this work, samples of SVOCs in gas and particle phases were collected from 18 fires representing a range of fuel types during the 2016 FIREX fire laboratory campaign; samples were analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS) and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Hundreds of compounds were detectable in both gas and particle phases by GCxGC-TOFMS whereas thousands of peaks were present in the FTICR mass spectra. Data from both approaches highlight that chemical fingerprints of smoke are fuel/burn-dependent. These efforts support our continued research in building the understanding and model representation of BB emissions and BB-derived SOA.

  7. Emissions of fine particulate nitrated phenols from the burning of five common types of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xinfeng; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Liwei; Xu, Wenxue; Zhang, Yating; Chen, Bing; Li, Weijun; Xue, Likun; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Wenxing

    2017-01-01

    Nitrated phenols are among the major constituents of brown carbon and affect both climates and ecosystems. However, emissions from biomass burning, which comprise one of the most important primary sources of atmospheric nitrated phenols, are not well understood. In this study, the concentrations and proportions of 10 nitrated phenols, including nitrophenols, nitrocatechols, nitrosalicylic acids, and dinitrophenol, in fine particles from biomass smoke were determined under three different burning conditions (flaming, weakly flaming, and smoldering) with five common types of biomass (leaves, branches, corncob, corn stalk, and wheat straw). The total abundances of fine nitrated phenols produced by biomass burning ranged from 2.0 to 99.5 μg m −3 . The compositions of nitrated phenols varied with biomass types and burning conditions. 4-nitrocatechol and methyl nitrocatechols were generally most abundant, accounting for up to 88–95% of total nitrated phenols in flaming burning condition. The emission ratios of nitrated phenols to PM 2.5 increased with the completeness of combustion and ranged from 7 to 45 ppmm and from 239 to 1081 ppmm for smoldering and flaming burning, respectively. The ratios of fine nitrated phenols to organic matter in biomass burning aerosols were comparable to or lower than those in ambient aerosols affected by biomass burning, indicating that secondary formation contributed to ambient levels of fine nitrated phenols. The emission factors of fine nitrated phenols from flaming biomass burning were estimated based on the measured mass fractions and the PM 2.5 emission factors from literature and were approximately 0.75–11.1 mg kg −1 . According to calculations based on corn and wheat production in 31 Chinese provinces in 2013, the total estimated emission of fine nitrated phenols from the burning of corncobs, corn stalks, and wheat straw was 670 t. This work highlights the apparent emission of methyl nitrocatechols from biomass burning

  8. Impact of Biomass Burning Aerosols on the Biosphere over Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavelle, F.; Haywood, J.; Mercado, L.; Folberth, G.; Bellouin, N.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) smoke from deforestation and the burning of agricultural waste emit a complex cocktail of aerosol particles and gases. BB emissions show a regional hotspot over South America on the edges of Amazonia. These major perturbations and impacts on surface temperature, surface fluxes, chemistry, radiation, rainfall, may have significant consequent impacts on the Amazon rainforest, the largest and most productive carbon store on the planet. There is therefore potential for very significant interaction and interplay between aerosols, clouds, radiation and the biosphere in the region. Terrestrial carbon production (i.e. photosynthesis) is intimately tied to the supply of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR - i.e. wavelengths between 300-690 nm). PAR in sufficient intensity and duration is critical for plant growth. However, if a decrease in total radiation is accompanied by an increase in the component of diffuse radiation, plant productivity may increase due to higher light use efficiency per unit of PAR and less photosynthetic saturation. This effect, sometimes referred as diffuse light fertilization effect, could have increased the global land carbon sink by approximately one quarter during the global dimming period and is expected to be a least as important locally. By directly interacting with radiation, BB aerosols significantly reduce the total amount of PAR available to plant canopies. In addition, BB aerosols also play a centre role in cloud formation because they provide the necessary cloud condensation nuclei, hence indirectly altering the water cycle and the components and quantity of PAR. In this presentation, we use the recent observations from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) to explore the impact of radiation changes on the carbon cycle in the Amazon region caused by BB emissions. A parameterisation of the impact of diffuse and direct radiation upon photosynthesis rates and net primary productivity in the

  9. A five-century sedimentary geochronology of biomass burning in Nicaragua and Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suman, D.O.

    1991-01-01

    In spite of the extensive use of fire as an agricultural agent in Central America today, little is known of its history of biomass burning or agriculture. As an indicator of the burning practices on the adjacent land, a sedimentary record of carbonized particles sheds light on the trends in frequency and areal extent of biomass burning. This research focuses on a sediment core recovered from an anoxic site in the Pacific Ocean adjacent to the Central American Isthmus and reports a five-century record of charcoal deposition. The research illustrates that biomass burning has been an important ecological factor in the Pacific watershed of Central America at least during the past five centuries. Fluxes of charcoal have generally decreased toward the present suggesting a reduction in the charcoal source function. Perhaps, five centuries ago, the frequency of biomass burning was greater than it is today, larger areas were burned, or biomass per unit area of burned grassland was greater. The major type of biomass burned throughout this five-century period has been grass, as opposed to woods, indicating that any major deforestation of the Pacific watershed of Central America occurred prior to the Conquest

  10. Sensitivity of molecular marker-based CMB models to biomass burning source profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheesley, Rebecca J.; Schauer, James J.; Zheng, Mei; Wang, Bo

    To assess the contribution of sources to fine particulate organic carbon (OC) at four sites in North Carolina, USA, a molecular marker chemical mass balance model (MM-CMB) was used to quantify seasonal contributions for 2 years. The biomass burning contribution at these sites was found to be 30-50% of the annual OC concentration. In order to provide a better understanding of the uncertainty in MM-CMB model results, a biomass burning profile sensitivity test was performed on the 18 seasonal composites. The results using reconstructed emission profiles based on published profiles compared well, while model results using a single source test profile resulted in biomass burning contributions that were more variable. The biomass burning contribution calculated using an average regional profile of fireplace emissions from five southeastern tree species also compared well with an average profile of open burning of pine-dominated forest from Georgia. The standard deviation of the results using different source profiles was a little over 30% of the annual average biomass contributions. Because the biomass burning contribution accounted for 30-50% of the OC at these sites, the choice of profile also impacted the motor vehicle source attribution due to the common emission of elemental carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The total mobile organic carbon contribution was less effected by the biomass burning profile than the relative contributions from gasoline and diesel engines.

  11. Biomass burning contributions to urban aerosols in a coastal Mediterranean city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reche, C; Viana, M; Amato, F; Alastuey, A; Moreno, T; Hillamo, R; Teinilä, K; Saarnio, K; Seco, R; Peñuelas, J; Mohr, C; Prévôt, A S H; Querol, X

    2012-06-15

    Mean annual biomass burning contributions to the bulk particulate matter (PM(X)) load were quantified in a southern-European urban environment (Barcelona, Spain) with special attention to typical Mediterranean winter and summer conditions. In spite of the complexity of the local air pollution cocktail and the expected low contribution of biomass burning emissions to PM levels in Southern Europe, the impact of these emissions was detected at an urban background site by means of tracers such as levoglucosan, K(+) and organic carbon (OC). The significant correlation between levoglucosan and OC (r(2)=0.77) and K(+) (r(2)=0.65), as well as a marked day/night variability of the levoglucosan levels and levoglucosan/OC ratios was indicative of the contribution from regional scale biomass burning emissions during night-time transported by land breezes. In addition, on specific days (21-22 March), the contribution from long-range transported biomass burning aerosols was detected. Quantification of the contribution of biomass burning aerosols to PM levels on an annual basis was possible by means of the Multilinear Engine (ME). Biomass burning emissions accounted for 3% of PM(10) and PM(2.5) (annual mean), while this percentage increased up to 5% of PM(1). During the winter period, regional-scale biomass burning emissions (agricultural waste burning) were estimated to contribute with 7±4% of PM(2.5) aerosols during night-time (period when emissions were clearly detected). Long-range transported biomass burning aerosols (possibly from forest fires and/or agricultural waste burning) accounted for 5±2% of PM(2.5) during specific episodes. Annually, biomass burning emissions accounted for 19%-21% of OC levels in PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1). The contribution of this source to K(+) ranged between 48% for PM(10) and 97% for PM(1) (annual mean). Results for K(+) from biomass burning evidenced that this tracer is mostly emitted in the fine fraction, and thus coarse K(+) could not be

  12. Estimates of biomass burning emissions in tropical Asia based on satellite-derived data

    OpenAIRE

    D. Chang; Y. Song

    2009-01-01

    Biomass burning in tropical Asia emits large amounts of trace gases and particulate matter into the atmosphere, which has significant implications for atmospheric chemistry and climatic change. In this study, emissions from open biomass burning over tropical Asia were evaluated during seven fire years from 2000 to 2006 (1 March 2000–31 February 2007). The size of the burned areas was estimated from newly published 1-km L3JRC and 500-m MODIS burned area products (MCD45A1). Available fuel loads...

  13. Overview of the South American biomass burning analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, W. T.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Darbyshire, E.; Hodgson, A.; Johnson, B. T.; Haywood, J. M.; Freitas, S.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Coe, H.

    2013-05-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, which results in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious negative impacts on public health. Globally, biomass burning aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect of 0.03 Wm-2, however the uncertainty is 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months (usually from August-October). Furthermore, a growing number of people live within the Amazon region, which means that they are subject to the deleterious effects on their health from exposure to substantial volumes of polluted air. Initial results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil, are presented here. A suite of instrumentation was flown on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft and was supported by ground based measurements, with extensive measurements made in Porto Velho, Rondonia. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions with sampling of fresh biomass burning plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass burning layers within the free troposphere. The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass burning on regional air quality, weather and climate.

  14. Discrimination of Biomass Burning Smoke and Clouds in MAIAC Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyapustin, A.; Korkin, S.; Wang, Y.; Quayle, B.; Laszlo, I.

    2012-01-01

    The multi-angle implementation of atmospheric correction (MAIAC) algorithm makes aerosol retrievals from MODIS data at 1 km resolution providing information about the fine scale aerosol variability. This information is required in different applications such as urban air quality analysis, aerosol source identification etc. The quality of high resolution aerosol data is directly linked to the quality of cloud mask, in particular detection of small (sub-pixel) and low clouds. This work continues research in this direction, describing a technique to detect small clouds and introducing the smoke test to discriminate the biomass burning smoke from the clouds. The smoke test relies on a relative increase of aerosol absorption at MODIS wavelength 0.412 micrometers as compared to 0.47-0.67 micrometers due to multiple scattering and enhanced absorption by organic carbon released during combustion. This general principle has been successfully used in the OMI detection of absorbing aerosols based on UV measurements. This paper provides the algorithm detail and illustrates its performance on two examples of wildfires in US Pacific North-West and in Georgia/Florida of 2007.

  15. Chemical characterization of biomass burning deposits from cooking stoves in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, Abdus; Hasan, Mahmodul; Begum, Bilkis A.; Begum, Monira; Biswas, Swapan K.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass burning smoke deposits were characterized from cooking stoves in Brahmondi, Narsingdi, Bangladesh. Arjun, bamboo, coconut, madhabilata, mahogany, mango, rice husk coil, plum and mixed dried leaves were used as biomasses. Smoke deposits were collected from the ceiling (above the stove) of the kitchen on aluminum foil. Deposits samples were analyzed with X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy for trace elements determination. UV–visible spectrophotometer was used for ions analysis. The surface morphology of the smoke deposits was studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM). Elevated concentrations of the trace elements were observed, especially for toxic metals (Pb, Co, Cu). The highest concentration of lead was observed in rice husk coil among the determined biomasses followed by mahogany and arjun, whereas the lowest concentration was observed in bamboo. Potassium has the highest concentration among the determined trace elements followed by calcium, iron and titanium. Trace elements such as potassium, calcium, iron showed significant variation among different biomass burning smoke deposits. The average concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and phosphate were 38.0, 0.60, 0.73 mg kg −1 , respectively. The surface morphology was almost similar for these biomass burning deposit samples. The Southeast Asian biomass burning smoke deposits had distinct behavior from European and USA wood fuels combustion. -- Highlights: •Elevated concentrations of trace elements were observed in biomass burning deposits. •Very high concentration of lead was observed in biomasses burring deposits •Elevated toxic trace elements concentrations in kitchens need further surveillance

  16. Regional biomass burning trends in India: Analysis of satellite fire data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    humans have dramatically influenced biomass burn- ing for agricultural needs ... implications for climatic change as a result of land- scape change ... Comprehensive modelling-based emission esti- mates of .... Cloud coverage could be also a ...

  17. Local biomass burning is a dominant cause of the observed precipitation reduction in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodnebrog, Øivind; Myhre, Gunnar; Forster, Piers M.; Sillmann, Jana; Samset, Bjørn H.

    2016-01-01

    Observations indicate a precipitation decline over large parts of southern Africa since the 1950s. Concurrently, atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols have increased due to anthropogenic activities. Here we show that local black carbon and organic carbon aerosol emissions from biomass burning activities are a main cause of the observed decline in southern African dry season precipitation over the last century. Near the main biomass burning regions, global and regional modelling indicates precipitation decreases of 20–30%, with large spatial variability. Increasing global CO2 concentrations further contribute to precipitation reductions, somewhat less in magnitude but covering a larger area. Whereas precipitation changes from increased CO2 are driven by large-scale circulation changes, the increase in biomass burning aerosols causes local drying of the atmosphere. This study illustrates that reducing local biomass burning aerosol emissions may be a useful way to mitigate reduced rainfall in the region. PMID:27068129

  18. SAFARI 2000 1-Degree Estimates of Burned Biomass, Area, and Emissions, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new method is used to generate spatial estimates of monthly averaged biomass burned area and spatial and temporal estimates of trace gas and aerosol emissions from...

  19. Global combustion: the connection between fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions (1997–2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, Jennifer K.; Nagy, R. Chelsea; Archibald, Sally; Moritz, Max A.; Williamson, Grant J.

    2016-01-01

    Humans use combustion for heating and cooking, managing lands, and, more recently, for fuelling the industrial economy. As a shift to fossil-fuel-based energy occurs, we expect that anthropogenic biomass burning in open landscapes will decline as it becomes less fundamental to energy acquisition and livelihoods. Using global data on both fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions, we tested this relationship over a 14 year period (1997–2010). The global average annual carbon emissions from biomass burning during this time were 2.2 Pg C per year (±0.3 s.d.), approximately one-third of fossil fuel emissions over the same period (7.3 Pg C, ±0.8 s.d.). There was a significant inverse relationship between average annual fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions. Fossil fuel emissions explained 8% of the variation in biomass burning emissions at a global scale, but this varied substantially by land cover. For example, fossil fuel burning explained 31% of the variation in biomass burning in woody savannas, but was a non-significant predictor for evergreen needleleaf forests. In the land covers most dominated by human use, croplands and urban areas, fossil fuel emissions were more than 30- and 500-fold greater than biomass burning emissions. This relationship suggests that combustion practices may be shifting from open landscape burning to contained combustion for industrial purposes, and highlights the need to take into account how humans appropriate combustion in global modelling of contemporary fire. Industrialized combustion is not only an important driver of atmospheric change, but also an important driver of landscape change through companion declines in human-started fires. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The interaction of fire and mankind’. PMID:27216509

  20. Global combustion: the connection between fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions (1997-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, Jennifer K; Nagy, R Chelsea; Archibald, Sally; Bowman, David M J S; Moritz, Max A; Roos, Christopher I; Scott, Andrew C; Williamson, Grant J

    2016-06-05

    Humans use combustion for heating and cooking, managing lands, and, more recently, for fuelling the industrial economy. As a shift to fossil-fuel-based energy occurs, we expect that anthropogenic biomass burning in open landscapes will decline as it becomes less fundamental to energy acquisition and livelihoods. Using global data on both fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions, we tested this relationship over a 14 year period (1997-2010). The global average annual carbon emissions from biomass burning during this time were 2.2 Pg C per year (±0.3 s.d.), approximately one-third of fossil fuel emissions over the same period (7.3 Pg C, ±0.8 s.d.). There was a significant inverse relationship between average annual fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions. Fossil fuel emissions explained 8% of the variation in biomass burning emissions at a global scale, but this varied substantially by land cover. For example, fossil fuel burning explained 31% of the variation in biomass burning in woody savannas, but was a non-significant predictor for evergreen needleleaf forests. In the land covers most dominated by human use, croplands and urban areas, fossil fuel emissions were more than 30- and 500-fold greater than biomass burning emissions. This relationship suggests that combustion practices may be shifting from open landscape burning to contained combustion for industrial purposes, and highlights the need to take into account how humans appropriate combustion in global modelling of contemporary fire. Industrialized combustion is not only an important driver of atmospheric change, but also an important driver of landscape change through companion declines in human-started fires.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Seasonal, interannual, and long-term variabilities in biomass burning activity over South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, P; Naja, M; Kumar, R; Chandola, H C

    2016-03-01

    The seasonal, interannual, and long-term variations in biomass burning activity and related emissions are not well studied over South Asia. In this regard, active fire location retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MODIS Terra, and tropospheric column NO2 from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) are used to understand the effects of biomass burning on the tropospheric pollution loadings over South Asia during 2003-2013. Biomass burning emission estimates from Global Fire Emission Database (GFED) and Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) are also used to quantify uncertainties and regional discrepancies in the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and black carbon (BC) due to biomass burning in South Asia. In the Asian continent, the frequency of fire activity is highest over Southeast Asia, followed by South Asia and East Asia. The biomass burning activity in South Asia shows a distinct seasonal cycle that peaks during February-May with some differences among four (north, central, northeast, and south) regions in India. The annual biomass burning activity in north, central, and south regions shows an increasing tendency, particularly after 2008, while a decrease is seen in northeast region during 2003-2013. The increase in fire counts over the north and central regions contributes 24 % of the net enhancement in fire counts over South Asia. MODIS AOD and OMI tropospheric column NO2 retrievals are classified into high and low fire activity periods and show that biomass burning leads to significant enhancement in tropospheric pollution loading over both the cropland and forest regions. The enhancement is much higher (110-176 %) over the forest region compared to the cropland (34-62 %) region. Further efforts are required to understand the implications of biomass burning on the regional air quality and climate of South Asia.

  2. Recent Biomass Burning in the Tropics and Related Changes in Tropospheric Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemke; Chandra, J. R. S.; Duncan, B. N.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Torres, O.; Damon, M. R.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2009-01-01

    Biomass burning is an important source of chemical precursors of tropospheric ozone. In the tropics, biomass burning produces ozone enhancements over broad regions of Indonesia, Africa, and South America including Brazil. Fires are intentionally set in these regions during the dry season each year to clear cropland and to clear land for human/industrial expansion. In Indonesia enhanced burning occurs during dry El Nino conditions such as in 1997 and 2006. These burning activities cause enhancement in atmospheric particulates and trace gases which are harmful to human health. Measurements from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) from October 2004-November 2008 are used to evaluate the effects of biomass burning on tropical tropospheric ozone. These measurements show sizeable decreases approx.15-20% in ozone in Brazil during 2008 compared to 2007 which we attribute to the reduction in biomass burning. Three broad biomass burning regions in the tropics (South America including Brazil, western Africa, and Indonesia) were analyzed in the context of OMI/MLS measurements and the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemical transport model developed at Goddard Space Flight Center. The results indicate that the impact of biomass burning on ozone is significant within and near the burning regions with increases of approx.10-25% in tropospheric column ozone relative to average background concentrations. The model suggests that about half of the increases in ozone from these burning events come from altitudes below 3 km. Globally the model indicates increases of approx.4-5% in ozone, approx.7-9% in NO, (NO+NO2), and approx.30-40% in CO.

  3. CALIOP-based Biomass Burning Smoke Plume Injection Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, A. J.; Choi, H. D.; Fairlie, T. D.; Pouliot, G.; Baker, K. R.; Winker, D. M.; Trepte, C. R.; Szykman, J.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon and aerosols are cycled between terrestrial and atmosphere environments during fire events, and these emissions have strong feedbacks to near-field weather, air quality, and longer-term climate systems. Fire severity and burned area are under the control of weather and climate, and fire emissions have the potential to alter numerous land and atmospheric processes that, in turn, feedback to and interact with climate systems (e.g., changes in patterns of precipitation, black/brown carbon deposition on ice/snow, alteration in landscape and atmospheric/cloud albedo). If plume injection height is incorrectly estimated, then the transport and deposition of those emissions will also be incorrect. The heights to which smoke is injected governs short- or long-range transport, which influences surface pollution, cloud interaction (altered albedo), and modifies patterns of precipitation (cloud condensation nuclei). We are working with the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) science team and other stakeholder agencies, primarily the Environmental Protection Agency and regional partners, to generate a biomass burning (BB) plume injection height database using multiple platforms, sensors and models (CALIOP, MODIS, NOAA HMS, Langley Trajectory Model). These data have the capacity to provide enhanced smoke plume injection height parameterization in regional, national and international scientific and air quality models. Statistics that link fire behavior and weather to plume rise are crucial for verifying and enhancing plume rise parameterization in local-, regional- and global-scale models used for air quality, chemical transport and climate. Specifically, we will present: (1) a methodology that links BB injection height and CALIOP air parcels to specific fires; (2) the daily evolution of smoke plumes for specific fires; (3) plumes transport and deposited on the Greenland Ice Sheet; and (4) compare CALIOP-derived smoke plume injection

  4. Analyses of biomass burning contribution to aerosol in Zhengzhou during wheat harvest season in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongyang; Yin, Shasha; Li, Xiao; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Ruiqin

    2018-07-01

    Ambient PM2.5 samples were collected in suburban area of Zhengzhou, China to investigate the impact of straw open burning on local aerosol during wheat harvest season in 2015. Secondary formation and accumulation processes were found under unfavorable meteorological conditions through the chemical composition analysis in PM2.5. And spatial and temporal variation of the agricultural activities were observed through MODIS fire spots data combined with back trajectory analysis. Results showed elevated levoglucosan was affected directly during biomass burning episodes and transportation periods. In order to estimate the contribution, levoglucosan/K+ combined with levoglucosan/mannosan were analyzed to identify biomass burning sources. And the results showed that levoglucosan were emitted from straw burning mixing with softwood combustion during the study period, emphasizing that wood combustion for households was non-negligible which consists part of the levoglucosan background in Zhengzhou aerosol. Based on emission factors (levoglucosan/OC or levoglucosan/PM2.5) summarized by laboratory simulation experiments, the study period was divided into 7 depending on the former characteristics to estimate the contribution of biomass burning to aerosol, and the average contributions of biomass burning emission to OC and PM2.5 were 46% and 13% relatively, indicating biomass burning have a significant impact on ambient aerosol levels during harvest season.

  5. Biomass Burning: The Cycling of Gases and Particulates from the Biosphere to the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J. S.

    2003-12-01

    Biomass burning is both a process of geochemical cycling of gases and particulates from the biosphere to the atmosphere and a process of global change. In the preface to the book, One Earth, One Future: Our Changing Global Environment (National Academy of Sciences, 1990), Dr. Frank Press, the President of the National Academy of Sciences, writes: "Human activities are transforming the global environment, and these global changes have many faces: ozone depletion, tropical deforestation, acid deposition, and increased atmospheric concentrations of gases that trap heat and may warm the global climate."It is interesting to note that all four global change "faces" identified by Dr. Press have a common thread - they are all caused by biomass burning.Biomass burning or vegetation burning is the burning of living and dead vegetation and includes human-initiated burning and natural lightning-induced burning. The bulk of the world's biomass burning occurs in the tropics - in the tropical forests of South America and Southeast Asia and in the savannasof Africa and South America. The majority of the biomass burning, primarily in the tropics (perhaps as much as 90%), is believed to be human initiated for land clearing and land-use change. Natural fires triggered by atmospheric lightning only accounts for ˜10% of all fires (Andreae, 1991). As will be discussed, a significant amount of biomass burning occurs in the boreal forests of Russia, Canada, and Alaska.Biomass burning is a significant source of gases and particulates to the regional and global atmosphere (Crutzen et al., 1979; Seiler and Crutzen, 1980; Crutzen and Andreae, 1990; Levine et al., 1995). Its burning is truly a multidiscipline subject, encompassing the following areas: fire ecology, fire measurements, fire modeling, fire combustion, remote sensing, fire combustion gaseous and particulate emissions, the atmospheric transport of these emissions, and the chemical and climatic impacts of these emissions. Recently

  6. IASI measurements of reactive trace species in biomass burning plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-F. Coheur

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents observations of a series of short-lived species in biomass burning plumes from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI, launched onboard the MetOp-A platform in October 2006. The strong fires that have occurred in the Mediterranean Basin – and particularly Greece – in August 2007, and those in Southern Siberia and Eastern Mongolia in the early spring of 2008 are selected to support the analyses. We show that the IASI infrared spectra in these fire plumes contain distinctive signatures of ammonia (NH3, ethene (C2H4, methanol (CH3OH and formic acid (HCOOH in the atmospheric window between 800 and 1200 cm−1, with some noticeable differences between the plumes. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (CH3COOONO2, abbreviated as PAN was also observed with good confidence in some plumes and a tentative assignment of a broadband absorption spectral feature to acetic acid (CH3COOH is made. For several of these species these are the first reported measurements made from space in nadir geometry. The IASI measurements are analyzed for plume height and concentration distributions of NH3, C2H4 and CH3OH. The Greek fires are studied in greater detail for the days associated with the largest emissions. In addition to providing information on the spatial extent of the plume, the IASI retrievals allow an estimate of the total mass emissions for NH3, C2H4 and CH3OH. Enhancement ratios are calculated for the latter relative to carbon monoxide (CO, giving insight in the chemical processes occurring during the transport, the first day after the emission.

  7. A comprehensive biomass burning emission inventory with high spatial and temporal resolution in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Xing, Xiaofan; Lang, Jianlei; Chen, Dongsheng; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Wei, Lin; Wei, Xiao; Liu, Chao

    2017-02-01

    Biomass burning injects many different gases and aerosols into the atmosphere that could have a harmful effect on air quality, climate, and human health. In this study, a comprehensive biomass burning emission inventory including domestic and in-field straw burning, firewood burning, livestock excrement burning, and forest and grassland fires is presented, which was developed for mainland China in 2012 based on county-level activity data, satellite data, and updated source-specific emission factors (EFs). The emission inventory within a 1 × 1 km2 grid was generated using geographical information system (GIS) technology according to source-based spatial surrogates. A range of key information related to emission estimation (e.g. province-specific proportion of domestic and in-field straw burning, detailed firewood burning quantities, uneven temporal distribution coefficient) was obtained from field investigation, systematic combing of the latest research, and regression analysis of statistical data. The established emission inventory includes the major precursors of complex pollution, greenhouse gases, and heavy metal released from biomass burning. The results show that the emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, NMVOC, NH3, CO, EC, OC, CO2, CH4, and Hg in 2012 are 336.8 Gg, 990.7 Gg, 3728.3 Gg, 3526.7 Gg, 3474.2 Gg, 401.2 Gg, 34 380.4 Gg, 369.7 Gg, 1189.5 Gg, 675 299.0 Gg, 2092.4 Gg, and 4.12 Mg, respectively. Domestic straw burning, in-field straw burning, and firewood burning are identified as the dominant biomass burning sources. The largest contributing source is different for various pollutants. Domestic straw burning is the largest source of biomass burning emissions for all the pollutants considered, except for NH3, EC (firewood), and NOx (in-field straw). Corn, rice, and wheat represent the major crop straws. The combined emission of these three straw types accounts for 80 % of the total straw-burned emissions for each specific pollutant mentioned in this study

  8. Characterisation of the impact of open biomass burning on urban air quality in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Congrong; Miljevic, Branka; Crilley, Leigh R; Surawski, Nicholas C; Bartsch, Jennifer; Salimi, Farhad; Uhde, Erik; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Orasche, Jürgen; Ristovski, Zoran; Ayoko, Godwin A; Zimmermann, Ralf; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-05-01

    Open biomass burning from wildfires and the prescribed burning of forests and farmland is a frequent occurrence in South-East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. This work reports on data collected from 10 to 30 September 2011, which covers the days before (10-14 September), during (15-20 September) and after (21-30 September) a period of biomass burning in SEQ. The aim of this project was to comprehensively quantify the impact of the biomass burning on air quality in Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland. A multi-parameter field measurement campaign was conducted and ambient air quality data from 13 monitoring stations across SEQ were analysed. During the burning period, the average concentrations of all measured pollutants increased (from 20% to 430%) compared to the non-burning period (both before and after burning), except for total xylenes. The average concentration of O3, NO2, SO2, benzene, formaldehyde, PM10, PM2.5 and visibility-reducing particles reached their highest levels for the year, which were up to 10 times higher than annual average levels, while PM10, PM2.5 and SO2 concentrations exceeded the WHO 24-hour guidelines and O3 concentration exceeded the WHO maximum 8-hour average threshold during the burning period. Overall spatial variations showed that all measured pollutants, with the exception of O3, were closer to spatial homogeneity during the burning compared to the non-burning period. In addition to the above, elevated concentrations of three biomass burning organic tracers (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan), together with the amount of non-refractory organic particles (PM1) and the average value of f60 (attributed to levoglucosan), reinforce that elevated pollutant concentration levels were due to emissions from open biomass burning events, 70% of which were prescribed burning events. This study, which is the first and most comprehensive of its kind in Australia, provides quantitative evidence of the significant impact of open biomass burning

  9. Intensified water storage loss by biomass burning in Kalimantan: Detection by GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiancheng; Tangdamrongsub, Natthachet; Hwang, Cheinway; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.

    2017-03-01

    Biomass burning is the principal tool for land clearing and a primary driver of land use change in Kalimantan (the Indonesian part of Borneo island). Biomass burning here has consumed millions of hectares of peatland and swamp forests. It also degrades air quality in Southeast Asia, perturbs the global carbon cycle, threatens ecosystem health and biodiversity, and potentially affects the global water cycle. Here we present the optimal estimate of water storage changes over Kalimantan from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Over August 2002 to December 2014, our result shows a north-south dipole pattern in the long-term changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) and groundwater storage (GWS). Both TWS and GWS increase in the northern part of Kalimantan, while they decrease in the southern part where fire events are the most severe. The loss rates in TWS and GWS in the southern part are 0.56 ± 0.11 cm yr-1 and 0.55 ± 0.10 cm yr-1, respectively. We use GRACE estimates, burned area, carbon emissions, and hydroclimatic data to study the relationship between biomass burning and water storage losses. The analysis shows that extensive biomass burning results in excessive evapotranspiration, which then increases long-term water storage losses in the fire-prone region of Kalimantan. Our results show the potentials of GRACE and its follow-on missions in assisting water storage and fire managements in a region with extensive biomass burning such as Kalimantan.

  10. Photochemistry of the African troposphere: Influence of biomass-burning emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marufu, L.; Dentener, F.; Lelieveld, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Helas, G.

    2000-06-01

    The relative importance of biomass-burning (pyrogenic) emissions from savannas, deforestation, agricultural waste burning, and biofuel consumption to tropospheric ozone abundance over Africa has been estimated for the year 1993, on the basis of global model calculations. We also calculated the importance of this emission source to tropospheric ozone in other regions of the world and compared it to different sources on the African regional and global scales. The estimated annual average total tropospheric ozone abundance over Africa for the reference year is 26 Tg. Pyrogenic, industrial, biogenic, and lightning emissions account for 16, 19, 12, and 27%, respectively, while stratospheric ozone input accounts for 26%. In the planetary boundary layer over Africa, the contribution by biomass burning is ˜24%. A large fraction of the African biomass-burning-related ozone is transported away from the continent. On a global scale, biomass burning contributes ˜9% to tropospheric ozone. Our model calculations suggest that Africa is the single most important region for biomass-burning-related tropospheric ozone, accounting for ˜35% of the global annual pyrogenic ozone enhancement of 29 Tg in 1993.

  11. Organic aerosols from biomass burning in Amazonian rain forest and their impact onto the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecinato, A.; Mabilia, R.; De Castro Vasconcellos, P.

    2001-01-01

    A field campaign performed in Southern Brazilian Amazonia in 1993 has proved that this region is subjected to fallout of particulated exhausts released by fires of forestal biomass. In fact, organic content of aerosols collected at urban sites located on the border of pluvial forest, about 50 km from fires, was similar to that of biomass burning exhausts. Aerosol composition is indicative of dolous origin of fires. However, organic contents seems to be influenced by two additional sources, i. e. motor vehicle and high vegetation emission. Chemical pattern of organic aerosols released by biomass burning of forest seems to promote occurrence of photochemical smog episodes in that region [it

  12. Levoglucosan indicates high levels of biomass burning aerosols over oceans from the Arctic to Antarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qi-Hou; Xie, Zhou-Qing; Wang, Xin-Ming; Kang, Hui; Zhang, Pengfei

    2013-11-01

    Biomass burning is known to affect air quality, global carbon cycle, and climate. However, the extent to which biomass burning gases/aerosols are present on a global scale, especially in the marine atmosphere, is poorly understood. Here we report the molecular tracer levoglucosan concentrations in marine air from the Arctic Ocean through the North and South Pacific Ocean to Antarctica during burning season. Levoglucosan was found to be present in all regions at ng/m(3) levels with the highest atmospheric loadings present in the mid-latitudes (30°-60° N and S), intermediate loadings in the Arctic, and lowest loadings in the Antarctic and equatorial latitudes. As a whole, levoglucosan concentrations in the Southern Hemisphere were comparable to those in the Northern Hemisphere. Biomass burning has a significant impact on atmospheric Hg and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) from pole-to-pole, with more contribution to WSOC in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere.

  13. Fossil fuel and biomass burning effect on climate - Heating or cooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Fraser, Robert S.; Mahoney, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    The basic theory of the effect of pollution on cloud microphysics and its global implications is applied to compare the relative effect of a small increase in the consumption rate of oil, coal, or biomass burning on cooling and heating of the atmosphere. The characteristics of and evidence for the SO2 induced cooling effect are reviewed. This perturbation analysis approach permits linearization, therefore simplifying the analysis and reducing the number of uncertain parameters. For biomass burning the analysis is restricted to burning associated with deforestation. Predictions of the effect of an increase in oil or coal burning show that within the present conditions the cooling effect from oil and coal burning may range from 0.4 to 8 times the heating effect.

  14. Biomass Burning Emissions of Black Carbon from African Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, A. C.; Leone, O.; Nitschke, K. L.; Dubey, M. K.; Carrico, C.; Springston, S. R.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Watson, T. B.; Kuang, C.; Uin, J.; McMeeking, G. R.; DeMott, P. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Robinson, A. L.; Yokelson, R. J.; Zuidema, P.

    2016-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) emissions are a large source of carbon to the atmosphere via particles and gas phase species. Carbonaceous aerosols are emitted along with gas-phase carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) that can be used to determine particulate emission ratios and modified combustion efficiencies. Black carbon (BC) aerosols are potentially underestimated in global models and are considered to be one of the most important global warming factors behind CO2. Half or more BC in the atmosphere is from BB, estimated at 6-9 Tg/yr (IPCC, 5AR) and contributing up to 0.6 W/m2 atmospheric warming (Bond et al., 2013). With a potential rise in drought and extreme events in the future due to climate change, these numbers are expected to increase. For this reason, we focus on BC and organic carbon aerosol species that are emitted from forest fires and compare their emission ratios, physical and optical properties to those from controlled laboratory studies of single-source BB fuels to understand BB carbonaceous aerosols in the atmosphere. We investigate BC in concentrated BB plumes as sampled from the new U.S. DOE ARM Program campaign, Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds (LASIC). The ARM Aerosol Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1) and Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) are currently located on Ascension Island in the South Atlantic Ocean, located midway between Angola and Brazil. The location was chosen for sampling maximum aerosol outflow from Africa. The far-field aged BC from LASIC is compared to BC from indoor generation from single-source fuels, e.g. African grass, sampled during Fire Lab At Missoula Experiments IV (FLAME-IV). BC is measured with a single-particle soot photometer (SP2) alongside numerous supporting instrumentation, e.g. particle counters, CO and CO2 detectors, aerosol scattering and absorption measurements, etc. FLAME-IV includes both direct emissions and well-mixed aerosol samples that have undergone dilution, cooling, and condensation. BC

  15. Impact Assessment of Biomass Burning on Air Quality in Southeast and East Asia During BASE-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat

    2013-01-01

    A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast Asia (SE Asia) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in MarcheApril when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K(+), OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via longrange transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.

  16. Laboratory Studies of Carbon Emission from Biomass Burning for use in Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Andrew E.; Kaufman, Yoram J.

    1998-01-01

    Biomass burning is a significant source of many trace gases in the atmosphere. Up to 25% of the total anthropogenic carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere annually is from biomass burning. However, this gaseous emission from fires is not directly detectable from satellite. Infrared radiance from the fires is. In order to see if infrared radiance can be used as a tracer for these emitted gases, we made laboratory measurements to determine the correlation of emitted carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and total burned biomass with emitted infrared radiance. If the measured correlations among these quantities hold in the field, then satellite-observed infrared radiance can be used to estimate gaseous emission and total burned biomass on a global, daily basis. To this end, several types of biomass fuels were burned under controlled conditions in a large-scale combustion laboratory. Simultaneous measurements of emitted spectral infrared radiance, emitted carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and total mass loss were made. In addition measurements of fuel moisture content and fuel elemental abundance were made. We found that for a given fire, the quantity of carbon burned can be estimated from 11 (micro)m radiance measurements only within a factor of five. This variation arises from three sources, 1) errors in our measurements, 2) the subpixel nature of the fires, and 3) inherent differences in combustion of different fuel types. Despite this large range, these measurements can still be used for large-scale satellite estimates of biomass burned. This is because of the very large possible spread of fire sizes that will be subpixel as seen by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Due to this large spread, even relatively low-precision correlations can still be useful for large-scale estimates of emitted carbon. Furthermore, such estimates using the MODIS 3.9 (micro)m channel should be even more accurate than our estimates based on 11 (micro)m radiance.

  17. Factors controlling contrail cirrus optical depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft contrails develop into contrail cirrus by depositional growth and sedimentation of ice particles and horizontal spreading due to wind shear. Factors controlling this development include temperature, ice supersaturation, thickness of ice-supersaturated layers, and vertical gradients in the horizontal wind field. An analytical microphysical cloud model is presented and validated that captures these processes. Many individual contrail cirrus are simulated that develop differently owing to the variability in the controlling factors, resulting in large samples of cloud properties that are statistically analyzed. Contrail cirrus development is studied over the first four hours past formation, similar to the ages of line-shaped contrails that were tracked in satellite imagery on regional scales. On these time scales, contrail cirrus optical depth and microphysical variables exhibit a marked variability, expressed in terms of broad and skewed probability distribution functions. Simulated mean optical depths at a wavelength of 0.55 μm range from 0.05-0.5 and a substantial fraction 20-50% of contrail cirrus stay subvisible (optical depth <0.02, depending on meteorological conditions.

    A detailed analysis based on an observational case study over the continental USA suggests that previous satellite measurements of line-shaped persistent contrails have missed about 89%, 50%, and 11% of contrails with optical depths 0-0.05, 0.05-0.1, and 0.1-0.2, respectively, amounting to 65% of contrail coverage of all optical depths. When comparing observations with simulations and when estimating the contrail cirrus climate impact, not only mean values but also the variability in optical depth and microphysical properties need to be considered.

  18. Controls upon biomass losses and char production from prescribed burning on UK moorland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Fred; Clay, Gareth D; May, Richard

    2013-05-15

    Prescribed burning is a common management technique used across many areas of the UK uplands. However, there are few data sets that assess the loss of biomass during burning and even fewer data on the effect of burning on above-ground carbon stocks and production of char. During fire the production of char occurs which represents a transfer of carbon from the short term bio-atmospheric cycle to the longer term geological cycle. However, biomass is consumed leading to the reduction in litter formation which is the principal mechanism for peat formation. This study aims to solve the problem of whether loss of biomass during a fire is ever outweighed by the production of refractory forms of carbon during the fire. This study combines both a laboratory study of char production with an assessment of biomass loss from a series of field burns from moorland in the Peak District, UK. The laboratory results show that there are significant effects due to ambient temperature but the most important control on dry mass loss is the maximum burn temperature. Burn temperature was also found to be linearly related to the production of char in the burn products. Optimisation of dry mass loss, char production and carbon content shows that the production of char from certain fires could store more carbon in the ecosystem than if there had been no fire. Field results show that approximately 75% of the biomass and carbon were lost through combustion, a figure comparable to other studies of prescribed fire in other settings. Char-C production was approximately 2.6% of the carbon consumed during the fire. This study has shown that there are conditions (fast burns at high temperatures) under which prescribed fire may increase C sequestration through char production and that these conditions are within existing management options available to practitioners. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Health and cost impact of air pollution from biomass burning over the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, E.; Sadeghi, B.; Choi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Effective assessment of health and cost effects of air pollution associated with wildfire events is critical for supporting sustainable management and policy analysis to reduce environmental damages. Since biomass burning events result in higher ozone, PM2.5, and NOx concentration values in urban regions due to long-range transport, preliminary results indicated that wildfire events cause a considerable increase in incident estimates and costs. This study aims to evaluate the health and cost impact of biomass burning events over the continental United States using combined air quality and health impact modeling. To meet this goal, a comprehensive air quality modeling scenarios containing biomass burning emissions were conducted using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system from 2011 to 2014 with a spatial resolution of 12 km. The modeling period includes fire seasons between April and October over the course of four years. By using modeled pollutants concentrations, the USEPA's GIS-based computer program Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program-Community Edition (BenMAP-CE) provides an inclusive figure of health and cost impact caused by changing gaseous and particulate air pollution due to fire events. The basis of BenMAP-CE is the use of a damage-function approach to estimate the health impact of an applied change in air quality by comparing a biomass burning scenario (the one that includes wildfire events) with a baseline scenario (without biomass emissions). This approach considers several factors containing population, exposure to the pollutants, adverse health effects of a particular pollutant, and economic costs. Hence, this study made it capable of showing how biomass burning across U.S. influences people's health in different months, seasons, and regions. Besides, the cost impact of the wildfire events during study periods has also been estimated at both national and regional levels. The results of this study demonstrate the

  20. Impact of biomass burning on urban air quality estimated by organic tracers: Guangzhou and Beijing as cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiaoqiao Wang; Min Shao; Ying Liu; Kuster, William; Goldan, Paul; Xiaohua Li; Yuan Liu; Sihua Lu

    2007-01-01

    The impacts of biomass burning have not been adequately studied in China. In this work, chemical compositions of volatile organic compounds and particulate organic matters were measured in August 2005 in Beijing and in October 2004 in Guangzhou city. The performance of several possible tracers for biomass burning is compared by using acetonitrile as a reference compound. The correlations between the possible tracers and acetonitrile show that the use of K + as a tracer could result in bias because of the existence of other K+ sources in urban areas, while chloromethane is not reliable due to its wide use as industrial chemical. The impact of biomass burning on air quality is estimated using acetonitrile and levoglucosan as tracers. The results show that the impact of biomass burning is ubiquitous in both suburban and urban Guangzhou, and the frequencies of air pollution episodes significantly influenced by biomass burning were 100% for Xinken and 58% for downtown Guangzhou city. Fortunately, the air quality in only 2 out of 22 days was partly impacted by biomass burning in August in Beijing, the month that 2008 Olympic games will take place. The quantitative contribution of biomass burning to ambient PM 2.5 concentrations in Guangzhou city was also estimated by the ratio of levoglocusan to PM 2.5 in both the ambient air and biomass burning plumes. The results show that biomass burning contributes 3.02013;16.8% and 4.02013;19.0% of PM 2.5 concentrations in Xinken and Guangzhou downtown, respectively. (Author)

  1. Observations of biomass burning tracers in PM2.5 at two megacities in North China during 2014 APEC summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhisheng; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Leiming; Wang, Han; Tao, Jun; Qiu, Xionghui; Chai, Fahe; Li, Yang; Wang, Shulan

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of biomass burning control measures on PM2.5 reduction, day- and nighttime PM2.5 samples were collected at two urban sites in North China, one in Beijing (BJ) and the other in Shijiazhuang (SJZ), during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. Typical biomass burning aerosol tracers including levoglucosan (LG), Mannosan (MN), and water-soluble potassium (K+), together with other water-soluble ions and carbonaceous species were determined. The levels of biomass burning tracers dropped dramatically during the APEC period when open biomass burning activities were well controlled in North China, yet they increased sharply to even higher levels during the post-APEC period. Distinct linear regression relationships between LG and MN were found with lower LG/MN ratios from periods with much reduced open biomass burning activities. This was likely resulted from the reduced open crop residues burning and increased residential wood burning emissions, as was also supported by the simultaneous decrease in K+/LG ratio. The positive matrix factorization and air quality model simulation analyses suggested that PM2.5 concentration produced from biomass burning sources was reduced by 22% at BJ and 46% at SJZ during the APEC period compared to pre-APEC period, although they increased to higher levels after APEC mainly due to increased residential biomass burning emissions in winter heating season. Biomass burning was also found to be the most important contributor to carbonaceous species that might cause significant light extinction in this region. This study not only suggested implementing biomass burning controls measures were helpful to reduce PM2.5 in North China, but also pointed out both open crop residues burning and indoor biomass burning activities could make substantial contributions to PM2.5 and its major components in urban areas in North China.

  2. [Emission factors and PM chemical composition study of biomass burning in the Yangtze River Delta region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xi-Bin; Huang, Cheng; Lou, Sheng-Rong; Qiao, Li-Ping; Wang, Hong-Li; Zhou, Min; Chen, Ming-hua; Chen, Chang-Hong; Wang, Qian; Li, Gui-Ling; Li, Li; Huang, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Gang-Feng

    2014-05-01

    The emission characteristics of five typical crops, including wheat straw, rice straw, oil rape straw, soybean straw and fuel wood, were investigated to explore the gas and particulates emission of typical biomass burning in Yangzi-River-Delta area. The straws were tested both by burning in stove and by burning in the farm with a self-developed measurement system as open burning sources. Both gas and fine particle pollutants were measured in this study as well as the chemical composition of fine particles. The results showed that the average emission factors of CO, NO, and PM2,5 in open farm burning were 28.7 g.kg -1, 1.2 g.kg-1 and 2.65 g kg-1 , respectively. Due to insufficient burning in the low oxygen level environment, the emission factors of stove burning were higher than those of open farm burning, which were 81.9 g kg-1, 2. 1 g.kg -1 and 8.5 gkg -1 , respectively. Oil rape straw had the highest emission factors in all tested straws samples. Carbonaceous matter, including organic carbon(OC) and element carbon(EC) , was the foremost component of PM2, 5from biomass burning. The average mass fractions of OC and EC were (38.92 +/- 13.93)% and (5.66 +/-1.54)% by open farm burning and (26.37 +/- 10. 14)% and (18.97 +/- 10.76)% by stove burning. Water soluble ions such as Cl-and K+ had a large contribution. The average mass fractions of CI- and K+ were (13.27 +/-6. 82)% and (12.41 +/- 3.02)% by open farm burning, and were (16.25 +/- 9.34)% and (13.62 +/- 7.91)% by stove burning. The K +/OC values of particles from wheat straw, rice straw, oil rape straw and soybean straw by open farm burning were 0. 30, 0. 52, 0. 49 and 0. 15, respectively, which can be used to evaluate the influence on the regional air quality in YRD area from biomass burning and provide direct evidence for source apportionment.

  3. Effect of biomass burning on marine stratocumulus clouds off the California coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.-Y. Hsie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol-cloud interactions are considered to be one of the most important and least known forcings in the climate system. Biomass burning aerosols are of special interest due to their radiative impact (direct and indirect effect and their potential to increase in the future due to climate change. Combining data from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES and MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS with passive tracers from the FLEXPART Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model, the impact of biomass burning aerosols on marine stratocumulus clouds has been examined in June and July of 2006–2008 off the California coast. Using a continental tracer, the indirect effect of biomass burning aerosols has been isolated by comparing the average cloud fraction and cloud albedo for different meteorological situations, and for clean versus polluted (in terms of biomass burning continental air masses at 14:00 local time. Within a 500 km-wide band along the coast of California, biomass burning aerosols, which tend to reside above the marine boundary layer, increased the cloud fraction by 0.143, and the cloud albedo by 0.038. Absorbing aerosols located above the marine boundary layer lead to an increase of the lower tropospheric stability and a reduction in the vertical entrainment of dry air from above, leading to increased cloud formation. The combined effect was an indirect radiative forcing of −7.5% ±1.7% (cooling effect of the outgoing radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere on average, with a bias due to meteorology of +0.9%. Further away from the coast, the biomass burning aerosols, which were located within the boundary layer, reduced the cloud fraction by 0.023 and the cloud albedo by 0.006, resulting in an indirect radiative forcing of +1.3% ±0.3% (warming effect with a bias of +0.5%. These results underscore the dual role that absorbing aerosols play in cloud radiative forcing.

  4. The impact of infield biomass burning on PM levels and its chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambruoso, P; de Gennaro, G; Di Gilio, A; Palmisani, J; Tutino, M

    2014-12-01

    In the South of Italy, it is common for farmers to burn pruning waste from olive trees in spring. In order to evaluate the impact of the biomass burning source on the physical and chemical characteristics of the particulate matter (PM) emitted by these fires, a PM monitoring campaign was carried out in an olive grove. Daily PM10 samples were collected for 1 week, when there were no open fires, and when biomass was being burned, and at two different distances from the fires. Moreover, an optical particle counter and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analyzer were used to measure the high time-resolved dimensional distribution of particles emitted and total PAHs concentrations, respectively. Chemical analysis of PM10 samples identified organic and inorganic components such as PAHs, ions, elements, and carbonaceous fractions (OC, EC). Analysis of the collected data showed the usefulness of organic and inorganic tracer species and of PAH diagnostic ratios for interpreting the impact of biomass fires on PM levels and on its chemical composition. Finally, high time-resolved monitoring of particle numbers and PAH concentrations was performed before, during, and after biomass burning, and these concentrations were seen to be very dependent on factors such as weather conditions, combustion efficiency, and temperature (smoldering versus flaming conditions), and moisture content of the wood burned.

  5. Impact of biomass burning on rainwater acidity and composition in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, R.; Victor, T.; Begum, R.

    1999-11-01

    The Indonesian forest fires that took place from August through October 1997 released large amounts of gaseous and particulate pollutants into the atmosphere. The particulate emissions produced a plume that was easily visible by satellite and significantly affected regional air quality in Southeast Asia. This prolonged haze episode provided an unprecedented opportunity to examine the effects of biomass burning on regional atmospheric chemistry. We undertook a comprehensive field study to assess the influence of biomass burning impacted air masses on precipitation chemistry in Singapore. Major inorganic and organic ions were determined in 104 rain samples collected using an automated wet-only sampler from July through December 1997. Mean pH values ranged from 3.79 to 6.20 with a volume-weighted mean of 4.35. There was a substantially large number of rain events with elevated concentrations of these ions during the biomass burning period. The relatively high concentrations of SO2-4, NO-3, and NH+4 observed during the burning period are attributed to a long residence time of air masses, leading to progressive gas to particle conversion of biomass burning emission components. The decrease in pH of precipitation in response to the increased concentrations of acids is only marginal, which is ascribed to neutralization of acidity by NH3 and CaCO3.

  6. Biomass burning contributions to urban PM2.5 along the coastal lines of southeastern China

    OpenAIRE

    Shui-Ping Wu; Yin-Ju Zhang; James J. Schwab; Shuai Huang; Ya Wei; Chung-Shin Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Levoglucosan (LG), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and potassium (K+), and the light absorption at 365 nm (Abs365) of the extracted WSOC are measured in PM2.5 samples collected from November 2011 to July 2013 at four coastal urban sites in southeast China (Fuzhou, Putian, Quanzhou and Xiamen). These species are markers of biomass burning and used to determine the contributions of biomass burning to the PM2.5 burden in these locations. LG and WSOC concentrations exhibited a clear seasonal ...

  7. Evaluating the influences of biomass burning during 2006 BASE-ASIA: a regional chemical transport modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Hsu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of biomass burning from Southeast Asia to East Asia, this study conducted numerical simulations during NASA's 2006 Biomass-burning Aerosols in South-East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA. Two typical episode periods (27–28 March and 13–14 April were examined. Two emission inventories, FLAMBE and GFED, were used in the simulations. The influences during two episodes in the source region (Southeast Asia contributed to the surface CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations as high as 400 ppbv, 20 ppbv and 80 μg m−3, respectively. The perturbations with and without biomass burning of the above three species during the intense episodes were in the range of 10 to 60%, 10 to 20% and 30 to 70%, respectively. The impact due to long-range transport could spread over the southeastern parts of East Asia and could reach about 160 to 360 ppbv, 8 to 18 ppbv and 8 to 64 μg m−3 on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively; the percentage impact could reach 20 to 50% on CO, 10 to 30% on O3, and as high as 70% on PM2.5. In March, the impact of biomass burning mainly concentrated in Southeast Asia and southern China, while in April the impact becomes slightly broader and even could go up to the Yangtze River Delta region.

    Two cross-sections at 15° N and 20° N were used to compare the vertical flux of biomass burning. In the source region (Southeast Asia, CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations had a strong upward transport from surface to high altitudes. The eastward transport becomes strong from 2 to 8 km in the free troposphere. The subsidence process during the long-range transport contributed 60 to 70%, 20 to 50%, and 80% on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively to surface in the downwind area. The study reveals the significant impact of Southeastern Asia biomass burning on the air quality in both local and downwind

  8. Evaluating the influences of biomass burning during 2006 BASE-ASIA: a regional chemical transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J. S.; Hsu, N. C.; Gao, Y.; Huang, K.; Li, C.; Lin, N.-H.; Tsay, S.-C.

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of biomass burning from Southeast Asia to East Asia, this study conducted numerical simulations during NASA's 2006 Biomass-burning Aerosols in South-East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Two typical episode periods (27-28 March and 13-14 April) were examined. Two emission inventories, FLAMBE and GFED, were used in the simulations. The influences during two episodes in the source region (Southeast Asia) contributed to the surface CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations as high as 400 ppbv, 20 ppbv and 80 μg m-3, respectively. The perturbations with and without biomass burning of the above three species during the intense episodes were in the range of 10 to 60%, 10 to 20% and 30 to 70%, respectively. The impact due to long-range transport could spread over the southeastern parts of East Asia and could reach about 160 to 360 ppbv, 8 to 18 ppbv and 8 to 64 μg m-3 on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively; the percentage impact could reach 20 to 50% on CO, 10 to 30% on O3, and as high as 70% on PM2.5. In March, the impact of biomass burning mainly concentrated in Southeast Asia and southern China, while in April the impact becomes slightly broader and even could go up to the Yangtze River Delta region. Two cross-sections at 15° N and 20° N were used to compare the vertical flux of biomass burning. In the source region (Southeast Asia), CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations had a strong upward transport from surface to high altitudes. The eastward transport becomes strong from 2 to 8 km in the free troposphere. The subsidence process during the long-range transport contributed 60 to 70%, 20 to 50%, and 80% on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively to surface in the downwind area. The study reveals the significant impact of Southeastern Asia biomass burning on the air quality in both local and downwind areas, particularly during biomass burning episodes. This modeling study might provide constraints of lower limit. An additional study is underway for an active

  9. Levoglucosan, a tracer for cellulose in biomass burning and atmospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, B. R. T.; Schauer, J. J.; Nolte, C. G.; Oros, D. R.; Elias, V. O.; Fraser, M. P.; Rogge, W. F.; Cass, G. R.

    The major organic components of smoke particles from biomass burning are monosaccharide derivatives from the breakdown of cellulose, accompanied by generally lesser amounts of straight-chain, aliphatic and oxygenated compounds and terpenoids from vegetation waxes, resins/gums, and other biopolymers. Levoglucosan and the related degradation products from cellulose can be utilized as specific and general indicator compounds for the presence of emissions from biomass burning in samples of atmospheric fine particulate matter. This enables the potential tracking of such emissions on a global basis. There are other compounds (e.g. amyrones, friedelin, dehydroabietic acid, and thermal derivatives from terpenoids and from lignin—syringaldehyde, vanillin, syringic acid, vanillic acid), which are additional key indicators in smoke from burning of biomass specific to the type of biomass fuel. The monosaccharide derivatives (e.g. levoglucosan) are proposed as specific indicators for cellulose in biomass burning emissions. Levoglucosan is emitted at such high concentrations that it can be detected at considerable distances from the original combustion source.

  10. High-resolution mapping of biomass burning emissions in tropical regions across three continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yusheng; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Saito, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Biomass burning emissions from open vegetation fires (forest fires, savanna fires, agricultural waste burning), human waste and biofuel combustion contain large amounts of trace gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, and N2O) and aerosols (BC and OC), which significantly impact ecosystem productivity, global atmospheric chemistry, and climate . With the help of recently released satellite products, biomass density based on satellite and ground-based observation data, and spatial variable combustion factors, this study developed a new high-resolution emissions inventory for biomass burning in tropical regions across three continents in 2010. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols from open vegetation burning are estimated from burned areas, fuel loads, combustion factors, and emission factors. Burned areas were derived from MODIS MCD64A1 burned area product, fuel loads were mapped from biomass density data sets for herbaceous and tree-covered land based on satellite and ground-based observation data. To account for spatial heterogeneity in combustion factors, global fractional tree cover (MOD44B) and vegetation cover maps (MCD12Q1) were introduced to estimate the combustion factors in different regions by using their relationship with tree cover under less than 40%, between 40-60% and above 60% conditions. For emission factors, the average values for each fuel type from field measurements are used. In addition to biomass burning from open vegetation fires, the emissions from human waste (residential and dump) burning and biofuel burning in 2010 were also estimated for 76 countries in tropical regions across the three continents and then allocated into each pixel with 1 km grid based on the population density (Gridded Population of the World v3). Our total estimates for the tropical regions across the three continents in 2010 were 17744.5 Tg CO2, 730.3 Tg CO, 32.0 Tg CH4, 31.6 Tg NOx, 119.2 Tg NMOC, 6.3 Tg SO2, 9.8 NH3 Tg, 81.8 Tg PM2.5, 48.0 Tg OC, and 5.7 Tg BC, respectively. Open

  11. Aerial Sampling of Emissions from Biomass Pile Burns in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5 µm), ...

  12. Aerial sampling of emissions from biomass pile burns in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5 µm), black carbon, ultraviolet absorbing PM, elemental/organic carbon, semi-volatile organics (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans), filter-based metals, and volatile organics were sampled for determination of emission factors. The effect on emissions from covering or not covering piles with polyethylene sheets to prevent fuel wetting was determined. Results showed that the uncovered (“wet”) piles burned with lower combustion efficiency and higher emissions of volatile organic compounds. Results for other pollutants will also be discussed. This work determined the emissions from open burning of forest slash wood, with and without plastic sheeting. The foresters advocate the use of plastic to keep the slash wood dry and aid in the controlled combustion of the slash to reduce fuel loading. Concerns about the emissions from the burning plastic prompted this work which conducted an extensive characterization of dry, wet, and dry with plastic slash pile emissions.

  13. Impacts of Particulate Pollution from Fossil Fuel and Biomass Burnings on the Air Quality and Human Health in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. H.; Iraqui, O.; Gu, Y.; Yim, S. H. L.; Wang, C.

    2017-12-01

    Severe haze events in Southeast Asia have attracted the attention of governments and the general public in recent years, due to their impact on local economies, air quality and public health. Widespread biomass burning activities are a major source of severe haze events in Southeast Asia. On the other hand, particulate pollutants from human activities other than biomass burning also play an important role in degrading air quality in Southeast Asia. These pollutants can be locally produced or brought in from neighboring regions by long-range transport. A better understanding of the respective contributions of fossil fuel and biomass burning aerosols to air quality degradation becomes an urgent task in forming effective air pollution mitigation policies in Southeast Asia. In this study, to examine and quantify the contributions of fossil fuel and biomass burning aerosols to air quality and visibility degradation over Southeast Asia, we conducted three numerical simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with a chemistry component (WRF-Chem). These simulations were driven by different aerosol emissions from: (a) fossil fuel burning only, (b) biomass burning only, and (c) both fossil fuel and biomass burning. By comparing the simulation results, we examined the corresponding impacts of fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions, separately and combined, on the air quality and visibility of the region. The results also showed that the major contributors to low visibility days (LVDs) among 50 ASEAN cities are fossil fuel burning aerosols (59%), while biomass burning aerosols provided an additional 13% of LVDs in Southeast Asia. In addition, the number of premature mortalities among ASEAN cities has increased from 4110 in 2002 to 6540 in 2008, caused primarily by fossil fuel burning aerosols. This study suggests that reductions in both fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions are necessary to improve the air quality in Southeast Asia.

  14. The Evaluation Of Waste Plastic Burned With Lignite And Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    DURANAY, Neslihan; YILGIN, Melek

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the combustion behavior of pellets prepared from binary and triple blends of waste plastic, biomass and lignite was investigated in an experimental fixed bed combustion system. Market bags as plastic waste and the furniture factory waste powder as a source of biomass and Bingöl Karlıova coal as a lignite were used. The effect of process temperature and the plastic mixing ratio on the combustion behavior of pellets was studied. Combustion data obtained from varied bed temperature...

  15. Fossil fuel and biomass burning effect on climate - heating or cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, Y.J.; Fraser, R.S.; Mahoney, R.L. (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Emission from burning of fossil fuels and biomass (associated with deforestation) generates a radiative forcing on the atmosphere and a possible climate change. Emitted trace gases heat the atmosphere through their greenhouse effect, while particulates formed from emitted SO{sub 2} cause cooling by increasing cloud albedos through alteration of droplet size distributions. This paper reviews the characteristics of the cooling effect and applies Twomey's theory to check whether the radiative balance favours heating or cooling for the cases of fossil fuel and biomass burning. It is also shown that although coal and oil emit 120 times as many CO{sub 2} molecules as SO{sub 2} molecules, each SO{sub 2} molecule is 50-1100 times more effective in cooling the atmosphere (through the effect of aerosol particles on cloud albedo) than a CO{sub 2} molecule is in heating it. Note that this ratio accounts for the large difference in the aerosol (3-10 days) and CO{sub 2} (7-100 years) lifetimes. It is concluded, that the cooling effect from coal and oil burning may presently range from 0.4 to 8 times the heating effect. Within this large uncertainty, it is presently more likely that fossil fuel burning causes cooling of the atmosphere rather than heating. Biomass burning associated with deforestation, on the other hand, is more likely to cause heating of the atmosphere than cooling since its aerosol cooling effect is only half that from fossil fuel burning and its heating effect is twice as large. Future increases in coal and oil burning, and the resultant increase in concentration of cloud condensation nuclei, may saturate the cooling effect, allowing the heating effect to dominate. For a doubling in the CO{sub 2} concentration due to fossil fuel burning, the cooling effect is expected to be 0.1 to 0.3 of the heating effect. 75 refs., 8 tabs.

  16. Hygroscopic properties of atmospheric particles emitted during wintertime biomass burning episodes in Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psichoudaki, Magda; Nenes, Athanasios; Florou, Kalliopi; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2018-04-01

    This study explores the Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) activity of atmospheric particles during intense biomass burning periods in an urban environment. During a one-month campaign in the center of Athens, Greece, a CCN counter coupled with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a high resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-AMS) were used to measure the size-resolved CCN activity and composition of the atmospheric aerosols. During the day, the organic fraction of the particles was more than 50%, reaching almost 80% at night, when the fireplaces were used. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis revealed 4 factors with biomass burning being the dominant source after 18:00 until the early morning. The CCN-based overall hygroscopicity parameter κ ranged from 0.15 to 0.25. During the night, when the biomass burning organic aerosol (bbOA) dominated, the hygroscopicity parameter for the mixed organic/inorganic particles was on average 0.16. The hygroscopicity of the biomass-burning organic particles was 0.09, while the corresponding average value for all organic particulate matter during the campaign was 0.12.

  17. Biomass burning and urban air pollution over the Central Mexican Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Crounse; P. F. DeCarlo; D. R. Blake; L. K. Emmons; T. L. Campos; E. C. Apel; A. D. Clarke; A. J. Weinheimer; D. C. McCabe; R. J. Yokelson; J. L. Jimenez; P. O. Wennberg

    2009-01-01

    Observations during the 2006 dry season of highly elevated concentrations of cyanides in the atmosphere above Mexico City (MC) and the surrounding plains demonstrate that biomass burning (BB) significantly impacted air quality in the region. We find that during the period of our measurements, fires contribute more than half of the organic aerosol mass and submicron...

  18. Biomass burning and urban air pollution over the central Mexican Plateau [Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Crounse; P. F. DeCarlo; D. R. Blake; L. K. Emmons; T. L. Campos; E. C. Apel; A. D. Clarke; A. J. Weinheimer; D. C. McCabe; R. J. Yokelson; J. L. Jimenez; P. O. Wennberg

    2009-01-01

    Observations during the 2006 dry season of highly elevated concentrations of cyanides in the atmosphere above Mexico City (MC) and the surrounding plains, demonstrate that biomass burning (BB) significantly impacted air quality in the region. We find that during the period of our measurements, fires contribute more than half of the organic aerosol mass and submicron...

  19. Biomass burning contributions to urban aerosols in a coastal Mediterranean City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reche, C.; Viana, M.; Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Hillamo, R.; Teinilä, K.; Saarnio, K.; Seco, R.; Peñuelas, J.; Mohr, C.; Prévôt, A.S.H.; Querol, X.

    2012-01-01

    Mean annual biomass burning contributions to the bulk particulate matter (PM X) load were quantified in a southern-European urban environment (Barcelona, Spain) with special attention to typical Mediterranean winter and summer conditions. In spite of the complexity of the local air pollution

  20. Light-absorbing carbon from prescribed and laboratory biomass burning and gasoline vehicle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonaceous aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and can directly affect Earth’s climate by absorbing and scattering incoming solar radiation. Both field and laboratory measurements have confirmed that biomass burning (BB) is an important primary source of light absorbing o...

  1. Light absorbing organic carbon from prescribed and laboratory biomass burning and gasoline vehicle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The light absorption of carbonaceous aerosols plays an important role in the atmospheric radiation balance. Light-absorbing organic carbon (OC), also called brown carbon (BrC), from laboratory-based biomass burning (BB) has been studied intensively to understand the contribution ...

  2. Thermal remote sensing of active vegetation fires and biomass burning events [Chapter 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin J. Wooster; Gareth Roberts; Alistair M.S. Smith; Joshua Johnston; Patrick Freeborn; Stefania Amici; Andrew T. Hudak

    2013-01-01

    Thermal remote sensing is widely used in the detection, study, and management of biomass burning occurring in open vegetation fires. Such fires may be planned for land management purposes, may occur as a result of a malicious or accidental ignition by humans, or may result from lightning or other natural phenomena. Under suitable conditions, fires may spread rapidly...

  3. Moisture effects on carbon and nitrogen emission from burning of wildland biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.-W. A. Chen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon (C and nitrogen (N released from biomass burning have multiple effects on the Earth's biogeochemical cycle, climate change, and ecosystem. These effects depend on the relative abundances of C and N species emitted, which vary with fuel type and combustion conditions. This study systematically investigates the emission characteristics of biomass burning under different fuel moisture contents, through controlled burning experiments with biomass and soil samples collected from a typical alpine forest in North America. Fuel moisture in general lowers combustion efficiency, shortens flaming phase, and introduces prolonged smoldering before ignition. It increases emission factors of incompletely oxidized C and N species, such as carbon monoxide (CO and ammonia (NH3. Substantial particulate carbon and nitrogen (up to 4 times C in CO and 75% of N in NH3 were also generated from high-moisture fuels, maily associated with the pre-flame smoldering. This smoldering process emits particles that are larger and contain lower elemental carbon fractions than soot agglomerates commonly observed in flaming smoke. Hydrogen (H/C ratio and optical properties of particulate matter from the high-moisture fuels show their resemblance to plant cellulous and brown carbon, respectively. These findings have implications for modeling biomass burning emissions and impacts.

  4. Top-down estimates of biomass burning emissions of black carbon in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. H. Mao; Q. B. Li; D. Chen; L. Zhang; W. -M. Hao; K.-N. Liou

    2014-01-01

    We estimate biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions of black carbon (BC) in the western US for May-October 2006 by inverting surface BC concentrations from the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) network using a global chemical transport model. We first use active fire counts from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS...

  5. Biomass burning in the tropics: Impact on atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, P.J.; Andreae, M.O.

    1990-01-01

    Biomass burning is widespread, especially in the tropics. It serves to clear land for shifting cultivation, to convert forests to agricultural and pastoral lands, and to remove dry vegetation in order to promote agricultural productivity and the growth of higher yield grasses. Furthermore, much agricultural waste and fuel wood is being combusted, particularly in developing countries. Biomass containing 2 to 5 petagrams of carbon is burned annually (1 petagram = 10 15 grams), producing large amounts of trace gases and aerosol particles that play important roles in atmospheric chemistry and climate. Emissions of carbon monoxide and methane by biomass burning affect the oxidation efficiency of the atmosphere by reacting with hydroxyl radicals, and emissions of nitric oxide and hydrocarbons lead to high ozone concentrations in the tropics during the dry season. Large quantities of smoke particles are produced as well, and these can serve as cloud condensation nuclei. These particles may thus substantially influence cloud microphysical and optical properties, an effect that could have repercussions for the radiation budget and the hydrological cycle in the tropics. Widespread burning may also disturb biogeochemical cycles, especially that of nitrogen. About 50% of the nitrogen in the biomass fuel can be released as molecular nitrogen. This pyrodenitrification process causes a sizable loss of fixed nitrogen in tropical ecosystems, in the range of 10 to 20 teragrams per year (1 teragram = 10 12 grams)

  6. Biomass burning: Its history, use, and distribution and its impact on environmental quality and global climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreae, M.O.

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter, the following topics are discussed: global estimates of amounts of biomass burning; kinds and amounts of emissions to the atmosphere; environmental transport and atmospheric chemistry of these emissions; and environmental impacts. These impacts include acid deposition, climate changes, disruption of nutrient cycles, soil degradation, perturbation of stratospheric chemistry and the ozone layer

  7. Particulate-phase mercury emissions from biomass burning and impact on resulting deposition: a modelling assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury (Hg) emissions from biomass burning (BB) are an important source of atmospheric Hg and a major factor driving the interannual variation of Hg concentrations in the troposphere. The greatest fraction of Hg from BB is released in the form of elemental Hg (Hg0(g)). However, ...

  8. User assessment of smoke-dispersion models for wildland biomass burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Breyfogle; Sue A. Ferguson

    1996-01-01

    Several smoke-dispersion models, which currently are available for modeling smoke from biomass burns, were evaluated for ease of use, availability of input data, and output data format. The input and output components of all models are listed, and differences in model physics are discussed. Each model was installed and run on a personal computer with a simple-case...

  9. Understanding the Environmental and Climate Impacts of Biomass Burning in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles; Gatebe, Charles; Bolten, John; Policelli, Fritz; Habib, Shahid; Lee, Jejung; Wang, Jun; Wilcox, Eric; Adegoke, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, bounded on the north and south by the Sahara and the Equator, respectively, and stretching from the West to the East African coastlines, has one of the highest biomass-burning rates per unit land area among all regions of the world. Because of the high concentration and frequency of fires in this region, with the associated abundance of heat release and gaseous and particulate smoke emissions, biomass-burning activity is believed to be one of the drivers of the regional carbon and energy cycles, with serious implications for the water cycle. A new interdisciplinary research effort sponsored by NASA is presently being focused on the NSSA region, to better understand the possible connection between the intense biomass burning observed from satellite year after year across the region and the rapid depletion of the regional water resources, as exemplified by the dramatic drying of Lake Chad. A combination of remote sensing and modeling approaches is being utilized in investigating multiple regional surface, atmospheric, and water-cycle processes, and inferring possible links between them. In this presentation, we will discuss preliminary results as well as the path toward improved understanding'of the interrelationships and feedbacks between the biomass burning and the environmental change dynamics in the NSSA region.

  10. Emission ratio and isotopic signatures of molecular hydrogen emissions from tropical biomass burning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haumann, F.A.; Batenburg, A.M.; Pieterse, G.; Gerbig, C.; Krol, M.C.; Rockmann, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we identify a biomass-burning signal in molecular hydrogen (H-2) over the Amazonian tropical rainforest. To quantify this signal, we measure the mixing ratios of H-2 and several other species as well as the H-2 isotopic composition in air samples that were collected in the BARCA

  11. Emission ratio and isotopic signatures of molecular hydrogen emissions from tropical biomass burning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haumann, F.A.; Batenburg, A.M.; Pieterse, G.; Gerbig, C; Krol, M.C.; Röckmann, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we identify a biomass-burning signal in molecular hydrogen (H2) over the Amazonian tropical rainforest. To quantify this signal, we measure the mixing ratios of H2 and several other species as well as the H2 isotopic composition in air samples that were collected in the BARCA (Balanço

  12. New particle formation and growth in biomass burning plumes: An important source of cloud condensation nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, Christopher J.; Westervelt, Daniel M.; Riipinen, Ilona; Engelhart, Gabriella J.; Lee, Taehyoung; Collett, Jeffrey L., Jr.; Pandis, Spyros N.; Adams, Peter J.; Robinson, Allen L.

    2012-05-01

    Experiments were performed in an environmental chamber to characterize the effects of photo-chemical aging on biomass burning emissions. Photo-oxidation of dilute exhaust from combustion of 12 different North American fuels induced significant new particle formation that increased the particle number concentration by a factor of four (median value). The production of secondary organic aerosol caused these new particles to grow rapidly, significantly enhancing cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. Using inputs derived from these new data, global model simulations predict that nucleation in photo-chemically aging fire plumes produces dramatically higher CCN concentrations over widespread areas of the southern hemisphere during the dry, burning season (Sept.-Oct.), improving model predictions of surface CCN concentrations. The annual indirect forcing from CCN resulting from nucleation and growth in biomass burning plumes is predicted to be -0.2 W m-2, demonstrating that this effect has a significant impact on climate that has not been previously considered.

  13. Air toxic emissions from burning of biomass globally-preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.E.; Hao, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    Emissions of trace gases, particles, and air toxic substances in the smoke plumes from biomass fires are of importance to global climate change. The potential impact of the air toxic emissions on the human population of specific regions globally is another major concern. The toxic materials are produced in high concentrations in areas of heavy biomass burning, e.g., Amazon Basin and Central/southern Africa. We provide new estimates of air toxics based on the combustion efficiency (percent of total carbon released as CO 2 ) for fires burning in different ecosystems on a global basis. Estimates of total biomass consumed on a global basis range from 2 to 10 Pg (1 petagram = 10 15 g) per year. We apply emission factors for various air toxics (g of emission released per kg of fuel consumed) to the estimate of global biomass consumption of 6.4 Pg per year. The principal air toxics analyzed in this paper include: Total particulate matter, CO, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, toluene, o-xylene, m, p-xylene, benzo[a]pyrene, and polycyclic organic material. The total emissions calculated for these materials on a yearly global basis are: 75, 362, 4.9, 1.5, 1.5, 2.1, 2.1, 0.3, 0.6, 0.001, 0.026, Tg (1 teragram = 10 12 g) per year, respectively. Biomass burning in the United States contributes less than 3% to the total global emissions

  14. What could have caused pre-industrial biomass burning emissions to exceed current rates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. van der Werf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies based on trace gas mixing ratios in ice cores and charcoal data indicate that biomass burning emissions over the past millennium exceeded contemporary emissions by up to a factor of 4 for certain time periods. This is surprising because various sources of biomass burning are linked with population density, which has increased over the past centuries. We have analysed how emissions from several landscape biomass burning sources could have fluctuated to yield emissions that are in correspondence with recent results based on ice core mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO and its isotopic signature measured at South Pole station (SPO. Based on estimates of contemporary landscape fire emissions and the TM5 chemical transport model driven by present-day atmospheric transport and OH concentrations, we found that CO mixing ratios at SPO are more sensitive to emissions from South America and Australia than from Africa, and are relatively insensitive to emissions from the Northern Hemisphere. We then explored how various landscape biomass burning sources may have varied over the past centuries and what the resulting emissions and corresponding CO mixing ratio at SPO would be, using population density variations to reconstruct sources driven by humans (e.g., fuelwood burning and a new model to relate savanna emissions to changes in fire return times. We found that to match the observed ice core CO data, all savannas in the Southern Hemisphere had to burn annually, or bi-annually in combination with deforestation and slash and burn agriculture exceeding current levels, despite much lower population densities and lack of machinery to aid the deforestation process. While possible, these scenarios are unlikely and in conflict with current literature. However, we do show the large potential for increased emissions from savannas in a pre-industrial world. This is mainly because in the past, fuel beds were probably less fragmented compared to the

  15. Size-resolved chemical composition, effective density, and optical properties of biomass burning particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jinghao; Lu, Xiaohui; Li, Ling; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Ci; Chen, Hong; Yang, Xin; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-06-01

    Biomass burning aerosol has an important impact on the global radiative budget. A better understanding of the correlations between the mixing states of biomass burning particles and their optical properties is the goal of a number of current studies. In this work, the effective density, chemical composition, and optical properties of rice straw burning particles in the size range of 50-400 nm were measured using a suite of online methods. We found that the major components of particles produced by burning rice straw included black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), and potassium salts, but the mixing states of particles were strongly size dependent. Particles of 50 nm had the smallest effective density (1.16 g cm-3) due to a relatively large proportion of aggregate BC. The average effective densities of 100-400 nm particles ranged from 1.35 to 1.51 g cm-3 with OC and inorganic salts as dominant components. Both density distribution and single-particle mass spectrometry showed more complex mixing states in larger particles. Upon heating, the separation of the effective density distribution modes confirmed the external mixing state of less-volatile BC or soot and potassium salts. The size-resolved optical properties of biomass burning particles were investigated at two wavelengths (λ = 450 and 530 nm). The single-scattering albedo (SSA) showed the lowest value for 50 nm particles (0.741 ± 0.007 and 0.889 ± 0.006) because of the larger proportion of BC content. Brown carbon played an important role for the SSA of 100-400 nm particles. The Ångström absorption exponent (AAE) values for all particles were above 1.6, indicating the significant presence of brown carbon in all sizes. Concurrent measurements in our work provide a basis for discussing the physicochemical properties of biomass burning aerosol and its effects on the global climate and atmospheric environment.

  16. Toxicity of Urban PM10 and Relation with Tracers of Biomass Burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Heuvel, Rosette; Staelens, Jeroen; Koppen, Gudrun; Schoeters, Greet

    2018-02-12

    The chemical composition of particles varies with space and time and depends on emission sources, atmospheric chemistry and weather conditions. Evidence suggesting that particles differ in toxicity depending on their chemical composition is growing. This in vitro study investigated the biological effects of PM 10 in relation to PM-associated chemicals. PM 10 was sampled in ambient air at an urban traffic site (Borgerhout) and a rural background location (Houtem) in Flanders (Belgium). To characterize the toxic potential of PM 10 , airway epithelial cells (Beas-2B cells) were exposed to particles in vitro. Different endpoints were studied including cell damage and death (cell viability) and the induction of interleukin-8 (IL-8). The mutagenic capacity was assessed using the Ames II Mutagenicity Test. The endotoxin levels in the collected samples were analyzed and the oxidative potential (OP) of PM 10 particles was evaluated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Chemical characteristics of PM 10 included tracers for biomass burning (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan), elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Most samples displayed dose-dependent cytotoxicity and IL-8 induction. Spatial and temporal differences in PM 10 toxicity were seen. PM 10 collected at the urban site was characterized by increased pro-inflammatory and mutagenic activity as well as higher OP and elevated endotoxin levels compared to the background area. Reduced cell viability (-0.46 biomass burning, levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan. Furthermore, direct and indirect mutagenicity were associated with tracers for biomass burning, OC, EC and PAHs. Multiple regression analyses showed levoglucosan to explain 16% and 28% of the variance in direct and indirect mutagenicity, respectively. Markers for biomass burning were associated with altered cellular responses and increased mutagenic activity. These findings may indicate a role of

  17. Radiative Effects of Aerosols Generated from Biomass Burning, Dust Storms, and Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Sundar A.; Vulcan, Donna V.; Welch, Ronald M.

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles, both natural and anthropogenic, are important to the earth's radiative balance. They scatter the incoming solar radiation and modify the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by acting as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN). Although it has been recognized that aerosols exert a net cooling influence on climate (Twomey et al. 1984), this effect has received much less attention than the radiative forcings due to clouds and greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing due to aerosols is comparable in magnitude to current anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing but opposite in sign (Houghton et al. 1990). Atmospheric aerosol particles generated from biomass burning, dust storms and forest fires are important regional climatic variables. A recent study by Penner et al. (1992) proposed that smoke particles from biomass burning may have a significant impact on the global radiation balance. They estimate that about 114 Tg of smoke is produced per year in the tropics through biomass burning. The direct and indirect effects of smoke aerosol due to biomass burning could add up globally to a cooling effect as large as 2 W/sq m. Ackerman and Chung (1992) used model calculations and the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) data to show that in comparison to clear days, the heavy dust loading over the Saudi Arabian peninsula can change the Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) clear sky shortwave and longwave radiant exitance by 40-90 W/sq m and 5-20 W/sq m, respectively. Large particle concentrations produced from these types of events often are found with optical thicknesses greater than one. These aerosol particles are transported across considerable distances from the source (Fraser et al. 1984). and they could perturb the radiative balance significantly. In this study, the regional radiative effects of aerosols produced from biomass burning, dust storms and forest fires are examined using the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Local Area

  18. Aircraft measurement over the Gulf of Tonkin capturing aloft transport of biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyang; Xu, Jun; Bi, Fang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Chen, Yunbo; He, Youjiang; Han, Feng; Zhi, Guorui; Liu, Shijie; Meng, Fan

    2018-06-01

    A suite of aircraft measurements was conducted over the Gulf of Tonkin, located downwind to the east of Mainland Southeast Asia (MSE), between March 23rd and April 6th, 2015. To the best of our knowledge, this campaign of 11 flights (totaling 34.4 h) was the first in-flight measurement over the region. Measurements of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide, black carbon and the particulate scattering coefficient were recorded at approximately 1 500 m (low level) and 3 000 m (high level). Significantly higher measurements of black carbon, carbon monoxide and ozone in the high level on March 23rd and April 5th and 6th were directly related to biomass burning in the MSE and were comparable to severe pollution events at the surface. Similarly, relatively low pollutant concentrations were observed at both altitudes between March 23rd and April 5th. A combined analysis of the measurements with meteorology and satellite data verified that the plumes captured at 3 000 m were attributed to transport in the high altitude originating from biomass burning in northern MSE. Furthermore, each plume captured by the measurements in the high level corresponded to heavy regional air pollution caused by biomass burning in northern MSE. In addition, relatively low levels of the measured pollutants corresponded to relatively light pollution levels in MSE and its adjacent areas. Taken together, these results indicated that aircraft measurements were accurate in characterizing the variation in transport and pollutant levels. During the most active season of biomass burning in MSE, pollutant emissions and their regional impact could vary on an episodic basis. Nonetheless, such concentrated emissions from biomass burning is likely to lead to particularly high atmospheric-loading of pollutants at a regional level and, depending on weather conditions, has the potential of being transported over considerably longer distances. Further investigation of the short-term impacts of

  19. Emission ratio and isotopic signatures of molecular hydrogen emissions from tropical biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haumann, F. A.; Batenburg, A. M.; Pieterse, G.; Gerbig, C.; Krol, M. C.; Röckmann, T.

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we identify a biomass-burning signal in molecular hydrogen (H2) over the Amazonian tropical rainforest. To quantify this signal, we measure the mixing ratios of H2 and several other species as well as the H2 isotopic composition in air samples that were collected in the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia) aircraft campaign during the dry season. We derive a relative H2 emission ratio with respect to carbon monoxide (CO) of 0.31 ± 0.04 ppb ppb-1 and an isotopic source signature of -280 ± 41‰ in the air masses influenced by tropical biomass burning. In order to retrieve a clear source signal that is not influenced by the soil uptake of H2, we exclude samples from the atmospheric boundary layer. This procedure is supported by data from a global chemistry transport model. The ΔH2 / ΔCO emission ratio is significantly lower than some earlier estimates for the tropical rainforest. In addition, our results confirm the lower values of the previously conflicting estimates of the H2 isotopic source signature from biomass burning. These values for the emission ratio and isotopic source signatures of H2 from tropical biomass burning can be used in future bottom-up and top-down approaches aiming to constrain the strength of the biomass-burning source for H2. Hitherto, these two quantities relied only on combustion experiments or on statistical relations, since no direct signal had been obtained from in-situ observations.

  20. Inter-annual changes of Biomass Burning and Desert Dust and their impact over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    DONG, X.; Fu, J. S.; Huang, K.

    2014-12-01

    Impact of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols on air quality has been well documented in the last few decades, but the knowledge about their interactions with anthropogenic emission and their impacts on regional climate is very limited (IPCC, 2007). While East Asia is greatly affected by dust storms in spring from Taklamakan and Gobi deserts (Huang et al., 2010; Li et al., 2012), it also suffers from significant biomass burning emission from Southeast Asia during the same season. Observations from both surface monitoring and satellite data indicated that mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols may approach to coastal area of East Asia simultaneously, thus have a very unique impact on the local atmospheric environment and regional climate. In this study, we first investigated the inter-annual variations of biomass burning and dust aerosols emission for 5 consecutive years from 2006-2010 to estimate the upper and lower limits and correlation with meteorology conditions, and then evaluate their impacts with a chemical transport system. Our preliminary results indicated that biomass burning has a strong correlation with precipitation over Southeast Asia, which could drive the emission varying from 542 Tg in 2008 to 945 Tg in 2010, according to FLAMBE emission inventory (Reid et al., 2009). Mineral dust also demonstrated a strong dependence on wind filed. These inter-annual/annual variations will also lead to different findings and impacts on air quality in East Asia. Reference: Huang, K., et al. (2010), Mixing of Asian dust with pollution aerosol and the transformation of aerosol components during the dust storm over China in spring 2007, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 115. IPCC (2007), Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, New York. Li, J., et al. (2012), Mixing of Asian mineral dust with anthropogenic pollutants over East Asia: a model case study of a super-duststorm in

  1. Characteristics of atmospheric ice nucleating particles associated with biomass burning in the US: Prescribed burns and wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Christina S.

    Insufficient knowledge regarding the sources and number concentrations of atmospheric ice nucleating particles (INP) leads to large uncertainties in understanding the interaction of aerosols with cloud processes, such as cloud life time and precipitation rates. This study utilizes measurements of INP from a diverse set of biomass burning events to better understand INP associated with biomass burning in the U.S. Prescribed burns in Georgia and Colorado, two Colorado wildfires and two laboratory burns were monitored for INP number concentrations. The relationship between nINP and total particle number concentrations, evident within prescribed burning plumes, was degraded within aged smoke plumes from the wildfires, limiting the utility of this relationship for comparing laboratory and field data. Larger particles, represented by n500nm, are less vulnerable to plume processing and have previously been evaluated for their relation to nINP. Our measurements indicated that for a given n500nm, nINP associated with the wildfires were nearly an order of magnitude higher than nINP found in prescribed fire emissions. Reasons for the differences between INP characteristics in these emissions were explored, including variations in combustion efficiency, fuel type, transport time and environmental conditions. Combustion efficiency and fuel type were eliminated as controlling factors by comparing samples with contrasting combustion efficiencies and fuel types. Transport time was eliminated because the expected impact would be to reduce n500nm, thus resulting in the opposite effect from the observed change. Bulk aerosol chemical composition analyses support the potential role of elevated soil dust particle concentrations during the fires, contributing to the population of INP, but the bulk analyses do not target INP composition directly. It is hypothesized that both hardwood burning and soil lofting are responsible for the elevated production of INP in the Colorado wildfires in

  2. Biomass Burning, Land-Cover Change, and the Hydrological Cycle in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke T.; Willmot, K. Elena; Matsui, Toshihisa; Dezfuli, Amin K.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Wang, Jun; Wilcox, Eric M.; Lee, Jejung; Adegoke, Jimmy; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Northern Sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, which accounts for 20%-25%of the global carbon emissions from biomass burning, also suffers from frequent drought episodes and other disruptions to the hydrological cycle whose adverse societal impacts have been widely reported during the last several decades. This paper presents a conceptual framework of the NSSA regional climate system components that may be linked to biomass burning, as well as detailed analyses of a variety of satellite data for 2001-2014 in conjunction with relevant model-assimilated variables. Satellite fire detections in NSSA show that the vast majority (greater than 75%) occurs in the savanna and woody savanna land-cover types. Starting in the 2006-2007 burning season through the end of the analyzed data in 2014, peak burning activity showed a net decrease of 2-7% /yr in different parts of NSSA, especially in the savanna regions. However, fire distribution shows appreciable coincidence with land-cover change. Although there is variable mutual exchange of different land cover types, during 2003-2013, cropland increased at an estimated rate of 0.28% /yr of the total NSSA land area, with most of it (0.18% /yr) coming from savanna.During the last decade, conversion to croplands increased in some areas classified as forests and wetlands, posing a threat to these vital and vulnerable ecosystems. Seasonal peak burning is anti-correlated with annual water-cycle indicators such as precipitation, soil moisture, vegetation greenness, and evapotranspiration, except in humid West Africa (5 deg-10 deg latitude),where this anti-correlation occurs exclusively in the dry season and burning virtually stops when monthly mean precipitation reaches 4 mm/d. These results provide observational evidence of changes in land-cover and hydrological variables that are consistent with feedbacks from biomass burning in NSSA, and encourage more synergistic modeling and observational studies that can elaborate this feedback

  3. Biomass burning contributions to urban PM2.5 along the coastal lines of southeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shui-Ping Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Levoglucosan (LG, water soluble organic carbon (WSOC and potassium (K+, and the light absorption at 365 nm (Abs365 of the extracted WSOC are measured in PM2.5 samples collected from November 2011 to July 2013 at four coastal urban sites in southeast China (Fuzhou, Putian, Quanzhou and Xiamen. These species are markers of biomass burning and used to determine the contributions of biomass burning to the PM2.5 burden in these locations. LG and WSOC concentrations exhibited a clear seasonal pattern, with a large enhancement in winter and spring and a minimum in summer, and annual means across all sites of 59.2±46.8 ng m−3 and 2.69±1.21 µg C m−3, respectively. The distinctive seasonal patterns of LG and WSOC are more explained by the East Asian monsoon than the upwind varying emission sources according to the HYSPLIT backward trajectories and MODIS fire spots. Observations produced significant correlation (at the p<0.01 level between LG and non-sea salt K+ (nss-K+ at each site, but the correlations exhibited no clear seasonal trend. The LG/nss-K+ ratios ranged from 0.03±0.01 to 0.24±0.13 which lay within the limits for the crop residues and/or grass combustion smoke. Stronger correlations were found between WSOC or Abs365 and sulphate than between WSOC and LG. This observation is consistent with the fact that biomass burning is a less important contributor to WSOC and/or brown carbon than is secondary organic aerosol formation and oxidation. The average relative contributions of biomass burning to OC and WSOC in PM2.5 were 8.3 and 15.2 %, respectively, estimated by the measured LG to OC and WSOC (LG/OC and LG/WSOC ratios in comparison to literature-derived LG/OC and LG/WSOC values for biomass burning smoke. Using the reported conversion factor of LG to PM2.5 for crop straw burning smoke, the LG-estimated PM2.5 contributions from biomass burning exhibited minimum values in summer and higher values in winter and spring. Positive Matrix

  4. Mass spectra features of biomass burning boiler and coal burning boiler emitted particles by single particle aerosol mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiao; Li, Mei; Shi, Guoliang; Wang, Haiting; Ma, Xian; Wu, Jianhui; Shi, Xurong; Feng, Yinchang

    2017-11-15

    In this study, single particle mass spectra signatures of both coal burning boiler and biomass burning boiler emitted particles were studied. Particle samples were suspended in clean Resuspension Chamber, and analyzed by ELPI and SPAMS simultaneously. The size distribution of BBB (biomass burning boiler sample) and CBB (coal burning boiler sample) are different, as BBB peaks at smaller size, and CBB peaks at larger size. Mass spectra signatures of two samples were studied by analyzing the average mass spectrum of each particle cluster extracted by ART-2a in different size ranges. In conclusion, BBB sample mostly consists of OC and EC containing particles, and a small fraction of K-rich particles in the size range of 0.2-0.5μm. In 0.5-1.0μm, BBB sample consists of EC, OC, K-rich and Al_Silicate containing particles; CBB sample consists of EC, ECOC containing particles, while Al_Silicate (including Al_Ca_Ti_Silicate, Al_Ti_Silicate, Al_Silicate) containing particles got higher fractions as size increase. The similarity of single particle mass spectrum signatures between two samples were studied by analyzing the dot product, results indicated that part of the single particle mass spectra of two samples in the same size range are similar, which bring challenge to the future source apportionment activity by using single particle aerosol mass spectrometer. Results of this study will provide physicochemical information of important sources which contribute to particle pollution, and will support source apportionment activities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Large-eddy simulation of contrails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlond, A [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    A large eddy simulation (LES) model has been used to investigate the role of various external parameters and physical processes in the life-cycle of contrails. The model is applied to conditions that are typical for those under which contrails could be observed, i.e. in an atmosphere which is supersaturated with respect to ice and at a temperature of approximately 230 K or colder. The sensitivity runs indicate that the contrail evolution is controlled primarily by humidity, temperature and static stability of the ambient air and secondarily by the baroclinicity of the atmosphere. Moreover, it turns out that the initial ice particle concentration and radiative processes are of minor importance in the evolution of contrails at least during the 30 minutes simulation period. (author) 9 refs.

  6. Large-eddy simulation of contrails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlond, A. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    A large eddy simulation (LES) model has been used to investigate the role of various external parameters and physical processes in the life-cycle of contrails. The model is applied to conditions that are typical for those under which contrails could be observed, i.e. in an atmosphere which is supersaturated with respect to ice and at a temperature of approximately 230 K or colder. The sensitivity runs indicate that the contrail evolution is controlled primarily by humidity, temperature and static stability of the ambient air and secondarily by the baroclinicity of the atmosphere. Moreover, it turns out that the initial ice particle concentration and radiative processes are of minor importance in the evolution of contrails at least during the 30 minutes simulation period. (author) 9 refs.

  7. Evaluation of the FEERv1.0 Global Top-Down Biomass Burning Emissions Inventory over Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, L.; Ichoku, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    With the advent of the Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER) global top-down biomass burning emissions product from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, a subsequent effort is going on to analyze and evaluate some of the main (particulate and gaseous) constituents of this emissions inventory against other inventories of biomass burning emissions over the African continent. There is consistent and continual burning during the dry season in NSSA of many small slash-and-burn fires that, though may be relatively small fires individually, collectively contribute 20-25% of the global total carbon emissions from biomass burning. As a top-down method of estimating biomass-burning emissions, FEERv1.0 is able to yield higher and more realistic emissions than previously obtainable using bottom-up methods. Results of such comparisons performed in detail over Africa will be discussed in this presentation. This effort is carried out in conjunction with a NASA-funded interdisciplinary research project investigating the effects of biomass burning on the regional climate system in Northern Sub-Saharan Africa (NSSA). Essentially, that project aims to determine how fires may have affected the severe droughts that plagued the NSSA region in recent history. Therefore, it is imperative that the biomass burning emissions input data over Africa be as accurate as possible in order to obtain a confident understanding of their interactions and feedbacks with the hydrological cycle in NSSA.

  8. A numerical simulation of a contrail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkov, L.; Boin, M.; Meinert, D. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The formation of a contrail from an aircraft flying near the tropopause is simulated using a three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model including a very complex scheme of parameterized cloud microphysical processes. The model predicted ice concentrations are in very good agreement with data measured during the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE), 1989. Sensitivity simulations were run to determine humidity forcing on the life time of contrails. (author) 4 refs.

  9. A numerical simulation of a contrail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkov, L; Boin, M; Meinert, D [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The formation of a contrail from an aircraft flying near the tropopause is simulated using a three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model including a very complex scheme of parameterized cloud microphysical processes. The model predicted ice concentrations are in very good agreement with data measured during the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE), 1989. Sensitivity simulations were run to determine humidity forcing on the life time of contrails. (author) 4 refs.

  10. Assessment of biomass burning emissions and their impacts on urban and regional PM2.5: a Georgia case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Di; Hu, Yongtao; Wang, Yuhang; Boylan, James W; Zheng, Mei; Russell, Armistead G

    2009-01-15

    Biomass burning is a major and growing contributor to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5). Such impacts (especially individual impacts from each burning source) are quantified using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model, a chemical transport model (CTM). Given the sensitivity of CTM results to uncertain emission inputs, simulations were conducted using three biomass burning inventories. Shortcomings in the burning emissions were also evaluated by comparing simulations with observations and results from a receptor model. Model performance improved significantly with the updated emissions and speciation profiles based on recent measurements for biomass burning: mean fractional bias is reduced from 22% to 4% for elemental carbon and from 18% to 12% for organic matter; mean fractional error is reduced from 59% to 50% for elemental carbon and from 55% to 49% for organic matter. Quantified impacts of biomass burning on PM2.5 during January, March, May, and July 2002 are 3.0, 5.1, 0.8, and 0.3 microg m(-3) domainwide on average, with more than 80% of such impacts being from primary emissions. Impacts of prescribed burning dominate biomass burning impacts, contributing about 55% and 80% of PM2.5 in January and March, respectively, followed by land clearing and agriculture field burning. Significant impacts of wildfires in May and residential wood combustion in fireplaces and woodstoves in January are also found.

  11. Terrestrial cycling of 13CO2 by photosynthesis, respiration, and biomass burning in SiBCASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, I. R.; Miller, J. B.; Schaefer, K.; van der Werf, G. R.; Krol, M. C.; Peters, W.

    2014-12-01

    We present an enhanced version of the SiBCASA terrestrial biosphere model that is extended with (a) biomass burning emissions from the SiBCASA carbon pools using remotely sensed burned area from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED), (b) an isotopic discrimination scheme that calculates 13C signatures of photosynthesis and autotrophic respiration, and (c) a separate set of 13C pools to carry isotope ratios into heterotrophic respiration. We quantify in this study the terrestrial exchange of CO2 and 13CO2 as a function of environmental changes in humidity and biomass burning. The implementation of biomass burning yields similar fluxes as CASA-GFED both in magnitude and spatial patterns. The implementation of isotope exchange gives a global mean discrimination value of 15.2‰, ranges between 4 and 20‰ depending on the photosynthetic pathway in the plant, and compares favorably (annually and seasonally) with other published values. Similarly, the isotopic disequilibrium is similar to other studies that include a small effect of biomass burning as it shortens the turnover of carbon. In comparison to measurements, a newly modified starch/sugar storage pool propagates the isotopic discrimination anomalies to respiration much better. In addition, the amplitude of the drought response by SiBCASA is lower than suggested by the measured isotope ratios. We show that a slight increase in the stomatal closure for large vapor pressure deficit would amplify the respired isotope ratio variability. Our study highlights the importance of isotope ratio observations of 13C to assess and improve biochemical models like SiBCASA, especially with regard to the allocation and turnover of carbon and the responses to drought.

  12. Thermal behavior of aerosol particles from biomass burning during the BBOP campaign using transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, K.; Ishimoto, H.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Kleinman, L. I.; Chand, D.; Hubbe, J. M.; Buseck, P. R.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol samples were collected from wildland and agricultural biomass fires in North America during the 2013 Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP). We show in-situ shape and size changes and variations in the compositions of individual particles before and after heating using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The responses of aerosol particles to heating are important for measurements of their chemical, physical, and optical properties, classification, and determination of origin. However, the thermal behavior of organic aerosol particles is largely unknown. We provide a method to analyze such thermal behavior through heating from room temperature to >600°C by using a heating holder within TEM. The results indicate that individual tar balls (TB; spherical organic material) from biomass burning retained, on average, up to 30% of their volume when heated to 600°C. Chemical analysis reveals that K and Na remained in the residues, whereas S and O were lost. In contrast to bulk sample measurements of carbonaceous particles using thermal/optical carbon analyzers, our single-particle results imply that many individual organic particles consist of multiple types of organic matter having different thermal stabilities. Our results also suggest that because of their thermal stability, some organic particles may not be detectable by using aerosol mass spectrometry or thermal/optical carbon analyzers. This result can lead to an underestimate of the abundance of TBs and other organic particles, and therefore biomass burning may have a greater influence than is currently recognized in regional and global climate models.

  13. Case study of water-soluble metal containing organic constituents of biomass burning aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Graham, Alexandra L; Profeta, Luisa T M; Johnson, Timothy J; Yokelson, Robert J; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia

    2011-02-15

    Natural and prescribed biomass fires are a major source of aerosols that may persist in the atmosphere for several weeks. Biomass burning aerosols (BBA) can be associated with long-range transport of water-soluble N-, S-, P-, and metal-containing species. In this study, BBA samples were collected using a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) from laboratory burns of vegetation collected on military bases in the southeastern and southwestern United States. The samples were then analyzed using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/HR-MS) that enabled accurate mass measurements for hundreds of species with m/z values between 70 and 1000 and assignment of elemental formulas. Mg, Al, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Ba-containing organometallic species were identified. The results suggest that the biomass may have accumulated metal-containing species that were re-emitted during biomass burning. Further research into the sources, dispersion, and persistence of metal-containing aerosols, as well as their environmental effects, is needed.

  14. Volume changes upon heating of aerosol particles from biomass burning using transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Kouji [Meteorological Research Inst., Tsukuba (Japan). Atmospheric Environment and Applied Meteorology Research Dept.; Sedlacek, Arthur J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Environmental and Climate Sciences; Kleinman, Lawrence [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Environmental and Climate Sciences; Chand, Duli [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division; Hubbe, John M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division; Buseck, Peter R. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Earth and Space Exploration and School of Molecular Sciences

    2017-09-26

    The responses of aerosol particles to heating are important for measurements of their chemical, physical, and optical properties, classification, and determination of origin. However, the thermal behavior of organic aerosol particles is largely unknown. We provide a method to analyze such thermal behavior through heating from room temperature to >600°C by using a heating holder within a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Here we describe in-situ shape and size changes and variations in the compositions of individual particles before and after heating. We use ambient samples from wildland and agricultural biomass fires in North America collected during the 2013 Biomass Burn Observation Project (BBOP). The results indicate that individual tar balls (TB; spherical organic material) from biomass burning retained, on average, up to 30% of their volume when heated to 600°C. Chemical analysis reveals that K and Na remain in the residues, whereas S and O were lost. In contrast to bulk sample measurements of carbonaceous particles using thermal/optical carbon analyzers, our single-particle results imply that many individual organic particles consist of multiple types of organic matter having different thermal stabilities. Beyond TBs, our results suggest that because of their thermal stability some organic particles may not be detectable by using aerosol mass spectrometry or thermal/optical carbon analyzers. This result can lead to an underestimate of the abundance of TBs and other organic particles, and therefore biomass burning may have more influence than currently recognized in regional and global climate models.

  15. Impact of biomass burning on urban air quality estimated by organic tracers: Guangzhou and Beijing as cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiaoqiao Wang; Min Shao; Ying Liu [State Joint Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, (China); Kuster, William; Goldan, Paul [Earth System Research Laboratory, U.S. Department of Commerce, Boulder, CO 80305, (United States); Xiaohua Li; Yuan Liu; Sihua Lu [State Joint Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, (China)

    2007-12-15

    The impacts of biomass burning have not been adequately studied in China. In this work, chemical compositions of volatile organic compounds and particulate organic matters were measured in August 2005 in Beijing and in October 2004 in Guangzhou city. The performance of several possible tracers for biomass burning is compared by using acetonitrile as a reference compound. The correlations between the possible tracers and acetonitrile show that the use of K{sup +} as a tracer could result in bias because of the existence of other K+ sources in urban areas, while chloromethane is not reliable due to its wide use as industrial chemical. The impact of biomass burning on air quality is estimated using acetonitrile and levoglucosan as tracers. The results show that the impact of biomass burning is ubiquitous in both suburban and urban Guangzhou, and the frequencies of air pollution episodes significantly influenced by biomass burning were 100% for Xinken and 58% for downtown Guangzhou city. Fortunately, the air quality in only 2 out of 22 days was partly impacted by biomass burning in August in Beijing, the month that 2008 Olympic games will take place. The quantitative contribution of biomass burning to ambient PM{sub 2.5} concentrations in Guangzhou city was also estimated by the ratio of levoglocusan to PM{sub 2.5} in both the ambient air and biomass burning plumes. The results show that biomass burning contributes 3.02013;16.8% and 4.02013;19.0% of PM{sub 2.5} concentrations in Xinken and Guangzhou downtown, respectively. (Author)

  16. Impact of biomass burning on urban air quality estimated by organic tracers: Guangzhou and Beijing as cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiaoqiao Wang; Min Shao; Ying Liu [State Joint Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, (China); Kuster, William; Goldan, Paul [Earth System Research Laboratory, U.S. Department of Commerce, Boulder, CO 80305, (United States); Xiaohua Li; Yuan Liu; Sihua Lu [State Joint Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, (China)

    2007-12-15

    The impacts of biomass burning have not been adequately studied in China. In this work, chemical compositions of volatile organic compounds and particulate organic matters were measured in August 2005 in Beijing and in October 2004 in Guangzhou city. The performance of several possible tracers for biomass burning is compared by using acetonitrile as a reference compound. The correlations between the possible tracers and acetonitrile show that the use of K{sup +} as a tracer could result in bias because of the existence of other K+ sources in urban areas, while chloromethane is not reliable due to its wide use as industrial chemical. The impact of biomass burning on air quality is estimated using acetonitrile and levoglucosan as tracers. The results show that the impact of biomass burning is ubiquitous in both suburban and urban Guangzhou, and the frequencies of air pollution episodes significantly influenced by biomass burning were 100% for Xinken and 58% for downtown Guangzhou city. Fortunately, the air quality in only 2 out of 22 days was partly impacted by biomass burning in August in Beijing, the month that 2008 Olympic games will take place. The quantitative contribution of biomass burning to ambient PM{sub 2.5} concentrations in Guangzhou city was also estimated by the ratio of levoglocusan to PM{sub 2.5} in both the ambient air and biomass burning plumes. The results show that biomass burning contributes 3.02013;16.8% and 4.02013;19.0% of PM{sub 2.5} concentrations in Xinken and Guangzhou downtown, respectively. (Author).

  17. Vegetation fires, absorbing aerosols and smoke plume characteristics in diverse biomass burning regions of Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lasko, Kristofer; Giglio, Louis; Justice, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explored the relationships between the satellite-retrieved fire counts (FC), fire radiative power (FRP) and aerosol indices using multi-satellite datasets at a daily time-step covering ten different biomass burning regions in Asia. We first assessed the variations in MODIS-retrieved aerosol optical depths (AOD’s) in agriculture, forests, plantation and peat land burning regions and then used MODIS FC and FRP (hereafter FC/FRP) to explain the variations in AOD characteristics. Results suggest that tropical broadleaf forests in Laos burn more intensively than the other vegetation fires. FC/FRP-AOD correlations in different agricultural residue burning regions did not exceed 20% whereas in forest regions they reached 40%. To specifically account for absorbing aerosols, we used Ozone Monitoring Instrument-derived aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) and UV aerosol index (UVAI). Results suggest relatively high AAOD and UVAI values in forest fires compared with peat and agriculture fires. Further, FC/FRP could explain a maximum of 29% and 53% of AAOD variations, whereas FC/FRP could explain at most 33% and 51% of the variation in agricultural and forest biomass burning regions, respectively. Relatively, UVAI was found to be a better indicator than AOD and AAOD in both agriculture and forest biomass burning plumes. Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations data showed vertically elevated aerosol profiles greater than 3.2–5.3 km altitude in the forest fire plumes compared to 2.2–3.9 km and less than 1 km in agriculture and peat-land fires, respectively. We infer the need to assimilate smoke plume height information for effective characterization of pollutants from different sources. (letter)

  18. Near-real-time global biomass burning emissions product from geostationary satellite constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyang; Kondragunta, Shobha; Ram, Jessica; Schmidt, Christopher; Huang, Ho-Chun

    2012-07-01

    Near-real-time estimates of biomass burning emissions are crucial for air quality monitoring and forecasting. We present here the first near-real-time global biomass burning emission product from geostationary satellites (GBBEP-Geo) produced from satellite-derived fire radiative power (FRP) for individual fire pixels. Specifically, the FRP is retrieved using WF_ABBA V65 (wildfire automated biomass burning algorithm) from a network of multiple geostationary satellites. The network consists of two Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) which are operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Meteosat second-generation satellites (Meteosat-09) operated by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, and the Multifunctional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency. These satellites observe wildfires at an interval of 15-30 min. Because of the impacts from sensor saturation, cloud cover, and background surface, the FRP values are generally not continuously observed. The missing observations are simulated by combining the available instantaneous FRP observations within a day and a set of representative climatological diurnal patterns of FRP for various ecosystems. Finally, the simulated diurnal variation in FRP is applied to quantify biomass combustion and emissions in individual fire pixels with a latency of 1 day. By analyzing global patterns in hourly biomass burning emissions in 2010, we find that peak fire season varied greatly and that annual wildfires burned 1.33 × 1012 kg dry mass, released 1.27 × 1010 kg of PM2.5 (particulate mass for particles with diameter forest and savanna fires in Africa, South America, and North America. Evaluation of emission result reveals that the GBBEP-Geo estimates are comparable with other FRP-derived estimates in Africa, while the results are generally smaller than most of the other global products that were derived from burned

  19. Biomass burning aerosol over the Amazon during SAMBBA: impact of chemical composition on radiative properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, William; Allan, James; Flynn, Michael; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Hodgson, Amy; Liu, Dantong; O'shea, Sebastian; Bauguitte, Stephane; Szpek, Kate; Langridge, Justin; Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Artaxo, Paulo; Coe, Hugh

    2014-05-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, resulting in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious impacts on public health. Globally, biomass burning aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect but with the uncertainty being 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months. Absorption by atmospheric aerosols is underestimated by models over South America, which points to significant uncertainties relating to Black Carbon (BC) aerosol properties. Initial results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft, are presented here. Aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass burning on regional air quality, weather and climate. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions including sampling of pristine Rainforest, fresh biomass burning plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass burning layers within the free troposphere. The aircraft sampled biomass burning aerosol across the southern Amazon in the states of Rondonia and Mato Grosso, as well as in a Cerrado (Savannah-like) region in Tocantins state. This presented a range of fire conditions, both in terms of their number, intensity, vegetation-type and their combustion efficiencies. Near-source sampling of fires in Rainforest environments suggested that smouldering combustion dominated, while flaming combustion dominated

  20. Domestic biomass burning in rural and urban Zimbabwe: Pt. A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marufu, Lackson; Ludwig, Joerg; Andreae, M.O.; Meixner, F.X.; Helas, Guenter

    1997-01-01

    A questionnaire survey, to estimate biofuel consumption rates in rural and urban households in Zimbabwe, was conducted during the months of March and April 1995. The survey formed part of an integrated campaign aimed at establishing the extent to which domestic biofuel burning in Africa contributes to the atmospheric trace gas budget. Five study areas, four rural and one urban, were covered by the survey. The forms of biofuel used in rural areas were found to be wood, agricultural residues and cow dung, with wood being predominant. When available, agricultural residues were the second most popular form of fuel. Cow dung was only used in situations of severe fuel shortages. On average, rural consumption rates of wood, agricultural residues and cow dung for this time of the year were found to be 3.2, 1.5 and 0.2 kg/capita/day respectively. Wood and agricultural residues were the only biofuels used by urban households and were consumed at rates of 1.6 and > 0.1 kg/capitaday respectively. Across the study areas, consumption rates were a function of fuel availability. (author)

  1. Stable Carbon Fractionation In Size Segregated Aerosol Particles Produced By Controlled Biomass Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalaite, Agne; Garbaras, Andrius; Garbariene, Inga; Ceburnis, Darius; Martuzevicius, Dainius; Puida, Egidijus; Kvietkus, Kestutis; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2014-05-01

    Biomass burning is the largest source of primary fine fraction carbonaceous particles and the second largest source of trace gases in the global atmosphere with a strong effect not only on the regional scale but also in areas distant from the source . Many studies have often assumed no significant carbon isotope fractionation occurring between black carbon and the original vegetation during combustion. However, other studies suggested that stable carbon isotope ratios of char or BC may not reliably reflect carbon isotopic signatures of the source vegetation. Overall, the apparently conflicting results throughout the literature regarding the observed fractionation suggest that combustion conditions may be responsible for the observed effects. The purpose of the present study was to gather more quantitative information on carbonaceous aerosols produced in controlled biomass burning, thereby having a potential impact on interpreting ambient atmospheric observations. Seven different biomass fuel types were burned under controlled conditions to determine the effect of the biomass type on the emitted particulate matter mass and stable carbon isotope composition of bulk and size segregated particles. Size segregated aerosol particles were collected using the total suspended particle (TSP) sampler and a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI). The results demonstrated that particle emissions were dominated by the submicron particles in all biomass types. However, significant differences in emissions of submicron particles and their dominant sizes were found between different biomass fuels. The largest negative fractionation was obtained for the wood pellet fuel type while the largest positive isotopic fractionation was observed during the buckwheat shells combustion. The carbon isotope composition of MOUDI samples compared very well with isotope composition of TSP samples indicating consistency of the results. The measurements of the stable carbon isotope ratio in

  2. Biomass burning emissions in north Australia during the early dry season: an overview of the 2014 SAFIRED campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, Marc D.; Desservettaz, Maximilien J.; Miljevic, Branka; Milic, Andelija; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Alroe, Joel; Cravigan, Luke T.; Rohan Jayaratne, E.; Paton-Walsh, Clare; Griffith, David W. T.; Wilson, Stephen R.; Kettlewell, Graham; van der Schoot, Marcel V.; Selleck, Paul; Reisen, Fabienne; Lawson, Sarah J.; Ward, Jason; Harnwell, James; Cheng, Min; Gillett, Rob W.; Molloy, Suzie B.; Howard, Dean; Nelson, Peter F.; Morrison, Anthony L.; Edwards, Grant C.; Williams, Alastair G.; Chambers, Scott D.; Werczynski, Sylvester; Williams, Leah R.; Winton, V. Holly L.; Atkinson, Brad; Wang, Xianyu; Keywood, Melita D.

    2017-11-01

    The SAFIRED (Savannah Fires in the Early Dry Season) campaign took place from 29 May until 30 June 2014 at the Australian Tropical Atmospheric Research Station (ATARS) in the Northern Territory, Australia. The purpose of this campaign was to investigate emissions from fires in the early dry season in northern Australia. Measurements were made of biomass burning aerosols, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic carbons, greenhouse gases, radon, speciated atmospheric mercury and trace metals. Aspects of the biomass burning aerosol emissions investigated included; emission factors of various species, physical and chemical aerosol properties, aerosol aging, micronutrient supply to the ocean, nucleation, and aerosol water uptake. Over the course of the month-long campaign, biomass burning signals were prevalent and emissions from several large single burning events were observed at ATARS.Biomass burning emissions dominated the gas and aerosol concentrations in this region. Dry season fires are extremely frequent and widespread across the northern region of Australia, which suggests that the measured aerosol and gaseous emissions at ATARS are likely representative of signals across the entire region of north Australia. Air mass forward trajectories show that these biomass burning emissions are carried north-west over the Timor Sea and could influence the atmosphere over Indonesia and the tropical atmosphere over the Indian Ocean. Here we present characteristics of the biomass burning observed at the sampling site and provide an overview of the more specific outcomes of the SAFIRED campaign.

  3. Biomass burning emissions in north Australia during the early dry season: an overview of the 2014 SAFIRED campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Mallet

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The SAFIRED (Savannah Fires in the Early Dry Season campaign took place from 29 May until 30 June 2014 at the Australian Tropical Atmospheric Research Station (ATARS in the Northern Territory, Australia. The purpose of this campaign was to investigate emissions from fires in the early dry season in northern Australia. Measurements were made of biomass burning aerosols, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic carbons, greenhouse gases, radon, speciated atmospheric mercury and trace metals. Aspects of the biomass burning aerosol emissions investigated included; emission factors of various species, physical and chemical aerosol properties, aerosol aging, micronutrient supply to the ocean, nucleation, and aerosol water uptake. Over the course of the month-long campaign, biomass burning signals were prevalent and emissions from several large single burning events were observed at ATARS.Biomass burning emissions dominated the gas and aerosol concentrations in this region. Dry season fires are extremely frequent and widespread across the northern region of Australia, which suggests that the measured aerosol and gaseous emissions at ATARS are likely representative of signals across the entire region of north Australia. Air mass forward trajectories show that these biomass burning emissions are carried north-west over the Timor Sea and could influence the atmosphere over Indonesia and the tropical atmosphere over the Indian Ocean. Here we present characteristics of the biomass burning observed at the sampling site and provide an overview of the more specific outcomes of the SAFIRED campaign.

  4. Reducing health impacts of biomass burning for cooking. The need for cookstove performance testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeliotis, K. [Department of Home Economics and Ecology, Harokopio University, Athens (Greece); Pakula, C. [Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Section Household and Appliance Technology, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms University, Bonn (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Biomass is a renewable energy source that is routinely used for cooking in the developing world, especially in rural areas. The World Health Organization estimates that about 2.5 billion people globally rely on biomass, such as wood, agricultural waste and animal dung to meet their energy needs for cooking utilising traditional low-efficiency cookstoves. However, certain human health risks are associated with the inhalation of off-gases resulting from the indoor use of biomass for cooking, especially for women and children who spend more of their time at home. On the other hand, use of energy-efficient cookstoves is considered to reduce those risks. Thus, qualitative and quantitative measurements of cookstove performance are necessary in order to make different stoves and different cooking processes comparable. The aim of this paper is the presentation of the current situation regarding biomass use for cooking with emphasis placed on the developing world, the brief of the adverse health impacts of biomass burning based on the review of literature, the presentation of the merits of improved efficiency cookstoves and to highlight the need for stove performance tests. The demand of different types of biomass is not likely to change in the near future in the developing world since biomass is readily available and cheap. Thus, the efforts to improve household air quality must concentrate on improving cookstoves efficiency and ventilation of the flue gases outdoors. Programmes for the improvement of the cookstoves efficiency in the developing world should be part of the development agenda.

  5. Biomass Burning Research Using DOE ARM Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onasch, Timothy B [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Sedlacek, Arthur J [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lewis, Ernie [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The focus of this laboratory study was to investigate the chemical and optical properties, and the detection efficiencies, of tar balls generated in the laboratory using the same instruments deployed on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Gulfstream-1 (G-1) aircraft during the 2013 Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) field study, during which tar balls were observed in wildland biomass burning particulate emissions. Key goals of this laboratory study were: (a) measuring the chemical composition of tar balls to provide insights into the atmospheric processes that form (evaporation/oxidation) and modify them in biomass burning plumes, (b) identifying whether tar balls contain refractory black carbon, (c) determining the collection efficiencies of tar balls impacting on the 600oC heated tungsten vaporizer in the Aerodyne Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS) (i.e., given the observed low volatilities, AMS measurements might underestimate organic biomass burning plume loadings), and (d) measuring the wavelength-dependent, mass-specific absorption cross-sections of brown carbon components of tar balls. This project was funded primarily by the DOE Atmospheric System Research (ASR) program, and the ARM Facility made their single-particle soot photometer (SP2) available for September 1-September 31, 2016 in the Aerodyne laboratories. The ARM mentor (Dr. Sedlacek) requested no funds for mentorship or data reduction. All ARM SP2 data collected as part of this project are archived in the ARM Data Archive in accordance with established protocols. The main objectives of the ARM Biomass Burning Observation Period (BBOP, July-October, 2013) field campaign were to (1) assess the impact of wildland fires in the Pacific Northwest on climate, through near-field and regional intensive measurement campaigns, and (2) investigate agricultural burns to determine how those biomass burn plumes differ from

  6. Assessment of fire emission inventories during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pereira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fires associated with land use and land cover changes release large amounts of aerosols and trace gases into the atmosphere. Although several inventories of biomass burning emissions cover Brazil, there are still considerable uncertainties and differences among them. While most fire emission inventories utilize the parameters of burned area, vegetation fuel load, emission factors, and other parameters to estimate the biomass burned and its associated emissions, several more recent inventories apply an alternative method based on fire radiative power (FRP observations to estimate the amount of biomass burned and the corresponding emissions of trace gases and aerosols. The Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model (3BEM and the Fire Inventory from NCAR (FINN are examples of the first, while the Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model with FRP assimilation (3BEM_FRP and the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS are examples of the latter. These four biomass burning emission inventories were used during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field campaign. This paper analyzes and inter-compared them, focusing on eight regions in Brazil and the time period of 1 September–31 October 2012. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT550 nm derived from measurements made by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS operating on board the Terra and Aqua satellites is also applied to assess the inventories' consistency. The daily area-averaged pyrogenic carbon monoxide (CO emission estimates exhibit significant linear correlations (r, p  >  0.05 level, Student t test between 3BEM and FINN and between 3BEM_ FRP and GFAS, with values of 0.86 and 0.85, respectively. These results indicate that emission estimates in this region derived via similar methods tend to agree with one other. However, they differ more from the estimates derived via the alternative approach. The evaluation of MODIS AOT550 nm indicates that model

  7. A pervasive role for biomass burning in tropical high ozone/low water structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel C.; Nicely, Julie M.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Canty, Timothy P.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Hanisco, Thomas F.; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Apel, Eric C.; Atlas, Elliot; Bannan, Thomas; Bauguitte, Stephane; Blake, Nicola J.; Bresch, James F.; Campos, Teresa L.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Cohen, Mark D.; Evans, Mathew; Fernandez, Rafael P.; Kahn, Brian H.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Hall, Samuel R.; Harris, Neil R. P.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Le Breton, Michael; Lee, James D.; Percival, Carl; Pfister, Leonhard; Pierce, R. Bradley; Riemer, Daniel D.; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Stunder, Barbara J. B.; Thompson, Anne M.; Ullmann, Kirk; Vaughan, Adam; Weinheimer, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Air parcels with mixing ratios of high O3 and low H2O (HOLW) are common features in the tropical western Pacific (TWP) mid-troposphere (300-700 hPa). Here, using data collected during aircraft sampling of the TWP in winter 2014, we find strong, positive correlations of O3 with multiple biomass burning tracers in these HOLW structures. Ozone levels in these structures are about a factor of three larger than background. Models, satellite data and aircraft observations are used to show fires in tropical Africa and Southeast Asia are the dominant source of high O3 and that low H2O results from large-scale descent within the tropical troposphere. Previous explanations that attribute HOLW structures to transport from the stratosphere or mid-latitude troposphere are inconsistent with our observations. This study suggest a larger role for biomass burning in the radiative forcing of climate in the remote TWP than is commonly appreciated.

  8. Biomass burning in eastern Europe during spring 2006 caused high deposition of ammonium in northern Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per Erik; Ferm, Martin; Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    High air concentrations of ammonium were detected at low and high altitude sites in Sweden, Finland and Norway during the spring 2006, coinciding with polluted air from biomass burning in eastern Europe passing over central and northern Fennoscandia. Unusually high values for throughfall deposition...... of ammonium were detected at one low altitude site and several high altitude sites in north Sweden. The occurrence of the high ammonium in throughfall differed between the summer months 2006, most likely related to the timing of precipitation events. The ammonia dry deposition may have contributed to unusual...... visible injuries on the tree vegetation in northern Fennoscandia that occurred during 2006, in combination with high ozone concentrations. It is concluded that long-range transport of ammonium from large-scale biomass burning may contribute substantially to the nitrogen load at northern latitudes. © 2013...

  9. Assessment of fire emission inventories during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gabriel; Siqueira, Ricardo; Rosário, Nilton E.; Longo, Karla L.; Freitas, Saulo R.; Cardozo, Francielle S.; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Wooster, Martin J.

    2016-06-01

    Fires associated with land use and land cover changes release large amounts of aerosols and trace gases into the atmosphere. Although several inventories of biomass burning emissions cover Brazil, there are still considerable uncertainties and differences among them. While most fire emission inventories utilize the parameters of burned area, vegetation fuel load, emission factors, and other parameters to estimate the biomass burned and its associated emissions, several more recent inventories apply an alternative method based on fire radiative power (FRP) observations to estimate the amount of biomass burned and the corresponding emissions of trace gases and aerosols. The Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model (3BEM) and the Fire Inventory from NCAR (FINN) are examples of the first, while the Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model with FRP assimilation (3BEM_FRP) and the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) are examples of the latter. These four biomass burning emission inventories were used during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field campaign. This paper analyzes and inter-compared them, focusing on eight regions in Brazil and the time period of 1 September-31 October 2012. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT550 nm) derived from measurements made by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) operating on board the Terra and Aqua satellites is also applied to assess the inventories' consistency. The daily area-averaged pyrogenic carbon monoxide (CO) emission estimates exhibit significant linear correlations (r, p > 0.05 level, Student t test) between 3BEM and FINN and between 3BEM_ FRP and GFAS, with values of 0.86 and 0.85, respectively. These results indicate that emission estimates in this region derived via similar methods tend to agree with one other. However, they differ more from the estimates derived via the alternative approach. The evaluation of MODIS AOT550 nm indicates that model simulation driven by 3BEM and FINN

  10. Biomass burning aerosols in a savanna region of the Ivory Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachier, H.; Ducret, J.; Bremond, M.P.; Yoboue, V.; Lacaux, J.P.; Gaudichet, A.; Baudet, J.

    1991-01-01

    In order to characterize the biomass burning particulate emissions, the authors sampled aerosols at Lamto in the wooded savanna of the Ivory Coast, during periods when the atmosphere is primarily influenced by various prescribed nearby or distant fires. They present here the results of parallel analyses which focus on the problem of tracing biomass burning aerosols at different levels of investigation. Soluble ion measurements give evidence of enhanced levels of various cations (potassium, calcium) and anions (sulfate, nitrate, oxalate), and the appearance of detectable oxalate concentrations. Further indication is obtained by analytical transmission electron microscopy of the small individual particles focusing on their trace element content. In addition, studies of the bulk carbonaceous content of the particles appear to provide primarily some possible indicators of the fire variability such as the isotropic composition fraction in the carbonaceous material (Cb to Ct ratio)

  11. The 2015 Indonesian biomass-burning season with extensive peat fires: Remote sensing measurements of biomass burning aerosol optical properties from AERONET and MODIS satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Giles, D. M.; Smirnov, A.; Slutsker, I.; Sinyuk, A.; Schafer, J.; Sorokin, M. G.; Reid, J. S.; Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. Y. C.; Levy, R. C.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Rahman, M. A.; Liew, S. C.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Li, T.; Kalbermatter, D.; Keong, K. L.; Elifant, M.; Aditya, F.; Mohamad, M.; Mahmud, M.; Chong, T. K.; Lim, H. S.; Choon, Y. E.; Deranadyan, G.; Kusumaningtyas, S. D. A.

    2016-12-01

    The strong El Nino event in 2015 resulted in below normal rainfall throughout Indonesia, which in turn allowed for exceptionally large numbers of biomass burning fires (including much peat burning) from Aug though Oct 2015. Over the island of Borneo, three AERONET sites measured monthly mean fine mode aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm from the spectral deconvolution algorithm in Sep and Oct ranging from 1.6 to 3.7, with daily average AOD as high as 6.1. In fact, the AOD was sometimes too high to obtain significant signal at mid-visible, therefore a newly developed algorithm in the AERONET Version 3 database was invoked to retain the measurements in as many of the longer wavelengths as possible. The AOD at longer wavelengths were then utilized to provide estimates of AOD at 550 nm with maximum values of 9 to 11. Additionally, satellite retrievals of AOD at 550 nm from MODIS data and the Dark Target, Deep Blue, and MAIAC algorithms were analyzed and compared to AERONET measured AOD. The AOD was sometimes too high for the satellite algorithms to make retrievals in the densest smoke regions. Since the AOD was often extremely high there was often insufficient AERONET direct sun signal at 440 nm for the larger solar zenith angles (> 50 degrees) required for almucantar retrievals. However, new hybrid sky radiance scans can attain sufficient scattering angle range even at small solar zenith angles when 440 nm direct beam irradiance can be accurately measured, thereby allowing for more retrievals and at higher AOD levels. The retrieved volume median radius of the fine mode increased from 0.18 to 0.25 micron as AOD increased from 1 to 3 (at 440 nm). These are very large size particles for biomass burning aerosol and are similar in size to smoke particles measured in Alaska during the very dry years of 2004 and 2005 (Eck et al. 2009) when peat soil burning also contributed to the fuel burned. The average single scattering albedo over the wavelength range of 440 to 1020 nm

  12. Dust, Pollution, and Biomass Burning Aerosols in Asian Pacific: A Column Satellite-Surface Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee

    2004-01-01

    Airborne dusts from northern China contribute a significant part of the air quality problem and, to some extent, regional climatic impact in Asia during spring-time. However, with the economical growth in China, increases in the emission of air pollutants generated from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the radiation balance, but adverse health effects to humans all year round. In addition, both of these dust and air pollution clouds can transport swiftly across the Pacific reaching North America within a few days, possessing an even larger scale effect. The Asian dust and air pollution aerosols can be detected by its colored appearance on current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and its evolution monitored by satellites and surface network. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two new initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East

  13. Biomass burning and its effects on fine aerosol acidity, water content and nitrogen partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Nenes, Athanasios; Paraskevopoulou, Despina; Fourtziou, Luciana; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Liakakou, Eleni; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Daskalakis, Nikos; Weber, Rodney; Kanakidou, Maria; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2017-04-01

    Aerosol acidity is an important property that drives the partitioning of semi-volatile species, the formation of secondary particulate matter and metal and nutrient solubility. Aerosol acidity varies considerably between aerosol types, RH, temperature, the degree of atmospheric chemical aging and may also change during transport. Among aerosol different sources, sea salt and dust have been well studied and their impact on aerosol acidity and water uptake is more or less understood. Biomass burning (BB) on the other hand, despite its significance as a source in a regional and global scale, is much less understood. Currently, there is no practical and accurate enough method, to directly measure the pH of in-situ aerosol. The combination of thermodynamic models, with targeted experimental observations can provide reliable predictions of aerosol particle water and pH, using as input the concentration of gas/aerosol species, temperature (T), and relative humidity (RH). As such an example, ISORROPIA-II (Fountoukis and Nenes, 2007) has been used for the thermodynamic analysis of measurements conducted in downtown Athens during winter 2013, in order to evaluate the effect of BB on aerosol water and acidity. Biomass burning, especially during night time, was found to contribute significantly to the increased organics concentrations, but as well to the BC component associated with wood burning, particulate nitrates, chloride, and potassium. These increased concentrations were found to impact on fine aerosol water, with Winorg having an average concentration of 11±14 μg m-3 and Worg 12±19 μg m-3 with the organic component constituting almost 38% of the total calculated submicron water. When investigating the fine aerosol acidity it was derived that aerosol was generally acidic, with average pH during strong BB influence of 2.8±0.5, value similar to the pH observed for regional aerosol influenced by important biomass burning episodes at the remote background site of

  14. Impacts of South East Biomass Burning on local air quality in South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai-man Yeung, Irene; Fat Lam, Yun; Eniolu Morakinyo, Tobi

    2016-04-01

    Biomass burning is a significant source of carbon monoxide and particulate matter, which is not only contribute to the local air pollution, but also regional air pollution. This study investigated the impacts of biomass burning emissions from Southeast Asia (SEA) as well as its contribution to the local air pollution in East and South China Sea, including Hong Kong and Taiwan. Three years (2012 - 2014) of the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian-Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) with particles dispersion analyses using NCEP (Final) Operational Global Analysis data (FNL) data (2012 - 2014) were analyzed to track down all possible long-range transport from SEA with a sinking motion that worsened the surface air quality (tropospheric downwash from the free troposphere). The major sources of SEA biomass burning emissions were first identified using high fire emissions from the Global Fire Emission Database (GFED), followed by the HYSPLIT backward trajectory dispersion modeling analysis. The analyses were compared with the local observation data from Tai Mo Shan (1,000 msl) and Tap Mun (60 msl) in Hong Kong, as well as the data from Lulin mountain (2,600 msl) in Taiwan, to assess the possible impacts of SEA biomass burning on local air quality. The correlation between long-range transport events from the particles dispersion results and locally observed air quality data indicated that the background concentrations of ozone, PM2.5 and PM10 at the surface stations were enhanced by 12 μg/m3, 4 μg/m3 and 7 μg/m3, respectively, while the long-range transport contributed to enhancements of 4 μg/m3, 4 μg/m3 and 8 μg/m3 for O3, PM2.5 and PM10, respectively at the lower free atmosphere.

  15. Biomass burning aerosol over Romania using dispersion model and Calipso data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolae, Victor; Dandocsi, Alexandru; Marmureanu, Luminita; Talianu, Camelia

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the seasonal variability, for the hot and cold seasons, of biomass burning aerosol observed over Romania using forward dispersion calculations based on FLEXPART model. The model was set up to use as input the MODIS fire data with a degree of confidence over 25% after transforming the emitted power in emission rate. The modelled aerosols in this setup was black carbon coated by organics. Distribution in the upper layers were compared to Calipso retrieval.

  16. FIREX-Related Biomass Burning Research Using ARM Single-Particle Soot Photometer Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onasch, Timothy B [Aerodyne Research, Inc.; Sedlacek, Arthur J [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-15

    The scientific focus of this study was to investigate and quantify the mass loadings, chemical compositions, and optical properties of biomass burning particulate emissions generated in the laboratory from Western U.S. fuels using a similar instrument suite to the one deployed on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Gulfstream-1 (G-1) aircraft during the 2013 Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) field study (Kleinman and Sedlacek, 2013). We deployed the single-particle soot photometer (SP2) to make measurements of biomass burning refractory black carbon (rBC) mass loadings and size distributions to correlate with non-refractory particulate matter (NR-PM; i.e., HR-AMS) and rBC (SP-AMS) measurements as a function of photo-oxidation processes in an environmental chamber. With these measurements, we will address the following scientific questions: 1. What are the emission indices (g/kg fuel) of rBC from various wildland fuels from the Pacific Northwest (i.e., relevant to BBOP analysis) as a function of combustion conditions and simulated atmospheric processing in an environmental chamber? 2. What are the optical properties (e.g., mass-specific absorption cross-section [MAC], single-scattering albedo [SSA], and absorption Angstrom exponent [AAE)] of rBC emitted from various wildland fuels and how are they impacted by atmospheric processing? 3. How does the mixing state of rBC in biomass-burning plumes relate to the optical properties? 4. How does the emitted rBC affect radiative forcing?

  17. Aerosol optical properties during firework, biomass burning and dust episodes in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xingna; Shi, Chanzhen; Ma, Jia; Zhu, Bin; Li, Mei; Wang, Jing; Yang, Suying; Kang, Na

    2013-12-01

    In order to characterize the aerosol optical properties during different pollution episodes that occurred in Beijing, the aerosol loading, scattering, and size distributions are presented using solar and sky radiance measurements from 2001 to 2010 in this paper. A much higher aerosol loading than the background level was observed during the pollution episodes. The average aerosol optical depth (AOD) is largest during dust episodes coupled with the lowest Ångström exponent (α), while higher AOD and lower α were more correlated with firework and biomass burning days. The total mean AOD at 440, 675, 870 and 1020 nm were 0.24, 0.49, 0.64 and 1.38 in the clean, firework display, biomass burning and dust days, respectively. The mean α for dust days was 0.51 and exceeded 1.1 for the remaining episodes. The size distribution of the dusty periods was dominated by the coarse mode, but the coarse mode was similar magnitude to the fine mode during the firework and biomass burning days. The volume concentration of the coarse mode during the dust days increased by a magnitude of more than 2-8 times that derived in the other three aerosol conditions, suggesting that dust is the major contributor of coarse mode particles in Beijing. The single scattering albedo (SSA) values also increased during the pollution episodes. The overall mean SSA at the four wavelengths were 0.865, 0.911, 0.922 and 0.931 in clean, firework display, biomass burning, and dust days in Beijing, respectively. However, in the blue spectral range, the dust aerosols exhibited pronounced absorption.

  18. Carbon dioxide emissions and energy balance closure before, during, and after biomass burning in mid-South rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, B.; Adviento-Borbe, A.; Reba, M. L.; Runkle, B.; Suvocarev, K.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning or field burning is a crop management practice that removes rice straw, reduces tillage, controls pests and releases nutrients for the next cropping season. Current field burning emissions are not included in agricultural field annual emissions largely because of the lack of studies, especially on the field scale. Field burning measurements are important for greenhouse gas emission inventories and quantifying the annual carbon footprint of rice. Paired eddy covariance systems were used to measure energy balance, CO2 fluxes, and H2O fluxes in mid-South US rice fields (total area of 25 ha) before, during and after biomass burning for 20 days after harvest. During the biomass burning, air temperatures increased 29°C, while ambient CO2 concentration increased from 402 to 16,567 ppm and H2O concentrations increased from 18.73 to 25.62 ppt. For the burning period, 67-86 kg CO2 ha-1 period-1 was emitted calculated by integrating fluxes over the biomass burning event. However, the estimated emission using aboveground biomass and combustion factors was calculated as 11,733 kg CO2 ha-1 period-1. Part of the difference could be attributed to sensor sensitivity decreasing 80% during burning for two minutes due to smoke. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) increased by a factor of two, 1.14 before burning to 2.44 μmol m-2 s-1 possibly due to greater reduction of plant material and photosynthesis following burning. This study highlights the contribution of rice straw burning to total CO2 emissions from rice production.

  19. Remote sensing of contrails and aircraft altered cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palikonda, R.; Nguyen, L.; Garber, D.P.; Smith, W.L. Jr [Analytical Services and Materials, Inc., Hampton, VA (United States); Minnis, P.; Young, D.F. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center

    1997-12-31

    Analyses of satellite imagery are used to show that contrails can develop into fully extended cirrus cloud systems. Contrails can be advective on great distances, but would appear to observers as natural cirrus clouds. The conversion of simple contrails into cirrus may help explain the apparent increase of cloudiness over populated areas since the beginning of commercial jet air travel. Statistics describing the typical growth, advection, and lifetime of contrail cirrus is needed to evaluate their effects on climate. (author) 4 refs.

  20. Remote sensing of contrails and aircraft altered cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palikonda, R; Nguyen, L; Garber, D P; Smith, Jr, W L [Analytical Services and Materials, Inc., Hampton, VA (United States); Minnis, P; Young, D F [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center

    1998-12-31

    Analyses of satellite imagery are used to show that contrails can develop into fully extended cirrus cloud systems. Contrails can be advective on great distances, but would appear to observers as natural cirrus clouds. The conversion of simple contrails into cirrus may help explain the apparent increase of cloudiness over populated areas since the beginning of commercial jet air travel. Statistics describing the typical growth, advection, and lifetime of contrail cirrus is needed to evaluate their effects on climate. (author) 4 refs.

  1. Impacts of absorbing biomass burning aerosol on the climate of southern Africa: a Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory GCM sensitivity study

    OpenAIRE

    C. A. Randles; V. Ramaswamy

    2010-01-01

    Tropospheric aerosols emitted from biomass burning reduce solar radiation at the surface and locally heat the atmosphere. Equilibrium simulations using an atmospheric general circulation model (GFDL AGCM) indicate that strong atmospheric absorption from these particles can cool the surface and increase upward motion and low-level convergence over southern Africa during the dry season. These changes increase sea level pressure over land in the biomass burning region and spin-up the hydrologic ...

  2. Chemical and physical properties of biomass burning aerosols and their CCN activity: A case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhijun; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Yu; Shang, Dongjie; Du, Zhoufei; Zhang, Yuanhang; Hu, Min

    2017-02-01

    Biomass burning emits large amounts of both trace gases and particles into the atmosphere. It plays a profound role in regional air quality and climate change. In the present study, an intensive campaign was carried out at an urban site in Beijing, China, in June 2014, which covered the winter wheat harvest season over the North China Plain (NCP). Meanwhile, two evident biomass-burning events were observed. A clear burst in ultrafine particles (below 100nm in diameter, PM 1 ) and subsequent particle growth took place during the events. With the growth of the ultrafine particles, the organic fraction of PM 1 increased significantly. The ratio of oxygen to carbon (O:C), which had an average value of 0.23±0.04, did not show an obvious enhancement, indicating that a significant chemical aging process of the biomass-burning aerosols was not observed during the course of events. This finding might have been due to the fact that the biomass-burning events occurred in the late afternoon and grew during the nighttime, which is associated with a low atmospheric oxidation capacity. On average, organics and black carbon (BC) were dominant in the biomass-burning aerosols, accounting for 60±10% and 18±3% of PM 1 . The high organic and BC fractions led to a significant suppression of particle hygroscopicity. Comparisons among hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA)-derived, cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNc)-derived, and aerosol mass spectrometer-based hygroscopicity parameter (κ) values were consistent. The mean κ values of biomass-burning aerosols derived from both HTDMA and CCNc measurements were approximately 0.1, regardless of the particle size, indicating that the biomass-burning aerosols were less active. The burst in particle count during the biomass-burning events resulted in an increased number of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) at supersaturation (SS)=0.2-0.8%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimates of global biomass burning emissions for reactive greenhouse gases (CO, NMHCs, and NOx) and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Atul K.; Tao, Zhining; Yang, Xiaojuan; Gillespie, Conor

    2006-03-01

    Open fire biomass burning and domestic biofuel burning (e.g., cooking, heating, and charcoal making) algorithms have been incorporated into a terrestrial ecosystem model to estimate CO2 and key reactive GHGs (CO, NOx, and NMHCs) emissions for the year 2000. The emissions are calculated over the globe at a 0.5° × 0.5° spatial resolution using tree density imagery, and two separate sets of data each for global area burned and land clearing for croplands, along with biofuel consumption rate data. The estimated global and annual total dry matter (DM) burned due to open fire biomass burning ranges between 5221 and 7346 Tg DM/yr, whereas the resultant emissions ranges are 6564-9093 Tg CO2/yr, 438-568 Tg CO/yr, 11-16 Tg NOx/yr (as NO), and 29-40 Tg NMHCs/yr. The results indicate that land use changes for cropland is one of the major sources of biomass burning, which amounts to 25-27% (CO2), 25 -28% (CO), 20-23% (NO), and 28-30% (NMHCs) of the total open fire biomass burning emissions of these gases. Estimated DM burned associated with domestic biofuel burning is 3,114 Tg DM/yr, and resultant emissions are 4825 Tg CO2/yr, 243 Tg CO/yr, 3 Tg NOx/yr, and 23 Tg NMHCs/yr. Total emissions from biomass burning are highest in tropical regions (Asia, America, and Africa), where we identify important contributions from primary forest cutting for croplands and domestic biofuel burning.

  4. Smoke aerosol chemistry and aging of Siberian biomass burning emissions in a large aerosol chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogridis, A.-C.; Popovicheva, O. B.; Engling, G.; Diapouli, E.; Kawamura, K.; Tachibana, E.; Ono, K.; Kozlov, V. S.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2018-07-01

    Vegetation open fires constitute a significant source of particulate pollutants on a global scale and play an important role in both atmospheric chemistry and climate change. To better understand the emission and aging characteristics of smoke aerosols, we performed small-scale fire experiments using the Large Aerosol Chamber (LAC, 1800 m3) with a focus on biomass burning from Siberian boreal coniferous forests. A series of burn experiments were conducted with typical Siberian biomass (pine and debris), simulating separately different combustion conditions, namely, flaming, smoldering and mixed phase. Following smoke emission and dispersion in the combustion chamber, we investigated aging of aerosols under dark conditions. Here, we present experimental data on emission factors of total, elemental and organic carbon, as well as individual organic compounds, such as anhydrosugars, phenolic and dicarboxylic acids. We found that total carbon accounts for up to 80% of the fine mode (PM2.5) smoke aerosol. Higher PM2.5 emission factors were observed in the smoldering compared to flaming phase and in pine compared to debris smoldering phase. For low-temperature combustion, organic carbon (OC) contributed to more than 90% of total carbon, whereas elemental carbon (EC) dominated the aerosol composition in flaming burns with a 60-70% contribution to the total carbon mass. For all smoldering burns, levoglucosan (LG), a cellulose decomposition product, was the most abundant organic species (average LG/OC = 0.26 for pine smoldering), followed by its isomer mannosan or dehydroabietic acid (DA), an important constituent of conifer resin (DA/OC = 0.033). A levoglucosan-to-mannosan ratio of about 3 was observed, which is consistent with ratios reported for coniferous biomass and more generally softwood. The rates of aerosol removal for OC and individual organic compounds were investigated during aging in the chamber in terms of mass concentration loss rates over time under dark

  5. Toxicity of Urban PM10 and Relation with Tracers of Biomass Burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosette Van Den Heuvel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of particles varies with space and time and depends on emission sources, atmospheric chemistry and weather conditions. Evidence suggesting that particles differ in toxicity depending on their chemical composition is growing. This in vitro study investigated the biological effects of PM10 in relation to PM-associated chemicals. PM10 was sampled in ambient air at an urban traffic site (Borgerhout and a rural background location (Houtem in Flanders (Belgium. To characterize the toxic potential of PM10, airway epithelial cells (Beas-2B cells were exposed to particles in vitro. Different endpoints were studied including cell damage and death (cell viability and the induction of interleukin-8 (IL-8. The mutagenic capacity was assessed using the Ames II Mutagenicity Test. The endotoxin levels in the collected samples were analyzed and the oxidative potential (OP of PM10 particles was evaluated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy. Chemical characteristics of PM10 included tracers for biomass burning (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan, elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Most samples displayed dose-dependent cytotoxicity and IL-8 induction. Spatial and temporal differences in PM10 toxicity were seen. PM10 collected at the urban site was characterized by increased pro-inflammatory and mutagenic activity as well as higher OP and elevated endotoxin levels compared to the background area. Reduced cell viability (−0.46 < rs < −0.35, p < 0.01 and IL-8 induction (−0.62 < rs < −0.67, p < 0.01 were associated with all markers for biomass burning, levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan. Furthermore, direct and indirect mutagenicity were associated with tracers for biomass burning, OC, EC and PAHs. Multiple regression analyses showed levoglucosan to explain 16% and 28% of the variance in direct and indirect mutagenicity, respectively. Markers for biomass burning were

  6. Modeling the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols on carbon fluxes in the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Demerval S.; Longo, Karla M.; Freitas, Saulo R.; Yamasoe, Marcia A.; Mercado, Lina M.; Rosário, Nilton E.; Gloor, Emauel; Viana, Rosane S. M.; Miller, John B.; Gatti, Luciana V.; Wiedemann, Kenia T.; Domingues, Lucas K. G.; Correia, Caio C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Every year, a dense smoke haze covers a large portion of South America originating from fires in the Amazon Basin and central parts of Brazil during the dry biomass burning season between August and October. Over a large portion of South America, the average aerosol optical depth at 550 nm exceeds 1.0 during the fire season, while the background value during the rainy season is below 0.2. Biomass burning aerosol particles increase scattering and absorption of the incident solar radiation. The regional-scale aerosol layer reduces the amount of solar energy reaching the surface, cools the near-surface air, and increases the diffuse radiation fraction over a large disturbed area of the Amazon rainforest. These factors affect the energy and CO2 fluxes at the surface. In this work, we applied a fully integrated atmospheric model to assess the impact of biomass burning aerosols in CO2 fluxes in the Amazon region during 2010. We address the effects of the attenuation of global solar radiation and the enhancement of the diffuse solar radiation flux inside the vegetation canopy. Our results indicate that biomass burning aerosols led to increases of about 27 % in the gross primary productivity of Amazonia and 10 % in plant respiration as well as a decline in soil respiration of 3 %. Consequently, in our model Amazonia became a net carbon sink; net ecosystem exchange during September 2010 dropped from +101 to -104 TgC when the aerosol effects are considered, mainly due to the aerosol diffuse radiation effect. For the forest biome, our results point to a dominance of the diffuse radiation effect on CO2 fluxes, reaching a balance of 50-50 % between the diffuse and direct aerosol effects for high aerosol loads. For C3 grasses and savanna (cerrado), as expected, the contribution of the diffuse radiation effect is much lower, tending to zero with the increase in aerosol load. Taking all biomes together, our model shows the Amazon during the dry season, in the presence of high

  7. Modeling the radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols on carbon fluxes in the Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Moreira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Every year, a dense smoke haze covers a large portion of South America originating from fires in the Amazon Basin and central parts of Brazil during the dry biomass burning season between August and October. Over a large portion of South America, the average aerosol optical depth at 550 nm exceeds 1.0 during the fire season, while the background value during the rainy season is below 0.2. Biomass burning aerosol particles increase scattering and absorption of the incident solar radiation. The regional-scale aerosol layer reduces the amount of solar energy reaching the surface, cools the near-surface air, and increases the diffuse radiation fraction over a large disturbed area of the Amazon rainforest. These factors affect the energy and CO2 fluxes at the surface. In this work, we applied a fully integrated atmospheric model to assess the impact of biomass burning aerosols in CO2 fluxes in the Amazon region during 2010. We address the effects of the attenuation of global solar radiation and the enhancement of the diffuse solar radiation flux inside the vegetation canopy. Our results indicate that biomass burning aerosols led to increases of about 27 % in the gross primary productivity of Amazonia and 10 % in plant respiration as well as a decline in soil respiration of 3 %. Consequently, in our model Amazonia became a net carbon sink; net ecosystem exchange during September 2010 dropped from +101 to −104 TgC when the aerosol effects are considered, mainly due to the aerosol diffuse radiation effect. For the forest biome, our results point to a dominance of the diffuse radiation effect on CO2 fluxes, reaching a balance of 50–50 % between the diffuse and direct aerosol effects for high aerosol loads. For C3 grasses and savanna (cerrado, as expected, the contribution of the diffuse radiation effect is much lower, tending to zero with the increase in aerosol load. Taking all biomes together, our model shows the Amazon during the dry

  8. Production of N2O5 and ClNO2 through Nocturnal Processing of Biomass-Burning Aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Adam T; Goldberger, Lexie; Jahl, Lydia; Thornton, Joel; Sullivan, Ryan C

    2018-01-16

    Biomass burning is a source of both particulate chloride and nitrogen oxides, two important precursors for the formation of nitryl chloride (ClNO 2 ), a source of atmospheric oxidants that is poorly prescribed in atmospheric models. We investigated the ability of biomass burning to produce N 2 O 5 (g) and ClNO 2 (g) through nocturnal chemistry using authentic biomass-burning emissions in a smog chamber. There was a positive relationship between the amount of ClNO 2 formed and the total amount of particulate chloride emitted and with the chloride fraction of nonrefractory particle mass. In every fuel tested, dinitrogen pentoxide (N 2 O 5 ) formed quickly, following the addition of ozone to the smoke aerosol, and ClNO 2 (g) production promptly followed. At atmospherically relevant relative humidities, the particulate chloride in the biomass-burning aerosol was rapidly but incompletely displaced, likely by the nitric acid produced largely by the heterogeneous uptake of N 2 O 5 (g). Despite this chloride acid displacement, the biomass-burning aerosol still converted on the order of 10% of reacted N 2 O 5 (g) into ClNO 2 (g). These experiments directly confirm that biomass burning is a potentially significant source of atmospheric N 2 O 5 and ClNO 2 to the atmosphere.

  9. Terrestrial cycling of (CO2)-C-13 by photosynthesis, respiration, and biomass burning in SiBCASA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der I.R.; Miller, J.B.; Schaefer, K.; Werf, van der G.R.; Krol, M.C.; Peters, W.

    2014-01-01

    We present an enhanced version of the SiBCASA terrestrial biosphere model that is extended with (a) biomass burning emissions from the SiBCASA carbon pools using remotely sensed burned area from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED), (b) an isotopic discrimination scheme that calculates 13C

  10. First results from a large, multi-platform study of trace gas and particle emissions from biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. R. Burling; R. J. Yokelson; S. K. Akagi; T. J. Johnson; D. W. Griffith; Shawn Urbanski; J. W. Taylor; J. S. Craven; G. R. McMeeking; J. M. Roberts; C. Warneke; P. R. Veres; J. A. de Gouw; J. B. Gilman; W. C. Kuster; WeiMin Hao; D. Weise; H. Coe; J. Seinfeld

    2010-01-01

    We report preliminary results from a large, multi-component study focused on North American biomass burning that measured both initial emissions and post-emission processing. Vegetation types burned were from the relatively less-studied temperate region of the US and included chaparral, oak savanna, and mixed conifer forest from the southwestern US, and pine understory...

  11. Estimation of black carbon content for biomass burning aerosols from multi-channel Raman lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talianu, Camelia; Marmureanu, Luminita; Nicolae, Doina

    2015-04-01

    Biomass burning due to natural processes (forest fires) or anthropical activities (agriculture, thermal power stations, domestic heating) is an important source of aerosols with a high content of carbon components (black carbon and organic carbon). Multi-channel Raman lidars provide information on the spectral dependence of the backscatter and extinction coefficients, embedding information on the black carbon content. Aerosols with a high content of black carbon have large extinction coefficients and small backscatter coefficients (strong absorption), while aerosols with high content of organic carbon have large backscatter coefficients (weak absorption). This paper presents a method based on radiative calculations to estimate the black carbon content of biomass burning aerosols from 3b+2a+1d lidar signals. Data is collected at Magurele, Romania, at the cross-road of air masses coming from Ukraine, Russia and Greece, where burning events are frequent during both cold and hot seasons. Aerosols are transported in the free troposphere, generally in the 2-4 km altitude range, and reaches the lidar location after 2-3 days. Optical data are collected between 2011-2012 by a multi-channel Raman lidar and follows the quality assurance program of EARLINET. Radiative calculations are made with libRadTran, an open source radiative model developed by ESA. Validation of the retrievals is made by comparison to a co-located C-ToF Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. Keywords: Lidar, aerosols, biomass burning, radiative model, black carbon Acknowledgment: This work has been supported by grants of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, Programme for Research- Space Technology and Advanced Research - STAR, project no. 39/2012 - SIAFIM, and by Romanian Partnerships in priority areas PNII implemented with MEN-UEFISCDI support, project no. 309/2014 - MOBBE

  12. Biomass Burning Emissions in the Cerrado of Brazil Computed with Remote Sensing Data and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, Liane S.; Brass, James A.; Chatfield, Robert B.; Hlavka, Christine A.; Riggan, Philip J.; Setzer, Alberto; Pereira, Joao A. Raposo; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Biomass burnin is a common force in much of the developing tropical world where it has wide-ranging environmental impacts. Fire is a component of tropical deforestation and is 0 p often used to clear broad expanses of land for shifting agriculture and cattle ranching. Frequent burning in the tropical savannas is a distinct problem from that of primary forest. In Brazil, most of the burning occurs in the cerrado which occupies approximately 1,800,000 km2, primarily on the great plateau in central Brazil. Wildland and agricultural fires are dramatic sources of regional air pollution in central Brazil. Biomass burning is an important source of a large number of trace gases including greenhouse gases and other chemically active species. Knowledge of trace gas emissions from biomass burning in Brazil is limited by a number of factors, most notably relative emission factors for gases from specific fire types/fuels and accurate estimates of temporal and spatial distribution and extent of fire activity. Estimates of trace gas emissions during September 1992 will be presented that incorporates a digital map of vegetation classes, pyrogenic emission factors calculated from ground and aircraft missions, and Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) fire products derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The regional emissions calculated from National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) AVHRR estimates of fire activity will provide an independent estimate for comparison with results obtained by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry Near the Equator - Atlantic (TRACE-A) experiments.

  13. The composition of ambient and fresh biomass burning aerosols at a savannah site, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Aurela

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols play a key role in climate change, and have adverse effects on human health. Given South Africa�s status as a rapidly-developing country with increasing urbanisation and industrial growth, information on the quality of ambient air is important. In this study, the chemical composition of ambient particles and the particles in fresh biomass burning plumes were studied at a savannah environment in Botsalano, South Africa. The results showed that Botsalano was regularly affected by air masses that had passed over several large point sources. Air masses that had passed over the coal-fired Matimba power station in the Waterberg, or over the platinum group metal smelters in the western Bushveld Igneous Complex, contained high sulfate concentrations in the submicron ranges. These concentrations were 14 to 37 times higher compared with air masses that had passed only over rural areas. Because of the limited nature of this type of data in literature for the interior regions of southern Africa, our report serves as a valuable reference for future studies. In addition, our biomass burning study showed that potassium in the fresh smoke of burning savannah grass was likely to take the form of KCl. Clear differences were found in the ratios for potassium and levoglucosan in the smouldering and flaming phases. Our findings highlight the need for more comprehensive chamber experiments on various fuel types used in southern Africa, to confirm the ratio of important biomass burning tracer species that can be used in source apportionment studies in the future.

  14. Microphysical properties of contrails and natural cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, B; Wendling, P [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The radiative properties of a condensation trail (contrail) are determined by its microphysical properties. Therefore an understanding of the concentration, size distribution, and shapes of the particles is necessary for an estimation of the climatic impact of contrails. In-situ particle measurements by use of an ice replicator are presented for several contrail and cirrus events. Contrail particles aged about 2 minutes show shapes which are nearly spherical. Typical sizes are 5 to 10 {mu}m. Concentration values reach up to the order of 1000 cm{sup -3}. Aged contrail size distributions are within the variability of those found in natural cirrus clouds. (author) 2 refs.

  15. Parametrization of contrails in a comprehensive climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponater, M; Brinkop, S; Sausen, R; Schumann, U [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-12-31

    A contrail parametrization scheme for a general circulation model (GCM) is presented. Guidelines for its development were that it should be based on the thermodynamic theory of contrail formation and that it should be consistent with the cloud parametrization scheme of the GCM. Results of a six-year test integration indicate reasonable results concerning the spatial and temporal development of both contrail coverage and contrail optical properties. Hence, the scheme forms a promising basis for the quantitative estimation of the contrail climatic impact. (author) 9 refs.

  16. Parametrization of contrails in a comprehensive climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponater, M.; Brinkop, S.; Sausen, R.; Schumann, U. [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    A contrail parametrization scheme for a general circulation model (GCM) is presented. Guidelines for its development were that it should be based on the thermodynamic theory of contrail formation and that it should be consistent with the cloud parametrization scheme of the GCM. Results of a six-year test integration indicate reasonable results concerning the spatial and temporal development of both contrail coverage and contrail optical properties. Hence, the scheme forms a promising basis for the quantitative estimation of the contrail climatic impact. (author) 9 refs.

  17. Microphysical properties of contrails and natural cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, B.; Wendling, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The radiative properties of a condensation trail (contrail) are determined by its microphysical properties. Therefore an understanding of the concentration, size distribution, and shapes of the particles is necessary for an estimation of the climatic impact of contrails. In-situ particle measurements by use of an ice replicator are presented for several contrail and cirrus events. Contrail particles aged about 2 minutes show shapes which are nearly spherical. Typical sizes are 5 to 10 {mu}m. Concentration values reach up to the order of 1000 cm{sup -3}. Aged contrail size distributions are within the variability of those found in natural cirrus clouds. (author) 2 refs.

  18. Ice Nucleation Activity of Black Carbon and Organic Aerosol Emitted from Biomass Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauker, A. M.; Schill, G. P.; Hill, T. C. J.; Levin, E. J.; DeMott, P. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) must be present in clouds warmer than approximately -36 °C for initial ice crystal formation to occur. Although rare, they modify the lifetime, albedo and precipitation rates of clouds. Black carbon (BC) particles are present in the upper troposphere, and have been implicated as possible INPs, but recent research has not led to a consensus on their importance as INPs. Biomass burning is known to be a source of INPs as well as a major contributor to BC concentrations. Preliminary research from both prescribed burns (Manhattan, Kanas) and wildfires (Boise, Idaho and Weldon, Colorado), using the Colorado State University Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber (CSU-CFDC) coupled to a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), suggest that BC contributed ≤ 10% to INP concentrations in biomass burning conditions. To evaluate the identity of non-BC as an INP, filters were collected downwind from the same prescribed burns and wildfires, and particles re-suspended in water were subjected to the immersion freezing method to quantify INP concentrations. The contributions of biological and total organic species to INP concentrations were determined through heat and hydrogen peroxide pre-treatments. Total INPs ranged from 0.88 - 31 L-1 air at -20 °C with 82 - 99 % of the INPs at that temperature being organic (i.e., deactivated by H2O2 digestion). Results are consistent with CSU-CFDC-SP2 derived rBC INP contributions from the same fires. The results from the study also support previous findings that prescribed burns and wildfires produce plumes enriched in INPs.

  19. Are forestation, bio-char and landfilled biomass adequate offsets for the climate effects of burning fossil fuels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Forestation and landfilling purpose-grown biomass are not adequate offsets for the CO2 emission from burning fossil fuels. Their permanence is insufficiently guaranteed and landfilling purpose-grown biomass may even be counterproductive. As to permanence, bio-char may do better than forests or

  20. Seasonal and spatial variation of organic tracers for biomass burning in PM1 aerosols from highly insolated urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drooge, B L; Fontal, M; Bravo, N; Fernández, P; Fernández, M A; Muñoz-Arnanz, J; Jiménez, B; Grimalt, J O

    2014-10-01

    PM1 aerosol characterization on organic tracers for biomass burning (levoglucosan and its isomers and dehydroabietic acid) was conducted within the AERTRANS project. PM1 filters (N = 90) were sampled from 2010 to 2012 in busy streets in the urban centre of Madrid and Barcelona (Spain) at ground-level and at roof sites. In both urban areas, biomass burning was not expected to be an important local emission source, but regional emissions from wildfires, residential heating or biomass removal may influence the air quality in the cities. Although both areas are under influence of high solar radiation, Madrid is situated in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, while Barcelona is located at the Mediterranean Coast and under influence of marine atmospheres. Two extraction methods were applied, i.e. Soxhlet and ASE, which showed equivalent results after GC-MS analyses. The ambient air concentrations of the organic tracers for biomass burning increased by an order of magnitude at both sites during winter compared to summer. An exception was observed during a PM event in summer 2012, when the atmosphere in Barcelona was directly affected by regional wildfire smoke and levels were four times higher as those observed in winter. Overall, there was little variation between the street and roof sites in both cities, suggesting that regional biomass burning sources influence the urban areas after atmospheric transport. Despite the different atmospheric characteristics in terms of air relative humidity, Madrid and Barcelona exhibit very similar composition and concentrations of biomass burning organic tracers. Nevertheless, levoglucosan and its isomers seem to be more suitable for source apportionment purposes than dehydroabietic acid. In both urban areas, biomass burning contributions to PM were generally low (2 %) in summer, except on the day when wildfire smoke arrive to the urban area. In the colder periods the contribution increase to around 30 %, indicating that regional

  1. Climate vs. carbon dioxide controls on biomass burning: a model analysis of the glacial-interglacial contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M. Martin; Prentice, I. C.; Harrison, S. P.

    2014-02-01

    Climate controls fire regimes through its influence on the amount and types of fuel present and their dryness; CO2 availability, in turn, constrains primary production by limiting photosynthetic activity in plants. However, although fuel accumulation depends on biomass production, and hence CO2 availability, the links between atmospheric CO2 and biomass burning are not well known. Here a fire-enabled dynamic global vegetation model (the Land surface Processes and eXchanges model, LPX) is used to attribute glacial-interglacial changes in biomass burning to CO2 increase, which would be expected to increase primary production and therefore fuel loads even in the absence of climate change, vs. climate change effects. Four general circulation models provided Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) climate anomalies - that is, differences from the pre-industrial (PI) control climate - from the Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project Phase 2, allowing the construction of four scenarios for LGM climate. Modelled carbon fluxes in biomass burning were corrected for the model's observed biases in contemporary biome-average values. With LGM climate and low CO2 (185 ppm) effects included, the modelled global flux was 70 to 80% lower at the LGM than in PI time. LGM climate with pre-industrial CO2 (280 ppm) however yielded unrealistic results, with global and Northern Hemisphere biomass burning fluxes greater than in the pre-industrial climate. Using the PI CO2 concentration increased the modelled LGM biomass burning fluxes for all climate models and latitudinal bands to between four and ten times their values under LGM CO2 concentration. It is inferred that a substantial part of the increase in biomass burning after the LGM must be attributed to the effect of increasing CO2 concentration on productivity and fuel load. Today, by analogy, both rising CO2 and global warming must be considered as risk factors for increasing biomass burning. Both effects need to be included in models to

  2. Space-based retrieval of NO2 over biomass burning regions: quantifying and reducing uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousserez, N.

    2014-10-01

    The accuracy of space-based nitrogen dioxide (NO2) retrievals from solar backscatter radiances critically depends on a priori knowledge of the vertical profiles of NO2 and aerosol optical properties. This information is used to calculate an air mass factor (AMF), which accounts for atmospheric scattering and is used to convert the measured line-of-sight "slant" columns into vertical columns. In this study we investigate the impact of biomass burning emissions on the AMF in order to quantify NO2 retrieval errors in the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) products over these sources. Sensitivity analyses are conducted using the Linearized Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer (LIDORT) model. The NO2 and aerosol profiles are obtained from a 3-D chemistry-transport model (GEOS-Chem), which uses the Fire Locating and Monitoring of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) daily biomass burning emission inventory. Aircraft in situ data collected during two field campaigns, the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) and the Dust and Biomass-burning Experiment (DABEX), are used to evaluate the modeled aerosol optical properties and NO2 profiles over Canadian boreal fires and West African savanna fires, respectively. Over both domains, the effect of biomass burning emissions on the AMF through the modified NO2 shape factor can be as high as -60%. A sensitivity analysis also revealed that the effect of aerosol and shape factor perturbations on the AMF is very sensitive to surface reflectance and clouds. As an illustration, the aerosol correction can range from -20 to +100% for different surface reflectances, while the shape factor correction varies from -70 to -20%. Although previous studies have shown that in clear-sky conditions the effect of aerosols on the AMF was in part implicitly accounted for by the modified cloud parameters, here it is suggested that when clouds are present above a surface layer of scattering aerosols, an explicit

  3. Emission characteristics of refractory black carbon aerosols from fresh biomass burning: a perspective from laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaole; Kanaya, Yugo; Taketani, Fumikazu; Miyakawa, Takuma; Inomata, Satoshi; Komazaki, Yuichi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Wang, Zhe; Uno, Itsushi; Wang, Zifa

    2017-11-01

    The emission characteristics of refractory black carbon (rBC) from biomass burning are essential information for numerical simulations of regional pollution and climate effects. We conducted combustion experiments in the laboratory to investigate the emission ratio and mixing state of rBC from the burning of wheat straw and rapeseed plants, which are the main crops cultivated in the Yangtze River Delta region of China. A single particle soot photometer (SP2) was used to measure rBC-containing particles at high temporal resolution and with high accuracy. The combustion state of each burning case was indicated by the modified combustion efficiency (MCE), which is calculated using the integrated enhancement of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentrations relative to their background values. The mass size distribution of the rBC particles showed a lognormal shape with a mode mass equivalent diameter (MED) of 189 nm (ranging from 152 to 215 nm), assuming an rBC density of 1.8 g cm-3. rBC particles less than 80 nm in size (the lower detection limit of the SP2) accounted for ˜ 5 % of the total rBC mass, on average. The emission ratios, which are expressed as ΔrBC / ΔCO (Δ indicates the difference between the observed and background values), displayed a significant positive correlation with the MCE values and varied between 1.8 and 34 ng m-3 ppbv-1. Multi-peak fitting analysis of the delay time (Δt, or the time of occurrence of the scattering peak minus that of the incandescence peak) distribution showed that rBC-containing particles with rBC MED = 200 ± 10 nm displayed two peaks at Δt = 1.7 µs and Δt = 3.2 µs, which could be attributed to the contributions from both flaming and smoldering combustion in each burning case. Both the Δt values and the shell / core ratios of the rBC-containing particles clearly increased as the MCE decreased from 0.98 (smoldering-dominant combustion) to 0.86 (flaming-dominant combustion), implying the great importance of the

  4. Molecular Markers in the Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru Describe 20th Century Biomass Burning Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makou, M. C.; Thompson, L. G.; Eglinton, T. I.; Montluçon, D. B.

    2007-12-01

    Organic geochemical analytical methods were applied to Andean ice core samples, resulting in a multi- molecular biomass burning record spanning 1915 to 2001 AD. The Quelccaya Ice Cap in Peru is situated on the eastern flank of the Andes at 14°S and is well situated to receive aeolian inputs of organic matter derived from Amazonian forest fire events. Compounds of interest, which occur in trace quantities in ice, were recovered by stir bar sorptive extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with thermal desorption. These methods permitted identification and quantitation of numerous biomarkers in sample volumes of as little as 10 ml. At least one wet and dry season sample was analyzed for every year. Observed biomarkers that may be derived from vegetation fires include several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), atraric acid, 2-ethylhexyl p-methoxycinnamate, and a range of other aromatic compounds. Abrupt changes in compound abundances were superimposed on decadal variability. Systematic offsets between wet and dry season abundances were not observed, suggesting that the biomass burning signal is not biased by seasonal depositional effects, such as dust delivery. Inputs likely reflect a combination of sources from anthropogenic burning of the Amazon rainforest as well as natural fires related to aridity, and include both high and low elevation vegetation. These compounds and techniques can be applied to older ice in this and other core locations as an independent estimate of aridity.

  5. Enhanced light absorption due to the mixing state of black carbon in fresh biomass burning emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiyuan; Cao, Junji; Han, Yongming; Tian, Jie; Zhang, Yue; Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Zhang, Yonggang; Li, Li; Niu, Xinyi; Shen, Zhenxing; Zhao, Zhuzi; Tipmanee, Danai; Bunsomboonsakul, Suratta; Chen, Yang; Sun, Jian

    2018-05-01

    A lack of information on the radiative effects of refractory black carbon (rBC) emitted from biomass burning is a significant gap in our understanding of climate change. A custom-made combustion chamber was used to simulate the open burning of crop residues and investigate the impacts of rBC size and mixing state on the particles' optical properties. Average rBC mass median diameters ranged from 141 to 162 nm for the rBC produced from different types of crop residues. The number fraction of thickly-coated rBC varied from 53 to 64%, suggesting that a majority of the freshly emitted rBC were internally mixed. By comparing the result of observed mass absorption cross-section to that calculated with Mie theory, large light absorption enhancement factors (1.7-1.9) were found for coated particles relative to uncoated cores. These effects were strongly positively correlated with the percentage of coated particles but independent of rBC core size. We suggest that rBC from open biomass burning may have strong impact on air pollution and radiative forcing immediately after their production.

  6. Measured and modeled humidification factors of fresh smoke particles from biomass burning: role of inorganic constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hand

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available During the 2006 FLAME study (Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment, laboratory burns of biomass fuels were performed to investigate the physico-chemical, optical, and hygroscopic properties of fresh biomass smoke. As part of the experiment, two nephelometers simultaneously measured dry and humidified light scattering coefficients (bsp(dry and bsp(RH, respectively in order to explore the role of relative humidity (RH on the optical properties of biomass smoke aerosols. Results from burns of several biomass fuels from the west and southeast United States showed large variability in the humidification factor (f(RH=bsp(RH/bsp(dry. Values of f(RH at RH=80–85% ranged from 0.99 to 1.81 depending on fuel type. We incorporated measured chemical composition and size distribution data to model the smoke hygroscopic growth to investigate the role of inorganic compounds on water uptake for these aerosols. By assuming only inorganic constituents were hygroscopic, we were able to model the water uptake within experimental uncertainty, suggesting that inorganic species were responsible for most of the hygroscopic growth. In addition, humidification factors at 80–85% RH increased for smoke with increasing inorganic salt to carbon ratios. Particle morphology as observed from scanning electron microscopy revealed that samples of hygroscopic particles contained soot chains either internally or externally mixed with inorganic potassium salts, while samples of weak to non-hygroscopic particles were dominated by soot and organic constituents. This study provides further understanding of the compounds responsible for water uptake by young biomass smoke, and is important for accurately assessing the role of smoke in climate change studies and visibility regulatory efforts.

  7. Are forestation, bio-char and landfilled biomass adequate offsets for the climate effects of burning fossil fuels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Forestation and landfilling purpose-grown biomass are not adequate offsets for the CO 2 emission from burning fossil fuels. Their permanence is insufficiently guaranteed and landfilling purpose-grown biomass may even be counterproductive. As to permanence, bio-char may do better than forests or landfilled biomass, but there are major uncertainties about net greenhouse gas emissions linked to the bio-char life cycle, which necessitate suspension of judgement about the adequacy of bio-char addition to soils as an offset for CO 2 emissions from burning fossil fuels.

  8. Effect of the Agricultural Biomass Burning on the Ambient Air Quality of Lumbini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, M.; Panday, A. K.; Praveen, P. S.; Bhujel, A.; Pokhrel, S.; Ram, K.

    2017-12-01

    The emissions from increasing anthropogenic activities has led to degradation in ambient air quality of Lumbini (UNESCO world heritage site) and its surrounding environments. The presence of high concentrations of air pollutants is of concern because of its implications for public health, atmospheric visibility, chemistry, crop yield, weather and climate on a local to regional scale. The study region experiences wide-spread on-field agricultural residue burning, particularly in the months of November (paddy residue burning) and April (wheat residue burning). In an attempt to study the impact of emissions from post-harvest burning of paddy and wheat residue in Nepal, the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, in collaboration with the Government of Nepal's Department of Environment and the Lumbini International Research Institute, established the Lumbini Air Quality Observatory (LAQO) in May 2016 for continuous measurement of Black carbon (BC), particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 & PM1), as well as concentration of gaseous pollutant and meteorological parameters. Here we present results of the surface observations from LAQO for the months with intensified paddy and wheat open biomass burning during November 2016 and April 2017, respectively. The average concentrations of BC, PM2.5 and PM10 were 11.3±6.2 µg m-3, 96.7±48.9 µg m-3 and 132.3±59.1 µg m-3 respectively during the month of November 2016. On the other hand, the surface concentrations of BC, PM2.5 and PM10 were found to be 11.0±8.3 µg m-3, 45.0±35.0 µg m-3 and 114.0±96.1 µg m-3 during April 2017. A significant increase in the primary pollutant concentration was observed during both types of open agricultural burning periods. However, BC/PM2.5 ratio was almost higher by factor of two during paddy burning as compared to wheat residue burning. Source characteristics and the relative contribution of agricultural burning to PM concentrations at Lumbini are being computed based on

  9. Biomass fuel burning and its implications: Deforestation and greenhouse gases emissions in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, S.N.A.; Rafique, M.; Alaamer, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan is facing problem of deforestation. Pakistan lost 14.7% of its forest habitat between 1990 and 2005 interval. This paper assesses the present forest wood consumption rate by 6000 brick kilns established in the country and its implications in terms of deforestation and emission of greenhouse gases. Information regarding consumption of forest wood by the brick kilns was collected during a manual survey of 180 brick kiln units conducted in eighteen provincial divisions of country. Considering annual emission contributions of three primary GHGs i.e., CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O, due to burning of forest wood in brick kiln units in Pakistan and using IPCC recommended GWP indices, the combined CO 2 -equivalent has been estimated to be 533019 t y -1 . - Consumption of forest wood in the brick industry poses the problem of deforestation in Pakistan in addition to release of GHGs in the environment owing to biomass burning.

  10. Aromatic acids in a Eurasian Arctic ice core: a 2600-year proxy record of biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieman, Mackenzie M.; Aydin, Murat; Fritzsche, Diedrich; McConnell, Joseph R.; Opel, Thomas; Sigl, Michael; Saltzman, Eric S.

    2017-04-01

    Wildfires and their emissions have significant impacts on ecosystems, climate, atmospheric chemistry, and carbon cycling. Well-dated proxy records are needed to study the long-term climatic controls on biomass burning and the associated climate feedbacks. There is a particular lack of information about long-term biomass burning variations in Siberia, the largest forested area in the Northern Hemisphere. In this study we report analyses of aromatic acids (vanillic and para-hydroxybenzoic acids) over the past 2600 years in the Eurasian Arctic Akademii Nauk ice core. These compounds are aerosol-borne, semi-volatile organic compounds derived from lignin combustion. The analyses were made using ion chromatography with electrospray mass spectrometric detection. The levels of these aromatic acids ranged from below the detection limit (0.01 to 0.05 ppb; 1 ppb = 1000 ng L-1) to about 1 ppb, with roughly 30 % of the samples above the detection limit. In the preindustrial late Holocene, highly elevated aromatic acid levels are observed during three distinct periods (650-300 BCE, 340-660 CE, and 1460-1660 CE). The timing of the two most recent periods coincides with the episodic pulsing of ice-rafted debris in the North Atlantic known as Bond events and a weakened Asian monsoon, suggesting a link between fires and large-scale climate variability on millennial timescales. Aromatic acid levels also are elevated during the onset of the industrial period from 1780 to 1860 CE, but with a different ratio of vanillic and para-hydroxybenzoic acid than is observed during the preindustrial period. This study provides the first millennial-scale record of aromatic acids. This study clearly demonstrates that coherent aromatic acid signals are recorded in polar ice cores that can be used as proxies for past trends in biomass burning.

  11. Heterogeneous Oxidation of Laboratory-generated Mixed Composition and Biomass Burning Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C. Y.; Sugrue, R. A.; Hagan, D. H.; Cappa, C. D.; Kroll, J. H.; Browne, E. C.

    2016-12-01

    Heterogeneous oxidation of organic aerosol (OA) can significantly transform the chemical and physical properties of particulate matter in the atmosphere, leading to changes to the chemical composition of OA and potential volatilization of organic compounds. It has become increasingly apparent that the heterogeneous oxidation kinetics of OA depend on the phase and morphology of the particles. However, most laboratory experiments to date have been performed on single-component, purely organic precursors, which may exhibit fundamentally different behavior than more complex particles in the atmosphere. Here we present laboratory studies of the heterogeneous oxidation of two more complex chemical systems: thin, organic coatings on inorganic seed particles and biomass burning OA. In the first system, squalane (C30H62), a model compound for reduced OA, is coated onto dry ammonium sulfate particles at various thicknesses (10-20 nm) and exposed to hydroxyl radical (OH) in a flow tube reactor. In the second, we use a semi-batch reactor to study the heterogeneous OH-initiated oxidation of biomass burning particles as a part of the 2016 FIREX campaign in Missoula, MT. The resulting changes in chemical composition are monitored with an Aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and a soot-particle AMS for the non-refractory and refractory systems, respectively. We show that the heterogeneous oxidation kinetics of these multicomponent particles are substantially different than that of the single-component particles. The oxidation of organic coatings is rapid, undergoing dramatic changes to carbon oxidation state and losing a significant amount of organic mass after relatively low OH exposures (equivalent to several days of atmospheric processing). In the case of biomass burning particles, the kinetics are complex, with different components (inferred by aerosol mass spectrometry) undergoing oxidation at different rates.

  12. Modification of Local Urban Aerosol Properties by Long-Range Transport of Biomass Burning Aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona S. Stachlewska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available During August 2016, a quasi-stationary high-pressure system spreading over Central and North-Eastern Europe, caused weather conditions that allowed for 24/7 observations of aerosol optical properties by using a complex multi-wavelength PollyXT lidar system with Raman, polarization and water vapour capabilities, based at the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET network urban site in Warsaw, Poland. During 24–30 August 2016, the lidar-derived products (boundary layer height, aerosol optical depth, Ångström exponent, lidar ratio, depolarization ratio were analysed in terms of air mass transport (HYSPLIT model, aerosol load (CAMS data and type (NAAPS model and confronted with active and passive remote sensing at the ground level (PolandAOD, AERONET, WIOS-AQ networks and aboard satellites (SEVIRI, MODIS, CATS sensors. Optical properties for less than a day-old fresh biomass burning aerosol, advected into Warsaw’s boundary layer from over Ukraine, were compared with the properties of long-range transported 3–5 day-old aged biomass burning aerosol detected in the free troposphere over Warsaw. Analyses of temporal changes of aerosol properties within the boundary layer, revealed an increase of aerosol optical depth and Ångström exponent accompanied by an increase of surface PM10 and PM2.5. Intrusions of advected biomass burning particles into the urban boundary layer seem to affect not only the optical properties observed but also the top height of the boundary layer, by moderating its increase.

  13. Reactive nitrogen over the tropical western Pacific: Influence from lightning and biomass burning during BIBLE A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Kita, K.; Nishi, N.; Liu, S. C.; Blake, D.; Ko, M.; Akutagawa, D.; Kawakami, S.; Takegawa, N.; Zhao, Y.; Ogawa, T.

    2003-02-01

    The Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment phase A (BIBLE A) aircraft campaign was carried out over the tropical western Pacific in September and October 1998. During this period, biomass burning activity in Indonesia was quite weak. Mixing ratios of NOx and NOy in air masses that had crossed over the Indonesian islands within 3 days prior to the measurement (Indonesian air masses) were systematically higher than those in air masses originating from the central Pacific (tropical air masses). Sixty percent of the Indonesian air masses at 9-13 km (upper troposphere, UT) originated from the central Pacific. The differences in NOy mixing ratio between these two types of air masses were likely due to processes that occurred while air masses were over the Islands. Evidence presented in this paper suggests convection carries material from the surface, and NO is produced from lightning. At altitudes below 3 km (lower troposphere, LT), typical gradient of NOx and NOy to CO (dNOy/dCO and dNOx/dCO) was smaller than that in the biomass burning plumes and in urban areas, suggesting that neither source has a dominant influence. When the CO-NOx and CO-NOy relationships in the UT are compared to the reference relationships chosen for the LT, the NOx and NOy values are higher by 40-60 pptv (80% of NOx) and 70-100 pptv (50% of NOy). This difference is attributed to in situ production of NO by lightning. Analyses using air mass trajectories and geostationary meteorological satellite (GMS) derived cloud height data show that convection over land, which could be accompanied by lightning activity, increases the NOx values, while convection over the ocean generally lowers the NOx level. These processes are found to have a significant impact on the O3 production rate over the tropical western Pacific.

  14. Progress Towards Improved MOPITT-based Biomass Burning Emission Inventories for the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeter, M. N.; Emmons, L. K.; Martinez-Alonso, S.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Arellano, A. F.; Fischer, E. V.; González-Alonso, L.; Val Martin, M.; Gatti, L. V.; Miller, J. B.; Gloor, M.; Domingues, L. G.; Correia, C. S. D. C.

    2016-12-01

    The 17-year long record of carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations from the MOPITT satellite instrument is uniquely suited for studying the interannual variability of biomass burning emissions. Data assimilation methods based on Ensemble Kalman Filtering are currently being developed to infer CO emissions within the Amazon Basin from MOPITT measurements along with additional datasets. The validity of these inversions will depend on the characteristics of the MOPITT CO retrievals (e.g., retrieval biases and vertical resolution) as well as the representation of chemistry and dynamics in the chemical transport model (CAM-Chem) used in the data assimilation runs. For example, the assumed vertical distribution ("injection height") of the biomass burning emissions plays a particularly important role. We will review recent progress made on a project to improve biomass burning emission inventories for the Amazon Basin. MOPITT CO retrievals over the Amazon Basin are first characterized, focusing on the MOPITT Version 6 "multispectral" retrieval product (exploiting both thermal-infrared and near-infrared channels). Validation results based on in-situ vertical profiles measured between 2010 and 2013 are presented for four sites in the Amazon Basin. Results indicate a significant negative bias in MOPITT retrieved lower-tropospheric CO concentrations. The seasonal and geographical variability of smoke injection height over the Amazon Basin is then analyzed using a MISR plume height climatology. This work has led to the development of a new fire emission injection height parameterization that was implemented in CAM-Chem and GEOS-Chem.. Finally, we present initial data assimilation results for the Amazon Basin and evaluate the results using available field campaign measurements.

  15. Biomass burning studies and the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    1991-01-01

    IGAC is an ambitious, decade-long and global research initiative concerned with major research challenges in the field of atmospheric chemistry; its chemists and ecosystem biologists are addressing the problems associated with global biomass burning (BMB). Among IGAC's goals is the achievement of a fundamental understanding of the natural and anthropogenic processes determining changes in atmospheric composition and chemistry, in order to allow century-long predictions. IGAC's studies have been organized into 'foci', encompassing the marine, tropical, polar, boreal, and midlatitude areas, as well as their global composite interactions. Attention is to be given to the effects of BMB on biogeochemical cycles.

  16. Impact of biomass burning plume on radiation budget and atmospheric dynamics over the arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisok, Justyna; Pedersen, Jesper; Ritter, Christoph; Markowicz, Krzysztof M.; Malinowski, Szymon; Mazzola, Mauro; Udisti, Roberto; Stachlewska, Iwona S.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the impact of July 2015 biomass burning event on radiative budget, atmospheric stratification and turbulence over the Arctic using information about the vertical structure of the aerosol load from the ground-based data. MODTRAN simulations indicated very high surface radiative cooling (forcing of -150 Wm-2) and a heating rate of up to 1.8 Kday-1 at 3 km. Regarding LES results, a turbulent layer at around 3 km was clearly seen after 48 h of simulation.

  17. Effects of aerosol from biomass burning on the global radiation budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Joyce E.; Dickinson, Robert E.; O'Neill, Christine A.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis is made of the likely contribution of smoke particles from biomass burning to the global radiation balance. These particles act to reflect solar radiation directly; they also can act as cloud condensation nuclei, increasing the reflectivity of clouds. Together these effects, although uncertain, may add up globally to a cooling effect as large as 2 watts per square meter, comparable to the estimated contribution to sulfate aerosols. Anthropogenic increases of smoke emission thus may have helped weaken the net greenhouse warming from anthropogenic trace gases.

  18. Biomass burning in the Amazon-fertilizer for the mountaineous rain forest in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Peter; Kohlpaintner, Michael; Rollenbeck, Ruetger

    2005-09-01

    Biomass burning is a source of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen compounds which, along with their photochemically generated reaction products, can be transported over very long distances, even traversing oceans. Chemical analyses of rain and fogwater samples collected in the mountaineous rain forest of south Ecuador show frequent episodes of high sulfate and nitrate concentration, from which annual deposition rates are derived comparable to those found in polluted central Europe. As significant anthropogenic sources are lacking at the research site it is suspected that biomass burning upwind in the Amazon basin is the major source of the enhanced sulfate and nitrate imput. Regular rain and fogwater sampling along an altitude profile between 1800 and 3185 m has been carried out in the Podocarpus National Park close to the Rio SanFrancisco (3 degrees 58'S, 79 degrees 5'W) in southern Ecuador. pH values, electrical conductivity and chemical ion composition were measured at the TUM-WZW using standard methods. Results reported cover over one year from March 2002 until May 2003. Annual deposition rates of sulfate were calculated ranging between 4 and 13 kg S/ha year, almost as high as in polluted central Europe. Nitrogen deposition via ammonia (1.5-4.4 kg N/ha year) and nitrate (0.5-0.8 kg N/ha year) was found to be lower but still much higher than to be expected in such pristine natural forest environment. By means of back trajectory analyses it can be shown that most of the enhanced sulfur and nitrogen deposition is most likely due to forest fires far upwind of the ecuadorian sampling site, showing a seasonal variation, with sources predominantly found in the East/North East during January-March (Colombia, Venezuala, Northern Brazil) and East/SouthEast during July-September (Peru, Brazil). Our results show that biomass burning in the Amazon basin is the predominant source of sulfur and nitrogen compounds that fertilize the mountaineous rain forest in south Ecuador. The

  19. Biomass Burning:Significant Source of Nitrate and Sulfate for the Andean Rain Forest in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, P.; Rollenbeck, R.; Spichtinger, N.

    2009-04-01

    Forest fires are significant sources of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen compounds which, along with their photochemically generated reaction products, can be transported over very long distances, even traversing oceans. Chemical analyses of rain and fogwater samples collected on the wet eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes show frequent episodes of high sulfate and nitrate concentration, from which annual deposition rates of about14 kg/ha and 7 kg/ha ,respectively, are derived. These are comparable to those observed in polluted central Europe. Regular rain and fogwater sampling along an altitude profile between 1800 and 3185 m, has been carried out since 2002.The research area located at 30 58'S ,790 5' W is dominated by trade winds from easterly directions. The samples, generally accumulated over 1-week intervals, were analysed for pH, conductivity and major ions(K+,Na+,NH4+,Ca2+,Mg 2+,SO42-,NO3-,PO43-).For all components a strong seasonal variation is observed, while the altitudinal gradient is less pronounced. About 65 % of the weekly samples were significantly loaded with cations and anions, with pH often as low 3.5 to 4.0 and conductivity up to 50 uS/cm. Back trajectories (FLEXTRA) showed that respective air masses had passed over areas of intense biomass burning, sometimes influenced by volcanoes, ocean spray, or even episodic Sahara and/or Namib desert dust interference not discussed here. Enhanced SO4 2-and NO3- were identified, by combining satellite-based fire pixels with back trajectories, as predominantly resulting from biomass burning. For most cases, by using emission inventories, anthropogenic precursor sources other than forest fires play a minor role, thus leaving biomass burning as the main source of nitrate and sulphate in rain and fogwater. Some SO4 2- , about 10 % of the total input, could be identified to originate from active volcanoes, whose plumes were sometimes encountered by the respective back trajectories. While volcanic, oceanic and

  20. Impact of biomass burning plume on radiation budget and atmospheric dynamics over the arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisok Justyna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the impact of July 2015 biomass burning event on radiative budget, atmospheric stratification and turbulence over the Arctic using information about the vertical structure of the aerosol load from the ground–based data. MODTRAN simulations indicated very high surface radiative cooling (forcing of –150 Wm–2 and a heating rate of up to 1.8 Kday–1 at 3 km. Regarding LES results, a turbulent layer at around 3 km was clearly seen after 48 h of simulation.

  1. An emissions audit of a biomass combustor burning treated wood waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, P.M.; Jones, H.H.; King, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the Emissions Audit carried out on a Biomass Combustor burning treated wood waste at the premises of a furniture manufacturer. The Biomass Combustor was tested in two firing modes; continuous fire and modulating fire. Combustion chamber temperatures and gas residence times were not measured. Boiler efficiencies were very good at greater than 75% in both tests. However, analysis of the flue gases indicated that improved efficiencies are possible. The average concentrations of CO (512mgm -3 ) and THC (34mgm -3 ) for Test 1 were high, indicating that combustion was poor. The combustor clearly does not meet the requirements of the Guidance Note for the Combustion of Wood Waste. CO 2 and O 2 concentrations were quite variable showing that combustion conditions were fairly unstable. Improved control of combustion should lead to acceptable emission concentrations. (Author)

  2. Emission factors from biomass burning in three types of appliances: fireplace, woodstove and pellet stove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Márcio; Vicente, Estela; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Tarelho, Luis; Alves, Célia

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, the importance of biomass fuels has increased mainly for two reasons. One of them is the effort to control the emissions of greenhouse gases, and on the other hand, the increasing costs associated with fossil fuels. Besides that, biomass burning is now recognised as one of the major sources contributing to high concentrations of particulate matter, especially during winter time. Southern European countries have a lack of information regarding emission profiles from biomass burning. Because of that, in most source apportionment studies, the information used comes from northern and alpine countries, whose combustion appliances, fuels and habits are different from those in Mediterranean countries. Due to this lack of information, series of tests using different types of equipment, as well as fuels, were carried out in order to obtain emission profiles and emission factors that correspond to the reality in southern European countries. Tests involved three types of biomass appliances used in Portugal, a fireplace, a woodstove and a modern pellet stove. Emission factors (mg.kg-1 fuel, dry basis) for CO, THC and PM10 were obtained. CO emission factors ranged from 38, for pine on the woodstove, to 84 for eucalyptus in the fireplace. THC emissions were between 4 and 24, for pine in the woodstove and eucalyptus in the fireplace, respectively. PM10 emission factors were in the range from 3.99, for pine in the woodstove, to 17.3 for eucalyptus in the fireplace. On average, the emission factors obtained for the fireplace are 1.5 (CO) to 4 (THC) times higher than those of the woodstove. The fireplace has emission factors for CO, THC and PM10 10, 35 and 32 times, respectively, higher than the pellet stove.

  3. The effect of South American biomass burning aerosol emissions on the regional climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, Gillian D.; Ryder, Claire L.; Highwood, Eleanor J.; Shaffrey, Len C.; Johnson, Ben T.

    2018-04-01

    The impact of biomass burning aerosol (BBA) on the regional climate in South America is assessed using 30-year simulations with a global atmosphere-only configuration of the Met Office Unified Model. We compare two simulations of high and low emissions of biomass burning aerosol based on realistic interannual variability. The aerosol scheme in the model has hygroscopic growth and optical properties for BBA informed by recent observations, including those from the recent South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) intensive aircraft observations made during September 2012. We find that the difference in the September (peak biomass emissions month) BBA optical depth between a simulation with high emissions and a simulation with low emissions corresponds well to the difference in the BBA emissions between the two simulations, with a 71.6 % reduction from high to low emissions for both the BBA emissions and the BB AOD in the region with maximum emissions (defined by a box of extent 5-25° S, 40-70° W, used for calculating mean values given below). The cloud cover at all altitudes in the region of greatest BBA difference is reduced as a result of the semi-direct effect, by heating of the atmosphere by the BBA and changes in the atmospheric stability and surface fluxes. Within the BBA layer the cloud is reduced by burn-off, while the higher cloud changes appear to be responding to stability changes. The boundary layer is reduced in height and stabilized by increased BBA, resulting in reduced deep convection and reduced cloud cover at heights of 9-14 km, above the layer of BBA. Despite the decrease in cloud fraction, September downwelling clear-sky and all-sky shortwave radiation at the surface is reduced for higher emissions by 13.77 ± 0.39 W m-2 (clear-sky) and 7.37 ± 2.29 W m-2 (all-sky), whilst the upwelling shortwave radiation at the top of atmosphere is increased in clear sky by 3.32 ± 0.09 W m-2, but decreased by -1.36±1.67 W m-2 when cloud changes are

  4. Climate versus carbon dioxide controls on biomass burning: a model analysis of the glacial-interglacial contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M. Martin; Prentice, I. C.; Harrison, S. P.

    2014-11-01

    Climate controls fire regimes through its influence on the amount and types of fuel present and their dryness. CO2 concentration constrains primary production by limiting photosynthetic activity in plants. However, although fuel accumulation depends on biomass production, and hence on CO2 concentration, the quantitative relationship between atmospheric CO2 concentration and biomass burning is not well understood. Here a fire-enabled dynamic global vegetation model (the Land surface Processes and eXchanges model, LPX) is used to attribute glacial-interglacial changes in biomass burning to an increase in CO2, which would be expected to increase primary production and therefore fuel loads even in the absence of climate change, vs. climate change effects. Four general circulation models provided last glacial maximum (LGM) climate anomalies - that is, differences from the pre-industrial (PI) control climate - from the Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project Phase~2, allowing the construction of four scenarios for LGM climate. Modelled carbon fluxes from biomass burning were corrected for the model's observed prediction biases in contemporary regional average values for biomes. With LGM climate and low CO2 (185 ppm) effects included, the modelled global flux at the LGM was in the range of 1.0-1.4 Pg C year-1, about a third less than that modelled for PI time. LGM climate with pre-industrial CO2 (280 ppm) yielded unrealistic results, with global biomass burning fluxes similar to or even greater than in the pre-industrial climate. It is inferred that a substantial part of the increase in biomass burning after the LGM must be attributed to the effect of increasing CO2 concentration on primary production and fuel load. Today, by analogy, both rising CO2 and global warming must be considered as risk factors for increasing biomass burning. Both effects need to be included in models to project future fire risks.

  5. Dynamic light absorption of biomass-burning organic carbon photochemically aged under natural sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, M.; Jang, M.

    2014-02-01

    Wood-burning aerosol produced under smoldering conditions was photochemically aged with different relative humidity (RH) and NOx conditions using a 104 m3 dual outdoor chamber under natural sunlight. Light absorption of organic carbon (OC) was measured over the course of photooxidation using a UV-visible spectrometer connected to an integrating sphere. At high RH, the color decayed rapidly. NOx slightly prolonged the color of wood smoke, suggesting that NOx promotes the formation of chromophores via secondary processes. Overall, the mass absorption cross section (integrated between 280 and 600 nm) of OC increased by 11-54% (except high RH) in the morning and then gradually decreased by 19-68% in the afternoon. This dynamic change in light absorption of wood-burning OC can be explained by two mechanisms: chromophore formation and sunlight bleaching. To investigate the effect of chemical transformation on light absorption, wood smoke particles were characterized using various spectrometers. The intensity of fluorescence, which is mainly related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), rapidly decreased with time, indicating the potential bleaching of PAHs. A decline of levoglucosan concentrations evinced the change of primary organic aerosol with time. The aerosol water content measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that wood-burning aerosol became less hygroscopic as photooxidation proceeded. A similar trend in light absorption changes has been observed in ambient smoke aerosol originating from the 2012 County Line wildfire in Florida. We conclude that the biomass-burning OC becomes less light absorbing after 8-9 h sunlight exposure compared to fresh wood-burning OC.

  6. Dynamic light absorption of biomass burning organic carbon photochemically aged under natural sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, M.; Jang, M.

    2013-08-01

    Wood burning aerosol produced under smoldering conditions was photochemically aged with different relative humidity (RH) and NOx conditions using a 104 m3 dual outdoor chamber under natural sunlight. Light absorption of organic carbon (OC) was measured over the course of photooxidation using a UV-visible spectrometer connected to an integrating sphere. At high RH, the color decayed rapidly. NOx slightly prolonged the color of wood smoke, suggesting that NOx promotes the formation of chromophores via secondary processes. Overall, the mass absorption cross-section (integrated between 280 nm and 600 nm) of OC increased by 11-54% (except high RH) in the morning and then gradually decreased by 19-68% in the afternoon. This dynamic change in light absorption of wood burning OC can be explained by two mechanisms: chromophore formation and sunlight bleaching. To investigate the effect of chemical transformation on light absorption, wood smoke particles were characterized using various spectrometers. The intensity of fluorescence, which is mainly related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), rapidly decreased with time indicating the potential bleaching of PAHs. A decline of levoglucosan concentrations evinced the change of POA with time. The aerosol water content measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that wood burning aerosol became less hygroscopic as photooxidation proceeded. A similar trend in light absorption changes has been observed in ambient smoke aerosol originating from the 2012 County Line Wildfire in Florida. We conclude that the biomass burning OC becomes less light absorbing after 8-9 h sunlight exposure compared to fresh wood burning OC.

  7. Chemical characteristics of dicarboxylic acids and related organic compounds in PM2.5 during biomass-burning and non-biomass-burning seasons at a rural site of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fang; Zhang, Shi-Chun; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Liu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Chi; Xu, Zufei; Fan, Meiyi; Zhang, Wenqi; Bao, Mengying; Chang, Yunhua; Song, Wenhuai; Liu, Shoudong; Lee, Xuhui; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Zhang, Yan-Lin

    2017-12-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected using a high-volume air sampler and pre-combusted quartz filters during May 2013 to January 2014 at a background rural site (47 ∘ 35 N, 133 ∘ 31 E) in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. A homologous series of dicarboxylic acids (C 2 -C 11 ) and related compounds (oxoacids, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids) were analyzed by using a gas chromatography (GC) and GC-MS method employing a dibutyl ester derivatization technique. Intensively open biomass-burning (BB) episodes during the harvest season in fall were characterized by high mass concentrations of PM2.5, dicarboxylic acids and levoglucosan. During the BB period, mass concentrations of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds were increased by up to >20 times with different factors for different organic compounds (i.e., succinic (C 4 ) acid > oxalic (C 2 ) acid > malonic (C 3 ) acid). High concentrations were also found for their possible precursors such as glyoxylic acid (ωC 2 ), 4-oxobutanoic acid, pyruvic acid, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal as well as fatty acids. Levoglucosan showed strong correlations with carbonaceous aerosols (OC, EC, WSOC) and dicarboxylic acids although such good correlations were not observed during non-biomass-burning seasons. Our results clearly demonstrate biomass burning emissions are very important contributors to dicarboxylic acids and related compounds. The selected ratios (e.g., C 3 /C 4 , maleic acid/fumaric acid, C 2 /ωC 2 , and C 2 /levoglucosan) were used as tracers for secondary formation of organic aerosols and their aging process. Our results indicate that organic aerosols from biomass burning in this study are fresh without substantial aging or secondary production. The present chemical characteristics of organic compounds in biomass-burning emissions are very important for better understanding the impacts of biomass burning on the atmosphere aerosols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brito

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground-based measurements over Brazil, aimed to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm, occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO, freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ~1000 cm−3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm−3 (during biomass burning (BB events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m−3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m−3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m−3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed, on average, at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m−3, respectively. Equivalent black carbon (BCe ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m−3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m−3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe, among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the

  9. Reduced biomass burning emissions reconcile conflicting estimates of the post-2006 atmospheric methane budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, John R; Bloom, A Anthony; Pandey, Sudhanshu; Jiang, Zhe; Worden, Helen M; Walker, Thomas W; Houweling, Sander; Röckmann, Thomas

    2017-12-20

    Several viable but conflicting explanations have been proposed to explain the recent ~8 p.p.b. per year increase in atmospheric methane after 2006, equivalent to net emissions increase of ~25 Tg CH 4 per year. A concurrent increase in atmospheric ethane implicates a fossil source; a concurrent decrease in the heavy isotope content of methane points toward a biogenic source, while other studies propose a decrease in the chemical sink (OH). Here we show that biomass burning emissions of methane decreased by 3.7 (±1.4) Tg CH 4 per year from the 2001-2007 to the 2008-2014 time periods using satellite measurements of CO and CH 4 , nearly twice the decrease expected from prior estimates. After updating both the total and isotopic budgets for atmospheric methane with these revised biomass burning emissions (and assuming no change to the chemical sink), we find that fossil fuels contribute between 12-19 Tg CH 4 per year to the recent atmospheric methane increase, thus reconciling the isotopic- and ethane-based results.

  10. Inclusion of biomass burning in WRF-Chem: impact of wildfires on weather forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Grell

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A plume rise algorithm for wildfires was included in WRF-Chem, and applied to look at the impact of intense wildfires during the 2004 Alaska wildfire season on weather simulations using model resolutions of 10 km and 2 km. Biomass burning emissions were estimated using a biomass burning emissions model. In addition, a 1-D, time-dependent cloud model was used online in WRF-Chem to estimate injection heights as well as the vertical distribution of the emission rates. It was shown that with the inclusion of the intense wildfires of the 2004 fire season in the model simulations, the interaction of the aerosols with the atmospheric radiation led to significant modifications of vertical profiles of temperature and moisture in cloud-free areas. On the other hand, when clouds were present, the high concentrations of fine aerosol (PM2.5 and the resulting large numbers of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN had a strong impact on clouds and cloud microphysics, with decreased precipitation coverage and precipitation amounts during the first 12 h of the integration. During the afternoon, storms were of convective nature and appeared significantly stronger, probably as a result of both the interaction of aerosols with radiation (through an increase in CAPE as well as the interaction with cloud microphysics.

  11. Impact of anthropogenic emissions and open biomass burning on regional carbonaceous aerosols in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Gan, E-mail: zhanggan@gig.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li Jun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Xu Yue; Guo Lingli [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tang Jianhui [Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Lee, Celine S.L. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Liu Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen Yingjun [Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Carbonaceous aerosols were studied at three background sites in south and southwest China. Hok Tsui in Hong Kong had the highest concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols (OC = 8.7 {+-} 4.5 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, EC = 2.5 {+-} 1.9 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) among the three sites, and Jianfeng Mountains in Hainan Island (OC = 5.8 {+-} 2.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, EC = 0.8 {+-} 0.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) and Tengchong mountain over the east edge of the Tibetan Plateau (OC = 4.8 {+-} 4.0 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, EC = 0.5 {+-} 0.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) showed similar concentration levels. Distinct seasonal patterns with higher concentrations during the winter, and lower concentrations during the summertime were observed, which may be caused by the changes of the regional emissions, and monsoon effects. The industrial and vehicular emissions in East, Southeast and South China, and the regional open biomass burning in the Indo-Myanmar region of Asia were probably the two major potential sources for carbonaceous matters in this region. - Anthropogenic emissions in China and open biomass burning in the Indo-Myanmar region were the two major potential sources for carbonaceous matters in South China region.

  12. Biomass Burning Aerosol Absorption Measurements with MODIS Using the Critical Reflectance Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Martins, Vanderlei J.; Remer, Lorraine A.

    2010-01-01

    This research uses the critical reflectance technique, a space-based remote sensing method, to measure the spatial distribution of aerosol absorption properties over land. Choosing two regions dominated by biomass burning aerosols, a series of sensitivity studies were undertaken to analyze the potential limitations of this method for the type of aerosol to be encountered in the selected study areas, and to show that the retrieved results are relatively insensitive to uncertainties in the assumptions used in the retrieval of smoke aerosol. The critical reflectance technique is then applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data to retrieve the spectral aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) in South African and South American 35 biomass burning events. The retrieved results were validated with collocated Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) retrievals. One standard deviation of mean MODIS retrievals match AERONET products to within 0.03, the magnitude of the AERONET uncertainty. The overlap of the two retrievals increases to 88%, allowing for measurement variance in the MODIS retrievals as well. The ensemble average of MODIS-derived SSA for the Amazon forest station is 0.92 at 670 nm, and 0.84-0.89 for the southern African savanna stations. The critical reflectance technique allows evaluation of the spatial variability of SSA, and shows that SSA in South America exhibits higher spatial variation than in South Africa. The accuracy of the retrieved aerosol SSA from MODIS data indicates that this product can help to better understand 44 how aerosols affect the regional and global climate.

  13. Burning radionuclide question. What happens to iodine, cesium and chlorine in biomass fires?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.; Sheppard, S.C.; Johnston, F.L.; Evenden, W.G.; Harris, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Fires can mobilize radionuclides from contaminated biomass through suspension of gases and particles in the atmosphere or solubilization and enrichment of the ash. Field and laboratory burns were conducted to determine the fate of I, Cs and Cl in biomass fires. Straw, wood, peat, dulse (seaweed) and radish plants were combusted with temperatures varying from 160 to 1000C, representing the normal range of field fire temperatures. Loss to the atmosphere increased with fire temperature and during a typical field fire, 80 - 90% of the I and Cl, and 40 - 70% of the Cs was lost to the atmosphere. The remainder was left behind in the ash and was soluble. Typically, the ash was enriched in I by a factor of two to three, with higher enrichments of Cs and lower enrichments of Cl, when compared to the initial fuel concentration during field burns. Most of the I was lost to the atmosphere as a gas. If the elements were radioactive isotopes, such as 129 I, 137 Cs and 36 Cl, fires could cause an increased radiological dose to people through inhalation, exposure to ash, or ingestion of plants because of increased uptake of ash leachate

  14. Impact of anthropogenic emissions and open biomass burning on regional carbonaceous aerosols in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Gan; Li Jun; Li Xiangdong; Xu Yue; Guo Lingli; Tang Jianhui; Lee, Celine S.L.; Liu Xiang; Chen Yingjun

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols were studied at three background sites in south and southwest China. Hok Tsui in Hong Kong had the highest concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols (OC = 8.7 ± 4.5 μg/m 3 , EC = 2.5 ± 1.9 μg/m 3 ) among the three sites, and Jianfeng Mountains in Hainan Island (OC = 5.8 ± 2.6 μg/m 3 , EC = 0.8 ± 0.4 μg/m 3 ) and Tengchong mountain over the east edge of the Tibetan Plateau (OC = 4.8 ± 4.0 μg/m 3 , EC = 0.5 ± 0.4 μg/m 3 ) showed similar concentration levels. Distinct seasonal patterns with higher concentrations during the winter, and lower concentrations during the summertime were observed, which may be caused by the changes of the regional emissions, and monsoon effects. The industrial and vehicular emissions in East, Southeast and South China, and the regional open biomass burning in the Indo-Myanmar region of Asia were probably the two major potential sources for carbonaceous matters in this region. - Anthropogenic emissions in China and open biomass burning in the Indo-Myanmar region were the two major potential sources for carbonaceous matters in South China region.

  15. Geostationary satellite estimation of biomass burning in Amazonia during BASE-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, W.P.; Cutrim, E.C.; Prins, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter presents the results of using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Visible Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) infrared window (3.9 and 11.2 microns) data to monitor biomass burning several times per day in Amazonia. The technique of Matson and Dozier using two window channels was adapted to GOES VAS infrared data to estimate the size and temperature of fires associated with deforestation in the vicinity of Alta Floresta, Brazil, during the Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment - Amazonia (BASE-A). Although VAS data do not offer the spatial resolution available with AVHRR data 97 km versus 1 km, respectively, this decreased resolution does not seem to hinder the ability of the VAS instrument to detect fires; in some cases it proves to be advantageous in that saturation does not occur as often. VAS visible data are additionally helpful in verifying that the hot spots sensed in the infrared are actually related to fires. Furthermore, the fire plumes can be tracked in time to determine their motion and extent. In this way, the GOES satellite offers a unique ability to monitor diurnal variations in fire activity and transport of related aerosols

  16. Impact of Biomass Burning Aerosols on Cloud Formation in Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, U. S.; Wu, Y.; Reid, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    In the tropics, shallow and deep convective cloud structures organize in hierarchy of spatial scales ranging from meso-gamma (2-20 km) to planetary scales (40,000km). At the lower end of the spectrum is shallow convection over the open ocean, whose upscale growth is dependent upon mesoscale convergence triggers. In this context, cloud systems associated with land breezes that propagate long distances into open ocean areas are important. We utilized numerical model simulations to examine the impact of biomass burning on such cloud systems in the maritime continent, specifically along the coastal regions of Sarawak. Numerical model simulations conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model show spatial patterns of smoke that show good agreement to satellite observations. Analysis of model simulations show that, during daytime the horizontal convective rolls (HCRs) that form over land play an important role in organizing transport of smoke in the coastal regions. Alternating patterns of low and high smoke concentrations that are well correlated to the wavelengths of HCRs are found in both the simulations and satellite observations. During night time, smoke transport is modulated by the land breeze circulation and a band of enhanced smoke concentration is found along the land breeze front. Biomass burning aerosols are ingested by the convective clouds that form along the land breeze and leads to changes in total water path, cloud structure and precipitation formation.

  17. Effects of drop freezing on microphysics of an ascending cloud parcel under biomass burning conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, K.; Simmel, M.; Wurzler, S.

    There is some evidence that the initiation of warm rain is suppressed in clouds over regions with vegetation fires. Thus, the ice phase becomes important as another possibility to initiate precipitation. Numerical simulations were performed to investigate heterogeneous drop freezing for a biomass-burning situation. An air parcel model with a sectional two-dimensional description of the cloud microphysics was employed with parameterizations for immersion and contact freezing which consider the different ice nucleating efficiencies of various ice nuclei. Three scenarios were simulated resulting to mixed-phase or completely glaciated clouds. According to the high insoluble fraction of the biomass-burning particles drop freezing via immersion and contact modes was very efficient. The preferential freezing of large drops followed by riming (i.e. the deposition of liquid drops on ice particles) and the evaporation of the liquid drops (Bergeron-Findeisen process) caused a further decrease of the liquid drops' effective radius in higher altitudes. In turn ice particle sizes increased so that they could serve as germs for graupel or hailstone formation. The effects of ice initiation on the vertical cloud dynamics were fairly significant leading to a development of the cloud to much higher altitudes than in a warm cloud without ice formation.

  18. Contribution of Biomass Burning to Carbonaceous Aerosols in Mexico City during may 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzompa Sosa, Z. A.; Sullivan, A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is one of the largest megacities in the world with a population of 20 million people. Emissions transported from outside the basin, such as wildfires and agricultural burning, represent a potentially large contribution to air quality degradation. This study analyzed PM10 filter samples from six different stations located across the MCMA from May, 2013, which represented the month with the most reported fire counts in the region between 2002-2013. Two meteorological regimes were established considering the number of satellite derived fire counts, changes in predominant wind direction, ambient concentrations of CO, PM10 and PM2.5, and precipitation patterns inside MCMA. The filter samples were analyzed for biomass burning tracers including levoglucosan (LEV), water-soluble potassium (WSK+); and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Results of these analyses show that LEV concentrations correlated positively with ambient concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 (R2=0.61 and R2=0.46, respectively). Strong correlations were also found between WSOC and LEV (R2=0.94) and between WSK+ and LEV (R2=0.75). An average LEV/WSOC ratio of 0.0147 was estimated for Regime 1 and 0.0062 for Regime 2. Our LEV concentrations and LEV/WSOC ratios are consistent with results found during the MILAGRO campaign (March, 2006). To the best of our knowledge, only total potassium concentrations have been measured in aerosol samples from MCMA. Therefore, this is the first study in MCMA to measure ambient concentrations of WSK+. Analysis of gravimetric mass concentrations showed that PM2.5 accounted for 60% of the PM10 mass concentration with an estimated PM10/PM2.5 ratio of 1.68. Estimates from our laboratory filter sample characterization indicated that we measured 37% of the total PM10 mass concentration. The missing mass is most likely crustal material (soil or dust) and carbonaceous aerosols that were not segregated into WSOC fraction. Assuming that LEV is

  19. Comparison of global inventories of CO_2 emissions from biomass burning during 2002–2011 derived from multiple satellite products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yusheng; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Saito, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Chen, Xuehong

    2015-01-01

    This study compared five widely used globally gridded biomass burning emissions inventories for the 2002–2011 period (Global Fire Emissions Database 3 (GFED3), Global Fire Emissions Database 4 (GFED4), Global Fire Assimilation System 1.0 (GFAS1.0), Fire INventory from NCAR 1.0 (FINN1.0) and Global Inventory for Chemistry-Climate studies-GFED4 (G-G)). Average annual CO_2 emissions range from 6521.3 to 9661.5 Tg year"−"1 for five inventories, with extensive amounts in Africa, South America and Southeast Asia. Coefficient of Variation for Southern America, Northern and Southern Africa are 30%, 39% and 48%. Globally, the majority of CO_2 emissions are released from savanna burnings, followed by forest and cropland burnings. The largest differences among the five inventories are mainly attributable to the overestimation of CO_2 emissions by FINN1.0 in Southeast Asia savanna and cropland burning, and underestimation in Southern Africa savanna and Amazon forest burning. The overestimation in Africa by G-G also contributes to the differences. - Highlights: • Five widely used global biomass burning emissions inventories were compared. • Global CO_2 emissions compared well while regional differences are large. • The largest differences were found in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa. • Savanna burning emission was the largest contributor to the global emissions. • Variations in savanna burning emission led to the differences among inventories. - Differences of the five biomass burning CO_2 emissions inventories were found in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa due to the variations in savanna burning emissions estimation.

  20. Airborne measurements of CO2, CH4 and HCN in boreal biomass burning plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Sebastian J.; Bauguitte, Stephane; Muller, Jennifer B. A.; Le Breton, Michael; Archibald, Alex; Gallagher, Martin W.; Allen, Grant; Percival, Carl J.

    2013-04-01

    Biomass burning plays an important role in the budgets of a variety of atmospheric trace gases and particles. For example, fires in boreal Russia have been linked with large growths in the global concentrations of trace gases such as CO2, CH4 and CO (Langenfelds et al., 2002; Simpson et al., 2006). High resolution airborne measurements of CO2, CH4 and HCN were made over Eastern Canada onboard the UK Atmospheric Research Aircraft FAAM BAe-146 from 12 July to 4 August 2011. These observations were made as part of the BORTAS project (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites). Flights were aimed at transecting and sampling the outflow from the commonly occurring North American boreal forest fires during the summer months and to investigate and identify the chemical composition and evolution of these plumes. CO2 and CH4 dry air mole fractions were determined using an adapted system based on a Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA, Model RMT-200) from Los Gatos Research Inc, which uses the cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy technique. In-flight calibrations revealed a mean accuracy of 0.57 ppmv and 2.31 ppbv for 1 Hz observations of CO2 and CH4, respectively, during the BORTAS project. During these flights a number of fresh and photochemically-aged plumes were identified using simultaneous HCN measurements. HCN is a distinctive and useful marker for forest fire emissions and it was detected using chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (CIMS). In the freshest plumes, strong relationships were found between CH4, CO2 and other tracers for biomass burning. From this we were able to estimate that 8.5 ± 0.9 g of CH4 and 1512 ± 185 g of CO2 were released into the atmosphere per kg of dry matter burnt. These emission factors are in good agreement with estimates from previous studies and can be used to calculate budgets for the region. However for aged plumes the correlations between CH4 and other

  1. Distributions of trace gases and aerosols during the dry biomass burning season in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Parikhit; Hobbs, Peter V.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Blake, Donald R.; Gao, Song; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.

    2003-09-01

    Vertical profiles in the lower troposphere of temperature, relative humidity, sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), condensation nuclei (CN), and carbon monoxide (CO), and horizontal distributions of twenty gaseous and particulate species, are presented for five regions of southern Africa during the dry biomass burning season of 2000. The regions are the semiarid savannas of northeast South Africa and northern Botswana, the savanna-forest mosaic of coastal Mozambique, the humid savanna of southern Zambia, and the desert of western Namibia. The highest average concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), CO, methane (CH4), O3, black particulate carbon, and total particulate carbon were in the Botswana and Zambia sectors (388 and 392 ppmv, 369 and 453 ppbv, 1753 and 1758 ppbv, 79 and 88 ppbv, 2.6 and 5.5 μg m-3, and 13.2 and 14.3 μg m-3). This was due to intense biomass burning in Zambia and surrounding regions. The South Africa sector had the highest average concentrations of SO2, sulfate particles, and CN (5.1 ppbv, 8.3 μg m-3, and 6400 cm-3, respectively), which derived from biomass burning and electric generation plants and mining operations within this sector. Air quality in the Mozambique sector was similar to the neighboring South Africa sector. Over the arid Namibia sector there were polluted layers aloft, in which average SO2, O3, and CO mixing ratios (1.2 ppbv, 76 ppbv, and 310 ppbv, respectively) were similar to those measured over the other more polluted sectors. This was due to transport of biomass smoke from regions of widespread savanna burning in southern Angola. Average concentrations over all sectors of CO2 (386 ± 8 ppmv), CO (261 ± 81 ppbv), SO2 (2.5 ± 1.6 ppbv), O3 (64 ± 13 ppbv), black particulate carbon (2.3 ± 1.9 μg m-3), organic particulate carbon (6.2 ± 5.2 μg m-3), total particle mass (26.0 ± 4.7 μg m-3), and potassium particles (0.4 ± 0.1 μg m-3) were comparable to those in polluted, urban air. Since the majority of the measurements

  2. Optical Properties of Biomass Burning Aerosols: Comparison of Experimental Measurements and T-Matrix Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samin Poudel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The refractive index (RI is an important parameter in describing the radiative impacts of aerosols. It is important to constrain the RI of aerosol components, since there is still significant uncertainty regarding the RI of biomass burning aerosols. Experimentally measured extinction cross-sections, scattering cross-sections, and single scattering albedos for white pine biomass burning (BB aerosols under two different burning and sampling conditions were modeled using T-matrix theory. The refractive indices were extracted from these calculations. Experimental measurements were conducted using a cavity ring-down spectrometer to measure the extinction, and a nephelometer to measure the scattering of size-selected aerosols. BB aerosols were obtained by burning white pine using (1 an open fire in a burn drum, where the aerosols were collected in distilled water using an impinger, and then re-aerosolized after several days, and (2 a tube furnace to directly introduce the BB aerosols into an indoor smog chamber, where BB aerosols were then sampled directly. In both cases, filter samples were also collected, and electron microscopy images were used to obtain the morphology and size information used in the T-matrix calculations. The effective radius of the particles collected on filter media from the open fire was approximately 245 nm, whereas it was approximately 76 nm for particles from the tube furnace burns. For samples collected in distilled water, the real part of the RI increased with increasing particle size, and the imaginary part decreased. The imaginary part of the RI was also significantly larger than the reported values for fresh BB aerosol samples. For the particles generated in the tube furnace, the real part of the RI decreased with particle size, and the imaginary part was much smaller and nearly constant. The RI is sensitive to particle size and sampling method, but there was no wavelength dependence over the range considered (500

  3. Contrail observations from space using NOAA-AVHRR data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannstein, H. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    The infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard of the weather satellites of the NOAA series allow the detection of contrails. An automated detection scheme is described and tested against computer aided visual classifications by two experts. The algorithm seems to identify contrails within the satellite data with a skill comparable to the human observers. Clusters of contrails within the satellite images are connected to outline regions where the atmospheric properties are favourable for the existence of observable contrails. Air traffic data shows that, over Middle Europe at least, in the main flight levels most of these regions should be marked by detectable contrails. The mean areal coverage of these regions is estimated to be in the range of 10% to 20%, the cloud coverage by detected contrails was 0.9% in 60 AVHRR scenes covering Central Europe. (author) 3 refs.

  4. A high-resolution open biomass burning emission inventory based on statistical data and MODIS observations in mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Fan, M.; Huang, Z.; Zheng, J.; Chen, L.

    2017-12-01

    Open biomass burning which has adverse effects on air quality and human health is an important source of gas and particulate matter (PM) in China. Current emission estimations of open biomass burning are generally based on single source (alternative to statistical data and satellite-derived data) and thus contain large uncertainty due to the limitation of data. In this study, to quantify the 2015-based amount of open biomass burning, we established a new estimation method for open biomass burning activity levels by combining the bottom-up statistical data and top-down MODIS observations. And three sub-category sources which used different activity data were considered. For open crop residue burning, the "best estimate" of activity data was obtained by averaging the statistical data from China statistical yearbooks and satellite observations from MODIS burned area product MCD64A1 weighted by their uncertainties. For the forest and grassland fires, their activity levels were represented by the combination of statistical data and MODIS active fire product MCD14ML. Using the fire radiative power (FRP) which is considered as a better indicator of active fire level as the spatial allocation surrogate, coarse gridded emissions were reallocated into 3km ×3km grids to get a high-resolution emission inventory. Our results showed that emissions of CO, NOx, SO2, NH3, VOCs, PM2.5, PM10, BC and OC in mainland China were 6607, 427, 84, 79, 1262, 1198, 1222, 159 and 686 Gg/yr, respectively. Among all provinces of China, Henan, Shandong and Heilongjiang were the top three contributors to the total emissions. In this study, the developed open biomass burning emission inventory with a high-resolution could support air quality modeling and policy-making for pollution control.

  5. On-line CO, CO2 emissions evaluation and (benzene, toluene, xylene) determination from experimental burn of tropical biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfiq, Mohammed F; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine; Sulaiman, Nik Meriam Nik

    2015-07-01

    Atmospheric pollution and global warming issues are increasingly becoming major environmental concerns. Fire is one of the significant sources of pollutant gases released into the atmosphere; and tropical biomass fires, which are of particular interest in this study, contribute greatly to the global budget of CO and CO2. This pioneer research simulates the natural biomass burning strategy in Malaysia using an experimental burning facility. The investigation was conducted on the emissions (CO2, CO, and Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylenes (BTEX)) from ten tropical biomass species. The selected species represent the major tropical forests that are frequently subjected to dry forest fire incidents. An experimental burning facility equipped with an on-line gas analyzer was employed to determine the burning emissions. The major emission factors were found to vary among the species, and the specific results were as follows. The moisture content of a particular biomass greatly influenced its emission pattern. The smoke analysis results revealed the existence of BTEX, which were sampled from a combustion chamber by enrichment traps aided with a universal gas sampler. The BTEX were determined by organic solvent extraction followed by GC/MS quantification, the results of which suggested that the biomass burning emission factor contributed significant amounts of benzene, toluene, and m,p-xylene. The modified combustion efficiency (MCE) changed in response to changes in the sample moisture content. Therefore, this study concluded that the emission of some pollutants mainly depends on the burning phase and sample moisture content of the biomass. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Tracking nitrogen oxides, nitrous acid, and nitric acid from biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, J.; Miller, D. J.; Scheuer, E. M.; Dibb, J. E.; Hastings, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning emissions are an important source of atmospheric nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and nitrous acid (HONO), which play important roles in atmosphere oxidation capacity (hydroxyl radical and ozone formation) and have severe impacts on air quality and climate in the presence of sunlight and volatile organic compounds. However, tracking NOx and HONO and their chemistry in the atmosphere based on concentration alone is challenging. Isotopic analysis provides a potential tracking tool. In this study, we measured the nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N) of NOx (NO + NO2) and HONO, and soluble HONO and HNO3 during the Fire Influence on Regional and Global Environments Experiment (FIREX) laboratory experiments at the Missoula Fire Laboratory. Our newly developed and validated annular denuder system (ADS) enabled us to effectively trap HONO prior to a NOx collection system in series for isotopic analysis. In total we investigated 25 "stack" fires of various biomass materials where the emissions were measured within a few seconds of production by the fire. HONO concentration was measured in parallel using mist chamber/ion chromatography (MC/IC). The recovered mean HONO concentrations from ADS during the burn of each fire agree well with that measured via MC/IC. δ15N-NOx ranged from -4.3 ‰ to + 7.0 ‰ with a median of 0.7 ‰. Combined with a similar, recent study by our group [Fibiger et al., ES&T, 2017] the δ15N-NOx follows a linear relationship with δ15N-biomass (δ15N-NOx =0.94 x δ15N-biomass +1.98; R2=0.72). δ15N-HONO ranged from -5.3 to +8.3 ‰ with a median of 1.4 ‰. While both HONO and NOx are sourced from N in the biomass fuel, the secondary formation of HONO likely induces fractionation of the N that leads to the difference between δ15N-NOx and δ15N-HONO. We found a correlation of δ15N-HONO= 0.86 x δ15N-NOx + 0.52 (R2=0.55), which can potentially be used to track the chemistry of HONO formation following fire emissions. The methods

  7. Quantifying the influence of boreal biomass burning emissions on tropospheric oxidant chemistry over the North Atlantic using BORTAS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrington, Mark; Palmer, Paul I.; Rickard, Andrew; Young, Jennifer; Lewis, Ally; Lee, James; Henze, Daven; Tarasick, David; Hyer, Edward; Yantosca, Robert; Bowman, Kevin; Worden, John; Griffin, Debora; Franklin, Jonathan; Helmig, Detlev

    2013-04-01

    We use the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model to quantify the impact of boreal biomass burning on tropospheric oxidant chemistry over the North Atlantic region during summer of 2011. The GEOS-Chem model is used at a spatial resolution of 1/2 degree latitude by 2/3 degree longitude for a domain covering eastern North America, the North Atlantic Ocean and western Europe. We initialise the model with biomass burning emissions from the Fire Locating and Monitoring of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) inventory and use a modified chemical mechanism providing a detailed description of ozone photochemistry in boreal biomass burning outflow derived from the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). We evaluate the 3-D model distribution of ozone and tracers associated with biomass burning against measurements made by the UK FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft, ozonesondes, ground-based and satellite instruments as part of the BORTAS experiment between 12 July and 3 August 2011. We also use the GEOS-Chem model adjoint to fit the model to BORTAS measurements to analyse the sensitivity of the model chemical mechanism and ozone distribution to wildfire emissions in central Canada.

  8. The direct radiative effect of biomass burning aerosols over southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Abel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-column radiative transfer code is used to assess the direct radiative effect of biomass burning aerosols over the southern African region during September. The horizontal distribution of biomass smoke is estimated from two sources; i General Circulation Model (GCM simulations combined with measurements from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET of Sun photometers; ii data from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS satellite. Aircraft and satellite measurements are used to constrain the cloud fields, aerosol optical properties, vertical structure, and land surface albedo included in the model. The net regional direct effect of the biomass smoke is -3.1 to -3.6 Wm-2 at the top of atmosphere, and -14.4 to -17.0 Wm-2 at the surface for the MODIS and GCM distributions of aerosol. The direct radiative effect is shown to be highly sensitive to the prescribed vertical profiles and aerosol optical properties. The diurnal cycle of clouds and the spectral dependency of surface albedo are also shown to play an important role.

  9. The evolution of biomass-burning aerosol size distributions due to coagulation: dependence on fire and meteorological details and parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Sakamoto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomass-burning aerosols have a significant effect on global and regional aerosol climate forcings. To model the magnitude of these effects accurately requires knowledge of the size distribution of the emitted and evolving aerosol particles. Current biomass-burning inventories do not include size distributions, and global and regional models generally assume a fixed size distribution from all biomass-burning emissions. However, biomass-burning size distributions evolve in the plume due to coagulation and net organic aerosol (OA evaporation or formation, and the plume processes occur on spacial scales smaller than global/regional-model grid boxes. The extent of this size-distribution evolution is dependent on a variety of factors relating to the emission source and atmospheric conditions. Therefore, accurately accounting for biomass-burning aerosol size in global models requires an effective aerosol size distribution that accounts for this sub-grid evolution and can be derived from available emission-inventory and meteorological parameters. In this paper, we perform a detailed investigation of the effects of coagulation on the aerosol size distribution in biomass-burning plumes. We compare the effect of coagulation to that of OA evaporation and formation. We develop coagulation-only parameterizations for effective biomass-burning size distributions using the SAM-TOMAS large-eddy simulation plume model. For the most-sophisticated parameterization, we use the Gaussian Emulation Machine for Sensitivity Analysis (GEM-SA to build a parameterization of the aged size distribution based on the SAM-TOMAS output and seven inputs: emission median dry diameter, emission distribution modal width, mass emissions flux, fire area, mean boundary-layer wind speed, plume mixing depth, and time/distance since emission. This parameterization was tested against an independent set of SAM-TOMAS simulations and yields R2 values of 0.83 and 0.89 for Dpm and modal width

  10. The evolution of biomass-burning aerosol size distributions due to coagulation: dependence on fire and meteorological details and parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kimiko M.; Laing, James R.; Stevens, Robin G.; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Pierce, Jeffrey R.

    2016-06-01

    Biomass-burning aerosols have a significant effect on global and regional aerosol climate forcings. To model the magnitude of these effects accurately requires knowledge of the size distribution of the emitted and evolving aerosol particles. Current biomass-burning inventories do not include size distributions, and global and regional models generally assume a fixed size distribution from all biomass-burning emissions. However, biomass-burning size distributions evolve in the plume due to coagulation and net organic aerosol (OA) evaporation or formation, and the plume processes occur on spacial scales smaller than global/regional-model grid boxes. The extent of this size-distribution evolution is dependent on a variety of factors relating to the emission source and atmospheric conditions. Therefore, accurately accounting for biomass-burning aerosol size in global models requires an effective aerosol size distribution that accounts for this sub-grid evolution and can be derived from available emission-inventory and meteorological parameters. In this paper, we perform a detailed investigation of the effects of coagulation on the aerosol size distribution in biomass-burning plumes. We compare the effect of coagulation to that of OA evaporation and formation. We develop coagulation-only parameterizations for effective biomass-burning size distributions using the SAM-TOMAS large-eddy simulation plume model. For the most-sophisticated parameterization, we use the Gaussian Emulation Machine for Sensitivity Analysis (GEM-SA) to build a parameterization of the aged size distribution based on the SAM-TOMAS output and seven inputs: emission median dry diameter, emission distribution modal width, mass emissions flux, fire area, mean boundary-layer wind speed, plume mixing depth, and time/distance since emission. This parameterization was tested against an independent set of SAM-TOMAS simulations and yields R2 values of 0.83 and 0.89 for Dpm and modal width, respectively. The

  11. Assessing the regional impact of indonesian biomass burning emissions based on organic molecular tracers and chemical mass balance modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engling, G.; He, J.; Betha, R.; Balasubramanian, R.

    2014-08-01

    Biomass burning activities commonly occur in Southeast Asia (SEA), and are particularly intense in Indonesia during the dry seasons. The effect of biomass smoke emissions on air quality in the city state of Singapore was investigated during a haze episode in October 2006. Substantially increased levels of airborne particulate matter (PM) and associated chemical species were observed during the haze period. Specifically, the enhancement in the concentration of molecular tracers for biomass combustion such as levoglucosan by as much as two orders of magnitude and the diagnostic ratios of individual organic compounds indicated that biomass burning emissions caused a regional smoke haze episode due to their long-range transport by prevailing winds. With the aid of air mass backward trajectories and chemical mass balance modeling, large-scale forest and peat fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan were identified as the sources of the smoke aerosol, exerting a significant impact on air quality in downwind areas, such as Singapore.

  12. A model for global biomass burning in preindustrial time: LPJ-LMfire (v1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pfeiffer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fire is the primary disturbance factor in many terrestrial ecosystems. Wildfire alters vegetation structure and composition, affects carbon storage and biogeochemical cycling, and results in the release of climatically relevant trace gases including CO2, CO, CH4, NOx, and aerosols. One way of assessing the impacts of global wildfire on centennial to multi-millennial timescales is to use process-based fire models linked to dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs. Here we present an update to the LPJ-DGVM and a new fire module based on SPITFIRE that includes several improvements to the way in which fire occurrence, behaviour, and the effects of fire on vegetation are simulated. The new LPJ-LMfire model includes explicit calculation of natural ignitions, the representation of multi-day burning and coalescence of fires, and the calculation of rates of spread in different vegetation types. We describe a new representation of anthropogenic biomass burning under preindustrial conditions that distinguishes the different relationships between humans and fire among hunter-gatherers, pastoralists, and farmers. We evaluate our model simulations against remote-sensing-based estimates of burned area at regional and global scale. While wildfire in much of the modern world is largely influenced by anthropogenic suppression and ignitions, in those parts of the world where natural fire is still the dominant process (e.g. in remote areas of the boreal forest and subarctic, our results demonstrate a significant improvement in simulated burned area over the original SPITFIRE. The new fire model we present here is particularly suited for the investigation of climate–human–fire relationships on multi-millennial timescales prior to the Industrial Revolution.

  13. Measurement of Contrails Using ADS-B Data

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    Martin Voráček

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air transport contributes to climate changes not only by greenhouse gas production but also because of production of contrails. The effect of contrails is less scientifically understood compared to greenhouse gases according to IPCC [3]. In order to be able to research the effect of contrails on the atmosphere, it is necessary to identify their realistic frequency of occurrence and to define the relationship between their occurrence and other factors. The effort to identify and monitor contrails and their dependence on the type of air traffic is the objective of SGS project.

  14. Recent Progress and Emerging Issues in Measuring and Modeling Biomass Burning Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokelson, R. J.; Stockwell, C.; Veres, P. R.; Hatch, L. E.; Barsanti, K. C.; Simpson, I. J.; Blake, D. R.; Alvarado, M.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Robinson, A. L.; Akagi, S. K.; McMeeking, G. R.; Stone, E.; Gilman, J.; Warneke, C.; Sedlacek, A. J.; Kleinman, L. I.

    2013-12-01

    Nine recent multi-PI campaigns (6 airborne, 3 laboratory) have quantified biomass burning emissions and the subsequent smoke evolution in unprecedented detail. Among these projects were the Fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4) and the DOE airborne campaign BBOP (Biomass Burning Observation Project). Between 2009 and 2013 a large selection of fuels and ecosystems were probed including: (1) 21 US prescribed fires in pine forests, chaparral, and shrublands; (2) numerous wildfires in the Pacific Northwest of the US; (3) 77 lab fires burning fuels collected from the sites of the prescribed fires; and (4) 158 lab fires burning authentic fuels in traditional cooking fires and advanced stoves; peat from Indonesia, Canada, and North Carolina; savanna grasses from Africa; temperate grasses from the US; crop waste from the US; rice straw from Taiwan, China, Malaysia, and California; temperate and boreal forest fuels collected in Montana and Alaska; chaparral fuels from California; trash; and tires. Instrumentation for gases included: FTIR, PTR-TOF-MS, 2D-GC and whole air sampling. Particle measurements included filter sampling (with IC, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and GC-MS) and numerous real-time measurements such as: HR-AMS (high-resolution aerosol MS), SP-AMS (soot particle AMS), SP2 (single particle soot photometer), SP-MS (single particle MS), ice nuclei, CCN (cloud condensation nuclei), water soluble OC, size distribution, and optical properties in the UV-VIS. New data include: emission factors for over 400 gases, black carbon (BC), brown carbon (BrC), organic aerosol (OA), ions, metals, EC, and OC; and details of particle morphology, mixing state, optical properties, size distributions, and cloud nucleating activity. Large concentrations (several ppm) of monoterpenes were present in fresh smoke. About 30-70% of the initially emitted gas-phase non-methane organic compounds were semivolatile and could not be identified with current technology

  15. Emission characteristics of refractory black carbon aerosols from fresh biomass burning: a perspective from laboratory experiments

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    X. Pan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The emission characteristics of refractory black carbon (rBC from biomass burning are essential information for numerical simulations of regional pollution and climate effects. We conducted combustion experiments in the laboratory to investigate the emission ratio and mixing state of rBC from the burning of wheat straw and rapeseed plants, which are the main crops cultivated in the Yangtze River Delta region of China. A single particle soot photometer (SP2 was used to measure rBC-containing particles at high temporal resolution and with high accuracy. The combustion state of each burning case was indicated by the modified combustion efficiency (MCE, which is calculated using the integrated enhancement of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentrations relative to their background values. The mass size distribution of the rBC particles showed a lognormal shape with a mode mass equivalent diameter (MED of 189 nm (ranging from 152 to 215 nm, assuming an rBC density of 1.8 g cm−3. rBC particles less than 80 nm in size (the lower detection limit of the SP2 accounted for ∼ 5 % of the total rBC mass, on average. The emission ratios, which are expressed as ΔrBC ∕ ΔCO (Δ indicates the difference between the observed and background values, displayed a significant positive correlation with the MCE values and varied between 1.8 and 34 ng m−3 ppbv−1. Multi-peak fitting analysis of the delay time (Δt, or the time of occurrence of the scattering peak minus that of the incandescence peak distribution showed that rBC-containing particles with rBC MED  =  200 ± 10 nm displayed two peaks at Δt  =  1.7 µs and Δt  =  3.2 µs, which could be attributed to the contributions from both flaming and smoldering combustion in each burning case. Both the Δt values and the shell / core ratios of the rBC-containing particles clearly increased as the MCE decreased from 0.98 (smoldering

  16. Size distribution and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles from dry-season biomass burning in Amazonia

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    J. Rissler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol particle number size distributions and hygroscopic properties were measured at a pasture site in the southwestern Amazon region (Rondonia. The measurements were performed 11 September-14 November 2002 as part of LBA-SMOCC (Large scale Biosphere atmosphere experiment in Amazonia - SMOke aerosols, Clouds, rainfall and Climate, and cover the later part of the dry season (with heavy biomass burning, a transition period, and the onset of the wet period. Particle number size distributions were measured with a DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer, 3-850nm and an APS (Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, extending the distributions up to 3.3 µm in diameter. An H-TDMA (Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer measured the hygroscopic diameter growth factors (Gf at 90% relative humidity (RH, for particles with dry diameters (dp between 20-440 nm, and at several occasions RH scans (30-90% RH were performed for 165nm particles. These data provide the most extensive characterization of Amazonian biomass burning aerosol, with respect to particle number size distributions and hygroscopic properties, presented until now. The evolution of the convective boundary layer over the course of the day causes a distinct diel variation in the aerosol physical properties, which was used to get information about the properties of the aerosol at higher altitudes. The number size distributions averaged over the three defined time periods showed three modes; a nucleation mode with geometrical median diameters (GMD of ~12 nm, an Aitken mode (GMD=61-92 nm and an accumulation mode (GMD=128-190 nm. The two larger modes were shifted towards larger GMD with increasing influence from biomass burning. The hygroscopic growth at 90% RH revealed a somewhat external mixture with two groups of particles; here denoted nearly hydrophobic (Gf~1.09 for 100 nm particles and moderately hygroscopic (Gf~1.26. While the hygroscopic growth factors were surprisingly similar over the

  17. Impact of biomass burning on nutrient deposition to the global ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakidou, Maria; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Daskalakis, Nikos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Nenes, Athanasios

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric deposition of trace constituents, both of natural and anthropogenic origin, can act as a nutrient source into the open ocean and affect marine ecosystem functioning and subsequently the exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the global ocean. Dust is known as a major source of nutrients (Fe and P) into the atmosphere, but only a fraction of these nutrients is released in soluble form that can be assimilated by the ecosystems. Dust is also known to enhance N deposition by interacting with anthropogenic pollutants and neutralisation of part of the acidity of the atmosphere by crustal alkaline species. These nutrients have also primary anthropogenic sources including combustion emissions. The global atmospheric N [1], Fe [2] and P [3] cycles have been parameterized in the global 3-D chemical transport model TM4-ECPL, accounting for inorganic and organic forms of these nutrients, for all natural and anthropogenic sources of these nutrients including biomass burning, as well as for the link between the soluble forms of Fe and P atmospheric deposition and atmospheric acidity. The impact of atmospheric acidity on nutrient solubility has been parameterised based on experimental findings and the model results have been evaluated by extensive comparison with available observations. In the present study we isolate the significant impact of biomass burning emissions on these nutrients deposition by comparing global simulations that consider or neglect biomass burning emissions. The investigated impact integrates changes in the emissions of the nutrients as well as in atmospheric oxidants and acidity and thus in atmospheric processing and secondary sources of these nutrients. The results are presented and thoroughly discussed. References [1] Kanakidou M, S. Myriokefalitakis, N. Daskalakis, G. Fanourgakis, A. Nenes, A. Baker, K. Tsigaridis, N. Mihalopoulos, Past, Present and Future Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (JAS-D-15

  18. Modelling and prediction of air pollutant transport during the 2014 biomass burning and forest fires in peninsular Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Hiep Nguyen; Bang, Ho Quoc; Quang, Ngo Xuan

    2016-02-01

    During the dry season, from November to April, agricultural biomass burning and forest fires especially from March to late April in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam frequently cause severe particulate pollution not only in the local areas but also across the whole region and beyond due to the prevailing meteorological conditions. Recently, the BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) and 7-SEAS (7-South-East Asian Studies) studies have provided detailed analysis and important understandings of the transport of pollutants, in particular, the aerosols and their characteristics across the region due to biomass burning in Southeast Asia (SEA). Following these studies, in this paper, we study the transport of particulate air pollution across the peninsular region of SEA and beyond during the March 2014 burning period using meteorological modelling approach and available ground-based and satellite measurements to ascertain the extent of the aerosol pollution and transport in the region of this particular event. The results show that the air pollutants from SEA biomass burning in March 2014 were transported at high altitude to southern China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and beyond as has been highlighted in the BASE-ASIA and 7-SEAS studies. There are strong evidences that the biomass burning in SEA especially in mid-March 2014 has not only caused widespread high particle pollution in Thailand (especially the northern region where most of the fires occurred) but also impacted on the air quality in Hong Kong as measured at the ground-based stations and in LulinC (Taiwan) where a remote background monitoring station is located.

  19. Biomass burning losses of carbon estimated from ecosystem modeling and satellite data analysis for the Brazilian Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher; Brooks Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Bobo, Matthew; Torregrosa, Alicia

    To produce a new daily record of gross carbon emissions from biomass burning events and post-burning decomposition fluxes in the states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), 1991. Anuario Estatistico do Brasil, Vol. 51. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil pp. 1-1024). We have used vegetation greenness estimates from satellite images as inputs to a terrestrial ecosystem production model. This carbon allocation model generates new estimates of regional aboveground vegetation biomass at 8-km resolution. The modeled biomass product is then combined for the first time with fire pixel counts from the advanced very high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) to overlay regional burning activities in the Amazon. Results from our analysis indicate that carbon emission estimates from annual region-wide sources of deforestation and biomass burning in the early 1990s are apparently three to five times higher than reported in previous studies for the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Houghton et al., 2000. Nature 403, 301-304; Fearnside, 1997. Climatic Change 35, 321-360), i.e., studies which implied that the Legal Amazon region tends toward a net-zero annual source of terrestrial carbon. In contrast, our analysis implies that the total source fluxes over the entire Legal Amazon region range from 0.2 to 1.2 Pg C yr -1, depending strongly on annual rainfall patterns. The reasons for our higher burning emission estimates are (1) use of combustion fractions typically measured during Amazon forest burning events for computing carbon losses, (2) more detailed geographic distribution of vegetation biomass and daily fire activity for the region, and (3) inclusion of fire effects in extensive areas of the Legal Amazon covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. The total area of rainforest estimated annually to be deforested did not differ substantially among the previous analyses cited and our own.

  20. Soil properties and root biomass responses to prescribed burning in young Corsican pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufekcioglu, Aydin; Kucuk, Mehmet; Saglam, Bulent; Bilgili, Ertugrul; Altun, Lokman

    2010-05-01

    Fire is an important tool in the management of forest ecosystems. Although both prescribed and wildland fires are common in Turkey, few studies have addressed the influence of such disturbances on soil properties and root biomass dynamics. In this study, soil properties and root biomass responses to prescribed fire were investigated in 25-year-old corsican pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) stands in Kastamonu, Turkey. The stands were established by planting and were subjected to prescribed burning in July 2003. Soil respiration rates were determined every two months using soda-lime method over a two-year period. Fine (0-2 mm diameter) and small root (2-5 mm diameter) biomass were sampled approximately bimonthly using sequential coring method. Mean daily soil respiration ranged from 0.65 to 2.19 g Cm(-2) d(-1) among all sites. Soil respiration rates were significantly higher in burned sites than in controls. Soil respiration rates were correlated significantly with soil moisture and soil temperature. Fine root biomass was significantly lower in burned sites than in control sites. Mean fine root biomass values were 4940 kg ha(-1) for burned and 5450 kg ha(-1) for control sites. Soil pH was significantly higher in burned sites than in control sites in 15-35 cm soil depth. Soil organic matter content did not differ significantly between control and burned sites. Our results indicate that, depending on site conditions, fire could be used successfully as a tool in the management of forest stands in the study area.

  1. Detection of jet contrails from satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinert, Dieter

    1994-02-01

    In order to investigate the influence of modern technology on the world climate it is important to have automatic detection methods for man-induced parameters. In this case the influence of jet contrails on the greenhouse effect shall be investigated by means of images from polar orbiting satellites. Current methods of line recognition and amplification cannot distinguish between contrails and rather sharp edges of natural cirrus or noise. They still rely on human control. Through the combination of different methods from cloud physics, image comparison, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence we try to overcome this handicap. Here we will present the basic methods applied to each image frame, and list preliminary results derived this way.

  2. Cross-hemispheric transport of central African biomass burning pollutants: implications for downwind ozone production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Real

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollutant plumes with enhanced concentrations of trace gases and aerosols were observed over the southern coast of West Africa during August 2006 as part of the AMMA wet season field campaign. Plumes were observed both in the mid and upper troposphere. In this study we examined the origin of these pollutant plumes, and their potential to photochemically produce ozone (O3 downwind over the Atlantic Ocean. Their possible contribution to the Atlantic O3 maximum is also discussed. Runs using the BOLAM mesoscale model including biomass burning carbon monoxide (CO tracers were used to confirm an origin from central African biomass burning fires. The plumes measured in the mid troposphere (MT had significantly higher pollutant concentrations over West Africa compared to the upper tropospheric (UT plume. The mesoscale model reproduces these differences and the two different pathways for the plumes at different altitudes: transport to the north-east of the fire region, moist convective uplift and transport to West Africa for the upper tropospheric plume versus north-west transport over the Gulf of Guinea for the mid-tropospheric plume. Lower concentrations in the upper troposphere are mainly due to enhanced mixing during upward transport. Model simulations suggest that MT and UT plumes are 16 and 14 days old respectively when measured over West Africa. The ratio of tracer concentrations at 600 hPa and 250 hPa was estimated for 14–15 August in the region of the observed plumes and compares well with the same ratio derived from observed carbon dioxide (CO2 enhancements in both plumes. It is estimated that, for the period 1–15 August, the ratio of Biomass Burning (BB tracer concentration transported in the UT to the ones transported in the MT is 0.6 over West Africa and the equatorial South Atlantic.

    Runs using a photochemical trajectory model, CiTTyCAT, initialized with the observations, were used to estimate

  3. When smoke comes to town - effects of biomass burning smoke on air quality down under

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keywood, Melita; Cope, Martin; (C. P) Meyer, Mick; Iinuma, Yoshi; Emmerson, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    Annually, biomass burning results in the emission of quantities of trace gases and aerosol to the atmosphere. Biomass burning emissions have a significant effect on atmospheric chemistry due to the presence of reactive species. Biomass burning aerosols influence the radiative balance of the earth-atmosphere system directly through the scattering and absorption of radiation, and indirectly through their influence on cloud microphysical processes, and therefore constitute an important forcing in climate models. They also reduce visibility, influence atmospheric photochemistry and can be inhaled into the deepest parts of the lungs, so that they can have a significant effect on human health. Australia experiences bushfires on an annual basis. In most years fires are restricted to the tropical savannah forests of Northern Australia. However in the summer of 2006/2007 (December 2006 - February 2007), South Eastern Australia was affected by the longest recorded fires in its history. During this time the State of Victoria was ravaged by 690 separate bushfires, including the major Great Divide Fire, which devastated 1,048,238 hectares over 69 days. On several occasions, thick smoke haze was transported to the Melbourne central business district and PM10 concentrations at several air quality monitoring stations peaked at over 200 µg m-3 (four times the National Environment Protection Measure PM10 24 hour standard). During this period, a comprehensive suite of air quality measurements was carried out at a location 25 km south of the Melbourne CBD, including detailed aerosol microphysical and chemical composition measurements. Here we examine the chemical and physical properties of the smoke plume as it impacted Melbourne's air shed and discuss its impact on air quality over the city. We estimate the aerosol emission rates of the source fires, the age of the plumes and investigate the transformation of the smoke as it progressed from its source to the Melbourne airshed. We

  4. Biomass burning studies and the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinn, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The perturbations to local and regional atmospheric chemistry caused by biomass burning also have global significance. The International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Project was created by scientists from over twenty countries in response to the growing interest concern about atmospheric chemical changes and their potential impact on mankind. The goal of the IGAC is to develop a fundamental understanding of the natural and anthropogenic processes that determine the chemical composition of the atmosphere and the interactions between atmospheric composition and biospheric and climatic processes. A specific objective is to accurately predict changes over the next century in the composition and chemistry of the global atmosphere. Current activities, leaders and scientists involved are presented in this chapter

  5. Desert dust,Ocean spray,Volcanoes,Biomass burning: Pathways of nutrients into Andean rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, P.; Rollenbeck, R.; Spichtinger, N.; Dominguez, G.; Brothers, L.; Thiemens, M.

    2009-04-01

    Regular rain and fogwater sampling in the Podocarpus National Park, along an altitude profile between 1800 and 3185 m, has been carried out since 2002.The research area located in southern Ecuador on the wet eastern slopes of the Andes is dominated by trade winds from easterly directions. The samples, generally accumulated over 1-week intervals, have been analysed for pH,conductivity and major ions(K+,Na+,NH4+,Ca2+,Mg 2+,SO42-,NO3-,PO43). For all components a strong seasonal variation is observed,while the altitudinal gradient is less pronounced. About 35 % of the weekly samples had very low ion contents,at or below the detection limit, with pH generally above 5 and conductivity below 10 uS/cm.10 days back trajectories (FLEXTRA) showed that respective air masses originated in pristine continental areas,with little or no obvious pollution sources. About 65 %,however,were significantly loaded with cations and anions,with pH often as low as 3.5 to 4.0 and conductivity up to 50 uS/cm.Back trajectories showed that respective air masses had passed over areas of intense biomass burning,volcanoes,and the ocean,with even episodic Sahara and/or Namib desert dust interference. Enhanced SO4 2-and NO3- were identified,by combining satellite-based fire pixels with back trajectories,as predominantly resulting from biomass burning. Analyses of oxygen isotopes 16O ,17O ,and 18O of nitrate show that nitrate in fog samples is a product of atmospheric conversion of precursors.For most cases,by using emission inventories, anthropogenic precursor sources other than forest fires could be ruled out,thus leaving biomass burning as the main source of nitrate and sulphate in rain and fogwater. Some SO4 2- ,about 10 % of the total input,could be identified to originate from active volcanoes, whose plumes were sometimes encountered by the respective back trajectories. Enhanced Na +, K + ,and Cl - was found to originate from ocean spray sources.They were associated with strong winds providing

  6. The characteristics of Beijing aerosol during two distinct episodes: Impacts of biomass burning and fireworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yuan [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Engling, Guenter [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); He, Ke-bin [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Sources and Control of Air Pollution Complex, Beijing (China); Duan, Feng-kui; Du, Zhen-yu; Ma, Yong-liang; Liang, Lin-lin; Lu, Zi-feng [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Liu, Jiu-meng [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Zheng, Mei [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China); Weber, Rodney J. [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The chemical composition of Beijing aerosol was measured during summer and winter. Two distinct episodes were identified. Water-soluble potassium (K{sup +}) increased significantly during the firework episode in winter with an episode to non-episode ratio of 4.97, whereas the biomass burning (BB) episode in summer was characterized by high episode to non-episode ratios of levoglucosan (6.38) and K{sup +} (6.90). The BB and firework episodes had only a minor influence on the water-soluble OC (organic carbon) to OC ratio. Based on separate investigations of episode and non-episode periods, it was found that: (i) sulfate correlated strongly with both relative humidity and nitrate during the typical winter period presumably indicating the importance of the aqueous-phase oxidation of sulfur dioxide by nitrogen dioxide, (ii) oxalate and WSOC during both winter and summer in Beijing were mainly due to secondary formation, and (iii) high humidity can significantly enhance the formation potential of WSOC in winter. -- Highlights: • Two episodes were identified based on the chemical composition of Beijing aerosol. • Levoglucosan and K{sup +} increased significantly during the biomass burning episode. • The firework episode was characterized by high concentrations of K{sup +}. • WSOC and oxalate exhibited secondary nature during both summer and winter. • High humidity can significantly enhance the formation of WSOC in winter. -- This study suggests the benefits of investigating aerosol composition separately during episode and non-episode periods, and introducing organic tracers to the speciation measurements of PM{sub 2.5}.

  7. Assessment of atmospheric impacts of biomass open burning in Kalimantan, Borneo during 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Mastura

    2013-10-01

    Biomass burning from the combustion of agricultural wastes and forest materials is one of the major sources of air pollution. The objective of the study is to investigate the major contribution of the biomass open burning events in the island of Borneo, Indonesia to the degradation of air quality in equatorial Southeast Asia. A total of 10173 active fire counts were detected by the MODIS Aqua satellite during August 2004, and consequently, elevated the PM10 concentration levels at six air quality stations in the state of Sarawak, in east Malaysia, which is located in northwestern Borneo. The PM10 concentrations measured on a daily basis were above the 50 μg m-3 criteria as stipulated by the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines for most of the month, and exceeded the 24-h Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines of 150 μg m-3 on three separate periods from the 13th to the 30th August 2004. The average correlation between the ground level PM10 concentrations and the satellite derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.3 at several ground level air quality stations, implied the moderate relationship between the aerosols over the depth of the entire column of atmosphere and the ground level suspended particulate matter. Multiple regression for meteorological parameters such as rainfall, windspeed, visibility, mean temperature, relative humidity at two stations in Sarawak and active fire counts that were located near the centre of fire activities were only able to explain for 61% of the total variation in the AOD. The trajectory analysis of the low level mesoscale meteorological conditions simulated by the TAPM model illustrated the influence of the sea and land breezes within the lowest part of the planetary boundary layer, embedded within the prevailing monsoonal southwesterlies, in circulating the aged and new air particles within Sarawak.

  8. Secondary organic aerosol formation from biomass burning intermediates: phenol and methoxyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Yee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The formation of secondary organic aerosol from oxidation of phenol, guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol, and syringol (2,6-dimethoxyphenol, major components of biomass burning, is described. Photooxidation experiments were conducted in the Caltech laboratory chambers under low-NOx (2O2 as the OH source. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA yields (ratio of mass of SOA formed to mass of primary organic reacted greater than 25% are observed. Aerosol growth is rapid and linear with the primary organic conversion, consistent with the formation of essentially non-volatile products. Gas- and aerosol-phase oxidation products from the guaiacol system provide insight into the chemical mechanisms responsible for SOA formation. Syringol SOA yields are lower than those of phenol and guaiacol, likely due to novel methoxy group chemistry that leads to early fragmentation in the gas-phase photooxidation. Atomic oxygen to carbon (O : C ratios calculated from high-resolution-time-of-flight Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS measurements of the SOA in all three systems are ~ 0.9, which represent among the highest such ratios achieved in laboratory chamber experiments and are similar to that of aged atmospheric organic aerosol. The global contribution of SOA from intermediate volatility and semivolatile organic compounds has been shown to be substantial (Pye and Seinfeld, 2010. An approach to representing SOA formation from biomass burning emissions in atmospheric models could involve one or more surrogate species for which aerosol formation under well-controlled conditions has been quantified. The present work provides data for such an approach.

  9. The characteristics of Beijing aerosol during two distinct episodes: Impacts of biomass burning and fireworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yuan; Engling, Guenter; He, Ke-bin; Duan, Feng-kui; Du, Zhen-yu; Ma, Yong-liang; Liang, Lin-lin; Lu, Zi-feng; Liu, Jiu-meng; Zheng, Mei; Weber, Rodney J.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of Beijing aerosol was measured during summer and winter. Two distinct episodes were identified. Water-soluble potassium (K + ) increased significantly during the firework episode in winter with an episode to non-episode ratio of 4.97, whereas the biomass burning (BB) episode in summer was characterized by high episode to non-episode ratios of levoglucosan (6.38) and K + (6.90). The BB and firework episodes had only a minor influence on the water-soluble OC (organic carbon) to OC ratio. Based on separate investigations of episode and non-episode periods, it was found that: (i) sulfate correlated strongly with both relative humidity and nitrate during the typical winter period presumably indicating the importance of the aqueous-phase oxidation of sulfur dioxide by nitrogen dioxide, (ii) oxalate and WSOC during both winter and summer in Beijing were mainly due to secondary formation, and (iii) high humidity can significantly enhance the formation potential of WSOC in winter. -- Highlights: • Two episodes were identified based on the chemical composition of Beijing aerosol. • Levoglucosan and K + increased significantly during the biomass burning episode. • The firework episode was characterized by high concentrations of K + . • WSOC and oxalate exhibited secondary nature during both summer and winter. • High humidity can significantly enhance the formation of WSOC in winter. -- This study suggests the benefits of investigating aerosol composition separately during episode and non-episode periods, and introducing organic tracers to the speciation measurements of PM 2.5

  10. A large impact of tropical biomass burning on CO and CO{sub 2} in the upper troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidekazu Matsueda; Shoichi Taguchi; Hisayuki Y; Inoue & Masao Ishii [Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba-shi (Japan). Geochemical Research Department

    2002-07-01

    A large interannual variation of biomass burning emissions from Southeast Asia is associated with the ENSO events. During 1997/98 and 1994 El Nino years, uncontrolled wildfires of tropical rainforests and peat lands in Indonesia were enlarged due to a long drought. Enhanced CO injection into the upper troposphere from the intense Indonesian fires was clearly observed in the 8-year measurements from a regular flask sampling over the western Pacific using a JAL airliner between Australia and Japan. This airliner observation also revealed that upper tropospheric CO{sub 2} cycle largely changed during the 1997 El Nio year due partly to the biomass burning emissions. Widespread pollution from the biomass burnings in Southeast Asia was simulated using a CO tracer driven by a 3D global chemical transport model. This simulation indicates that tropical deep convections connected to rapid advection by the subtropical jet play a significant role in dispersing biomass-burning emissions from Southeast Asia on a global scale.

  11. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia during a high fire event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G.R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled a large fire-induced haze episode in 2006 stemming mostly from Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem). We

  12. Airborne hydrogen cyanide measurements using a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer for the plume identification of biomass burning forest fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Le Breton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (CIMS was developed for measuring hydrogen cyanide (HCN from biomass burning events in Canada using I− reagent ions on board the FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft during the BORTAS campaign in 2011. The ionisation scheme enabled highly sensitive measurements at 1 Hz frequency through biomass burning plumes in the troposphere. A strong correlation between the HCN, carbon monoxide (CO and acetonitrile (CH3CN was observed, indicating the potential of HCN as a biomass burning (BB marker. A plume was defined as being 6 standard deviations above background for the flights. This method was compared with a number of alternative plume-defining techniques employing CO and CH3CN measurements. The 6-sigma technique produced the highest R2 values for correlations with CO. A normalised excess mixing ratio (NEMR of 3.68 ± 0.149 pptv ppbv−1 was calculated, which is within the range quoted in previous research (Hornbrook et al., 2011. The global tropospheric model STOCHEM-CRI incorporated both the observed ratio and extreme ratios derived from other studies to generate global emission totals of HCN via biomass burning. Using the ratio derived from this work, the emission total for HCN from BB was 0.92 Tg (N yr−1.

  13. Interactions and Feedbacks Between Biomass Burning and Water Cycle Dynamics Across the Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region, bounded on the north and south by the Sahara and the Equator, respectively, and stretching from the West to the East African coastlines, has one of the highest biomass-burning rates per unit land area among all regions of the world. Because of the high concentration and frequency of fires in this region, with the associated abundance of heat release and gaseous and particulate smoke emissions, biomass-burning activity is believed to be one of the drivers of the regional carbon and energy cycles, with serious implications for the water cycle. A new interdisciplinary research effort sponsored by NASA is presently being focused on the NSSA region, to better understand the possible connection between the intense biomass burning observed from satellite year after year across the region and the rapid depletion of the regional water resources, as exemplified by the dramatic drying of Lake Chad. A combination of remote sensing and modeling approaches is being utilized in investigating multiple regional surface, atmospheric, and water-cycle processes, and inferring possible links between them. In this presentation, we will discuss preliminary results as well as the path toward improved understanding of the interrelationships and feedbacks between the biomass burning and the environmental change dynamics in the NSSA region.

  14. Investigating the links between ozone and organic aerosol chemistry in a biomass burning plume from a California chaparral fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. J. Alvarado; C. R. Lonsdale; R. J. Yokelson; S. K. Akagi; I. R. Burling; H. Coe; J. S. Craven; E. Fischer; G. R. McMeeking; J. H. Seinfeld; T. Soni; J. W. Taylor; D. R. Weise; C. E. Wold

    2014-01-01

    Within minutes after emission, rapid, complex photochemistry within a biomass burning smoke plume can cause large changes in the concentrations of ozone (O3) and organic aerosol (OA). Being able to understand and simulate this rapid chemical evolution under 5 a wide variety of conditions is a critical part of forecasting the impact of these fires...

  15. Determination of biomass burning tracers in air samples by GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janoszka Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Levoglucosan (LG as a main cellulose burning product at 300°C is a biomass burning tracer. LG characterize by relatively high molar mass and it is sorbed by particulate matter. In the study of air pollution monitoring LG is mainly analyzed in particulate matter, PM1 and PM2,5. The tracer create relatively high O-H…O bond and weaker C-H…O bond. Due to the hydrogen bond, LG dissolves very well in water. Analytical procedure of LG determination include: extraction, derivatization and analysis by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detector. In water samples levoglucosan is determined by liquid chromatography. The paper presents a methodology for particulate matter samples determination their analysis by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometry detector. Determination of LG content in particulate matter was performed according to an analytical method based on simultaneous pyridine extraction and derivatization using N,O-bis (trimethylsilyl trifluoroacetamide and trimethylchlorosilane mixture (BSTFA: TMCS, 99: 1.

  16. Determination of biomass burning tracers in air samples by GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoszka, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    Levoglucosan (LG) as a main cellulose burning product at 300°C is a biomass burning tracer. LG characterize by relatively high molar mass and it is sorbed by particulate matter. In the study of air pollution monitoring LG is mainly analyzed in particulate matter, PM1 and PM2,5. The tracer create relatively high O-H…O bond and weaker C-H…O bond. Due to the hydrogen bond, LG dissolves very well in water. Analytical procedure of LG determination include: extraction, derivatization and analysis by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detector. In water samples levoglucosan is determined by liquid chromatography. The paper presents a methodology for particulate matter samples determination their analysis by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometry detector. Determination of LG content in particulate matter was performed according to an analytical method based on simultaneous pyridine extraction and derivatization using N,O-bis (trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide and trimethylchlorosilane mixture (BSTFA: TMCS, 99: 1).

  17. Thermal distillation system utilizing biomass energy burned in stove by means of heat pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tanaka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A thermal distillation system utilizing a part of the thermal energy of biomass burned in a stove during cooking is proposed. The thermal energy is transported from the stove to the distiller by means of a heat pipe. The distiller is a vertical multiple-effect diffusion distiller, in which a number of parallel partitions in contact with saline-soaked wicks are set vertically with narrow gaps of air. A pilot experimental apparatus was constructed and tested with a single-effect and multiple-effect distillers to investigate primarily whether a heat pipe can transport thermal energy adequately from the stove to the distiller. It was found that the temperatures of the heated plate and the first partition of the distiller reached to about 100 °C and 90 °C, respectively, at steady state, showing that the heat pipe works sufficiently. The distilled water obtained was about 0.75 and 1.35 kg during the first 2 h of burning from a single-effect and multiple-effect distillers, respectively.

  18. Light-absorbing organic carbon from prescribed and laboratory biomass burning and gasoline vehicle emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mingjie; Hays, Michael D; Holder, Amara L

    2017-08-04

    Light-absorbing organic carbon (OC), also termed brown carbon (BrC), from laboratory-based biomass burning (BB) has been studied intensively to understand the contribution of BB to radiative forcing. However, relatively few measurements have been conducted on field-based BB and even fewer measurements have examined BrC from anthropogenic combustion sources like motor vehicle emissions. In this work, the light absorption of methanol-extractable OC from prescribed and laboratory BB and gasoline vehicle emissions was examined using spectrophotometry. The light absorption of methanol extracts showed a strong wavelength dependence for both BB and gasoline vehicle emissions. The mass absorption coefficients at 365 nm (MAC 365 , m 2 g -1 C) - used as a measurement proxy for BrC - were significantly correlated (p burn conditions and fuel types may impact BB BrC characteristics. The average MAC 365 of gasoline vehicle emission samples is 0.62 ± 0.76 m 2  g -1 C, which is similar in magnitude to the BB samples (1.27 ± 0.76 m 2  g -1 C). These results suggest that in addition to BB, gasoline vehicle emissions may also be an important BrC source in urban areas.

  19. Top-down Estimates of Biomass Burning Emissions of Black Carbon in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Y.; Li, Q.; Randerson, J. T.; CHEN, D.; Zhang, L.; Liou, K.

    2012-12-01

    We apply a Bayesian linear inversion to derive top-down estimates of biomass burning emissions of black carbon (BC) in the western United States (WUS) for May-November 2006 by inverting surface BC concentrations from the IMPROVE network using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. Model simulations are conducted at both 2°×2.5° (globally) and 0.5°×0.667° (nested over North America) horizontal resolutions. We first improve the spatial distributions and seasonal and interannual variations of the BC emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFEDv2) using MODIS 8-day active fire counts from 2005-2007. The GFEDv2 emissions in N. America are adjusted for three zones: boreal N. America, temperate N. America, and Mexico plus Central America. The resulting emissions are then used as a priori for the inversion. The a posteriori emissions are 2-5 times higher than the a priori in California and the Rockies. Model surface BC concentrations using the a posteriori estimate provide better agreement with IMPROVE observations (~50% increase in the Taylor skill score), including improved ability to capture the observed variability especially during June-September. However, model surface BC concentrations are still biased low by ~30%. Comparisons with the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) are included.

  20. Modeling and Mechanisms of Intercontinental Transport of Biomass-Burning Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J. S.; Westphal, D. L.; Christopher, S. A.; Prins, E. M.; Justice, C. O.; Richardson, K. A.; Reid, E. A.; Eck, T. F.

    2003-12-01

    With the aid of fire products from GOES and MODIS, the NRL Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) successfully monitors and predicts the formation and transport of massive smoke plumes between the continents in near real time. The goal of this system, formed under the joint Navy, NASA, and NOAA sponsored Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) project, is to provide 5 day forecasts of large biomass burning plumes and evaluate impacts on air quality, visibility, and regional radiative balance. In this paper we discuss and compare the mechanisms of intercontinental transport from the three most important sources in the world prone to long range advection: Africa, South/Central America, and Siberia. We demonstrate how these regions impact neighboring continents. As the meteorology of these three regions are distinct, differences in transport phenomenon subsequently result, particularly with respect to vertical distribution. Specific examples will be given on prediction and the impact of Siberian and Central American smoke plumes on the United States as well as transport phenomena from Africa to Australia. We present rules of thumb for radiation and air quality impacts. We also model clear sky bias (both positive and negative) with respect to MODIS data, and show the frequency to which frontal advection of smoke plumes masks remote sensing retrievals of smoke optical depth.

  1. Comparison of global inventories of CO emissions from biomass burning derived from remotely sensed data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stroppiana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We compare five global inventories of monthly CO emissions named VGT, ATSR, MODIS, GFED3 and MOPITT based on remotely sensed active fires and/or burned area products for the year 2003. The objective is to highlight similarities and differences by focusing on the geographical and temporal distribution and on the emissions for three broad land cover classes (forest, savanna/grassland and agriculture. Globally, CO emissions for the year 2003 range between 365 Tg CO (GFED3 and 1422 Tg CO (VGT. Despite the large uncertainty in the total amounts, some common spatial patterns typical of biomass burning can be identified in the boreal forests of Siberia, in agricultural areas of Eastern Europe and Russia and in savanna ecosystems of South America, Africa and Australia. Regionally, the largest difference in terms of total amounts (CV > 100% and seasonality is observed at the northernmost latitudes, especially in North America and Siberia where VGT appears to overestimate the area affected by fires. On the contrary, Africa shows the best agreement both in terms of total annual amounts (CV = 31% and of seasonality despite some overestimation of emissions from forest and agriculture observed in the MODIS inventory. In Africa VGT provides the most reliable seasonality. Looking at the broad land cover types, the range of contribution to the global emissions of CO is 64–74%, 23–32% and 3–4% for forest, savanna/grassland and agriculture, respectively. These results suggest that there is still large uncertainty in global estimates of emissions and it increases if the comparison is carried by out taking into account the temporal (month and spatial (0.5° × 0.5° cell dimensions. Besides the area affected by fires, also vegetation characteristics and conditions at the time of burning should also be accurately parameterized since they can greatly influence the global estimates of CO emissions.

  2. Chemical, physical, and optical evolution of biomass burning aerosols: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, G.; Flores, J. M.; Abo Riziq, A.; Borrmann, S.; Rudich, Y.

    2011-02-01

    In-situ chemical composition measurements of ambient aerosols have been used for characterizing the evolution of submicron aerosols from a large anthropogenic biomass burning (BB) event in Israel. A high resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-RES-TOF-AMS) was used to follow the chemical evolution of BB aerosols during a night-long, extensive nationwide wood burning event and during the following day. While these types of extensive BB events are not common in this region, burning of agricultural waste is a common practice. The aging process of the BB aerosols was followed through their chemical, physical and optical properties. Mass spectrometric analysis of the aerosol organic component showed that aerosol aging is characterized by shifting from less oxidized fresh BB aerosols to more oxidized aerosols. Evidence for aerosol aging during the day following the BB event was indicated by an increase in the organic mass, its oxidation state, the total aerosol concentration, and a shift in the modal particle diameter. The effective broadband refractive index (EBRI) was derived using a white light optical particle counter (WELAS). The average EBRI for a mixed population of aerosols dominated by open fires was m = 1.53(±0.03) + 0.07i(±0.03), during the smoldering phase of the fires we found the EBRI to be m = 1.54(±0.01) + 0.04i(±0.01) compared to m = 1.49(±0.01) + 0.02i(±0.01) of the aged aerosols during the following day. This change indicates a decrease in the overall aerosol absorption and scattering. Elevated levels of particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected during the entire event, which suggest possible implications for human health during such extensive event.

  3. Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    A burn is damage to your body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or radiation. Scalds from hot ... and gases are the most common causes of burns. Another kind is an inhalation injury, caused by ...

  4. A regional chemical transport modeling to identify the influences of biomass burning during 2006 BASE-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J. S.; Hsu, N. C.; Gao, Y.; Huang, K.; Li, C.; Lin, N.-H.; Tsay, S.-C.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of biomass burning from Southeast Asia to East Asia, this study conducted numerical simulations during NASA's 2006 Biomass-burning Aerosols in South-East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Two typical episode periods (27-28 March and 13-14 April) were examined. Two emission inventories, FLAMBE and GFED, were used in the simulations. The influences during two episodes in the source region (Southeast Asia) contributed to CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations as high as 400 ppbv, 20 ppbv and 80 μg/m3, respectively. The perturbations with and without biomass burning of the above three species were in the range of 10 to 60%, 10 to 20% and 30 to 70%, respectively. The impact due to long-range transport could spread over the southeastern parts of East Asia and could reach about 160 to 360 ppbv, 8 to 18 ppbv and 8 to 64 μg/m3 on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively; the percentage impact could reach 20 to 50% on CO, 10 to 30% on O3, and as high as 70% on PM2.5. An impact pattern can be found in April, while the impact becomes slightly broader and goes up to Yangtze River Delta. Two cross-sections at 15° N and 20° N were used to compare the vertical flux of biomass burning. In the source region (Southeast Asia), CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations had a strong upward tendency from surface to high altitudes. The eastward transport becomes strong from 2 to 8 km in the free troposphere. The subsidence contributed 60 to 70%, 20 to 50%, and 80% on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively to surface in the downwind area. The study reveals the significant impact of Southeastern Asia biomass burning on the air quality in both local and downwind areas, particularly during biomass burning episodes. This modeling study might provide constraints of lower limit. An additional study is underway for an active biomass burning year to obtain an upper limit and climate effects.

  5. Biosorption of Congo Red from aqueous solution onto burned root of Eichhornia crassipes biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tapas Kumar; Mondal, Naba Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Biosorption is becoming a promising alternative to replace or supplement the present dye removal processes from dye containing waste water. In this work, adsorption of Congo Red (CR) from aqueous solution on burned root of Eichhornia crassipes ( BREC) biomass was investigated. A series of batch experiments were performed utilizing BREC biomass to remove CR dye from aqueous systems. Under optimized batch conditions, the BREC could remove up to 94.35 % of CR from waste water. The effects of operating parameters such as initial concentration, pH, adsorbent dose and contact time on the adsorption of CR were analyzed using response surface methodology. The proposed quadratic model for central composite design fitted very well to the experimental data. Response surface plots were used to determine the interaction effects of main factors and optimum conditions of the process. The optimum adsorption conditions were found to be initial CR concentration = 5 mg/L-1, pH = 7, adsorbent dose = 0.125 g and contact time = 45 min. The experimental isotherms data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm equations and the results indicated that the Freundlich isotherm showed a better fit for CR adsorption. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated from Van't Hoff plot, confirming that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. The high CR adsorptive removal ability and regeneration efficiency of this adsorbent suggest its applicability in industrial/household systems and data generated would help in further upscaling of the adsorption process.

  6. Aircraft-measured indirect cloud effects from biomass burning smoke in the Arctic and subarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Zamora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of wildfires in the Arctic and subarctic is increasing; in boreal North America, for example, the burned area is expected to increase by 200–300 % over the next 50–100 years, which previous studies suggest could have a large effect on cloud microphysics, lifetime, albedo, and precipitation. However, the interactions between smoke particles and clouds remain poorly quantified due to confounding meteorological influences and remote sensing limitations. Here, we use data from several aircraft campaigns in the Arctic and subarctic to explore cloud microphysics in liquid-phase clouds influenced by biomass burning. Median cloud droplet radii in smoky clouds were  ∼  40–60 % smaller than in background clouds. Based on the relationship between cloud droplet number (Nliq and various biomass burning tracers (BBt across the multi-campaign data set, we calculated the magnitude of subarctic and Arctic smoke aerosol–cloud interactions (ACIs, where ACI  =  (1∕3 × dln(Nliq∕dln(BBt to be  ∼  0.16 out of a maximum possible value of 0.33 that would be obtained if all aerosols were to nucleate cloud droplets. Interestingly, in a separate subarctic case study with low liquid water content ( ∼  0.02 g m−3 and very high aerosol concentrations (2000–3000 cm−3 in the most polluted clouds, the estimated ACI value was only 0.05. In this case, competition for water vapor by the high concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN strongly limited the formation of droplets and reduced the cloud albedo effect, which highlights the importance of cloud feedbacks across scales. Using our calculated ACI values, we estimate that the smoke-driven cloud albedo effect may decrease local summertime short-wave radiative flux by between 2 and 4 W m−2 or more under some low and homogeneous cloud cover conditions in the subarctic, although the changes should be smaller in high surface albedo regions of the

  7. Improving biomass burning pollution predictions in Singapore using AERONET and Lidar observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardacre, Catherine; Chew, Boon Ning; Gan, Christopher; Burgin, Laura; Hort, Matthew; Lee, Shao Yi; Shaw, Felicia; Witham, Claire

    2016-04-01

    Every year millions of people are affected by poor air quality from trans-boundary smoke haze emitted from large scale biomass burning in Asia. These fires are a particular problem in the Indonesian regions of Sumatra and Kalimantan where peat fires, lit to clear land for oil palm plantations and agriculture, typically result in high levels of particulate matter (PM) emissions. In June 2013 and from August-October 2015 the combination of widespread burning, meteorological and climatological conditions resulted in severe air pollution throughout Southeast Asia. The Met Office of the United Kingdom (UKMO) and the Hazard and Risk Impact Assessment Unit of the Meteorological Service of Singapore (MSS) have developed a quantitative haze forecast to provide a reliable, routine warning of haze events in the Singapore region. The forecast system uses the UKMO's Lagrangian particle dispersion model NAME (Numerical Atmosphere-dispersion Modelling Environment) in combination with high resolution, satellite based emission data from the Global Fire Emissions System (GFAS). The buoyancy of biomass burning smoke and it's rise through the atmosphere has a large impact on the amount of air pollution at the Earth's surface. This is important in Singapore, which is affected by pollution that has travelled long distances and that will have a vertical distribution influenced by meteorology. The vertical distribution of atmospheric aerosol can be observed by Lidar which provides information about haze plume structure. NAME output from two severe haze periods that occurred in June 2013 and from August-October 2015 was compared with observations of total column aerosol optical depth (AOD) from AERONET stations in Singapore and the surrounding region, as well as vertically resolved Lidar data from a station maintained by MSS and from MPLNET. Comparing total column and vertically resolved AOD observations with NAME output indicates that the model underestimates PM concentrations throughout

  8. Record high peaks in PCB concentrations in the Arctic atmosphere due to long-range transport of biomass burning emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eckhardt

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Soils and forests in the boreal region of the Northern Hemisphere are recognised as having a large capacity for storing air-borne Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs, such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. Following reductions of primary emissions of various legacy POPs, there is an increasing interest and debate about the relative importance of secondary re-emissions on the atmospheric levels of POPs. In spring of 2006, biomass burning emissions from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe were transported to the Zeppelin station on Svalbard, where record-high levels of many air pollutants were recorded (Stohl et al., 2007. Here we report on the extremely high concentrations of PCBs that were also measured during this period. 21 out of 32 PCB congeners were enhanced by more than two standard deviations above the long-term mean concentrations. In July 2004, about 5.8 million hectare of boreal forest burned in North America, emitting a pollution plume which reached the Zeppelin station after a travel time of 3–4 weeks (Stohl et al., 2006. Again, 12 PCB congeners were elevated above the long-term mean by more than two standard deviations, with the less chlorinated congeners being most strongly affected. We propose that these abnormally high concentrations were caused by biomass burning emissions. Based on enhancement ratios with carbon monoxide and known emissions factors for this species, we estimate that 130 and 66 μg PCBs were released per kilogram dry matter burned, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study relating atmospheric PCB enhancements with biomass burning. The strong effects on observed concentrations far away from the sources, suggest that biomass burning is an important source of PCBs for the atmosphere.

  9. Influence of biomass burning from South Asia at a high-altitude mountain receptor site in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Highly time-resolved in situ measurements of airborne particles were conducted at Mt. Yulong (3410 m above sea level on the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau in China from 22 March to 14 April 2015. The detailed chemical composition was measured by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer together with other online instruments. The average mass concentration of the submicron particles (PM1 was 5.7 ± 5.4 µg m−3 during the field campaign, ranging from 0.1 up to 33.3 µg m−3. Organic aerosol (OA was the dominant component in PM1, with a fraction of 68 %. Three OA factors, i.e., biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA, biomass-burning-influenced oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA-BB and oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, were resolved using positive matrix factorization analysis. The two oxygenated OA factors accounted for 87 % of the total OA mass. Three biomass burning events were identified by examining the enhancement of black carbon concentrations and the f60 (the ratio of the signal at m∕z 60 from the mass spectrum to the total signal of OA. Back trajectories of air masses and satellite fire map data were integrated to identify the biomass burning locations and pollutant transport. The western air masses from South Asia with active biomass burning activities transported large amounts of air pollutants, resulting in elevated organic concentrations up to 4-fold higher than those of the background conditions. This study at Mt. Yulong characterizes the tropospheric background aerosols of the Tibetan Plateau during pre-monsoon season and provides clear evidence that the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau was affected by the transport of anthropogenic aerosols from South Asia.

  10. Influence of biomass burning from South Asia at a high-altitude mountain receptor site in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Hu, Min; Du, Zhuofei; Shang, Dongjie; Gong, Zhaoheng; Qin, Yanhong; Fang, Jingyao; Gu, Fangting; Li, Mengren; Peng, Jianfei; Li, Jie; Zhang, Yuqia; Huang, Xiaofeng; He, Lingyan; Wu, Yusheng; Guo, Song

    2017-06-01

    Highly time-resolved in situ measurements of airborne particles were conducted at Mt. Yulong (3410 m above sea level) on the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau in China from 22 March to 14 April 2015. The detailed chemical composition was measured by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer together with other online instruments. The average mass concentration of the submicron particles (PM1) was 5.7 ± 5.4 µg m-3 during the field campaign, ranging from 0.1 up to 33.3 µg m-3. Organic aerosol (OA) was the dominant component in PM1, with a fraction of 68 %. Three OA factors, i.e., biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA), biomass-burning-influenced oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA-BB) and oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA), were resolved using positive matrix factorization analysis. The two oxygenated OA factors accounted for 87 % of the total OA mass. Three biomass burning events were identified by examining the enhancement of black carbon concentrations and the f60 (the ratio of the signal at m/z 60 from the mass spectrum to the total signal of OA). Back trajectories of air masses and satellite fire map data were integrated to identify the biomass burning locations and pollutant transport. The western air masses from South Asia with active biomass burning activities transported large amounts of air pollutants, resulting in elevated organic concentrations up to 4-fold higher than those of the background conditions. This study at Mt. Yulong characterizes the tropospheric background aerosols of the Tibetan Plateau during pre-monsoon season and provides clear evidence that the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau was affected by the transport of anthropogenic aerosols from South Asia.

  11. Chemical characterisation of iron in dust and biomass burning aerosols during AMMA-SOP0/DABEX: implication for iron solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Paris

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and the soluble fraction were determined in aerosol samples collected during flights of AMMA-SOP0/DABEX campaign, which were conducted in the West African Sahel during dry season (2006. Two aerosol types are encountered in this period: dust particles (DUST and biomass burning aerosol (BB. Chemical analysis and microscope observations showed that the iron (Fe found in BB samples mainly originates from dust particles mostly internally mixed in the biomass burning layer. Chemical analyses of samples showed that the Fe solubility is lower in African dust samples than in biomass burning aerosols. Our data provide a first idea of the variability of iron dust solubility in the source region (0.1% and 3.4%. We found a relationship between iron solubility/clay content/source which partly confirms that the variability of iron solubility in this source region is related to the character and origin of the aerosols themselves. In the biomass burning samples, no relationship were found between Fe solubility and either the concentrations of acidic species (SO42−, NO3 or oxalate or the content of carbon (TC, OC, BC. Therefore, we were unable to determine what processes are involved in this increase of iron solubility. In terms of supply of soluble Fe to oceanic ecosystems on a global scale, the higher solubility observed for Fe in biomass burning could imply an indirect source of Fe to marine ecosystems. But these aerosols are probably not significant because the Sahara is easily the dominant source of Fe to the Atlantic Ocean.

  12. Alternative-Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS-2) Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Although the emission performance of gas-turbine engines burning renewable aviation fuels have been thoroughly documented in recent ground-based studies, there is still great uncertainty regarding how the fuels effect aircraft exhaust composition and contrail formation at cruise altitudes. To fill this information gap, the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate sponsored the ACCESS flight series to make detailed measurements of trace gases, aerosols and ice particles in the near-field behind the NASA DC-8 aircraft as it burned either standard petroleum-based fuel of varying sulfur content or a 50:50 blend of standard fuel and a hydro-treated esters and fatty acid (HEFA) jet fuel produced from camelina plant oil. ACCESS 1, conducted in spring 2013 near Palmdale CA, focused on refining flight plans and sampling techniques and used the instrumented NASA Langley HU-25 aircraft to document DC-8 emissions and contrails on five separate flights of approx.2 hour duration. ACCESS 2, conducted from Palmdale in May 2014, engaged partners from the Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) and National Research Council-Canada to provide additional scientific expertise and sampling aircraft (Falcon 20 and CT-133, respectively) with more extensive trace gas, particle, or air motion measurement capability. Eight, muliti-aircraft research flights of 2 to 4 hour duration were conducted to document the emissions and contrail properties of the DC-8 as it 1) burned low sulfur Jet A, high sulfur Jet A or low sulfur Jet A/HEFA blend, 2) flew at altitudes between 6 and 11 km, and 3) operated its engines at three different fuel flow rates. This presentation further describes the ACCESS flight experiments, examines fuel type and thrust setting impacts on engine emissions, and compares cruise-altitude observations with similar data acquired in ground tests.

  13. Radiocarbon-based impact assessment of open biomass burning on regional carbonaceous aerosols in North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong, Zheng [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen, Yingjun, E-mail: yjchen@yic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Tian, Chongguo, E-mail: cgtian@yic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Fang, Yin [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Wang, Xiaoping [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Huang, Guopei; Zhang, Fan [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Samples of total suspended particulates (TSPs) and fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) were collected from 29th May to 1st July, 2013 at a regional background site in Bohai Rim, North China. Mass concentrations of particulate matter and carbonaceous species showed a total of 50% and 97% of the measured TSP and PM{sub 2.5} levels exceeded the first grade national standard of China, respectively. Daily concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were detected 7.3 and 2.5 μg m{sup −3} in TSP and 5.2 and 2.0 μg m{sup −3} in PM{sub 2.5}, which accounted 5.8% and 2.0% of TSP while 5.6% and 2.2% for PM{sub 2.5}, respectively. The concentrations of OC, EC, TSP and PM{sub 2.5} were observed higher in the day time than those in the night time. The observations were associated with the emission variations from anthropogenic activities. Two merged samples representing from south and north source areas were selected for radiocarbon analysis. The radiocarbon measurements showed 74% of water-insoluble OC (WINSOC) and 59% of EC in PM{sub 2.5} derived from biomass burning and biogenic sources when the air masses were from south region, and 63% and 48% for the air masses from north, respectively. Combined with backward trajectories and daily burned area, open burning of agricultural wastes was found to be predominating, which was confirmed by the potential source contribution function (PSCF). - Highlights: • PM{sub 2.5} and TSP samples collected at Yellow River Delta were analyzed for OC and EC. • OC, EC, TSP and PM{sub 2.5} concentrations were higher in daytime than in nighttime. • Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) tracer, backward trajectories, and fire counts were used for the analysis. • Agricultural waste open burning was a main contributor to summer PM{sub 2.5}, OC and EC.

  14. SAGE: Attribution of Biomass Burning Tracers sampled on the Greenland Ice Sheet in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, A. J.; Choi, H. D.; Polashenski, C.; Thomas, J. L.; Dibb, J. E.; Fairlie, T. D.; Winker, D. M.; Flanner, M.; Bergin, M.; Casey, K.; Ward, J. L.; Chen, J.; Courville, Z.; Trepte, C. R.; Lai, A.; Schauer, J. J.; Shafer, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    The SAGE team traversed and sampled the snow stratigraphy representing 2012-2014 snow accumulation in the northwest sector of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and found evidence of aerosol deposition that originated from biomass burning (BB). Black carbon (BC) concentrations (range 2.8-43 ng/g) were closely correlated with ammonium (NH4), both of which are tracers that are indicative of BB events. Data indicated the strongest deposition events occurred in July and August of 2013. Using a combination of these in-situ samples, modeling and satellite data, the transport and attribution of deposited smoke is back-traced from the GrIS to particular fires. The Langley Research Center Trajectory Model (LaTM) is used to track deposition events from pit locations on the GrIS to particular source fires from June through August 2013, which includes 2 months when smoke is known to have strongly impacted the GrIS (July August 2013) and 1 month (June 2013) of relatively low smoke impact. Simulated smoke is injected every 100 vertical meters to 2km ( boundary layer) in the LaTM and run backwards in time and space from sample sites until coincident with fire (MODIS data). Ground-based and satellite data are used to verify transport. As an example, we focus on one case study that traces smoke from fires that started burning on July 22nd and continued to burn through July 26-29. A river of smoke crosses Canada and is transported to the GrIS, arriving August 1st-2nd. Overall, we find the largest BB events do not equate to the largest deposition events, rather this process requires a combination of: intense fires; conducive transport paths; and deposition and preservation opportunities (snowfall). Intensely burning fires produce thick smoke, which is less likely to be dispersed or diluted in transport, and the smoke is injected to higher altitudes, which ensure a faster transport. Because fire severity, extreme fire seasons, general circulation patterns and precipitating snowfall are

  15. Biomass burning emissions of reactive gases estimated from satellite data analysis and ecosystem modeling for the Brazilian Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher; Brooks-Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Torregrosa, Alicia

    2002-10-01

    To produce a new daily record of trace gas emissions from biomass burning events for the Brazilian Legal Amazon, we have combined satellite advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data on fire counts together for the first time with vegetation greenness imagery as inputs to an ecosystem biomass model at 8 km spatial resolution. This analysis goes beyond previous estimates for reactive gas emissions from Amazon fires, owing to a more detailed geographic distribution estimate of vegetation biomass, coupled with daily fire activity for the region (original 1 km resolution), and inclusion of fire effects in extensive areas of the Legal Amazon (defined as the Brazilian states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, and Tocantins) covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. Results from our emissions model indicate that annual emissions from Amazon deforestation and biomass burning in the early 1990s total to 102 Tg yr-1 carbon monoxide (CO) and 3.5 Tg yr-1 nitrogen oxides (NOx). Peak daily burning emissions, which occurred in early September 1992, were estimated at slightly more than 3 Tg d-1for CO and 0.1 Tg d-1for NOx flux to the atmosphere. Other burning source fluxes of gases with relatively high emission factors are reported, including methane (CH4), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), in addition to total particulate matter (TPM). We estimate the Brazilian Amazon region to be a source of between one fifth and one third for each of these global emission fluxes to the atmosphere. The regional distribution of burning emissions appears to be highest in the Brazilian states of Maranhao and Tocantins, mainly from burning outside of moist forest areas, and in Pará and Mato Grosso, where we identify important contributions from primary forest cutting and burning. These new daily emission estimates of reactive gases from biomass burning fluxes are designed to be used as

  16. Chemical speciation, transport and contribution of biomass burning smoke to ambient aerosol in Guangzhou, a mega city of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhisheng; Engling, Guenter; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Chou, Charles C.-K.; Lung, Shih-Chun C.; Chang, Shih-Yu; Fan, Shaojia; Chan, Chuen-Yu; Zhang, Yuan-Hang

    2010-08-01

    Intensive measurements of aerosol (PM 10) and associated water-soluble ionic and carbonaceous species were conducted in Guangzhou, a mega city of China, during summer 2006. Elevated levels of most chemical species were observed especially at nighttime during two episodes, characterized by dramatic build-up of the biomass burning tracers levoglucosan and non-sea-salt potassium, when the prevailing wind direction had changed due to two approaching tropical cyclones. High-resolution air mass back trajectories based on the MM5 model revealed that air masses with high concentrations of levoglucosan (43-473 ng m -3) and non-sea-salt potassium (0.83-3.2 μg m -3) had passed over rural regions of the Pearl River Delta and Guangdong Province, where agricultural activities and field burning of crop residues are common practices. The relative contributions of biomass burning smoke to organic carbon in PM 10 were estimated from levoglucosan data to be on average 7.0 and 14% at daytime and nighttime, respectively, with maxima of 9.7 and 32% during the episodic transport events, indicating that biomass and biofuel burning activities in the rural parts of the Pearl River Delta and neighboring regions could have a significant impact on ambient urban aerosol levels.

  17. Relationship between trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning in Southeast Asia using satellite and emission data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Yoshimi; Nakamura, Maya; Kuji, Makoto

    2012-11-01

    Southeast Asia is one of the biggest regions of biomass burning with forest fires and slash-and-burn farming. From the fire events, a large amount of air pollutants are emitted such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and aerosol (black carbon; BC). Biomass burning generally causes not only local, but also transboundary air pollution, and influences the atmospheric environment in the world accordingly. However, impact of air pollutants' emissions from large-scale fire in Southeast Asia is not well investigated compared to other regions such as South America and Africa. In this study, characteristics of the atmospheric environment were investigated with correlative analyses among several satellite data (MOPITT, OMI, and MODIS) and emission inventory (GFEDv3) in Southeast Asia from October 2004 to June 2008 on a monthly basis. As a result, it is suggested that the transboundary air pollution from the biomass burning regions occurred over Southeast Asia, which caused specifically higher air pollutants' concentration at Hanoi, Vietnam in spring dry season.

  18. The formation of light absorbing insoluble organic compounds from the reaction of biomass burning precursors and Fe(III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Avi; Lin, Peng; Bhaduri, Bhaskar; Laskin, Alexander; Rudich, Yinon

    2017-04-01

    Dust particles and volatile organic compounds from fuel or biomass burning are two major components that affect air quality in urban polluted areas. We characterized the products from the reaction of soluble Fe(III), a reactive transition metal originating from dust particles dissolution processes, with phenolic compounds , namely, guaiacol, syringol, catechol, o- and p- cresol that are known products of incomplete fuel and biomass combustion but also from other natural sources such as humic compounds degradation. We found that under acidic conditions comparable to those expected on a dust particle surface, phenolic compounds readily react with dissolved Fe(III), leading to the formation of insoluble polymeric compounds. We characterized the insoluble products by x-ray photoelectron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, elemental analysis and thermo-gravimetric analysis. We found that the major chromophores formed are oligomers (from dimers to pentamers) of the reaction precursors that efficiently absorb light between 300nm and 500nm. High variability of the mass absorption coefficient of the reaction products was observed with catechol and guaiacol showing high absorption at the 300-500nm range that is comparable to that of brown carbon (BrC) from biomass burning studies. The studied reaction is a potential source for the in-situ production of secondary BrC material under dark conditions. Our results suggest a reaction path for the formation of bio-available iron in coastal polluted areas where dust particles mix with biomass burning pollution plumes. Such mixing can occur, for instance in the coast of West Africa or North Africa during dust and biomass burning seasons

  19. Convection links biomass burning to increased tropical ozone: However, models will tend to overpredict O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, Robert B.; Delany, Anthony C.

    1990-10-01

    Biomass burning throughout the inhabited portions of the tropics generates precursors which lead to significant local atmospheric ozone pollution. Several simulations show how this smog could be only an easily observed, local manifestation of a much broader increase in tropospheric ozone. We illustrate basic processes with a one-dimensional time-dependent model that is closer to true meteorological motions than commonly used eddy diffusion models. Its application to a representative region of South America gives reasonable simulations of the local pollutants measured there. Three illustrative simulations indicate the importance of dilution, principally due to vertical transport, in increasing the efficiency of ozone production, possibly enough for high ozone to be apparent on a very large, intercontinental scale. In the first, cook-then-mix, simulation the nitrogen oxides and other burning-produced pollutants are confined to a persistently subsident fair weather boundary layer for several days, and the resultant ozone is found to have only a transient influence on the whole column of tropospheric ozone. In the second, mix-then-cook, simulation the effect of typical cumulonimbus convection, which vents an actively polluted boundary layer, is to make a persistent increase in the tropical ozone column. Such a broadly increased ozone column is observed over the the populated "continental" portion of the tropics. A third simulation averages all emission, transport, and deposition parameters, representing one column in a global tropospheric model that does not simulate individual weather events. This "oversmoothing" simulation produces 60% more ozone than observed or otherwise modeled. Qualitatively similar overprediction is suggested for all models which average significantly in time or space, as all need do. Clearly, simulating these O3 levels will depend sensitively on knowledge of the timing of emissions and transport.

  20. Impacts of springtime biomass burning in the northern Southeast Asia on marine organic aerosols over the Gulf of Tonkin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lishan; Yang, Xiaoyang; Lai, Senchao; Ren, Hong; Yue, Siyao; Zhang, Yingyi; Huang, Xin; Gao, Yuanguan; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Fu, Pingqing

    2018-06-01

    Fine particles (PM 2.5 ) samples, collected at Weizhou Island over the Gulf of Tonkin on a daytime and nighttime basis in the spring of 2015, were analyzed for primary and secondary organic tracers, together with organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and stable carbon isotopic composition (δ 13 C) of total carbon (TC). Five organic compound classes, including saccharides, lignin/resin products, fatty acids, biogenic SOA tracers and phthalic acids, were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Levoglucosan was the most abundant organic species, indicating that the sampling site was under strong influence of biomass burning. Based on the tracer-based methods, the biomass-burning-derived fraction was estimated to be the dominant contributor to aerosol OC, accounting for 15.7% ± 11.1% and 22.2% ± 17.4% of OC in daytime and nighttime samples, respectively. In two episodes E1 and E2, organic aerosols characterized by elevated concentrations of levoglucosan as well as its isomers, sugar compounds, lignin products, high molecular weight (HMW) fatty acids and β-caryophyllinic acid, were attributed to the influence of intensive biomass burning in the northern Southeast Asia (SEA). However, the discrepancies in the ratios of levoglucosan to mannosan (L/M) and OC (L/OC) as well as the δ 13 C values suggest the type of biomass burning and the sources of organic aerosols in E1 and E2 were different. Hardwood and/or C 4 plants were the major burning materials in E1, while burning of softwood and/or C 3 plants played important role in E2. Furthermore, more complex sources and enhanced secondary contribution were found to play a part in organic aerosols in E2. This study highlights the significant influence of springtime biomass burning in the northern SEA to the organic molecular compositions of marine aerosols over the Gulf of Tonkin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of the intercontinental transport of biomass burning pollutants on the Mediterranean Basin during the CHARMEX-GLAM airborne campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocchi, Vanessa; Krysztofiak, Gisèle; Catoire, Valéry; Zbinden, Régina; Guth, Jonathan; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Piguet, Bruno; Dulac, François; Hamonou, Eric; Ricaud, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean Basin (MB) is at the crossroad of pollutant emissions from Western and Central Europe and of major dust sources from Sahara and Arabian deserts and thus sensitive to climate change and air quality. Several studies (Formenti et al.,J. Geophys. Res., 2002; Ancellet et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2016) also show the impact on the MB of long-range transport of polluted air masses. However, most of the studies have been dedicated to biomass burning aerosols. The aim of the present study is to show trace gases impact on the MB coming from long-range transport of biomass burning. The Gradient in Longitude of Atmospheric constituents above the Mediterranean basin (GLAM) campaign in August 2014, as part of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx) project, aimed at studying the tropospheric chemical variability of gaseous pollutants and aerosols along a West-East transect above the MB. During the GLAM campaign, several instruments onboard the Falcon-20 aircraft (SAFIRE, INSU / Météo-France) were deployed including an infrared laser spectrometer (SPIRIT, LPC2E) able to detect weak variations in the concentration of pollutants. During two flights on 6 and 10 August, increases in CO, O3 and aerosols were measured over Sardinia at 5000 and 9000 m asl, respectively. To assess the origin of the air masses, 20-day backward trajectories with a nested-grid regional scale Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART, Stohl et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2005) were calculated. Combined with emissions coming from the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) inventory (Kaiser et al., Biogeosciences, 2012), this leads to CO biomass burning contribution to aircraft measured values. Biomass burning emissions located in Siberia in the first case and in northern America in the second case were identified as the cause of this burden of pollutants in the mid and upper troposphere over the MB. By adjusting the injection height of the model and amplifying emissions

  2. Influence of the Southeast Asian biomass burnings on the atmospheric persistent organic pollutants observed at near sources and receptor site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shun-Shiang; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2013-10-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PBDD/Fs, PBBs and PBDEs are bio-accumulative, toxic, and susceptible to long-range transport (LRT). This study is the first that comprehensively discusses the long-range atmospheric transport behavior of these five groups of POPs. The main goal is to investigate the atmospheric characteristics of these POPs at the biomass burning sites of Chiang Mai in Thailand, and Da Nang in Vietnam, as well as the influence of the Southeast Asian biomass burnings on the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS) in Taiwan. Biomass burning in Southeast Asia is usually carried to remove the residues of agricultural activities. The ambient air in Da Nang seems to be more seriously affected by the local biomass burnings than that in Chiang Mai. The elevated atmospheric brominated POP (PBDD/Fs, PBBs and PBDEs) concentrations in Da Nang were attributed to the biomass burning and viewed as mostly unrelated to the local use of brominated flame retardants. In the spring of 2010, the mean atmospheric concentrations in LABS during the first and second Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) were 0.00428 and 0.00232 pg I-TEQ Nm-3 for PCDD/Fs, 0.000311 and 0.000282 pg WHO-TEQ m-3 for PCBs, 0.000379 and 0.000449 pg TEQ Nm-3 for total PBDD/Fs, 0.0208 and 0.0163 pg Nm-3 for total PBBs, and 109 and 18.2 pg Nm-3 for total PBDEs, respectively. These values represent the above concentrations due to the Southeast Asian biomass burnings. The affected atmospheric POP concentrations at the LABS were still at least one order lower than those in other atmospheric environments, except for the PBDE concentrations during the first IOP (109 pg Nm-3), which was surprisingly higher than those in Taiwanese metal complex areas (93.9 pg Nm-3) and urban areas (34.7 pg Nm-3). Atmospheric POP concentrations do not seem to dramatically decrease during long-range transport, and the reasons for this need to be further investigated.

  3. Radiative response of biomass-burning aerosols over an urban atmosphere in northern peninsular Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Shantanu Kumar; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chantara, Somporn; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Khamkaew, Chanakarn; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Janjai, Serm

    2018-08-15

    A large concentration of finer particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), the primary air-quality concern in northern peninsular Southeast Asia (PSEA), is believed to be closely related to large amounts of biomass burning (BB) particularly in the dry season. In order to quantitatively estimate the contributions of BB to aerosol radiative effects, we thoroughly investigated the physical, chemical, and optical properties of BB aerosols through the integration of ground-based measurements, satellite retrievals, and modelling tools during the Seven South East Asian Studies/Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles & Interactions Experiment (7-SEAS/BASELInE) campaign in 2014. Clusters were made on the basis of measured BB tracers (Levoglucosan, nss-K + , and NO 3 - ) to classify the degree of influence from BB over an urban atmosphere, viz., Chiang Mai (18.795°N, 98.957°E, 354m.s.l.), Thailand in northern PSEA. Cluster-wise contributions of BB to PM 2.5 , organic carbon, and elemental carbon were found to be 54-79%, 42-79%, and 39-77%, respectively. Moreover, the cluster-wise aerosol optical index (aerosol optical depth at 500nm≈0.98-2.45), absorption (single scattering albedo ≈0.87-0.85; absorption aerosol optical depth ≈0.15-0.38 at 440nm; absorption Ångström exponent ≈1.43-1.57), and radiative impacts (atmospheric heating rate ≈1.4-3.6Kd -1 ) displayed consistency with the degree of BB. PM 2.5 during Extreme BB (EBB) was ≈4 times higher than during Low BB (LBB), whereas this factor was ≈2.5 for the magnitude of radiative effects. Severe haze (visibility≈4km) due to substantial BB loadings (BB to PM 2.5 ≈79%) with favorable meteorology can significantly impact the local-to-regional air quality and the, daily life of local inhabitants as well as become a respiratory health threat. Additionally, such enhancements in atmospheric heating could potentially influence the regional hydrological cycle and crop productivity over Chiang Mai in

  4. Ambient measurements and source apportionment of fossil fuel and biomass burning black carbon in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R. M.; Sofowote, U.; Su, Y.; Debosz, J.; Noble, M.; Jeong, C.-H.; Wang, J. M.; Hilker, N.; Evans, G. J.; Doerksen, G.; Jones, K.; Munoz, A.

    2017-07-01

    Black carbon (BC) is of significant interest from a human exposure perspective but also due to its impacts as a short-lived climate pollutant. In this study, sources of BC influencing air quality in Ontario, Canada were investigated using nine concurrent Aethalometer datasets collected between June 2015 and May 2016. The sampling sites represent a mix of background and near-road locations. An optical model was used to estimate the relative contributions of fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning to ambient concentrations of BC at every site. The highest annual mean BC concentration was observed at a Toronto highway site, where vehicular traffic was found to be the dominant source. Fossil fuel combustion was the dominant contributor to ambient BC at all sites in every season, while the highest seasonal biomass burning mass contribution (35%) was observed in the winter at a background site with minimal traffic contributions. The mass absorption cross-section of BC was also investigated at two sites, where concurrent thermal/optical elemental carbon data were available, and was found to be similar at both locations. These results are expected to be useful for comparing the optical properties of BC at other near-road environments globally. A strong seasonal dependence was observed for fossil fuel BC at every Ontario site, with mean summer mass concentrations higher than their respective mean winter mass concentrations by up to a factor of two. An increased influence from transboundary fossil fuel BC emissions originating in Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York was identified for the summer months. The findings reported here indicate that BC should not be considered as an exclusively local pollutant in future air quality policy decisions. The highest seasonal difference was observed at the highway site, however, suggesting that changes in fuel composition may also play an important role in the seasonality of BC mass concentrations in the near-road environment

  5. Production of Peroxy Nitrates in Boreal Biomass Burning Plumes over Canada During the BORTAS Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busilacchio, Marcella; Di Carlo, Piero; Aruffo, Eleonora; Biancofiore, Fabio; Salisburgo, Cesare Dari; Giammaria, Franco; Bauguitte, Stephane; Lee, James; Moller, Sarah; Hopkins, James; hide

    2016-01-01

    The observations collected during the BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS) campaign in summer 2011 over Canada are analysed to study the impact of forest fire emissions on the formation of ozone (O3 and total peroxy nitrates (sigma)PNs, (sigma)ROONO2. The suite of measurements on board the BAe-146 aircraft, deployed in this campaign, allows us to calculate the production of O3 and of (sigma)PNs, a long-lived NOx reservoir whose concentration is supposed to be impacted by biomass burning emissions.In fire plumes, profiles of carbon monoxide (CO), which is a well-established tracer of pyrogenic emission, show concentration enhancements that are in strong correspondence with a significant increase of concentrations of (sigma)PNs, where as minimal increase of the concentrations of O3 and NO2 is observed. The (sigma)PN and O3 productions have been calculated using the rate constants of the first- and second-order react Pions of volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation. The (sigma)PN and O3 productions have also been quantified by 0-D model simulation based on the Master Chemical Mechanism. Both methods show that in fire plumes the average production of (sigma)PNs and O3 are greater than in the background plumes, but the increase of (sigma)PN production is more pronounced than the O3 production. The average (sigma)PN production in fire plumes is from 7 to 12 times greater than in the background, whereas the average O3 production in fire plumes is from 2 to 5 times greater than in the background. These results suggest that, at least for boreal forest fires and for the measurements recorded during the BORTAS campaign,fire emissions impact both the oxidized NOy and O3;but (1)(sigma)PN production is amplified significantly more thanO3 production and (2) in the forest fire plumes the ratio between the O3 production and the (sigma)PN production is lower than the ratio evaluated in the background air masses, thus

  6. Production of peroxy nitrates in boreal biomass burning plumes over Canada during the BORTAS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Busilacchio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The observations collected during the BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS campaign in summer 2011 over Canada are analysed to study the impact of forest fire emissions on the formation of ozone (O3 and total peroxy nitrates ∑PNs, ∑ROONO2. The suite of measurements on board the BAe-146 aircraft, deployed in this campaign, allows us to calculate the production of O3 and of  ∑PNs, a long-lived NOx reservoir whose concentration is supposed to be impacted by biomass burning emissions. In fire plumes, profiles of carbon monoxide (CO, which is a well-established tracer of pyrogenic emission, show concentration enhancements that are in strong correspondence with a significant increase of concentrations of ∑PNs, whereas minimal increase of the concentrations of O3 and NO2 is observed. The ∑PN and O3 productions have been calculated using the rate constants of the first- and second-order reactions of volatile organic compound (VOC oxidation. The ∑PN and O3 productions have also been quantified by 0-D model simulation based on the Master Chemical Mechanism. Both methods show that in fire plumes the average production of ∑PNs and O3 are greater than in the background plumes, but the increase of ∑PN production is more pronounced than the O3 production. The average ∑PN production in fire plumes is from 7 to 12 times greater than in the background, whereas the average O3 production in fire plumes is from 2 to 5 times greater than in the background. These results suggest that, at least for boreal forest fires and for the measurements recorded during the BORTAS campaign, fire emissions impact both the oxidized NOy and O3,  but (1 ∑PN production is amplified significantly more than O3 production and (2 in the forest fire plumes the ratio between the O3 production and the ∑PN production is lower than the ratio evaluated in the background air masses, thus confirming that the

  7. Inferring brown carbon content from UV aerosol absorption measurements during biomass burning season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Arola, A. T.; Torres, O.; Jethva, H. T.; Andrade, M.; Labow, G. J.; Eck, T. F.; Li, Z.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stenchikov, G. L.; Osipov, S.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring spectral dependence of light absorption by colored organic or "brown" carbon (BrC) is important, because of its effects on photolysis rates of ozone and surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Enhanced UV spectral absorption by BrC can in turn be exploited for simultaneous retrievals of BrC and black carbon (BC) column amounts in field campaigns. We present an innovative ground-based retrieval of BC and BrC volume fractions and their mass absorption efficiencies during the biomass burning season in Santa Cruz, Bolivia in September-October 2007. Our method combines retrieval of BC volume fraction using AERONET inversion in visible wavelengths with the inversion of total BC+BrC absorption (i.e., column effective imaginary refractive index, kmeas) using Diffuse/Direct irradiance measurements in UV wavelengths. First, we retrieve BrC volume fraction by fitting kmeas at 368nm using Maxwell-Garnett (MG) mixing rules assuming: (1) flat spectral dependence of kBC, (2) known value of kBrC at 368nm from laboratory absorption measurements or smoke chamber experiments, and (3) known BC volume fraction from AERONET inversion. Next, we derive kBrC in short UVB wavelengths by fitting kmeas at 305nm, 311nm, 317nm, 325nm, and 332nm using MG mixing rules and fixed volume fractions of BC and BrC. Our retrievals show larger than expected spectral dependence of kBrC in UVB wavelengths, implying reduced surface UVB irradiance and inhibited photolysis rates of surface ozone destruction. We use a one-dimensional chemical box model to show that the observed strong wavelength dependence of BrC absorption leads to inhibited photolysis of ozone to O(1D), a loss mechanism, while having little impact or even accelerating photolysis of NO2, an ozone production mechanism. Although BC only absorption in biomass burning aerosols is important for climate radiative forcing in the visible wavelengths, additional absorption by BrC is important because of its impact on surface UVB radiation

  8. Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol as a Modulator of Droplet Number in the Southern Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacarab, M.; Howell, S. G.; Small Griswold, J. D.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Wood, R.; Redemann, J.; Nenes, A.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosols play a significant yet highly variable role in local and global air quality and climate. They act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and both scatter and absorb radiation, lending a large source of uncertainty to climate predictions. Biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) can drastically elevate CCN concentrations, but the response in cloud droplet number may be suppressed or even reversed due to low supersaturations that develop from strong competition for water vapor. Constraining droplet response to BBOA is a key factor to understanding aerosol-cloud interactions. The southeastern Atlantic (SEA) cloud deck off the west coast of central Africa is a prime opportunity to study these cloud-BBOA interactions for marine stratocumulus as during winter in the southern hemisphere the SEA cloud deck is overlain by a large, optically thick BBOA plume. The NASA ObseRvations of Aerosols above Clouds and their intEractionS (ORACLES) study focuses on increasing the understanding of how these BBOA affect the SEA cloud deck. Measurements of CCN concentration, aerosol size distribution and composition, updraft velocities, and cloud droplet number in and around the SEA cloud deck and associated BBOA plume were taken aboard the NASA P-3 aircraft during the first two years of the ORACLES campaign in September 2016 and August 2017. Here we evaluate the predicted and observed droplet number sensitivity to the aerosol fluctuations and quantify, using the data, the drivers of droplet number variability (vertical velocity or aerosol properties) as a function of biomass burning plume characteristics. Over the course of the campaign, different levels of BBOA influence in the marine boundary layer (MBL) were observed, allowing for comparison of cloud droplet number, hygroscopicity parameter (κ), and maximum in-cloud supersaturation over a range of "clean" and "dirty" conditions. Droplet number sensitivity to aerosol concentration, κ, and vertical updraft velocities are also

  9. Sahara dust, ocean spray, volcanoes, biomass burning: pathways of nutrients into Andean rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, P.; Rollenbeck, R.; Spichtinger, N.; Brothers, L.; Dominguez, G.; Thiemens, M.

    2009-10-01

    Regular rain and fogwater sampling in the Podocarpus National Park, on the humid eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, along an altitude profile between 1960 and 3180 m, has been carried out since 2002. The samples, accumulated over about 1-week intervals, were analysed for pH, conductivity and major ions (K+, Na+, NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, PO43-). About 35% of the weekly samples had very low ion contents, with pH mostly above 5 and conductivity below 10 μS/cm. 10-days back trajectories (FLEXTRA) showed that respective air masses originated in pristine continental areas, with little or no obvious pollution sources. About 65%, however, were significantly loaded with cations and anions, with pH as low as 3.5 to 4.0 and conductivity up to 50 μS/cm. The corresponding back trajectories clearly showed that air masses had passed over areas of intense biomass burning, active volcanoes, and the ocean, with episodic Sahara and/or Namib desert dust interference. Enhanced SO42- and NO3+ were identified, by combining satellite-based fire pixel observations with back trajectories, as predominantly resulting from biomass burning. Analyses of oxygen isotopes 16O, 17O, and 18O in nitrate show that nitrate in the samples is indeed a product of atmospheric conversion of precursors. Some SO42-, about 10% of the total input, could be identified to originate from active volcanoes, whose plumes were encountered by about 10% of all trajectories. Enhanced Na+, K+, and Cl- were found to originate from ocean spray sources. They were associated with winds providing Atlantic air masses to the receptor site within less than 5 days. Episodes of enhanced Ca2+ and Mg2+ were found to be associated with air masses from African deserts. Satellite aerosol data confirm desert sources both on the Northern (Sahara) as on the Southern Hemisphere (Namib), depending on the season. A few significant PO43- peaks are related with air masses originating from North African phosphate mining fields.

  10. On the climatic impact of contrails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, B; Meerkoetter, R; Wissinger, B; Wendling, P [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-12-31

    The impact of contrail induced cirrus clouds on regional climate is estimated for atmospheric conditions of Southern Germany that are typical for the months of July and October. This is done by the use of a regionalized one-dimensional radiative convective model (RCM). The influence of an increased ice cloud cover is studied by comparing RCM results using averaged climatological values of cloudiness with those of a case with modified cloudiness. It turns out that a 10% increase in ice cloud cover leads to a surface temperature increase of 1.4 K and 1.2 K for the months of July and October, respectively. (author) 14 refs.

  11. On the climatic impact of contrails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, B.; Meerkoetter, R.; Wissinger, B.; Wendling, P. [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    The impact of contrail induced cirrus clouds on regional climate is estimated for atmospheric conditions of Southern Germany that are typical for the months of July and October. This is done by the use of a regionalized one-dimensional radiative convective model (RCM). The influence of an increased ice cloud cover is studied by comparing RCM results using averaged climatological values of cloudiness with those of a case with modified cloudiness. It turns out that a 10% increase in ice cloud cover leads to a surface temperature increase of 1.4 K and 1.2 K for the months of July and October, respectively. (author) 14 refs.

  12. Impacts of Frequent Burning on Live Tree Carbon Biomass and Demography in Post-Harvest Regrowth Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Collins

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The management of forest ecosystems to increase carbon storage is a global concern. Fire frequency has the potential to shift considerably in the future. These shifts may alter demographic processes and growth of tree species, and consequently carbon storage in forests. Examination of the sensitivity of forest carbon to the potential upper and lower extremes of fire frequency will provide crucial insight into the magnitude of possible change in carbon stocks associated with shifts in fire frequency. This study examines how tree biomass and demography of a eucalypt forest regenerating after harvest is affected by two experimentally manipulated extremes in fire frequency (i.e., ~3 year fire intervals vs. unburnt sustained over a 23 year period. The rate of post-harvest biomass recovery of overstorey tree species, which constituted ~90% of total living tree biomass, was lower within frequently burnt plots than unburnt plots, resulting in approximately 20% lower biomass in frequently burnt plots by the end of the study. Significant differences in carbon biomass between the two extremes in frequency were only evident after >15–20 years of sustained treatment. Reduced growth rates and survivorship of smaller trees on the frequently burnt plots compared to unburnt plots appeared to be driving these patterns. The biomass of understorey trees, which constituted ~10% of total living tree biomass, was not affected by frequent burning. These findings suggest that future shifts toward more frequent fire will potentially result in considerable reductions in carbon sequestration across temperate forest ecosystems in Australia.

  13. Suppression of nucleation mode particles by biomass burning in an urban environment: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus, Emily L; Lingard, Justin J N; Tomlin, Alison S

    2008-08-01

    Measurements of concentrations and size distributions of particles 4.7 to 160 nm were taken using an SMPS during the bonfire and firework celebrations on Bonfire Night in Leeds, UK, 2006. These celebrations provided an opportunity to study size distributions in a unique atmospheric pollution situation during and following a significant emission event due to open biomass burning. A log-normal fitting program was used to determine the characteristics of the modal groups present within hourly averaged size distributions. Results from the modal fitting showed that on bonfire night the smallest nucleation mode, which was present before and after the bonfire event and on comparison weekends, was not detected within the size distribution. In addition, there was a significant shift in the modal diameters of the remaining modes during the peak of the pollution event. Using the concept of a coagulation sink, the atmospheric lifetimes of smaller particles were significantly reduced during the pollution event, and thus were used to explain the disappearance of the smallest nucleation mode as well as changes in particle count mean diameters. The significance for particle mixing state is discussed.

  14. Increasing potential of biomass burning over Sumatra, Indonesia induced by anthropogenic tropical warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestari, R Kartika; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Imada, Yukiko; Shiogama, Hideo; Field, Robert D; Takemura, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Uncontrolled biomass burning in Indonesia during drought periods damages the landscape, degrades regional air quality, and acts as a disproportionately large source of greenhouse gas emissions. The expansion of forest fires is mostly observed in October in Sumatra favored by persistent droughts during the dry season from June to November. The contribution of anthropogenic warming to the probability of severe droughts is not yet clear. Here, we show evidence that past events in Sumatra were exacerbated by anthropogenic warming and that they will become more frequent under a future emissions scenario. By conducting two sets of atmospheric general circulation model ensemble experiments driven by observed sea surface temperature for 1960–2011, one with and one without an anthropogenic warming component, we found that a recent weakening of the Walker circulation associated with tropical ocean warming increased the probability of severe droughts in Sumatra, despite increasing tropical-mean precipitation. A future increase in the frequency of droughts is then suggested from our analyses of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 model ensembles. Increasing precipitation to the north of the equator accompanies drier conditions over Indonesia, amplified by enhanced ocean surface warming in the central equatorial Pacific. The resultant precipitation decrease leads to a ∼25% increase in severe drought events from 1951–2000 to 2001–2050. Our results therefore indicate the global warming impact to a potential of wide-spreading forest fires over Indonesia, which requires mitigation policy for disaster prevention. (letter)

  15. Interactions between biomass-burning aerosols and clouds over Southeast Asia: current status, challenges, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Neng-Huei; Sayer, Andrew M; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Loftus, Adrian M; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Hsu, N Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Chantara, Somporn

    2014-12-01

    The interactions between aerosols, clouds, and precipitation remain among the largest sources of uncertainty in the Earth's energy budget. Biomass-burning aerosols are a key feature of the global aerosol system, with significant annually-repeating fires in several parts of the world, including Southeast Asia (SEA). SEA in particular provides a "natural laboratory" for these studies, as smoke travels from source regions downwind in which it is coupled to persistent stratocumulus decks. However, SEA has been under-exploited for these studies. This review summarizes previous related field campaigns in SEA, with a focus on the ongoing Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) and results from the most recent BASELInE deployment. Progress from remote sensing and modeling studies, along with the challenges faced for these studies, are also discussed. We suggest that improvements to our knowledge of these aerosol/cloud effects require the synergistic use of field measurements with remote sensing and modeling tools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Monitoring of Siberian biomass burning smoke from AHI on board geostationary satellite Himawari-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, I.; Mukai, S.; Yoshida, A.; Nakata, M.; Minoura, H.; Holben, B. N.

    2016-12-01

    High frequency aerosol measurements are demanded for evaluation of the model simulations, monitoring the atmospheric qualities such as Particulate Matter (PM2.5), and so on. Geostationary satellite provides us with the high frequency information of the atmosphere. Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA) launched the Himawari-8 geostationary satellite in 2014 and has prepared Himawari-9 for launching in 2016. Both satellites carry new generation imagers named Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI). They have 16 multi-channels from short visible to thermal infrared wavelengths with 1 km IFOV for visible and 2 km for infrared. Each observation is done within 10 minutes for the Earth full disk. Then high frequency Earth observations are realized. AHI has frequently observed biomass burning plume around East Siberia and its transportation according to weather system. This work retrieves aerosol properties due to the Siberian smoke plume and its movements based on the measurements with AHI. The results are compared with ground based measurements which have newly deployed at an AERONET/Niigata site in Japan. It is shown here that continuous measurements of aerosols from geostationary satellite combination with the polar orbiting satellite provide us with much detail information of aerosol.

  17. A review of biomass burning: Emissions and impacts on air quality, health and climate in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianmin; Li, Chunlin; Ristovski, Zoran; Milic, Andelija; Gu, Yuantong; Islam, Mohammad S; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming; Zhang, Hefeng; He, Congrong; Guo, Hai; Fu, Hongbo; Miljevic, Branka; Morawska, Lidia; Thai, Phong; Lam, Yun Fat; Pereira, Gavin; Ding, Aijun; Huang, Xin; Dumka, Umesh C

    2017-02-01

    Biomass burning (BB) is a significant air pollution source, with global, regional and local impacts on air quality, public health and climate. Worldwide an extensive range of studies has been conducted on almost all the aspects of BB, including its specific types, on quantification of emissions and on assessing its various impacts. China is one of the countries where the significance of BB has been recognized, and a lot of research efforts devoted to investigate it, however, so far no systematic reviews were conducted to synthesize the information which has been emerging. Therefore the aim of this work was to comprehensively review most of the studies published on this topic in China, including literature concerning field measurements, laboratory studies and the impacts of BB indoors and outdoors in China. In addition, this review provides insights into the role of wildfire and anthropogenic BB on air quality and health globally. Further, we attempted to provide a basis for formulation of policies and regulations by policy makers in China. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploring the Elevated Water Vapor Signal Associated with Biomass Burning Aerosol over the Southeast Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistone, Kristina; Redemann, Jens; Wood, Rob; Zuidema, Paquita; Flynn, Connor; LeBlanc, Samuel; Noone, David; Podolske, James; Segal Rozenhaimer, Michal; Shinozuka, Yohei; hide

    2017-01-01

    The quantification of radiative forcing due to the cumulative effects of aerosols, both directly and on cloud properties, remains the biggest source of uncertainty in our understanding of the physical climate. How the magnitude of these effects may be modified by meteorological conditions is an important aspect of this question. The Southeast Atlantic Ocean (SEA), with seasonal biomass burning (BB) smoke plumes overlying a persistent stratocumulus cloud deck, offers a perfect natural observatory in which to study the complexities of aerosol-cloud interactions. The NASA ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) campaign consists of three field deployments over three years (2016-2018) with the goal of gaining a better understanding of the complex processes (direct and indirect) by which BB aerosols affect clouds. We present results from the first ORACLES field deployment, which took place in September 2016 out of Walvis Bay, Namibia. Two NASA aircraft were flown with a suite of aerosol, cloud, radiation, and meteorological instruments for remote-sensing and in-situ observations. A strong correlation was observed between the aircraft-measured pollution indicators (carbon monoxide and aerosol properties) and atmospheric water vapor content, at all altitudes. Atmospheric reanalysis indicates that convective dynamics over the continent, near likely contribute to this elevated signal. Understanding the mechanisms by which water vapor covaries with plume strength is important to quantifying the magnitude of the aerosol direct and semi-direct effects in the region.

  19. Impacts of Biomass Burning on Organic Aerosols over the Northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, T.; Guo, Z.

    2017-12-01

    During the cruise from East China Sea to Northwestern Pacific in March-April 2014, total suspended particle samples were collected and analyzed for tracers of primary and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) as well as OC and EC. In the study, the sum of all tracers during the sampling period ranged from 3.60 to 181.58 ng/m3, with a mean being 59.87±62.70 ng/m3. Among these tracers, glucose was the dominant compound (average: 17.73±20.60 ng/m3), followed by levoglucosan (12.82±14.37 ng/m3) and fructose (10.47±13.28 ng/m3). LEVO in samples affected by long range transport of biomass burning aerosol (17.38±21.32ng/m3) was about 1 order magnitude higher than the other (1.76±0.92ng/m3, pBTs. Thus organic aerosols over NWPO were deeply influenced by forest fires taking place in Siberia and North China as a result of long-range transport of both directly emitted OA and secondarily formed OA under high-NOx conditions during fire events.

  20. The characteristics of Beijing aerosol during two distinct episodes: impacts of biomass burning and fireworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Engling, Guenter; He, Ke-bin; Duan, Feng-kui; Du, Zhen-yu; Ma, Yong-liang; Liang, Lin-lin; Lu, Zi-feng; Liu, Jiu-meng; Zheng, Mei; Weber, Rodney J

    2014-02-01

    The chemical composition of Beijing aerosol was measured during summer and winter. Two distinct episodes were identified. Water-soluble potassium (K(+)) increased significantly during the firework episode in winter with an episode to non-episode ratio of 4.97, whereas the biomass burning (BB) episode in summer was characterized by high episode to non-episode ratios of levoglucosan (6.38) and K(+) (6.90). The BB and firework episodes had only a minor influence on the water-soluble OC (organic carbon) to OC ratio. Based on separate investigations of episode and non-episode periods, it was found that: (i) sulfate correlated strongly with both relative humidity and nitrate during the typical winter period presumably indicating the importance of the aqueous-phase oxidation of sulfur dioxide by nitrogen dioxide, (ii) oxalate and WSOC during both winter and summer in Beijing were mainly due to secondary formation, and (iii) high humidity can significantly enhance the formation potential of WSOC in winter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia during a high fire event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled a large fire-induced haze episode in 2006 stemming mostly from Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem). We focused on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city state of Singapore, and on comparisons of modeled and measured aerosol and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations. Two simulations were run with WRF-Chem using the complex volatility basis set (VBS) scheme to reproduce primary and secondary aerosol evolution and concentration. The first simulation referred to as WRF-FIRE included anthropogenic, biogenic and biomass burning emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) while the second simulation referred to as WRF-NOFIRE was run without emissions from biomass burning. To test model performance, we used three independent data sets for comparison including airborne measurements of particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) in Singapore, CO measurements in Sumatra, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) column observations from four satellite-based sensors. We found reasonable agreement between the model runs and both ground-based measurements of CO and PM10. The comparison with AOD was less favorable and indicated the model underestimated AOD, although the degree of mismatch varied between different satellite data sets. During our study period, forest and peat fires in Sumatra were the main cause of enhanced aerosol concentrations from regional transport over Singapore. Analysis of the biomass burning plume showed high concentrations of primary organic aerosols (POA) with values up to 600 μg m-3 over the fire locations. The concentration of POA remained quite stable within the plume between the main burning region and Singapore while the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentration

  2. Is it time to tackle PM(2.5) air pollutions in China from biomass-burning emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; Cao, Fang

    2015-07-01

    An increase in haze days has been observed in China over the past two decades due to the rapid industrialization, urbanization and energy consumptions. To address this server issue, Chinese central government has recently released the Action Plan on Prevention and Control of Air Pollution, which mainly focuses on regulation of indusial and transport-related emissions with major energy consumption from fossil fuels. This comprehensive and toughest plan is definitely a major step in the right direction aiming at beautiful and environmental-friendly China; however, based on recent source apportionment results, we suggest that strengthening regulation emissions from biomass-burning sources in both urban and rural areas is needed to meet a rigorous reduction target. Here, household biofuel and open biomass burning are highlighted, as impacts of these emissions can cause local and regional pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Diameter Growth, Biological Rotation Age and Biomass of Chinese Fir in Burning and Clearing Site Preparations in Subtropical China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustained forest management of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese fir plantations in subtropical China is restricted by the limited availability of quantitative data. This study combines inventory data and tree-ring analysis of Chinese fir from natural and plantation forests that were subjected to controlled burning or brush clearing site preparations. Inter-annual variation of Chinese fir tree-ring widths were measured for the controlled burning, brush clearing and natural forest sites. The mean annual diametric growth of Chinese fir was 0.56 cm·year−1 for the natural forest, 0.80 cm·year−1 for the brush clearing site and 1.10 cm·year−1 for the controlled burning site. The time needed to reach the minimum cutting/logging diameter of 15 cm was 14 years in the controlled burning site, 19 years in the brush clearing site and >40 years in the natural forest. The biological rotation ages for the burning, cutting and natural forest sites were 15, 26 and >100 years, respectively. The total aboveground biomasses for the burning and clearing sites were 269.8 t·ha−1 and 252 t·ha−1, respectively. These results suggest that the current 25-year cutting cycle greatly underestimates the growth rate of Chinese fir plantations.

  4. Generating emissions and meteorology to model the impacts of biomass burning emissions on regional air quality in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Carter, WS

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available inventory, trajectory analysis. 1. Introduction The Kruger National Park (KNP), situated on the border of South Africa and Mozambique was intensively studied for its emission contributions and effects on the atmosphere during both the SAFARI...-1992 and SAFARI-2000 campaigns. It is a region that is characterised by dry season biomass burning with more than 52% of its fires occurring throughout the winter months. As an initial step in this study, pyrogenic emissions from savanna...

  5. Biomass burning emissions in north Australia during the early dry season: an overview of the 2014 SAFIRED campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Mallet, Marc D.; Desservettaz, Maximilien J.; Miljevic, Branka; Milic, Andelija; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Alroe, Joel; Cravigan, Luke T.; Jayaratne, E. Rohan; Paton-Walsh, Clare; Griffith, David W. T.; Wilson, Stephen R.; Kettlewell, Graham; Schoot, Marcel V.; Selleck, Paul; Reisen, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    The SAFIRED (Savannah Fires in the Early Dry Season) campaign took place from 29th of May, 2014 until the 30th June, 2014 at the Australian Tropical Atmospheric Research Station (ATARS) in the Northern Territory, Australia. The purpose of this campaign was to investigate emissions from fires in the early dry season in northern Australia. Measurements were made of biomass burning aerosols, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic carbons, greenhouse gases, radon, mercury cycle, and trac...

  6. Biomass burning emissions in north Australia during the early dry season: an overview of the 2014 SAFIRED campaign

    OpenAIRE

    M. D. Mallet; M. J. Desservettaz; B. Miljevic; A. Milic; Z. D. Ristovski; J. Alroe; L. T. Cravigan; E. R. Jayaratne; C. Paton-Walsh; D. W. T. Griffith; S. R. Wilson; G. Kettlewell; M. V. van der Schoot; P. Selleck; F. Reisen

    2017-01-01

    The SAFIRED (Savannah Fires in the Early Dry Season) campaign took place from 29 May until 30 June 2014 at the Australian Tropical Atmospheric Research Station (ATARS) in the Northern Territory, Australia. The purpose of this campaign was to investigate emissions from fires in the early dry season in northern Australia. Measurements were made of biomass burning aerosols, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic carbons, greenhouse gases, radon, speciated atmospheric ...

  7. Using Lagrangian Chemical Transport Modeling to Assess the Impact of Biomass Burning on Ozone and PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, M. J.; Lonsdale, C. R.; Brodowski, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    One of the challenges of using in situ measurements to study the air quality and climate impacts of biomass burning is correctly determining the contribution of biomass burning sources to the measured ambient concentrations. This is especially important for policy purposes, as the ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from natural wildfires should not be confused with that from controllable anthropogenic sources. We have developed a Lagrangian chemical transport model called STILT-ASP that is able to quantify the impact of wildfire events on O3 and PM2.5 measurements made at surface monitoring sites, by mobile laboratories, or by aircraft. STILT-ASP is built by coupling the Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model with AER's Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP), which has been used in many studies of the gas and aerosol chemistry of biomass burning smoke. Here we present recent revisions made in STILT-ASP v2.0, including the use of more detailed chemical speciation of fire emissions and biogenic emissions calculated using the MEGAN model with meteorological inputs consistent with those used to drive STILT. We will present the results of an evaluation of the performance of STILT-ASP v2.0 using surface, mobile lab, and aircraft data from the 2013 Houston DISCOVER-AQ campaign. STILT-ASP v2.0 showed good average performance for O3 during the peak of the high O3 episodes on Sept. 25-26, 2013, with a mean bias of -4 ppbv. We will also demonstrate the use of STILT-ASP to evaluate the impact of biomass burning on O3 and PM2.5 in urban areas and to assess the impact of remote fires on the boundary conditions used in Eulerian chemical transport models like CAMx.

  8. Mass distribution and elemental analysis of the resultant atmospheric aerosol particles generated in controlled biomass burning processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordou, N.; Agranovski, I. E.

    2017-12-01

    Air contamination resulting from bushfires is becoming increasingly important research question, as such disasters frequently occur in many countries. The objectives of this project were focused on physical and chemical characterisations of particulate emission resulting from burning of common representatives of Australian vegetation under controlled laboratory conditions. It was found that leaves are burned mostly with flaming phase and producing black smoke resulting in larger particles compared to white smoke in case of branches and grass, dominated by smouldering phase, producing finer particles. Following elemental analysis determined nine main elements in three different size fractions of particulate matter for each category of burning material, ranging from 14.1 μm to particle sizes below 2.54 μm. Potassium was found to be one of the main biomass markers, and sulphur was the ubiquitous element among the smoke particles followed by less prevalent trace elements like Na, Al, Mg, Zn, Si, Ca, and Fe.

  9. Ozone generation over the Indian Ocean during the South African biomass-burning period: case study of October 1992.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Taupin

    Full Text Available In this study, we present an estimation of photochemical ozone production during free tropospheric transport between the African biomass burning area and Reunion Island (Indian Ocean by means of trajectory-chemistry model calculations. Indeed, enhanced ozone concentrations (80–100 ppbv between 5 and 8 km height over Reunion Island are encountered during September–October when African biomass burning is active. The measurements performed during flight 10 of the TRACE-A campaign (October 6, 1992 have been used to initialise the lagrangian trajectory-chemistry model and several chemical forward trajectories, which reach the area of Reunion Island some days later, are calculated. We show that the ozone burden already present in the middle and upper troposphere over Southern Africa, formed from biomass burning emissions, is further enhanced by photochemical production over the Indian Ocean at the rate of 2.5 - 3 ppbv/day. The paper presents sensitivity studies of how these photochemical ozone production rates depend on initial conditions. The rates are also compared to those obtained by other studies over the Atlantic Ocean. The importance of our results for the regional ozone budget over the Indian Ocean is briefly discussed.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (evolution of the atmosphere; troposphere – composition and chemistry; meterorology and atmospheric dynamics (tropical meteorology

  10. Ozone generation over the Indian Ocean during the South African biomass-burning period: case study of October 1992.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Taupin

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present an estimation of photochemical ozone production during free tropospheric transport between the African biomass burning area and Reunion Island (Indian Ocean by means of trajectory-chemistry model calculations. Indeed, enhanced ozone concentrations (80–100 ppbv between 5 and 8 km height over Reunion Island are encountered during September–October when African biomass burning is active. The measurements performed during flight 10 of the TRACE-A campaign (October 6, 1992 have been used to initialise the lagrangian trajectory-chemistry model and several chemical forward trajectories, which reach the area of Reunion Island some days later, are calculated. We show that the ozone burden already present in the middle and upper troposphere over Southern Africa, formed from biomass burning emissions, is further enhanced by photochemical production over the Indian Ocean at the rate of 2.5 - 3 ppbv/day. The paper presents sensitivity studies of how these photochemical ozone production rates depend on initial conditions. The rates are also compared to those obtained by other studies over the Atlantic Ocean. The importance of our results for the regional ozone budget over the Indian Ocean is briefly discussed.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (evolution of the atmosphere; troposphere – composition and chemistry; meterorology and atmospheric dynamics (tropical meteorology

  11. Biomass-burning derived aromatic acids in NIST standard reference material 1649b and the environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shaopeng; Xu, Baiqing; Dong, Xueling; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Wan, Xin; Kang, Shichang; Song, Qiuyin; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Cong, Zhiyuan

    2018-07-01

    Biomass burning is a serious problem in the environment and climate system. However, the source identification of biomass-burning aerosols was somewhat impeded, partly due to the difficulty in quantification of relevant molecular markers. In this study, we present reference values for five aromatic acids (including p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, dehydroabietic, syringic and p-coumaric acids) in the NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649b. The concentration of levoglucosan was also revisited. Notable positive matrix effect was found for vanillic, dehydroabietic, syringic and coumaric acid. Using the standard addition method, the average value of p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, dehydroabietic and p-coumaric acids in SRM 1649b were found to be 26.9, 9.53, 1.13, 7.60 and 1.66 μg g-1, respectively. The analytical method developed in this study was also applied to the PM10 samples from Beijing and PM2.5 samples from South Asia (Godavari, Nepal). The ratios of vanillic to p-hydroxybenzoic acid and syringic to vanillic acid further suggested that their biomass-burning types are mainly related to hard wood and herbaceous species (i.e., agricultural residues).

  12. Implications of high altitude desert dust transport from Western Sahara to Nile Delta during biomass burning season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Anup K., E-mail: aprasad@chapman.ed [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866 (United States); Center of Excellence in Earth Observing, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866 (United States); El-Askary, Hesham [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866 (United States); Center of Excellence in Earth Observing, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866 (United States); Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Moharem Bek, Alexandria 21522 (Egypt); National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Science (NARSS), Cairo (Egypt); Kafatos, Menas [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866 (United States); Center of Excellence in Earth Observing, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    The air over major cities and rural regions of the Nile Delta is highly polluted during autumn which is the biomass burning season, locally known as black cloud. Previous studies have attributed the increased pollution levels during the black cloud season to the biomass or open burning of agricultural waste, vehicular, industrial emissions, and secondary aerosols. However, new multi-sensor observations (column and vertical profiles) from satellites, dust transport models and associated meteorology present a different picture of the autumn pollution. Here we show, for the first time, the evidence of long range transport of dust at high altitude (2.5-6 km) from Western Sahara and its deposition over the Nile Delta region unlike current Models. The desert dust is found to be a major contributor to the local air quality which was previously considered to be due to pollution from biomass burning enhanced by the dominant northerly winds coming from Europe. - New evidence of desert dust transport from Western Sahara to Nile Delta during black cloud season and its significance for regional aerosols, dust models, and potential impact on the regional climate.

  13. Possible indicators for bio-mass burning in a small Swedish city as studied by EDXRF techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.S.; Henriksson, D.; Therning, P.; Laursen, J.; Pind, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: One of the major challenges in air pollution research is to make source apportionment from different sources of pollution. Examples of anthropogenic large sources of global impact are vehicle exhaust, oil and coal fired power and heat plants, industrial emissions and bio-mass burning. The relative contributions of these sources are usually difficult to evaluate due to the complexity of the ambient aerosol. XRS is one of the most reliable methods for giving information on elemental composition and elemental ratios of the aerosol particles. If this information is combined with data on other components in the polluted air there is a better chance of identifying the relative strengths of different pollution sources to the air quality in a specific location. In the present work XRS analysis has been performed on aerosol particles, PM 2,5 and PM 2,5-10 which were sampled in the centre of the small Swedish city of Vaexjoe, with the special aim to identify the possible contribution of bio-mass burning to the air pollution. In order to identify typical indicators for bio-mass burning principle component analysis was performed on data of elemental contents, black carbon and gaseous species in the aerosol

  14. Biomass burning contribution to ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Chengdu-Chongqing Region (CCR), China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyu; Chen, Yuan; Zeng, Limin; Shao, Min; Xie, Shaodong; Chen, Wentai; Lu, Sihua; Wu, Yusheng; Cao, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured intensively using an online gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector (GC-MS/FID) at Ziyang in the Chengdu-Chongqing Region (CCR) from 6 December 2012 to 4 January 2013. Alkanes contributed the most (59%) to mixing ratios of measured non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), while aromatics contributed the least (7%). Methanol was the most abundant oxygenated VOC (OVOC), contributing 42% to the total amount of OVOCs. Significantly elevated VOC levels occurred during three pollution events, but the chemical composition of VOCs did not differ between polluted and clean days. The OH loss rates of VOCs were calculated to estimate their chemical reactivity. Alkenes played a predominant role in VOC reactivity, among which ethylene and propene were the largest contributors; the contributions of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were also considerable. Biomass burning had a significant influence on ambient VOCs during our study. We chose acetonitrile as a tracer and used enhancement ratio to estimate the contribution of biomass burning to ambient VOCs. Biomass burning contributed 9.4%-36.8% to the mixing ratios of selected VOC species, and contributed most (>30% each) to aromatics, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde.

  15. Impacts of Brown Carbon from Biomass Burning on Surface UV and Ozone Photochemistry in the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jungbin; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Arola, Antti; Torres, Omar; Jethva, Hiren; Andrade, Marcos; Labow, Gordon; Eck, Thomas F.; Li, Zhangqing; Dickerson, Russell R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The spectral dependence of light absorption by atmospheric particulate matter has major implications for air quality and climate forcing, but remains uncertain especially in tropical areas with extensive biomass burning. In the September-October 2007 biomass-burning season in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, we studied light absorbing (chromophoric) organic or brown carbon (BrC) with surface and space-based remote sensing. We found that BrC has negligible absorption at visible wavelengths, but significant absorption and strong spectral dependence at UV wavelengths. Using the ground-based inversion of column effective imaginary refractive index in the range 305368nm, we quantified a strong spectral dependence of absorption by BrC in the UV and diminished ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation reaching the surface. Reduced UV-B means less erythema, plant damage, and slower photolysis rates. We use a photochemical box model to show that relative to black carbon (BC) alone, the combined optical properties of BrC and BC slow the net rate of production of ozone by up to 18 and lead to reduced concentrations of radicals OH, HO2, and RO2 by up to 17, 15, and 14, respectively. The optical properties of BrC aerosol change in subtle ways the generally adverse effects of smoke from biomass burning.

  16. Impacts of brown carbon from biomass burning on surface UV and ozone photochemistry in the Amazon Basin

    KAUST Repository

    Mok, Jungbin

    2016-11-11

    The spectral dependence of light absorption by atmospheric particulate matter has major implications for air quality and climate forcing, but remains uncertain especially in tropical areas with extensive biomass burning. In the September-October 2007 biomass-burning season in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, we studied light absorbing (chromophoric) organic or “brown” carbon (BrC) with surface and space-based remote sensing. We found that BrC has negligible absorption at visible wavelengths, but significant absorption and strong spectral dependence at UV wavelengths. Using the ground-based inversion of column effective imaginary refractive index in the range 305–368 nm, we quantified a strong spectral dependence of absorption by BrC in the UV and diminished ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation reaching the surface. Reduced UV-B means less erythema, plant damage, and slower photolysis rates. We use a photochemical box model to show that relative to black carbon (BC) alone, the combined optical properties of BrC and BC slow the net rate of production of ozone by up to 18% and lead to reduced concentrations of radicals OH, HO2, and RO2 by up to 17%, 15%, and 14%, respectively. The optical properties of BrC aerosol change in subtle ways the generally adverse effects of smoke from biomass burning.

  17. Implications of high altitude desert dust transport from Western Sahara to Nile Delta during biomass burning season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Anup K.; El-Askary, Hesham; Kafatos, Menas

    2010-01-01

    The air over major cities and rural regions of the Nile Delta is highly polluted during autumn which is the biomass burning season, locally known as black cloud. Previous studies have attributed the increased pollution levels during the black cloud season to the biomass or open burning of agricultural waste, vehicular, industrial emissions, and secondary aerosols. However, new multi-sensor observations (column and vertical profiles) from satellites, dust transport models and associated meteorology present a different picture of the autumn pollution. Here we show, for the first time, the evidence of long range transport of dust at high altitude (2.5-6 km) from Western Sahara and its deposition over the Nile Delta region unlike current Models. The desert dust is found to be a major contributor to the local air quality which was previously considered to be due to pollution from biomass burning enhanced by the dominant northerly winds coming from Europe. - New evidence of desert dust transport from Western Sahara to Nile Delta during black cloud season and its significance for regional aerosols, dust models, and potential impact on the regional climate.

  18. Direct and semi-direct impacts of absorbing biomass burning aerosol on the climate of southern Africa: a Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory GCM sensitivity study

    OpenAIRE

    C. A. Randles; V. Ramaswamy

    2010-01-01

    Tropospheric aerosols emitted from biomass burning reduce solar radiation at the surface and locally heat the atmosphere. Equilibrium simulations using an atmospheric general circulation model (GFDL AGCM) indicate that strong atmospheric absorption from these particles can cool the surface and increase upward motion and low-level convergence over southern Africa during the dry season. These changes increase sea level pressure over land in the biomass burning region and spin-up the hydrologic ...

  19. Light absorption of biomass burning and vehicle emission-sourced carbonaceous aerosols of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhaofu; Kang, Shichang; Li, Chaoliu; Yan, Fangping; Chen, Pengfei; Gao, Shaopeng; Wang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yulan; Sillanpää, Mika

    2017-06-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols over the Tibetan Plateau originate primarily from biomass burning and vehicle emissions (BB and VEs, respectively). The light absorption characteristics of these carbonaceous aerosols are closely correlated with the burning conditions and represent key factors that influence climate forcing. In this study, the light absorption characteristics of elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in PM 2.5 (fine particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm) generated from BB and VEs were investigated over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The results showed that the organic carbon (OC)/EC ratios from BB- and VE-sourced PM 2.5 were 17.62 ± 10.19 and 1.19 ± 0.36, respectively. These values were higher than the ratios in other regions, which was primarily because of the diminished amount of oxygen over the TP. The mass absorption cross section of EC (MAC EC ) at 632 nm for the BB-sourced PM 2.5 (6.10 ± 1.21 m 2 .g -1 ) was lower than that of the VE-sourced PM 2.5 (8.10 ± 0.98 m 2 .g -1 ), indicating that the EC content of the BB-sourced PM 2.5 was overestimated because of the high OC/EC ratio. The respective absorption per mass (α/ρ) values at 365 nm for the VE- and BB-sourced PM 2.5 were 0.71 ± 0.17 m 2 .g -1 and 0.91 ± 0.18 m 2 .g -1 . The α/ρ value of the VEs was loaded between that of gasoline and diesel emissions, indicating that the VE-sourced PM 2.5 originated from both types of emissions. Because OC and WSOC accounts for most of the carbonaceous aerosols at remote area of the TP, the radiative forcing contributed by the WSOC should be high, and requires further investigation.

  20. Laboratory Studies of Water Uptake by Biomass Burning Smoke: Role of Fuel Inorganic Content, Combustion Phase and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, M. K.; Bixler, S. L.; Romonosky, D.; Lam, J.; Carrico, C.; Aiken, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning aerosol emissions have substantially increased with observed warming and drying in the southwestern US. While wildfires are projected to intensify missing knowledge on the aerosols hampers assessments. Observations demonstrate that enhanced light absorption by coated black carbon and brown carbon can offset the cooling effects of organic aerosols in wildfires. However, if mixing processes that enhance this absorption reduce the aerosol lifetime it would lower their atmospheric burden. In order to elucidate mechanisms regulating this tradeoff we performed laboratory studies of smoke from biomass burning. We focus on aerosol optical properties and their hygroscopic response. Fresh emissions from burning 30 fuels under flaming and smoldering conditions were investigated. We measured aerosol absorption, scattering and extinction at multiple wavelengths, water uptake at 85% relative humidity (fRH85%) with a humidity controlled dual nephelometer, and black carbon mass with a SP2. Trace gases and the ionic content of the fuel and smoke were also measured We find that whereas the optical properties of smoke were strongly dictated by the flaming versus smoldering nature of the burn, the observed hygroscopicity was intimately linked to the chemical composition of the fuel. The mean hygroscopicity ranged from nearly hydrophobic (fRH85% = 1) to very hydrophilic (fRH85% = 2.1) values typical of pure deliquescent salts. The k values varied from 0.004 to 0.18 and correlated well with inorganic content. Inorganic fuel content was the key driver of hygroscopicity with combustion phase playing a secondary but important role ( 20%). Flaming combustion promoted hygroscopicity by generating refractory black carbon and ions. Smoldering combustion suppressed hygroscopicity by producing hydrogenated organic species. Wildfire smoke was hydrophobic since the evergreen species with low inorganic content dominated in these fires. We also quantify the mass absorption cross

  1. Siberian and North American Biomass Burning Contributions to the Processes that Influenced the 2008 Arctic Aircraft and Satellite Field Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, A. J.; Stocks, B. J.; Carr, R.; Pierce, R. B.; Natarajan, M.; Fromm, M.

    2009-05-01

    Current climate change scenarios predict increases in biomass burning in terms of increases in fire frequency, area burned, fire season length and fire season severity, particularly in boreal regions. Climate and weather control fire danger, which strongly influences the severity of fire events, and these in turn, feed back to the climate system through direct and indirect emissions, modifying cloud condensation nuclei and altering albedo (affecting the energy balance) through vegetative land cover change and deposition. Additionally, fire emissions adversely influence air quality and human health downwind of burning. The boreal zone is significant because this region stores the largest reservoir of terrestrial carbon, globally, and will experience climate change impacts earliest. Boreal biomass burning is an integral component to several of the primary goals of the ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites) and ARCPAC (Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate) 2008 field campaigns, which include its implication for atmospheric composition and climate, aerosol radiative forcing, and chemical processes with a focus on ozone and aerosols. Both the spring and summer phases of ARCTAS and ARCPAC offered substantial opportunities for sampling fresh and aged biomass burning emissions. However, the extent to which spring biomass burning influenced arctic haze was unexpected, which could inform our knowledge of the formation of arctic haze and the early deposition of black carbon on the icy arctic surface. There is already evidence of increased extreme fire seasons that correlate with warming across the circumboreal zone. In this presentation, we discuss seasonal and annual fire activity and anomalies that relate to the ARCTAS and ARCPAC spring (April 1 - 20) and summer (June 18 - July 13) periods across Siberia and North America, with particular emphasis on fire danger and fire behavior as they relate

  2. Satellite-based evidence of wavelength-dependent aerosol absorption in biomass burning smoke inferred from Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jethva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We provide satellite-based evidence of the spectral dependence of absorption in biomass burning aerosols over South America using near-UV measurements made by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI during 2005–2007. In the current near-UV OMI aerosol algorithm (OMAERUV, it is implicitly assumed that the only absorbing component in carbonaceous aerosols is black carbon whose imaginary component of the refractive index is wavelength independent. With this assumption, OMI-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD is found to be significantly over-estimated compared to that of AERONET at several sites during intense biomass burning events (August-September. Other well-known sources of error affecting the near-UV method of aerosol retrieval do not explain the large observed AOD discrepancies between the satellite and the ground-based observations. A number of studies have revealed strong spectral dependence in carbonaceous aerosol absorption in the near-UV region suggesting the presence of organic carbon in biomass burning generated aerosols. A sensitivity analysis examining the importance of accounting for the presence of wavelength-dependent aerosol absorption in carbonaceous particles in satellite-based remote sensing was carried out in this work. The results convincingly show that the inclusion of spectrally-dependent aerosol absorption in the radiative transfer calculations leads to a more accurate characterization of the atmospheric load of carbonaceous aerosols. The use of a new set of aerosol models assuming wavelength-dependent aerosol absorption in the near-UV region (Absorption Angstrom Exponent λ−2.5 to −3.0 improved the OMAERUV retrieval results by significantly reducing the AOD bias observed when gray aerosols were assumed. In addition, the new retrieval of single-scattering albedo is in better agreement with those of AERONET within the uncertainties (ΔSSA = ±0.03. The new colored carbonaceous aerosol model was also found to

  3. Stand restoration burning in oak-pine forests in the southern Applachians: effects on aboveground biomass and carbon and nitrogen cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Hubbard; James M. Vose; Barton D. Clinton; Katherine J. Elliott; Jennifer D. Knoepp

    2004-01-01

    Understory prescribed burning is being suggested as a viable management tool for restoring degraded oak–pine forest communities in the southern Appalachians yet information is lacking on how this will affect ecosystem processes. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the watershed scale effects of understory burning on total aboveground biomass, and the carbon...

  4. Impacts of Amazonia biomass burning aerosols assessed from short-range weather forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Kolusu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The direct radiative impacts of biomass burning aerosols (BBA on meteorology are investigated using short-range forecasts from the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM over South America during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA. The impacts are evaluated using a set of three simulations: (i no aerosols, (ii with monthly mean aerosol climatologies and (iii with prognostic aerosols modelled using the Coupled Large-scale Aerosol Simulator for Studies In Climate (CLASSIC scheme. Comparison with observations show that the prognostic CLASSIC scheme provides the best representation of BBA. The impacts of BBA are quantified over central and southern Amazonia from the first and second day of 2-day forecasts during 14 September–3 October 2012. On average, during the first day of the forecast, including prognostic BBA reduces the clear-sky net radiation at the surface by 15 ± 1 W m−2 and reduces net top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiation by 8 ± 1 W m−2, with a direct atmospheric warming of 7 ± 1 W m−2. BBA-induced reductions in all-sky radiation are smaller in magnitude: 9.0 ± 1 W m−2 at the surface and 4.0 ± 1 W m−2 at TOA. In this modelling study the BBA therefore exert an overall cooling influence on the Earth–atmosphere system, although some levels of the atmosphere are directly warmed by the absorption of solar radiation. Due to the reduction of net radiative flux at the surface, the mean 2 m air temperature is reduced by around 0.1 ± 0.02 °C. The BBA also cools the boundary layer (BL but warms air above by around 0.2 °C due to the absorption of shortwave radiation. The overall impact is to reduce the BL depth by around 19 ± 8 m. These differences in heating lead to a more anticyclonic circulation at 700 hPa, with winds changing by around 0.6 m s−1. Inclusion of climatological or prognostic BBA in the MetUM makes a small but significant improvement in forecasts of temperature and relative humidity, but improvements were

  5. Sahara dust, ocean spray, volcanoes, biomass burning: pathways of nutrients into Andean rainforests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fabian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Regular rain and fogwater sampling in the Podocarpus National Park, on the humid eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, along an altitude profile between 1960 and 3180 m, has been carried out since 2002. The samples, accumulated over about 1-week intervals, were analysed for pH, conductivity and major ions (K+, Na+, NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl, SO42−, NO3, PO43−.

    About 35% of the weekly samples had very low ion contents, with pH mostly above 5 and conductivity below 10 μS/cm. 10-days back trajectories (FLEXTRA showed that respective air masses originated in pristine continental areas, with little or no obvious pollution sources.

    About 65%, however, were significantly loaded with cations and anions, with pH as low as 3.5 to 4.0 and conductivity up to 50 μS/cm. The corresponding back trajectories clearly showed that air masses had passed over areas of intense biomass burning, active volcanoes, and the ocean, with episodic Sahara and/or Namib desert dust interference.

    Enhanced SO42− and NO3+ were identified, by combining satellite-based fire pixel observations with back trajectories, as predominantly resulting from biomass burning. Analyses of oxygen isotopes 16O, 17O, and 18O in nitrate show that nitrate in the samples is indeed a product of atmospheric conversion of precursors. Some SO42−, about 10% of the total input, could be identified to originate from active volcanoes, whose plumes were encountered by about 10% of all trajectories.

    Enhanced Na+, K+, and Cl were found to originate from ocean spray sources. They were associated with winds providing Atlantic air masses to the receptor site within less than 5 days. Episodes of

  6. Optical properties of humic-like substances (HULIS in biomass-burning aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hoffer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here the optical properties of humic-like substances (HULIS isolated from the fine fraction of biomass-burning aerosol collected in the Amazon basin during the LBA-SMOCC (Large scale Biosphere atmosphere experiment in Amazonia – SMOke aerosols, Clouds, rainfall and Climate experiment in September 2002. From the isolated HULIS, aerosol particles were generated and their scattering and absorption coefficients measured. The size distribution and mass of the particles were also recorded. The value of the index of refraction was derived from "closure" calculations based on particle size, scattering and absorption measurements. On average, the complex index of refraction at 532 nm of HULIS collected during day and nighttime was 1.65–0.0019i and 1.69–0.0016i, respectively. In addition, the imaginary part of the complex index of refraction was calculated using the measured absorption coefficient of the bulk HULIS. The mass absorption coefficient of the HULIS at 532 nm was found to be quite low (0.031 and 0.029 m2 g−1 for the day and night samples, respectively. However, due to the high absorption Ångström exponent (6–7 of HULIS, the specific absorption increases substantially towards shorter wavelengths (~2–3 m2 g−1 at 300 nm, causing a relatively high (up to 50% contribution to the light absorption of our Amazonian aerosol at 300 nm. For the relative contribution of HULIS to light absorption in the entire solar spectrum, lower values (6.4–8.6% are obtained, but those are still not negligible.

  7. The experience of burning the high-moistured waste of biomass conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fincker, F.Z.; Zysin, L.V.; Kubyshkin, I.B. [MGVP Polytechenergo, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1993-12-31

    Industrially developed countries have a large stock of operating boiler plants to utilize timber industry waste materials (bagasse, bark, wood chips, hydrolytic lignine, sawdust, etc.) for biogenesis of energy. Standard combustion methods employing a bed or flare process cannot guarantee a reliable and economic boiler plant operation with abruptly changing biomass characteristic features. The moisture content in bark or lignin can vary from 50 to 75% during an hour. Particle sizes can vary from powdered to very large, and can have a hundred thousand times size difference. Large metal and mineral inclusions into the starting fuel also complicate the process. The low-temperature whirling combustion technology developed in Russia was taken as a basic. An economical and stable operation of boilers has been achieved by means of up-to-date vortex chamber aerial dynamics, the use of unique devices of fuel feed and preparation with screening the waste materials into sizes. The firing chamber is equipped with a multi-chamber device where screening and fuel particles preparation with the removal of noncombustible inclusions take place. At presenting the firing chamber with multi-step process of burning is in operation with 20 boilers. The firm {open_quotes}POLYTECHENERGO,{close_quotes} a developer and producer of such equipment, carries out the modernization of the boiler plant without changes in the its thermal circuit. In most of cases no replacement of draught means is needed. Competitive with the proposed low-temperature whirling technological process can be only a fluidized bed process, but due to the complexity in service, low reliability, high energy expenditures, such chambers at present are very few. The capital expenses one existing boilers updating for a fluidized bed process exceed the expenses on a low-temperature whirling process by 15--20 fold.

  8. Light absorbing organic aerosols (brown carbon) over the tropical Indian Ocean: impact of biomass burning emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, Bikkina; Sarin, M M

    2013-01-01

    The first field measurements of light absorbing water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), referred as brown carbon (BrC), have been made in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) during the continental outflow to the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Arabian Sea (ARS). The absorption signal measured at 365 nm in aqueous extracts of aerosols shows a systematic linear increase with WSOC concentration, suggesting a significant contribution from BrC to the absorption properties of organic aerosols. The mass absorption coefficient (b abs ) of BrC shows an inverse hyperbolic relation with wavelength (from ∼300 to 700 nm), providing an estimate of the Angstrom exponent (α P , range: 3–19; Av: 9 ± 3). The mass absorption efficiency of brown carbon (σ abs−BrC ) in the MABL varies from 0.17 to 0.72 m 2  g −1 (Av: 0.45 ± 0.14 m 2  g −1 ). The α P and σ abs−BrC over the BoB are quite similar to that studied from a sampling site in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), suggesting the dominant impact of organic aerosols associated with the continental outflow. A comparison of the mass absorption efficiency of BrC and elemental carbon (EC) brings to focus the significant role of light absorbing organic aerosols (from biomass burning emissions) in atmospheric radiative forcing over oceanic regions located downwind of the pollution sources. (letter)

  9. Impact of biomass burning emission on total peroxy nitrates: fire plume identification during the BORTAS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Aruffo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Total peroxy nitrate ( ∑ PN concentrations have been measured using a thermal dissociation laser-induced fluorescence (TD-LIF instrument during the BORTAS campaign, which focused on the impact of boreal biomass burning (BB emissions on air quality in the Northern Hemisphere. The strong correlation observed between the  ∑ PN concentrations and those of carbon monoxide (CO, a well-known pyrogenic tracer, suggests the possible use of the  ∑ PN concentrations as marker of the BB plumes. Two methods for the identification of BB plumes have been applied: (1  ∑ PN concentrations higher than 6 times the standard deviation above the background and (2  ∑ PN concentrations higher than the 99th percentile of the  ∑ PNs measured during a background flight (B625; then we compared the percentage of BB plume selected using these methods with the percentage evaluated, applying the approaches usually used in literature. Moreover, adding the pressure threshold ( ∼  750 hPa as ancillary parameter to  ∑ PNs, hydrogen cyanide (HCN and CO, the BB plume identification is improved. A recurrent artificial neural network (ANN model was adapted to simulate the concentrations of  ∑ PNs and HCN, including nitrogen oxide (NO, acetonitrile (CH3CN, CO, ozone (O3 and atmospheric pressure as input parameters, to verify the specific role of these input data to better identify BB plumes.

  10. Aircraft clouds: from chemtrail pseudoscience to the science of contrails

    OpenAIRE

    Mazón Bueso, Jordi; Costa, Marcel; Pino González, David

    2018-01-01

    The most frequent statements and arguments found in pseudoscience websites and forums supporting the existence of so-called aircraft chemtrails can be refuted with a scientific explanation of the processes resulting in the formation of condensation or deposition trails, known as contrails. Thus, the hypothesis that chemtrails exist is disproven by the scientific literature that shows that they are the exact same entity as contrails: They are hydrological phenomena which result from a physical...

  11. Long-term measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean: evidence of long-range transport of biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sciare

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term (5-year measurements of Elemental Carbon (EC and Organic Carbon (OC in bulk aerosols are presented here for the first time in the Mediterranean Basin (Crete Island. A multi-analytical approach (including thermal, optical, and thermo-optical techniques was applied for these EC and OC measurements. Light absorbing dust aerosols were shown to poorly contribute (+12% on a yearly average to light absorption coefficient (babs measurements performed by an optical method (aethalometer. Long-range transport of agricultural waste burning from European countries surrounding the Black Sea was shown for each year during two periods (March–April and July–September. The contribution of biomass burning to the concentrations of EC and OC was shown to be rather small (20 and 14%, respectively, on a yearly basis, although this contribution could be much higher on a monthly basis and showed important seasonal and interannual variability. By removing the biomass burning influence, our data revealed an important seasonal variation of OC, with an increase by almost a factor of two for the spring months of May and June, whereas BC was found to be quite stable throughout the year. Preliminary measurements of Water Soluble Organic Carbon (WSOC have shown that the monthly mean WSOC/OC ratio remains stable throughout the year (0.45±0.12, suggesting that the partitioning between water soluble and water insoluble organic matter is not significantly affected by biomass burning and secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. A chemical mass closure performed in the fine mode (Aerodynamic Diameter, A.D.<1.5μm showed that the mass contribution of organic matter (POM was found to be essentially invariable during the year (monthly average of 26±5%.

  12. Long-term measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean: evidence of long-range transport of biomass burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciare, J.; Oikonomou, K.; Favez, O.; Cachier, H.; Liakakou, E.; Markaki, Z.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2008-01-01

    Long-term (5-year) measurements of Elemental Carbon (EC) and Organic Carbon (OC) in bulk aerosols are presented here for the first time in the Mediterranean Basin (Crete Island). A multi-analytical approach (including thermal, optical, and thermo-optical techniques) was applied for these EC and OC measurements. Light absorbing dust aerosols were shown to poorly contribute (+12% on a yearly average) to light absorption coefficient (b(abs)) measurements performed by an optical method (aethalometer). Long-range transport of agricultural waste burning from European countries surrounding the Black Sea was shown for each year during two periods (March-April and July-September). The contribution of biomass burning to the concentrations of EC and OC was shown to be rather small (20 and 14%, respectively, on a yearly basis), although this contribution could be much higher on a monthly basis and showed important seasonal and inter annual variability. By removing the biomass burning influence, our data revealed an important seasonal variation of OC, with an increase by almost a factor of two for the spring months of May and June, whereas BC was found to be quite stable throughout the year. Preliminary measurements of Water Soluble Organic Carbon (WSOC) have shown that the monthly mean WSOC/ OC ratio remains stable throughout the year (0.45 ± 0.12), suggesting that the partitioning between water soluble and water insoluble organic matter is not significantly affected by biomass burning and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. A chemical mass closure performed in the fine mode (Aerodynamic Diameter, A. D.≤ 1.5 μm) showed that the mass contribution of organic matter (POM) was found to be essentially invariable during the year (monthly average of 26 ± 5%). (authors)

  13. Determining contributions of biomass burning and other sources to fine particle contemporary carbon in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Amanda S.; Sullivan, Amy P.; Munchak, Leigh A.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Schichtel, Bret A.; Malm, William C.; Collett, Jeffrey L., Jr.

    2011-02-01

    Six-day integrated fine particle samples were collected at urban and rural sampling sites using Hi-Volume samplers during winter and summer 2004-2005 as part of the IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments) Radiocarbon Study. Filter samples from six sites (Grand Canyon, Mount Rainier, Phoenix, Puget Sound, Rocky Mountain National Park, and Tonto National Monument) were analyzed for levoglucosan, a tracer for biomass combustion, and other species by High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC-PAD). Contemporary carbon concentrations were available from previous carbon isotope measurements at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Primary contributions of biomass burning to measured fine particle contemporary carbon were estimated for residential wood burning (winter) and wild/prescribed fires (summer). Calculated contributions ranged from below detection limit to more than 100% and were typically higher at rural sites and during winter. Mannitol, a sugar alcohol emitted by fungal spores, was analyzed and used to determine contributions of fungal spores to fine particle contemporary carbon. Contributions reached up to 13% in summer samples, with higher contributions at rural sites. Concentrations of methyltetrols, oxidation products of isoprene, were also measured by HPAEC-PAD. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from isoprene oxidation was estimated to contribute up to 22% of measured contemporary carbon. For each sampling site, a substantial portion of the contemporary carbon was unexplained by primary biomass combustion, fungal spores, or SOA from isoprene oxidation. This unexplained fraction likely contains contributions from other SOA sources, including oxidation products of primary smoke emissions and plant emissions other than isoprene, as well as other primary particle emissions from meat cooking, plant debris, other biological aerosol particles, bio-diesel combustion, and other sources. Loss

  14. Black carbon aerosol properties measured by a single particle soot photometer in emissions from biomass burning in the laboratory and field

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. R. McMeeking; J. W. Taylor; A. P. Sullivan; M. J. Flynn; S. K. Akagi; C. M. Carrico; J. L. Collett; E. Fortner; T. B. Onasch; S. M. Kreidenweis; R. J. Yokelson; C. Hennigan; A. L. Robinson; H. Coe

    2010-01-01

    We present SP2 observations of BC mass, size distributions and mixing state in emissions from laboratory and field biomass fires in California, USA. Biomass burning is the primary global black carbon (BC) source, but understanding of the amount emitted and its physical properties at and following emission are limited. The single particle soot photometer (SP2) uses a...

  15. Attribution of the Main Sources of Biomass Burning in South East Asia that Impact on Air Quality in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. B.; Kendall, E.; Chew, B. N.; Chong, W. M.; Gan, C.; Hort, M. C.; Shaw, F.; Witham, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning in South East Asia causes intense haze episodes in Singapore, these are of major concern to the local government and the population exposed to the haze. Using a Lagrangian dispersion model we have studied haze in the seven most recent years (2010 - 2016) to gain a deeper understanding of intense haze in Singapore. In this study, modelled haze time-series at one eastern and one western monitoring station in Singapore are compared to local observed PM10 and PM2.5 air concentrations. The haze time-series are broken down by season or month, source region, and monitoring location.The analysis, presented as time series and pie charts, illustrates the relative contribution to haze in Singapore from different regions, variations between seasons and the correlation of impact to the combined timing of burning activity and meteorological patterns. Air history maps, showing where air arriving in Singapore originates from and/or has travelled through, are used to isolate the meteorological dependence of impacts. These show a strong monsoonal variation and help explain the inter-annual differences between sources and actual concentrations of biomass burning PM in Singapore. For example, there is a strong correlation in 2013 between burning in Riau and haze in Singapore, but a weak correlation in other years when a significant part of haze originates from, e.g., Peninsula Malaysia, but emissions are seemingly negligible. We see that, in spite of the size of Singapore, there is significant difference in concentrations and major contributing source regions between the two monitoring stations, annually and seasonally. The differences at the two monitoring stations are seen in varying degrees in the years 2011, 2012, 2014, and 2015, throughout different seasons. Although only biomass burning is considered in the simulations, our modelled results are in good agreement with local observations. We have identified the source regions with the biggest contributions to haze

  16. Water uptake by biomass burning aerosol at sub- and supersaturated conditions: closure studies and implications for the role of organics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Dusek

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the CCN activity of freshly emitted biomass burning particles and their hygroscopic growth at a relative humidity (RH of 85%. The particles were produced in the Mainz combustion laboratory by controlled burning of various wood types. The water uptake at sub- and supersaturations is parameterized by the hygroscopicity parameter, κ (c.f. Petters and Kreidenweis, 2007. For the wood burns, κ is low, generally around 0.06. The main emphasis of this study is a comparison of κ derived from measurements at sub- and supersaturated conditions (κG and κCCN, in order to see whether the water uptake at 85% RH can predict the CCN properties of the biomass burning particles. Differences in κGand κCCN can arise through solution non-idealities, the presence of slightly soluble or surface active compounds, or non-spherical particle shape. We find that κG and κCCN agree within experimental uncertainties (of around 30% for particle sizes of 100 and 150 nm; only for 50 nm particles is κCCN larger than κG by a factor of 2. The magnitude of this difference and its dependence on particle size is consistent with the presence of surface active organic compounds. These compounds mainly facilitate the CCN activation of small particles, which form the most concentrated solution droplets at the point of activation. The 50 nm particles, however, are only activated at supersaturations higher than 1% and are therefore of minor importance as CCN in ambient clouds. By comparison with the actual chemical composition of the biomass burning particles, we estimate that the hygroscopicity of the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC fraction can be represented by a κWSOC value of approximately 0.2. The effective hygroscopicity of a typical wood burning particle can therefore be represented by a linear mixture of an inorganic component with κ ≅ 0.6, a WSOC

  17. Characterization of biomass burning from olive grove areas: A major source of organic aerosol in PM10 of Southwest Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M.; Salvador, Pedro; Fernández-Camacho, Rocío; Artiñano, Begoña; Coz, Esther; Márquez, Gonzalo; Sánchez-Rodas, Daniel; de la Rosa, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    The inorganic and organic geochemistry of aerosol particulate matter (APM) was studied in a major olive grove area from Southwest Europe (Baena, Spain). The biomass consists of olive tree branches and the solid waste resulting of the olive oil production. Moreover, high PM10 levels were obtained (31.5 μg m- 3), with two days of exceedance of the daily limit of 50 μg m- 3 (2008/50/CE; EU, 2008) during the experimental period. A high mean levoglucosan concentration was obtained representing up 95% of the total mass of the isomers analysed (280 ng m- 3), while galactosan and mannosan mean concentrations were lower (8.64 ng m- 3 and 7.86 ng m- 3, respectively). The contribution of wood smoke in Baena was estimated, representing 19% of OC and 17% of OM total mass. Positive matrix factor (PMF) was applied to the organic and inorganic aerosols data, which has permitted the identification of five source categories: biomass burning, traffic, mineral dust, marine aerosol and SIC (secondary inorganic compounds). The biomass burning category reached the highest mean contribution to the PM10 mass (41%, 17.6 μg m- 3). In light of these results, the use of biomass resulting from the olive oil production for residential heating and industry must be considered the most important aerosol source during the winter months. The results of this paper can be extrapolated to other olive oil producing areas in the Mediterranean basin. Therefore, a fuller understanding of this type of biomass combustion is required in order to be able to establish appropriate polices and reduce the environmental impact on the population.

  18. Comparative Study of Coal and Biomass Co-Combustion With Coal Burning Separately Through Emissions Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Siddique; Suhail Ahmed Soomro; Aziza Aftab; Zahid Naeem Qaisrani; Abdul Sattar Jatoi; Asadullah; Ghulamullah Khan; Ehsanullah Kakar

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate eco-friendly methods to mitigate the problem of emissions from combustion of fossil fuel are highly demanded. The current study was focused on the effect of using coal & coal-biomass co-combustion on the gaseous emissions. Different biomass' were used along with coal. The coal used was lignite coal and the biomass' were tree waste, cow dung and banana tree leaves. Various ratios of coal and biomass were used to investigate the combustion behavior of coal-biomass blends and their ...

  19. Biomass-burning impact on CCN number, hygroscopicity and cloud formation during summertime in the eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bougiatioti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the concentration, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity and hygroscopic properties of particles influenced by biomass burning in the eastern Mediterranean and their impacts on cloud droplet formation. Air masses sampled were subject to a range of atmospheric processing (several hours up to 3 days. Values of the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, were derived from CCN measurements and a Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA. An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM was also used to determine the chemical composition and mass concentration of non-refractory components of the submicron aerosol fraction. During fire events, the increased organic content (and lower inorganic fraction of the aerosol decreases the values of κ, for all particle sizes. Particle sizes smaller than 80 nm exhibited considerable chemical dispersion (where hygroscopicity varied up to 100 % for particles of same size; larger particles, however, exhibited considerably less dispersion owing to the effects of condensational growth and cloud processing. ACSM measurements indicate that the bulk composition reflects the hygroscopicity and chemical nature of the largest particles (having a diameter of  ∼  100 nm at dry conditions sampled. Based on positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis of the organic ACSM spectra, CCN concentrations follow a similar trend as the biomass-burning organic aerosol (BBOA component, with the former being enhanced between 65 and 150 % (for supersaturations ranging between 0.2 and 0.7 % with the arrival of the smoke plumes. Using multilinear regression of the PMF factors (BBOA, OOA-BB and OOA and the observed hygroscopicity parameter, the inferred hygroscopicity of the oxygenated organic aerosol components is determined. We find that the transformation of freshly emitted biomass burning (BBOA to more oxidized organic aerosol (OOA-BB can result in a 2-fold increase of the inferred organic

  20. Spatial variability of the direct radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosols and the effects of land use change in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Sena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the Amazonian shortwave radiative budget over cloud-free conditions after considering three aspects of deforestation: (i the emission of aerosols from biomass burning due to forest fires; (ii changes in surface albedo after deforestation; and (iii modifications in the column water vapour amount over deforested areas. Simultaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES shortwave fluxes and aerosol optical depth (AOD retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS were analysed during the peak of the biomass burning seasons (August and September from 2000 to 2009. A discrete-ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT code was used to extend instantaneous remote sensing radiative forcing assessments into 24-h averages.

    The mean direct radiative forcing of aerosols at the top of the atmosphere (TOA during the biomass burning season for the 10-yr studied period was −5.6 ± 1.7 W m−2. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the direct radiative forcing of aerosols over Amazonia was obtained for the biomass burning season of each year. It was observed that for high AOD (larger than 1 at 550 nm the maximum daily direct aerosol radiative forcing at the TOA may be as high as −20 W m−2 locally. The surface reflectance plays a major role in the aerosol direct radiative effect. The study of the effects of biomass burning aerosols over different surface types shows that the direct radiative forcing is systematically more negative over forest than over savannah-like covered areas. Values of −15.7 ± 2.4 W m−2τ550 nm and −9.3 ± 1.7 W m−2τ550 nm were calculated for the mean daily aerosol forcing efficiencies over forest and savannah-like vegetation respectively. The overall mean annual land use change radiative forcing due to deforestation over the state of Rondônia, Brazil, was determined as −7.3 ± 0.9 W m

  1. Properties of Linear Contrails Detected in 2012 Northern Hemisphere MODIS Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, David P.; Chee, Thad; Khlopenkov, Konstantin; Bedka, Sarah; Spangenberg, Doug; Minnis, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Observation of linear contrail cirrus coverage and retrieval of their optical properties are valuable data for validating atmospheric climate models that represent contrail formation explicitly. These data can reduce our uncertainty of the regional effects of contrail-generated cirrus on global radiative forcing, and thus improve our estimation of the impact of commercial aviation on climate change. We use an automated contrail detection algorithm (CDA) to determine the coverage of linear persistent contrails over the Northern Hemisphere during 2012. The contrail detection algorithm is a modified form of the Mannstein et al. (1999) method, and uses several channels from thermal infrared MODIS data to reduce the occurrence of false positive detections. A set of contrail masks of varying sensitivity is produced to define the potential range of uncertainty in contrail coverage estimated by the CDA. Global aircraft emissions waypoint data provided by FAA allow comparison of detected contrails with commercial aircraft flight tracks. A pixel-level product based on the advected flight tracks defined by the waypoint data and U-V wind component profiles from the NASA GMAO GEOS-4 reanalysis has been developed to assign a confidence of contrail detection for the contrail mask. To account for possible contrail cirrus missed by the CDA, a post-processing method based on the assumption that pixels adjacent to detected linear contrails will have radiative signatures similar to those of the detected contrails is applied to the Northern Hemisphere data. Results from several months of MODIS observations during 2012 will be presented, representing a near-global climatology of contrail coverage. Linear contrail coverage will be compared with coverage estimates determined previously from 2006 MODIS data.

  2. Dust, Pollution, and Biomass Burning Aerosols in Asian Pacific: A Column Surface/Satellite Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Many recent field experiments are designed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentrations over eastern/southeastern Asia and along the rim of the western Pacific. For example, the phase-I of ACE-Asia was conducted from March-May 2001 in the vicinity of the Gobi desert, East Coast of China, Yellow Sea, Korea, and Japan, along the pathway of Kosa (severe events that blanket East Asia with yellow desert dust, peaked in the Spring season). Asian dust typically originates in desert areas far from polluted urban regions. During transport, dust layers can interact with anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosols from heavily polluted urban areas. Springtime is also the peak season for biomass burning in southeastern Asia. Added to the complex effects of clouds and natural marine aerosols, dust particles reaching the marine environment can have drastically different properties than those from the source. Thus, understanding the unique temporal and spatial variations of Asian aerosols is of special importance in regional-to-global climate issues such as radiative forcing, the hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in the mid-Pacific Ocean. During ACE-Asia we have measured continuously aerosol physical/optical/radiative properties, column precipitable water amount, and surface reflectivity over homogeneous areas from surface. The inclusion of flux measurements permits the determination of aerosol radiative flux in addition to measurements of loading and optical depth. At the time of the Terra/MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor), TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and other satellite overpasses, these ground-based observations can provide valuable data to compare with satellite retrievals over land. A column satellite-surface perspective of Asian aerosols will be presented

  3. Quantifying emissions of NH3 and NOx from Agricultural Sources and Biomass Burning using SOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kille, N.; Volkamer, R. M.; Dix, B. K.

    2017-12-01

    Column measurements of trace gas absorption along the direct solar beam present a powerful yet underused approach to quantify emission fluxes from area sources. The University of Colorado Solar Occultation Flux (CU SOF) instrument (Kille et al., 2017, AMT, doi:10.5194/amt-10-373-2017) features a solar tracker that is self-positioning for use from mobile platforms that are in motion (Baidar et al., 2016, AMT, doi: 10.5194/amt-9-963-2016). This enables the use from research aircraft, as well as the deployment under broken cloud conditions, while making efficient use of aircraft time. First airborne SOF measurements have been demonstrated recently, and we discuss applications to study emissions from biomass burning using aircraft, and to study primary emissions of ammonia and nitrogen oxides (= NO + NO2) from area sources such as concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO). SOF detects gases in the open atmosphere (no inlets), does not require access to the source, and provides results in units that can be directly compared with emission inventories. The method of emission quantification is relatively straightforward. During FRAPPE (Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment) in Colorado in 2014, we measured emission fluxes of NH3, and NOx from CAFO, quantifying the emissions from 61400 of the 535766 cattle in Weld County, CO (11.4% of the cattle population). We find that NH3 emissions from dairy and cattle farms are similar after normalization by the number of cattle, i.e., we find emission factors, EF, of 11.8 ± 2.0 gNH3/h/head for the studied CAFOs; these EFs are at the upper end of reported values. Results are compared to daytime NEI emissions for case study days. Furthermore, biologically active soils are found to be a strong source of NOx. The NOx sources account for 1.2% of the N-flux (i.e., NH3), and can be competitive with other NOx sources in Weld, CO. The added NOx is particularly relevant in remote regions, where O3 formation and oxidative

  4. Characterization of Particulate Matter Profiling and Alveolar Deposition from Biomass Burning in Northern Thailand: The 7-SEAS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lin, Neng-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Biomass burning (BB) frequently occurs in SouthEast Asia (SEA), which significantly affects the air quality and could consequently lead to adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to characterize particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) emitted from BB source regions in SEA and their potential of deposition in the alveolar region of human lungs. A 31-day characterization of PM profiling was conducted at the Doi Ang Khang (DAK) meteorology station in northern Thailand in March 2013. Substantial numbers of PM (10147 +/- 5800 # per cubic centimeter) with a geometric mean diameter (GMD) of 114.4 +/- 9.2 nm were found at the study site. The PM of less than 2.5 micron in aerodynamic diameter (PM sub 2.5) hourly-average mass concentration was 78.0 +/- 34.5 per cubic microgram whereas the black carbon (BC) mass concentration was 4.4 +/- 2.6 micrograms per cubic meter. Notably, high concentrations of nanoparticle surface area (100.5 +/- 54.6 square micrometers per cubic centimeter) emitted from biomass burning can be inhaled into the human alveolar region. Significant correlations with fire counts within different ranges around DAK were found for particle number, the surface area concentration of alveolar deposition, and BC. In conclusion, biomass burning is an important PM source in SEA, particularly nanoparticles, which has high potency to be inhaled into the lung environment and interact with alveolar cells, leading to adverse respiratory effects. The fire counts within 100 to 150 km shows the highest Pearson's r for particle number and surface area concentration. It suggests 12 to 24 hr could be a fair time scale for initial aging process of BB aerosols. Importantly, the people lives in this region could have higher risk for PM exposure.

  5. Short Communication: Emission of Oxygenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Biomass Pellet Burning in a Modern Burner for Cooking in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guofeng; Wei, Siye; Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Yuanchen; Chen, Han; Wei, Wen; Tao, Shu

    2012-12-01

    Biomass pellets are undergoing fast deployment widely in the world, including China. To this stage, there were limited studies on the emissions of various organic pollutants from the burning of those pellets. In addition to parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) have been received increased concerns. In this study, emission factors of oPAHs (EF oPAHs ) were measured for two types of pellets made from corn straw and pine wood, respectively. Two combustion modes with (mode II) and without (mode I) secondary side air supply in a modern pellet burner were investigated. For the purpose of comparison, EF oPAHs for raw fuels combusted in a traditional cooking stove were also measured. EF oPAHs were 348±305 and 396±387 µg/kg in the combustion mode II for pine wood and corn straw pellets, respectively. In mode I, measured EF oPAHs were 77.7±49.4 and 189±118 µg/kg, respectively. EFs in mode II were higher (2-5 times) than those in mode I mainly due to the decreased combustion temperature under more excess air. Compared to EF oPAHs for raw corn straw and pine wood burned in a traditional cooking stove, total EF oPAHs for the pellets in mode I were significantly lower ( p < 0.05 ), likely due to increased combustion efficiencies and change in fuel properties. However, the difference between raw biomass fuels and the pellets burned in mode II was not statistically significant. Taking both the increased thermal efficiencies and decreased EFs into consideration, substantial reduction in oPAH emission can be expected if the biomass pellets can be extensively used by rural residents.

  6. First Transmitted Hyperspectral Light Measurements and Cloud Properties from Recent Field Campaign Sampling Clouds Under Biomass Burning Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, S.; Redemann, Jens; Shinozuka, Yohei; Flynn, Connor J.; Segal Rozenhaimer, Michal; Kacenelenbogen, Meloe Shenandoah; Pistone, Kristina Marie Myers; Schmidt, Sebastian; Cochrane, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    We present a first view of data collected during a recent field campaign aimed at measuring biomass burning aerosol above clouds from airborne platforms. The NASA ObseRvations of CLouds above Aerosols and their intEractionS (ORACLES) field campaign recently concluded its first deployment sampling clouds and overlying aerosol layer from the airborne platform NASA P3. We present results from the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR), in conjunction with the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometers (SSFR). During this deployment, 4STAR sampled transmitted solar light either via direct solar beam measurements and scattered light measurements, enabling the measurement of aerosol optical thickness and the retrieval of information on aerosol particles in addition to overlying cloud properties. We focus on the zenith-viewing scattered light measurements, which are used to retrieve cloud optical thickness, effective radius, and thermodynamic phase of clouds under a biomass burning layer. The biomass burning aerosol layer present above the clouds is the cause of potential bias in retrieved cloud optical depth and effective radius from satellites. We contrast the typical reflection based approach used by satellites to the transmission based approach used by 4STAR during ORACLES for retrieving cloud properties. It is suspected that these differing approaches will yield a change in retrieved properties since light transmitted through clouds is sensitive to a different cloud volume than reflected light at cloud top. We offer a preliminary view of the implications of these differences in sampling volumes to the calculation of cloud radiative effects (CRE).

  7. Evaluating Simulated Primary Anthropogenic and Biomass Burning Organic Aerosols during MILAGRO: Implications for Assessing Treatments of Secondary Organic Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, Jerome D.; Aiken, Allison; Allan, James D.; Alexander, M. L.; Campos, Teresa; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Chapman, Elaine G.; DeCarlo, Peter; de Foy, B.; Gaffney, Jeffrey; de Gouw, Joost A.; Doran, J. C.; Emmons, L.; Hodzic, Alma; Herndon, Scott C.; Huey, L. G.; Jayne, John T.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Kuster, W. C.; Marley, Nancy A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Ochoa, Carlos; Onasch, Timothy B.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Song, Chen; Ulbrich, Ingrid M.; Warneke, Carsten; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2009-08-31

    Simulated primary organic aerosols (POA), as well as other particulates and trace gases, in the vicinity of Mexico City are evaluated using measurements collected during the 2006 Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) field campaigns. Since the emission inventories and dilution will affect predictions of total organic matter and consequently total particulate matter, our objective is to assess the uncertainties in predicted POA before testing and evaluating the performance of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) treatments. Carbon monoxide (CO) is well simulated on most days both over the city and downwind, indicating that transport and mixing processes were usually consistent with the meteorological conditions observed during MILAGRO. Predicted and observed elemental carbon (EC) in the city was similar, but larger errors occurred at remote locations since the CO/EC emission ratios in the national emission inventory were lower than in the metropolitan emission inventory. Components of organic aerosols derived from Positive Matrix Factorization and data from several Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer instruments deployed both at ground sites and on research aircraft are used to evaluate the model. Predicted POA was consistently lower than the measured organic matter at the ground sites, which is consistent with the expectation that SOA should be a large fraction of the total organic matter mass. A much better agreement was found when predicted POA was compared with the sum of "primary anthropogenic" and "primary biomass burning" components on days with relatively low biomass burning, suggesting that the overall magnitude of primary organic particulates released was reasonable. The predicted POA was greater than the total observed organic matter when the aircraft flew directly downwind of large fires, suggesting that biomass burning emission estimates from some large fires may be too high. Predicted total observed organic carbon (TOOC) was

  8. Radiocarbon Analysis to Calculate New End-Member Values for Biomass Burning Source Samples Specific to the Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S.; Kirchstetter, T.; Fairley, D.; Sheesley, R. J.; Tang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Elemental carbon (EC), also known as black carbon or soot, is an important particulate air pollutant that contributes to climate forcing through absorption of solar radiation and to adverse human health impacts through inhalation. Both fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, via residential firewood burning, agricultural burning, wild fires, and controlled burns, are significant sources of EC. Our ability to successfully control ambient EC concentrations requires understanding the contribution of these different emission sources. Radiocarbon (14C) analysis has been increasingly used as an apportionment tool to distinguish between EC from fossil fuel and biomass combustion sources. However, there are uncertainties associated with this method including: 1) uncertainty associated with the isolation of EC to be used for radiocarbon analysis (e.g., inclusion of organic carbon, blank contamination, recovery of EC, etc.) 2) uncertainty associated with the radiocarbon signature of the end member. The objective of this research project is to utilize laboratory experiments to evaluate some of these uncertainties, particularly for EC sources that significantly impact the San Francisco Bay Area. Source samples of EC only and a mix of EC and organic carbon (OC) were produced for this study to represent known emission sources and to approximate the mixing of EC and OC that would be present in the atmosphere. These samples include a combination of methane flame soot, various wood smoke samples (i.e. cedar, oak, sugar pine, pine at various ages, etc.), meat cooking, and smoldering cellulose smoke. EC fractions were isolated using a Sunset Laboratory's thermal optical transmittance carbon analyzer. For 14C analysis, samples were sent to Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for isotope analysis using an accelerated mass spectrometry. End member values and uncertainties for the EC isolation utilizing this method will be reported.

  9. Queima de biomassa e efeitos sobre a saúde Biomass burning and its effects on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Abdo Arbex

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A primeira idéia que se forma na mente das pessoas e do pesquisador é associar a poluição do ar aos grandes centros urbanos, com a imagem de poluentes sendo eliminados por veículos automotores ou pela chaminé de suas fábricas. Entretanto, uma parcela considerável da população do planeta convive com uma outra fonte de poluição, que atinge preferencialmente os países em desenvolvimento: a queima de biomassa. Este artigo tem como objetivo chamar a atenção do pneumologista, da comunidade e das autoridades para os riscos à saúde da população exposta a essa fonte geradora de poluentes, seja em ambientes internos, seja em ambientes abertos. O presente trabalho caracteriza as principais condições que levam à combustão de biomassa, como a literatura tem registrado os seus efeitos sobre a saúde humana, discutindo os mecanismos fisiopatológicos envolvidos, e finaliza com a apresentação de dois estudos recentes que enfatizam a importância da queima de um tipo específico de biomassa, a palha da cana-de-açúcar, prática comum no interior do Brasil, e sua interferência no perfil de morbidade respiratória da população exposta.The first thought that comes to mind concerning air pollution is related to urban centers where automotive exhausts and the industrial chimneys are the most important sources of atmospheric pollutants. However a significant portion of the earth’s population is exposed to still another source of air pollution, the burning of biomass that primarily affects developing countries. This review article calls the attention of lung specialists, public authorities and the community in general to the health risks entailed in the burning of biomass, be it indoors or outdoors to which the population is exposed. This review describes the main conditions that lead to the burning of biomass and how the literature has recorded its effects on human health discussing the psychopathological mechanisms. Finally two recent

  10. Recent progress in biomass burning research: a perspective from analyses of satellite data and model studies. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Significant progress has been made in using satellite data to provide bottom-up constraints on biomass burning (BB) emissions. However, inverse studies with CO satellite data imply that tropical emissions are underestimated by current inventories, while model simulations of the ARCTAS period imply that the FLAMBE estimates of extratropical emissions are significantly overestimated. Injection heights of emissions from BB have been quantified recently using MISR data, and these data provide some constraints on 1-d plume models. I will discuss recent results in these areas, highlighting future research needs.

  11. Modeling biomass burning over the South, South East and East Asian Monsoon regions using a new, satellite constrained approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, R.; Cohen, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning over the South, South East and East Asian Monsoon regions, is a crucial contributor to the total local aerosol loading. Furthermore, the impact of the ITCZ, and Monsoonal circulation patterns coupled with complex topography also have a prominent impact on the aerosol loading throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere. However, at the present time, biomass burning emissions are highly underestimated over this region, in part due to under-reported emissions in space and time, and in part due to an incomplete understanding of the physics and chemistry of the aerosols emitted in fires and formed downwind from them. Hence, a better understanding of the four-dimensional source distribution, plume rise, and in-situ processing, in particular in regions with significant quantities of urban air pollutants, is essential to advance our knowledge of this problem. This work uses a new modeling methodology based on the simultaneous constraints of measured AOD and some trace gasses over the region. The results of the 4-D constrained emissions are further expanded upon using different fire plume height rise and in-situ processing assumptions. Comparisons between the results and additional ground-based and remotely sensed measurements, including AERONET, CALIOP, and NOAA and other ground networks are included. The end results reveal a trio of insights into the nonlinear processes most-important to understand the impacts of biomass burning in this part of the world. Model-measurement comparisons are found to be consistent during the typical burning years of 2016. First, the model performs better under the new emissions representations, than it does using any of the standard hotspot based approaches currently employed by the community. Second, long range transport and mixing between the boundary layer and free troposphere contribute to the spatial-temporal variations. Third, we indicate some source regions that are new, either because of increased urbanization, or of

  12. Transboundary Transport of Biomass Burning Emissions in Southeast Asia and Contribution to Local Air Quality During the 2006 Fire Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2014-12-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled the largest fire-induced haze episode in the past decade (2006) that originated in Indonesia using WRF-Chem. Our study addressed 3 research questions: (1) Can the WRF-Chem model reproduce observations of both aerosol and CO concentrations in this complex region? (2) What is the evolution in the chemical composition of the aerosol fire plume during its atmospheric transport? and (3) What is the relative contribution of these fires to air quality in the urbanized area of the city-state of Singapore? To test model performance, we used three independent datasets for comparison (PM10 in Singapore, CO measurements in Sumatra, and AOD column observations from 4 satellite-based sensors). We found reasonable agreement of the model runs with ground-based measurements of both CO and PM10. However, the comparison with AOD was less favorable and indicated the model underestimated AOD. In the past, modeling studies using only AOD as a constraint have often boosted fire emissions to get a better agreement with observations. In our case, this approach would seriously deteriorate the difference with ground-based observations. Finally, our results show that about 21% of the total mass loading of ambient PM10 during the July-October study period in Singapore was due to the influence of biomass and peat burning in Sumatra, with an increased contribution during high burning periods. The composition of this biomass burning plume was largely dominated by primary organic carbon. In total, our model results indicated that during 35 days aerosol concentrations in Singapore were above the threshold of 50 μg m-3 day-1 (WHO threshold). During 17 days this deterioration was due to Indonesian fires, based on the difference between the simulations with and without fires. Local air pollution in combination with recirculation of air masses was probably the main

  13. Understanding Air Quality in East Africa: Estimating Biomass Burning and Anthropogenic Influence with Long-Term Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, L.; Gasore, J.; Rupakheti, M.; Potter, K. E.; Prinn, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution is largely unstudied in sub-Saharan Africa, resulting in a large gap in scientific understanding of emissions, atmospheric processes and impacts of air pollutants in this region. The Rwanda Climate Observatory, a joint partnership between MIT and the government of Rwanda, has been measuring ambient concentrations of key long-lived greenhouse gases and short-lived climate-forcing pollutants (CO2, CO, CH4, BC, O3) on the summit of Mt. Mugogo (1.586°S, 29.566°E, 2500 m above sea level) since May 2015. Rwanda is a small, mountainous, and densely populated country in equatorial East Africa currently undergoing rapid development. The location and meteorology of Rwanda is such that emissions transported from both the northern and southern African biomass burning seasons affect BC, CO, and O3 concentrations in Rwanda. Black carbon concentrations during Rwanda's two dry seasons are higher at Mt. Mugogo, a rural site, than in major European cities. Higher BC baseline concentrations at Mugogo are correlated with fire radiative power data for the region acquired with MODIS satellite instrument. Spectral absorption of aerosol measured with a dual-spot aethalometer also varies seasonally, likely due to change in fuel burned and direction of pollution transport to the site. Ozone concentration was found to be higher in air masses from southern Africa than from northern Africa during their respective biomass burning seasons. The higher ozone concentration in air masses from the south could be indicative of more anthropogenic influence as Rwanda is downwind of major East African capitals in this season. During the rainy seasons, local emitting activities (e.g., cooking, driving, trash burning) remain steady, regional biomass burning is low, and transport distances are shorter as rainout of pollution occurs regularly, which allows estimation of local pollution during this time period. Urban PM2.5 measurements in the capital city of Kigali and from the neighboring

  14. Broadband optical properties of biomass-burning aerosol and identification of brown carbon chromophores: OPTICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BROWN CARBON AEROSOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluvshtein, Nir [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Lin, Peng [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Flores, J. Michel [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Segev, Lior [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Mazar, Yinon [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel; Tas, Eran [The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot Israel; Snider, Graydon [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax Nova Scotia Canada; Weagle, Crystal [Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax Nova Scotia Canada; Brown, Steven S. [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; Chemical Sciences Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder Colorado USA; Laskin, Alexander [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Rudich, Yinon [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel

    2017-05-23

    The radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols on regional and global scale is substantial. Accurate modeling of the radiative effects of smoke aerosols require wavelength-dependent measurements and parameterizations of their optical properties in the UV and visible spectral ranges along with improved description of their chemical composition. To address this issue, we used a recently developed approach to retrieve the time- and spectral-dependent optical properties of ambient biomass burning aerosols between 300 and 650 nm wavelength during a regional bonfire festival in Israel. During the biomass burning event, the overall absorption at 400 nm increased by about two orders of magnitude, changing the size-weighted single scattering albedo from a background level of 0.95 to 0.7. Based on the new retrieval method, we provide parameterizations of the wavelength-dependent effective complex refractive index from 350 to 650 nm for freshly emitted and aged biomass burning aerosols. In addition, PM2.5 filter samples were collected for detailed off-line chemical analysis of the water soluble organics that contribute to light absorption. Nitrophenols were identified as the main organic species responsible for the increased absorption at 400-500 nm. These include species such as 4- nitrocatechol, 4-nitrophenol, nitro-syringol and nitro-guaiacol; oxidation-nitration products of methoxyphenols, known products of lignin pyrolysis. Our findings emphasize the importance of both primary and secondary organic aerosol from biomass burning in absorption of solar radiation and in effective radiative forcing.

  15. Spatiotemporal variation of domestic biomass burning emissions in rural China based on a new estimation of fuel consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiaofan; Zhou, Ying; Lang, Jianlei; Chen, Dongsheng; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Han, Lihui; Huang, Dawei; Zhang, Yanyun

    2018-06-01

    Domestic biomass burning (DBB) influences both indoor and outdoor air quality due to the multiple pollutants released during incomplete and inefficient combustion. The emissions are not well quantified because of insufficient information, which were the key parameters related to fuel consumption estimation, such as province- and year-specific percentage of domestic straw burning (P straw ) and firewood consumption (Fc). In this study, we established the quantitative relationship between rural-related socioeconomic parameters (e.g., rural per-capita income and rural Engel's coefficient) and P straw /Fc. DBB emissions, including 12 crop straw types and firewood for 12 kinds of pollutants in China during the period 1995-2014, were estimated based on fuel-specific emission factors and detailed fuel consumption data. The results revealed that the national emissions generally increased initially and then decreased with the turning point around 2007-2008. Firewood burning was the major source of the NH 3 and BC emissions; straw burning contributed more to SO 2 , NMVOC, CO, OC, and CH 4 emissions; while the major contributor changed from firewood to domestic straw burning for NOx, PM 10 , PM 2.5 , CO 2 , and Hg emissions. The emission trends varied among the 31 provinces. The major agricultural regions of north-eastern, central, and south-western China were always characterized by high emissions. The spatial variation mainly occurred in the northeast and north China (increase), and central-south and coastal regions of China (decrease). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Socioeconomic factors of smallholder farmers’ behavior in biomass burning around palm oil plantation in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswadi; Arifudin; Septiana, Nurmelati; Maulidi

    2018-03-01

    Indonesian peatland fires has been revealed as the cause of haze disaster in Indonesia, while oil palm plantation’s concesion owned both by companies and smallholder farmers are accused as the main cause of this problem, especially in practice of land clearing. It is very important to conduct research on socioeconomic factors of farmers’ behavior in burning the peatland, while peatland one of the megabiomass storage in nature. The research was conducted in Kalimantan barat, where in province has been choosen two villages as the sample. Observation, interview with quiestionare, and focus group discussion were used in collecting data. In term of analysing the data, regression analysis (ordinary least square) was performed using SPSS Program. The result show that: (1). The socio economics factor that are affecting the burning behavior, were extension’s activities, degree of knowledge, consideration to burn, degree of participation on organisation and degree of cosmopolite. On the other hand, degree of burning frequent, was affected by land productivity, extension activities, and degree of participation in organisation, and finally the size of land’ burning is affected by, the kind of burning’s activities, the mutual aid (social capital), consideration of land burning, degree of awarness, and degree participation on organization.

  17. New particle formation in the presence of a strong biomass burning episode at a downwind rural site in PRD, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. B. Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterise the features of particle pollution in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region, a 1-month intensive campaign was conducted at the rural supersite (Kaiping in the autumn of 2008. In total, 12 new particle formation (NPF events are identified out of 30 campaign days. The results show that in the case of higher source and sink values, the result of the competition between source and sink is more likely the key limiting factor to determine the observation of NPF events at Kaiping. One episode with consecutive NPF events in the presence of strong biomass burning plume was observed between 10 and 15 November. The elevation of particle volume concentration (6.1 µm3/cm3/day is due to the coaction by the local biomass burning and secondary transformation. Organics and sulphates are the major components in PM1, accounting for 42 and 35% of the mass concentration, respectively. In this study, a rough estimation is applied to quantify the contributions of diverse sources to the particle number concentration. On average, the primary emission and secondary formation provide 28 and 72% of particle number concentration and 21 and 79% of mass concentration, respectively.

  18. New particle formation in the presence of a strong biomass burning episode at a downwind rural site in PRD, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z. B.; Hu, M.; Yue, D. L.; Yang, Q.; Zhang, Y. H. [State Key Joint Lab. of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, Coll. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking Univ., Beijing (China)], e-mail: minhu@pku.edu.cn; He, L. Y.; Huang, X. F. [Key Lab. for Urban Habitat Environmental Science and Technology, School of Environment and Energy, Peking Univ. Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen (China); Zheng, J. [Dept. of Atmospheric Science, Texas AandM Univ., College Station, Texas (United States); Zhang, R. Y. [State Key Joint Lab. of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, Coll. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Department of Atmospheric Science, Texas AandM Univ., College Station, Texas (United States))

    2013-09-15

    In order to characterise the features of particle pollution in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, a 1-month intensive campaign was conducted at the rural supersite (Kaiping) in the autumn of 2008. In total, 12 new particle formation (NPF) events are identified out of 30 campaign days. The results show that in the case of higher source and sink values, the result of the competition between source and sink is more likely the key limiting factor to determine the observation of NPF events at Kaiping. One episode with consecutive NPF events in the presence of strong biomass burning plume was observed between 10 and 15 November. The elevation of particle volume concentration (6.1 mm{sup 3}/cm{sup 3}/day) is due to the coaction by the local biomass burning and secondary transformation. Organics and sulphates are the major components in PM{sub 1}, accounting for 42% and 35% of the mass concentration, respectively. In this study, a rough estimation is applied to quantify the contributions of diverse sources to the particle number concentration. On average, the primary emission and secondary formation provide 28 and 72% of particle number concentration and 21% and 79% of mass concentration, respectively.

  19. Genotoxic potential generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Legal Amazon by Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay: a toxicity assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artaxo Paulo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian Amazon has suffered impacts from non-sustainable economic development, especially owing to the expansion of agricultural commodities into forest areas. The Tangará da Serra region, located in the southern of the Legal Amazon, is characterized by non-mechanized sugar cane production. In addition, it lies on the dispersion path of the pollution plume generated by biomass burning. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic potential of the atmosphere in the Tangará da Serra region, using Tradescantia pallida as in situ bioindicator. Methods The study was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons, where the plants were exposed to two types of exposure, active and passive. Results The results showed that in all the sampling seasons, irrespective of exposure type, there was an increase in micronucleus frequency, compared to control and that it was statistically significant in the dry season. A strong and significant relationship was also observed between the increase in micronucleus incidence and the rise in fine particulate matter, and hospital morbidity from respiratory diseases in children. Conclusions Based on the results, we demonstrated that pollutants generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Amazon can induce genetic damage in test plants that was more prominent during dry season, and correlated with the level of particulates and elevated respiratory morbidity.

  20. AIRS Views of Anthropogenic and Biomass Burning CO: INTEX-B/MILAGRO and TEXAQS/GoMACCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, W. W.; Warner, J.; Wicks, D.; Barnet, C.; Sachse, G.; Chu, A.; Sparling, L.

    2006-12-01

    Utilizing the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder's (AIRS) unique spatial and temporal coverage, we present observations of anthropogenic and biomass burning CO emissions as observed by AIRS during the 2006 field experiments INTEX-B/MILAGRO and TEXAQS/GoMACCS. AIRS daily CO maps covering more than 75% of the planet demonstrate the near global transport of these emissions. AIRS day/night coverage of significant portions of the Earth often show substantial changes in 12 hours or less. However, the coarse vertical resolution of AIRS retrieved CO complicates its interpretation. For example, extensive CO emissions are evident from Asia during April and May 2006, but it is difficult to determine the relative contributions of biomass burning in Thailand vs. domestic and industrial emissions from China. Similarly, sometimes AIRS sees enhanced CO over and downwind of Mexico City and other populated areas. AIRS low information content and decreasing sensitivity in the boundary layer can result in underestimates of CO total columns and free tropospheric abundances. Building on our analyses of INTEX-A/ICARTT data from 2004, we present comparisons with INTEX-B/MILAGRO and TEXAQS/GoMACCS in situ aircraft measurements and other satellite CO observations. The combined analysis of AIRS CO, water vapor and O3 retrievals; MODIS aerosol optical depths; and forward trajectory computations illuminate a variety of dynamical processes in the troposphere.

  1. Evaluating the Height of Biomass Burning Smoke Aerosols Retrieved from Synergistic Use of Multiple Satellite Sensors Over Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehwa; Hsu, N. Christina; Bettenhausen, Corey; Sayer, Andrew M.; Seftor, Colin J.; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Tsay, Si-Chee; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Chen, Wei-Nai

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the height of biomass burning smoke aerosols retrieved from a combined use of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS), and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) observations. The retrieved heights are compared against space borne and ground-based lidar measurements during the peak biomass burning season (March and April) over Southeast Asia from 2013 to 2015. Based on the comparison against CALIOP, a quality assurance (QA) procedure is developed. It is found that 74 (8184) of the retrieved heights fall within 1 km of CALIOP observations for unfiltered (QA-filtered) data, with root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 1.1 km (0.81.0 km). Eliminating the requirement of CALIOP observations from the retrieval process significantly increases the temporal coverage with only a slight decrease in the retrieval accuracy; for best QA data, 64 of data fall within 1 km of CALIOP observations with RMSE of 1.1 km. When compared with Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) measurements deployed at Doi Ang Khang, Thailand, the retrieved heights show RMSE of 1.7 km (1.1 km) for unfiltered (QA-filtered) data for the complete algorithm, and 0.9 km (0.8 km) for the simplified algorithm.

  2. Organic molecular tracers in the atmospheric aerosols from Lumbini, Nepal, in the northern Indo-Gangetic Plain: influence of biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the characteristics of biomass burning in the northern Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP, total suspended particles were collected in a rural site, Lumbini, Nepal, during April 2013 to March 2014 and analyzed for the biomass burning tracers (i.e., levoglucosan, mannosan, vanillic acid. The annual average concentration of levoglucosan was 734 ± 1043 ng m−3 with the maximum seasonal mean concentration during post-monsoon season (2206 ± 1753 ng m−3, followed by winter (1161 ± 1347 ng m−3, pre-monsoon (771 ± 524 ng m−3 and minimum concentration during monsoon season (212 ± 279 ng m−3. The other biomass burning tracers (mannosan, galactosan, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid and dehydroabietic acid also showed the similar seasonal variations. There were good correlations among levoglucosan, organic carbon (OC and elemental carbon (EC, indicating significant impact of biomass burning activities on carbonaceous aerosol loading throughout the year in Lumbini area. According to the characteristic ratios, levoglucosan ∕ mannosan (lev ∕ man and syringic acid ∕ vanillic acid (syr ∕ van, we deduced that the high abundances of biomass burning products during non-monsoon seasons were mainly caused by the burning of crop residues and hardwood while the softwood had less contribution. Based on the diagnostic tracer ratio (i.e., lev ∕ OC, the OC derived from biomass burning constituted large fraction of total OC, especially during post-monsoon season. By analyzing the MODIS fire spot product and 5-day air-mass back trajectories, we further demonstrated that organic aerosol composition was not only related to the local agricultural activities and residential biomass usage but also impacted by the regional emissions. During the post-monsoon season, the emissions from rice residue burning in western India and eastern Pakistan could impact particulate

  3. Refined Use of Satellite Aerosol Optical Depth Snapshots to Constrain Biomass Burning Emissions in the GOCART Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Mariya; Kahn, Ralph; Chin, Mian; Limbacher, James

    2017-10-01

    Simulations of biomass burning (BB) emissions in global chemistry and aerosol transport models depend on external inventories, which provide location and strength for BB aerosol sources. Our previous work shows that to first order, satellite snapshots of aerosol optical depth (AOD) near the emitted smoke plume can be used to constrain model-simulated AOD, and effectively, the smoke source strength. We now refine the satellite-snapshot method and investigate where applying simple multiplicative emission adjustment factors alone to the widely used Global Fire Emission Database version 3 emission inventory can achieve regional-scale consistency between Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD snapshots and the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model. The model and satellite AOD are compared globally, over a set of BB cases observed by the MODIS instrument during the 2004, and 2006-2008 biomass burning seasons. Regional discrepancies between the model and satellite are diverse around the globe yet quite consistent within most ecosystems. We refine our approach to address physically based limitations of our earlier work (1) by expanding the number of fire cases from 124 to almost 900, (2) by using scaled reanalysis-model simulations to fill missing AOD retrievals in the MODIS observations, (3) by distinguishing the BB components of the total aerosol load from background aerosol in the near-source regions, and (4) by including emissions from fires too small to be identified explicitly in the satellite observations. The small-fire emission adjustment shows the complimentary nature of correcting for source strength and adding geographically distinct missing sources. Our analysis indicates that the method works best for fire cases where the BB fraction of total AOD is high, primarily evergreen or deciduous forests. In heavily polluted or agricultural burning regions, where smoke and background AOD values tend to be comparable, this approach

  4. Simulations of the effect of intensive biomass burning in July 2015 on Arctic radiative budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowicz, K. M.; Lisok, J.; Xian, P.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of biomass burning (BB) on aerosol optical properties and radiative budget in the polar region following an intense boreal fire event in North America in July 2015 is explored in this paper. Presented data are obtained from the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) reanalysis and the Fu-Liou radiative transfer model. NAAPS provides particle concentrations and aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 1° x 1° spatial and 6-hourly temporal resolution, its AOD and vertical profiles were validated with field measurements for this event. Direct aerosol radiative forcings (ARF) at the surface, the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and within the atmosphere are calculated for clear-sky and all-sky conditions, with the surface albedo and cloud properties constrained by satellite retrievals. The mean ARFs at the surface, the TOA, and within the atmosphere averaged for the north pole region (latitudes north of 75.5N) and the study period (July 5-15, 2015) are -13.1 ± 2.7, 0.3 ± 2.1, and 13.4 ± 2.7 W/m2 for clear-sky and -7.3 ± 1.8, 5.0 ± 2.6, and 12.3 ± 1.6 W/m2 for all-sky conditions respectively. Local ARFs can be a several times larger e.g. the clear-sky surface and TOA ARF reach over Alaska -85 and -30 W/m2 and over Svalbard -41 and -20 W/m2 respectively. The ARF is found negative at the surface (almost zero over high albedo region though) with the maximum forcing over the BB source region, and weaker forcing under all-sky conditions compared to the clear-sky conditions. Unlike the ARFs at the surface and within the atmosphere, which have consistent forcing signs all over the polar region, the ARF at the TOA changes signs from negative (cooling) over the source region (Alaska) to positive (heating) over bright surfaces (e.g., Greenland) because of strong surface albedo effect. NAAPS simulations also show that the transported BB particle over the Arctic are in the low-to-middle troposphere and above low-level clouds, resulting in little difference in ARFs

  5. Spatial and temporal variability of carbonaceous aerosols: Assessing the impact of biomass burning in the urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titos, G; Del Águila, A; Cazorla, A; Lyamani, H; Casquero-Vera, J A; Colombi, C; Cuccia, E; Gianelle, V; Močnik, G; Alastuey, A; Olmo, F J; Alados-Arboledas, L

    2017-02-01

    Biomass burning (BB) is a significant source of atmospheric particles in many parts of the world. Whereas many studies have demonstrated the importance of BB emissions in central and northern Europe, especially in rural areas, its impact in urban air quality of southern European countries has been sparsely investigated. In this study, highly time resolved multi-wavelength absorption coefficients together with levoglucosan (BB tracer) mass concentrations were combined to apportion carbonaceous aerosol sources. The Aethalometer model takes advantage of the different spectral behavior of BB and fossil fuel (FF) combustion aerosols. The model was found to be more sensitive to the assumed value of the aerosol Ångström exponent (AAE) for FF (AAE ff ) than to the AAE for BB (AAE bb ). As result of various sensitivity tests the model was optimized with AAE ff =1.1 and AAE bb =2. The Aethalometer model and levoglucosan tracer estimates were in good agreement. The Aethalometer model was further applied to data from three sites in Granada urban area to evaluate the spatial variation of CM ff and CM bb (carbonaceous matter from FF or BB origin, respectively) concentrations within the city. The results showed that CM bb was lower in the city centre while it has an unexpected profound impact on the CM levels measured in the suburbs (about 40%). Analysis of BB tracers with respect to wind speed suggested that BB was dominated by sources outside the city, to the west in a rural area. Distinguishing whether it corresponds to agricultural waste burning or with biomass burning for domestic heating was not possible. This study also shows that although traffic restrictions measures contribute to reduce carbonaceous concentrations, the extent of the reduction is very local. Other sources such as BB, which can contribute to CM as much as traffic emissions, should be targeted to reduce air pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of biomass burning on mixing state of sub-micron aerosol particles in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecorius, Simonas; Ma, Nan; Teich, Monique; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Zhang, Shenglan; Gröβ, Johannes; Spindler, Gerald; Müller, Konrad; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Hu, Min; Herrmann, Hartmut; Wiedensohler, Alfred

    2017-09-01

    Particulate emissions from crop residue burning decrease the air quality as well as influence aerosol radiative properties on a regional scale. The North China Plain (NCP) is known for the large scale biomass burning (BB) of field residues, which often results in heavy haze pollution episodes across the region. We have been able to capture a unique BB episode during the international CAREBeijing-NCP intensive field campaign in Wangdu in the NCP (38.6°N, 115.2°E) from June to July 2014. It was found that aerosol particles originating from this BB event showed a significantly different mixing state compared with clean and non-BB pollution episodes. BB originated particles showed a narrower probability density function (PDF) of shrink factor (SF). And the maximum was found at shrink factor of 0.6, which is higher than in other episodes. The non-volatile particle number fraction during the BB episode decreased to 3% and was the lowest measured value compared to all other predefined episodes. To evaluate the influence of particle mixing state on aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA), SSA at different RHs was simulated using the measured aerosol physical-chemical properties. The differences between the calculated SSA for biomass burning, clean and pollution episodes are significant, meaning that the variation of SSA in different pollution conditions needs to be considered in the evaluation of aerosol direct radiative effects in the NCP. And the calculated SSA was found to be quite sensitive on the mixing state of BC, especially at low-RH condition. The simulated SSA was also compared with the measured values. For all the three predefined episodes, the measured SSA are very close to the calculated ones with assumed mixing states of homogeneously internal and core-shell internal mixing, indicating that both of the conception models are appropriate for the calculation of ambient SSA in the NCP.

  7. Characterization of PM2.5 and identification of transported secondary and biomass burning contribution in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yumi; Seo, Jihoon; Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Ji Yi; Kim, Hwajin; Kim, Bong Mann

    2018-02-01

    The chemical and seasonal characteristics of fine particulates in Seoul, Korea, were investigated based on 24-h integrated PM 2.5 measurements made over four 1-month periods in each season between October 2012 and September 2013. The four-season average concentration of PM 2.5 was 37 μg m -3 , and the major chemical components were secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) species of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium (49%), followed by organic matter (34%). The mass concentration and most of the chemical components of PM 2.5 showed clear seasonal variation, with a winter-high and summer-low pattern. The winter-to-summer sulfate ratio and the winter organic carbon (OC)-to-elemental carbon (EC) ratio were unusually high compared with those in previous studies. Strong correlations of both the sulfate level and the sulfur oxidation ratio with relative humidity, and between water-soluble OC (WSOC) and SIA in winter, suggest the importance of aqueous phase chemistry for secondary aerosols. A strong correlation between non-sea salt sulfate and Na + levels, a high Cl - /Na + ratio, and an unusual positive correlation between the nitrogen oxidation ratio and temperature during the winter indicate the influence of transported secondary emission sources from upwind urban areas and from China across the Yellow Sea. Despite the absence of local forest fires and the regulation of wood burning, a high levoglucosan concentration and its correlations with OC and WSOC indicate that Seoul was affected by biomass burning sources in the winter. The unusually high water-insoluble OC (WIOC)-to-EC ratio in winter implies additional transported combustion sources of WIOC. The strong correlation between WIOC and levoglucosan suggests the likely influence of transported biomass burning sources on the high WIOC/EC ratio during the winter.

  8. Emission of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from biomass pellet burning in a modern burner for cooking in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guofeng; Wei, Siye; Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Yuanchen; Chen, Han; Wei, Wen; Tao, Shu

    2012-12-01

    Biomass pellets are undergoing fast deployment widely in the world, including China. To this stage, there were limited studies on the emissions of various organic pollutants from the burning of those pellets. In addition to parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) have been received increased concerns. In this study, emission factors of oPAHs (EFoPAHs) were measured for two types of pellets made from corn straw and pine wood, respectively. Two combustion modes with (mode II) and without (mode I) secondary side air supply in a modern pellet burner were investigated. For the purpose of comparison, EFoPAHs for raw fuels combusted in a traditional cooking stove were also measured. EFoPAHs were 348 ± 305 and 396 ± 387 μg kg-1 in the combustion mode II for pine wood and corn straw pellets, respectively. In mode I, measured EFoPAHs were 77.7 ± 49.4 and 189 ± 118 μg kg-1, respectively. EFs in mode II were higher (2-5 times) than those in mode I mainly due to the decreased combustion temperature under more excess air. Compared to EFoPAHs for raw corn straw and pine wood burned in a traditional cooking stove, total EFoPAHs for the pellets in mode I were significantly lower (p pellets burned in mode II was not statistically significant. Taking both the increased thermal efficiencies and decreased EFs into consideration, substantial reduction in oPAH emission can be expected if the biomass pellets can be extensively used by rural residents.

  9. Experiments on contrail formation from fuels with different sulfur content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busen, R; Kuhn, M; Petzold, A; Schroeder, F; Schumann, U [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany); Baumgardner, D [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Borrmann, S [Mainz Univ. (Germany); Hagen, D; Whitefield, Ph [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Bureau of Mines; Stroem, J [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    A series of both flight tests and ground experiments has been performed to evaluate the role of the sulfur contained in kerosene in condensation trail (contrail) formation processes. The results of the first experiments are compiled briefly. The last SULFUR 4 experiment dealing with the influence of the fuel sulfur content and different appertaining conditions is described in detail. Different sulfur mass fractions lead to different particle size spectra. The number of ice particles in the contrail increases by about a factor of 2 for 3000 ppm instead of 6 ppm sulfur fuel content. (author) 10 refs.

  10. Experiments on contrail formation from fuels with different sulfur content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busen, R.; Kuhn, M.; Petzold, A.; Schroeder, F.; Schumann, U. [Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany); Baumgardner, D. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Borrmann, S. [Mainz Univ. (Germany); Hagen, D.; Whitefield, Ph. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Bureau of Mines; Stroem, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    A series of both flight tests and ground experiments has been performed to evaluate the role of the sulfur contained in kerosene in condensation trail (contrail) formation processes. The results of the first experiments are compiled briefly. The last SULFUR 4 experiment dealing with the influence of the fuel sulfur content and different appertaining conditions is described in detail. Different sulfur mass fractions lead to different particle size spectra. The number of ice particles in the contrail increases by about a factor of 2 for 3000 ppm instead of 6 ppm sulfur fuel content. (author) 10 refs.

  11. Trace gas emissions to the atmosphere by biomass burning in the west African savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouin, Robert J.; Iacobellis, Samuel F.; Razafimpanilo, Herisoa; Somerville, Richard C. J.

    1994-01-01

    Savanna fires and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) detection and estimating burned area using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer_(AVHRR) reflectance data are investigated in this two part research project. The first part involves carbon dioxide flux estimates and a three-dimensional transport model to quantify the effect of north African savanna fires on atmospheric CO2 concentration, including CO2 spatial and temporal variability patterns and their significance to global emissions. The second article describes two methods used to determine burned area from AVHRR data. The article discusses the relationship between the percentage of burned area and AVHRR channel 2 reflectance (the linear method) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) (the nonlinear method). A comparative performance analysis of each method is described.

  12. Seasonal impact of regional outdoor biomass burning on air pollution in three Indian cities: Delhi, Bengaluru, and Pune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianjia; Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Westervelt, Daniel M.; Xia, Karen R.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Cusworth, Daniel H.; Milly, George

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution in many of India's cities exceeds national and international standards, and effective pollution control strategies require knowledge of the sources that contribute to air pollution and their spatiotemporal variability. In this study, we examine the influence of a single pollution source, outdoor biomass burning, on particulate matter (PM) concentrations, surface visibility, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) from 2007 to 2013 in three of the most populous Indian cities. We define the upwind regions, or ;airsheds,; for the cities by using atmospheric back trajectories from the HYSPLIT model. Using satellite fire radiative power (FRP) observations as a measure of fire activity, we target pre-monsoon and post-monsoon fires upwind of the Delhi National Capital Region and pre-monsoon fires surrounding Bengaluru and Pune. We find varying contributions of outdoor fires to different air quality metrics. For the post-monsoon burning season, we find that a subset of local meteorological variables (air temperature, humidity, sea level pressure, wind speed and direction) and FRP as the only pollution source explained 39% of variance in Delhi station PM10 anomalies, 77% in visibility, and 30% in satellite AOD; additionally, per unit increase in FRP within the daily airshed (1000 MW), PM10 increases by 16.34 μg m-3, visibility decreases by 0.155 km, and satellite AOD increases by 0.07. In contrast, for the pre-monsoon burning season, we find less significant contributions from FRP to air quality in all three cities. Further, we attribute 99% of FRP from post-monsoon outdoor fires within Delhi's average airshed to agricultural burning. Our work suggests that although outdoor fires are not the dominant air pollution source in India throughout the year, post-monsoon fires contribute substantially to regional air pollution and high levels of population exposure around Delhi. During 3-day blocks of extreme PM2.5 in the 2013 post-monsoon burning season, which coincided

  13. Influence of biomass burning emissions on precipitation chemistry in the equatorial forests of Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacaux, J.P.; Lefeivre, B.; Delmas, R.A.; Cros, B.; Andreae, M.O.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the DESCAFE program (Dynamics and Chemistry of the Atmosphere in Equatorial Forest), measurements of precipitation chemistry were made at two sampling sites of the equatorial forest in the Republic of Congo. The measurements were made in order to identify and compare atmospheric sources of gases and particles (mainly biogenic sources and emissions from burning vegetation)

  14. Comparative study of coal and biomass co-combustion with coal burning separately through emissions analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, M.; Asadullah, A.; Khan, G.; Soomro, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate eco-friendly methos to mitigate the problem of emissions from combustion of fossil fuel are highly demanded. The current study was focused on the effect of using coal and coal biomass co-combustion on the gaseous emissions. Different biomass were used along with coal. The coal used was lignite coal and the biomass' were tree waste, cow dung and banana tree leaves Various ratios of coal and biomass were used to investigate the combustion behavior of coal cow dung and 100% banana tree leaves emits less emission of CO, CO/sub 2/, NOx and SO/sub 2/ as compared to 100% coal, Maximum amount of CO emission were 1510.5 ppm for bannana tree waste and minimum amount obtained for lakhra coal and cow dung manure (70:30) of 684.667 leaves (90:10) and minimum amount of SO/sub 2/ present in samples is in lakhra coal-banana tree waste (80:20). The maximum amount of NO obtained for banana tree waste were 68 ppm whereas amount from cow dung manure (30.83 ppm). The study concludes that utilization of biomass with coal could make remedial action against environment pollution. (author)

  15. Simultaneously combining AOD and multiple trace gas measurements to identify decadal changes in urban and biomass burning aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jason

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a methodology by which to comprehensively analyze simultaneous tropospheric measurements of AOD and associated trace gasses. It then applies this methodology by focusing over the past 11 years (2006-2016) on one of the most rapidly changing regions of the troposphere: Eastern and Southeastern Asia. The specific work presented incorporates measurements of both aerosol and related gas phase tropospheric measurements across different spectral, spatial, temporal, and passive/active sensors and properties, including: MODIS, MISR, OMI, CALIOP, and others. This new characterization reveals a trio of new information, including a time-invariant urban signal, slowly-time-varying new-urbanization signal, and a rapidly time-varying biomass burning signal. Additionally, due to the different chemical properties of the various species analyzed, analyzing the different spatial domains of the resulting products allows for further information in terms of the amounts of aerosols produced both through primary emissions as well as secondary processing. The end result is a new characterization, in space, time, and magnitude, of both anthropogenic and biomass burning aerosols. These results are then used to drive an advanced modeling system including aerosol chemistry, physics, optics, and transport, and employing an aerosol routine based on multi-modal and both externally mixed and core-shell mixing. The resulting characterization in space, time, and quantity is analyzed and compared against AERONET, NOAA, and other ground networks, with the results comparing consistently to or better than present approaches which set up net emissions separately from urban and biomass burning products. Scientifically, new source regions of emissions are identified, some of which were previously non-urbanized or found to not contain any fire hotspots. This new approach is consistent with the underlying economic and development pathways of expanding urban areas and rapid economic growth

  16. Overview of Asian Biomass Burning and Dust Aerosols Measured during the Dongsha Experiment in the Spring of 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, N.; Tsay, S.; Wang, S.; Sheu, G.; Chi, K.; Lee, C.; Wang, J.

    2010-12-01

    The international campaign of Dongsha Experiment was conducted in the northern SE Asian region during March-May 2010. It is a pre-study of the Seven South East Asian Studies (7SEAS) which seeks to perform interdisciplinary research in the field of aerosol-meteorology and climate interaction in the Southeast Asian region, particularly for the impact of biomass burning on cloud, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and regional climate. Participating countries include Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Vietnam, and USA (NASA, NRL, and NOAA). The main goals of Dongsha Experiment are (1) to develop the Dongsha Island (about 2 km2, 20°42'52" N, 116°43'51" E) in the South China Sea as an atmospheric observing platform of atmospheric chemistry, radiation and meteorological parameters, and (2) to characterize the chemical and physical properties of biomass burning aerosols in the northern SE Asian region. A monitoring network for ground-based measurements includes the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (2,862 m MSL) in central Taiwan, Hen-Chun (coastal) in the very southern tip of Taiwan, Dongsha Island in South China Sea, Da Nang (near coastal region) in central Vietnam, and Chiang Mai (about 1,400 m, MSL) in northern Thailand. Besides, the Mobile Air Quality Station of Taiwan EPA and NASA/COMMIT were shipped to Dongsha Island for continuous measurements of CO, SO2, NOx, O3, and PM10, and aerosol optical and vertical profiles. Two Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) for aerosol chemistry were conducted during 14-30 March and 10-20 April 2010, respectively. Ten aerosol samplers were deployed for each station for characterizing the compositions of PM2.5/PM10 (some for TSP) including water-soluble ions, metal elements, BC/OC, Hg and dioxins. Sampling tubes of VOCs were also deployed. Concurrent measurements with IOP-1, Taiwanese R/V also made a mission to South China Sea during 14-19 March. Enhanced sounding at Dongsha Island was

  17. Determination of enhancement ratios of HCOOH relative to CO in biomass burning plumes by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, Matthieu; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-Francois

    2017-09-01

    Formic acid (HCOOH) concentrations are often underestimated by models, and its chemistry is highly uncertain. HCOOH is, however, among the most abundant atmospheric volatile organic compounds, and it is potentially responsible for rain acidity in remote areas. HCOOH data from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) are analyzed from 2008 to 2014 to estimate enhancement ratios from biomass burning emissions over seven regions. Fire-affected HCOOH and CO total columns are defined by combining total columns from IASI, geographic location of the fires from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the surface wind speed field from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Robust correlations are found between these fire-affected HCOOH and CO total columns over the selected biomass burning regions, allowing the calculation of enhancement ratios equal to 7.30 × 10-3 ± 0.08 × 10-3 mol mol-1 over Amazonia (AMA), 11.10 × 10-3 ± 1.37 × 10-3 mol mol-1 over Australia (AUS), 6.80 × 10-3 ± 0.44 × 10-3 mol mol-1 over India (IND), 5.80 × 10-3 ± 0.15 × 10-3 mol mol-1 over Southeast Asia (SEA), 4.00 × 10-3 ± 0.19 × 10-3 mol mol-1 over northern Africa (NAF), 5.00 × 10-3 ± 0.13 × 10-3 mol mol-1 over southern Africa (SAF), and 4.40 × 10-3 ± 0.09 × 10-3 mol mol-1 over Siberia (SIB), in a fair agreement with previous studies. In comparison with referenced emission ratios, it is also shown that the selected agricultural burning plumes captured by IASI over India and Southeast Asia correspond to recent plumes where the chemistry or the sink does not occur. An additional classification of the enhancement ratios by type of fuel burned is also provided, showing a diverse origin of the plumes sampled by IASI, especially over Amazonia and Siberia. The variability in the enhancement ratios by biome over the different regions show that the levels of HCOOH and CO do not only depend on the fuel types.

  18. Comparative Study of Coal and Biomass Co-Combustion With Coal Burning Separately Through Emissions Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Siddique

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate eco-friendly methods to mitigate the problem of emissions from combustion of fossil fuel are highly demanded. The current study was focused on the effect of using coal & coal-biomass co-combustion on the gaseous emissions. Different biomass' were used along with coal. The coal used was lignite coal and the biomass' were tree waste, cow dung and banana tree leaves. Various ratios of coal and biomass were used to investigate the combustion behavior of coal-biomass blends and their emissions. The study revealed that the ratio of 80:20 of coal (lignite-cow dung and 100% banana tree leaves emits less emissions of CO, CO2, NOx and SO2 as compared to 100% coal. Maximum amount of CO emissions were 1510.5 ppm for banana tree waste and minimum amount obtained for lakhra coal and cow dung manure (70:30 of 684.667 ppm. Maximum percentage of SO2 (345.33 ppm was released from blend of lakhra coal and tree leaves (90:10 and minimum amount of SO2 present in samples is in lakhra coal-banana tree waste (80:20. The maximum amount of NO obtained for banana tree waste were 68 ppm whereas maximum amount of NOx was liberated from lakhra coal-tree leaves (60:40 and minimum amount from cow dung manure (30.83 ppm. The study concludes that utilization of biomass with coal could make remedial action against environment pollution.

  19. Biomass burning impact on PM 2.5 over the southeastern US during 2007: integrating chemically speciated FRM filter measurements, MODIS fire counts and PMF analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Weber

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Archived Federal Reference Method (FRM Teflon filters used by state regulatory agencies for measuring PM2.5 mass were acquired from 15 sites throughout the southeastern US and analyzed for water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, water-soluble ions and carbohydrates to investigate biomass burning contributions to fine aerosol mass. Based on over 900 filters that spanned all of 2007, levoglucosan and K+ were studied in conjunction with MODIS Aqua fire count data to compare their performances as biomass burning tracers. Levoglucosan concentrations exhibited a distinct seasonal variation with large enhancement in winter and spring and a minimum in summer, and were well correlated with fire counts, except in winter when residential wood burning contributions were significant. In contrast, K+ concentrations had no apparent seasonal trend and poor correlation with fire counts. Levoglucosan and K+ only correlated well in winter (r2=0.59 when biomass burning emissions were highest, whereas in other seasons they were not correlated due to the presence of other K+ sources. Levoglucosan also exhibited larger spatial variability than K+. Both species were higher in urban than rural sites (mean 44% higher for levoglucosan and 86% for K+. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF was applied to analyze PM2.5 sources and four factors were resolved: biomass burning, refractory material, secondary light absorbing WSOC and secondary sulfate/WSOC. The biomass burning source contributed 13% to PM2.5 mass annually, 27% in winter, and less than 2% in summer, consistent with other souce apportionment studies based on levoglucosan, but lower in summer compared to studies based on K+.

  20. Source indicators of biomass burning associated with inorganic salts and carboxylates in dry season ambient aerosol in Chiang Mai Basin, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ying I.; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; Chotruksa, Auranee; Wu, Hsin-Ching; Kuo, Su-Ching

    2013-10-01

    PM10 aerosol was collected between February and April 2010 at an urban site (CMU) and an industrial site (TOT) in Chiang Mai, Thailand, and characteristics and provenance of water-soluble inorganic species, carboxylates, anhydrosugars and sugar alcohols were investigated with particular reference to air quality, framed as episodic or non-episodic pollution. Sulfate, a product of secondary photochemical reactions, was the major inorganic salt in PM10, comprising 25.9% and 22.3% of inorganic species at CMU and TOT, respectively. Acetate was the most abundant monocarboxylate, followed by formate. Oxalate was the dominant dicarboxylate. A high acetate/formate mass ratio indicated that primary traffic-related and biomass-burning emissions contributed to Chiang Mai aerosols during episodic and non-episodic pollution. During episodic pollution carboxylate peaks indicated sourcing from photochemical reactions and/or directly from traffic-related and biomass burning processes and concentrations of specific biomarkers of biomass burning including water-soluble potassium, glutarate, oxalate and levoglucosan dramatically increased. Levoglucosan, the dominant anhydrosugar, was highly associated with water-soluble potassium (r = 0.75-0.79) and accounted for 93.4% and 93.7% of anhydrosugars at CMU and TOT, respectively, during episodic pollution. Moreover, levoglucosan during episodic pollution was 14.2-21.8 times non-episodic lows, showing clearly that emissions from biomass burning are the major cause of PM10 episodic pollution in Chiang Mai. Additionally, the average levoglucosan/mannosan mass ratio during episodic pollution was 14.1-14.9, higher than the 5.73-7.69 during non-episodic pollution, indicating that there was more hardwood burning during episodic pollution. Higher concentrations of glycerol and erythritol during episodic pollution further indicate that biomass burning activities released soil biota from forest and farmland soils.

  1. A method for smoke marker measurements and its potential application for determining the contribution of biomass burning from wildfires and prescribed fires to ambient PM2.5 organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. P. Sullivan; A. S. Holden; L. A. Patterson; G. R. McMeeking; S. M. Kreidenweis; W. C. Malm; W. M. Hao; C. E. Wold; J. L. Collett

    2008-01-01

    Biomass burning is an important source of particulate organic carbon (OC) in the atmosphere. Quantifying this contribution in time and space requires a means of routinely apportioning contributions of smoke from biomass burning to OC. Smoke marker (for example, levoglucosan) measurements provide the most common approach for making this determination. A lack of source...

  2. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, S. K.; Yokelson, R. J.; Burling, I. R.; Meinardi, S.; Simpson, I.; Blake, D. R.; McMeeking, G. R.; Sullivan, A.; Lee, T.; Kreidenweis, S.; Urbanski, S.; Reardon, J.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Johnson, T. J.; Weise, D. R.

    2013-02-01

    In October-November 2011 we measured trace gas emission factors from seven prescribed fires in South Carolina (SC), US, using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) systems and whole air sampling (WAS) into canisters followed by gas-chromatographic analysis. A total of 97 trace gas species were quantified from both airborne and ground-based sampling platforms, making this one of the most detailed field studies of fire emissions to date. The measurements include the first emission factors for a suite of monoterpenes produced by heating vegetative fuels during field fires. The first quantitative FTIR observations of limonene in smoke are reported along with an expanded suite of monoterpenes measured by WAS including α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, camphene, 4-carene, and myrcene. The known chemistry of the monoterpenes and their measured abundance of 0.4-27.9% of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) and ~ 21% of organic aerosol (mass basis) suggests that they impacted secondary formation of ozone (O3), aerosols, and small organic trace gases such as methanol and formaldehyde in the sampled plumes in the first few hours after emission. The variability in the initial terpene emissions in the SC fire plumes was high and, in general, the speciation of the initially emitted gas-phase NMOCs was 13-195% different from that observed in a similar study in nominally similar pine forests in North Carolina ~ 20 months earlier. It is likely that differences in stand structure and environmental conditions contributed to the high variability observed within and between these studies. Similar factors may explain much of the variability in initial emissions in the literature. The ΔHCN/ΔCO emission ratio, however, was found to be fairly consistent with previous airborne fire measurements in other coniferous-dominated ecosystems, with the mean for these studies being 0.90 ± 0.06%, further confirming the value of HCN as a biomass burning tracer. The SC results also

  3. TNF promoter polymorphisms are associated with genetic susceptibility in COPD secondary to tobacco smoking and biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reséndiz-Hernández JM

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Juan Manuel Reséndiz-Hernández,1 Enrique Ambrocio-Ortiz,1 Gloria Pérez-Rubio,1 Luis Alberto López-Flores,1 Edgar Abarca-Rojano,2 Gandhi Fernando Pavón-Romero,3 Fernando Flores-Trujillo,4 Rafael de Jesús Hernández-Zenteno,4 Ángel Camarena,1 Martha Pérez-Rodríguez,5 Ana María Salazar,6 Alejandra Ramírez-Venegas,4 Ramcés Falfán-Valencia1 1HLA Laboratory, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosío Villegas, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Research and Graduate Studies Section, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosío Villegas, Mexico City, Mexico; 4Tobacco Smoking and COPD Research Department, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosío Villegas, Mexico City, Mexico; 5Unit of Medical Research in Immunology, CMN S-XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Mexico; 6Department of Genomic Medicine and Environmental Toxicology, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico Background: Smoking and smoke from biomass burning (BB are the main environmental risk factors for COPD. Clinical differences have been described between COPD related to smoking and related to wood smoke, but no studies have shown genetic differences between patients exposed to these two risk factors. Methods: To investigate a possible association of tumor necrosis factor (TNF promoter polymorphisms, we conducted a case–control study. A total of 1,322 subjects were included in four groups: patients with a diagnosis of COPD secondary to smoking (COPD-S, n=384, patients with COPD secondary to biomass burning (COPD-BB, n=168, smokers without COPD (SWOC, n=674, and biomass burning-exposed subjects (BBES n=96. Additionally, a group of 950 Mexican mestizos (MMs was included as a population control. Three single nucleotide

  4. Transport of biomass burning smoke to the upper troposphere by deep convection in the equatorial region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.; Fischer, H.; Freitas, S. R.; Grégoire, J.-M.; Hansel, A.; Hoor, P.; Kormann, R.; Krejci, R.; Lange, L.; Lelieveld, J.; Lindinger, W.; Longo, K.; Peters, W.; de Reus, M.; Scheeren, B.; Silva Dias, M. A. F.; Ström, J.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Williams, J.

    2001-01-01

    During LBA-CLAIRE-98, we found atmospheric layers with aged biomass smoke at altitudes >10 km over Suriname. CO, CO2, acetonitrile, methyl chloride, hydrocarbons, NO, O3, and aerosols were strongly enhanced in these layers. We estimate that 80-95% of accumulation mode aerosols had been removed

  5. Contrails and their impact on shortwave radiation and photovoltaic power production – a regional model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gruber

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution regional-scale numerical model was extended by a parameterization that allows for both the generation and the life cycle of contrails and contrail cirrus to be calculated. The life cycle of contrails and contrail cirrus is described by a two-moment cloud microphysical scheme that was extended by a separate contrail ice class for a better representation of the high concentration of small ice crystals that occur in contrails. The basic input data set contains the spatially and temporally highly resolved flight trajectories over Central Europe derived from real-time data. The parameterization provides aircraft-dependent source terms for contrail ice mass and number. A case study was performed to investigate the influence of contrails and contrail cirrus on the shortwave radiative fluxes at the earth's surface. Accounting for contrails produced by aircraft enabled the model to simulate high clouds that were otherwise missing on this day. The effect of these extra clouds was to reduce the incoming shortwave radiation at the surface as well as the production of photovoltaic power by up to 10 %.

  6. Modeling biomass burning and related carbon emissions during the 21st century in Europe

    KAUST Repository

    Migliavacca, Mirco; Dosio, Alessandro; Camia, Andrea; Hobourg, Rasmus; Houston-Durrant, Tracy; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Khabarov, Nikolay; Krasovskii, Andrey A.; Marcolla, Barbara; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Ward, Daniel S.; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    In this study we present an assessment of the impact of future climate change on total fire probability, burned area, and carbon (C) emissions from fires in Europe. The analysis was performed with the Community Land Model (CLM) extended with a prognostic treatment of fires that was specifically refined and optimized for application over Europe. Simulations over the 21st century are forced by five different high-resolution Regional Climate Models under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B. Both original and bias-corrected meteorological forcings is used. Results show that the simulated C emissions over the present period are improved by using bias corrected meteorological forcing, with a reduction of the intermodel variability. In the course of the 21st century, burned area and C emissions from fires are shown to increase in Europe, in particular in the Mediterranean basins, in the Balkan regions and in Eastern Europe. However, the projected increase is lower than in other studies that did not fully account for the effect of climate on ecosystem functioning. We demonstrate that the lower sensitivity of burned area and C emissions to climate change is related to the predicted reduction of the net primary productivity, which is identified as the most important determinant of fire activity in the Mediterranean region after anthropogenic interaction. This behavior, consistent with the intermediate fire-productivity hypothesis, limits the sensitivity of future burned area and C emissions from fires on climate change, providing more conservative estimates of future fire patterns, and demonstrates the importance of coupling fire simulation with a climate driven ecosystem productivity model.

  7. Modeling biomass burning and related carbon emissions during the 21st century in Europe

    KAUST Repository

    Migliavacca, Mirco

    2013-12-01

    In this study we present an assessment of the impact of future climate change on total fire probability, burned area, and carbon (C) emissions from fires in Europe. The analysis was performed with the Community Land Model (CLM) extended with a prognostic treatment of fires that was specifically refined and optimized for application over Europe. Simulations over the 21st century are forced by five different high-resolution Regional Climate Models under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B. Both original and bias-corrected meteorological forcings is used. Results show that the simulated C emissions over the present period are improved by using bias corrected meteorological forcing, with a reduction of the intermodel variability. In the course of the 21st century, burned area and C emissions from fires are shown to increase in Europe, in particular in the Mediterranean basins, in the Balkan regions and in Eastern Europe. However, the projected increase is lower than in other studies that did not fully account for the effect of climate on ecosystem functioning. We demonstrate that the lower sensitivity of burned area and C emissions to climate change is related to the predicted reduction of the net primary productivity, which is identified as the most important determinant of fire activity in the Mediterranean region after anthropogenic interaction. This behavior, consistent with the intermediate fire-productivity hypothesis, limits the sensitivity of future burned area and C emissions from fires on climate change, providing more conservative estimates of future fire patterns, and demonstrates the importance of coupling fire simulation with a climate driven ecosystem productivity model.

  8. Physical properties and concentration of aerosol particles over the Amazon tropical forest during background and biomass burning conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guyon

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the size distribution, scattering and absorption properties of Amazonian aerosols and the optical thickness of the aerosol layer under the pristine background conditions typical of the wet season, as well as during the biomass-burning-influenced dry season. The measurements were made during two campaigns in 1999 as part of the European contribution to the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA-EUSTACH. In moving from the wet to the dry season, median particle numbers were observed to increase from values comparable to those of the remote marine boundary layer (~400 cm-3 to values more commonly associated with urban smog (~4000 cm-3, due to a massive injection of submicron smoke particles. Aerosol optical depths at 500 nm increased from 0.05 to 0.8 on average, reaching a value of 2 during the dry season. Scattering and absorption coefficients, measured at 550 nm, showed a concomitant increase from average values of 6.8 and 0.4 Mm-1 to values of 91 and 10 Mm-1, respectively, corresponding to an estimated decrease in single-scattering albedo from ca. 0.97 to 0.91. The roughly tenfold increase in many of the measured parameters attests to the dramatic effect that extensive seasonal biomass burning (deforestation, pasture cleaning is having on the composition and properties of aerosols over Amazonia. The potential exists for these changes to impact on regional and global climate through changes to the extinction of solar radiation as well as the alteration of cloud properties.

  9. Long-range transport biomass burning emissions to the Himalayas: insights from high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Zhang, X.; Liu, Y.; Shichang, K.; Ma, Y.

    2017-12-01

    An intensive measurement was conducted at a remote, background, and high-altitude site (Qomolangma station, QOMS, 4276 m a.s.l.) in the northern Himalayas, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) along with other collocated instruments. The field measurement was performed from April 12 to May 12, 2016 to chemically characterize high time-resolved submicron particulate matter (PM1) and obtain the influence of biomass burning emissions to the Himalayas, frequently transported from south Asia during pre-monsoon season. Two high aerosol loading periods were observed during the study. Overall, the average (± 1σ) PM1 mass concentration was 4.44 (± 4.54) µg m-3 for the entire study, comparable with those observed at other remote sites worldwide. Organic aerosols (OA) was the dominant PM1 species (accounting for 54.3% of total PM1 mass on average) and its contribution increased with the increase of total PM1 mass loading. The average size distributions of PM1 species all peaked at an overlapping accumulation mode ( 500 nm), suggesting that aerosol particles were internally well-mixed and aged during long-range transportations. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis on the high-resolution organic mass spectra identified three distinct OA factors, including a biomass burning related OA (BBOA, 43.7%) and two oxygenated OA (Local-OOA and LRT-OOA; 13.9% and 42.4%) represented sources from local emissions and long-range transportations, respectively. Two polluted air mass origins (generally from the west and southwest of QOMS) and two polluted episodes with enhanced PM1 mass loadings and elevated BBOA contributions were observed, respectively, suggesting the important sources of wildfires from south Asia. One of polluted aerosol plumes was investigated in detail to illustrate the evolution of aerosol characteristics at QOMS driving by different impacts of wildfires, air mass origins, meteorological conditions and

  10. A diagnostic study of the global coverage by contrails. Pt. 1. Present day climate. Revised version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sausen, R.; Gierens, K.; Ponater, M.; Schumann, U.

    1998-03-01

    The global distribution of the contrail formation potential and the contrail cloud coverage are estimated using meteorological analysis data for temperature and humidity (ECMWF re-analyses) and a data base on aircraft fuel consumption. Regions with humidity between ice and liquid saturation and with temperature low enough to let aircraft trigger contrail formation are identified as regions in which persistent contrails may be formed. The frequency with which a region is conditioned for such persistent contrail formation measures the contrail formation potential. The mean contrail cloud coverage is computed by multiplying this frequency with a suitable function of fuel consumption (linear or non-linear). The product is normalized such that the contrail coverage equals the observed value of 0.5% in a domain between 30 W to 30 E, 35 N to 75 N. The results show a large potential for contrail formation in the upper troposphere, in particular in the tropics but also at mid-latitudes. At northern mid-latitudes about 20% of the upper tropospheric air is conditioned to form persistent contrails. Part of this region may be covered by otherwise forming cirrus clouds. When multiplied with fuel consumption of 1992 aviation, large cover by persistent contrail clouds is computed over Europe, the North Atlantic, the continental USA, and south-east Asia. The computed contrail coverage reaches 2% over the USA, and is larger in winter than in summer. The global mean contrail coverage is about 0.11% for linear fuel dependence and the given normalization. The result is only weakly sensitive to the propulsion efficiency of aircraft, but strongly sensitive to aircraft flight altitude. (orig.)

  11. Variability of the contrail radiative forcing due to crystal shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowicz, K. M.; Witek, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the influence of particles' shape and particles' optical properties on the contrail radiative forcing. Contrail optical properties in the shortwave and longwave range are derived using a ray-tracing geometric method and the discrete dipole approximation method, respectively. Both methods present good correspondence of the single scattering albedo and the asymmetry parameter in a transition range (3-7μm). We compare optical properties defined following simple 10 crystals habits randomly oriented: hexagonal plates, hexagonal columns with different aspect ratio, and spherical. There are substantial differences in single scattering properties between ten crystal models investigated here (e.g. hexagonal columns and plates with different aspect ratios, spherical particles). The single scattering albedo and the asymmetry parameter both vary up to 0.1 between various crystal shapes. Radiative forcing calculations were performed using a model which includes an interface between the state-of-the-art radiative transfer model Fu-Liou and databases containing optical properties of the atmosphere and surface reflectance and emissivity. This interface allows to determine radiative fluxes in the atmosphere and to estimate the contrail radiative forcing for clear- and all-sky (including natural clouds) conditions for various crystal shapes. The Fu-Liou code is fast and therefore it is suitable for computing radiative forcing on a global scale. At the same time it has sufficiently good accuracy for such global applications. A noticeable weakness of the Fu-Liou code is that it does not take into account the 3D radiative effects, e.g. cloud shading and horizontal. Radiative transfer model calculations were performed at horizontal resolution of 5x5 degree and time resolution of 20 min during day and 3 h during night. In order to calculate a geographic distribution of the global and annual mean contrail radiative forcing, the contrail cover must be

  12. Extraordinary Biomass-Burning Episode and Impact Winter Triggered by the Younger Dryas Cosmic Impact approximate to 12,800 Years Ago. 2. Lake, Marine, and Terrestrial Sediments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolbach, W. S.; Ballard, J. P.; Mayewski, P. A.; Parnell, A. C.; Cahill, N.; Adedeji, V.; Bunch, T. E.; Dominguez-Vazquez, G.; Erlandson, J. M.; Firestone, R. B.; French, T. A.; Howard, G.; Israde-Alcántara, I.; Johnson, J. R.; Kimbel, D.; Kinzie, Ch. R.; Kurbatov, A.; Kletetschka, Günther; LeCompte, M. A.; Mahaney, W. C.; Mellot, A. L.; Mitra, S.; Maiorana-Boutilier, A.; Moore, Ch. R.; Napier, W. M.; Parlier, J.; Tankersley, K. B.; Thomas, B. C.; Wittke, J. H.; West, A.; Kennett, J. P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 2 (2018), s. 185-205 ISSN 0022-1376 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : biomass burning * climate feedback * climate variation * ice core * lacustrine deposit * marine sediment * paleoclimate * quantitative analysis * terrestrial deposit * winter * Younger Dryas Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 1.952, year: 2016

  13. Chemical and physical transformations of organic aerosol from the photo-oxidation of open biomass burning emissions in an environmental chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. J. Hennigan; M. A. Miracolo; G. J. Engelhart; A. A. May; A. A. Presto; T. Lee; A. P. Sullivan; G. R. McMeeking; H. Coe; C. E. Wold; W.-M. Hao; J. B. Gilman; W. C. Kuster; J. de Gouw; B. A. Schichtel; J. L. Collett; S. M. Kreidenweis; A. L. Robinson

    2011-01-01

    Smog chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the chemical and physical transformations of organic aerosol (OA) during photo-oxidation of open biomass burning emissions. The experiments were carried out at the US Forest Service Fire Science Laboratory as part of the third Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME III). We investigated emissions from 12 different...

  14. Investigating the links between ozone and organic aerosol chemistry in a biomass burning plume from a prescribed fire in California chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J. Alvarado; C.R. Lonsdale; R.J. Yokelson; S.K. Akagi; I.R. Burling; H. Coe; J.S. Craven; E. Fischer; G.R. McMeeking; J.H. Seinfeld; T. Soni; J.W. Taylor; D.R. Weise; C.E. Wold

    2015-01-01

    Within minutes after emission, complex photochemistry in biomass burning smoke plumes can cause large changes in the concentrations of ozone (O3) and organic aerosol (OA). Being able to understand and simulate this rapid chemical evolution under a wide variety of conditions is a critical part of forecasting the impact of these fires on air...

  15. Extraordinary Biomass-Burning Episode and Impact Winter Triggered by the Younger Dryas Cosmic Impact approximate to 12,800 Years Ago. 1. Ice Cores and Glaciers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolbach, W. S.; Ballard, J. P.; Mayewski, P. A.; Adedeji, V.; Bunch, T. E.; Firestone, R. B.; French, T. A.; Howard, G. A.; Israde-Alcántara, I.; Johnson, J. R.; Kimbel, D. R.; Kinzie, Ch. R.; Kurbatov, A.; Kletetschka, Günther; LeCompte, M. A.; Mahaney, W. C.; Mellot, A. L.; Maiorana-Boutilier, A.; Mitra, S.; Moore, Ch. R.; Napier, W. M.; Parlier, J.; Tankersley, K. B.; Thomas, B. C.; Wittke, J. H.; West, A.; Kennett, J. P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 2 (2018), s. 165-184 ISSN 0022-1376 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : biomass burning * comet * deposition * ice core * impact * mass extinction * paleoclimate * paleoenvironment * platinum * trigger mechanism * wildfire * winter * Younger Dryas Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 1.952, year: 2016

  16. Intense atmospheric pollution modifies weather: a case of mixed biomass burning with fossil fuel combustion pollution in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, A. J.; Fu, C. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, J. N.; Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Herrmann, E.; Zheng, L. F.; Nie, W.; Liu, Q.; Wei, X. L.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-10-01

    The influence of air pollutants, especially aerosols, on regional and global climate has been widely investigated, but only a very limited number of studies report their impacts on everyday weather. In this work, we present for the first time direct (observational) evidence of a clear effect of how a mixed atmospheric pollution changes the weather with a substantial modification in the air temperature and rainfall. By using comprehensive measurements in Nanjing, China, we found that mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease in the solar radiation intensity by more than 70%, a decrease in the sensible heat by more than 85%, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change in rainfall during both daytime and nighttime. Our results show clear air pollution-weather interactions, and quantify how air pollution affects weather via air pollution-boundary layer dynamics and aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks. This study highlights cross-disciplinary needs to investigate the environmental, weather and climate impacts of the mixed biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion sources in East China.

  17. Characterization and quantification of biomarkers from biomass burning at a recent wildfire site in northern Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, A.; Gondokusumo, R.; Simpson, M.J. [University of Toronto (Canada). Scarborough College

    2006-01-15

    . In conclusion, the solvent extractable lipids and carbohydrates in charred SOM are valuable, source-specific molecular markers for the burning of plant biomass and for tracing the biogeochemistry of charred residues in soils. (author)

  18. Towards a Model Climatology of Relative Humidity in the Upper Troposphere for Estimation of Contrail and Contrail-Induced Cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkirk, Henry B.; Manyin, M.; Ott, L.; Oman, L.; Benson, C.; Pawson, S.; Douglass, A. R.; Stolarski, R. S.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of contrails and contrail cirrus is very sensitive to the relative humidity of the upper troposphere. To reduce uncertainty in an estimate of the radiative impact of aviation-induced cirrus, a model must therefore be able to reproduce the observed background moisture fields with reasonable and quantifiable fidelity. Here we present an upper tropospheric moisture climatology from a 26-year ensemble of simulations using the GEOS CCM. We compare this free-running model's moisture fields to those obtained from the MLS and AIRS satellite instruments, our most comprehensive observational databases for upper tropospheric water vapor. Published comparisons have shown a substantial wet bias in GEOS-5 assimilated fields with respect to MLS water vapor and ice water content. This tendency is clear as well in the GEOS CCM simulations. The GEOS-5 moist physics in the GEOS CCM uses a saturation adjustment that prevents supersaturation, which is unrealistic when compared to in situ moisture observations from MOZAIC aircraft and balloon sondes as we will show. Further, the large-scale satellite datasets also consistently underestimate super-saturation when compared to the in-situ observations. We place these results in the context of estimates of contrail and contrail cirrus frequency.

  19. Analyzing the Formation, Physicochemical, and Optical Properties of Aging Biomass Burning Aerosol Using an Indoor Smog Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. M.; Fiddler, M. N.; Bililign, S.; Spann, M.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) is recognized as one of the largest sources of absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere and significantly influences the radiative properties of the atmosphere. The chemical composition and physical properties of particles evolve during their atmospheric lifetime due to condensation, oxidation reactions, etc., which alters their optical properties. To this end, an indoor smog chamber was constructed to study aging BB aerosol in a laboratory setting. Injections to the chamber, including NOx, O3, and various biogenic and anthropogenic VOCs, can simulate a variety of atmospheric conditions. These components and some of their oxidation products are monitored during the aging process. A tube furnace is used for combustion of biomass to be introduced to the chamber, while size distributions are taken as the aerosol ages. Online measurements of optical properties are determined using a Cavity Ring-down Spectrometry and Integrating Nephelometry system. Chemical properties are measured from samples captured on filters and analyzed using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled in-line to both a Diode Array Detector and High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization. The measured changes in the optical properties as a function of particle size, aging, and chemical properties are presented for fuel sources used in Africa.

  20. Impact of springtime biomass-burning aerosols on radiative forcing over northern Thailand during the 7SEAS campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Shantanu Kumar; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Lin, Neng-Huei; Lee, Chung-Te; Tsay, Si-Chee; Holben, Brent; Janjai, Serm; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Chantara, Somporn

    2016-04-01

    Biomass-burning (BB) aerosols are the significant contributor to the regional/global aerosol loading and radiation budgets. BB aerosols affect the radiation budget of the earth and atmosphere by scattering and absorbing directly the incoming solar and outgoing terrestrial radiation. These aerosols can exert either cooling or warming effect on climate, depending on the balance between scattering and absorption. BB activities in the form of wildland forest fires and agricultural crop burning are very pronounced in the Indochina peninsular regions in Southeast Asia mainly in spring (late February to April) season. The region of interest includes Doi Ang Khang (19.93° N, 99.05° E, 1536 msl) in northern Thailand, as part of the Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS)/BASELInE (Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles & Interactions Experiment) campaign in 2013. In this study, for the first time, the direct aerosol radiative effects of BB aerosols over near-source BB emissions, during the peak loading spring season, in northern Indochina were investigated by using ground-based physical, chemical, and optical properties of aerosols as well as the aerosol optical and radiative transfer models. Information on aerosol parameters in the field campaign was used in the OPAC (Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds) model to estimate various optical properties corresponding to aerosol compositions. Clear-sky shortwave direct aerosol radiative effects were further estimated with a raditive transfer model SBDART (Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer). The columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD500) was found to be ranged from 0.26 to 1.13 (with the mean value 0.71 ± 0.24). Fine-mode (fine mode fraction ≈0.98, angstrom exponent ≈1.8) and significantly absorbing aerosols (columnar single-scattering albedo ≈0.89, asymmetry-parameter ≈0.67 at 441 nm wavelength) dominated in this region. Water soluble and black carbon (BC) aerosols mainly

  1. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in biomass burning aerosols: implications for photochemical production and degradation in smoke layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hoffer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols in the size class <2.5 μm (6 daytime and 9 nighttime samples were collected at a pasture site in Rondônia, Brazil, during the intensive biomass burning period of 16–26 September 2002 as part of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia – Smoke, Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate (LBA-SMOCC. Homologous series of dicarboxylic acids (C2–C11 and related compounds (ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls were identified using gas chromatography (GC and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Among the species detected, oxalic acid was found to be the most abundant, followed by succinic, malonic and glyoxylic acids. Average concentrations of total dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in the aerosol samples were 2180, 167 and 56 ng m−3, respectively. These are 2–8, 3–11 and 2–16 times higher, respectively, than those reported in urban aerosols, such as in 14 Chinese megacities. Higher ratios of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds to biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan and K+ were found in the daytime than in the nighttime, suggesting the importance of photochemical production. On the other hand, higher ratios of oxalic acid to other dicarboxylic acids and related compounds normalized to biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan and K+ in the daytime provide evidence for the possible degradation of dicarboxylic acids (≥C3 in this smoke-polluted environment. Assuming that these and related compounds are photo-chemically oxidized to oxalic acid in the daytime, and given their linear relationship, they could account for, on average, 77% of the formation of oxalic acid. The remaining portion of oxalic acid may have been directly emitted from biomass burning as suggested by a good correlation with the biomass burning tracers (K+, CO and ECa and organic carbon (OC. However, photochemical production from other precursors could not be excluded.

  2. Modelling of long-range transport of Southeast Asia biomass-burning aerosols to Taiwan and their radiative forcings over East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Yao Lin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning produces aerosols and air pollutants during springtime in Southeast Asia. At the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS (elevation 2862 m in central Taiwan, the concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO, ozone (O3 and particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 µm (PM10 were found to be 135–200 ppb, 40–56 ppb and 13–26 µg/m3, respectively, in the springtime (February–April between 2006 and 2009, which are 2–3 times higher than those in other seasons. Simulation results indicate that higher concentrations during springtime are related to biomass-burning plumes transported from the Indochinese peninsula of Southeast Asia. The spatial distribution of high aerosol optical depth (AOD was identified by satellite measurement and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET ground observation, and could be reasonably captured by the WRF-Chem model during the study period of 15–18 March 2008. Simulated AOD reached as high as 0.8–1.2 in Indochina situated between 10–22°N and 95–107°E. According to the simulation results, 34% of the AOD was attributed to organic carbon over Indochina, while the contribution of black carbon to AOD was about 4%. During the study period, biomass-burning aerosols over Indochina have a net negative effect (−26.85 W·m−2 at ground surface, a positive effect (22.11 W·m−2 in the atmosphere and a negative forcing (−4.74 W·m−2 at the top of atmosphere. Under the influence of biomass-burning aerosol plume transported by strong wind, there is a NE−SW zone stretching from southern China to Taiwan with reduction in shortwave radiation of about 20 W·m−2 at ground surface. Such significant reduction in radiation attributed to biomass-burning aerosols and their impact on the regional climate in East Asia merit attention.

  3. Effect of secondary organic aerosol coating thickness on the real-time detection and characterization of biomass-burning soot by two particle mass spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Ahern

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning is a large source of light-absorbing refractory black carbon (rBC particles with a wide range of morphologies and sizes. The net radiative forcing from these particles is strongly dependent on the amount and composition of non-light-absorbing material internally mixed with the rBC and on the morphology of the mixed particles. Understanding how the mixing state and morphology of biomass-burning aerosol evolves in the atmosphere is critical for constraining the influence of these particles on radiative forcing and climate. We investigated the response of two commercial laser-based particle mass spectrometers, the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV ablation LAAPTOF and the IR vaporization SP-AMS, to monodisperse biomass-burning particles as we sequentially coated the particles with secondary organic aerosol (SOA from α-pinene ozonolysis. We studied three mobility-selected soot core sizes, each with a number of successively thicker coatings of SOA applied. Using IR laser vaporization, the SP-AMS had different changes in sensitivity to rBC compared to potassium as a function of applied SOA coatings. We show that this is due to different effective beam widths for the IR laser vaporization region of potassium versus black carbon. The SP-AMS's sensitivity to black carbon (BC mass was not observed to plateau following successive SOA coatings, despite achieving high OA : BC mass ratios greater than 9. We also measured the ion fragmentation pattern of biomass-burning rBC and found it changed only slightly with increasing SOA mass. The average organic matter ion signal measured by the LAAPTOF demonstrated a positive correlation with the condensed SOA mass on individual particles, despite the inhomogeneity of the particle core compositions. This demonstrates that the LAAPTOF can obtain quantitative mass measurements of aged soot-particle composition from realistic biomass-burning particles with complex morphologies and composition.

  4. Health impact and monetary cost of exposure to particulate matter emitted from biomass burning in large cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigiannis, Dimosthenis Α; Karakitsios, Spyros P; Kermenidou, Marianthi V

    2015-08-15

    The study deals with the assessment of health impact and the respective economic cost attributed to particulate matter (PM) emitted into the atmosphere from biomass burning for space heating, focusing on the differences between the warm and cold seasons in 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 in Thessaloniki (Greece). Health impact was assessed based on estimated exposure levels and the use of established WHO concentration-response functions (CRFs) for all-cause mortality, infant mortality, new chronic bronchitis cases, respiratory and cardiac hospital admissions. Monetary cost was based on the valuation of the willingness-to-pay/accept (WTP/WTA), to avoid or compensate for the loss of welfare associated with illness. Results showed that long term mortality during the 2012-2013 winter increased by 200 excess deaths in a city of almost 900,000 inhabitants or 3540 years of life lost, corresponding to an economic cost of almost 200-250m€. New chronic bronchitis cases dominate morbidity estimates (490 additional new cases corresponding to a monetary cost of 30m€). Estimated health and monetary impacts are more severe during the cold season, despite its smaller duration (4 months). Considering that the increased ambient air concentrations (and the integral of outdoor/indoor exposure) are explained by shifting from oil to biomass for domestic heating purposes, several alternative scenarios were evaluated. Policy scenario analysis revealed that significant public health and monetary benefits (up to 2b€ in avoided mortality and 130m€ in avoided illness) might be obtained by limiting the biomass share in the domestic heat energy mix. Fiscal policy affecting fuels/technologies used for domestic heating needs to be reconsidered urgently, since the net tax loss from avoided oil taxation due to reduced consumption was further compounded by the public health cost of increased mid-term morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Systematic Review of Innate Immunomodulatory Effects of Household Air Pollution Secondary to the Burning of Biomass Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alison; Kinney, Patrick; Chillrud, Steve; Jack, Darby

    2015-01-01

    Household air pollution (HAP)-associated acute lower respiratory infections cause 455,000 deaths and a loss of 39.1 million disability-adjusted life years annually. The immunomodulatory mechanisms of HAP are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of all studies examining the mechanisms underlying the relationship between HAP secondary to solid fuel exposure and acute lower respiratory tract infection to evaluate current available evidence, identify gaps in knowledge, and propose future research priorities. We conducted and report on studies in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. In all, 133 articles were fully reviewed and main characteristics were detailed, namely study design and outcome, including in vivo versus in vitro and pollutants analyzed. Thirty-six studies were included in a nonexhaustive review of the innate immune system effects of ambient air pollution, traffic-related air pollution, or wood smoke exposure of developed country origin. Seventeen studies investigated the effects of HAP-associated solid fuel (biomass or coal smoke) exposure on airway inflammation and innate immune system function. Particulate matter may modulate the innate immune system and increase susceptibility to infection through a) alveolar macrophage-driven inflammation, recruitment of neutrophils, and disruption of barrier defenses; b) alterations in alveolar macrophage phagocytosis and intracellular killing; and c) increased susceptibility to infection via upregulation of receptors involved in pathogen invasion. HAP secondary to the burning of biomass fuels alters innate immunity, predisposing children to acute lower respiratory tract infections. Data from biomass exposure in developing countries are scarce. Further study is needed to define the inflammatory response, alterations in phagocytic function, and upregulation of receptors important in bacterial and viral