WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomass based methanol

  1. Design of novel DME/methanol synthesis plants based on gasification of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    is lost in the biomass torrefaction process, the total efficiencies based on untreated biomass to DME were 64% for the RC plant and 59% for the OT plant. CO2 emissions could be reduced to 3% (RC) or 10% (OT) of the input carbon in the torrefied biomass, by using CO2 capture and storage together...... with certain plant design changes. Accounting for the torrefaction process, which occurs outside the plant, the emissions became 22% (RC) and 28% (OT) of the carbon in the untreated biomass. The estimated costs of the produced DME were $11.9/GJLHV for the RC plant, and $12.9/GJLHV for the OT plant...... complete conversion of the carbon in the torrefied biomass, to carbon in the produced methanol, was achieved (97% conversion). The methanol yield per unit biomass input was therefore increased from 66% (the large-scale DME plant) to 128% (LHV). The total energy efficiency was however reduced from 71% (the...

  2. Technoeconomic analysis of a methanol plant based on gasification of biomass and electrolysis of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Houbak, N.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Methanol production process configurations based on renewable energy sources have been designed. The processes were analyzed in the thermodynamic process simulation tool DNA. The syngas used for the catalytic methanol production was produced by gasification of biomass, electrolysis of water, CO2...... with a different syngas production method, were compared. The plants achieve methanol exergy efficiencies of 59-72%, the best from a configuration incorporating autothermal reforming of biogas and electrolysis of water for syngas production. The different processes in the plants are highly heat integrated......, and the low-temperature waste heat is used for district heat production. This results in high total energy efficiencies (similar to 90%) for the plants. The specific methanol costs for the six plants are in the range 11.8-25.3 (sic)/GJ(exergy). The lowest cost is obtained by a plant using electrolysis...

  3. Technoeconomic analysis of a methanol plant based on gasification of biomass and electrolysis of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Houbak, N.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Methanol production process configurations based on renewable energy sources have been designed. The processes were analyzed in the thermodynamic process simulation tool DNA. The syngas used for the catalytic methanol production was produced by gasification of biomass, electrolysis of water, CO2...... from post-combustion capture and autothermal reforming of natural gas or biogas. Underground gas storage of hydrogen and oxygen was used in connection with the electrolysis to enable the electrolyser to follow the variations in the power produced by renewables. Six plant configurations, each...... with a different syngas production method, were compared. The plants achieve methanol exergy efficiencies of 59-72%, the best from a configuration incorporating autothermal reforming of biogas and electrolysis of water for syngas production. The different processes in the plants are highly heat integrated...

  4. Production of methanol/DME from biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Münster-Swendsen, Janus

    fraction of the biomass that is not converted to gas appears as soot. Thermodynamic computer models of DME and methanol plants based on using entrained flow gasification were created to show the potential of such plants. These models showed that the potential torrefied biomass to DME/methanol + net...... cleaning. This was proved by experiments. Thermodynamic computer models of DME and methanol plants based on using the Two-Stage Gasification concept were created to show the potential of such plants. The models showed that the potential biomass to DME/methanol + net electricity energy efficiency was 51......-58% (LHV). By using waste heat from the plants for district heating, the total energy efficiencies could reach 87-88% (LHV). • A lab-scale electrically heated entrained flow gasifier has been used to gasify wood and straw. Entrained flow gasifiers are today the preferred gasifier type for commercial coal...

  5. Production of methanol/DME from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrenfeldt, J.; Birk Henriksen, U.; Muenster-Swendsen, J.; Fink, A.; Roengaard Clausen, L.; Munkholt Christensen, J.; Qin, K.; Lin, W.; Arendt Jensen, P.; Degn Jensen, A.

    2011-07-01

    In this project the production of DME/methanol from biomass has been investigated. Production of DME/methanol from biomass requires the use of a gasifier to transform the solid fuel to a synthesis gas (syngas) - this syngas can then be catalytically converted to DME/methanol. Two different gasifier types have been investigated in this project: 1) The Two-Stage Gasifier (Viking Gasifier), designed to produce a very clean gas to be used in a gas engine, has been connected to a lab-scale methanol plant, to prove that the gas from the gasifier could be used for methanol production with a minimum of gas cleaning. This was proved by experiments. Thermodynamic computer models of DME and methanol plants based on using the Two-Stage Gasification concept were created to show the potential of such plants. The models showed that the potential biomass to DME/methanol + net electricity energy efficiency was 51-58% (LHV). By using waste heat from the plants for district heating, the total energy efficiencies could reach 87-88% (LHV). 2) A lab-scale electrically heated entrained flow gasifier has been used to gasify wood and straw. Entrained flow gasifiers are today the preferred gasifier type for commercial coal gasification, but little information exists on using these types of gasifiers for biomass gasification. The experiments performed provided quantitative data on product and gas composition as a function of operation conditions. Biomass can be gasified with less oxygen consumption compared to coal. The organic fraction of the biomass that is not converted to gas appears as soot. Thermodynamic computer models of DME and methanol plants based on using entrained flow gasification were created to show the potential of such plants. These models showed that the potential torrefied biomass to DME/methanol + net electricity energy efficiency was 65-71% (LHV). Different routes to produce liquid transport fuels from biomass are possible. They include production of RME (rapeseed oil

  6. BioMeeT. Planning of biomass based methanol energy combine - Trollhaettan region. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandberg, Aake; Hjortsberg, Hans; Saevbark, Bengt [Ecotraffic R and D AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Ekbom, Tomas; Hjerpe, Carl-Johan; Landaelv, Ingvar [Nykomb Synergetics AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    The conversion of biomass in an energy combine based on primary gasification yields a gas that can be used as fuels gas, for synthesis of motor fuels (methanol or other) or for electric power production. The study gives examples of alternative product mixes. The conclusions of the study are: (1) Potential of new, not yet utilised biomass is available, and new areas of applications, where oil is presently used, are needed to develop the potential. Motor fuel production (methanol, DME) is a presumption in the BioMeeT-study. (2) Yield figures in the energy combine are comparable to those of now used bio-systems for power and co-generation. (3) Which one of the cases in the BioMeeT-project is the most favourable cannot be decided on a plant-to-plant basis alone but the entire system for supply energy carriers in the region has to be considered, as the all plants within the system may change. This would require further investigations. Moreover, the results will be different in various regions in Sweden and Europe due to the markets for all energy carriers. (4) At today's conditions in the Trollhaettan region it must be stated that there is only room for dedicated bio-methanol/DME production (provided such a market will come) with moderate addition to the district heating system as in the BAL-project. (5) In the longer term the future supply of all energy carriers, including new electric power and new bio-fuels, has to be considered for new plants and at renewals. In such a case an energy combine as in the BioMeeT-project may be a central conversion plant with gas deliveries to satellites such as local co-generation, district heat and industries in a regional system within a 50 - 100 km radius. This should be included in regional planning for the future. (6) Estimated investment costs per kW feedstock input is higher for the energy combine compared to present technologies (mature technologies for power and heat) but have to be judged for all plants taken together in

  7. EVALUATION OF A PROCESS TO CONVERT BIOMASS TO METHANOL FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a review of the design of a reactor capable of gasifying approximately 50 lb/hr of biomass for a pilot-scale facility to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate the Hynol Process, a high-temperature, high-pressure method for converting biomass into methanol...

  8. Preparation and characterization of biomass carbon-based solid acid catalyst for the esterification of oleic acid with methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tiantian; Li, Zhilong; Li, Wei; Shi, Congjiao; Wang, Yun

    2013-04-01

    A solid acid catalyst, prepared by sulfonating carbonized corn straw, was proved to be an efficient and environmental benign catalyst for the esterification of oleic acid and methanol. Various synthetic parameters, such as carbonization temperature and time were systematically examined. It was found that the catalyst exhibited the highest acid density of 2.64 mmol/g by NaOH titration. A quantitative yield (98%) of ester was achieved, using the most active sulfonated catalyst at 333 K with a 7 wt.% catalyst/oleic acid ratio for 4h, at a 7:1 M ratio of methanol/oleic acid, while the commercial available Amberlyst-15 only gave 85% yield under the same reaction condition.

  9. Production of methanol/DME from biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Münster-Swendsen, Janus;

    -58% (LHV). By using waste heat from the plants for district heating, the total energy efficiencies could reach 87-88% (LHV). • A lab-scale electrically heated entrained flow gasifier has been used to gasify wood and straw. Entrained flow gasifiers are today the preferred gasifier type for commercial coal...... gasification, but little information exists on using these types of gasifiers for biomass gasification. The experiments performed provided quantitative data on product and gas composition as a function of operation conditions. Biomass can be gasified with less oxygen consumption compared to coal. The organic...

  10. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

  11. Production of methanol from biomass waste via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, S K; Shamsul, N S; Ghani, J A; Chia, S K; Liew, H S; Samsudin, A S

    2013-02-01

    The production of methanol from agricultural, forestry, livestock, poultry, and fishery waste via pyrolysis was investigated. Pyrolysis was conducted in a tube furnace at 450-500 °C. Sugarcane bagasse showed the methanol production (5.93 wt.%), followed by roots and sawdust with 4.36 and 4.22 wt.%, respectively. Animal waste offered the lowest content of methanol, as only 0.46, 0.80, and 0.61 wt.% were obtained from fishery, goat, and cow waste, respectively. It was also observed that the percentage of methanol increased with an increase in volatile compounds while the percentage of ethanol increased with the percentage of ash and fix carbon. The data indicate that, pyrolysis is a means for production of methanol and ethanol after further optimization of the process and sample treatment.

  12. EVALUATION OF A PROCESS TO CONVERT BIOMASS TO METHANOL FUEL - PROJECT SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a review of the design of a reactor capable of gasifying approximately 50 lb/hr of biomass for a pilot-scale facility to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate the Hynol Process, a high-temperature, high-pressure method for converting biomass into methanol...

  13. METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS AND NATURAL GAS AS TRANSPORTATION FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (i) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the U.S., (ii) minimizes em...

  14. Towards a methanol economy based on homogeneous catalysis: methanol to H2 and CO2 to methanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberico, E.; Nielsen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The possibility to implement both the exhaustive dehydrogenation of aqueous methanol to hydrogen and CO2 and the reverse reaction, the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol and water, may pave the way to a methanol based economy as part of a promising renewable energy system. Recently, homogeneous...

  15. Technical-economic assessment of the production of methanol from biomass. Conversion process analysis. Final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, E.I.; Simmons, J.A.; Price, J.D.; Nguyen, T.D.

    1979-07-12

    A comprehensive engineering system study was conducted to assess various thermochemical processes suitable for converting biomass to methanol. A summary of the conversion process study results is presented here, delineating the technical and economic feasibilities of producing methanol fuel from biomass utilizing the currently available technologies. (MHR)

  16. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  17. Towards a methanol economy based on homogeneous catalysis: methanol to H2 and CO2 to methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberico, E; Nielsen, M

    2015-04-21

    The possibility to implement both the exhaustive dehydrogenation of aqueous methanol to hydrogen and CO2 and the reverse reaction, the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol and water, may pave the way to a methanol based economy as part of a promising renewable energy system. Recently, homogeneous catalytic systems have been reported which are able to promote either one or the other of the two reactions under mild conditions. Here, we review and discuss these developments.

  18. Oxygenated compounds in aged biomass burning plumes over the Eastern Mediterranean: evidence for strong secondary production of methanol and acetone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Holzinger

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Airborne measurements of acetone, methanol, PAN, acetonitrile (by Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry, and CO (by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy have been performed during the Mediterranean Intensive Oxidants Study (MINOS, August 2001. In the course of the campaign 10 biomass burning plumes, identified by strongly elevated acetonitrile mixing ratios, were found. The characteristic biomass burning signatures obtained from these plumes reveal secondary production of acetone and methanol, while CO photochemically declines in the plumes. Mean excess mixing ratios – normalized to CO – of 1.8%, 0.20%, 3.8%, and 0.65% for acetone, acetonitrile, methanol, and PAN, respectively, were found in the plumes. By scaling to an assumed global annual source of 663–807 Tg CO, biomass burning emissions of 25–31 and 29–35 Tg/yr for acetone and methanol are estimated, respectively. Our measurements suggest that the present biomass burning contributions of acetone and methanol are significantly underestimated due to the neglect of secondary formation. Median acetonitrile mixing ratios throughout the troposphere were around 150 pmol/mol; this is in accord with current biomass burning inventories and an atmospheric lifetime of ~6 months.

  19. Silicon Based Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jackie Vincent

    The purpose of this project has been to investigate and fabricate small scale Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (μDMFC). They are investigated as a possible alternative for Zinc-air batteries in small size consumer devices such as hearing aids. In such devices the conventional rechargeable batteries...... such as lithium-ion batteries have insufficiently low energy density. Methanol is a promising fuel for such devices due to the high energy density and ease of refueling compared to charging batteries, making μDMFC a suitable replacement energy source. In this Ph.D. dissertation, silicon micro fabrication...

  20. First space-based derivation of the global atmospheric methanol emission fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakou, T.; Guenther, A.; Razavi, A.; Clarisse, L.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.-F.; Hurtmans, D.; Karagulian, F.; de Mazière, M.; Vigouroux, C.; Amelynck, C.; Schoon, N.; Laffineur, Q.; Heinesch, B.; Aubinet, M.; Rinsland, C.; Müller, J.-F.

    2011-05-01

    This study provides improved methanol emission estimates on the global scale, in particular for the largest methanol source, the terrestrial biosphere, and for biomass burning. To this purpose, one complete year of spaceborne measurements of tropospheric methanol columns retrieved for the first time by the thermal infrared sensor IASI aboard the MetOp satellite are compared with distributions calculated by the IMAGESv2 global chemistry-transport model. Two model simulations are performed using a priori biogenic methanol emissions either from the new MEGANv2.1 emission model, which is fully described in this work and is based on net ecosystem flux measurements, or from a previous parameterization based on net primary production by Jacob et al. (2005). A significantly better model performance in terms of both amplitude and seasonality is achieved through the use of MEGANv2.1 in most world regions, with respect to IASI data, and to surface- and air-based methanol measurements, even though important discrepancies over several regions are still present. As a second step of this study, we combine the MEGANv2.1 and the IASI column abundances over continents in an inverse modelling scheme based on the adjoint of the IMAGESv2 model to generate an improved global methanol emission source. The global optimized source totals 187 Tg yr-1 with a contribution of 100 Tg yr-1 from plants, only slightly lower than the a priori MEGANv2.1 value of 105 Tg yr-1. Large decreases with respect to the MEGANv2.1 biogenic source are inferred over Amazonia (up to 55 %) and Indonesia (up to 58 %), whereas more moderate reductions are recorded in the Eastern US (20-25 %) and Central Africa (25-35 %). On the other hand, the biogenic source is found to strongly increase in the arid and semi-arid regions of Central Asia (up to a factor of 5) and Western US (factor of 2), probably due to a source of methanol specific to these ecosystems which is unaccounted for in the MEGANv2.1 inventory. The most

  1. Bioenergy from wastewater-based biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald C. Sims

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE has stated that biomass is the only renewable resource that can supplant petroleum-based liquid transportation fuels in the near term. Wastewater is beginning to be viewed as a potential resource that can be exploited for biomass production and conversion to bioenergy. We suggest that using wastewater from municipalities and industries as a resource for cultivating biomass and combining wastewater treatment with the production of biomass for bioenergy would provide benefits to both industries. Two waste-based biomass production systems that currently have large nationwide infrastructures include: (1 wastewater treatment systems that can be used to cultivate algae biomass, and (2 land application/treatment systems for non-food terrestrial biomass. These existing infrastructures could be used in the relatively near future for waste-based biomass production and conversion to bioenergy, thereby reducing capital costs and scalability challenges while making a contribution to energy independence and national security.

  2. Process chain analysis for methanol production from biomass with the aid of mathematical models; Prozesskettenanalyse fuer die Methanolerzeugung aus Biomasse mit Hilfe von mathematischen Modellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saller, G.; Krumm, W. [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Using the example of primary energy consumption for methanol production from cellulose-rich biomass, it is shown that process chain analysis with mathematical modelling of the technical systems enables calculations of eco-inventories as a function of the relevant process parameters. Optimisation of process chains with regard to ecological indicators or cost necessitates mathematical modelling because of the many different parameters and parameter combinations involved. (orig) [Deutsch] Am Beispiel des Primaerenergieaufwands bei der Methanolgewinnung aus zellulosealtiger Biomasse wurde gezeigt, dass die Prozesskettenanalyse mit Abbildung der technischen Systeme in mathematischen Modellen die Berechnung von Oekoinventaren in Abhaengigkeit der relevanten Prozessparameter erlaubt. Die Optimierung von Prozessketten hinsichtlich oekologischer Indikatoren oder Kosten ist wegen der Vielzahl an unterschiedlichen Parametern und deren Kombinationsmoeglichkeiten nur mit Hilfe mathematischer Modelle moeglich. (orig)

  3. Experimental evaluation of a Pt based heat exchanger methanol reformer for a HTPEM fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2007-01-01

    .g. methanol. A hydrocarbon as methanol can be derived from e.g. biomass and be used directly in a PEM fuel cell, but with a poor performance and often complicated water management system. Another way of using methanol in a fuel cell is by steam reforming it over a catalyst to hydrogen : CH3OH+H2O CO2 + 3H......2. Included in this reaction is the decomposition of methanol, which produces CO : CH3OH CO + 2H2 , The CO can be removed by adding extra water to the gas by a water-gas-shift: CO + H2O CO2 + H2. The hydrogen can then be used in a fuel cell with a much better performance than the DMFC. Many...... Nafion based low temperature PEM fuel cells are intolerant to CO in the anode gas, and require very pure hydrogen with only up to 100 ppm CO or even lower. Another type of PEM fuel cells, the PBI based high temperature PEM operates at high temperatures (160-180oC), and has a much higher tolerance of CO...

  4. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to High Octane Gasoline: Thermochemical Research Pathway with Indirect Gasification and Methanol Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hensley, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schaidle, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Jeff [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sexton, Danielle [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Yap, Raymond [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, John [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes research for enabling cost-competitive liquid fuels production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research is geared to advance the state of technology (SOT) of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of their involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction (IDL). The steps involve the conversion of biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas cleanup and catalytic syngas conversion to a methanol intermediate; methanol is then further catalytically converted to high octane hydrocarbons. The conversion process model leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via tar and hydrocarbons reforming was one of the key technology advancements as part of that research. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area with downstream utilization of clean biomass-syngas for the production of high octane hydrocarbon products through a methanol intermediate, i.e., dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) which subsequently undergoes homologation to high octane hydrocarbon products.

  5. Methanol or ethanol produced from woody biomass: which is more advantageous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Fumio; Yokoyama, Shinya; Imou, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    In this study, two conversion technologies--methanol synthesis and ethanol fermentation--were compared and CO(2) mitigation effect was estimated. The biomethanol production process was revealed as being preferable to the bioethanol process in terms of thermal efficiency, carbon conversion and environmental burden except electrical energy consumption. When biofuels are employed in internal combustion engines, biomethanol has greater potential for gasoline substitution, but the difference in expected CO(2) reduction is rather small due to higher power consumption in methanol production. Consequently, from a short-term perspective, bioethanol is preferable since it can readily substitute the gasoline for conventional vehicles. From a long-term perspective, however, biomethanol has greater potential for gasoline substitution and CO(2) mitigation.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of small-scale dimethyl ether (DME) and methanol plants based on the efficient two-stage gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper;

    2011-01-01

    Models of dimethyl ether (DME) and methanol synthesis plants have been designed by combining the features of the simulation tools DNA and Aspen Plus. The plants produce DME or methanol by catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of woody biomass. Electricity is co-produced in th......Models of dimethyl ether (DME) and methanol synthesis plants have been designed by combining the features of the simulation tools DNA and Aspen Plus. The plants produce DME or methanol by catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of woody biomass. Electricity is co...

  7. LCA of biomass-based energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2012-01-01

    supplied could be significantly reduced (from 68 to 17 Gg CO2-eq/PJ) by increased use of wind and residual biomass resources as well as by electrifying the transport sector. Energy crops for production of biofuels and the use of these biofuels for heavy terrestrial transportation were responsible for most......Decrease of fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector is an important step towards more sustainable energy production. Environmental impacts related to potential future energy systems in Denmark with high shares of wind and biomass energy were evaluated using life-cycle assessment (LCA). Based...... on the reference year 2008, energy scenarios for 2030 and 2050 were assessed. For 2050 three alternatives for supply of transport fuels were considered: (1) fossil fuels, (2) rapeseed based biodiesel, and (3) Fischer–Tropsch based biodiesel. Overall, the results showed that greenhouse gas emissions per PJ energy...

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of small-scale dimethyl ether (DME) and methanol plants based on the efficient two-stage gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper;

    2011-01-01

    Models of dimethyl ether (DME) and methanol synthesis plants have been designed by combining the features of the simulation tools DNA and Aspen Plus. The plants produce DME or methanol by catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of woody biomass. Electricity is co...

  9. Environmental assessment of biomass based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel

    non-standard impacts from land use and land use change (LULUC) Some of the impacts associated with LULUC for biomass production, which are often not addressed in LCAs have been addressed through a theoretic case study in this PhD project. These impacts are changes in surface albedo, biogenic carbon...... with temporary carbon storage in biomaterials, in a way that quantifies the potential climate change benefit in relation to avoiding crossing near-term climatic targets. The geographical scope in this PhD project is global, as the focus is on methodology development and assessment of biomaterials at a global...... materials. Background The society today is highly dependent on fossil oil and gas for producing fuels, chemicals and materials, however many of those can alternatively be produced from biomass. The potential of biomaterials to substitute fossil based materials receives increased attention, and their global...

  10. Transient behavior of Cu/ZnO-based methanol synthesis catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard; Chorkendorff, Ib; Knudsen, Ida;

    2009-01-01

    Time-resolved measurements of the methanol synthesis reaction over a Cu/ZnO-based catalyst reveal a transient methanol production that depends on the pretreatment gas. Specifically, the methanol production initially peaks after a pretreatment with an intermediate mixture of H2 and CO (20–80% H2...... for a gas mixture of H2:CO = 1:1. The gas-dependent morphology of the Cu nanoparticles provides a consistent explanation of the observed coupling between the transient methanol production and pretreatment conditions within the framework of the dynamic microkinetic model by Ovesen et al. [J. Catal. 168 (1997...

  11. Methanol dehydration on carbon-based acid catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Valero-Romero, Mª José; Calvo-Muñoz, Elisa Mª; Ruiz-Rosas, Ramiro; Rodríguez-Mirasol, José; Cordero, Tomás

    2013-01-01

    Methanol dehydration to produce dimethyl ether (DME) is an interesting process for the chemical industry since DME is an important intermediate and a promising clean alternative fuel for diesel engines. Pure or modified γ-aluminas (γ-Al2O3) and zeolites are often used as catalysts for this reaction. However, these materials usually yield non desirable hydrocarbons and undergo fast deactivation. In this work, we study the catalytic conversion of methanol over an acid carbon catalyst obtaine...

  12. Biomass use in chemical and mechanical pulping with biomass-based energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Jonas M.; Gustavsson, Leif [Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    The pulp and paper industry is energy intensive and consumes large amounts of wood. Biomass is a limited resource and its efficient use is therefore important. In this study, the total amount of biomass used for pulp and for energy is estimated for the production of several woodfree (containing only chemical pulp) and mechanical (containing mechanical pulp) printing paper products, under Swedish conditions. Chemical pulp mills today are largely self-sufficient in energy while mechanical pulp mills depend on large amounts of external electricity. Technically, all energy used in pulp- and papermaking can be biomass based. Here, we assume that all energy used, including external electricity and motor fuels, is based on forest biomass. The whole cradle-to-gate chain is included in the analyses. The results indicate that the total amount of biomass required per tonne paper is slightly lower for woodfree than for mechanical paper. For the biomass use per paper area, the paper grammage is decisive. If the grammage can be lowered by increasing the proportion of mechanical pulp, this may lower the biomass use per paper area, despite the higher biomass use per unit mass in mechanical paper. In the production of woodfree paper, energy recovery from residues in the mill accounts for most of the biomass use, while external electricity production accounts for the largest part for mechanical paper. Motor fuel production accounts for 5-7% of the biomass use. The biomass contained in the final paper product is 21-42% of the total biomass use, indicating that waste paper recovery is important. The biomass use was found to be about 15-17% lower for modelled, modern mills compared with mills representative of today's average technology. (author)

  13. Silica based composite membranes for methanol fuel cells operating at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, A.; Guzman, C.; Peza-Ledesma, C.; Godinez, Luis A.; Nava, R.; Duron-Torres, S.M.; Ledesma-Garcia, J.; Arriaga, L.G.

    2011-01-15

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are seen as an alternative energy source for several applications, particularly portable power sources. Nafion membranes constitute a well known proton exchange system for DMFC systems due to their convenient electrochemical, mechanical and thermal stability and high proton conductivity properties. But there are problems currently associated with the direct methanol fuel cell technology. Intensive efforts to decrease the methanol crossover are focused mainly on the development of new polymer electrolyte membranes. In this study, Nafion polymer was modified by means of the incorporation of inorganic oxides with different structural properties (SBA-15 and SiO2), both prepared by sol-gel method in order to increase the proton conductivity at high temperature of fuel cell and to contribute decrementing the methanol crossover effect. Composite membranes based in inorganic fillers showed a significant decrease in the concentration of methanol permeation.

  14. Combustion characteristics of Methanol-base fuel(MBF)made by coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Quan; ZHAO Cong-cong; LIU Yang

    2011-01-01

    Profound experimental research was made on Methanol-base fuel(MBF)mainly consisting of methanol,and the results were compared with that of diesel oil.Their respective combustion characteristics of caloric value,combustion efficiency and components of smoke were synthetically analyzed by employing the electronic weighing devices,the rotor flow-meter,intelligent flue gas analyzer,advanced bomb calorimeter,etc.,referring to the feasibility of taking it as a fuel for general use.Experiment results show that Methanol-base fuel not only has superiorities on combustion characteristics but also bears energy saving and environmental protection advantages.

  15. Sources and seasonality of atmospheric methanol based on tall tower measurements in the US Upper Midwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present over one year of continuous atmospheric methanol measurements from the University of Minnesota tall tower Trace Gas Observatory (KCMP tall tower; 244 m a.g.l., and interpret the dataset in terms of constraints on regional methanol sources and seasonality. The seasonal cycle of methanol concentrations observed at the KCMP tall tower is generally similar to that simulated by a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem, driven with MEGANv2.0 biogenic emissions except the seasonal peak occurs ~1 month earlier in the observations, apparently reflecting a model underestimate of emission rates for younger versus older leaves. Based on a source tracer approach, which we evaluate using GEOS-Chem and with multiple tracers, we estimate that anthropogenic emissions account for approximately 40 % of ambient methanol abundance during winter and 10 % during summer. During daytime in summer, methanol concentrations increase exponentially with temperature, reflecting the temperature sensitivity of the biogenic source, and the observed temperature dependence is statistically consistent with that in the model. Nevertheless, summertime concentrations are underestimated by on average 35 % in the model for this region. The seasonal importance of methanol as a source of formaldehyde (HCHO and carbon monoxide (CO is highest in spring through early summer, when biogenic methanol emissions are high but isoprene emissions are still relatively low. During that time observed methanol concentrations account for on average 20 % of the total CO and HCHO production rates as simulated by GEOS-Chem, compared to 12 % later in the summer and 12 % on an annual average basis. The biased seasonality in the model means that the photochemical role for methanol early in the growing season is presently underestimated.

  16. MICROALGAE BIOMASS PRODUCTION BASED ON WASTEWATER FROM DAIRY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Dębowski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of culturing high-oil algae biomass based on wastewater from dairy processing plants. The experiments were conducted in laboratory scale with tubular photobioreactor using. The best technological properties were demonstrated for eluates from an anaerobic reactor treating dairy wastewater. The use of a substrate of this type yielded algae biomass concentration at a level of 3490 mg d.m./dm3, with the mean rate of algae biomass growth at 176 mg d.m./dm3∙d. The mean content of oil in the proliferated biomass of algae approximated 20%.

  17. Indian Farmers’ Perceptions and Willingness to Supply Surplus Biomass to an Envisioned Biomass-Based Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Zyadin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this socio-technical study are to investigate the Indian farmers’ biomass production capacities and their perceptions and willingness to supply their surplus biomass to fuel an envisioned biomass-based power plant in three selected Indian states: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. For doing so, 471 farmers (about one-third from each state have been interviewed in the field with info-sheet filled in by the field investigators. The farmers from all of the states appeared very much willing to sell their surplus biomass directly to a power plant. The farmers seem to depreciate the involvement of a middleman in the biomass procurement process. The farmers, however, appeared to highly appreciate a community-based association to regulate the biomass prices, with varying perceptions regarding government intervention. The majority of the farmers perceived the establishment of a biomass-based power plant in their region with positive economic outcomes. The farmers identified several barriers to supply biomass to a power plant where transportation logistics appeared to be the main barrier. The study recommends considering biomass collection, storage and transportation logistics as a fundamental segment of any envisioned investment in a biomass-based power plant. Biomass processing, such as pelletization or briquetting is recommended for efficient transportation of biomass at longer distances to reduce the transportation costs. The study further encourages the establishment of a farmers’ association aimed at collecting and selling biomass in agriculture areas predominant for small land holdings.

  18. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons via Indirect Liquefaction. Thermochemical Research Pathway to High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock Through Methanol/Dimethyl Ether Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, E. C. D.; Talmadge, M.; Dutta, A.; Hensley, J.; Schaidle, J.; Biddy, M.; Humbird, D.; Snowden-Swan, L. J.; Ross, J.; Sexton, D.; Yap, R.; Lukas, J.

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research funded by BETO is designed to advance the state of technology of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. As part of their involvement in this research and development effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models and techno-economic analysis models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass. The processing steps of this pathway include the conversion of biomass to synthesis gas or syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, catalytic conversion of syngas to methanol intermediate, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), and catalytic conversion of DME to high-octane, gasoline-range hydrocarbon blendstock product. The conversion process configuration leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by BETO and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via reforming of tars and other hydrocarbons is one of the key technology advancements realized as part of this prior research and 2012 demonstrations. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area for the downstream utilization of clean biomass-derived syngas for the production of high-octane hydrocarbon products through methanol and DME intermediates. In this process, methanol undergoes dehydration to

  19. Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass: feasibility study of methanol production via catalytic gasification of 200 tons of wood per day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    This report is a result of an additional study made of the economic feasibility of producing fuel grade methanol from wood via catalytic gasification with steam. The report has as its basis the original 2000 tons of wood per day study generated from process development unit testing performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The goal of this additional work was to determine the feasibility of a smaller scale plant one tenth the size of the original or 200 tons of dry wood feed per day. Plant production based on this wood feed is 100 tons per day of methanol with a HHV of 9784 Btu per pound. All process and support facilities necessary to convert wood to methanol are included in this study. The plant location is Newport, Oregon. The capital cost for the plant is $34,830,000 - September 1980 basis. Methanol production costs which allow for return on capital have been calculated for various wood prices for both utility and private investor financing. These wood costs include delivery to the plant. For utility financing, the methanol production costs are, respectively, $1.20, $1.23, $1.30, and $1.44 per gallon for wood costs of $5, $10, $20, and $40 per dry ton. For private investor financing, the corresponding product costs are $1.60, $1.63, $1.70, and $1.84 per gallon for the corresponding wood costs. The costs calculated by the utility financing method include a return on equity of 15% and an interest rate of 10% on the debt. The private investor financing method, which is 100% equity financing, incorporates a discounted cash flow (DCF) return on equity of 12%. The thermal efficiency of the plant is 52.0%.

  20. MODIS Based Estimation of Forest Aboveground Biomass in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guodong; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Yan; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Piao, Shilong

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of forest biomass C stock is essential to understand carbon cycles. However, current estimates of Chinese forest biomass are mostly based on inventory-based timber volumes and empirical conversion factors at the provincial scale, which could introduce large uncertainties in forest biomass estimation. Here we provide a data-driven estimate of Chinese forest aboveground biomass from 2001 to 2013 at a spatial resolution of 1 km by integrating a recently reviewed plot-level ground-measured forest aboveground biomass database with geospatial information from 1-km Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) dataset in a machine learning algorithm (the model tree ensemble, MTE). We show that Chinese forest aboveground biomass is 8.56 Pg C, which is mainly contributed by evergreen needle-leaf forests and deciduous broadleaf forests. The mean forest aboveground biomass density is 56.1 Mg C ha-1, with high values observed in temperate humid regions. The responses of forest aboveground biomass density to mean annual temperature are closely tied to water conditions; that is, negative responses dominate regions with mean annual precipitation less than 1300 mm y-1 and positive responses prevail in regions with mean annual precipitation higher than 2800 mm y-1. During the 2000s, the forests in China sequestered C by 61.9 Tg C y-1, and this C sink is mainly distributed in north China and may be attributed to warming climate, rising CO2 concentration, N deposition, and growth of young forests.

  1. TiO2 Nanotube-Carbon (TNT-C) as Support for Pt-based Catalyst for High Methanol Oxidation Reaction in Direct Methanol Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M; Kamarudin, S K; Shyuan, L K

    2016-12-01

    In this study, TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) were synthesized via a hydrothermal method using highly concentrated NaOH solutions varying from 6 to 12 M at 180 °C for 48 h. The effects of the NaOH concentration and the TNT crystal structure on the performance for methanol oxidation were investigated to determine the best catalyst support for Pt-based catalysts. The results showed that TNTs produced with 10 M NaOH exhibited a length and a diameter of 550 and 70 nm, respectively; these TNTs showed the best nanotube structure and were further used as catalyst supports for a Pt-based catalyst in a direct methanol fuel cell. The synthesized TNT and Pt-based catalysts were analysed by FESEM, TEM, BET, EDX, XRD and FTIR. The electrochemical performance of the catalysts was investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometric (CA) analysis to further understand the methanol oxidation in the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Finally, the result proves that Pt-Ru/TNT-C catalyst shows high performance in methanol oxidation as the highest current density achieved at 3.3 mA/cm(2) (normalised by electrochemically active surface area) and high catalyst tolerance towards poisoning species was established.

  2. TiO2 Nanotube-Carbon (TNT-C) as Support for Pt-based Catalyst for High Methanol Oxidation Reaction in Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M.; Kamarudin, S. K.; Shyuan, L. K.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) were synthesized via a hydrothermal method using highly concentrated NaOH solutions varying from 6 to 12 M at 180 °C for 48 h. The effects of the NaOH concentration and the TNT crystal structure on the performance for methanol oxidation were investigated to determine the best catalyst support for Pt-based catalysts. The results showed that TNTs produced with 10 M NaOH exhibited a length and a diameter of 550 and 70 nm, respectively; these TNTs showed the best nanotube structure and were further used as catalyst supports for a Pt-based catalyst in a direct methanol fuel cell. The synthesized TNT and Pt-based catalysts were analysed by FESEM, TEM, BET, EDX, XRD and FTIR. The electrochemical performance of the catalysts was investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometric (CA) analysis to further understand the methanol oxidation in the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Finally, the result proves that Pt-Ru/TNT-C catalyst shows high performance in methanol oxidation as the highest current density achieved at 3.3 mA/cm2 (normalised by electrochemically active surface area) and high catalyst tolerance towards poisoning species was established.

  3. Study on methanol synthesis from coal-based syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong-fang Ma; Wei-yong Ying; Ding-ye Fang [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering

    2009-03-15

    The intrinsic kinetic models of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood type were investigated in terms of the reaction rates of CO hydrogenation and CO{sub 2} hydrogenation in the form of reactant fugacity. The parameters were estimated by the Universal Global Optimization using the Marquardt method. Residual error distribution and statistic tests show that the intrinsic kinetic models are reliable and acceptable. The mathematic model of a combined converter formed by gas-cooled and water-cooled reactor was developed and the gas-cooled reactor and the water-cooled reactor were characterized with one-dimensional mathematic model. The distributions of temperature and concentration in the catalytic bed of the gas-cooled reactor and the water-cooled reactor in a combined converter with a yield of 1.2 Mt/a were simulated. The parallel cross linking pore model was used to describe the transfer process of multi-component diffusion system in the catalyst. The calculated value computed by the internal diffusion efficiency factor calculation model established for methanol synthesis catalyst fit the experimental value very well. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Study on methanol synthesis from coal-based syngas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Hong-fang; YING Wei-yong; FANG Ding-ye

    2009-01-01

    The intrinsic kinetic models of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood type were investi-gated in terms of the reaction rates of CO hydrogenation and CO2 hydrogenation in the form of reactant fugacity.The parameters were estimated by the Universal Global Optimi-zation using the Marquardt method.Residual error distribution and statistic tests show that the intrinsic kinetic models are reliable and acceptable.The mathematic model of a com-bined converter formed by gas-cooled and water-cooled reactor was developed and the gas-cooled reactor and the water-cooled reactor were characterized with one-dimensional mathematic model.The distributions of temperature and concentration in the catalytic bed of the gas-cooled reactor and the water-cooled reactor in a combined converter with a yield of 1.2 Mt/a were simulated.The parallel cross linking pore model was used to de-scribe the transfer process of multi-component diffusion system in the catalyst.The calcu-lated value computed by the internal diffusion efficiency factor calculation model estab-lished for methanol synthesis catalyst fit the experimental value very well.

  5. Electrocatalysts based on Ru nanoparticles : effect of methanol on the ORR Tafel slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duron-Torres, S.M.; Leyva-Noyola, F.; Galvan-Valencia, M. [Univ. Autonoma de Zacatecas, Guadalupe, Zacatecas (Mexico). U.A. de Ciencias Quimicas; Solorza-Feria, O. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N., Col. San Pedro Zacatenco (Mexico). Depto. de Quimica

    2008-04-15

    Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) are promising candidates in systems that require small-sized power sources such as non-stationary electronic equipment and transportation. However, the scientific and technical challenges of PEMFC which include diminution of catalytic charges, catalyst substitution, membrane development, optimization of bipolar plates and a global cost decrease require further study. A strategic approach that will help with the diffusion and assimilation of the PEMFC technology involves the use of fuel other than hydrogen in cells such as methanol. However, the use of methanol in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) presents further challenges including slow kinetics in both anodic and cathodic reactions, and fuel crossover due to exchange membrane alcohol permeability, meaning a lower global efficiency of DMFC as compared with the hydrogen fuel cell. This article provided a contribution to the synthesis and characterization of novel catalytic materials research for DMFC. A series of materials based on ruthenium (Ru) nanoparticles were produced and catalytically studied in a multielectron charge transfer process. These materials are electroactive for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acid medium and methanol tolerant as well. The Ru nanoparticles and some binary and ternary mixtures with platinum (Pt) and cobalt (Co) were obtained by a pyrolysis procedure of solid precursors at 190 degrees Celsius. Physiochemical characterization was conducted by using a scanning electronic microscopy and energy dispersion spectroscopy mapping. Kinetic parameters of the cathodic reaction in a 0.5M sulfuric acid solution at different methanol concentrations were compared using electrochemical characterization with cyclic voltammetry and rotating disc electrodes. It was concluded that methanol has a major effect on the ORR electrocatalytic activity on binary Ru-Pt materials with a higher Pt proportion. In addition, the methanol effect on the Tafel slope

  6. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert Toerne; John Bick

    2003-01-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this widespread fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be used as a supplemental fuel in an existing utility boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with a variety of conventional boilers including natural gas and oil fired boilers, pulverized coal fired conventional and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a wider selection of biomass as fuel and providing opportunity in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere through the commercialization of this technology. This study evaluated two plants: Wester Kentucky Energy Corporation's (WKE's) Reid Plant and TXU Energy's Monticello Plant for technical and economical feasibility. These plants were selected for their proximity to large supply of poultry litter in the area. The Reid plant is located in Henderson County in southwest Kentucky, with a large poultry processing facility nearby. Within a fifty-mile radius of the Reid plant, there are large-scale poultry farms that generate over 75,000 tons/year of poultry litter. The local poultry farmers are actively seeking environmentally more benign alternatives to the current use of the litter as landfill or as a farm spread as fertilizer. The Monticello plant is located in Titus County, TX near the town of Pittsburgh, TX, where again a large poultry processor and poultry farmers in the area generate over 110,000 tons/year of poultry litter. Disposal of this litter in the area is also a concern. This project offers a model opportunity to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass co-firing and at the same time eliminate

  7. A quasi-direct methanol fuel cell system based on blend polymer membrane electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Hjuler, Hans Aage; Hasiotis, C.

    2002-01-01

    , compared to less than 100 ppm CO for the Nafion-based technology at 80degrees C. The high CO tolerance makes it possible to use the reformed hydrogen directly from a simple methanol reformer without further CO removal. That both the fuel cell and the methanol reformer operate at temperatures around 200......On the basis of blend polymer electrolytes of polybenzimidazole and sulfonated polysulfone, a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell was developed with an operational temperature up to 200degrees C. Due to the high operational temperature, the fuel cell can tolerate 1.0-3.0 vol % CO in the fuel...

  8. Hydration of methanol in water. A DFT-based molecular dynamics study

    CERN Document Server

    Van Erp, T S; Erp, Titus S. van; Meijer, Evert Jan

    2000-01-01

    We studied the hydration of a single methanol molecule in aqueous solution by first-principle DFT-based molecular dynamics simulation. The calculations show that the local structural and short-time dynamical properties of the water molecules remain almost unchanged by the presence of the methanol, confirming the observation from recent experimental structural data for dilute solutions. We also see, in accordance with this experimental work, a distinct shell of water molecules that consists of about 15 molecules. We found no evidence for a strong tangential ordering of the water molecules in the first hydration shell.

  9. Optical measurements of platinum based electrocatalysts for the electrooxidation of methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, K. [Institute for Analytical and Chemical Technologies, Department of Electrochemistry, Vienna University of Technology, A-1060 Vienna (Austria); Kronberger, H.; Fafilek, G. [ECHEM Centre of Competence in Applied Electrochemistry, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Institute for Analytical and Chemical Technologies, Department of Electrochemistry, Vienna University of Technology, A-1060 Vienna (Austria); Nauer, G. [ECHEM Centre of Competence in Applied Electrochemistry, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Besenhard, J.O. [ECHEM Centre of Competence in Applied Electrochemistry, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Institute of Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials, Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria)

    2003-08-01

    In a combinatorial electrochemistry experiment quinine was used as a pH sensitive fluorescing indicator to detect the catalytic activity of methanol oxidation catalysts. During electrochemical experiments the surface of the electrode array was monitored with a CCD camera. The dependence of the intensity of the fluorescence on the applied potential was used as an analytical tool; to investigate the electrochemical performance of Pt based electrocatalysts, for the electrooxidation of methanol, in both short and long term tests. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Ozone and hydrogen peroxide as strategies to control biomass in a trickling filter to treat methanol and hydrogen sulfide under acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Teresa; Le Borgne, Sylvie; Revah, Sergio

    2016-12-01

    The operation and performance of a biotrickling filter for methanol (MeOH) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) removal at acid pH was studied. Excess biomass in the filter bed, causing performance loss and high pressure drop, was controlled by intermittent addition, of ozone (O3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The results showed that after adaptation to acid pH, the maximum elimination capacity (EC) reached for MeOH was 565 g m(-3) h (-1) (97 % RE). High MeOH loads resulted in increased biomass concentration within the support, triggering reductions in the removal efficiency (RE) for both compounds close to 50 %, and high pressure drop. At this stage, an inlet load of 150.2 ± 16.7 g m(-3) h(-1) of O3 was fed by 38 days favoring biomass detachment, and EC recovery and lower pressure dropped with a maximum elimination capacity of 587 g m(-3) h(-1) (81 % RE) and 15.8 g m(-3) h(-1) (97 % RE) for MeOH and H2S, respectively. After O3 addition, a rapid increase in biomass content and higher fluctuations in pressure drop were observed reducing the system performance. A second treatment with oxidants was implemented feeding a O3 load of 4.8 ± 0.1 g m(-3) h(-1) for 7 days, followed by H2O2 addition for 23 days, registering 607.5 gbiomass L(-1)packing before and 367.5 gbiomass L(-1)packing after the oxidant addition. PCR-DGGE analysis of different operating stages showed a clear change in the bacterial populations when O3 was present while the fungal population was less affected.

  11. Potential of Biomass Based Electricity Generation in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KP Ariyadasa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass has attracted much attention as a primary energy source for electricity generation due to its potential to supply low cost fuel source with considerable environmental and socio-economic benefits. Despite having favorable climatic conditions to grow and use biomass for electricity generation, biomass based electricity generation in Sri Lanka is lagging behind due to many reasons. Many countries rely on the agricultural or forestry by-products or residuals as the main source of biomass for electricity generation mainly due to the comparatively low cost and sustainable supply of these by-products. Sri Lanka does not have this advantage and has to rely mainly on purposely grown biomass for electricity generation. Development of short rotation energy plantations seems to be the best option available for Sri Lanka to produce biomass for commercial scale electricity generation. The highly favorable growing conditions, availability of promising tree species and a variety of plantation management options and significant environmental and socio-economic benefits associated with energy plantation development greatly favor this option. This paper examines the potential of using plantation grown biomass as a fuel source for electricity generation in Sri Lanka.

  12. Ionomeric membranes based on partially sulfonated poly(styrene) : synthesis, proton conduction and methanol permeation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picchioni, F.; Tricoli, V.; Carretta, N.

    2000-01-01

    Homogeneuosly sulfonated poly(styrene) (SPS) was prepared with various concentration of sulfonic acid groups in the base polymer. Membranes cast from these materials were investigated in relation to proton conductivity and methanol permeability in the temperature range from 20°C to 60°C. It was foun

  13. Flow methodology for methanol determination in biodiesel exploiting membrane-based extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Andre R.T.S. [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica-Fisica, Faculdade de Farmacia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Anibal Cunha 164, 4099-030 Porto (Portugal); Saraiva, M. Lucia M.F.S. [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica-Fisica, Faculdade de Farmacia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Anibal Cunha 164, 4099-030 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: lsaraiva@ff.up.pt; Lima, Jose L.F.C. [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica-Fisica, Faculdade de Farmacia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Anibal Cunha 164, 4099-030 Porto (Portugal); Korn, M. Gracas A. [Grupo de Pesquisa em Quimica Analitica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus de Ondina, 40170-290 Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)

    2008-04-21

    A methodology based in flow analysis and membrane-based extraction has been applied to the determination of methanol in biodiesel samples. A hydrophilic membrane was used to perform the liquid-liquid extraction in the system with the organic sample fed to the donor side of the membrane and the methanol transfer to an aqueous acceptor buffer solution. The quantification of the methanol was then achieved in aqueous solution by the combined use of immobilised alcohol oxidase (AOD), soluble peroxidase and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). The optimization of parameters such as the type of membrane, the groove volume and configuration of the membrane unit, the appropriate organic solvent, sample injection volume, as well as immobilised packed AOD reactor was performed. Two dynamic analytical working ranges were achieved, up to 0.015% and up to 0.200% (m/m) methanol concentrations, just by changing the volume of acceptor aqueous solution. Detection limits of 0.0002% (m/m) and 0.007% (m/m) methanol were estimated, respectively. The decision limit (CC{alpha}) and the detection capacity (CC{beta}) were 0.206 and 0.211% (m/m), respectively. The developed methodology showed good precision, with a relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) <5.0% (n = 10). Biodiesel samples from different sources were then directly analyzed without any sample pre-treatment. Statistical evaluation showed good compliance, for a 95% confidence level, between the results obtained with the flow system and those furnished by the gas chromatography reference method. The proposed methodology turns out to be more environmental friendly and cost-effective than the reference method.

  14. Scientific bases of biomass processing into basic component of aviation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachalov, V. V.; Lavrenov, V. A.; Lishchiner, I. I.; Malova, O. V.; Tarasov, A. L.; Zaichenko, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    A combination of feedstock pyrolysis and the cracking of the volatile pyrolysis products on the charcoal at 1000 °C allows to obtain a tarless synthesis gas which contains 90 vol% or more of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in approximately equal proportions. Basic component of aviation fuel was synthesized in a two-stage process from gas obtained by pyrolytic processing of biomass. Methanol and dimethyl ether can be efficiently produced in a two-layer loading of methanolic catalyst and γ-Al2O3. The total conversion of CO per pass was 38.2% using for the synthesis of oxygenates a synthesis gas with adverse ratio of H2/CO = 0.96. Conversion of CO to CH3OH was 15.3% and the conversion of CO to dimethyl ether was 20.9%. A high yield of basic component per oxygenates mass (44.6%) was obtained during conversion. The high selectivity of the synthesis process for liquid hydrocarbons was observed. An optimal recipe of aviation fuel B-92 based on a synthesized basic component was developed. The prototype of aviation fuel meets the requirements for B-92 when straight fractions of 50-100 °C (up to 35 wt%), isooctane (up to 10 wt%) and ethyl fluid (2.0 g/kg calculated as tetraethyl lead) is added to the basic component.

  15. Ionomeric membranes based on partially sulfonated poly(styrene): synthesis, proton conduction and methanol permeation

    OpenAIRE

    Picchioni, F.; Tricoli,V.; Carretta, N.

    2000-01-01

    Homogeneuosly sulfonated poly(styrene) (SPS) was prepared with various concentration of sulfonic acid groups in the base polymer. Membranes cast from these materials were investigated in relation to proton conductivity and methanol permeability in the temperature range from 20°C to 60°C. It was found that both these properties increase as the polymer is increasingly sulfonated, with abrupt jumps occurring at a concentration of sulfonic acid groups of about 15 mol%. The most extensively sulfon...

  16. Improvement of Rice Biomass Yield through QTL-Based Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Matsubara

    Full Text Available Biomass yield of rice (Oryza sativa L. is an important breeding target, yet it is not easy to improve because the trait is complex and phenotyping is laborious. Using progeny derived from a cross between two high-yielding Japanese cultivars, we evaluated whether quantitative trait locus (QTL-based selection can improve biomass yield. As a measure of biomass yield, we used plant weight (aboveground parts only, which included grain weight and stem and leaf weight. We measured these and related traits in recombinant inbred lines. Phenotypic values for these traits showed a continuous distribution with transgressive segregation, suggesting that selection can affect plant weight in the progeny. Four significant QTLs were mapped for plant weight, three for grain weight, and five for stem and leaf weight (at α = 0.05; some of them overlapped. Multiple regression analysis showed that about 43% of the phenotypic variance of plant weight was significantly explained (P < 0.0001 by six of the QTLs. From F2 plants derived from the same parental cross as the recombinant inbred lines, we divergently selected lines that carried alleles with positive or negative additive effects at these QTLs, and performed successive selfing. In the resulting F6 lines and parents, plant weight significantly differed among the genotypes (at α = 0.05. These results demonstrate that QTL-based selection is effective in improving rice biomass yield.

  17. Biomass CHP based on a Stirling engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowburn, D.A.; Dando, R.L.

    1997-12-31

    Combined heat and power (CHP) schemes offer a means of converting fuel to useful energy with much higher efficiencies (up to 80 percent) compared to electricity generating stations (efficiencies <36 percent). This has led to many EEC member states, including the UK, and other industrial countries encouraging the use of CHP. At the smaller scale (<500 kWe) steam based systems have generally proven too costly to provide solid fuel with an opportunity to exploit this potentially attractive CHP market sector. The Stirling engine offers a technology which can produce mechanical power from solid fuels without the need to raise steam. This project has been directed towards producing a Stirling engine design capable of producing an output of 150 kW{sub e} from solid fuel. The participants in the projects, CRE Group Ltd., Basys Marine Ltd. (formerly Cray Marine) and Gamos Ltd., brought together a wide range of experience in the areas of gasification, combustion, heat transfer, Stirling engine technology and high precision engineering. A novel form of low pressure nitrogen charged Stirling engine has been designed specifically for stationary applications. This avoided the drawbacks of high pressures with H{sub e} or H used as the working fluids and consequent requirement for exotic sealing arrangements, which have been associated with previous Stirling engine`s aimed primarily at the automotive market. (author)

  18. Methyl phosphate formation as a major degradation mode of direct methanol fuel cells with phosphoric acid based electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Vassiliev, Anton; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoric acid and phosphoric acid doped polymer membranes are widely used as electrolytes in hydrogen based fuel cells operating at elevated temperatures. Such electrolytes have been explored for direct oxidation of methanol to further increase the versatility of the systems, however......, with demonstrated lifetimes of only a few days to weeks. In this work the methyl phosphate formation from the acid and methanol is identified and proposed to be a major mechanism for the cell degradation. Proton conductivity and fuel cell durability tests validate the mechanism at high methanol contents....

  19. Biomass-based hydrogen production: A review and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinci, Yildiz [Department of Technical Programs, Izmir Vocational High School, Dokuz Eylul University, Education Campus Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Hepbasli, Arif [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Dincer, Ibrahim [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    In this study, various processes for conversion of biomass into hydrogen gas are comprehensively reviewed in terms of two main groups, namely (i) thermo-chemical processes (pyrolysis, conventional gasification, supercritical water gasification (SCWG)), and (ii) biological conversions (fermentative hydrogen production, photosynthesis, biological water gas shift reactions (BWGS)). Biomass-based hydrogen production systems are discussed in terms of their energetic and exergetic aspects. Literature studies and potential methods are then summarized for comparison purposes. In addition, a biomass gasification process via oxygen and steam in a downdraft gasifier is exergetically studied for performance assessment as a case study. The operating conditions and strategies are really important for better performance of the system for hydrogen production. A distinct range of temperatures and pressures is used, such as that the temperatures may vary from 480 to 1400 C, while the pressures are in the range of 0.1-50 MPa in various thermo-chemical processes reviewed. For the operating conditions considered the data for steam biomass ratio (SBR) and equivalence ratio (ER) range from 0.6 to 10 and 0.1 to 0.4, respectively. In the study considered, steam is used as the gasifying agent with a product gas heating value of about 10-15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}, compared to an air gasification of biomass process with 3-6 MJ/Nm{sup 3}. The exergy efficiency value for the case study system is calculated to be 56.8%, while irreversibility and improvement potential rates are found to be 670.43 and 288.28 kW, respectively. Also, exergetic fuel and product rates of the downdraft gasifier are calculated as 1572.08 and 901.64 kW, while fuel depletion and productivity lack ratios are 43% and 74.3%, respectively. (author)

  20. Palladium-Based Catalysts as Electrodes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells: A Last Ten Years Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Calderón Gómez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Platinum-based materials are accepted as the suitable electrocatalysts for anodes and cathodes in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs. Nonetheless, the increased demand and scarce world reserves of Pt, as well as some technical problems associated with its use, have motivated a wide research focused to design Pd-based catalysts, considering the similar properties between this metal and Pt. In this review, we present the most recent advancements about Pd-based catalysts, considering Pd, Pd alloys with different transition metals and non-carbon supported nanoparticles, as possible electrodes in DMFCs. In the case of the anode, different reported works have highlighted the capacity of these new materials for overcoming the CO poisoning and promote the oxidation of other intermediates generated during the methanol oxidation. Regarding the cathode, the studies have showed more positive onset potentials, as fundamental parameter for determining the mechanism of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR and thus, making them able for achieving high efficiencies, with less production of hydrogen peroxide as collateral product. This revision suggests that it is possible to replace the conventional Pt catalysts by Pd-based materials, although several efforts must be made in order to improve their performance in DMFCs.

  1. Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass. Appendix B: feasibility study of methanol production via catalytic gasification of 2000 tons of wood per day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been made of the economic feasibility of producing fuel grade methanol from wood via catalytic gasification with steam. The plant design in this study was developed from information on gasifier operation supplied by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), operated by Battelle. PNL obtained this information from laboratory and process development unit testing. The plant is designed to process 2000 tons per day of dry wood to methanol. Plant production is 997 tons per day of methanol with a HHV of 9784 Btu per pound. All process and support facilities necessary to convert wood to methanol are included in this study. The plant location is Newport, Oregon. The capital cost for the plant is $120,830,000 - September 1980 basis. Methanol production costs which allow for return on capital have been calculated for various wood prices for both utility and private investor financing. These wood costs include delivery to the plant. For utility financing, the methanol production costs are respectively $.45, $.48, $.55, and $.69 per gallon for wood costs of $5, $10, $20, and $40 per dry ton. For private investor financing, the corresponding product costs are $.59, $.62, $.69, and $.83 per gallon for the corresponding wood costs. Both calculation methods include a return on equity capital in the costs. The thermal efficiency of the plant is 52.9%.

  2. Investigation of Supported Pd-Based Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction: Performance, Durability and Methanol Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Lo Vecchio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Next generation cathode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs must have high catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR, a lower cost than benchmark Pt catalysts, and high stability and high tolerance to permeated methanol. In this study, palladium catalysts supported on titanium suboxides (Pd/TinO2n–1 were prepared by the sulphite complex route. The aim was to improve methanol tolerance and lower the cost associated with the noble metal while enhancing the stability through the use of titanium-based support; 30% Pd/Ketjenblack (Pd/KB and 30% Pd/Vulcan (Pd/Vul were also synthesized for comparison, using the same methodology. The catalysts were ex-situ characterized by physico-chemical analysis and investigated for the ORR to evaluate their activity, stability, and methanol tolerance properties. The Pd/KB catalyst showed the highest activity towards the ORR in perchloric acid solution. All Pd-based catalysts showed suitable tolerance to methanol poisoning, leading to higher ORR activity than a benchmark Pt/C catalyst in the presence of low methanol concentration. Among them, the Pd/TinO2n–1 catalyst showed a very promising stability compared to carbon-supported Pd samples in an accelerated degradation test of 1000 potential cycles. These results indicate good perspectives for the application of Pd/TinO2n–1 catalysts in DMFC cathodes.

  3. Coke Oven Gas Based Methanol Production Capacity Reached 1.2 Mt/a in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Coke oven gas is one of the main byproducts of coke chemicals industry.One ton of coke formed can generate 430 m3of coke oven gas.Adoption of appropriate chemical processing method can convert methane contained in the coke oven gas into CO that can be further converted into methanol.It is learned that currently China has constructed and commissioned ten projects for manufacture of methanol fromcoke oven gas with the total production capacity reaching 1.2 Mt/a methanol.More than twenty coke gas-to-methanol units are under construction or in the stage of project design with their overall production capacity reaching nearly 3.0 Mt/a methanol.Relevant experts have indicated that the enterprises provided with coke production lines are capable of constructing coke gas-to-methanol projects to realize coproduction of coke and methanol while utilizing their own coke gas resources.

  4. Methanol Asinger's vision today

    CERN Document Server

    Bertau, Martin; Plass, Ludolf; Schmidt, Friedrich; Wernicke, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Methanol - The Chemical and Energy Feedstock of the Future offers a visionary yet unbiased view of methanol technology. Based on the groundbreaking 1986 publication ""Methanol"" by Friedrich Asinger, this book includes contributions by more than 40 experts from industry and academia. The authors and editors provide a comprehensive exposition of methanol chemistry and technology which is useful for a wide variety of scientists working in chemistry and energy related industries as well as academic researchers and even decision-makers and organisations concerned with the future of chemical and e

  5. The Methanol Economy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olah, George [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prakash, G. K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO2 capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO2 and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO2 and H2, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields.

  6. Biomass based energy. A review on raw materials and processing methods; Energie aus Biomasse. Eine Uebersicht ueber Rohstoffe und Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woellauer, P.

    2007-07-01

    The book reviews the variety of biogenic raw materials and the technologically important biomass conversion techniques. The chapter on the different kinds of biomass includes a) wood from forestry, landscape culturing and saw mills, bark and old wood; b) plants (corn, miscanthus, cannabis, wheat, rye, sugar beets, grass, rape, etc.), residuals and wastes (straw, liquid manure, slaughthouse wastes, kitchen wastes, sewage sludge, others). The chapter on biomass conversion processing discusses combustion, oxidation in spercritical water, gasification and reforming, fermentation, extrusion or extraction, and downstream processes. The chapter on biomass based electricity and mechanical energy includes refrigeration engineering, direct utilization: Otto engines, Diesel engines, microgas turbine fuel cells, and heat processing: Striling engine, vapour turbine, ORC turbine, externally fired gas turbine, and the Kalina process.

  7. Biomass prediction model in maize based on satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Herbei; Florin, Sala

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring of crops by satellite techniques is very useful in the context of precision agriculture, regarding crops management and agricultural production. The present study has evaluated the interrelationship between maize biomass production and satellite indices (NDVI and NDBR) during five development stages (BBCH code), highlighting different levels of correlation. Biomass production recorded was between 2.39±0.005 t ha-1 (12-13 BBCH code) and 51.92±0.028 t ha-1 (83-85 BBCH code), in relation to vegetation stages studied. Values of chlorophyll content ranged from 24.1±0.25 SPAD unit (12-13 BBCH code) to 58.63±0.47 SPAD unit (71-73 BBCH code), and the obtained satellite indices ranged from 0.035641±0.002 and 0.320839±0.002 for NDVI indices respectively 0.035095±0.034 and 0.491038±0.018 in the case of NDBR indices. By regression analysis it was possible to obtain predictive models of biomass in maize based on the satellite indices, in statistical accurate conditions. The most accurate prediction was possible based on NDBR index (R2 = 0.986, F = 144.23, p<0.001, RMSE = 1.446), then based on chlorophyll content (R2 = 0.834, F = 16.14, p = 0.012, RMSE = 6.927) and NDVI index (R2 = 0.682, F = 3.869, p = 0.116, RMSE = 12.178).

  8. Enhanced porcine circovirus Cap protein production by Pichia pastoris with a fuzzy logic DO control based methanol/sorbitol co-feeding induction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Zhang, Chunling; Gao, Minjie; Hou, Guoli; Liang, Kexue; Li, Chunhua; Ni, Jianping; Li, Zhen; Shi, Zhongping

    2014-05-10

    Porcine circovirus Cap protein production by P. pastoris with strong AOX promoter suffered with the problems with traditional pure methanol induction: (1) inefficient methanol metabolism; (2) extensive oxygen supply load; (3) difficulty in stable DO control; (4) low protein titer. In this study, based on the difference of DO change patterns in response to methanol and sorbitol additions, a novel fuzzy control system was proposed to automatically regulate the co-feeding rates of methanol and sorbitol for efficient Cap protein induction. With aid of the proposed control system when setting DO control level at 10%, overall fermentation performance was significantly improved: (1) DO could be stably controlled under mild aeration condition; (2) methanol consumption rate could be restricted at moderate level and the major enzymes involved with methanol metabolism were largely activated; (3) Cap protein concentration reached a highest level of 198mg/L, which was about 64% increase over the best one using the pure methanol induction strategies.

  9. Potential evaluation of biomass-based energy sources for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Ozcan; Semra Öztürk; Yuksel Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Turkey has great potential with respect to renewable energy sources (RES) and, among such sources, “biomass energy” is of particular importance. The purpose of this study is to determine the primary electrical energy potential obtainable from the biomass potential, according to different biomass source types. In this study, the biomass sources of municipal solid wastes, energy crops, animal manure and urban wastewater treatment sludge are evaluated. For each source, individual biogas and biom...

  10. Temperature modeling and control of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell based on adaptive neural fuzzy technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Zhidong; Zhu Xinjian; Cao Guangyi

    2006-01-01

    Aiming at on-line controlling of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) stack, an adaptive neural fuzzy inference technology is adopted in the modeling and control of DMFC temperature system. In the modeling process, an Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) identification model of DMFC stack temperature is developed based on the input-output sampled data, which can avoid the internal complexity of DMFC stack. In the controlling process, with the network model trained well as the reference model of the DMFC control system, a novel fuzzy genetic algorithm is used to regulate the parameters and fuzzy rules of a neural fuzzy controller. In the simulation, compared with the nonlinear Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) and traditional fuzzy algorithm, the improved neural fuzzy controller designed in this paper gets better performance, as demonstrated by the simulation results.

  11. Dynamic Kinetics of Methanol Synthesis over a Commercial Copper-Based Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Adsorption, surface reaction and process dynamics on the surface of a commercial copper-based cata lyst for methanol synthesis from CO/CO2/H2 were systematically studied by means of temperature programmed desorption (TPD), tsmperature programmed surface reaction (TPSR), in-situ Fourier transform-inferred spec troscopy(FTIR) and stimulua-response techniques. As a part of results, an elementary step sequence was suggested and a group of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) for describing transient conversations relevant to all species on the catalyst surface and in the gas phase in a micro-fixed-bed reactor was derived. The values of the parameters referred to dynamic kinetics were estimated by fitting the solution of the ODEs with the transient response data obtained by the stimulus-response technique with a FTIR analyzer as an on-line detector.

  12. Testing maser-based evolutionary schemes: A new search for 37.7-GHz methanol masers

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, S P; Voronkov, M A; Dawson, J R

    2012-01-01

    We have used the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22-m antenna to search for 37.7-GHz (7(-2) - 8(-1}E) methanol masers towards a sample of thirty six class II methanol masers. The target sources are the most luminous class II methanol masers not previously searched for this transition, with isotropic peak 12.2-GHz maser luminosity greater than 250 Jy/kpc^2 and isotropic peak 6.7-GHz maser luminosity greater than 800 Jy/kpc^2. Seven new 37.7-GHz methanol masers were detected as a result of the search. The detection rate for 37.7-GHz methanol masers towards a complete sample of all such class II methanol maser sites south of declination -20 deg is at least 30 percent. The relatively high detection rate for this rare methanol transition is in line with previous predictions that the 37.7-GHz transition is associated with a late stage of the class II methanol maser phase of high-mass star formation. We find that there is a modest correlation between the ratio of the 6.7- and 37.7-GHz maser peak intensit...

  13. New process of low-temperature methanol synthesis from CO/CO2/H2 based on dual-catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new process of low-temperature methanol synthesis from CO/CO2/H2 based on dual-catalysis has been developed. Some alcohols, especially 2-alcohol, were found to have high cata-lytic promoting effect on the synthesis of methanol from CO hydrogenation. At 443 K and 5 MPa, the synthesis of methanol could process high effectively, resulting from the synergic catalysis of Cu/ZnO solid catalyst and 2-alcohol solvent catalyst. The primary results showed that when 2-butanol was used as reaction solvent, the one-pass average yield and the selectivity of methanol, in 40 h con-tinuous reaction at temperature as low as 443 K and 5 MPa, were high up to 46.51% and 98.94% respectively. The catalytic activity was stable and the reaction temperature was 80 K or so lower than that in current industry synthesis process. This new process hopefully will become a practical method for methanol synthesis at low temperature.

  14. New process of low-temperature methanol synthesis from CO/CO2/H2 based on dual-catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾健青; TSUBAKINoritatsu; FUJIMOTOKaoru

    2002-01-01

    A new process of low-temperature methanol synthesis from CO/CO2/H2 based on dual-catalysis has been developed. Some alcohols, especially 2-alcohol, were found to have high catalytic promoting effect on the synthesis of methanol from CO hydrogenation. At 443 K and 5 MPa, the synthesis of methanol could process high effectively, resulting from the synergic catalysis of Cu/ZnO solid catalyst and 2-alcohol solvent catalyst. The primary results showed that when 2-butanol was used as reaction solvent, the one-pass average yield and the selectivity of methanol, in 40 h continuous reaction at temperature as low as 443 K and 5 MPa, were high up to 46.51% and 98.94% respectively. The catalytic activity was stable and the reaction temperature was 80 K or so lower than that in current industry synthesis process. This new process hopefully will become a practical method for methanol synthesis at low temperature.

  15. Biomass valorisation by staged degasification A new pyrolysis-based thermochemical conversion option to produce value-added chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wild, P. J.; den Uil, H.; Reith, J. H.; Kiel, J. H. A.; Heeres, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass leads to an array Of useful solid, liquid and gaseous products. Staged degasification is a pyrolysis-based conversion route to generate value-added chemicals from biomass. Because of different thermal stabilities of the main biomass constituents hemicellulose. ce

  16. Three-dimensional ordered macroporous platinum-based electrode for methanol oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, three-dimensional ordered macroporous platinum catalysts with high real surface area were synthesized using the inverted colloidal crystals template technique and have been employed for the electrooxidation of methanol. The morphology and electrocatalytic behavior of the porous Pt electrodes were investigated with atomic force microscopy and electrochemical techniques. For the same amount of Pt deposited, the real surface areas of the electrodes are 9.16 and 8.00 cm2 for the porous electrodes with pore size of 320 and 500 nm respectively, which are more than 5 times larger than the directly deposited Pt electrode (1.4 cm2). The pore size effect on the methanol electrooxidation was investigated by testing low concentration solution of methanol and porous materials with different pore sizes. The synthesized macroporous Pt electrode shows high stability toward the electrooxidation of methanol and is promising for the direct methanol fuel cell.

  17. Hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol using copper/zinc oxide-based catalyst: Effect of active metal ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabidi, Noor Asmawati Mohd; Tasfy, Sara; Shaharun, Maizatul Shima

    2016-11-01

    Effects of Cu:Zn ratio on the catalytic performance of synthesized SBA-15 supported Cu/ZnO-based (CZS) catalyst for the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol was investigated in a fixed bed reactor. The physicochemical properties of the synthesized CZS catalyst in terms of textural properties, morphological and reducibility are presented. Methanol productivity was found to be influenced by the ratio of Cu and Zn in the catalyst formulation. Methanol selectivity of 92.1 % and CO2 conversion of 14.2 % was achieved over CZS catalyst with active metal ratio of 70 %Cu:30% Zn in CO2 hydrogenation reaction performed at 250°C, 2.25 MPa, and H2/CO2 ratio of 3.

  18. Supported Pt-based nanoparticulate catalysts for the electro-oxidation of methanol: An experimental protocol for quantifying its activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez-Fernandez, Patricia; Lund, Peter Brilner; Kallesøe, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In here, we propose a simple methodology to evaluate the activity of supported nano-particulate catalysts on the electro-oxidation of methanol in a three-electrode cell. The proof of concept has been made on carbon supported Pt and PtRu commercial catalysts, but the protocol can be extended to all...... kinds of Pt-based nanoparticles. Even though the electro-oxidation of methanol has been studied for many years, there is no established electrochemical procedure for measuring the performance of a catalyst in such reaction. The conditions in which the measurements are carried out differ between research...

  19. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y.; Wilen, C.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the project was to assess the competitiveness and market potential of small-scale power plant concepts based on biomass gasification and on diesel/gas engines, and to study the effect of process parameters on the efficiency of the circulating fluidized-bed gasifier and on the formation of tarry impurities. Alternative diesel/gas engine power plant concepts based on gasification in scale 6-50 MW{sub e} were assessed. In the basic version, where the electricity is generated only by the a diesel/gas engine, the efficiency level of 37 % is achieved in power generation. When steam cycle is added to the process the efficiency of power generation increases to 44-48 %. The efficiencies achieved in the process are very high compared with those of biomass power plant processes on a commercial level or under development. The most significant potential of biomass-based power generation is made up by wastes of sugar industries in south and Central America and in Asia. There are also very extensive growth potentials of bioenergy use in the NAFTA countries (USA, Canada and Mexico) and in Europe. In Europe, the bioenergy use is expected to grow most sharply in Italy, Spain, Germany and Poland. Carbon conversion obtained in the gasifier was in the range of 99.0-99.9 % for sawdust and 96-98 % for forest residue chips. The tar content of the product gas 10-15 g/m- m{sup 3}{sub n}, for sawdust in the gasification temperature of 830-930 deg C and with sand as circulating fluid-bed. When dolomite was used as circulating fluid-bed, the tar contents were 2-3 g/m{sup 3}{sub n} at as low temperatures as 880-890 deg C. The tar content of gas can be reduced sharply by phasing of gasification air and by using catalytic circulating fluid-bed material Bioenergy Research Programme; LIEKKI 2 Research Programme. 26 refs., 40 figs.

  20. Potential evaluation of biomass-based energy sources for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ozcan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has great potential with respect to renewable energy sources (RES and, among such sources, “biomass energy” is of particular importance. The purpose of this study is to determine the primary electrical energy potential obtainable from the biomass potential, according to different biomass source types. In this study, the biomass sources of municipal solid wastes, energy crops, animal manure and urban wastewater treatment sludge are evaluated. For each source, individual biogas and biomass energy potential calculations are made. Methods for energy conversion from wastes applicable to the conditions of Turkey, and technical and economic parameters are used. As a result of the calculations made, the total primary energy value of biogas obtainable from the examined sources is 188.21 TWh/year. The total primary energy value related to the potential of the evaluated biomass sources is 278.40 TWh/year.

  1. Biomass supply chain optimisation for Organosolv-based biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarola, Sara; Patel, Mayank; Shah, Nilay

    2014-05-01

    This work aims at providing a Mixed Integer Linear Programming modelling framework to help define planning strategies for the development of sustainable biorefineries. The up-scaling of an Organosolv biorefinery was addressed via optimisation of the whole system economics. Three real world case studies were addressed to show the high-level flexibility and wide applicability of the tool to model different biomass typologies (i.e. forest fellings, cereal residues and energy crops) and supply strategies. Model outcomes have revealed how supply chain optimisation techniques could help shed light on the development of sustainable biorefineries. Feedstock quality, quantity, temporal and geographical availability are crucial to determine biorefinery location and the cost-efficient way to supply the feedstock to the plant. Storage costs are relevant for biorefineries based on cereal stubble, while wood supply chains present dominant pretreatment operations costs.

  2. ICT based molecular recognition of 2,5-dinitrophenol in methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, Soumi [Department of Chemistry, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713104 (India); Chaudhuri, Tandrima, E-mail: tanchem_bu@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Dr. Bhupendranath Dutta Smriti Mahavidyalaya, Burdwan 713407, West Bengal (India); Banerjee, Manas [Department of Chemistry, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713104 (India)

    2015-02-15

    The first report of wavelength ratiometric sensing of electron deficient nitroaromatic explosive, 2,5-dinitrophenol (N4) with photoluminescent electron rich Schiff base H{sub 2}salen (A1) derived from 1,2-ethanediamine and salicyldehyde and related complexes [Zn(salen)]·H{sub 2}O (A2) and [Ni(salen)]·H{sub 2}O (A3) in methanol is presented. DFT based optimization reveals that NACs (N1–N5) induce the formation of 1:2 donor–acceptor complexes with the salen based compounds. - Highlights: • Ratiometric sensing of nitroaromatics, especially 2,5-dinitrophenol (N4), is demonstrated. • H{sub 2}salen (A1) exhibit equilibrium with nitroaromatics except 2,5-dinitrophenol in excited state. • [Ni(salen)]·H{sub 2}O (A3) exhibits both ground and excited state equilibrium with only 2,5-dinitrophenol among five NACs. • Nitroaromatics form 1:2 donor–acceptor complexes with salen type compounds.

  3. Dietary methanol and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted.

  4. Methanol dehydration reaction to produce clean diesel alternative dimethylether over mesoporous aluminosilicate-based catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    ÇİFTÇİ, Ay&#; VARIŞLI, Dilek; TOKAY, Kenan Cem

    2009-01-01

    Due to its good burning characteristics and high cetane number, dimethylether (DME) is considered as a highly attractive and clean alternative to diesel fuel. This ether can be produced by methanol dehydration reaction over solid acid catalysts. In the present study, activities of mesoporous aluminosilicate catalysts prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis route and containing Al/Si atomic ratios ranging between 0.03 and 0.18 were tested in methanol dehydration. The optimum Al/Si ...

  5. Methanol dehydration reaction to produce clean diesel alternative dimethylether over mesoporous aluminosilicate-based catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    ÇİFTÇİ, Ay& VARIŞLI, Dilek; TOKAY, Kenan Cem

    2014-01-01

    Due to its good burning characteristics and high cetane number, dimethylether (DME) is considered as a highly attractive and clean alternative to diesel fuel. This ether can be produced by methanol dehydration reaction over solid acid catalysts. In the present study, activities of mesoporous aluminosilicate catalysts prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis route and containing Al/Si atomic ratios ranging between 0.03 and 0.18 were tested in methanol dehydration. The optimum Al/Si ...

  6. High throughput evaluation of perovskite-based anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Kishori; Mukasyan, Alexander; Varma, Arvind

    Liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) are promising candidates for portable power applications. However, owing to the problems associated with expensive Pt-based catalysts, viz., CO poisoning, a promising approach is to use complex oxides of the type ABO 3 (A = Sr, Ce, La, etc. and B = Co, Fe, Ni, Pt, Ru, etc.). In the current work, a variety of ABO 3 and A 2BO 4 type non-noble and partially substituted noble metal high surface area compounds were synthesized by an effective and rapid aqueous combustion synthesis (CS). Their catalytic activity was evaluated by using "High Throughput Screening Unit"-NuVant System, which compares up to 25 compositions simultaneously under DMFC conditions. It was found that the Sr-based perovskites showed performance comparable with the standard Pt-Ru catalyst. Further, it was observed that the method of doping SrRuO 3 with Pt influenced the activity. Specifically, platinum added during aqueous CS yielded better catalyst than when added externally at the ink preparation stage. Finally, it was also demonstrated that the presence of SrRuO 3 significantly enhanced the catalytic properties of Pt, leading to superior performance even at lower noble metal loadings.

  7. Comparative study of hydrogen and methanol as energy carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Anna

    1998-06-01

    This report has been written with the purpose to compare hydrogen and methanol, with gasoline, as energy carriers for new energy systems in the future. This energy system must satisfy the demands for sustainable development. The report focuses on motor vehicle applications. A few different criteria has been developed to help form the characterisation method. The criteria proposed in this thesis are developed for an environmental comparison mainly based on emissions from combustion. The criteria concerns the following areas: Renewable resources, The ozone layer, The greenhouse effect, The acidification, and Toxic substances. In many ways, hydrogen may seem as a very good alternative compared with gasoline and diesel oil. Combustion of hydrogen in air results in water and small amounts of oxides of nitrogen. In this report, hydrogen produced from renewable resources is investigated. This is necessary to fulfill the demands for sustainable development. Today, however, steam reforming of fossil fuels represent 99% of the hydrogen production market. Problem areas connected with hydrogen use are for instance storage and distribution. Methanol has many advantages, while comparing methanol and gasoline, like lower emissions of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons, limited emissions of carbon dioxide and no sulphur content. Methanol can be produced from many different resources, for example natural gas, naphtha, oil, coal or peat, and biomass. To meet demands for sustainable production, methanol has to be produced from biomass Examination paper. 32 refs, 20 figs, 13 tabs

  8. Live above- and belowground biomass of a Mozambican evergreen forest:a comparison of estimates based on regression equations and biomass expansion factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tarquinio; Mateus; Magalhães

    2016-01-01

    Background:Biomass regression equations are claimed to yield the most accurate biomass estimates than biomass expansion factors (BEFs). Yet, national and regional biomass estimates are general y calculated based on BEFs, especial y when using national forest inventory data. Comparison of regression equations based and BEF-based biomass estimates are scarce. Thus, this study was intended to compare these two commonly used methods for estimating tree and forest biomass with regard to errors and biases. Methods:The data were col ected in 2012 and 2014. In 2012, a two-phase sampling design was used to fit tree component biomass regression models and determine tree BEFs. In 2014, additional trees were fel ed outside sampling plots to estimate the biases associated with regression equation based and BEF-based biomass estimates;those estimates were then compared in terms of the fol owing sources of error: plot selection and variability, biomass model, model parameter estimates, and residual variability around model prediction. Results:The regression equation based below-, aboveground and whole tree biomass stocks were, approximately, 7.7, 8.5 and 8.3%larger than the BEF-based ones. For the whole tree biomass stock, the percentage of the total error attributed to first phase (random plot selection and variability) was 90 and 88%for regression-and BEF-based estimates, respectively, being the remaining attributed to biomass models (regression and BEF models, respectively). The percent bias of regression equation based and BEF-based biomass estimates for the whole tree biomass stock were−2.7 and 5.4%, respectively. The errors due to model parameter estimates, those due to residual variability around model prediction, and the percentage of the total error attributed to biomass model were larger for BEF models (than for regression models), except for stem and stem wood components. Conclusions:The regression equation based biomass stocks were found to be slightly larger

  9. Live above- and belowground biomass of a Mozambican evergreen forest: a comparison of estimates based on regression equations and biomass expansion factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarquinio Mateus Magalhães

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Biomass regression equations are claimed to yield the most accurate biomass estimates than biomass expansion factors (BEFs. Yet, national and regional biomass estimates are generally calculated based on BEFs, especially when using national forest inventory data. Comparison of regression equations based and BEF-based biomass estimates are scarce. Thus, this study was intended to compare these two commonly used methods for estimating tree and forest biomass with regard to errors and biases. Methods The data were collected in 2012 and 2014. In 2012, a two-phase sampling design was used to fit tree component biomass regression models and determine tree BEFs. In 2014, additional trees were felled outside sampling plots to estimate the biases associated with regression equation based and BEF-based biomass estimates; those estimates were then compared in terms of the following sources of error: plot selection and variability, biomass model, model parameter estimates, and residual variability around model prediction. Results The regression equation based below-, aboveground and whole tree biomass stocks were, approximately, 7.7, 8.5 and 8.3 % larger than the BEF-based ones. For the whole tree biomass stock, the percentage of the total error attributed to first phase (random plot selection and variability was 90 and 88 % for regression- and BEF-based estimates, respectively, being the remaining attributed to biomass models (regression and BEF models, respectively. The percent bias of regression equation based and BEF-based biomass estimates for the whole tree biomass stock were −2.7 and 5.4 %, respectively. The errors due to model parameter estimates, those due to residual variability around model prediction, and the percentage of the total error attributed to biomass model were larger for BEF models (than for regression models, except for stem and stem wood components. Conclusions The regression equation based biomass stocks were found to

  10. Methanol as an energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedermann, P.; Grube, T.; Hoehlein, B. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    For the future, a strongly growing energy demand is expected in the transport sector worldwide. Economically efficient oil production will run through a maximum in the next decade. Higher fuel prices and an environmentally desirable reduction of emissions will increase the pressure for reducing fuel consumption and emissions in road traffic. These criteria show the urgent necessity of structural changes in the fuel market. Due to its advantages concerning industrial-scale production, storage and global availability, methanol has the short- to medium-term potential for gaining increased significance as a substitution product in the energy market. Methanol can be produced both from fossil energy sources and from biomass or waste materials through the process steps of synthesis gas generation with subsequent methanol synthesis. Methanol has the potential to be used in an environmentally friendly manner in gasoline/methanol mixtures for flexible fuel vehicles with internal combustion engines and in diesel engines with pure methanol. Furthermore, it can be used in fuel cell vehicles with on-board hydrogen production in direct methanol fuel cell drives, and in stationary systems for electricity and heat generation as well as for hydrogen production. Finally, in portable applications it serves as an energy carrier for electric power generation. In this book, the processes for the production and use of methanol are presented and evaluated, markets and future options are discussed and issues of safety and environmental impacts are addressed by a team of well-known authors. (orig.)

  11. Facile synthesis of Pd-based bimetallic nanocrystals and their application as catalysts for methanol oxidation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Pinxian; Cao, Yang; Yang, Fengchun; Ma, Cai; Chen, Fengjuan; Yu, Sha; Wang, Shuai; Zeng, Zhengzhi; Zhang, Xin

    2013-06-01

    We employed an efficient and facile route to synthesise monodisperse Pd-based bimetallic nanocrystals (MPd: M = Cu, Co and Ni) via a controlled co-reduction of Pd(ii) chloride and M(ii) nitrate at 200-230 °C in the presence of oleylamine (OAm). These monodisperse Pd-based nanocrystals have small dimensions, unique structures and homogeneous morphology, thus exhibit efficient catalytic activities for methanol oxidation in alkaline solution, which is much better than commercial Pd/C with same amount of palladium. The catalytic activities of these nanocrystals followed the order of NiPd/C > CoPd/C > CuPd/C > commercial Pd/C, due to the different synergistic effects. Our results show that these Pd-based bimetallic nanocrystals can be promising as practical catalysts for methanol oxidation reactions and other catalytic reactions in further investigations.We employed an efficient and facile route to synthesise monodisperse Pd-based bimetallic nanocrystals (MPd: M = Cu, Co and Ni) via a controlled co-reduction of Pd(ii) chloride and M(ii) nitrate at 200-230 °C in the presence of oleylamine (OAm). These monodisperse Pd-based nanocrystals have small dimensions, unique structures and homogeneous morphology, thus exhibit efficient catalytic activities for methanol oxidation in alkaline solution, which is much better than commercial Pd/C with same amount of palladium. The catalytic activities of these nanocrystals followed the order of NiPd/C > CoPd/C > CuPd/C > commercial Pd/C, due to the different synergistic effects. Our results show that these Pd-based bimetallic nanocrystals can be promising as practical catalysts for methanol oxidation reactions and other catalytic reactions in further investigations. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00912b

  12. Estimation of winter wheat biomass based on remote sensing data at various spatial and spectral resolutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yansong BAO; Wei GAO; Zhiqiang GAO

    2009-01-01

    Biomass can indicate plant growth status, so it is an important index for plant growth monitoring. This paper focused on the methodology of estimating the winter wheat biomass based on hyperspectral field data, including the LANDSAT TM and EOS MODIS images. In order to develop the method of retrieving the wheat biomass from remote sensed data, routine field measurements were initiated during periods when the LANDSAT satellite passed over the study region. In the course of the experiment, five LANDSAT TM images were acquired respectively at early erecting stage, jointing stage, earring stage, flowering stage and grain-filling stage of the winter wheat, and the wheat biomass was measured at each stage. Based on the TM and MODIS images, spectral indices such as NDVI, RDVI, EVI, MSAVI, SIPI and NDWI were calculated. At the same time, the hyperspectral field data was used to compute the normalized difference in spectral indices, red-edge parameters, spectral absorption, and reflection feature parameters. Then the correlation coefficients between the wheat biomass and spectral parameters of the experiment sites were computed. According to the correlation coefficients, the optimal spectral parameters for estimating the wheat biomass were determined. The bestfitting method was employed to build the relationship models between the wheat biomass and the optimal spectral parameters. Finally, the models were used to estimate the wheat biomass based on the TM and MODIS data. The maximum RMSE of estimated biomass was 66.403 g/m2.

  13. Uav-Based Automatic Tree Growth Measurement for Biomass Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpina, M.; Jarząbek-Rychard, M.; Tymków, P.; Borkowski, A.

    2016-06-01

    Manual in-situ measurements of geometric tree parameters for the biomass volume estimation are time-consuming and economically non-effective. Photogrammetric techniques can be deployed in order to automate the measurement procedure. The purpose of the presented work is an automatic tree growth estimation based on Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle (UAV) imagery. The experiment was conducted in an agriculture test field with scots pine canopies. The data was collected using a Leica Aibotix X6V2 platform equipped with a Nikon D800 camera. Reference geometric parameters of selected sample plants were measured manually each week. In situ measurements were correlated with the UAV data acquisition. The correlation aimed at the investigation of optimal conditions for a flight and parameter settings for image acquisition. The collected images are processed in a state of the art tool resulting in a generation of dense 3D point clouds. The algorithm is developed in order to estimate geometric tree parameters from 3D points. Stem positions and tree tops are identified automatically in a cross section, followed by the calculation of tree heights. The automatically derived height values are compared to the reference measurements performed manually. The comparison allows for the evaluation of automatic growth estimation process. The accuracy achieved using UAV photogrammetry for tree heights estimation is about 5cm.

  14. UAV-BASED AUTOMATIC TREE GROWTH MEASUREMENT FOR BIOMASS ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karpina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Manual in-situ measurements of geometric tree parameters for the biomass volume estimation are time-consuming and economically non-effective. Photogrammetric techniques can be deployed in order to automate the measurement procedure. The purpose of the presented work is an automatic tree growth estimation based on Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle (UAV imagery. The experiment was conducted in an agriculture test field with scots pine canopies. The data was collected using a Leica Aibotix X6V2 platform equipped with a Nikon D800 camera. Reference geometric parameters of selected sample plants were measured manually each week. In situ measurements were correlated with the UAV data acquisition. The correlation aimed at the investigation of optimal conditions for a flight and parameter settings for image acquisition. The collected images are processed in a state of the art tool resulting in a generation of dense 3D point clouds. The algorithm is developed in order to estimate geometric tree parameters from 3D points. Stem positions and tree tops are identified automatically in a cross section, followed by the calculation of tree heights. The automatically derived height values are compared to the reference measurements performed manually. The comparison allows for the evaluation of automatic growth estimation process. The accuracy achieved using UAV photogrammetry for tree heights estimation is about 5cm.

  15. Plasma Treatments and Biomass Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luche, J.; Falcoz, Q.; Bastien, T.; Leninger, J. P.; Arabi, K.; Aubry, O.; Khacef, A.; Cormier, J. M.; Lédé, J.

    2012-02-01

    Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. Recent studies have shown the potential to improve conventional biomass processing by coupling a plasma reactor to a pyrolysis cyclone reactor. The role of the plasma is twofold: it acts as a purification stage by reducing production of tars and aerosols, and simultaneously produces a rich hydrogen syngas. In a first part of the paper we present results obtained from plasma treatment of pyrolysis oils. The outlet gas composition is given for various types of oils obtained at different experimental conditions with a pyrolysis reactor. Given the complexity of the mixtures from processing of biomass, we present a study with methanol considered as a model molecule. This experimental method allows a first modeling approach based on a combustion kinetic model suitable to validate the coupling of plasma with conventional biomass process. The second part of the paper is summarizing results obtained through a plasma-pyrolysis reactor arrangement. The goal is to show the feasibility of this plasma-pyrolysis coupling and emphasize more fundamental studies to understand the role of the plasma in the biomass treatment processes.

  16. Environmental life cycle assessment of methanol and electricity co-production system based on coal gasification technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwińska, Anna; Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Smoliński, Adam

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas emissions generated through methanol and electricity co-production system based on coal gasification technology. The analysis focuses on polygeneration technologies from which two products are produced, and thus, issues related to an allocation procedure for LCA are addressed in this paper. In the LCA, two methods were used: a 'system expansion' method based on two approaches, the 'avoided burdens approach' and 'direct system enlargement' methods and an 'allocation' method involving proportional partitioning based on physical relationships in a technological process. Cause-effect relationships in the analysed production process were identified, allowing for the identification of allocation factors. The 'system expansion' method involved expanding the analysis to include five additional variants of electricity production technologies in Poland (alternative technologies). This method revealed environmental consequences of implementation for the analysed technologies. It was found that the LCA of polygeneration technologies based on the 'system expansion' method generated a more complete source of information on environmental consequences than the 'allocation' method. The analysis shows that alternative technologies chosen for generating LCA results are crucial. Life cycle assessment was performed for the analysed, reference and variant alternative technologies. Comparative analysis was performed between the analysed technologies of methanol and electricity co-production from coal gasification as well as a reference technology of methanol production from the natural gas reforming process.

  17. Noncatalytic mono-N-methylation of aniline in supercritical methanol: the kinetics and acid/base effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebayashi, Yoshihiro; Morita, Yoshinori; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Yoda, Satoshi; Furuya, Takeshi; Sugeta, Tsutomu; Otake, Katsuto

    2005-08-21

    Aniline is easily N-methylated in supercritical methanol without catalyst at 350 degrees C and 0.237 g cm-3 to give mono-N-methylaniline with high selectivity, and the reaction rate is increased by a small amount of base (LiOH, NaOH, KOH, and CH3ONa), indicating a difference in the reaction mechanism from the ordinary acid-catalyzed one.

  18. The influence of methanol on the chemical state of PtRu anodes in a high-temperature direct methanol fuel cell studied in situ by synchrotron-based near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveleva, Viktoriia A.; Daletou, Maria K.; Savinova, Elena R.

    2017-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation-based near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) has recently become a powerful tool for the investigation of interfacial phenomena in electrochemical power sources such as batteries and fuel cells. Here we present an in situ NAP-XPS study of the anode of a high-temperature direct methanol fuel cell with a phosphoric acid-doped hydrocarbon membrane, which reveals an enhanced flooding of the Pt3Ru anode with phosphoric acid in the presence of methanol. An analysis of the electrode surface composition depending on the cell voltage and on the presence of methanol reveals the strong influence of the latter on the extent of Pt oxidation and on the transformation of Ru into Ru (IV) hydroxide.

  19. Marginal land-based biomass energy production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ya; Xie, Jia-Sui; Geng, Shu

    2010-01-01

    Fast economic development in China has resulted in a significant increase in energy demand. Coal accounts for 70% of China's primary energy consumption and its combustion has caused many environmental and health problems. Energy security and environmental protection requirements are the main drivers for renewable energy development in China. Small farmland and food security make bioenergy derived from corn or sugarcane unacceptable to China: the focus should be on generating bioenergy from ligno-cellulosic feedstock sources. As China cannot afford biomass energy production from its croplands, marginal lands may play an important role in biomass energy production. Although on a small scale, marginal land has already been used for various purposes. It is estimated that some 45 million hm(2) of marginal land could be brought into high potential biomass energy production. For the success of such an initiative, it will likely be necessary to develop multipurpose plants. A case study, carried out on marginal land in Ningnan County, Sichuan Province with per capita cropland of 0.07 ha, indicated that some 380,000 tons of dry biomass could be produced each year from annual pruning of mulberry trees. This study supports the feasibility of producing large quantities of biomass from marginal land sources.

  20. Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

  1. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-06-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

  2. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-04-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

  3. U.S. Biomass Opportunities for Value-added Biomass Exports based on the European Union Renewable Energy Share Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises Lacoa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available World energy demand is expected to continue increasing in the coming years. This situation has created a worldwide pressure for the development of alternative fuel and energy sources, pursuing a more environmentally friendly usage of biofuels. The EU has the target of generating 20% of its energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. Member States have different individual targets to meet this overall target. Meanwhile in the United States, there are about 750 million acres [300 million hectares] of forestland, with slightly more than two-thirds classified as timberland or land capable of producing 20 cubic feet per acre [1.4 m3 per hectare] annually of roundwood. Given these circumstances, this research aimed to understand the U.S. opportunities to export woody biomass based on the targets that the European Union has imposed to its Member States. The data collected allowed several scenario developments by identifying the possible EU’s biomass deficits and U.S.’s capacity to supply the gaps. Considering the physical availability, the U.S. would be able to satisfy between 42 and 48% depending on the energy efficiency scenario. Nevertheless, when considering reasonable biomass prices, only a small portion of the EU demand could be covered by the U.S.

  4. Influence of current collectors design on the performance of a silicon-based passive micro direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel, J.P.; Sabate, N.; Santander, J.; Torres-Herrero, N.; Gracia, I.; Ivanov, P.; Fonseca, L.; Cane, C. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-10-20

    In this paper, the influence of current collector open ratio on the performance of a passive micro direct methanol fuel cell is evaluated. The device is based on a hybrid approach consisting of two microfabricated silicon current collectors assembled together with a commercial membrane electrode assembly. The characterization was performed by measuring polarization curves of the fuel cell using current collectors with different open ratios on anode and cathode. Results show that the way in which the open ratio of current collectors is combined has an effect not only on the output power but also on the repeatability of polarization curves. This study allows the setting of some general design rules for current collectors of passive micro direct methanol fuel cells. (author)

  5. Efficient hydrogenation of organic carbonates, carbamates and formates indicates alternative routes to methanol based on CO2 and CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaraman, Ekambaram; Gunanathan, Chidambaram; Zhang, Jing; Shimon, Linda J W; Milstein, David

    2011-07-22

    Catalytic hydrogenation of organic carbonates, carbamates and formates is of significant interest both conceptually and practically, because these compounds can be produced from CO2 and CO, and their mild hydrogenation can provide alternative, mild approaches to the indirect hydrogenation of CO2 and CO to methanol, an important fuel and synthetic building block. Here, we report for the first time catalytic hydrogenation of organic carbonates to alcohols, and carbamates to alcohols and amines. Unprecedented homogeneously catalysed hydrogenation of organic formates to methanol has also been accomplished. The reactions are efficiently catalysed by dearomatized PNN Ru(II) pincer complexes derived from pyridine- and bipyridine-based tridentate ligands. These atom-economical reactions proceed under neutral, homogeneous conditions, at mild temperatures and under mild hydrogen pressures, and can operate in the absence of solvent with no generation of waste, representing the ultimate 'green' reactions. A possible mechanism involves metal-ligand cooperation by aromatization-dearomatization of the heteroaromatic pincer core.

  6. REMOVAL OF TEXTILE DYE NOVACRON YELLOW USING THE FUNGAL BIOMASS BASED ON CLADOSPORIUM SP. GENUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Diniz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present an economically viable adsorbent material based on fungal biomass of genus Cladosporium sp. The molecule used as adsorbate was the commercial dye Novacron Yellow (NY. The water sample used in the fungal isolation was collected in the effluent from a textile factory. The ITS-rRNA sequence of fungal biomass used in this study match with Cladosporium sp genus. The FTIR spectrums of fungal biomass are compatibles with chitin structure. The maximum adsorption capacity exhibited by fungal biomass is 56mg.g-1. These results can inserts the biomass based on Cladosporium sp as a good alternative to adsorption of organic dyes with high molecular weight such as Novacron Yellow

  7. [Endogenous respiration process analysis of heterotrophic biomass and autotrophic biomass based on respiration map ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-hua; Bai, Xu-li; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Yi; He, Chun-bo

    2014-09-01

    The endogenous process is an important metabolic part of the activated sludge, and the understanding of this process is still unclear. Characteristics of endogenous respiration for heterotrophic bacteria and autotrophic nitrifiers were analyzed using respirogram. Results showed that both heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria entered the stage of endogenous respiration at almost the same time, but heterotrophic bacteria first entered the stage of dormancy i. e. , they were easier to recover a higher proportion of biomass during the dormancy stage, indicating that heterotrophic bacteria exhibited strong environmental adaptability. Autotrophic bacteria were, however, quite different. This finding confirmed that autotrophic bacteria were more vulnerable from the viewpoint of endogenous respiration. In addition, the study also found that the increase of endogenous respiration rate ratio reflected the decreased sludge activity. And the proportion of endogenous respiration was an important parameter to characterize the activity of activated sludge, which can be used as a quantitative index for the health status of activated sludge. The findings further deepened the understanding of endogenous respiration process and provided a theoretical basis for the operation and management of wastewater treatment plants.

  8. Continuous production of biodiesel from cottonseed oil and methanol using a column reactor packed with calcined sodium silicate base catalyst☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Gui; Sichen Chen; Zhi Yun

    2016-01-01

    Sodium silicate and that calcined at 400 °C for 2 h were used to catalyze the transesterification of cottonseed oil with methanol. Calcined sodium silicate (CSS) catalyst exhibited much higher catalytic activity and stability. A maximum biodiesel yield of 98.9%was achieved at methanol/oil mole ratio of 12:1, reaction temperature 65 °C, reaction time 3.0 h, and CSS/oil mass ratio of 2 wt%. After 7 consecutive reactions without any treatment, biodiesel yield reduced to 82.5%. Considering technological and economic feasibility, CSS base catalyst supported onθrings was prepared for continuous transesterification. The maximum yield was 99.1%under optimum conditions (reaction temperature 55 °C, methanol velocity 1 ml·min−1, oil velocity 3 ml·min−1, and 5 tower sec-tions). These results indicate that this new continuous biodiesel production process and apparatus present a great potential for industrial application in biodiesel.

  9. Evaluating the Remote Sensing and Inventory-Based Estimation of Biomass in the Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen G. Moisen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the potential of forest ecosystems as global carbon sinks requires a thorough knowledge of forest carbon dynamics, including both sequestration and fluxes among multiple pools. The accurate quantification of biomass is important to better understand forest productivity and carbon cycling dynamics. Stand-based inventories (SBIs are widely used for quantifying forest characteristics and for estimating biomass, but information may quickly become outdated in dynamic forest environments. Satellite remote sensing may provide a supplement or substitute. We tested the accuracy of aboveground biomass estimates modeled from a combination of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM imagery and topographic data, as well as SBI-derived variables in a Picea abies forest in the Western Carpathian Mountains. We employed Random Forests for non-parametric, regression tree-based modeling. Results indicated a difference in the importance of SBI-based and remote sensing-based predictors when estimating aboveground biomass. The most accurate models for biomass prediction ranged from a correlation coefficient of 0.52 for the TM- and topography-based model, to 0.98 for the inventory-based model. While Landsat-based biomass estimates were measurably less accurate than those derived from SBI, adding tree height or stand-volume as a field-based predictor to TM and topography-based models increased performance to 0.36 and 0.86, respectively. Our results illustrate the potential of spectral data to reveal spatial details in stand structure and ecological complexity.

  10. Study on flow mode of combined converter for methanol synthesis from coal-based syngas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Zhen-ping; MA Hong-fang; YING Wei-yong; FANG Ding-ye

    2011-01-01

    The mathematic model of combined converter with two different flow modes of gas-cooled reactor was established.The effects of gas flow mode in gas-cooled reactor on combined converter was investigated with the yield of methanol was 1 400 kt/a. The results show that ifthe flow mode of the cooling pipe gas and the catalytic bed gas change from countercurrent to concurrent, the catalytic bed temperature distribution does not fit the most optimum temperature curve of reversible exothermic reaction and the heat duty of heat changer in whole process increased seriously, which means that there is much more equipment investment and more operating cost. The gas flow mode of gas-cooled reactor affects the methanol yield slightly. Therefore, the countercurrent gas flow mode of gas-cooled reactor is more lucrative in the combined converter process.

  11. Optimization of a flexible multi-generation system based on wood chip gasification and methanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Algren, Loui;

    2016-01-01

    with an existing combined heat and power (CHP) unit and industrial energy utility supply in the Danish city of Horsens. The objective was to optimize economic performance and minimize total CO2 emission of the FMG while it was required to meet the local district heating demand plus the thermal utility demand......Flexible multi-generation systems (FMGs) consist of integrated and flexibly operated facilities that providemultiple links between the different sectors of the energy system. The present study treated the design optimization of a conceptual FMG which integrated a methanol-producing biorefinery...... of ± 25% in investment costs and methanol price, and considering two different electricity price scenarios.In addition, a change in the interest rate from 5% to 20% was found to reduce the lower bound of the NPVto 181.3 M€ for reference operating conditions. The results suggest that the applied interest...

  12. Steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment refining technology of plant biomass to bio-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Zhang; Liu, Zhi-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Pretreatment is a key unit operation affecting the refinery efficiency of plant biomass. However, the poor efficiency of pretreatment and the lack of basic theory are the main challenges to the industrial implementation of the plant biomass refinery. The purpose of this work is to review steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment as a means of overcoming the intrinsic characteristics of plant biomass, including recalcitrance, heterogeneity, multi-composition, and diversity. The main advantages of the selective use of steam explosion and other combinatorial pretreatments across the diversity of raw materials are introduced. Combinatorial pretreatment integrated with other unit operations is proposed as a means to exploit the high-efficiency production of bio-based products from plant biomass. Finally, several pilot- and demonstration-scale operations of the plant biomass refinery are described. Based on the principle of selective function and structure fractionation, and multi-level and directional composition conversion, an integrated process with the combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments as the core should be feasible and conform to the plant biomass refinery concept. Combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments should be further exploited based on the type and intrinsic characteristics of the plant biomass used, the bio-based products to be made, and the complementarity of the processes.

  13. Acid-base blend membranes based on 2-amino-benzimidazole and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) for direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yongzhu; Manthiram, Arumugam [Materials Science and Engineering Program, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Guiver, Michael D. [Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, National Research Council of (Canada)

    2007-05-15

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) are attractive for portable and automobile power needs, but their commercialization is hampered by high methanol permeability and the high cost of the currently used Nafion membrane. We report here a novel, low-cost blend membrane consisting of polysulfone-2-amide-benzimidazole (a basic polymer) and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (an acidic polymer), which facilitates proton conduction through acid-base interactions while preserving excellent chemical and mechanical stabilities. The blend membrane exhibits performance in DMFC much higher than that of Nafion 115 and similar to that of Nafion 112, but with a remarkably superior long-term performance than Nafion 112 due to significantly reduced methanol crossover, enhancing the commercialization prospects of DMFC. (author)

  14. Energy Analysis of a Biomass Co-firing Based Pulverized Coal Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The results are reported of an energy analysis of a biomass/coal co-firing based power generation system, carried out to investigate the impacts of biomass co-firing on system performance. The power generation system is a typical pulverized coal-fired steam cycle unit, in which four biomass fuels (rice husk, pine sawdust, chicken litter, and refuse derived fuel and two coals (bituminous coal and lignite are considered. Key system performance parameters are evaluated for various fuel combinations and co-firing ratios, using a system model and numerical simulation. The results indicate that plant energy efficiency decreases with increase of biomass proportion in the fuel mixture, and that the extent of the decrease depends on specific properties of the coal and biomass types.

  15. Radiation-grafted membranes based on polyethylene for direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherazi, Tauqir A. [Department of Chemistry, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6 (Canada); Guiver, Michael D.; Kingston, David; Xue, Xinzhong [Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6 (Canada); Ahmad, Shujaat [PIEAS/PINSTECH, P O Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Kashmiri, M. Akram [Department of Chemistry, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)

    2010-01-01

    Styrene was grafted onto ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene powder (UHMWPE) by gamma irradiation using a {sup 60}Co source. Compression moulded films of selected pre-irradiated styrene-grafted ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE-g-PS) were post-sulfonated to the sulfonic acid derivative (UHMWPE-g-PSSA) for use as proton exchange membranes (PEMs). The sulfonation was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The melting and flow properties of UHMWPE and UHMWPE-g-PS are conducive to forming homogeneous pore-free membranes. Both the ion conductivity and methanol permeability coefficient increased with degree of grafting, but the grafted membranes showed comparable or higher ion conductivity and lower methanol permeability than Nafion {sup registered} 117 membrane. One UHMWPE-g-PS membrane was fabricated into a membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) and tested as a single cell direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Low membrane cost and acceptable fuel cell performance indicate that UHMWPE-g-PSSA membranes could offer an alternative approach to perfluorosulfonic acid-type membranes for DMFC. (author)

  16. Radiation-grafted membranes based on polyethylene for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherazi, Tauqir A.; Guiver, Michael D.; Kingston, David; Ahmad, Shujaat; Kashmiri, M. Akram; Xue, Xinzhong

    Styrene was grafted onto ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene powder (UHMWPE) by gamma irradiation using a 60Co source. Compression moulded films of selected pre-irradiated styrene-grafted ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE-g-PS) were post-sulfonated to the sulfonic acid derivative (UHMWPE-g-PSSA) for use as proton exchange membranes (PEMs). The sulfonation was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The melting and flow properties of UHMWPE and UHMWPE-g-PS are conducive to forming homogeneous pore-free membranes. Both the ion conductivity and methanol permeability coefficient increased with degree of grafting, but the grafted membranes showed comparable or higher ion conductivity and lower methanol permeability than Nafion ® 117 membrane. One UHMWPE-g-PS membrane was fabricated into a membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) and tested as a single cell direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Low membrane cost and acceptable fuel cell performance indicate that UHMWPE-g-PSSA membranes could offer an alternative approach to perfluorosulfonic acid-type membranes for DMFC.

  17. Preparation and characterization of the PVDF-based composite membrane for direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Qian; Song Laizhou; Zhang Zhihui; Liu Xiaowei [Department of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2010-07-01

    The polyvinylidene fluoride-sulfonated polystyrene composite membrane with proton exchange performance, denoted as PVDF-SPS, was prepared using a thermally induced polymerization technique. The thermal stability of the PVDF-SPS composite membrane was investigated using thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. The complex formation of the composite membrane was ascertained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The surface compositions of the PVDF-SPS membrane were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The morphology of the composite membrane was characterized by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The proton conductivity of the PVDF-SPS membrane was measured using impedance spectroscopy in the hydrated condition. The PVDF-SPS membrane has a stronger hydrophilic character than the pristine PVDF membrane and the polyvinylidene fluoride-polystyrene composite membrane (PVDF-PS), which is caused by the incorporation of sulfonic acid groups. The proton conductivity and the methanol permeability of the PVDF-SPS membrane measured at 298 K are 29.3 mS.cm-1 and 8.6x10-8 cm2.s-1, respectively. Although PVDF-SPS composite membrane possesses the lower oxidative stability than Nafion-117 membrane, the composite membrane displays lower methanol permeability than the Nafion-117 membrane, and the selectivity (the ratio of proton conductivity and methanol permeability) of the composite membrane is almost 20 times than that of Nafion-117.

  18. Computer simulation of acetonitrile and methanol with ab initio-based pair potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hloucha, M.; Sum, A. K.; Sandler, S. I.

    2000-10-01

    This study address the adequacy of ab initio pair interaction energy potentials for the prediction of macroscopic properties. Recently, Bukowski et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 7322 (1999)] performed a comprehensive study of the potential energy surfaces for several pairs of molecules using symmetry-adapted perturbation theory. These ab initio energies were then fit to an appropriate site-site potential form. In an attempt to bridge the gap between ab initio interaction energy information and macroscopic properties prediction, we performed Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo (GEMC) simulations using their developed pair potentials for acetonitrile and methanol. The simulations results show that the phase behavior of acetonitrile is well described by just the pair interaction potential. For methanol, on the other hand, pair interactions are insufficient to properly predict its vapor-liquid phase behavior, and its saturated liquid density. We also explored simplified forms for representing the ab initio interaction energies by refitting a selected range of the data to a site-site Lennard-Jones and to a modified Buckingham (exponential-6) potentials plus Coulombic interactions. These were also used in GEMC simulations in order to evaluate the quality and computational efficiency of these different potential forms. It was found that the phase behavior prediction for acetonitrile and methanol are highly dependent on the details of the interaction potentials developed.

  19. Preparation and characterization of the PVDF-based composite membrane for direct methanol fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu, Laizhou Song, Zhihui Zhang, Xiaowei Liu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The polyvinylidene fluoride-sulfonated polystyrene composite membrane with proton exchange performance, denoted as PVDF-SPS, was prepared using a thermally induced polymerization technique. The thermal stability of the PVDF-SPS composite membrane was investigated using thermogravimetric (TG analysis. The complex formation of the composite membrane was ascertained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The surface compositions of the PVDF-SPS membrane were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The morphology of the composite membrane was characterized by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM. The proton conductivity of the PVDF-SPS membrane was measured using impedance spectroscopy in the hydrated condition. The PVDF-SPS membrane has a stronger hydrophilic character than the pristine PVDF membrane and the polyvinylidene fluoride-polystyrene composite membrane (PVDF-PS, which is caused by the incorporation of sulfonic acid groups. The proton conductivity and the methanol permeability of the PVDF-SPS membrane measured at 298 K are 29.3 mS.cm-1 and 8.6×10-8 cm2.s-1, respectively. Although PVDF-SPS composite membrane possesses the lower oxidative stability than Nafion-117 membrane, the composite membrane displays lower methanol permeability than the Nafion-117 membrane, and the selectivity (the ratio of proton conductivity and methanol permeability of the composite membrane is almost 20 times than that of Nafion-117.

  20. Cogeneration based on gasified biomass - a comparison of concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Fredrik

    1999-01-01

    In this report, integration of drying and gasification of biomass into cogeneration power plants, comprising gas turbines, is investigated. The thermodynamic cycles considered are the combined cycle and the humid air turbine cycle. These are combined with either pressurised or near atmospheric gasification, and steam or exhaust gas dryer, in a number of combinations. An effort is made to facilitate a comparison of the different concepts by using, and presenting, similar assumptions and input data for all studied systems. The resulting systems are modelled using the software package ASPEN PLUS{sup TM}, and for each system both the electrical efficiency and the fuel utilisation are calculated. The investigation of integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCC), reveals that systems with pressurised gasification have a potential for electrical efficiencies approaching 45% (LHV). That is 4 - 5 percentage points higher than the corresponding systems with near atmospheric gasification. The type of dryer in the system mainly influences the fuel utilisation, with an advantage of approximately 8 percentage points (LHV) for the steam dryer. The resulting values of fuel utilisation for the IGCC systems are in the range of 78 - 94% (LHV). The results for the integrated gasification humid air turbine systems (IGHAT) indicate that electrical efficiencies close to the IGCC are achievable, provided combustion of the fuel gas in highly humidified air is feasible. Reaching a high fuel utilisation is more difficult for this concept, unless the temperature levels in the district heating network are low. For comparison a conventional cogeneration plant, based on a CFB boiler and a steam turbine (Rankine cycle), is also modelled in ASPEN PLUS{sup TM}. The IGCC and IGHAT show electrical efficiencies in the range of 37 - 45% (LHV), compared with a calculated value of 31% (LHV) for the Rankine cycle cogeneration plant. Apart from the electrical efficiency, also a high value of fuel

  1. A new MoVI Schiff base complex: methanol[N′-(3-methoxy-2-oxidobenzylidenebenzohydrazidato]dioxidomolybdenum(VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iran Sheikhshoaie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title benzilidene Schiff base molybdenum(VI complex, [Mo(C15H12N2O3O2(CH3OH], the MoVI ion is coordinated by two oxide O atoms and by two O atoms and one N atom of the tridentate N′-(3-methoxy-2-oxidobenzylidenebenzohydrazidate (L Schiff base ligand. The methanol O atom completes the distorted octahedral configuration of the MoVI atom. Strong O—H...N hydrogen bonds form a C(5 chain around a 21 screw axis. Weak C—H—O hydrogen bonds are also present.

  2. Biomass fuel based on wastes from the paper industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzyń Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastes from paper industry are mostly combustible. It is possible to recycle them with energy recovery. These wastes have a high moisture content (up to 60% and thus a small calorific value. An alternative to waste incineration is the production of solid recovered fuel. The benefits are: easy adjustment of the physical and chemical properties of the fuel (via the change of proportions of ingredients, low moisture and high calorific value. The study involved the following types of cellulose wastes: - Belmer - the rejects from recovered paper, Krofta - deinking sludge, sludge - wastewater treatment sludge, bark - the rejects from virgin pulps. The results of investigations of waste produced in one of the biggest Polish paper mill - are shown. Following aspects were investigated: energy properties, content of carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, chlorine and nitrogen, chemical composition of ash. Authors proposed two formulas of the biomass fuel. The properties of the fuel such as the content of carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, chlorine or nitrogen, the chemical composition of the ash were investigated. Due to the fact that the combustion of the biomass fuel is preferred in view of law regulations (zero CO2 emission, green certificates the content of biodegradable fraction was examined. It has been shown that the fuel is a biomass one. Fuel from waste can be a substitute for approx. 25% of primary fuel (coal used by the paper mill.

  3. Transient Response and Steady-State Analysis of the Anode of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Based on Dual-Site Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xing

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An intrinsic time-dependent one-dimensional (1D model and a macro two-dimensional (2D model for the anode of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC are presented. The two models are based on the dual-site mechanism, which includes the coverage of intermediate species of methanol, OH, and CO (θM, θOH,Ru, and θCO,Pt on the surface of Pt and Ru. The intrinsic 1D model focused on the analysis of the effects of operating temperature, methanol concentration, and overpotential on the transient response. The macro 2D model emphasises the dimensionless distributions of methanol concentration, overpotential and current density in the catalyst layer which were affected by physical parameters such as thickness, specific area, and operating conditions such as temperature, bulk methanol concentration, and overpotential. The models were developed and solved in the PDEs module of COMSOL Multiphysics, giving good agreement with experimental data. The dimensionless distributions of methanol concentration, overpotential, and current density and the efficiency factor were calculated quantitatively. The models can be used to give accurate simulations for the polarisations of methanol fuel cell.

  4. Decision-making of biomass ethanol fuel policy based on life cycle 3E assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LENG Ru-bo; DAI Du; CHEN Xiao-jun; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the environmental, economic, energy performance of biomass ethanol fuel in China and tosupport the decision-making of biomass ethanol energy policy, an assessment method of life cycle 3E (economy, en vironment, energy) was applied to the three biomass ethanol fuel cycle alternatives, which includes cassava-based, corn-based and wheat-based ethanol fuel. The assessments provide a comparison of the economical performance, energy efficiency and environmental impacts of the three alternatives. And the development potential of the three alternatives in China was examined. The results are very useful for the Chinese government to make decisions on the biomass ethanol energy policy, and some advises for the decision-making of Chinese government were given.

  5. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jürgen O; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO(2) content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  6. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jürgen O.; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO2 content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  7. Combustion performance of cellulosic biomass in a gasifier-based cookstove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Shaharin A.; Romli, Raffisyazana

    2012-06-01

    Depletion in fossil fuel and increase in the world population may change the trend in future kitchens in households. Cooking with LPG fuel may one day become impossible and households would have to consider alternatives such as electric stoves. One other solution to this problem is through the use of biomass cook stoves. However, traditional cook stoves, predominantly used in the households, are not efficient and its utilizations for domestic cooking have been a major contributor to the ill effects related in respiratory and other health problem. Improved cook stoves programs implemented in the developing world attempt to address these problems. Biomass gasification appears to have significant potential in Asia for domestic cooking applications. Gasifier-based cook stoves are fuel efficient in comparison to traditional cook stove. The objective of this paper is to study the performance of various type of cellulosic biomass in a gasifier-based cook stove. The biomass considered in this study are oil palm fronds, dried leaves, wood sticks, coconut shells, bagasse, charcoal, and saw dust. The samples are analyzed in order to study their chemical properties. The thermochemical properties of the biomass were characterized. The performance of the each of the samples is studied by observing the time taken to boil water. It is found that oil palm fronds are the best type of biomass for the gasifer cook stove. It is also concluded that the higher the carbon content and the calorific value in a biomass, the lesser the time taken to boil the water.

  8. Facile synthesis of free-standing Pd-based nanomembranes with enhanced catalytic performance for methanol/ethanol oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Haoxi [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022, Jilin (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Haijuan; Zhai, Yujuan; Xu, Xiaolong; Jin, Yongdong [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022, Jilin (China)

    2012-03-22

    Macroscopic free-standing Pd and Pd/Pt bimetallic monolayer nanomembranes (Pd- and Pd/Pt-FNMs) derived from the spontaneous self-assembly of the as-produced Pd NPs and Pd/Pt bimetallic NPs at the water-air interface within 15 min are fabricated, respectively. The one-step method allows the growth of high-quality Pd-based FNMs with well-defined monolayer morphology, which exhibit significantly higher electrocatalytic activity for methanol/ethanol oxidation than commercial catalysts. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Biomass based micro-turbine plant and distribution network stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurado, F.; Cano, A. [Jaen Univ., Linares (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Carpio, J. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2004-10-01

    Micro-turbine systems that enable the use of biomass are important for future technologies for electricity production. These distributed resources are dynamic devices, and when connected to the distribution system, they will affect its dynamic behavior. The micro-turbine is capable of providing effective load following service in the distribution system. However, the results also show that the micro-turbine system is not an uninterruptible power supply and does not protect the load from voltage instability while in a grid connect mode. (Author)

  10. Size-resolved measurements of brown carbon and estimates of their contribution to ambient fine particle light absorption based on water and methanol extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Bergin, M.; Guo, H.; King, L.; Kotra, N.; Edgerton, E.; Weber, R. J.

    2013-07-01

    Light absorbing organic carbon, often termed brown carbon, has the potential to significantly contribute to the visible light absorption budget, particularly at shorter wavelengths. Currently, the relative contributions of particulate brown carbon to light absorption, as well as the sources of brown carbon are poorly understood. With this in mind field measurements were made at both urban (Atlanta), and rural (Yorkville) sites in Georgia. Measurements in Atlanta were made at both a central site and a road side site adjacent to a main highway near the city center. Fine particle brown carbon optical absorption is estimated based on Mie calculations using direct size resolved measurements of chromophores in filter extracts. Size-resolved atmospheric aerosol samples were collected using a cascade impactor and analyzed for water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and solution light absorption spectra of water and methanol extracts. Methanol extracts were more light-absorbing than water extracts for all size ranges and wavelengths. Absorption refractive indices of the organic extracts were calculated from solution measurements for a range of wavelengths and used with Mie theory to predict the light absorption by fine particles comprised of these components, under the assumption that brown carbon and other aerosol components were externally mixed. For all three sites, chromophores were predominately in the accumulation mode with an aerodynamic mean diameter of 0.5 μm, an optically effective size range resulting in predicted particle light absorption being a factor of 2 higher than bulk solution absorption. Fine particle absorption was also measured with a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) and seven-wavelength Aethalometer. Scattering-corrected aethalometer and MAAP absorption were in good agreement at 670 nm and Mie-estimated absorption based on size-resolved EC data were within 30% of these optical instruments. When applied

  11. Size-resolved measurements of brown carbon and estimates of their contribution to ambient fine particle light absorption based on water and methanol extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Light absorbing organic carbon, often termed brown carbon, has the potential to significantly contribute to the visible light absorption budget, particularly at shorter wavelengths. Currently, the relative contributions of particulate brown carbon to light absorption, as well as the sources of brown carbon are poorly understood. With this in mind field measurements were made at both urban (Atlanta, and rural (Yorkville sites in Georgia. Measurements in Atlanta were made at both a central site and a road side site adjacent to a main highway near the city center. Fine particle brown carbon optical absorption is estimated based on Mie calculations using direct size resolved measurements of chromophores in filter extracts. Size-resolved atmospheric aerosol samples were collected using a cascade impactor and analyzed for water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC, and solution light absorption spectra of water and methanol extracts. Methanol extracts were more light-absorbing than water extracts for all size ranges and wavelengths. Absorption refractive indices of the organic extracts were calculated from solution measurements for a range of wavelengths and used with Mie theory to predict the light absorption by fine particles comprised of these components, under the assumption that brown carbon and other aerosol components were externally mixed. For all three sites, chromophores were predominately in the accumulation mode with an aerodynamic mean diameter of 0.5 μm, an optically effective size range resulting in predicted particle light absorption being a factor of 2 higher than bulk solution absorption. Fine particle absorption was also measured with a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP and seven-wavelength Aethalometer. Scattering-corrected aethalometer and MAAP absorption were in good agreement at 670 nm and Mie-estimated absorption based on size-resolved EC data were within 30% of these optical instruments

  12. Fabrication of ZnO nanoparticles based sensitive methanol sensor and efficient photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, M.; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Rahman, Mohammed M.; Jamal, Aslam; Abdullah, M. M.

    2012-07-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by hydrothermal treatment with starting materials (zinc chloride and urea) in the presence of ammonium hydroxide and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. The synthesized nanoparticles are crystalline with wurtzite hexagonal phase having average particle size in the range of 80-130 nm. Photocatalytic activity of the prepared ZnO NPs was evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue and almost complete degradation (91.0%) takes place within 85 min of irradiation time. Prepared ZnO nanostructures possessed high photocatalytic activity when compared with TiO2-UV100. Additionally, the sensing properties of the ZnO films were investigated for various concentrations of methanol in liquid phase by simple I-V technique at room conditions. It was observed that ZnO thin film exhibits good sensitivity (0.9554 μA cm-2 mM-1) towards detection of methanol at room conditions.

  13. Models of class II methanol masers based on improved molecular data

    CERN Document Server

    Cragg, D M; Godfrey, P D

    2005-01-01

    The class II masers of methanol are associated with the early stages of formation of high-mass stars. Modelling of these dense, dusty environments has demonstrated that pumping by infrared radiation can account for the observed masers. Collisions with other molecules in the ambient gas also play a significant role, but have not been well modelled in the past. Here we examine the effects on the maser models of newly available collision rate coefficients for methanol. The new collision data does not alter which transitions become masers in the models, but does influence their brightness and the conditions under which they switch on and off. At gas temperatures above 100 K the effects are broadly consistent with a reduction in the overall collision cross-section. This means, for example, that a slightly higher gas density than identified previously can account for most of the observed masers in W3(OH). We have also examined the effects of including more excited state energy levels in the models, and find that th...

  14. Energy-Based Evaluations on Eucalyptus Biomass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago L. Romanelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependence on finite resources brings economic, social, and environmental concerns. Planted forests are a biomass alternative to the exploitation of natural forests. In the exploitation of the planted forests, planning and management are key to achieve success, so in forestry operations, both economic and noneconomic factors must be considered. This study aimed to compare eucalyptus biomass production through energy embodiment of anthropogenic inputs and resource embodiment including environmental contribution (emergy for the commercial forest in the Sao Paulo, Brazil. Energy analyses and emergy synthesis were accomplished for the eucalyptus production cycles. It was determined that emergy synthesis of eucalyptus production and sensibility analysis for three scenarios to adjust soil acidity (lime, ash, and sludge. For both, energy analysis and emergy synthesis, harvesting presented the highest input demand. Results show the differences between energy analysis and emergy synthesis are in the conceptual underpinnings and accounting procedures. Both evaluations present similar trends and differ in the magnitude of the participation of an input due to its origin. For instance, inputs extracted from ores, which represent environmental contribution, are more relevant for emergy synthesis. On the other hand, inputs from industrial processes are more important for energy analysis.

  15. Bio refinery: towards a Biomass-based Sustainable Economy; Biorrefineria: hacia una economia sostenible basada en la biomasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros Perdices, M.

    2010-07-01

    At present, biomass is converted into energy in separate installations that have little capacity to obtain many products (ethanol, fatty acid esters, heat, electricity, etc) and that do not take advantage of all the economic potential offered by biomass. The future development of biomass as an energy source will be based on a single installation where all the fractions and byproducts of the biomass will be used to produce a large range of products: energy, bio fuels, chemicals and biomaterials. (Author) 1 refs.

  16. Experimental Characterization of the Poisoning Effects of Methanol-Based Reformate Impurities on a PBI-Based High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Simon Araya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the effects of reformate gas impurities on a H3PO4-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI membrane-based high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC are studied. A unit cell assembly with a BASF Celtec®-P2100 high temperature membrane electrode assembly (MEA of 45 cm2 active surface area is investigated by means of impedance spectroscopy. The concentrations in the anode feed gas of all impurities, unconverted methanol-water vapor mixture, CO and CO2 were varied along with current density according to a multilevel factorial design of experiments. Results show that all the impurities degrade the performance, with CO being the most degrading agent and CO2 the least. The factorial analysis shows that there is interdependence among the effects of the different factors considered. This interdependence suggests, for example, that tolerances to concentrations of CO above 2% may be compromised by the presence in the anode feed of CO2. Methanol has a poisoning effect on the fuel cell at all the tested feed ratios, and the performance drop is found to be proportional to the amount of methanol in feed gas. The effects are more pronounced when other impurities are also present in the feed gas, especially at higher methanol concentrations.

  17. Oxygen reduction and methanol oxidation behaviour of SiC based Pt nanocatalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhiman, Rajnish; Stamatin, Serban Nicolae; Andersen, Shuang Ma

    2013-01-01

    Research with proton exchange membrane fuel cells has demonstrated their important potential as providers of clean energy. The commercialization of this type of fuel cell needs a breakthrough in electrocatalyst technology to reduce the relatively large amount of noble metal platinum used...... with the present carbon based substrates. We have recently examined suitably sized silicon carbide (SiC) particles as catalyst supports for fuel cells based on the stable chemical and mechanical properties of this material. In the present study, we have continued our work with studies of the oxygen reduction...... and methanol oxidation reactions of SiC supported catalysts and measured them against commercially available carbon based catalysts. The deconvolution of the hydrogen desorption signals in CV cycles shows a higher contribution of Pt (110) & Pt (111) peaks compared to Pt (100) for SiC based supports than...

  18. A granular-biomass high temperature pyrolysis model based on the Darcy flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jian; Qi, Guoli; Dong, Peng

    2015-03-01

    We established a model for the chemical reaction kinetics of biomass pyrolysis via the high-temperature thermal cracking of liquid products. We divided the condensable volatiles into two groups, based on the characteristics of the liquid prdoducts., tar and biomass oil. The effects of temperature, residence time, particle size, velocity, pressure, and other parameters on biomass pyrolysis and high-temperature tar cracking were investigated numerically, and the results were compared with experimental data. The simulation results showed a large endothermic pyrolysis reaction effect on temperature and the reaction process. The pyrolysis reaction zone had a constant temperature period in several layers near the center of large biomass particles. A purely physical heating process was observed before and after this period, according to the temperature index curve.

  19. Experimental investigations and modeling of devolatilization based on superimposed kinetics of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Anker Degn

    A non-isothermal one-dimensional model has been developed to describe biomass pyrolysis at fast heating rate (600-104 Ks-1), high temperatures (up to 1500C) and is valid for different biomass particle sizes (char. The model...... heatingrates. The predicted results by one-dimensional model are in agreement with the experimental work, and emphasize a keyrole of intra-particle heat conduction in biomass particles > 0.45 mm.The potassium influence on the char yield was implemented in the model based on the experimental results in the wire...... obtained in the wire mesh and drop tube reactors. Thus, the modelincluding these two parameters provides an acceptable fit of char yield to the experimental data. The present results showedthat the proposed kinetic model for the fast biomass pyrolysis is relatively simple and predicts reasonably accurately...

  20. Depolymerization of organosolv lignin using doped porous metal oxides in supercritical methanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, Genoa; Hansen, Thomas Søndergaard; Riisager, Anders

    2014-01-01

    An isolated, solvent-extracted lignin from candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) biomass was subjected to catalytic depolymerization in the presence of supercritical methanol, using a range of porous metal oxides derived from hydrotalcite-like precursors. The most effective catalysts in terms of lignin...... conversion to methanol-soluble products, without char formation, were based on copper in combination with other dopants based on relatively earth-abundant metals. Nearly complete conversion of lignin to bio-oil composed of monomers and low-mass oligomers with high aromatic content was obtained in 6. h at 310...

  1. Method of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of diamond using methanol-based solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Yonhua (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Briefly described, methods of forming diamond are described. A representative method, among others, includes: providing a substrate in a reaction chamber in a non-magnetic-field microwave plasma system; introducing, in the absence of a gas stream, a liquid precursor substantially free of water and containing methanol and at least one carbon and oxygen containing compound having a carbon to oxygen ratio greater than one, into an inlet of the reaction chamber; vaporizing the liquid precursor; and subjecting the vaporized precursor, in the absence of a carrier gas and in the absence in a reactive gas, to a plasma under conditions effective to disassociate the vaporized precursor and promote diamond growth on the substrate in a pressure range from about 70 to 130 Torr.

  2. A monolithic integrated micro direct methanol fuel cell based on sulfo functionalized porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Lu, Y. X.; Liu, L. T.; Wang, X. H.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a monolithic integrated micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC) for the first time. The monolithic integrated μDMFC combines proton exchange membrane (PEM) and Pt nanocatalysts, in which PEM is achieved by the functionalized porous silicon membrane and 3D Pt nanoflowers being synthesized in situ on it as catalysts. Sulfo groups functionalized porous silicon membrane serves as a PEM and a catalyst support simultaneously. The μDMFC prototype achieves an open circuit voltage of 0.3 V, a maximum power density of 5.5 mW/cm2. The monolithic integrated μDMFC offers several desirable features such as compatibility with micro fabrication techniques, an undeformable solid PEM and the convenience of assembly.

  3. Evaluation of storage methods for the conversion of corn stover biomass to sugars based on steam explosion pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Qin, Lei; Jin, Ming-Jie; Pang, Feng; Li, Bing-Zhi; Kang, Yong; Dale, Bruce E; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2013-03-01

    Effects of dry and wet storage methods without or with shredding on the conversion of corn stover biomass were investigated using steam explosion pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Sugar conversions and yields for wet stored biomass were obviously higher than those for dry stored biomass. Shredding reduced sugar conversions compared with non-shredding, but increased sugar yields. Glucan conversion and glucose yield for non-shredded wet stored biomass reached 91.5% and 87.6% after 3-month storage, respectively. Data of micro-structure and crystallinity of biomass indicated that corn stover biomass maintained the flexible and porous structure after wet storage, and hence led to the high permeability of corn stover biomass and the high efficiency of pretreatment and hydrolysis. Therefore, the wet storage methods would be desirable for the conversion of corn stover biomass to fermentable sugars based on steam explosion pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis.

  4. Adsorption and Deactivation Characteristics of Cu/ZnO-Based Catalysts for Methanol Synthesis from Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesakhawat, Sittichai; Ohodnicki, Paul R; Howard, Bret H; Lekse, Jonathan W; Baltrus, John P; Matranga, Christopher

    2013-07-09

    The adsorption and deactivation characteristics of coprecipitated Cu/ZnO-based catalysts were examined and correlated to their performance in methanol synthesis from CO₂ hydrogenation. The addition of Ga₂O₃ and Y₂O₃ promoters is shown to increase the Cu surface area and CO₂/H₂ adsorption capacities of the catalysts and enhance methanol synthesis activity. Infrared studies showed that CO₂ adsorbs spontaneously on these catalysts at room temperature as both monoand bi-dentate carbonate species. These weakly bound species desorb completely from the catalyst surface by 200 °C while other carbonate species persist up to 500 °C. Characterization using N₂O decomposition, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis clearly indicated that Cu sintering is the main cause of catalyst deactivation. Ga and Y promotion improves the catalyst stability by suppressing the agglomeration of Cu and ZnO particles under pretreatment and reaction conditions.

  5. Direct QM/MM excited-state dynamics of retinal protonated Schiff base in isolation and methanol solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punwong, Chutintorn; Owens, Jane; Martínez, Todd J

    2015-01-22

    We use the full multiple spawning (FMS) dynamics approach with a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) reparameterized semiempirical method to investigate the excited-state dynamics of retinal protonated Schiff base (RPSB) in isolation, in neat methanol solution, and in methanol solution with a Cl(-) counterion. The excited-state lifetime is dramatically affected by MeOH solvent, which slows down the photoisomerization by an order of magnitude. We show that this is due to charge migration in the RPSB chromophore and the concomitant solvent friction in polar media. Simulation results are compared to experiments where available, with good agreement for excited-state lifetimes, bond selectivity of isomerization, and the time/energy-resolved fluorescence spectrum. We find that the inclusion of a Cl(-) counterion in the simulations has little effect on lifetimes, mechanism, or bond selectivity. In contrast to previous studies limited to RPSB and a surrounding counterion, we find that the placement of the counterion has little effect on bond selectivity. This suggests that dielectric screening can spoil the effect of a counterion in directing excited-state reactivity.

  6. Environmental status of plant-based industries. Biomass and bio-materials; Bilan environnemental des filieres vegetales. Biomasse et biomateriaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vindimian, E.; Boeglin, N.; Houillon, G.; Osset, Ph.; Vial, E.; Leguern, Y.; Gosse, G.; Gabrielle, B.; Dohy, M.; Bewa, H.; Rigal, L.; Guilbert, St.; Cesar, G.; Pandard, P.; Oster, D.; Normand, N.; Piccardi, M.; Garoux, V.; Arnaud, L.; Barbier, J.; Mougin, G.; Krausz, P.; Pluquet, V.; Massacrier, L.; Dussaud, J.

    2005-07-01

    The French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and the agency of Agriculture for chemistry and energy (Agrice) have jointly organized these technical days about the potentialities of plant-based products in front of the big environmental stakes of the diversification of energy sources, the development of new outputs for agriculture and the opening of new fields of industrial innovation. This document gathers the articles and transparencies of the presentations given during these 2 days of conference: 1 - Biomass and life cycle analysis (LCA) - impacts and benefits: introduction to LCA (E. Vindimian), keys to understand this environmental evaluation tool (N. Boeglin); environmental status of plant-based industries for chemistry, materials and energy: LCA knowledge status, plant versus fossil (G. Houillon), detailed analysis of 2 industries: agro-materials and bio-polymers (J. Payet); example of environmental and LCA studies: energy and greenhouse gas statuses of the biofuel production processes (P. Osset, E. Vial), LCA of collective and industrial wood-fueled space heating (Y. Leguern), contribution and limitations of LCA for plant-based industries (G. Gosse, B. Gabrielle), conclusion of the first day (M. Dohy). 2 - Biomass and materials: a reality: biomaterials in the Agrice program (H. Bewa), plant-derived materials: resources, status and perspectives (L. Rigal); biopolymers: overview of the industrial use of biopolymers: materials and markets, applications (S. Guibert), degradation mechanisms of biopolymers used in agriculture: biodegradability, eco-toxicity and accumulation in soils (G. Cesar, P. Pandard), present and future regulatory framework: specifications and methods of biodegradability evaluation of materials for agriculture and horticulture (D. Oster), standardization: necessity and possibilities (N. Normand); vegetable fibers and composite materials: market of new vegetable fiber uses (M. Piccardi, V. Garoux), vegetable particulates and

  7. [Band depth analysis and partial least square regression based winter wheat biomass estimation using hyperspectral measurements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Ji-Hua; Yang, Gui-Jun; Song, Xiao-Yu; Xu, Xin-Gang; Feng, Hai-Kuan

    2013-05-01

    The major limitation of using existing vegetation indices for crop biomass estimation is that it approaches a saturation level asymptotically for a certain range of biomass. In order to resolve this problem, band depth analysis and partial least square regression (PLSR) were combined to establish winter wheat biomass estimation model in the present study. The models based on the combination of band depth analysis and PLSR were compared with the models based on common vegetation indexes from the point of view of estimation accuracy, subsequently. Band depth analysis was conducted in the visible spectral domain (550-750 nm). Band depth, band depth ratio (BDR), normalized band depth index, and band depth normalized to area were utilized to represent band depth information. Among the calibrated estimation models, the models based on the combination of band depth analysis and PLSR reached higher accuracy than those based on the vegetation indices. Among them, the combination of BDR and PLSR got the highest accuracy (R2 = 0.792, RMSE = 0.164 kg x m(-2)). The results indicated that the combination of band depth analysis and PLSR could well overcome the saturation problem and improve the biomass estimation accuracy when winter wheat biomass is large.

  8. Landsat Imagery-Based Above Ground Biomass Estimation and Change Investigation Related to Human Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaofan Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Forest biomass is a significant indicator for substance accumulation and forest succession, and a spatiotemporal biomass map would provide valuable information for forest management and scientific planning. In this study, Landsat imagery and field data cooperated with a random forest regression approach were used to estimate spatiotemporal Above Ground Biomass (AGB in Fuyang County, Zhejiang Province of East China. As a result, the AGB retrieval showed an increasing trend for the past decade, from 74.24 ton/ha in 2004 to 99.63 ton/ha in 2013. Topography and forest management were investigated to find their relationships with the spatial distribution change of biomass. In general, the simulated AGB increases with higher elevation, especially in the range of 80–200 m, wherein AGB acquires the highest increase rate. Moreover, the forest policy of ecological forest has a positive effect on the AGB increase, particularly within the national level ecological forest. The result in this study demonstrates that human activities have a great impact on biomass distribution and change tendency. Furthermore, Landsat image-based biomass estimates would provide illuminating information for forest policy-making and sustainable development.

  9. Method for making methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mednick, R. Lawrence; Blum, David B.

    1986-01-01

    Methanol is made in a liquid-phase methanol reactor by entraining a methanol-forming catalyst in an inert liquid and contacting said entrained catalyst with a synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  10. A Nafion®-based co-planar electrode amperometric sensor for methanol determination in the gas phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Wallgren; S Sotiropoulos

    2009-09-01

    A co-planar electrode device, fabricated with all electrodes (working, counter and reference) on the same face of a Nafion® polymer electrolyte membrane, is proposed for the amperometric detection of gaseous methanol using Pt as the working electrode. Clear voltammetry is obtained for methanol oxidation from its vapours in equilibrium with methanol aqueous solutions, both in the absence and presence of oxygen in the gas stream. Using an appropriate pulse sequence to keep the indicator electrode active, methanol vapours in the 1-13 Torr partial pressure range (in equilibrium with methanol aqueous solutions in the 1-10% w/w concentration range) could be determined, in a constant potential, amperometric mode. The methanol detector could be operated both in a nitrogen stream and (in what is essential for practical applications) in an air atmosphere too, with estimated detection limits of 1.2 and 1.4 Torr respectively.

  11. Sustainable process for the production of methanol from CO2 and H2 using Cu/ZnO-based multicomponent catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyir, J.; Miloua, R.; Elkadri, N. E.; Nawdali, M.; Toufik, H.; Miloua, F.; Saito, M.

    2009-11-01

    We have performed R&D project on methanol synthesis from CO2 and hydrogen in order to contribute to CO2 mitigation. High-performance Cu/ZnO based multicomponent catalysts were developed. The roles of metal oxides contained in Cu/ZnO-based catalysts were classified into two categories: (1) Al2O3 or ZrO2 improves the dispersion of copper particles in the catalyst; (2) Ga2O3 or Cr2O3 increases the activity per unit copper surface area of the catalyst. The long-term stability of Cu/ZnO-based catalysts during methanol synthesis from CO2 and hydrogen was improved by adding a small amount of silica to the catalysts. Silica added to the catalysts suppressed the crystallization of ZnO contained in the catalysts. The catalysts were found to be highly active and extremely stable in methanol synthesis from CO2 and hydrogen. In the next step, a bench plant with a capacity of 50 kg day-1 of CH3OH, which was equipped with facilities for recycling unreacted gases and gaseous products, was successfully operated. The purity of crude methanol produced was 99.9 wt%, whereas the purity of crude methanol produced from syngas in a present-day commercial plant was reported as 99.6 wt%.

  12. Potential Occupational Exposures and Health Risks Associated with Biomass-Based Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette C. Rohr

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is increasingly being used for power generation; however, assessment of potential occupational health and safety (OH&S concerns related to usage of biomass fuels in combustion-based generation remains limited. We reviewed the available literature on known and potential OH&S issues associated with biomass-based fuel usage for electricity generation at the utility scale. We considered three potential exposure scenarios—pre-combustion exposure to material associated with the fuel, exposure to combustion products, and post-combustion exposure to ash and residues. Testing of dust, fungal and bacterial levels at two power stations was also undertaken. Results indicated that dust concentrations within biomass plants can be extremely variable, with peak levels in some areas exceeding occupational exposure limits for wood dust and general inhalable dust. Fungal spore types, identified as common environmental species, were higher than in outdoor air. Our review suggests that pre-combustion risks, including bioaerosols and biogenic organics, should be considered further. Combustion and post-combustion risks appear similar to current fossil-based combustion. In light of limited available information, additional studies at power plants utilizing a variety of technologies and biomass fuels are recommended.

  13. Potential Occupational Exposures and Health Risks Associated with Biomass-Based Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Annette C.; Campleman, Sharan L.; Long, Christopher M.; Peterson, Michael K.; Weatherstone, Susan; Quick, Will; Lewis, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly being used for power generation; however, assessment of potential occupational health and safety (OH&S) concerns related to usage of biomass fuels in combustion-based generation remains limited. We reviewed the available literature on known and potential OH&S issues associated with biomass-based fuel usage for electricity generation at the utility scale. We considered three potential exposure scenarios—pre-combustion exposure to material associated with the fuel, exposure to combustion products, and post-combustion exposure to ash and residues. Testing of dust, fungal and bacterial levels at two power stations was also undertaken. Results indicated that dust concentrations within biomass plants can be extremely variable, with peak levels in some areas exceeding occupational exposure limits for wood dust and general inhalable dust. Fungal spore types, identified as common environmental species, were higher than in outdoor air. Our review suggests that pre-combustion risks, including bioaerosols and biogenic organics, should be considered further. Combustion and post-combustion risks appear similar to current fossil-based combustion. In light of limited available information, additional studies at power plants utilizing a variety of technologies and biomass fuels are recommended. PMID:26206568

  14. Perspective on Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils: Essential Roles of Fe-based Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Yongchun; Hensley, Alyssa; McEwen, Jean-Sabin; Wang, Yong

    2016-06-27

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis is the most promising approach for biofuel production, due to its simple process and versatility to handle lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks with varying and complex compositions. Compared with in situ catalytic fast pyrolysis, ex situ catalytic pyrolysis has the flexibility of optimizing the pyrolysis step and catalytic process individually to improve the quality of pyrolysis oil (stability, oxygen content, acid number, etc.) and to maximize the carbon efficiency in the conversion of biomass to pyrolysis oil. Hydrodeoxygenation is one of the key catalytic functions in ex situ catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recently, Fe-based catalysts have been reported to exhibit superior catalytic properties in hydrodeoxygenation of model compounds in pyrolysis oil, which potentially makes the ex situ pyrolysis of biomass commercially viable due to the abundance and low cost of Fe. Here, we briefly summarize the recent progress on Fe-based catalysts for hydrodeoxygenation of biomass, and provide perspectives on how to further improve Fe-based catalysts (activity and stability) for their potential applications in the emerging area of biomass conversion.

  15. Feasibility of Producing and Using Biomass-Based Diesel and Jet Fuel in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kinchin, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The study summarizes the best available public data on the production, capacity, cost, market demand, and feedstock availability for the production of biomass-based diesel and jet fuel. It includes an overview of the current conversion processes and current state-of-development for the production of biomass-based jet and diesel fuel, as well as the key companies pursuing this effort. Thediscussion analyzes all this information in the context of meeting the RFS mandate, highlights uncertainties for the future industry development, and key business opportunities.

  16. Dynamic Evaluation of Water Quality Improvement Based on Effective Utilization of Stockbreeding Biomass Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The stockbreeding industry is growing rapidly in rural regions of China, carrying a high risk to the water environment due to the emission of huge amounts of pollutants in terms of COD, T-N and T-P to rivers. On the other hand, as a typical biomass resource, stockbreeding waste can be used as a clean energy source by biomass utilization technologies. In this paper, we constructed a dynamic linear optimization model to simulate the synthetic water environment management policies which includes both the water environment system and social-economic situational changes over 10 years. Based on the simulation, the model can precisely estimate trends of water quality, production of stockbreeding biomass energy and economic development under certain restrictions of the water environment. We examined seven towns of Shunyi district of Beijing as the target area to analyse synthetic water environment management policies by computer simulation based on the effective utilization of stockbreeding biomass resources to improve water quality and realize sustainable development. The purpose of our research is to establish an effective utilization method of biomass resources incorporating water environment preservation, resource reutilization and economic development, and finally realize the sustainable development of the society.

  17. The prediction of elemental composition of biomass based on proximate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Jianfeng [School of Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China); Zhu Shuguang, E-mail: zhushuguang@tsinghua.org.c [School of Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China); Liu Xinzhi; Zhang Houlei; Tan Junjie [School of Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Elemental composition is one of the most important properties for biomass utilization. The experimental determination of ultimate analysis data require special instrumentation, while proximate analysis data can be obtained easily by using common equipments. This paper presents new correlations for calculating the elemental composition based on proximate analysis of biomass. The correlations with the effect of ash content taken into account are derived by using 66 data points, and validated by using 20 data points selected from different categories of biomass than that for correlations derivation. The correlations are given as: C = 0.635FC + 0.460VM - 0.095ASH, H = 0.059FC + 0.060VM + 0.010ASH, O = 0.340FC + 0.469VM - 0.023ASH, where 9.2% <= FC <= 32.79%, 57.2% <= VM <= 90.6%, 0.1% <= ASH <= 24.6%, 36.2% <= C <= 53.1%, 4.7% <= H <= 6.61%, and 31.37% <= O <= 48.0% in wt.% on dry basis. The average absolute errors of these correlations are 3.17%, 4.47% and 3.16%, and the average bias errors are 0.19%, -0.34% and 0.19% compared with measured values of C, H and O, respectively. The new developed correlations can be used to compute elemental composition of biomass accurately, especially for those biomass whose ash content are high, based on simple proximate analysis.

  18. The prediction of elemental composition of biomass based on proximate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianfeng Shen; Shuguang Zhu; Xinzhi Liu; Houlei Zhang; Junjie Tan [School of Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Elemental composition is one of the most important properties for biomass utilization. The experimental determination of ultimate analysis data require special instrumentation, while proximate analysis data can be obtained easily by using common equipments. This paper presents new correlations for calculating the elemental composition based on proximate analysis of biomass. The correlations with the effect of ash content taken into account are derived by using 66 data points, and validated by using 20 data points selected from different categories of biomass than that for correlations derivation. The correlations are given as: C = 0.635FC + 0.460VM - 0.095ASH, H = 0.059FC + 0.060VM + 0.010ASH, O = 0.340FC + 0.469VM - 0.023ASH, where 9.2% {<=} FC {<=} 32.79%, 57.2% {<=} VM {<=} 90.6%, 0.1% {<=} ASH {<=} 24.6%, 36.2% {<=} C {<=} 53.1%, 4.7% {<=} H {<=} 6.61%, and 31.37% {<=} O {<=} 48.0% in wt.% on dry basis. The average absolute errors of these correlations are 3.17%, 4.47% and 3.16%, and the average bias errors are 0.19%, -0.34% and 0.19% compared with measured values of C, H and O, respectively. The new developed correlations can be used to compute elemental composition of biomass accurately, especially for those biomass whose ash content are high, based on simple proximate analysis. (author)

  19. MODEL BASED BIOMASS SYSTEM DESIGN OF FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY SYSTEMS FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Jacob J. Jacobson; Kenneth M. Bryden

    2013-08-01

    Engineering feedstock supply systems that deliver affordable, high-quality biomass remains a challenge for the emerging bioenergy industry. Cellulosic biomass is geographically distributed and has diverse physical and chemical properties. Because of this feedstock supply systems that deliver cellulosic biomass resources to biorefineries require integration of a broad set of engineered unit operations. These unit operations include harvest and collection, storage, preprocessing, and transportation processes. Design decisions for each feedstock supply system unit operation impact the engineering design and performance of the other system elements. These interdependencies are further complicated by spatial and temporal variances such as climate conditions and biomass characteristics. This paper develops an integrated model that couples a SQL-based data management engine and systems dynamics models to design and evaluate biomass feedstock supply systems. The integrated model, called the Biomass Logistics Model (BLM), includes a suite of databases that provide 1) engineering performance data for hundreds of equipment systems, 2) spatially explicit labor cost datasets, and 3) local tax and regulation data. The BLM analytic engine is built in the systems dynamics software package PowersimTM. The BLM is designed to work with thermochemical and biochemical based biofuel conversion platforms and accommodates a range of cellulosic biomass types (i.e., herbaceous residues, short- rotation woody and herbaceous energy crops, woody residues, algae, etc.). The BLM simulates the flow of biomass through the entire supply chain, tracking changes in feedstock characteristics (i.e., moisture content, dry matter, ash content, and dry bulk density) as influenced by the various operations in the supply chain. By accounting for all of the equipment that comes into contact with biomass from the point of harvest to the throat of the conversion facility and the change in characteristics, the

  20. Impact Assessment of Biomass Burning on Air Quality in Southeast and East Asia During BASE-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat

    2013-01-01

    A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast Asia (SE Asia) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in MarcheApril when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K(+), OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via longrange transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.

  1. New polymeric electrolyte membranes based on proton donor-proton acceptor properties for direct methanol fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manea, Carmen; Mulder, Marcel

    2002-01-01

    In order to reduce the high methanol permeability of membranes in a direct methanol fuel cell application new and better materials are still required. In this paper membranes made from polybenzimidazole/sulfonated polysulfone are given and compared with homopolymer membranes made from sulfonated pol

  2. Remote Sensing-Based Biomass Estimation and Its Spatio-Temporal Variations in Temperate Grassland, Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxiang Jin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Grassland biomass is essential for maintaining grassland ecosystems. Moreover, biomass is an important characteristic of grassland. In this study, we combined field sampling with remote sensing data and calculated five vegetation indices (VIs. Using this combined information, we quantified a remote sensing estimation model and estimated biomass in a temperate grassland of northern China. We also explored the dynamic spatio-temporal variation of biomass from 2006 to 2012. Our results indicated that all VIs investigated in the study were strongly correlated with biomass (α < 0.01. The precision of the model for estimating biomass based on ground data and remote sensing was greater than 73%. Additionally, the results of our analysis indicated that the annual average biomass was 11.86 million tons and that the average yield was 604.5 kg/ha. The distribution of biomass exhibited substantial spatial heterogeneity, and the biomass decreased from the eastern portion of the study area to the western portion. The interannual biomass exhibited strong fluctuations during 2006–2012, with a coefficient of variation of 26.95%. The coefficient of variation of biomass differed among the grassland types. The highest coefficient of variation was found for the desert steppe, followed by the typical steppe and the meadow steppe.

  3. Comparison of machine-learning methods for above-ground biomass estimation based on Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chaofan; Shen, Huanhuan; Shen, Aihua; Deng, Jinsong; Gan, Muye; Zhu, Jinxia; Xu, Hongwei; Wang, Ke

    2016-07-01

    Biomass is one significant biophysical parameter of a forest ecosystem, and accurate biomass estimation on the regional scale provides important information for carbon-cycle investigation and sustainable forest management. In this study, Landsat satellite imagery data combined with field-based measurements were integrated through comparisons of five regression approaches [stepwise linear regression, K-nearest neighbor, support vector regression, random forest (RF), and stochastic gradient boosting] with two different candidate variable strategies to implement the optimal spatial above-ground biomass (AGB) estimation. The results suggested that RF algorithm exhibited the best performance by 10-fold cross-validation with respect to R2 (0.63) and root-mean-square error (26.44 ton/ha). Consequently, the map of estimated AGB was generated with a mean value of 89.34 ton/ha in northwestern Zhejiang Province, China, with a similar pattern to the distribution mode of local forest species. This research indicates that machine-learning approaches associated with Landsat imagery provide an economical way for biomass estimation. Moreover, ensemble methods using all candidate variables, especially for Landsat images, provide an alternative for regional biomass simulation.

  4. Optimal processing pathway for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass: A superstructure based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for superstructure based optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass. The proposed superstructure includes a number of major processing steps for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass...... for the production of biodiesel from microalgae. The proposed methodology is tested by implementing on a specific case with different choices of objective functions. The MINLP model is implemented and solved in GAMS using a database built in Excel. The results from the optimization are analyzed...

  5. Steam generation unit in a simple version of biomass based small cogeneration unit

    OpenAIRE

    Sornek Krzysztof; Filipowicz Mariusz; Szubel Mateusz; Bożek Estera; Izdebski Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is a very promising process for the conversion of low or medium temperature heat to electricity in small and micro scale biomass powered systems. Classic ORC is analogous to Clausius–Rankine cycle in a steam power plant, but instead of water it uses low boiling, organic working fluids. Seeking energy and economical optimization of biomass-based ORC systems, we have proposed some modifications e.g. in low boiling fluid circuit construction. Due to the fact that ...

  6. Statistical prediction of biomethane potentials based on the composition of lignocellulosic biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Spliid, Henrik; Østergård, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Mixture models are introduced as a new and stronger methodology for statistical prediction of biomethane potentials (BPM) from lignocellulosic biomass compared to the linear regression models previously used. A large dataset from literature combined with our own data were analysed using canonical...... affecting the quality of the prediction, as the regression coefficients for xC, xH and xR were not significantly different based on the dataset. The model was extended with an effect of different methods of analysing the biomass constituents content (DA) which had a significant impact. In conclusion...... linear and quadratic mixture models. The full model to predict BMP (R2>0.96), including the four biomass components cellulose (xC), hemicellulose (xH), lignin (xL) and residuals (xR=1-xC-xH-xL) had highly significant regression coefficients. It was possible to reduce the model without substantially...

  7. Externalities of biomass based electricity production compared to power generation from coal in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.; Meuleman, B.

    2006-01-01

    Externalities of electricity production from biomass and coal are investigated and compared for the Dutch context. Effects on economic activity and employment are investigated with help of Input/Output and multiplier tables. Valuations of damage from emissions to air are based on generic data from o

  8. Catalytic performance for CO{sub 2} conversion to methanol of gallium-promoted copper-based catalysts. Influence of metallic precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyir, Jamil; Ramirez de la Piscina, Pilar; Homs, Narcis [Departament de Quimica Inorganica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fierro, Jose Luis G. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, C.S.I.C., Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2001-11-28

    This study reports new gallium-promoted copper-based catalysts prepared by co-impregnation of methoxide-acetylacetonate (acac) precursors from methanolic solutions onto silica and zinc oxide supports. Catalyst performance in the CO{sub 2} hydrogenation to methanol was investigated at 2MPa and temperatures between 523 and 543K. A high activity and selectivity for ZnO-supported catalysts was found, which also showed a high stability in terms of both activity and selectivity. The maximum value for the activity was 378gMeOH/kgcath at 543K, with a selectivity of 88% towards methanol production. The high performance of these materials in the CO{sub 2} hydrogenation is related to the presence of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} promoter and highly dispersed Cu{sup +} species on the surface, determined by XPS and Auger on used catalysts.

  9. 76 FR 31604 - Lyonsdale Biomass LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lyonsdale Biomass LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Lyonsdale Biomass LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  10. Allocation of Energy Use in the Biomass-based Fuel Ethanol System and Its Use in Decision Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LENG Ru-bo; YU Sui-ran; FANG Fang; DAI Du; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese government is developing biomass ethanol as one of its automobile fuels for energy security and environmental improvement reasons. The energy efficiency of the biomass-based fuel ethanol is critical issue. To investigate the energy use in the three biomass-base ethanol fuel systems, energy content approach, Market value approach and Product displacement approach methods were used to allocate the energy use based on life cycle energy assessment. The results shows that the net energy of corn based, wheat based, and cassava-based ethanol fuel are 12543MJ, 10299MJ and 13112MJ when get one ton biomassbased ethanol, respectively, and they do produce positive net energy.

  11. Investigating the effects of methanol-water vapor mixture on a PBI-based high temperature PEM fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Nielsen, Heidi Venstrup

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of methanol and water vapor on the performance of a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC). A H3PO4-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane electrode assembly (MEA), Celtec P2100 of 45 cm2 of active surface area from BASF was employed....... A long-term durability test of around 1250 h was performed, in which the concentrations of methanol-water vapor mixture in the anode feed gas were varied. The fuel cell showed a continuous performance decay in the presence of vapor mixtures of methanol and water of 5% and 8% by volume in anode feed...

  12. Design of Biomass Gasification and Combined Heat and Power Plant Based on Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydary, Juma; Jelemenský, Ľudovít

    Three types of wooden biomass were characterized by calorimetric measurements, proximate and elemental analysis, thermogravimetry, kinetics of thermal decomposition and gas composition. Using the Aspen steady state simulation, a plant with the processing capacity of 18 ton/h of biomass was modelled based on the experimental data obtained under laboratory conditions. The gasification process has been modelled in two steps. The first step of the model describes the thermal decomposition of the biomass based on a kinetic model and in the second step, the equilibrium composition of syngas is calculated by the Gibbs free energy of the expected components. The computer model of the plant besides the reactor model includes also a simulation of other plant facilities such as: feed drying employing the energy from the process, ash and tar separation, gas-steam cycle, and hot water production heat exchangers. The effect of the steam to air ratio on the conversion, syngas composition, and reactor temperature was analyzed. Employment of oxygen and air for partial combustion was compared. The designed computer model using all Aspen simulation facilities can be applied to study different aspects of biomass gasification in a Combined Heat and Power plant.

  13. Application of agro-based biomasses for zinc removal from wastewater - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Balomajumder, Chandrajit; Mondal, Prejit [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee (India)

    2011-07-15

    Zinc remediation of aqueous streams is of special concern due to its highly toxic and persistent nature. Conventional treatment technologies for the removal of zinc are not economical and further generate huge quantity of toxic chemical sludge. Biosorption is emerging as a potential alternative to the existing conventional technologies for the removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions. Mechanisms involved in the biosorption process include chemisorption, complexation, adsorption-complexation on surface and pores, ion exchange, microprecipitation, heavy metal hydroxide condensation onto the bio surface, and surface adsorption. Biosorption largely depends on parameters such as pH, the initial metal ion concentration, biomass concentration, presence of various competitive metal ions in solution, and to a limited extent on temperature. Biosorption using biomass such as agricultural wastes, industrial residues, municipal solid waste, biosolids, food processing waste, aquatic plants, animal wastes, etc., is regarded as a cost-effective technique for the treatment of high volume and low concentration complex wastewaters containing zinc metal. Very few reviews are available where readers can get an overview of the sorption capacities of agro based biomasses used for zinc remediation together with the traditional remediation methods. The purpose of this review article is to provide the scattered available information on various aspects of utilization of the agro based biomasses for zinc metal ions removal. An extensive table summarizes the sorption capacities of various adsorbents. These biosorbents can be modified using various methods for better efficiency and multiple reuses to enhance their applicability at industrial scale. We have incorporated most of the valuable available literature on zinc removal from waste water using agro based biomasses in this review. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Evaluating the influences of biomass burning during 2006 BASE-ASIA: a regional chemical transport modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Fu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of biomass burning from Southeast Asia to East Asia, this study conducted numerical simulations during NASA's 2006 Biomass-burning Aerosols in South-East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA. Two typical episode periods (27–28 March and 13–14 April were examined. Two emission inventories, FLAMBE and GFED, were used in the simulations. The influences during two episodes in the source region (Southeast Asia contributed to the surface CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations as high as 400 ppbv, 20 ppbv and 80 μg m−3, respectively. The perturbations with and without biomass burning of the above three species during the intense episodes were in the range of 10 to 60%, 10 to 20% and 30 to 70%, respectively. The impact due to long-range transport could spread over the southeastern parts of East Asia and could reach about 160 to 360 ppbv, 8 to 18 ppbv and 8 to 64 μg m−3 on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively; the percentage impact could reach 20 to 50% on CO, 10 to 30% on O3, and as high as 70% on PM2.5. In March, the impact of biomass burning was mainly concentrated in Southeast Asia and Southern China, while in April the impact becomes slightly broader, potentially including the Yangtze River Delta region.

    Two cross-sections at 15° N and 20° N were used to compare the vertical flux of biomass burning. In the source region (Southeast Asia, CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations had a strong upward transport from surface to high altitudes. The eastward transport becomes strong from 2 to 8 km in the free troposphere. The subsidence process during the long-range transport contributed 60 to 70%, 20 to 50%, and 80% to CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively to surface in the downwind area. The study reveals the significant impact of Southeastern Asia biomass burning on the air quality in both local and

  15. Crop production without fossil fuel: production systems for tractor fuel and mineral nitrogen based on biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlgren, Serina

    2009-12-15

    With diminishing fossil fuel reserves and concerns about global warming, the agricultural sector needs to reduce its use of fossil fuels. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate different systems for biomass-based production of tractor fuel and mineral nitrogen fertilisers, which at present are the two largest fossil energy carriers in Swedish agriculture. The land use, energy input and environmental load of the systems were calculated using life cycle assessment methodology. Two categories of renewable tractor fuel were studied: first generation fuels and second generation fuels, the latter defined as fuels not yet produced on a commercial scale. An organic farm self-sufficient in tractor fuel was modelled. Raw material from the farm was assumed to be delivered to a large fuel production facility and fuel transported back to the farm, where it was utilised. In general, the second generation renewable fuels had higher energy balance and lower environmental impact than the first generation fuels. However all systems studied reduced the use of fossil fuels to a great extent and lowered the contribution to global warming. The land needed to be set aside for tractor fuel varied between 2% and 5% of the farm's available land. Two major routes for biomass-based production of mineral nitrogen for conventional agriculture were studied, one based on anaerobic digestion and one on thermochemical gasification of biomass. The crops studied were able to produce between 1.6 and 3.9 tonnes N per hectare in the form of ammonium nitrate. The use of fossil fuel for ammonium nitrate production was 35 MJ per kg N in the fossil reference scenario, but only 1-4 MJ per kg N in the biomass systems. The contribution to global warming can be greatly reduced by the biomass systems, but there is an increased risk of eutrophication and acidification. It is clear that the agricultural sector has great potential to reduce the use of fossil fuel and to lower the emissions of greenhouse

  16. The Interpolation Method for Estimating the Above-Ground Biomass Using Terrestrial-Based Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Surati Jaya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined several methods for interpolating biomass on logged-over dry land forest using terrestrial-based forest inventory in Labanan, East Kalimantan and Lamandau, Kota Wringing Barat, Central Kalimantan. The plot-distances examined was 1,000−1,050 m for Labanan and 1,000−899m for Lawanda. The main objective of this study was to obtain the best interpolation method having the most accurate prediction on spatial distribution of forest biomass for dry land forest. Two main interpolation methods were examined: (1 deterministic approach using the IDW method and (2 geo-statistics approach using Kriging with spherical, circular, linear, exponential, and Gaussian models. The study results at both sites consistently showed that the IDW method was better than the Kriging method for estimating the spatial distribution of biomass. The validation results using chi-square test showed that the IDW interpolation provided accurate biomass estimation. Using the percentage of mean deviation value (MD(%, it was also recognized that the IDWs with power parameter (p of 2 provided relatively low value , i.e., only 15% for Labanan, East Kalimantan Province and 17% for Lamandau, Kota Wringing Barat Central Kalimantan Province. In general, IDW interpolation method provided better results than the Kriging, where the Kriging method provided MD(% of about 27% and 21% for Lamandau and Labanan sites, respectively.

  17. [The inversion processing of vegetation biomass along Yongding River based on multispectral information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cheng; Feng, Zhong-Ke; Han, Xu; Sun, Meng-Ying; Gong, Yin-Xi; Gao, Yuan; Dong, Bin

    2012-12-01

    Researching on vegetation biomass using the traditional measurement method is time-consuming and hard sledding, and prediction precision of biomass is always not good because of uncertain influencing factors. The present article aims at the current situation of Hebei-Beijing reach along Yongding River, using the Thematic Mapper data in this place on 20th July 2009 as source data, with the 30 meters Digital Elevation Model data in Beijing and other auxiliary information, meanwhile through field observation data, to find out the possible functional relationship along vegetation biomass and remote sensing image factor. The authros sorted out the vegetation biomass and remote sensing image factor on the sample plot, then set up an inverse model through multiple linear regression analysis, and analyzed the precision of inverse model. After calculating the measured value and predicted value, the authors got the global relative error is -0.025%, the average relative error is -0.016%, and the general predictive precision is 84.56%. The establishment of this model is able to investigate eco-environmental factors on large range timely, quickly and accurately, also can provide the experimental base for the eco-environmental survey on river basin, and make the foundation for the problem diagnosis of ecological environment and the research on ecosystem degradation mechanism of Yongding River.

  18. Acute methanol toxicity in minipigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorman, D.C.; Dye, J.A.; Nassise, M.P.; Ekuta, J.; Bolon, B.

    1993-01-01

    The pig has been proposed as a potential animal model for methanol-induced neuro-ocular toxicosis in humans because of its low liver tetrahydrofolate levels and slower rate of formate metabolism compared to those of humans. To examine the validity of this animal model, 12 4-month-old female minipigs (minipig YU) were given a single oral dose of water or methanol at 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 g/kg body wt by gavage (n = 3 pigs/dose). Dose-dependent signs of acute methanol intoxication, which included mild CNS depression, tremors, ataxia, and recumbency, developed within 0.5 to 2.0 hr, and resolved by 52 hr. Methanol- and formate-dosed pigs did not develop optic nerve lesions, toxicologically significant formate accumulation, or metabolic acidosis. Based on results following a single dose, female minipigs do not appear to be overtly sensitive to methanol and thus may not be a suitable animal model for acute methanol-induced neuroocular toxicosis.

  19. Accidental methanol ingestion: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakker Jan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of methanol (CH3OH intoxication differs enormously from country to country. Methanol intoxication is extremely rare in the Dutch population. Even a low dose can already be potentially lethal. Patients are conventionally treated with hemodialysis. Therefore we'd like to present a report of a foreign sailor in Rotterdam who accidentally caused himself severe methanol intoxication, with a maximum measured concentration of 4.4 g/L. Case presentation The patient presented with hemodynamic instability and severe metabolic acidosis with pH 6.69. The anion gap was 39 mmol/L and the osmol gap 73 mosmol/kg. Treatment with ethanol and continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVH-DF was initiated. Despite the hemodynamic instability it is was possible to achieve rapid correction of pH and methanol concentration with CVVH-DF while maintaining a stable and therapeutic ethanol serum concentration. Despite hemodynamic and acid-base improvement, our patient developed massive cerebral edema leading to brain death. Permission for organ donation was unfortunately not ascertained. Conclusions We conclude that in a hemodynamic instable situation high methanol concentrations and methanol-induced derangements of homeostasis are safely and effectively treated with CVVH-DF and that severe cerebral edema is another possible cause of death rather than the classical bleeding in the putamen area.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from the treatment of household plastic containers and packaging: replacement with biomass-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Junya; Hirai, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Shin-ichi; Tsubota, Jun

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction that could be achieved by replacement of fossil-derived materials with biodegradable, biomass-based materials for household plastic containers and packaging, considering a variety of their treatment options. The biomass-based materials were 100% polylactide or a combination of polybutylene succinate adipate and polylactide. A scenario analysis was conducted considering alternative recycling methods. Five scenarios were considered: two for existing fossil-derived materials (the current approach in Japan) and the three for biomass-based materials. Production and waste disposal of 1 m(3) of plastic containers and packaging from households was defined as the functional unit. The results showed that replacement of fossil-derived materials with biomass-based materials could reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 14-20%. Source separation and recycling should be promoted. When the separate collection ratio reached 100%, replacement with biomass-based materials could potentially reduce GHG emissions by 31.9%. Food containers are a priority for replacement, because they alone could reduce GHG emissions by 10%. A recycling system for biomass-based plastics must be carefully designed, considering aspects such as the transition period from fossil-derived plastics to biomass-based plastics.

  1. Bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis)-based thin film, a novel biomass material with high performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fei; Xu, Chen; Bao, Wen-Yi; Wang, Xiu-Li; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2015-03-30

    Exploration of biomass based materials to replace conventional petroleum based ones has been a trend in recent decades. In this work, bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis) with abundant resources was used for the first time to prepare films in the presence of cellulose. The effects of weight ratio of bamboo/cellulose on the appearances and properties of the films were investigated. It was confirmed there existed strong interactions between bamboo and cellulose, which were favorable to formation of homogeneous structure of blend films. Particularly, the presence of bamboo could improve the surface hydrophobicity, water resistance and thermal stability of blend films, and the films possessed an excellent oxygen barrier property, compared with generally used commercial packaging films. The bamboo biomass, therefore, is successfully used to create a new film material with a good application prospect in the fields of packaging, coating, and food industry.

  2. A decision model for cost effective design of biomass based green energy supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz Balaman, Şebnem; Selim, Hasan

    2015-09-01

    The core driver of this study is to deal with the design of anaerobic digestion based biomass to energy supply chains in a cost effective manner. In this concern, a decision model is developed. The model is based on fuzzy multi objective decision making in order to simultaneously optimize multiple economic objectives and tackle the inherent uncertainties in the parameters and decision makers' aspiration levels for the goals. The viability of the decision model is explored with computational experiments on a real-world biomass to energy supply chain and further analyses are performed to observe the effects of different conditions. To this aim, scenario analyses are conducted to investigate the effects of energy crop utilization and operational costs on supply chain structure and performance measures.

  3. Proton-conducting Membranes Based on PVA-PAMPS Semi-interpenetrating Polymer Networks for Low Temperature Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinli Qiao; Tatsuhiro Okada

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction In direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) the methanol crossover from anode to cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane is a major isue, because this not only causes loss of fuel, but also reduces the performance at the cathode due to the mixed reaction of methanol oxidation with oxygen reduction reaction. Membranes that show high proton conductivity, and at the same time, low methanol permeability are strongly desired but difficult to attain, because of trade-off relations between these parameters. We here report a new type of cost-effective polymer blend membranes based on chemically cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (PAMPS) which is called semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs). The membrane structure is finished by cross-linking the hydroxyl groups of poly (vinyl alchol) (PVA) main chain with acetal ring formation using glutaraldehyde (GA) cross-linker. For improving the flexibility of the membranes, we reported "binary chemcial cross-linking", "hydrophobicizer" and "stabilizer"effect[1-3], respectively, in our recent work.

  4. The Interpolation Method for Estimating the Above-Ground Biomass Using Terrestrial-Based Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Surati Jaya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined several methods for interpolating biomass on logged-over dry land forest using terrestrial-based forest inventory in Labanan, East Kalimantan and Lamandau, Kota Wringing Barat, Central Kalimantan.  The plot-distances examined was 1,000−1,050 m for Labanan and 1,000−899m for Lawanda.  The main objective of this study was to obtain the best interpolation method having the most accurate prediction on spatial distribution of forest biomass for dry land forest. Two main interpolation methods were examined: (1 deterministic approach using the IDW method and (2 geo-statistics approach  using Kriging with spherical, circular, linear, exponential, and Gaussian models.   The study results at both sites consistently showed that the IDW method was better than the Kriging method for estimating the spatial distribution of biomass.  The validation results using chi-square test showed that the IDW interpolation provided accurate biomass estimation.   Using the percentage of mean deviation value (MD(%, it was also recognized that the IDWs with power parameter (p of 2 provided relatively low value , i.e., only 15% for Labanan, East Kalimantan Province and 17% for Lamandau, Kota Wringing Barat Central Kalimantan Province. In general, IDW interpolation method provided better results than the Kriging, where the Kriging method provided MD(% of about 27% and 21% for Lamandau and Labanan sites, respectively.Keywords:  deterministic, geostatistics, IDW, Kriging, above-groung biomass

  5. Effect of BaO on catalytic performance of Pd-based catalysts for purification of gasoline-methanol exhaust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪乔; 赵明; 徐成华; 汪嘉扬; 陈耀强

    2014-01-01

    Barium oxide was developed successfully to modify palladium catalysts supported on CeO2-ZrO2-La2O3-Al2O3 (CZLA) compound oxides by impregnation method. N2 adsorption (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), H2-temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to characterize the influence of BaO on the physicochemical properties of catalyst. And catalytic activity tests for methanol, CO, C3H8 and NO conversion were evaluated. Catalytic activity re-sults showed that BaO had a positive effect on the conversion of all pollutants. H2-TPR results suggested that the addition of BaO in-creased the reductive ability of the palladium catalysts. The XPS results indicated that doping BaO also improved the dispersion of Pd species and increased the amounts of Ce3+on the Pd-Ba/CZLA catalyst surface, which led to a better redox property. The excellent redox property helped to improve the catalytic activities toward all the pollutants over Pd-based catalysts.

  6. Exergy Analysis of Methanol-IGCC Polygeneration Technology Based on Coal Gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段远源; 张晋; 史琳; 朱明善; 韩礼钟

    2002-01-01

    Polygeneration is a key strategy for making ultra-clean energy products highly competitive with conventional energy systems. A polygeneration system based on coal gasification was analyzed using the exergy method to calculate the system thermal efficiency. The results show that the polygeneration system has less pollutants and higher efficiency than the separate systems.

  7. Genome-based genetic tool development for Bacillus methanolicus: theta- and rolling circle-replicating plasmids for inducible gene expression and application to methanol-based cadaverine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Irla

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus methanolicus is a thermophilic methylotroph able to overproduce amino acids from methanol, a substrate not used for human or animal nutrition. Based on our previous RNA-seq analysis a mannitol inducible promoter and a putative mannitol activator gene mtlR were identified. The mannitol inducible promoter was applied for controlled gene expression using fluorescent reporter proteins and a flow cytometry analysis, and improved by changing the -35 promoter region and by co-expression of the mtlR regulator gene. For independent complementary gene expression control, the heterologous xylose-inducible system from B. megaterium was employed and a two-plasmid gene expression system was developed. Four different replicons for expression vectors were compared with respect to their copy number and stability. As an application example, methanol-based production of cadaverine was shown to be improved from 11.3 g/L to 17.5 g/L when a heterologous lysine decarboxylase gene cadA was expressed from a theta-replicating rather than a rolling-circle replicating vector. The current work on inducible promoter systems and compatible theta- or rolling circle-replicating vectors is an important extension of the poorly developed B. methanolicus genetic toolbox, valuable for genetic engineering and further exploration of this bacterium.

  8. Genome-Based Genetic Tool Development for Bacillus methanolicus: Theta- and Rolling Circle-Replicating Plasmids for Inducible Gene Expression and Application to Methanol-Based Cadaverine Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irla, Marta; Heggeset, Tonje M. B.; Nærdal, Ingemar; Paul, Lidia; Haugen, Tone; Le, Simone B.; Brautaset, Trygve; Wendisch, Volker F.

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus methanolicus is a thermophilic methylotroph able to overproduce amino acids from methanol, a substrate not used for human or animal nutrition. Based on our previous RNA-seq analysis a mannitol inducible promoter and a putative mannitol activator gene mtlR were identified. The mannitol inducible promoter was applied for controlled gene expression using fluorescent reporter proteins and a flow cytometry analysis, and improved by changing the -35 promoter region and by co-expression of the mtlR regulator gene. For independent complementary gene expression control, the heterologous xylose-inducible system from B. megaterium was employed and a two-plasmid gene expression system was developed. Four different replicons for expression vectors were compared with respect to their copy number and stability. As an application example, methanol-based production of cadaverine was shown to be improved from 11.3 to 17.5 g/L when a heterologous lysine decarboxylase gene cadA was expressed from a theta-replicating rather than a rolling-circle replicating vector. The current work on inducible promoter systems and compatible theta- or rolling circle-replicating vectors is an important extension of the poorly developed B. methanolicus genetic toolbox, valuable for genetic engineering and further exploration of this bacterium.

  9. Energy from Biomass for Conversion of Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolins, J.; Gravitis, J.

    2009-01-01

    Along with estimates of minimum energy required by steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass some general problems concerning biomass conversion into chemicals, materials, and fuels are discussed. The energy necessary for processing biomass by steam explosion auto-hydrolysis is compared with the heat content of wood and calculated in terms of the amount of saturated steam consumed per unit mass of the dry content of wood biomass. The fraction of processed biomass available for conversion after steam explosion pre-treatment is presented as function of the amount of steam consumed per unit mass of the dry content of wood. The estimates based on a simple model of energy flows show the energy required by steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass being within 10% of the heat content of biomass - a realistic amount demonstrating that energy for the process can be supplied from a reasonable proportion of biomass used as the source of energy for steam explosion pre-treatment.

  10. Biomass IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, K.; Keraenen, H. [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Enviropower Inc. is developing a modern power plant concept based on pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC). The process is capable of maximising the electricity production with a variety of solid fuels - different biomass and coal types - mixed or separately. The development work is conducted on many levels. These and demonstration efforts are highlighted in this article. The feasibility of a pressurised gasification based processes compared to competing technologies in different applications is discussed. The potential of power production from biomass is also reviewed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  11. Microbial biodiesel production by direct methanolysis of oleaginous biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thliveros, Panagiotis; Uçkun Kiran, Esra; Webb, Colin

    2014-04-01

    Biodiesel is usually produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats with methanol, catalyzed by strong acids or bases. This study introduces a novel biodiesel production method that features direct base-catalyzed methanolysis of the cellular biomass of oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides Y4. NaOH was used as catalyst for transesterification reactions and the variables affecting the esterification level including catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time, solvent loading (methanol) and moisture content were investigated using the oleaginous yeast biomass. The most suitable pretreatment condition was found to be 4gL(-1) NaOH and 1:20 (w/v) dried biomass to methanol ratio for 10h at 50°C and under ambient pressure. Under these conditions, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield was 97.7%. Therefore, the novel method of direct base-catalyzed methanolysis of R. toruloides is a much simpler, less tedious and time-consuming, process than the conventional processes with higher FAME (biodiesel) conversion yield.

  12. Biomass Catalytic Pyrolysis with Ni Based Catalyst to Produce Hydrogen Rich Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mingfeng; LIU Min; XU Xiwei; LI Bosong; ZHANG Qiang; JIAN Enchen

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen rich gas was produced using rice husk as biomass material on the continuous biomass pyrolysis apparatus which consisted of continuous pyrolysis reactor and secondary catalytic cracking reactor. Ni based catalysts of different Ni/Al mass ratio and calcined temperature were prepared by impregnating method. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),scan electron microscope (SEM) and FT-IR Spectrometer (FT-IR). Ni based catalyst showed good selectivity for H2 production from biomass. Catalysts prepared under different conditions had little influence on the yields of three states products when used at the same cracking temperature. Ni/Al mass ratio played an important role in products selectivity. However, the content of NiO increased further when Ni/Al mass ratio values reached 0.7 : 10, and the yield of H2 slightly increased. Hydrogen yield was greatly impacted by calcined temperature. Catalyst calcined at 550"C performed best. When the catalyst was calcined at high temperature, NiO in the catalyst transformed into NiAl2O4, and the acid site also changed, which caused the deactivation of the catalyst. The hydrogen yield increased with the cracking temperature. The highest stable yield of hydrogen was about 30% without increasing with the cracking temperature.

  13. Energy and exergy analyses of a biomass-based hydrogen production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohce, M K; Dincer, I; Rosen, M A

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, a novel biomass-based hydrogen production plant is investigated. The system uses oil palm shell as a feedstock. The main plant processes are biomass gasification, steam methane reforming and shift reaction. The modeling of the gasifier uses the Gibbs free energy minimization approach and chemical equilibrium considerations. The plant, with modifications, is simulated and analyzed thermodynamically using the Aspen Plus process simulation code (version 11.1). Exergy analysis, a useful tool for understanding and improving efficiency, is used throughout the investigation, in addition to energy analysis. The overall performance of the system is evaluated, and its efficiencies become 19% for exergy efficiency and 22% energy efficiency while the gasifier cold gas efficiency is 18%.

  14. Biorefinery based on olive biomass. State of the art and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-García, J M; Niño, L; Martínez-Patiño, C; Álvarez, C; Castro, E; Negro, M J

    2014-05-01

    With currently more than nine million hectares, olive tree cultivation has spread worldwide, table olives and olive oil as the main products. Moreover, a number of by-products and residues derived from both tree cultivation and the process of industrial olive oil production, most having no practical applications, are obtained yearly. This paper reviews the research regarding these by-products, namely biomass from olive tree pruning, olive stones, olive pomace and wastewaters obtained from the process of olive oil production. Furthermore, a wide range of compounds has been identified and can be produced using a broad definition of the term biorefinery based on olive tree biomass. As an example, this paper reviews ethanol production as one of the main proposed applications, as well as research on other value-added products. Finally, this paper also assesses recent technological advances, future perspectives and challenges in each stage of the process.

  15. Effect of preparation methods of aluminum emulsions on catalytic performance of copper-based catalysts for methanol synthesis from syngas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Wang; Wen Ding; Yingwei Liu; Weiping Fang; Yiquan Yang

    2010-01-01

    Various Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts have been synthesized by different aluminum emulsions as aluminum sources and their performances for methanol synthesis from syngas have been investigated.The influences of preparation methods of aluminum emulsions on physicochemical and catalytic properties of catalysts were studied by XRD,SEM,XPS,N2 adsorption-desorption techniques and methanol synthesis from syngas.The preparation methods of aluminum emulsions were found to influence the catalytic activity,CuO crystallite size,surface area and Cu0 surface area and reduction process.The results show that the catalyst CN using the aluminum source prepared by addition the ammonia into the aluminum nitrate (NP) exhibited the best catalytic performance for methanol synthesis from syngas.

  16. Public subscription project for international joint research proposals in fiscal 2000 - public subscription of international proposal (Substitution No.2). Report on achievements in developing technologies to produce oil-alternative energies from fibrous material based biomass and industrial wastes; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo - kokusai teian kobo (daitai No.2). Sen'ishitsukei biomass oyobi sangyo haikibutsu kara no sekiyu daitai energy seisan gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Development has been advanced on technologies to manufacture methanol efficiently by combining a technology to convert selectively fibrous material based biomass into sugar under high concentration sulfuric acid condition with the immobilized enzyme flash fermentation process, both being developed in the United States. Activities have been taken in the following three fields: 1) establishment of an optimal biomass treatment condition by using concentrated sulfuric acid, 2) chromatographic separation of sugar and sulfuric acid, and 3) discussions on conditions to apply the immobilized enzyme flash fermentation process. In Item 1), discussions were given, using rice straw and waste woods as the object, on effects of biomass particle size, sulfuric acid to biomass feeding ratio, sulfuric acid concentration, reaction temperature and time on the cellulose to hemicellulose reaction ratio and the sugar conversion factor, whereas it was revealed that the governing factors are the biomass/sulfuric acid contact area and the reaction temperature. In Item 2), a chromatographic device filled with anion ion exchange resin was used to set the sugar recovery rate of 100% and the sulfuric acid recovery rate of 93%. (NEDO)

  17. Experimental Evaluation of a Pt-based Heat Exchanger Methanol Reformer for a HTPEM Fuel Cell Stack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2008-01-01

    and automotive applications. Using a liquid hydrocarbon as e.g. methanol as the hydrogen carrier and reforming it to a hydrogen rich gas can solve some of these storage issues. The work presented here examines the use of a heat exchanger methanol reformer for use with a HTPEM fuel cell stack. Initial......Fuel cell systems running on pure hydrogen can efficiently produce electricity and heat for various applications, stationary and mobile. Storage volume can be problematic for stationary fuel cell systems with high run-time demands, but it is especially a challenge when dealing with mobile...

  18. Ground based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the Southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon forest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground based measurements over Brazil, aiming to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm, occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO, freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ∼1000 cm−3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm−3 during biomass burning (BB events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m−3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m−3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m−3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed on average at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m−3, respectively. Equivalent Black Carbon (BCe ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m−3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m−3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe, among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol (BBOA using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the aerosol

  19. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Morgan, W. T.; Coe, H.; Johnson, B.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground-based measurements over Brazil, aimed to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm), occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO), freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ~1000 cm-3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm-3 (during biomass burning (BB) events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m-3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m-3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m-3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed, on average, at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m-3, respectively. Equivalent black carbon (BCe) ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m-3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m-3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe), among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the aerosol processing (O : C ≅ 0

  20. Matching the Best Viewing Angle in Depth Cameras for Biomass Estimation Based on Poplar Seedling Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andújar, Dionisio; Fernández-Quintanilla, César; Dorado, José

    2015-01-01

    In energy crops for biomass production a proper plant structure is important to optimize wood yields. A precise crop characterization in early stages may contribute to the choice of proper cropping techniques. This study assesses the potential of the Microsoft Kinect for Windows v.1 sensor to determine the best viewing angle of the sensor to estimate the plant biomass based on poplar seedling geometry. Kinect Fusion algorithms were used to generate a 3D point cloud from the depth video stream. The sensor was mounted in different positions facing the tree in order to obtain depth (RGB-D) images from different angles. Individuals of two different ages, e.g., one month and one year old, were scanned. Four different viewing angles were compared: top view (0°), 45° downwards view, front view (90°) and ground upwards view (−45°). The ground-truth used to validate the sensor readings consisted of a destructive sampling in which the height, leaf area and biomass (dry weight basis) were measured in each individual plant. The depth image models agreed well with 45°, 90° and −45° measurements in one-year poplar trees. Good correlations (0.88 to 0.92) between dry biomass and the area measured with the Kinect were found. In addition, plant height was accurately estimated with a few centimeters error. The comparison between different viewing angles revealed that top views showed poorer results due to the fact the top leaves occluded the rest of the tree. However, the other views led to good results. Conversely, small poplars showed better correlations with actual parameters from the top view (0°). Therefore, although the Microsoft Kinect for Windows v.1 sensor provides good opportunities for biomass estimation, the viewing angle must be chosen taking into account the developmental stage of the crop and the desired parameters. The results of this study indicate that Kinect is a promising tool for a rapid canopy characterization, i.e., for estimating crop biomass

  1. Woody biomass-based bioenergy development at the Atikokan Power Generating Station: Local perceptions and public opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baten, Cassia Sanzida

    To tackle climate change, reduce air pollution and promote development of renewable energy, the Ontario government is investing in the conversion of the coal-based Atikokan Power Generating Station (APGS) in Atikokan, Ontario, to woody biomass feedstock. This research offers one of the first looks at the perspectives of different individuals and groups on converting woody biomass to energy. Using a combination of study instruments which include literature review, surveys, interviews with key informants, semi-structured interviews, and focus group discussions, this dissertation uses qualitative research to provide a picture of the public's opinions and attitudes towards the APGS biomass energy development. Given Ontario's huge and sustainably managed forest resource, woody biomass is expected to be a major component of renewable energy production in Ontario. The move towards renewable energy that replaces fossil fuels with woody biomass will have considerable socio-economic implications for local and First Nation communities living in and around the bioenergy power generating station. Findings indicate that there is wide support for biomass utilization at the APGS by local people, especially since the project would create sustainable employment. The connection of woody biomass-based energy generation and rural community development provides opportunities and challenges for Atikokan's economic development. Respondents identified economic, environmental and social barriers to biomass utilization, and emphasized trust and transparency as key elements in the successful implementation of the APGS project. As demand for woody biomass-based energy increases, special attention will be needed to ensure and maintain the social, economic and environmental sustainability of biomass use at the APGS. In this research, respondents' views about biomass utilization for energy mainly focused on forest-related issues rather than energy. In Atikokan much of the project's social

  2. Prediction of product distribution in fine biomass pyrolysis in fluidized beds based on proximate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Won

    2015-01-01

    A predictive model was satisfactorily developed to describe the general trends of product distribution in fluidized beds of lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis. The model was made of mass balance based on proximate analysis and an empirical relationship with operating parameters including fluidization hydrodynamics. The empirical relationships between product yields and fluidization conditions in fluidized bed pyrolyzers were derived from the data of this study and literature. The gas and char yields showed strong functions of temperature and vapor residence time in the pyrolyzer. The yields showed a good correlation with fluidization variables related with hydrodynamics and bed mixing. The predicted product yields based on the model well accorded well with the experimental data.

  3. Prediction of pyrolysis kinetic parameters from biomass constituents based on simplex-lattice mixture design☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Panusit Sungsuk; Sasiporn Chayaporn; Sasithorn Sunphorka; Prapan Kuchonthara; Pornpote Piumsomboon; Benjapon Chalermsinsuwan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of the main chemical components of biomass:cel ulose, hemicel-lulose and lignin, on chemical kinetics of biomass pyrolysis. The experiments were designed based on a simplex-lattice mixture design. The pyrolysis was observed by using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The curves obtained from the employed analytical method fit the experimental data (R2 N 0.9). This indicated that this method has the potential to determine the kinetic parameters such as the activation energy (Ea), frequency factor (A) and re-action order (n) for each point of the experimental design. The results obtained from the simplex-lattice mixture design indicated that cellulose had a significant effect on Ea and A, and the interaction between cellulose and lignin had an important effect on the reaction order, n. The proposed models were then proved to be useful for predicting pyrolysis behavior in real biomass and so could be used as a simple approximation for predicting the overall trend of chemical reaction kinetics.

  4. Direct Reduction of High-phosphorus Oolitic Hematite Ore Based on Biomass Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-bo HUANG; Yan-bing ZONG; Ru-fei WEI; Wei GAO; Xiao-ming LIU

    2016-01-01

    Direct reduction of high-phosphorus oolitic hematite ore based on biomass pyrolysis gases (CO,H2 ,and CH4 ),tar,and char was conducted to investigate the effects of reduction temperature,iron ore-biomass mass ratio, and reduction time on the metallization rate.In addition,the effect of particle size on the dephosphorization and iron recovery rate was studied by magnetic separation.It was determined that the metallization rate of the hematite ore could reach 99.35% at iron ore-biomass mass ratio of 1∶0.6,reduction temperature of 1 100 ℃,and reduction time of 5 5 min.The metallization rate and the aggregation degree of iron particles increase with the increase of reduction temperature.The particle size of direct reduced iron (DRI)has a great influence on the quality of the iron concentrate during magnetic separation.The separation degree of slag and iron was improved by the addition of 1 5 mass% sodi-um carbonate.DRI with iron grade of 89.11%,iron recovery rate of 83.47%,and phosphorus content of 0.28% can be obtained when ore fines with particle size of -10μm account for 78.15%.

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from the treatment of household plastic containers and packaging: replacement with biomass-based materials.

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Junya; Hirai, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Shin-ichi; Tsubota, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction that could be achieved by replacement of fossil-derived materials with biodegradable, biomass-based materials for household plastic containers and packaging, considering a variety of their treatment options. The biomass-based materials were 100% polylactide or a combination of polybutylene succinate adipate and polylactide. A scenario analysis was conducted considering alternative recycling metho...

  6. Dynamic relationships between microbial biomass, respiration, inorganic nutrients and enzyme activities: informing enzyme based decomposition models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl L Moorhead

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We re-examined data from a recent litter decay study to determine if additional insights could be gained to inform decomposition modeling. Rinkes et al. (2013 conducted 14-day laboratory incubations of sugar maple (Acer saccharum or white oak (Quercus alba leaves, mixed with sand (0.4% organic C content or loam (4.1% organic C. They measured microbial biomass C, carbon dioxide efflux, soil ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate concentrations, and β-glucosidase (BG, β-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG, and acid phosphatase (AP activities on days 1, 3, and 14. Analyses of relationships among variables yielded different insights than original analyses of individual variables. For example, although respiration rates per g soil were higher for loam than sand, rates per g soil C were actually higher for sand than loam, and rates per g microbial C showed little difference between treatments. Microbial biomass C peaked on day 3 when biomass-specific activities of enzymes were lowest, suggesting uptake of litter C without extracellular hydrolysis. This result refuted a common model assumption that all enzyme production is constitutive and thus proportional to biomass, and/or indicated that part of litter decay is independent of enzyme activity. The length and angle of vectors defined by ratios of enzyme activities (BG/NAG versus BG/AP represent relative microbial investments in C (length, and N and P (angle acquiring enzymes. Shorter lengths on day 3 suggested low C limitation, whereas greater lengths on day 14 suggested an increase in C limitation with decay. The soils and litter in this study generally had stronger P limitation (angles > 45˚. Reductions in vector angles to < 45˚ for sand by day 14 suggested a shift to N limitation. These relational variables inform enzyme-based models, and are usually much less ambiguous when obtained from a single study in which measurements were made on the same samples than when extrapolated from separate studies.

  7. A GLIMPSE-based search for 6.7-GHz Methanol Masers and the lifetime of their spectral features

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, S P

    2007-01-01

    The University of Tasmania Mt Pleasant 26-m and Ceduna 30-m radio telescopes have been used to search for 6.7-GHz class II methanol masers towards two hundred GLIMPSE sources. The target regions were selected on the basis of their mid-infrared colours as being likely to be young high-mass star formation regions and are either bright at 8.0 micron, or have extreme [3.6]-[4.5] colour. Methanol masers were detected towards 38 sites, nine of these being new detections. The prediction was that approximately 20 new 6.7-GHz methanol masers would be detected within 3.5 arcmin of the target GLIMPSE sources, but this is the case for only six of the new detections. A number of possible reasons for the discrepancy between the predicted and actual number of new detections have been investigated. It was not possible to draw any firm conclusions as to the cause, but it may be because many of the target sources are at an evolutionary phase prior to that associated with 6.7-GHz methanol masers. Through comparison of the spect...

  8. A Novel Slurry-Based Biomass Reforming Process Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerson, Sean C. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Davis, Timothy D. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Peles, A. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); She, Ying [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Sheffel, Joshua [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Willigan, Rhonda R. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Vanderspurt, Thomas H. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Zhu, Tianli [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2011-09-30

    This project was focused on developing a catalytic means of producing H2 from raw, ground biomass, such as fast growing poplar trees, willow trees, or switch grass. The use of a renewable, biomass feedstock with minimal processing can enable a carbon neutral means of producing H2 in that the carbon dioxide produced from the process can be used in the environment to produce additional biomass. For economically viable production of H2, the biomass is hydrolyzed and then reformed without any additional purification steps. Any unreacted biomass and other byproduct streams are burned to provide process energy. Thus, the development of a catalyst that can operate in the demanding corrosive environment and presence of potential poisons is vital to this approach. The concept for this project is shown in Figure 1. The initial feed is assumed to be a >5 wt% slurry of ground wood in dilute base, such as potassium carbonate (K2CO3). Base hydrolysis and reforming of the wood is carried out at high but sub-critical pressures and temperatures in the presence of a solid catalyst. A Pd alloy membrane allows the continuous removal of pure , while the retentate, including methane is used as fuel in the plant. The project showed that it is possible to economically produce H2 from woody biomass in a carbon neutral manner. Technoeconomic analyses using HYSYS and the DOE's H2A tool [1] were used to design a 2000 ton day-1 (dry basis) biomass to hydrogen plant with an efficiency of 46% to 56%, depending on the mode of operation and economic assumptions, exceeding the DOE 2012 target of 43%. The cost of producing the hydrogen from such a plant would be in the range of $1/kg H2 to $2/kg H2. By using raw biomass as a feedstock, the cost of producing hydrogen at large biomass consumption rates is more cost effective than steam reforming of hydrocarbons or biomass gasification and can achieve the overall cost goals of the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program. The complete conversion of wood

  9. A Novel Slurry-Based Biomass Reforming Process Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerson, Sean C. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Davis, Timothy D. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Peles, A. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); She, Ying [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Sheffel, Joshua [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Willigan, Rhonda R. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Vanderspurt, Thomas H. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Zhu, Tianli [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2011-09-30

    This project was focused on developing a catalytic means of producing H2 from raw, ground biomass, such as fast growing poplar trees, willow trees, or switch grass. The use of a renewable, biomass feedstock with minimal processing can enable a carbon neutral means of producing H2 in that the carbon dioxide produced from the process can be used in the environment to produce additional biomass. For economically viable production of H2, the biomass is hydrolyzed and then reformed without any additional purification steps. Any unreacted biomass and other byproduct streams are burned to provide process energy. Thus, the development of a catalyst that can operate in the demanding corrosive environment and presence of potential poisons is vital to this approach. The concept for this project is shown in Figure 1. The initial feed is assumed to be a >5 wt% slurry of ground wood in dilute base, such as potassium carbonate (K2CO3). Base hydrolysis and reforming of the wood is carried out at high but sub-critical pressures and temperatures in the presence of a solid catalyst. A Pd alloy membrane allows the continuous removal of pure , while the retentate, including methane is used as fuel in the plant. The project showed that it is possible to economically produce H2 from woody biomass in a carbon neutral manner. Technoeconomic analyses using HYSYS and the DOE's H2A tool [1] were used to design a 2000 ton day-1 (dry basis) biomass to hydrogen plant with an efficiency of 46% to 56%, depending on the mode of operation and economic assumptions, exceeding the DOE 2012 target of 43%. The cost of producing the hydrogen from such a plant would be in the range of $1/kg H2 to $2/kg H2. By using raw biomass as a feedstock, the cost of producing hydrogen at large biomass consumption rates is more cost effective than steam reforming of hydrocarbons or biomass gasification and can achieve the overall cost goals of the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program. The complete conversion of wood

  10. Fuzzy Multi-actor Multi-criteria Decision Making for Sustainability Assessment of biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Fedele, Andrea; Mason, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a sustainability assessment method to rank the prior sequence of biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production. A novel fuzzy Multi-actor Multi-criteria Decision Making method which allows multiple groups of decision-makers to use linguistic variables...... to assess the biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production has been developed. Fifteen criteria relevant to in economic, environmental, technological and social-political aspects have been used in sustainability assessment. Four biomass-based technologies including pyrolysis, conventional gasification......, supercritical water gasification and fermentative hydrogen production have been studied by the proposed method, and biomass gasification has been considered as the most sustainable scenario and can be chosen for further development....

  11. Prediction of the chromatographic retention of acid-base compounds in pH buffered methanol-water mobile phases in gradient mode by a simplified model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Axel; Rosés, Martí; Bosch, Elisabeth

    2015-03-13

    Retention of ionizable analytes under gradient elution depends on the pH of the mobile phase, the pKa of the analyte and their evolution along the programmed gradient. In previous work, a model depending on two fitting parameters was recommended because of its very favorable relationship between accuracy and required experimental work. It was developed using acetonitrile as the organic modifier and involves pKa modeling by means of equations that take into account the acidic functional group of the compound (carboxylic acid, protonated amine, etc.). In this work, the two-parameter predicting model is tested and validated using methanol as the organic modifier of the mobile phase and several compounds of higher pharmaceutical relevance and structural complexity as testing analytes. The results have been quite good overall, showing that the predicting model is applicable to a wide variety of acid-base compounds using mobile phases prepared with acetonitrile or methanol.

  12. Rhodium based clusters for oxygen reduction and hydrogen oxidation in 0.5 M H2SO4, tolerant to methanol and carbon monoxide, respectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe-Godinez, J.; Jimenez-Sandoval, O.; Borja-Arco, E.; Altamirano-Gutierrez, A. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Queritaro (Mexico); Castellanos, R.H. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    Rhodium (Rh6(CO)16) and novel Rh-based clusters were prepared using thermolysis techniques under different conditions in N2 and H2 reaction media, as well as in n-nonane, o-xylene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene and dimethylsulfoxide. The clusters were used as novel electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in the absence and presence of 1.0 and 2.0 M methanol solutions. The catalysts were also used for hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) with pure hydrogen (H2) and in the presence of carbon monoxide (CO). Rotating disk electrode measurements were used to analyze the materials. The study showed that the electrocatalyst support ratio plays a significant role in the electrochemical behaviour of the materials. Rh6(CO)16 and Rh2(1,2-DCB) presented the best electrocatalytic behaviour for ORR and HOR in the absence and presence of methanol and CO. The study demonstrated that the rhodium-based materials are capable of performing ORR and HOR while being tolerant of both methanol and CO. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Effect of the components' interface on the synthesis of methanol over Cu/ZnO from CO2/H2: a microkinetic analysis based on DFT + U calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qian-Lin; Zou, Wen-Tian; Huang, Run-Kun; Wang, Qi; Duan, Xiao-Xuan

    2015-03-21

    The elucidation of chemical reactions occurring on composite systems (e.g., copper (Cu)/zincite (ZnO)) from first principles is a challenging task because of their very large sizes and complicated equilibrium geometries. By combining the density functional theory plus U (DFT + U) method with microkinetic modeling, the present study has investigated the role of the phase boundary in CO2 hydrogenation to methanol over Cu/ZnO. The absence of hydrogenation locations created by the interface between the two catalyst components was revealed based on the calculated turnover frequency under realistic conditions, in which the importance of interfacial copper to provide spillover hydrogen for remote Cu(111) sites was stressed. Coupled with the fact that methanol production on the binary catalyst was recently believed to predominantly involve the bulk metallic surface, the spillover of interface hydrogen atoms onto Cu(111) facets facilitates the production process. The cooperative influence of the two different kinds of copper sites can be rationalized applying the Brönsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relationship and allows us to find that the catalytic activity of ZnO-supported Cu catalysts is of volcano type with decrease in the particle size. Our results here may have useful implications in the future design of new Cu/ZnO-based materials for CO2 transformation to methanol.

  14. Experimental Characterization of the Poisoning Effects of Methanol-Based Reformate Impurities on a PBI-Based High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    surface area is investigated by means of impedance spectroscopy. The concentrations in the anode feed gas of all impurities, unconverted methanol-water vapor mixture, CO and CO2 were varied along with current density according to a multilevel factorial design of experiments. Results show that all......In this work the effects of reformate gas impurities on a H3PO4-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane-based high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) are studied. A unit cell assembly with a BASF Celtec®-P2100 high temperature membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of 45 cm2 active...... the impurities degrade the performance, with CO being the most degrading agent and CO2 the least. The factorial analysis shows that there is interdependence among the effects of the different factors considered. This interdependence suggests, for example, that tolerances to concentrations of CO above 2% may...

  15. Novel strategy of using methyl esters as slow release methanol source during lipase expression by mut+ Pichia pastoris X33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Arti; Gupta, Rani

    2014-01-01

    One of the major issues with heterologous production of proteins in Pichia pastoris X33 under AOX1 promoter is repeated methanol induction. To obviate repeated methanol induction, methyl esters were used as a slow release source of methanol in lipase expressing mut+ recombinant. Experimental design was based on the strategy that in presence of lipase, methyl esters can be hydrolysed to release their products as methanol and fatty acid. Hence, upon break down of methyl esters by lipase, first methanol will be used as a carbon source and inducer. Then P. pastoris can switch over to fatty acid as a carbon source for multiplication and biomass maintenance till further induction by methyl esters. We validated this strategy using recombinant P. pastoris expressing Lip A, Lip C from Trichosporon asahii and Lip11 from Yarrowia lipolytica. We found that the optimum lipase yield under repeated methanol induction after 120 h was 32866 U/L, 28271 U/L and 21978 U/L for Lip C, Lip A and Lip 11 respectively. In addition, we found that a single dose of methyl ester supported higher production than repeated methanol induction. Among various methyl esters tested, methyl oleate (0.5%) caused 1.2 fold higher yield for LipA and LipC and 1.4 fold for Lip11 after 120 h of induction. Sequential utilization of methanol and oleic acid by P. pastoris was observed and was supported by differential peroxisome proliferation studies by transmission electron microscopy. Our study identifies a novel strategy of using methyl esters as slow release methanol source during lipase expression.

  16. Novel strategy of using methyl esters as slow release methanol source during lipase expression by mut+ Pichia pastoris X33.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Kumari

    Full Text Available One of the major issues with heterologous production of proteins in Pichia pastoris X33 under AOX1 promoter is repeated methanol induction. To obviate repeated methanol induction, methyl esters were used as a slow release source of methanol in lipase expressing mut+ recombinant. Experimental design was based on the strategy that in presence of lipase, methyl esters can be hydrolysed to release their products as methanol and fatty acid. Hence, upon break down of methyl esters by lipase, first methanol will be used as a carbon source and inducer. Then P. pastoris can switch over to fatty acid as a carbon source for multiplication and biomass maintenance till further induction by methyl esters. We validated this strategy using recombinant P. pastoris expressing Lip A, Lip C from Trichosporon asahii and Lip11 from Yarrowia lipolytica. We found that the optimum lipase yield under repeated methanol induction after 120 h was 32866 U/L, 28271 U/L and 21978 U/L for Lip C, Lip A and Lip 11 respectively. In addition, we found that a single dose of methyl ester supported higher production than repeated methanol induction. Among various methyl esters tested, methyl oleate (0.5% caused 1.2 fold higher yield for LipA and LipC and 1.4 fold for Lip11 after 120 h of induction. Sequential utilization of methanol and oleic acid by P. pastoris was observed and was supported by differential peroxisome proliferation studies by transmission electron microscopy. Our study identifies a novel strategy of using methyl esters as slow release methanol source during lipase expression.

  17. Methanol gasoline quantitative analysis based on NIR spectroscopy%近红外光谱的甲醇汽油定量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    淡图南; 戴连奎

    2011-01-01

    of methanol gasoline.Firstly, the preprocessing spectrum was produced by calculate the First-order Differential and Standard Normal Transformation of the spectral data.Secondly, spectra range from 1370 to 1450 nm was selected to distinguish methanol gasoline from normal gasoline based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA).Finally, quantitative analysis model of methanol was established by Partial Least Squares (PLS) method with spectra range from 1100 to 1650 nm.24 methanol gasoline examples were obtained in laboratory for this experiment, and the analysis result shows a standard error of cross validation (SECV) of 0.62 (%,v/v).It is strongly proved that NIR spectroscopy can be used in determining methanol content of methanol gasoline and it can meet the practical testing demand of most methanol gasoline production company very well.The last part of this paper discussed the affection of different spectral wavelength on the model accuracy.The results show that the spectra band of 1350~1650 nm contains most of the information about methanol content, but the SECV values of the full spectrum model and wavelength-selected model vary slightly.

  18. Assessment of active methanogenic archaea in a methanol-fed upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrillo, Míriam; Morey, Lluís; Viñas, Marc; Bonmatí, August

    2016-12-01

    Methanogenic archaea enrichment of a granular sludge was undertaken in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor fed with methanol in order to enrich methylotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic populations. A microbial community assessment, in terms of microbial composition and activity-throughout the different stages of the feeding process with methanol and acetate-was performed using specific methanogenic activity (SMA) assays, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and high-throughput sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes from DNA and complementary DNA (cDNA). Distinct methanogenic enrichment was revealed by qPCR of mcrA gene in the methanol-fed community, being two orders of magnitude higher with respect to the initial inoculum, achieving a final mcrA/16S rRNA ratio of 0.25. High-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that the resulting methanogenic population was mainly composed by methylotrophic archaea (Methanomethylovorans and Methanolobus genus), being also highly active according to the RNA-based assessment. SMA confirmed that the methylotrophic pathway, with a direct conversion of methanol to CH4, was the main step of methanol degradation in the UASB. The biomass from the UASB, enriched in methanogenic archaea, may bear great potential as additional inoculum for bioreactors to carry out biogas production and other related processes.

  19. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuvien dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y.; Wilen, C.

    1995-12-31

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (a) suitability to small scale electricity production (< 5-10 MWe), (b) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (c) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (a) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (b) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers

  20. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuen dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (1) suitability to small scale electricity production (<5-10 MWe), (2) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (3) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (1) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (2) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers. The studies are scheduled to be completed in March 1996. (author)

  1. Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Puneet

    of ethanol produced at the mill was found to be 3.2. The unit cost of production of ethanol was estimated to be $2.05 per gasoline gallon energy equivalent. The study also found that the emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets will significantly increase land expectation values and, thus, the profitability of landowners. Results suggest that the optimal rotation age is insensible to alternate management scenarios. Finally, it was found that all stakeholder groups perceive that the overall benefits of forest biomass-based bioenergy development were higher than its weaknesses.

  2. Development of Ni-Based Catalysts for Steam Reforming of Tar Derived from Biomass Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dalin LI; Yoshinao NAKAGAWA; Keiichi TOMISHIGE

    2012-01-01

    Nickel catalysts are effective for the steam reforming of tar derived from biomass pyrolysis,but the improvement is needed in terms of activity,stability,suppression of coke deposition and aggregation,and regeneration.Our recent development of Ni-based catalysts for the steam reforming of tar is reviewed including the modification with CeO2 (or MnO),trace Pt,and MgO.The role of additives such as CeO2,MnO,Pt,and MgO is also discussed.

  3. Gasohol - Analysis and biomass alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    The economics of fermentation ethanol as a near-term alternative to liquid hydrocarbon fuels are analyzed and alternatives to grain-fermented ethanol are examined. Based on estimates of raw material and production costs and energy consumption, it is shown that net production costs for alcohol fuel from corn amount to $2.14/gallon, with no significant net consumption or gain in energy. It is also pointed out that the use of grain for alcohol production will influence quantities available for livestock production and export, and that land available for grain production is limited. Consideration is then given to the economic potential of using cellulosic biomass from agricultural and forest residues in the production of ethanol fuels and coal gasification for methanol production, and it is pointed out that these alternatives offer economic, energy and oil-savings advantages over ethanol production from grains.

  4. Design and System Analysis of Quad-Generation Plant Based on Biomass Gasification Integrated with District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman

    This thesis presents the development of energy system for simulation, techno-economic optimization and design of a quad-generation energy system based on biomass gasification. An efficient way of reducing CO2 emission from the environment is by increasing the use of biomass in the energy sector......, it possible to lay a foundation for future gasification based power sector to produce flexible output such as electricity, heat, chemicals or bio-fuels by improving energy system of existing DHP(district heating plant) integrating gasification technology. The present study investigate energy system....... Different biomass resources are used to generate heat and electricity, to produce gas fuel like bio-SNG (synthesis natural gas) and also to produce liquid fuels, such as ethanol, and biodiesel. Due to the fact that the trend of establishing new and modern plants for handling and processing biomass...

  5. Insights on the effective incorporation of a foam-based methanol reformer in a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgouropoulos, George; Papavasiliou, Joan; Ioannides, Theophilos; Neophytides, Stylianos

    2015-11-01

    Highly active Al-doped CuMnOx catalyst supported on metallic copper foam was prepared via the combustion method and placed adjacent to the anode electrocatalyst of a high temperature PEM fuel cell operating at 200-210 °C. The addition of aluminum oxide in the catalyst composition enhanced the specific surface area (19.1 vs. 8.6 m2 g-1) and the reducibility of the Cu-Mn spinel oxide. Accordingly, the catalytic performance of CuMnOx was also improved. The doped sample is up to 2.5 times more active than the undoped sample at 200 °C, depending on the methanol concentration at the inlet, while CO selectivity is less than 0.8% in all cases. A membrane-electrode assembly comprising the ADVENT cross-linked TPS® high-temperature polymer electrolyte was integrated with the Cu-based methanol reformer in an Internal Reforming Methanol Fuel Cell (IRMFC). In order to avoid extensive poisoning of the reforming catalyst by H3PO4, a thin separation plate was placed between the reforming catalyst and the electrooxidation catalyst. Preliminary results obtained from a single-cell laboratory prototype demonstrated the improved functionality of the unit. Indeed, promising electrochemical performance was obtained during the first 24 h, during which the required H2 for achieving 580 mV at 0.2 A cm-2, was supplied from the reformer.

  6. The Methanol Miracle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Methanol already makes a good fuel for camp stoves and even for a few cars. But in the future,say botanist Arthur Nonomura and biochemist Andrew Benson,methanol may fuel an agricultural revolution in hot and dry regions of the world. When the researchers recently sprayed diluted solutions of methanol on crops at Nonomura’s Arizona farm,they found they could double yields in some cases and halve water consumption in others.

  7. Techno-Economic Assessment of a Biomass-Based Cogeneration Plant with CO2 Capture and Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, N

    2004-01-01

    Reduction of CO2 emissions from energy systems could be achieved through: CO2 capture and storage, energy savings, fuel switching among fossil fuels, increased use of renewable energy sources, and nuclear power. In addition, atmospheric CO2 reduction could also be achieved through increasing the carbon stock in soils and standing biomass. The CO2 capture and storage option for mitigating CO2 emissions from biomass-based cogeneration plants, considering critical aspects such future development...

  8. Characterisation and use of biomass fly ash in cement-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamma, Rejini; Ball, Richard J; Tarelho, Luís A C; Allen, Geoff C; Labrincha, João A; Ferreira, Victor M

    2009-12-30

    This paper presents results about the characterisation of the biomass fly ashes sourced from a thermal power plant and from a co-generation power plant located in Portugal, and the study of new cement formulations incorporated with the biomass fly ashes. The study includes a comparative analysis of the phase formation, setting and mechanical behaviour of the new cement-fly ash formulations based on these biomass fly ashes. Techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and environmental scanning electron spectroscopy (ESEM) were used to determine the structure and composition of the formulations. Fly ash F1 from the thermal power plant contained levels of SiO(2), Al(2)O(3) and Fe(2)O(3) indicating the possibility of exhibiting pozzolanic properties. Fly ash F2 from the co-generation plant contained a higher quantity of CaO ( approximately 25%). The fly ashes are similar to class C fly ashes according to EN 450 on the basis of chemical composition. The hydration rate and phase formation are greatly dependant on the samples' alkali content and water to binder (w/b) ratio. In cement based mortar with 10% fly ash the basic strength was maintained, however, when 20% fly ash was added the mechanical strength was around 75% of the reference cement mortar. The fly ashes contained significant levels of chloride and sulphate and it is suggested that the performance of fly ash-cement binders could be improved by the removal or control of these chemical species.

  9. Cyclophosphazene based conductive polymer-carbon nanotube composite as novel supporting material for methanol fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, Dakshinamoorthy; Selvaraj, Vaithilingam

    2016-06-15

    This present study reports the development of novel catalyst support of amine terminated cyclophosphazene/cyclophosphazene/hexafluoroisopropylidenedianiline-carbon nanotube (ATCP/CP/HFPA-CNT) composite. The ATCP/CP/HFPA-CNT composite has been used as a catalyst support for platinum (Pt) and platinum-gold (Pt-Au) nanoparticles towards electrooxidation of methanol in alkaline medium. The obtained anode materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Electrocatalytic performances of Pt/ATCP/CP/HFPA-CNT and Pt-Au/ATCP/CP/HFPA-CNT catalysts were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, CO stripping and chronoamperometric techniques. The electrooxidation of methanol and CO stripping results conclude that the metal nanocatalyst embedded with ATCP/CP/HFPA-CNT composite shows significantly higher anodic oxidation current, more CO tolerance and lower onset potential when compared to that of the Pt/CNT and Pt/C (Vulcan carbon) catalysts.

  10. Porous Pt Nanotubes with High Methanol Oxidation Electrocatalytic Activity Based on Original Bamboo-Shaped Te Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yue; Li, Chunguang; Gao, Xuedong; Bai, Tianyu; Chen, Cailing; Huang, He; Liang, Chen; Shi, Zhan; Feng, Shouhua

    2016-06-29

    In this report, a facile and general strategy was developed to synthesize original bamboo-shaped Te nanotubes (NTs) with well-controlled size and morphology. On the basis of the as-prepared Te NTs, porous Pt nanotubes (NTs) with excellent property and structural stability have been designed and manufactured. Importantly, we avoided the use of surface stabilizing agents, which may affect the catalytic properties during the templated synthesis process. Furthermore, Pt NTs with different morphology were successfully prepared by tuning the experimental parameters. As a result, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study shows that both Te NTs and Pt NTs have uniform size and morphology. Following cyclic voltammogram (CV) testing, the as-prepared porous Pt NTs and macroporous Pt NTs exhibited excellent catalytic activities toward electrochemical methanol oxidation reactions due to their tubiform structure with nanoporous framework. Thus, the as-prepared Pt NTs with specific porous structure hold potential usage as alternative anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs).

  11. Ground based characterization of biomass burning aerosols during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment in Brazil during Sept - Oct 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Varanda Rizzo, Luciana; Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Freitas, Saulo; Coe, Hugh

    2013-04-01

    Biomass burning is one of the major drivers for atmospheric composition in the Southern hemisphere. In Amazonia, deforestation rates have been steadily decreasing, from 27,000 Km² in 2004 to about 5,000 Km² in 2011. This large reduction (by factor 5) was not followed by similar reduction in aerosol loading in the atmosphere due to the increase in agricultural fires. AERONET measurements from 5 sites show a large year-to year variability due to climatic and socio-economic issues. Besides this strong reduction in deforestation rate, biomass burning emissions in Amazonia increases concentrations of aerosol particles, CO, ozone and other species, and also change the surface radiation balance in a significant way. To complement the long term biomass burning measurements in Amazonia, it was organized in 2012 the intensive campaign of the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) experiment with an airborne and a ground based components. A sampling site was set up at Porto Velho, with measurements of aerosol size distribution, optical properties such as absorption and scattering at several wavelengths, organic aerosol characterization with an ACSM - Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. CO, CO2 and O3 were also measured to characterize combustion efficiency and photochemical processes. Filters for trace elements measured by XRF and for OC/EC determined using a Sunset instrument were also collected. An AERONET CIMEL sunphotometer was operated in parallel with a multifilter radiometer (MFR). A large data set was collected from August to October 2012. PM2.5 aerosol concentrations up to 250 ug/m3 were measured, with up to 20 ug/m3 of black carbon. Ozone went up to 60 ppb at mid-day in August. At night time ozone was consumed completely most of the time. ACSM shows that more than 85% of the aerosol mass was organic with a clear diurnal pattern. The organic aerosol volatility was very variable depending on the air mass sampled over Porto Velho. Aerosol optical depth at

  12. Digital image processing based identification of nodes and internodes of chopped biomass stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical composition of biomass feedstock is an important parameter for optimizing the yield and economics of various bioconversion pathways. Although understandably, the chemical composition of biomass varies among species, varieties, and plant components, there is distinct variation even among ste...

  13. Investigation of nano Pt and Pt-based alloys electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells and their properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunguang Suo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The electrocatalysts used in micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC, such as Pt/C and Pt alloy/C, prepared by liquid-phase NaBH4 reduction method have been investigated. XC-72 (Cobalt corp. Company, U.S.A is chosen as the activated carrier for the electrocatalysts to keep the catalysts powder in the range of several nanometers. The XRD, SEM, EDX analyses indicated that the catalysts had small particle size in several nanometers, in excellent dispersed phase and the molar ratio of the precious metals was found to be optimal. The performances of the DMFCs using cathodic catalyst with Pt percentage of 30wt% and different anodic catalysts (Pt-Ru, Pt-Ru-Mo were tested. The polarization curves and power density curves of the cells were measured to determine the optimal alloy composition and condition for the electrocatalysts. The results showed that the micro direct methanol fuel cell with 30wt% Pt/C as the cathodic catalyst and n(Pt:n(Ru:n(Mo = 3:2:2 PtRuMo/C as the anodic catalyst at room temperature using 2.0mol/L methanol solution has the best performances.

  14. Synthesis of PtNi Alloy Nanoparticles on Graphene-Based Polymer Nanohybrids for Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Yuan Yung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We have successfully produced bimetallic PtNi alloy nanoparticles on poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA-modified graphene nanosheets (PtNi/PDDA-G by the “one-pot” hydrothermal method. The size of PtNi alloy nanoparticles is approximately 2–5 nm. The PDDA-modified graphene nanosheets (PDDA-G provides an anchored site for metal precursors; hence, the PtNi nanoparticles could be easily bond on the PDDA-G substrate. PtNi alloy nanoparticles (2–5 nm display a homogenous alloy phase embedded on the PDDA-G substrate, evaluated by Raman, X-ray diffractometer (XRD, thermal gravity analysis (TGA, electron surface chemical analysis (ESCA, and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS. The Pt/Ni ratio of PtNi alloy nanoparticles is ~1.7, examined by the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS spectra of transmitting electron microscopy (EDS/TEM spectra and mapping technique. The methanol electro-oxidation of PtNi/PDDA-G was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV in 0.5 M of H2SO4 and 0.5 M of CH3OH. Compared to Pt on carbon nanoparticles (Pt/C and Pt on Graphene (Pt/G, the PtNi/PDDA-G exhibits the optimal electrochemical surface area (ECSA, methanol oxidation reaction (MOR activity, and durability by chrono amperometry (CA test, which can be a candidate for MOR in the electro-catalysis of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC.

  15. ZERO-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF A DIMETHYL ETHER (DME) PLANT BASED ON GASIFICATION OF TORREFIED BIOMASS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2009-01-01

    A model of a DME fuel production plant was designed and analyzed in Aspen Plus. The plant produces DME by catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of torrefied woody biomass. Torrefication is a mild pyrolysis process that takes place at 200-300°C. Torrefied biomass has properties...... % (LHV) from torrefied biomass to DME and 70 % (LHV) if the exported electricity is included. When accounting for raw, untreated biomass, the efficiency for DME production is reduced to about 60 %....

  16. First Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this second volume cover Transportation Fuels, and Chemicals and Products. Transportation Fuels topics include: Biodiesel, Pyrolytic Liquids, Ethanol, Methanol and Ethers, and Commercialization. The Chemicals and Products section includes specific topics in: Research, Technology Transfer, and Commercial Systems. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Particle Morphology Analysis of Biomass Material Based on Improved Image Processing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhaolin; Hu, Xiaojuan; Lu, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Particle morphology, including size and shape, is an important factor that significantly influences the physical and chemical properties of biomass material. Based on image processing technology, a method was developed to process sample images, measure particle dimensions, and analyse the particle size and shape distributions of knife-milled wheat straw, which had been preclassified into five nominal size groups using mechanical sieving approach. Considering the great variation of particle size from micrometer to millimeter, the powders greater than 250 μm were photographed by a flatbed scanner without zoom function, and the others were photographed using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with high-image resolution. Actual imaging tests confirmed the excellent effect of backscattered electron (BSE) imaging mode of SEM. Particle aggregation is an important factor that affects the recognition accuracy of the image processing method. In sample preparation, the singulated arrangement and ultrasonic dispersion methods were used to separate powders into particles that were larger and smaller than the nominal size of 250 μm. In addition, an image segmentation algorithm based on particle geometrical information was proposed to recognise the finer clustered powders. Experimental results demonstrated that the improved image processing method was suitable to analyse the particle size and shape distributions of ground biomass materials and solve the size inconsistencies in sieving analysis.

  18. Simulated performance of biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant for community scale application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Mondal, P.; Ghosh, S.

    2016-07-01

    Thermal performance analysis and sizing of a biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant (CPR) is reported in this study. The plant is capable of producing 100 kWe of electrical output while simultaneously producing a refrigeration effect, varying from 28-68 ton of refrigeration (TR). The topping gas turbine cycle is an indirectly heated all-air cycle. A combustor heat exchanger duplex (CHX) unit burns producer gas and transfer heat to air. This arrangement avoids complex gas cleaning requirements for the biomass-derived producer gas. The exhaust air of the topping GT is utilized to run a bottoming ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) cycle via a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), steam produced in the HRSG supplying heat to the generator of the refrigeration cycle. Effects of major operating parameters like topping cycle pressure ratio (rp) and turbine inlet temperature (TIT) on the energetic performance of the plant are studied. Energetic performance of the plant is evaluated via energy efficiency, required biomass consumption and fuel energy savings ratio (FESR). The FESR calculation method is significant for indicating the savings in fuel of a combined power and process heat plant instead of separate plants for power and process heat. The study reveals that, topping cycle attains maximum power efficiency of 30%in pressure ratio range of 8-10. Up to a certain value of pressure ratio the required air flow rate through the GT unit decreases with increase in pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The capacity of refrigeration of the AAR unit initially decreases up to a certain value of topping GT cycle pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The FESR is found to be maximized at a pressure ratio of 9 (when TIT=1100°C), the maximum value being 53%. The FESR is higher for higher TIT. The heat exchanger sizing is also influenced by the topping cycle pressure ratio and GT-TIT.

  19. Nontraditional Use of Biomass at Certified Forest Management Units: Forest Biomass for Energy Production and Carbon Emissions Reduction in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep S. Suntana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass conversion technologies that produce energy and reduce carbon emissions have become more feasible to develop. This paper analyzes the potential of converting biomass into biomethanol at forest management units experiencing three forest management practices (community-based forest management (CBFM, plantation forest (PF, and natural production forest (NPF. Dry aboveground biomass collected varied considerably: 0.26–2.16 Mg/ha/year (CBFM, 8.08–8.35 Mg/ha/year (NPF, and 36.48–63.55 Mg/ha/year (PF. If 5% of the biomass was shifted to produce biomethanol for electricity production, the NPF and PF could provide continuous power to 138 and 2,762 households, respectively. Dedicating 5% of the biomass was not a viable option from one CBFM unit. However, if all biomasses were converted, the CBFM could provide electricity to 19–27 households. If 100% biomass from two selected PF was dedicated to biomethanol production: (1 52,200–72,600 households could be provided electricity for one year; (2 142–285% of the electricity demand in Jambi province could be satisfied; (3 all gasoline consumed in Jambi, in 2009, would be replaced. The net carbon emissions avoided could vary from 323 to 8,503 Mg when biomethanol was substituted for the natural gas methanol in fuel cells and from 294 to 7,730 Mg when it was used as a gasoline substitute.

  20. Depolymerization of organosolv lignin using doped porous metal oxides in supercritical methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Genoa; Hansen, Thomas S; Riisager, Anders; Beach, Evan S; Barta, Katalin; Anastas, Paul T

    2014-06-01

    An isolated, solvent-extracted lignin from candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) biomass was subjected to catalytic depolymerization in the presence of supercritical methanol, using a range of porous metal oxides derived from hydrotalcite-like precursors. The most effective catalysts in terms of lignin conversion to methanol-soluble products, without char formation, were based on copper in combination with other dopants based on relatively earth-abundant metals. Nearly complete conversion of lignin to bio-oil composed of monomers and low-mass oligomers with high aromatic content was obtained in 6h at 310°C using a catalyst based on a Cu- and La-doped hydrotalcite-like precursor. Product mixtures were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, and GC-MS.

  1. Possible incorporation of petroleum-based carbons in biochemicals produced by bioprocess--biomass carbon ratio measured by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunioka, Masao

    2010-06-01

    The biomass carbon ratios of biochemicals related to biomass have been reviewed. Commercial products from biomass were explained. The biomass carbon ratios of biochemical compounds were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) based on the (14)C concentration of carbons in the compounds. This measuring method uses the mechanism that biomass carbons include a very low level of (14)C and petroleum carbons do not include (14)C similar to the carbon dating measuring method. It was confirmed that there were some biochemicals synthesized from petroleum-based carbons. This AMS method has a high accuracy with a small standard deviation and can be applied to plastic products.

  2. Cobalt- and iron-based nanoparticles hosted in SBA-15 mesoporous silica and activated carbon from biomass: Effect of modification procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoncheva, Tanya; Genova, Izabela; Paneva, Daniela; Dimitrov, Momtchil; Tsyntsarski, Boyko; Velinov, Nicolay; Ivanova, Radostina; Issa, Gloria; Kovacheva, Daniela; Budinova, Temenujka; Mitov, Ivan; Petrov, Narzislav

    2015-10-01

    Ordered mesoporous silica of SBA-15 type and activated carbon, prepared from waste biomass (peach stones), are used as host matrix of nanosized iron and cobalt particles. The effect of preparation procedure on the state of loaded nanoparticles is in the focus of investigation. The obtained materials are characterized by Boehm method, low temperature physisorption of nitrogen, XRD, UV-Vis, FTIR, Mossbauer spectroscopy and temperature programmed reduction with hydrogen. The catalytic behaviour of the samples is tested in methanol decomposition. The dispersion, oxidative state and catalytic behaviour of loaded cobalt and iron nanoparticles are successfully tuned both by the nature of porous support and the metal precursor used during the samples preparation. Facile effect of active phase deposition from aqueous solution of nitrate precursors is assumed for activated carbon support. For the silica based materials the catalytic activity could be significantly improved when cobalt acetylacetonate is used during the modification. The complex effect of pore topology and surface functionality of different supports on the active phase formation is discussed.

  3. Challenges of Biomass in a Development Model Based on Renewable Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros, F.; González-González, A.; Ruiz-Celma, A.; López-Rodríguez, F.; García-Sanz-Calcedo, J.; García, J. A.; Mena, A.

    Although fire has been known to mankind for about 500,000 years, the implementation of biomass energy in the world has barely changed since then, having been used mainly for heat production. To this end, an estimated global consumption of biomass accounts for 10.6% of total world consumption of primary energy. However, the use of biomass as transportation fuel or for generation of electricity is not displayed in the annual world, European, or national statistics, as if its contribution to primary energy consumption was insignificant. What is the reason behind this? Why is the development of biomass only limited to its thermal use? Why is the production of biomass for electricity and transportation purposes not increasing? And what is then happening to biomass? The present article addresses issues that, in our view, limit the incursion of biomass in current energy systems and provides some answers to solve them.

  4. Biomass-based gasifiers for internal combustion (IC) engines—A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashish Malik; S K Mohapatra

    2013-06-01

    The world is facing severe problems of energy crisis and environmental problem. This situation makes people to focus their attention on sustainable energy resources for their survival. Biomass is recognized to be the major potential source for energy production. There are ranges of biomass utilization technologies that produce useful energy from biomass. Gasification is one of the important techniques out of direct combustion, anaerobic digestion – Biogas, ethanol production. Gasification enables conversion of these materials into combustible gas (producer gas), mechanical and electrical power, synthetic fuels, and chemical. The gasification of biomass into useful fuel enhances its potential as a renewable energy resource. This paper gives a comprehensive review of the techniques used for utilizing biomass, experimental investigation on biomass fuels, characterization, merits, demerits and challenges faced by biomass fuels.

  5. Methanol exchange between grassland and the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Brunner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations and fluxes of methanol were measured above two differently managed grassland fields (intensive and extensive in central Switzerland during summer 2004. The measurements were performed with a proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometer and fluxes were determined by the eddy covariance method. The observed methanol emission showed a distinct diurnal cycle and was strongly correlated with global radiation and water vapour flux. Mean and maximum daily emissions were found to depend on grassland species composition and, for the intensive field, also on the growing state. The extensive field with a more complex species composition had higher emissions than the graminoid-dominated intensive field, both on an area and on a biomass basis. A simple parameterisation depending on the water vapour flux and the leaf area index allowed a satisfying simulation of the temporal variation of methanol emissions over the growing phase. Accumulated carbon losses due to methanol emissions accounted for 0.024 and 0.048% of net primary productivity for the intensive and extensive field, respectively. The integral methanol emissions over the growing periods were more than one order of magnitude higher than the emissions related to cut and drying events.

  6. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  7. [Transferability of remote sensing-based models for estimating moso bamboo forest aboveground biomass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao-Lin; Du, Hua-Qiang; Zhou, Guo-Mo; Xu, Xiao-Jun; Gui, Zu-Yun

    2012-09-01

    Taking the moso bamboo production areas Lin'an, Anji, and Longquan in Zhejiang Province of East China as study areas, and based on the integration of field survey data and Landsat 5 Thematic Mappr images, five models for estimating the moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens) forest biomass were constructed by using linear, nonlinear, stepwise regression, multiple regression, and Erf-BP neural network, and the models were evaluated. The models with higher precision were then transferred to the study areas for examining the model's transferability. The results indicated that for the three moso bamboo production areas, Erf-BP neural network model presented the highest precision, followed by stepwise regression and nonlinear models. The Erf-BP neural network model had the best transferability. Model type and independent variables had relatively high effects on the transferability of statistical-based models.

  8. Steam generation unit in a simple version of biomass based small cogeneration unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sornek Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic Rankine cycle (ORC is a very promising process for the conversion of low or medium temperature heat to electricity in small and micro scale biomass powered systems. Classic ORC is analogous to Clausius–Rankine cycle in a steam power plant, but instead of water it uses low boiling, organic working fluids. Seeking energy and economical optimization of biomass-based ORC systems, we have proposed some modifications e.g. in low boiling fluid circuit construction. Due to the fact that the operation of a micro steam turbine is rather inefficient from the technical and economic point of view, a specially modified air compressor can be used as a steam piston engine. Such engine should be designed to work at low pressure of the working medium. Studies regarding the first version of the prototype installation were focused on the confirmation of applicability of a straw boiler in the prototype ORC power system. The results of the previous studies and the studies described in the paper (on the new cogeneration unit confirmed the high potential of the developed solution. Of course, many further studies have to be carried out.

  9. Chemical and physical characterisation of biomass-based pyrolysis oils. Literature view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagernaes, L. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1995-12-31

    Biomass-based pyrolysis oils are complex mixtures of mainly organic compounds and water. The determination of their physical and chemical properties and chemical composition is a challenge for researchers. Characterisation of biomass pyrolysis oils has been studied at many universities in North America and Europe in the 1980s and 1990s. The existing literature on the analytical methods used for these oils is reviewed in this report. For characterising the chemical composition, the bio-oils have first been mainly fractionated into different classes. Solvent extraction and adsorption chromatography are the most general methods used. In adsorption chromatography, the oils have been fractionated into different hydrocarbon and polar fractions. The fractions obtained have been analysed with various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique is the analytical method most widely used and well adaptable for the fractions. For high-molecular-mass and highly polar compounds liquid chromatographic (LC) techniques as well as infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 13C NMR) spectroscopies are more suitable due to the low volatility of pyrolysis oils. For whole pyrolysis oils, LC techniques, primarily size exclusion chromatography and FT-IR and FT-NMR spectroscopies have proved to be useful methods

  10. Oil crop biomass residue-based media for enhanced algal lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Ma, Xiaochen; Zhou, Wenguang; Min, Min; Cheng, Yanling; Chen, Paul; Shi, Jian; Wang, Qin; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of hydrolysates from acid hydrolysis of four different oil crop biomass residues (OCBR) as low cost culture media for algae growth. The one-factor-at-a-time method was used to design a series of experiments to optimize the acid hydrolysis conditions through examining the total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, and ammonia nitrogen in the hydrolysates. The optimal conditions were found to be using 3% sulfuric acid and hydrolyzing residues at 90 °C for 20 h. The hydrolysates (OCBR media) produced under the optimal conditions were used to cultivate the two algae strains, namely UM258 and UM268. The results from 5 days of cultivation showed that the OCBR media supported faster algae growth with maximal algal biomass yield of 2.7 and 3 g/L, respectively. Moreover, the total lipids for UM258 and UM268 were 54 and 35%, respectively, after 5 days of cultivation, which suggested that the OCBR media allowed the algae strains to accumulate higher lipids probably due to high C/N ratio. Furthermore, over 3% of omega-3 fatty acid (EPA) was produced for the two algae strains. In conclusion, OCBR media are excellent alternative for algae growth and have a great potential for large-scale production of algae-based ingredients for biodiesel as well as high-value food and pharmaceutical products.

  11. Sustainability of biomass in a bio-based economy. A quick-scan analysis of the biomass demand of a bio-based economy in 2030 compared to the sustainable supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, J.; Olivier, J.; Notenboom, J. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Croezen, H.; Bergsma, G. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    The conversion of a fossil fuel-based economy into a bio-based economy will probably be restricted in the European Union (EU) by the limited supply of ecologically sustainable biomass. It appears realistic that, for the EU, the sustainable biomass supply will be enough to meet about 10% of the final energy and feedstock consumption in 2030. Under optimistic assumptions, this supply might increase to 20%. EU Member States, in their Renewable Energy Action Plans for 2020, already aim to apply an amount of biomass that already approaches this 10%. Therefore, from a sustainability perspective, there is an urgent need to guarantee ecologically sustainable biomass production. In considering sustainable biomass production, land use is the most critical issue, especially the indirect land-use impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and biodiversity. The use of waste resources and agricultural and forestry residues, that does not involve additional land use, therefore, would be a sustainable option. Technically, it is possible to use these types of resources for most applications in a bio-based economy. However, it seems unlikely that, by 2030, waste and residue resources will contribute more than three to four per cent to the final energy and feedstock consumption in Europe. Moreover, many waste and residue resources currently already have useful applications; for instance, as feed or soil improvers. These are the main findings of a quick-scan analysis carried out by the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and CE Delft on the sustainability of a bio-based economy. Three priorities can be distinguished in the transition to an ecologically sustainable bio-based economy that aims to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels: (1) develop new technologies, procedures and infrastructure to collect or to produce more biomass without using directly or indirectly valuable natural land; (2) develop technologies to produce hydrocarbons from types of biomass that have potentially

  12. Transesterification of waste vegetable oil under pulse sonication using ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar, E-mail: gude@cee.msstate.edu

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Pulse sonication effect on transesterification of waste vegetable oil was studied. • Effects of ethanol, methanol, and alcohol mixtures on FAMEs yield were evaluated. • Effect of ultrasonic intensity, power density, and its output rates were evaluated. • Alcohol mixtures resulted in higher biodiesel yields due to better solubility. - Abstract: This study reports on the effects of direct pulse sonication and the type of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) on the transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil without any external heating or mechanical mixing. Biodiesel yields and optimum process conditions for the transesterification reaction involving ethanol, methanol, and ethanol–methanol mixtures were evaluated. The effects of ultrasonic power densities (by varying sample volumes), power output rates (in W), and ultrasonic intensities (by varying the reactor size) were studied for transesterification reaction with ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol (50%-50%) mixtures. The optimum process conditions for ethanol or methanol based transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil were determined as: 9:1 alcohol to oil ratio, 1% wt. catalyst amount, 1–2 min reaction time at a power output rate between 75 and 150 W. It was shown that the transesterification reactions using ethanol–methanol mixtures resulted in biodiesel yields as high as >99% at lower power density and ultrasound intensity when compared to ethanol or methanol based transesterification reactions.

  13. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brito

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground-based measurements over Brazil, aimed to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm, occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO, freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ~1000 cm−3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm−3 (during biomass burning (BB events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m−3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m−3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m−3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed, on average, at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m−3, respectively. Equivalent black carbon (BCe ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m−3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m−3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe, among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the

  14. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume II. Principles of gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    Biomass can be converted by gasification into a clean-burning gaseous fuel that can be used to retrofit existing gas/oil boilers, to power engines, to generate electricity, and as a base for synthesis of methanol, gasoline, ammonia, or methane. This survey describes biomass gasification, associated technologies, and issues in three volumes. Volume I contains the synopsis and executive summary, giving highlights of the findings of the other volumes. In Volume II the technical background necessary for understanding the science, engineering, and commercialization of biomass is presented. In Volume III the present status of gasification processes is described in detail, followed by chapters on economics, gas conditioning, fuel synthesis, the institutional role to be played by the federal government, and recommendations for future research and development.

  15. Inventory-based estimation of forest biomass in Shitai County, China: A comparison of five methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Tang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several comparative studies have reported that there can be great discrepancies between different methods used to estimate forest biomass. With the development of carbon markets, an accurate estimation at the regional scale (i.e. county level is becoming increasingly important for local government. In this study, we applied five methodologies [continuous biomass expansion factor (CBEF approach, mean biomass density (MB approach, mean biomass expansion factor (MBEF approach, national continuous biomass expansion factors (NCBEF proposed by Fang et al (2002, standard IPCC approach] to estimate the total biomass for Shitai County, China. The CBEF is generally considered to provide the most realistic estimates in term of regional biomass because CBEF reflects the change of BEF to stand density, stand age and site conditions. The forests of the whole county were divided into four forest types, namely Chinese fir plantations (CF, hardwood broadleaved forests (HB, softwood–broadleaved forests (SB and mason pine forests (MP according to the local forest management inventory of 2004. Generally, the MBEF approach overestimated forest biomass while the IPCC approach underestimated forest biomass for all forest types when CBEF derived biomass was used as a control. The MB approach provided the most similar biomass estimates for all forest types and could be an alternative approach when a CBEF equation is lacking in the study area. The total biomass derived from MBEF was highest at 1.44×107 t, followed by 1.32 ×107 t from CBEF, 1.31 ×107 t from NCBEF, 1.25 ×107 t from MB and 1.16 ×107 t from IPCC. Our results facilitate method selection for regional forest biomass estimation and provide statistical evidence for local government planning to enter the potential carbon market.

  16. Torrefaction of biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    The objective of this project was to investigate and understand some of the basics of the process of torrefaction and explore the true characteristics of this new type of solid biomass fuel. Tests with torrefaction of different biomass have thus been conducted in both laboratory scale as well as bench scale investigating samples from milligram up to >100 kg. Test in TGA-FTIR and a lab scale pyro-ofen was used to understand the basic chemistry of the influence of torrefaction temperature on the kinetics of the process as well as the condensable gases leaving the process. The results reveal a process that above 250 deg. C is exothermic and that the major condensable gases consist mainly of methanol, acetic acid and water. Significant amounts of methyl-chloride were detected in the condensable gases and do thereby suggest that a certain amount of corrosive Cl could be reduced from the fuel by means of torrefaction. It was also concluded that great care has to be taken during and after production as the torrefied material was seen to self-ignite in an air environment at temperatures above 200 deg. C. The grindability of the material (energy consumption during milling) is indeed significantly improved by torrefaction and can be reduced up to 6 times compared to raw biomass. The results from test in bench scale as well as in lab scale mills suggested that in order to reach grindability similar to coal a torrefaction temperature above 240 deg. C is required for wood chips and above 290 deg. C for wood pellets. These figures will however differ with the type of biomass torrefied and the particle size of the material torrefied and milled. Moisture uptake in torrefied materials is decreased compared to raw biomass. However, due to formation of cavities in the material during torrefaction, the full effect is met first after densification. The hydrophobicity of the material increases with higher torrefaction temperature, but still a rather significant moisture uptake is

  17. Initial Market Assessment for Small-Scale Biomass-Based CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.; Mann, M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to reexamine the energy generation market opportunities for biomass CHP applications smaller than 20 MW. This paper provides an overview of the benefits of and challenges for biomass CHP in terms of policy, including a discussion of the drivers behind, and constraints on, the biomass CHP market. The report provides a summary discussion of the available biomass supply types and technologies that could be used to feed the market. Two primary markets are outlined--rural/agricultural and urban--for small-scale biomass CHP, and illustrate the primary intersections of supply and demand for those markets. The paper concludes by summarizing the potential markets and suggests next steps for identifying and utilizing small-scale biomass.

  18. Production of Biofuel from Waste Lignocellulosic Biomass Materials Based on Energy Saving Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Maki; Hoshino, Kazuhiro

    To develop biofuel production from waste lignocellulosic biomass materials the rice straw was selected one of renewable material and the degradation condition about pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis to obtain effectively fermentable sugars was investigated. Rice straw was pretreated by five kinds of methods and then the components ratio of rice straw was examined. First, the steam explosion was selected based on the degradability and the requirement energy. In addition, the best suitable combination of two cellulases to effective and economical hydrolyze was determined from the degradability of these pretreated rice straws. In the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the steam explosion rice straw by combining cellulase cocktail and a novel fermenting fungus, 13.2 g/L ethanol was able to product for 96 h.

  19. Fundamental studies of synthesis-gas production based on fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Reinikainen, M.; Moilanen, A.; Simell, P.; McKeough, P.; Hannula, I. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2008-07-01

    The research is directed towards methods of producing transportation bio-fuels via the synthesis-gas route, with emphasis on the synthesis-gas production and gas cleaning steps. The project will both broaden and deepen the knowledge base and, in particular, will generate new fundamental information about the most critical process steps from the point of view of the realisation of the technology. The results will be exploited in the ongoing industrial-driven development and demonstration projects. The subtopics of the research project are (1) fuel characterisation and ash behaviour in the gasification step, (2) reaction mechanisms related to gas cleaning, in particular the reactions of hydrocarbons at gasification temperatures, during hot-gas filtration and on catalytic surfaces, (3) evaluations of alternative process configurations and applications and (4) monitoring of developments elsewhere in the world. In addition VTT itself finances two additions subtopics (5) new analysis techniques and (6) hydrogen from biomass via gasification. (orig.)

  20. Fundamental studies of synthesis-gas production based on fluidised-bed gasification of biomass - UCGFunda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinikainen, M.; Moilanen, A.; Simell, P.; Hannula, I.; Kurkela, E. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), Email: matti.reinikainen@vtt.fi; Suominen, T.P. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Lab. of Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering); Linnekoski, J.; Roenkkoenen, E. (Aalto University, School of Science and Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Industrial Chemistry.)

    2010-10-15

    The research is directed towards methods of producing transportation bio-fuels via the synthesis-gas route, with emphasis on the synthesis-gas production and gas cleaning steps. The subtopics of the research project are (1) fuel characterisation and ash behaviour in the gasification step, (2) reaction mechanisms related to gas cleaning, (3) evaluations of alternative process configurations and applications and (4) international cooperation. VTT itself finances also two additional subtopics: (5) new analysis techniques and (6) hydrogen from biomass via gasification. The project comprises experimental work, modelling, techno-economic evaluations as well as studies based on literature. The project is steered by a wide industrial consortium and the research work is carried out by VTT, Aalto University and Aabo Akademi. International development in syngas technology has been closely monitored in all subtopics as well as by participating in relevant IEA-tasks. (orig.)

  1. Environmental impact of biomass based polygeneration - A case study through life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Kuntal; De, Sudipta

    2017-03-01

    Multi-generation or polygeneration is considered to be a potential sustainable energy solution. To assess environmental sustainability of multi-generation, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a useful tool. In this paper, environmental impact of polygeneration using an agro waste (rice straw) is assessed by LCA. Then it is compared with stand alone conventional plants with same utility outputs. Power, ethanol, heating and cooling are utility outputs of the polygeneration plant. System boundary for this polygeneration is defined for surplus biomass only. Exergy based allocation method is used for this analysis. Results of LCA are shown through both mid-point and end-point indicators. Results indicate that polygeneration with surplus rice straw is more environment-friendly than conventional stand-alone generation of same utilities.

  2. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by adsorption on biomass based adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Sultan; Azmatullah, M. [Malakand Univ., Chakdara, Dir (Pakistan). Dept. of Chemistry; Bangash, Fazlullah Khan [Peshawar Univ. (Pakistan). Inst. of Chemical Sciences; Amin, Noor-ul [Abdul Wali Khan Univ., Mardan (Pakistan). Dept. of Chemistry

    2013-09-15

    Removal of heavy metals i.e. Zn{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} from aqueous solution by adsorption onto biomass based adsorbent was investigated as a function of time and different concentrations. The sample was characterized by FTIR, EDS, BET surface area and Zeta potential technique, which was reported earlier. Adsorption kinetics of Zn{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} was tested by first order kinetics, 'Elovich and parabolic diffusion kinetic equations which show that the process of adsorption is diffusion controlled process. The rate of adsorption was high at high adsorption temperature. Thermodynamic parameters like {Delta}H , {Delta}S and {Delta}G were calculated from the kinetic data. The negative value of Gibbs free energy ({Delta}G ) shows the spontaneous nature of the process. Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin isotherms and distribution coefficient were found fit to the adsorption isotherm data. (orig.)

  3. Renewable Electricity Generation via Solar-Powered Methanol Reforming: Hybrid Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems Based on Novel Non-Concentrating, Intermediate-Temperature Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Daniel J.

    Tremendous research efforts have been conducted studying the capturing and conversion of solar energy. Solar thermal power systems offer a compelling opportunity for renewable energy utilization with high efficiencies and excellent cost-effectiveness. The goal of this work was to design a non-concentrating collector capable of reaching temperatures above 250 °C, use this collector to power methanol steam reforming, and operate a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell using the generated hydrogen. The study presents the construction and characterization of a non-concentrating, intermediate-temperature, fin-in-tube evacuated solar collector, made of copper and capable of reaching stagnation temperatures of 268.5 °C at 1000 W/m2 irradiance. The collector was used to power methanol steam reforming, including the initial heating and vaporization of liquid reactants and the final heating of the gaseous reactants. A preferential oxidation (PROX) catalyst was used to remove CO from simulated reformate gas, and this product gas was used to operate a PEM fuel cell. The results show 1) that the outlet temperature is not limited by heat transfer from the absorber coating to the heat transfer fluid, but by the amount of solar energy absorbed. This implicates a constant heat flux description of the heat transfer process and allows for the usage of materials with lower thermal conductivity than copper. 2) It is possible to operate a PEM fuel cell from reformate gas if a PROX catalyst is used to remove CO from the gas. 3) The performance of the fuel cell is only slightly decreased (~4%) by CO2 dilution present in the reformate and PROX gas. These results provide a foundation for the first renewable electricity generation via solar-powered methanol reforming through a hybrid PEM fuel cell system based on novel non-concentrating, intermediate-temperature solar collectors.

  4. Network-based integration of systems genetics data reveals pathways associated with lignocellulosic biomass accumulation and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizrachi, Eshchar; Verbeke, Lieven; Christie, Nanette; Fierro, Ana C.; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Davis, Mark F.; Gjersing, Erica; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Van Montagu, Marc; Van de Peer, Yves; Marchal, Kathleen; Myburg, Alexander A.

    2017-01-17

    As a consequence of their remarkable adaptability, fast growth, and superior wood properties, eucalypt tree plantations have emerged as key renewable feedstocks (over 20 million ha globally) for the production of pulp, paper, bioenergy, and other lignocellulosic products. However, most biomass properties such as growth, wood density, and wood chemistry are complex traits that are hard to improve in long-lived perennials. Systems genetics, a process of harnessing multiple levels of component trait information (e.g., transcript, protein, and metabolite variation) in populations that vary in complex traits, has proven effective for dissecting the genetics and biology of such traits. We have applied a network-based data integration (NBDI) method for a systems-level analysis of genes, processes and pathways underlying biomass and bioenergy-related traits using a segregating Eucalyptus hybrid population. We show that the integrative approach can link biologically meaningful sets of genes to complex traits and at the same time reveal the molecular basis of trait variation. Gene sets identified for related woody biomass traits were found to share regulatory loci, cluster in network neighborhoods, and exhibit enrichment for molecular functions such as xylan metabolism and cell wall development. These findings offer a framework for identifying the molecular underpinnings of complex biomass and bioprocessing-related traits. A more thorough understanding of the molecular basis of plant biomass traits should provide additional opportunities for the establishment of a sustainable bio-based economy.

  5. Network-based integration of systems genetics data reveals pathways associated with lignocellulosic biomass accumulation and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrachi, Eshchar; Verbeke, Lieven; Christie, Nanette; Fierro, Ana C; Mansfield, Shawn D; Davis, Mark F; Gjersing, Erica; Tuskan, Gerald A; Van Montagu, Marc; Van de Peer, Yves; Marchal, Kathleen; Myburg, Alexander A

    2017-01-31

    As a consequence of their remarkable adaptability, fast growth, and superior wood properties, eucalypt tree plantations have emerged as key renewable feedstocks (over 20 million ha globally) for the production of pulp, paper, bioenergy, and other lignocellulosic products. However, most biomass properties such as growth, wood density, and wood chemistry are complex traits that are hard to improve in long-lived perennials. Systems genetics, a process of harnessing multiple levels of component trait information (e.g., transcript, protein, and metabolite variation) in populations that vary in complex traits, has proven effective for dissecting the genetics and biology of such traits. We have applied a network-based data integration (NBDI) method for a systems-level analysis of genes, processes and pathways underlying biomass and bioenergy-related traits using a segregating Eucalyptus hybrid population. We show that the integrative approach can link biologically meaningful sets of genes to complex traits and at the same time reveal the molecular basis of trait variation. Gene sets identified for related woody biomass traits were found to share regulatory loci, cluster in network neighborhoods, and exhibit enrichment for molecular functions such as xylan metabolism and cell wall development. These findings offer a framework for identifying the molecular underpinnings of complex biomass and bioprocessing-related traits. A more thorough understanding of the molecular basis of plant biomass traits should provide additional opportunities for the establishment of a sustainable bio-based economy.

  6. Long-Term Impact of Soil Management on Microbial Biomass C, N and P in Rice-Based Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A 12-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different tillage methods and fertilization systems on microbial biomass C, N and P of a gray fluvo-aguic soil in rice-based cropping system. Five fertilization treatments were designed under conventional tillage (CT) or no tillage (NT) system: no fertilizer (CK); chemical fertilizer only (CF); combining chemical fertilizer with pig manure (PM); combining chemical fertilizer with crop straw (CS) and fallow (F). The results showed that biomass C, N and P were enriched in the surface layer of no-tilled soil, whereas they distributed relatively evenly in the tilled soil, which might result from enrichment of crop residue, organic manure and mineral fertilizer, and surficial development of root systems under NT. Under the cultivation system, NT had slightly greater biomass C, N and P at 0~5 cm depth, significantly less biomass C, N and P at 5~15 cm depth, less microbial biomass C, N and equivalent biomass P at 15~30 cm depth as compared to CT, indicating that tillage was beneficial for the multiplication of organisms in the plowed layer of soil. Under the fallow system, biomass C, N and P in the surface layer were significantly greater for NT than CT while their differences between the two tillage methods were negligible in the deeper layers. In the surface layer, biomass C, N and P in the soils amended with organic manure combined with mineral fertilizers were significantly greater than those of the treatments only with mineral fertilizers and the control. Soils without fertilizer had the least biomass nutrient contents among the five fertilization treatments. Obviously, the long-term application of organic manure could maintain the higher activity of microorganisms in soils. The amounts of biomass C, N and P in the fallowed soils varied with the tillage methods; they were much greater under NT than under CT, especially in the surface layer, suggesting that the frequent plowing could decrease

  7. Novel Role of Rural Official Organization in the Biomass-Based Power Supply Chain in China: A Combined Game Theory and Agent-Based Simulation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyan Luo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Developing biomass-based power generation is helpful for China to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and to release the targets of carbon emission peak. The decentralized farming method leads to Chinese farmers’ weak willingness to collect and sell crop residues to biomass-based power plants. The purpose of this paper is to solve the issue by proposing a novel biomass feedstock supply model with China’s rural official organization—villagers’ committee, which has great influence on villagers’ decision making. Introducing it into the biomass-based power supply chain is beneficial to motivating farmers’ supplying enthusiasm. A combined game theory and agent-based simulation approach is applied to study the effectiveness of this new supply model. Multiple simulation scenarios are built to study impacts of different simulation parameters, and results show that farmers tend to supply more biomass material for electricity production in the proposed villagers’ committee model, compared with the two conventional supply models, direct-deal and broker models. The supply model incorporating the rural official organization can ensure the feedstock sufficiency for plants. A proper model design depends on the feed-in tariff subsidy for biomass-based electricity, feedstock shipping distance, performance appraisal system of the villagers’ committee, as well as farmers’ utility weights on net income and public service improvement.

  8. Hydrogen Production from Methanol Using Corona Discharges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen production at room temperature from liquid methanol has been conductedusing corona discharge. The content of water in methanol solution has a significant effect on thisproduction. When water concentration increases from 1.0 % to 16.7 %, the methanol conversionrate changes from 0.196 to 0.284 mol/h. An important finding in this investigation is theformation of ethylene glycol as a major by-product. The yield of ethylene glycol is ranged from0.0045 to 0.0075 mol/h based on the water content.

  9. Methanol Cannon Demonstrations Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolson, David A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes two variations on the traditional methanol cannon demonstration. The first variation is a chain reaction using real metal chains. The second example involves using easily available components to produce sequential explosions that can be musical in nature. (AIM)

  10. Application of CaO-Based Bed Material for Dual Fluidized Bed Steam Biomass Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppatz, S.; Pfeifer, C.; Kreuzeder, A.; Soukup, G.; Hofbauer, H.

    Gasification of biomass is a suitable option for decentralized energy supply based on renewable sources in the range of up to 50 MW fuel input. The paper presents the dual fluidized bed (DFB) steam gasification process, which is applied to generate high quality and nitrogen-free product gas. Essential part of the DFB process is the bed material used in the fluidized reactors, which has significant impact on the product gas quality. By the use of catalytically active bed materials the performance of the overall process is increased, since the bed material favors reactions of the steam gasification. In particular, tar reforming reactions are favored. Within the paper, the pilot plant based on the DFB process with 100kW fuel input at Vienna University of Technology, Austria is presented. Actual investigations with focus on CaO-based bed materials (limestone) as well as with natural olivine as bed material were carried out at the pilot plant. The application of CaO-based bed material shows mainly decreased tar content in the product gas in contrast to experiments with olivine as bed material. The paper presents the results of steam gasification experiments with limestone and olivine, whereby the product gas composition as well as the tar content and the tar composition are outlined.

  11. Impacts of Tree Height-Dbh Allometry on Lidar-Based Tree Aboveground Biomass Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, R.

    2016-06-01

    Lidar has been widely used in tree aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation at plot or stand levels. Lidar-based AGB models are usually constructed with the ground AGB reference as the response variable and lidar canopy indices as predictor variables. Tree diameter at breast height (dbh) is the major variable of most allometric models for estimating reference AGB. However, lidar measurements are mainly related to tree vertical structure. Therefore, tree height-dbh allometric model residuals are expected to have a large impact on lidar-based AGB model performance. This study attempts to investigate sensitivity of lidar-based AGB model to the decreasing strength of height-dbh relationship using a Monte Carlo simulation approach. Striking decrease in R2 and increase in relative RMSE were found in lidar-based AGB model, as the variance of height-dbh model residuals grew. I, therefore, concluded that individual tree height-dbh model residuals fundamentally introduce errors to lidar-AGB models.

  12. Modeling changes in biomass composition during microwave-based alkali pretreatment of switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshwani, Deepak R; Cheng, Jay J

    2010-01-01

    This study used two different approaches to model changes in biomass composition during microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass: kinetic modeling using a time-dependent rate coefficient, and a Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system. In both modeling approaches, the dielectric loss tangent of the alkali reagent and pretreatment time were used as predictors for changes in amounts of lignin, cellulose, and xylan during the pretreatment. Training and testing data sets for development and validation of the models were obtained from pretreatment experiments conducted using 1-3% w/v NaOH (sodium hydroxide) and pretreatment times ranging from 5 to 20 min. The kinetic modeling approach for lignin and xylan gave comparable results for training and testing data sets, and the differences between the predictions and experimental values were within 2%. The kinetic modeling approach for cellulose was not as effective, and the differences were within 5-7%. The time-dependent rate coefficients of the kinetic models estimated from experimental data were consistent with the heterogeneity of individual biomass components. The Mamdani-type fuzzy inference was shown to be an effective approach to model the pretreatment process and yielded predictions with less than 2% deviation from the experimental values for lignin and with less than 3% deviation from the experimental values for cellulose and xylan. The entropies of the fuzzy outputs from the Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system were calculated to quantify the uncertainty associated with the predictions. Results indicate that there is no significant difference between the entropies associated with the predictions for lignin, cellulose, and xylan. It is anticipated that these models could be used in process simulations of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic materials.

  13. Model Effects on GLAS-Based Regional Estimates of Forest Biomass and Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ross F.

    2010-01-01

    Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) / Geosciences Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) waveform data are used to estimate biomass and carbon on a 1.27 X 10(exp 6) square km study area in the Province of Quebec, Canada, below the tree line. The same input datasets and sampling design are used in conjunction with four different predictive models to estimate total aboveground dry forest biomass and forest carbon. The four models include non-stratified and stratified versions of a multiple linear model where either biomass or (biomass)(exp 0.5) serves as the dependent variable. The use of different models in Quebec introduces differences in Provincial dry biomass estimates of up to 0.35 G, with a range of 4.94 +/- 0.28 Gt to 5.29 +/-0.36 Gt. The differences among model estimates are statistically non-significant, however, and the results demonstrate the degree to which carbon estimates vary strictly as a function of the model used to estimate regional biomass. Results also indicate that GLAS measurements become problematic with respect to height and biomass retrievals in the boreal forest when biomass values fall below 20 t/ha and when GLAS 75th percentile heights fall below 7 m.

  14. An Optimization-Based System Model of Disturbance-Generated Forest Biomass Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Guy L.; Coulson, Robert N.; Gan, Jianbang; Tchakerian, Maria D.; Smith, C. Tattersall

    2008-01-01

    Disturbance-generated biomass results from endogenous and exogenous natural and cultural disturbances that affect the health and productivity of forest ecosystems. These disturbances can create large quantities of plant biomass on predictable cycles. A systems analysis model has been developed to quantify aspects of system capacities (harvest,…

  15. Engineering Escherichia coli for methanol conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jonas E N; Meyer, Fabian; Litsanov, Boris; Kiefer, Patrick; Potthoff, Eva; Heux, Stéphanie; Quax, Wim J; Wendisch, Volker F; Brautaset, Trygve; Portais, Jean-Charles; Vorholt, Julia A

    2015-03-01

    Methylotrophic bacteria utilize methanol and other reduced one-carbon compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy. For this purpose, these bacteria evolved a number of specialized enzymes and pathways. Here, we used a synthetic biology approach to select and introduce a set of "methylotrophy genes" into Escherichia coli based on in silico considerations and flux balance analysis to enable methanol dissimilation and assimilation. We determined that the most promising approach allowing the utilization of methanol was the implementation of NAD-dependent methanol dehydrogenase and the establishment of the ribulose monophosphate cycle by expressing the genes for hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (Hps) and 6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase (Phi). To test for the best-performing enzymes in the heterologous host, a number of enzyme candidates from different donor organisms were selected and systematically analyzed for their in vitro and in vivo activities in E. coli. Among these, Mdh2, Hps and Phi originating from Bacillus methanolicus were found to be the most effective. Labeling experiments using (13)C methanol with E. coli producing these enzymes showed up to 40% incorporation of methanol into central metabolites. The presence of the endogenous glutathione-dependent formaldehyde oxidation pathway of E. coli did not adversely affect the methanol conversion rate. Taken together, the results of this study represent a major advancement towards establishing synthetic methylotrophs by gene transfer.

  16. Performance comparison of portable direct methanol fuel cell mini-stacks based on a low-cost fluorine-free polymer electrolyte and Nafion membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baglio, V., E-mail: baglio@itae.cnr.i [CNR-ITAE, Via Salita S. Lucia sopra Contesse 5, 98126 Messina (Italy); Stassi, A.; Modica, E.; Antonucci, V.; Arico, A.S. [CNR-ITAE, Via Salita S. Lucia sopra Contesse 5, 98126 Messina (Italy); Caracino, P.; Ballabio, O.; Colombo, M.; Kopnin, E. [Pirelli Labs, Viale Sarca, 222, 20126 Milano (Italy)

    2010-08-01

    A low-cost fluorine-free proton conducting polymer electrolyte was investigated for application in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) mini-stacks. The membrane consisted of a sulfonated polystyrene grafted onto a polyethylene backbone. DMFC operating conditions specifically addressing portable applications, i.e. passive mode, air breathing, high methanol concentration, room temperature, were selected. The device consisted of a passive DMFC monopolar three-cell stack. Two designs for flow-fields/current collectors based on open-flow or grid-like geometry were investigated. An optimization of the mini-stack structure was necessary to improve utilization of the fluorine-free membrane. Titanium-grid current collectors with proper mechanical stiffness allowed a significant increase of the performance by reducing contact resistance even in the case of significant swelling. A single cell maximum power density of about 18 mW cm{sup -2} was achieved with the fluorine-free membrane at room temperature under passive mode. As a comparison, the performance obtained with Nafion 117 membrane and Ti grids was 31 mW cm{sup -2}. Despite the lower performance, the fluorine-free membrane showed good characteristics for application in portable DMFCs especially with regard to the perspectives of significant cost reduction.

  17. Transesterification of waste vegetable oil under pulse sonication using ethanol, methanol and ethanol-methanol mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-12-01

    This study reports on the effects of direct pulse sonication and the type of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) on the transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil without any external heating or mechanical mixing. Biodiesel yields and optimum process conditions for the transesterification reaction involving ethanol, methanol, and ethanol-methanol mixtures were evaluated. The effects of ultrasonic power densities (by varying sample volumes), power output rates (in W), and ultrasonic intensities (by varying the reactor size) were studied for transesterification reaction with ethanol, methanol and ethanol-methanol (50%-50%) mixtures. The optimum process conditions for ethanol or methanol based transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil were determined as: 9:1 alcohol to oil ratio, 1% wt. catalyst amount, 1-2 min reaction time at a power output rate between 75 and 150 W. It was shown that the transesterification reactions using ethanol-methanol mixtures resulted in biodiesel yields as high as >99% at lower power density and ultrasound intensity when compared to ethanol or methanol based transesterification reactions.

  18. Humin based by-products from biomass processing as a potential carbonaceous source for synthesis gas production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.M.C.; Eck, van E.R.H.; Bula, W.P.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; Lefferts, L.; Seshan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is addressed as potential sustainable feedstock for green fuels and chemicals. (Hemi)cellulose is the largest constituent of the material. Conversion of these polysaccharides to bio-based platform chemicals is important in green chemical/fuel production and biorefinery. Hydro

  19. Research and evaluation of biomass resources/conversion/utilization systems (market/experimental analysis for development of a data base for a fuels from biomass model). Quarterly technical progress report, Februray 1, 1980-April 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Y.K.; Chen, Y.C.; Chen, H.T.; Helm, R.W.; Nelson, E.T.; Shields, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    The project will result in two distinct products: (1) a biomass allocation model which will serve as a tool for the energy planner. (2) the experimental data is being generated to help compare and contrast the behavior of a large number of biomass material in thermochemical environments. Based on information in the literature, values have been developed for regional biomass costs and availabilities and for fuel costs and demands. This data is now stored in data banks and may be updated as better data become available. Seventeen biomass materials have been run on the small TGA and the results partially analyzed. Ash analysis has been performed on 60 biomass materials. The Effluent Gas Analyzer with its associated gas chromatographs has been made operational and some runs have been carried out. Using a computerized program for developing product costs, parametric studies on all but 1 of the 14 process configurations being considered have been performed. Background economic data for all the configuration have been developed. Models to simulate biomass gasifications in an entrained and fixed bed have been developed using models previously used for coal gasification. Runs have been carried out in the fluidized and fixed bed reactor modes using a variety of biomass materials in atmospheres of steam, O/sub 2/ and air. Check aout of the system continues using fabricated manufacturing cost and efficiency data. A users manual has been written.

  20. Estimating Biomass of Barley Using Crop Surface Models (CSMs Derived from UAV-Based RGB Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Bendig

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Crop monitoring is important in precision agriculture. Estimating above-ground biomass helps to monitor crop vitality and to predict yield. In this study, we estimated fresh and dry biomass on a summer barley test site with 18 cultivars and two nitrogen (N-treatments using the plant height (PH from crop surface models (CSMs. The super-high resolution, multi-temporal (1 cm/pixel CSMs were derived from red, green, blue (RGB images captured from a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. Comparison with PH reference measurements yielded an R2 of 0.92. The test site with different cultivars and treatments was monitored during “Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt und CHemische Industrie” (BBCH Stages 24–89. A high correlation was found between PH from CSMs and fresh biomass (R2 = 0.81 and dry biomass (R2 = 0.82. Five models for above-ground fresh and dry biomass estimation were tested by cross-validation. Modelling biomass between different N-treatments for fresh biomass produced the best results (R2 = 0.71. The main limitation was the influence of lodging cultivars in the later growth stages, producing irregular plant heights. The method has potential for future application by non-professionals, i.e., farmers.

  1. Systems Based Approaches for Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Bioenergy and Bioproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Steven [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    2016-07-11

    Auburn’s Center for Bioenergy and Bioproducts conducts research on production of synthesis gas for use in power generation and the production of liquid fuels. The overall goal of our gasification research is to identify optimal processes for producing clean syngas to use in production of fuels and chemicals from underutilized agricultural and forest biomass feedstocks. This project focused on construction and commissioning of a bubbling-bed fluidized-bed gasifier and subsequent shakedown of the gasification and gas cleanup system. The result of this project is a fully commissioned gasification laboratory that is conducting testing on agricultural and forest biomass. Initial tests on forest biomass have served as the foundation for follow-up studies on gasification under a more extensive range of temperatures, pressures, and oxidant conditions. The laboratory gasification system consists of a biomass storage tank capable of holding up to 6 tons of biomass; a biomass feeding system, with loss-in-weight metering system, capable of feeding biomass at pressures up to 650 psig; a bubbling-bed fluidized-bed gasification reactor capable of operating at pressures up to 650 psig and temperatures of 1500oF with biomass flowrates of 80 lb/hr and syngas production rates of 37 scfm; a warm-gas filtration system; fixed bed reactors for gas conditioning; and a final quench cooling system and activated carbon filtration system for gas conditioning prior to routing to Fischer-Tropsch reactors, or storage, or venting. This completed laboratory enables research to help develop economically feasible technologies for production of biomass-derived synthesis gases that will be used for clean, renewable power generation and for production of liquid transportation fuels. Moreover, this research program provides the infrastructure to educate the next generation of engineers and scientists needed to implement these technologies.

  2. Fabrication of a Biomass-Based Hydrous Zirconium Oxide Nanocomposite for Preferable Phosphate Removal and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hui; Liang, Chen; Zhang, Xiaolin; Chen, Mindong; Zhao, Yunxia; Tao, Tao; Xu, Zhengwen; Liu, Gang

    2015-09-23

    Advanced removal of phosphate by low-cost adsorbents from municipal wastewater or industrial effluents is an effective and economic way to prevent the occurrence of eutrophication. Here, we proposed a novel method to immobilize hydrous zirconium oxide nanoparticle within quaternary-aminated wheat straw, and obtained an inexpensive, eco-friendly nanocomposite Ws-N-Zr. The biomass-based Ws-N-Zr exhibited higher preference toward phosphate than commercial anion exchanger IRA-900 when competing sulfate ions coexisted at relatively high levels. Such excellent performance of Ws-N-Zr resulted from its specific hybrid structure, the quaternary ammonium groups bonded on the host favor the preconcentration of phosphate ions inside the wheat straw based on Donnan effect, and the encapsulated HZO nanoparticle exhibits preferable sequestration of phosphate ions through specific interaction, as further demonstrated by FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cycle adsorption and regeneration experiments demonstrated that Ws-N-Zr could be employed for repeated use without significant capacity loss, when the binary NaOH-NaCl solution was employed as the regenerant. The influence of solution pH and contact time was also examined. The results suggested that Ws-N-Zr has a great potential in efficient removal of phosphate in contaminated waters.

  3. Evaluation of biomass combustion based energy systems by cumulative energy demand and energy yield coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.; Oser, M.

    2004-07-01

    This final report prepared for the International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 32 presents a method for a comparison of different energy systems with respect to the overall energy yield during their life cycles. For this purpose, the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) based on primary energy and the Energy Yield Factor (EYC) are introduced and determined for the following scenarios: Log wood, wood chips, and wood pellets for residential heating and - except for log wood - also for district heating. As an alternative to heat production, power production via combustion and use of the electricity for decentralised heat pumps is also looked at. The evaluation and comparison of both the EYC for all fuels and the EYC{sub N}R for the non-renewable part enables a ranking of energy systems without a subjective weighing of non-renewable and renewable fuels to be made. For a sustainable energy supply, it is proposed to implement renewable energy systems in future which achieve an energy yield EYC{sub N}R of at least greater than 2 but favourably greater than 5. The evaluation of the different scenarios presented is proposed as the future basis for the choice of the most efficient energy systems based on biomass combustion.

  4. Biomass energy production. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P. W.

    1980-01-01

    These 210 citations from the international literature describe the production and/or utilization of most forms of biomass as a source of energy, fuel, food, and chemical intermediates or feedstocks. Biomass conversion by incineration, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or fermentation, as well as by catalytic, photosynthetic, chemosynthetic, and bio-electrochemical means are among the conversion processes considered. Discussions include biomass plantation and material productivity, transportation and equipment requirements, effects, comparisons of means and efficiencies of utilization and conversion, assessments of limitations, and evaluations of economic potential.

  5. Copolymers Based on Indole-6-Carboxylic Acid and 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene as Platinum Catalyst Support for Methanol Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzi-Yi Wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Indole-6-carboxylic acid (ICA and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT are copolymerized electrochemically on a stainless steel (SS electrode to obtain poly(indole-6-carboxylic acid-co-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophenes (P(ICA-co-EDOTs. The morphology of P(ICA-co-EDOTs is checked using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the SEM images reveal that these films are composed of highly porous fibers when the feed molar ratio of ICA/EDOT is greater than 3/2. Platinum particles can be electrochemically deposited into the P(ICA-co-EDOTs and PICA films to obtain P(ICA-co-EDOTs-Pt and PICA-Pt composite electrodes, respectively. These composite electrodes are further characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, SEM, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. The SEM result indicates that Pt particles disperse more uniformly into the highly porous P(ICA3-co-EDOT2 fibers (feed molar ratio of ICA/EDOT = 3/2. The P(ICA3-co-EDOT2-Pt nanocomposite electrode exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the electrooxidation of methanol in these electrodes, which reveals that P(ICA3-co-EDOT2-Pt nanocomposite electrodes are more promising for application in an electrocatalyst as a support material.

  6. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis of a thin polymer film-based micro-direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Tobias; Weinmueller, Christian; Nabavi, Majid; Poulikakos, Dimos [Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Laboratory of Thermodynamics in Emerging Technologies, Institute of Energy Technology, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-11-15

    A single cell micro-direct methanol fuel cell (micro-DMFC) was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrodes consisted of thin, flexible polymer (SU8) film microchannel structures fabricated in-house using microfabrication techniques. AC impedance spectroscopy was used to separate contributions to the overall cell polarization from the anode, cathode and membrane. A clear distinction between the different electrochemical phenomena occurring in the micro-DMFC, especially the distinction between double layer charging and Faradaic reactions was shown. The effect of fuel flow rate, temperature, and anode flow channel structure on the impedance of the electrode reactions and membrane/electrode double layer charging were investigated. Analysis of impedance data revealed that the performance of the test cell was largely limited by the presence of intermediate carbon monoxide in the anode reaction. Higher temperatures increase cell performance by enabling intermediate CO to be oxidized at much higher rates. The results also revealed that serpentine anode flow microchannels show a lower tendency to intermediate CO coverage and a more stable cell behavior than parallel microchannels. (author)

  7. Investigations into low pressure methanol synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharafutdinov, Irek

    The central topic of this work has been synthesis, characterization and optimization of novel Ni-Ga based catalysts for hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol. The overall goal was to search for materials that could be used as a low temperature (and low pressure) methanol synthesis catalyst....... This is required for small scale delocalized methanol production sites, where installation of energy demanding compression units should be avoided. The work was triggered by DFT calculations, which showed that certain bimetallic systems are active towards methanol synthesis from CO2 and H2 at ambient pressure....... Among them, Ni-Ga has been chosen, primarily due to low price of constituent metals. After the preliminary optimization work, an optimal catalyst composition and preparation method has been suggested. Indeed, for an optimal catalyst, which is a SiO2 supported Ni-Ga prepared from a solution of nitrates...

  8. A Medium-Scale 50 MWfuel Biomass Gasification Based Bio-SNG Plant: A Developed Gas Cleaning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiar Sadegh-Vaziri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is becoming increasingly important as a primary energy source. A suitable replacement for fossil natural gas is bio-SNG, produced by biomass gasification, followed by methanation. A major challenge is efficient gas cleaning processes for removal of sulfur compounds and other impurities. The present study focuses on development of a gas cleaning step for a product gas produced in a 50 MWfuel gasification system. The developed gas cleaning washing process is basically a modification of the Rectisol process. Several different process configurations were evaluated using Aspen plus, including PC-SAFT for the thermodynamic modeling. The developed configuration takes advantage of only one methanol wash column, compared to two columns in a conventional Rectisol process. Results from modeling show the ability of the proposed configuration to remove impurities to a sufficiently low concentrations - almost zero concentration for H2S, CS2, HCl, NH3 and HCN, and approximately 0.01 mg/Nm3 for COS. These levels are acceptable for further upgrading of the gas in a methanation process. Simultaneously, up to 92% of the original CO2 is preserved in the final cleaned syngas stream. No process integration or economic consideration was performed within the scope of the present study, but will be investigated in future projects to improve the overall process.

  9. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment

    OpenAIRE

    De Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Morgan, W. T.; Coe, H.; Johnson, B; Haywood, J.; LONGO, K.; Freitas, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field ...

  10. ZERO-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF A DIMETHYL ETHER (DME) PLANT BASED ON GASIFICATION OF TORREFIED BIOMASS

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels; Braun, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    A model of a DME fuel production plant was designed and analyzed in Aspen Plus. The plant produces DME by catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of torrefied woody biomass. Torrefication is a mild pyrolysis process that takes place at 200-300°C. Torrefied biomass has properties similar to coal, which enables the use of commercially available coal gasification processing equipment. The DME plant model is integrated with a steam cycle that utilizes waste heat from the plant ...

  11. Guideline for implementing Co-generation based on biomass waste from Thai industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lybaek, R.

    2005-07-01

    Due to the large-scale industrial development in Thailand the consumption of energy - primarily based on fossil fuels - has increased enormously, even though the economic growth has slowed down since the economic crisis in 1997. It is, therefore, important to reduce the environmental impact of this energy consumption, which can be achieved by energy conservation, higher efficiency in the production of energy, or by the use of different kinds of renewable energy. This thesis seeks to develop new strategies for the use of waste heat as a part of the industrial process heat, which can be supplied to industries by a district-heating network. By substituting process heat - produced by electricity or by boilers using fossil fuel in individual industries - with process heat, produced by a co-generation plant - using the industries own biomass waste as fuel - process heat can be supplied to industries participating in a small scale district heating network. Thus, an Industrial Materials Network can be created, which is environmentally as well as economically beneficial for both industry and society. On the basis of a case study of the industrial area, Navanakorn Industrial Promotion Zone in Thailand, such initiatives for efficient materials and energy uses have been conducted and proved successful, and industries - as well as local and national governmental agencies, NGOs and branch organizations etc. - have shown interest in supporting the implementation of such scheme. In this thesis, a Guideline for large-scale implementation of Industrial Materials Network in Thailand was developed. By following a series of actions, the Guideline defines the initiatives that must be taken in order to ensure correct implementation. Chronologically, the emphasis of the Guideline is on pointing to relevant stakeholders who can pursue the implementation, and then appropriate areas and types of industries for Industrial Materials Network implementation. Thereafter, guidance for the

  12. The Performance Simulation of Methanol and Diesel Engine Based on GT-POWER%基于GT-POWER的甲醇柴油发动机性能仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟旭茂; 张翠平; 李玉娟; 冯星

    2012-01-01

    Based on the structure parameters of 4100QBZL turbocharged and intercooled engine, an engine performance simulation model with M15 (15% methanol and 85% diesel) is established with GT -POWER and the model is verified by engine experiment. The performances of engines are analyzed and compared by taking compression ratio and supplying oil advance angle into consideration.%以4100QBZL增压中冷柴油机结构参数为基础,利用GT-POWER软件建立了柴油机燃用M15甲醇柴油混合燃料的仿真模型,通过试验验证了模型的正确性,并从压缩比和供油提前角两个方面对发动机进行性能分析、对比.

  13. Engineering the biological conversion of methanol to specialty chemicals in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, W Brian; Jones, J Andrew; Bennett, R Kyle; Gonzalez, Jacqueline E; Vernacchio, Victoria R; Collins, Shannon M; Palmer, Michael A; Schmidt, Samuel; Antoniewicz, Maciek R; Koffas, Mattheos A; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2017-01-01

    Methanol is an attractive substrate for biological production of chemicals and fuels. Engineering methylotrophic Escherichia coli as a platform organism for converting methanol to metabolites is desirable. Prior efforts to engineer methylotrophic E. coli were limited by methanol dehydrogenases (Mdhs) with unfavorable enzyme kinetics. We engineered E. coli to utilize methanol using a superior NAD-dependent Mdh from Bacillus stearothermophilus and ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathway enzymes from B. methanolicus. Using (13)C-labeling, we demonstrate this E. coli strain converts methanol into biomass components. For example, the key TCA cycle intermediates, succinate and malate, exhibit labeling up to 39%, while the lower glycolytic intermediate, 3-phosphoglycerate, up to 53%. Multiple carbons are labeled for each compound, demonstrating a cycling RuMP pathway for methanol assimilation to support growth. By incorporating the pathway to synthesize the flavanone naringenin, we demonstrate the first example of in vivo conversion of methanol into a specialty chemical in E. coli.

  14. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  15. Development of economic and environmental metrics for forest-based biomass harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F. L.; Wang, J. J.; Liu, S. H.; Zhang, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    An assessment of the economic, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission dimensions of forest-based biomass harvest stage in the state of Michigan, U.S. through gathering data from literature, database, and other relevant sources, was performed. The assessment differentiates harvesting systems (cut-to-length harvesting, whole tree harvesting, and motor-manual harvesting), harvest types (30%, 70%, and 100% cut) and forest types (hardwoods, softwoods, mixed hardwood/softwood, and softwood plantations) that characterize Michigan's logging industry. Machine rate methods were employed to determine unit harvesting cost. A life cycle inventory was applied to calculating energy demand and GHG emissions of different harvesting scenarios, considering energy and material inputs (diesel, machinery, etc.) and outputs (emissions) for each process (cutting, forwarding/skidding, etc.). A sensitivity analysis was performed for selected input variables for the harvesting operation in order to explore their relative importance. The results indicated that productivity had the largest impact on harvesting cost followed by machinery purchase price, yearly scheduled hours, and expected utilization. Productivity and fuel use, as well as fuel factors, are the most influential environmental impacts of harvesting operations.

  16. A radiative transfer model-based method for the estimation of grassland aboveground biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Xingwen; He, Binbin; Yebra, Marta; Yin, Changming; Liao, Zhanmang; Zhang, Xueting; Li, Xing

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a novel method to derive grassland aboveground biomass (AGB) based on the PROSAILH (PROSPECT + SAILH) radiative transfer model (RTM). Two variables, leaf area index (LAI, m2m-2, defined as a one-side leaf area per unit of horizontal ground area) and dry matter content (DMC, gcm-2, defined as the dry matter per leaf area), were retrieved using PROSAILH and reflectance data from Landsat 8 OLI product. The result of LAI × DMC was regarded as the estimated grassland AGB according to their definitions. The well-known ill-posed inversion problem when inverting PROSAILH was alleviated using ecological criteria to constrain the simulation scenario and therefore the number of simulated spectra. A case study of the presented method was applied to a plateau grassland in China to estimate its AGB. The results were compared to those obtained using an exponential regression, a partial least squares regression (PLSR) and an artificial neural networks (ANN). The RTM-based method offered higher accuracy (R2 = 0.64 and RMSE = 42.67 gm-2) than the exponential regression (R2 = 0.48 and RMSE = 41.65 gm-2) and the ANN (R2 = 0.43 and RMSE = 46.26 gm-2). However, the proposed method offered similar performance than PLSR as presented better determination coefficient than PLSR (R2 = 0.55) but higher RMSE (RMSE = 37.79 gm-2). Although it is still necessary to test these methodologies in other areas, the RTM-based method offers greater robustness and reproducibility to estimate grassland AGB at large scale without the need to collect field measurements and therefore is considered the most promising methodology.

  17. Uncertainty analysis for regional-level above-ground biomass estimates based on individual tree biomass model%单木生物量模型估计区域尺度生物量的不确定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅煜; 雷渊才; 曾伟生

    2015-01-01

    采用系统抽样体系江西省固定样地杉木连续观测数据和生物量数据,通过Monte Carlo法反复模拟由单木生物量模型推算区域尺度地上生物量的过程,估计了江西省杉木地上总生物量。基于不同水平建模样本量n及不同决定系数R2的设计,分别研究了单木生物量模型参数变异性及模型残差变异性对区域尺度生物量估计不确定性的影响。研究结果表明:2009年江西省杉木地上生物量估计值为(19.84±1.27) t/hm2,不确定性占生物量估计值约6.41%。生物量估计值和不确定性值达到平稳状态所需的运算时间随建模样本量及决定系数R2的增大而减小;相对于模型参数变异性,残差变异性对不确定性的影响更小。%Above-ground forest biomass at regional-level is typically estimated by adding model predictions of biomass from individual trees in a plot, and subsequently aggregating predictions from plots to large areas. There are multiple sources of uncertainties in model predictions during this aggregated process. These uncertainties always affect the precision of large area biomass estimates, and the effects are generally overlooked; however, failure to account for these uncertainties will cause erroneously optimistic precision estimates. Monte Carlo simulation is an effective method for estimating large-scale biomass and assessing the uncertainty associated with multiple sources of errors and complex models. In this paper, we applied the Monte Carlo approach to simulate regional-level above-ground biomass and to assess uncertainties related to the variability from model residuals and parameters separately. A nonlinear model form was used. Data were obtained from permanent sample plots and biomass observation of Cunninghamia lanceolata in JiangXi Province, China. Overall, 70 individual trees were destructively sampled for biomass estimation from June to September, 2009. Based on the commonly used allometric model

  18. Deciding between carbon trading and carbon capture and sequestration: an optimisation-based case study for methanol synthesis from syngas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üçtuğ, Fehmi Görkem; Ağralı, Semra; Arıkan, Yıldız; Avcıoğlu, Eray

    2014-01-01

    The economic and technical feasibility of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) systems are gaining importance as CO2 emission reduction is becoming a more pressing issue for parties from production sectors. Public and private entities have to comply with national schemes imposing tighter limits on their emission allowances. Often these parties face two options as whether to invest in CCS or buy carbon credits for the excess emissions above their limits. CCS is an expensive system to invest in and to operate. Therefore, its feasibility depends on the carbon credit prices prevailing in the markets now and in the future. In this paper we consider the problem of installing a CCS unit in order to ensure that the amount of CO2 emissions is within its allowable limits. We formulate this problem as a non-linear optimisation problem where the objective is to maximise the net returns from pursuing an optimal mix of the two options described above. General Algebraic Modelling Systems (GAMS) software was used to solve the model. The results were found to be sensitive to carbon credit prices and the discount rate, which determines the choices with respect to the future and the present. The model was applied to a methanol synthesis plant as an example. However, the formulation can easily be extended to any production process if the CO2 emissions level per unit of physical production is known. The results showed that for CCS to be feasible, carbon credit prices must be above 15 Euros per ton. This value, naturally, depends on the plant-specific data, and the costs we have employed for CCS. The actual prices (≈5 Euros/ton CO2) at present are far from encouraging the investors into CCS technology.

  19. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornpitoksuk, P.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefore, direct methanol fuel cell is proper to use for the energy source of small electrical devices and vehicles etc.

  20. Catalytic gasification of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertus, R. J.; Mudge, L. K.; Sealock, L. J., Jr.; Mitchell, D. H.; Weber, S. L.

    1981-12-01

    Methane and methanol synthesis gas can be produced by steam gasification of biomass in the presence of appropriate catalysts. This concept is to use catalysts in a fluidized bed reactor which is heated indirectly. The objective is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the concept. Technically the concept has been demonstrated on a 50 lb per hr scale. Potential advantages over conventional processes include: no oxygen plant is needed, little tar is produced so gas and water treatment are simplified, and yields and efficiencies are greater than obtained by conventional gasification. Economic studies for a plant processing 2000 T/per day dry wood show that the cost of methanol from wood by catalytic gasification is competitive with the current price of methanol. Similar studies show the cost of methane from wood is competitive with projected future costs of synthetic natural gas. When the plant capacity is decreased to 200 T per day dry wood, neither product is very attractive in today's market.

  1. Study of a 30 MW bubbling fluidized bed combustor based on co-firing biomass and coal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hemant Kumar; S K Mohapatra; Ravi Inder Singh

    2015-06-01

    Today’s power generation sources are largely dependent on fossil fuels due to which the future sustainable development has become a challenge. A significant amount of the pollutant emissions such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide from the power sector is related to the use of fossil fuels for power generation. As the demand for electricity is growing rapidly, emissions of carbon dioxide and other pollutants from this sector can be expected to increase unless other alternatives are made available. Among the energy sources that can substitute fossil fuels, biomass fuels appear as one of the options with a high worldwide potential. In the Punjab region of India, Fluidized-bed combustion technology is being used for converting biomass into thermal energy and power generation in various small scale units. The investigation of biomass-based plant through experimental activities and numerical simulation is the scope of this study. The investigations were done at Captive Power Plant (CPP), Ambuja Cement Limited, a project of Holcim, District Ropar, India. During experimental investigations, the study of bed temperatures and steam temperatures at different zones has been done for coal fired and biomass fired combustors with 30% share. No clear effects of co-firing on boiler performance are observed. However, the operational behavior of the boiler in terms of bed temperature and stack emissions shows a different trend. During simulation, the contours of temperature have been obtained for both the boilers and the trends are found in agreement with real process.

  2. Maximizing biomass productivity and cell density of Chlorella vulgaris by using light-emitting diode-based photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Weiqi; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Feist, Adam M; Herjolfsson, Gisli; Brynjolfsson, Sigurdur; Palsson, Bernhard Ø

    2012-10-31

    Green microalgae have recently drawn attention as promising organisms for biofuel production; however, the question is whether they can grow sufficient biomass relative to limiting input factors to be economically feasible. We have explored this question by determining how much biomass the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris can produce in photobioreactors based on highly efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs). First, growth results were improved under the less expensive light of 660 nm LEDs, developing them in the laboratory to meet the performance levels of the traditional but more expensive 680 nm LEDs by adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE). We then optimized several other key parameters, including input superficial gas velocity, CO(2) concentration, light distribution, and growth media in reference to nutrient stoichiometry. Biomass density thereby rose to approximately 20 g dry-cell-weight (gDCW) per liter (L). Since the light supply was recognized as a limiting factor, illumination was augmented by optimization at systematic level, providing for a biomass productivity of up to 2.11 gDCW/L/day, with a light yield of 0.81 gDCW/Einstein. These figures, which represent the best results ever reported, point to new dimensions in the photoautotrophic performance of microalgal cultures.

  3. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  4. Methanol Production by a Broad Phylogenetic Array of Marine Phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincer, Tracy J; Aicher, Athena C

    2016-01-01

    Methanol is a major volatile organic compound on Earth and serves as an important carbon and energy substrate for abundant methylotrophic microbes. Previous geochemical surveys coupled with predictive models suggest that the marine contributions are exceedingly large, rivaling terrestrial sources. Although well studied in terrestrial ecosystems, methanol sources are poorly understood in the marine environment and warrant further investigation. To this end, we adapted a Purge and Trap Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (P&T-GC/MS) method which allowed reliable measurements of methanol in seawater and marine phytoplankton cultures with a method detection limit of 120 nanomolar. All phytoplankton tested (cyanobacteria: Synechococcus spp. 8102 and 8103, Trichodesmium erythraeum, and Prochlorococcus marinus), and Eukarya (heterokont diatom: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, coccolithophore: Emiliania huxleyi, cryptophyte: Rhodomonas salina, and non-diatom heterokont: Nannochloropsis oculata) produced methanol, ranging from 0.8-13.7 micromolar in culture and methanol per total cellular carbon were measured in the ranges of 0.09-0.3%. Phytoplankton culture time-course measurements displayed a punctuated production pattern with maxima near early stationary phase. Stabile isotope labeled bicarbonate incorporation experiments confirmed that methanol was produced from phytoplankton biomass. Overall, our findings suggest that phytoplankton are a major source of methanol in the upper water column of the world's oceans.

  5. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    , enzymatic hydrolysis, and product fermentation options. Biomass Recalcitrance is essential reading for researchers, process chemists and engineers working in biomass conversion, also plant scientists working in cell wall biology and plant biotechnology. This book examines the connection between biomass...... - this collective resistance is known as "biomass recalcitrance." Breakthrough technologies are needed to overcome barriers to developing cost-effective processes for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals. This book examines the connection between biomass structure, ultrastructure, and composition......, to resistance to enzymatic deconstruction, with the aim of discovering new cost-effective technologies for biorefineries. It contains chapters on topics extending from the highest levels of biorefinery design and biomass life-cycle analysis, to detailed aspects of plant cell wall structure, chemical treatments...

  6. Process assessment of small scale low temperature methanol synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriyana [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Jenderal Achmad Yani Univerity (Indonesia); Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Industrial Technology, InstitutTeknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Susanto, Herri, E-mail: herri@che.itb.ac.id; Subagjo [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Industrial Technology, InstitutTeknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource and has the potential to make a significant impact on domestic fuel supplies. Biomass can be converted to fuel like methanol via several step process. The process can be split into following main steps: biomass preparation, gasification, gas cooling and cleaning, gas shift and methanol synthesis. Untill now these configuration still has a problem like high production cost, catalyst deactivation, economy of scale and a huge energy requirements. These problems become the leading inhibition for biomass conversion to methanol, which should be resolved to move towards the economical. To address these issues, we developed various process and new configurations for methanol synthesis via methyl formate. This configuration combining two reactors: the one reactor for the carbonylation of methanol and CO to form methyl formate, and the second for the hydrogenolysis of methyl formate and H{sub 2} to form two molecule of methanol. Four plant process configurations were compared with the biomass basis is 300 ton/day. The first configuration (A) is equipped with a steam reforming process for converting methane to CO and H{sub 2} for increasing H{sub 2}/CO ratio. CO{sub 2} removal is necessary to avoid poisoning the catalyst. COSORB process used for the purpose of increasing the partial pressure of CO in the feed gas. The steam reforming process in B configuration is not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. For C configuration, the steam reforming process and COSORB are not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. D configuration is almost similar to the configuration A. This configuration difference is in the synthesis of methanol which was held in a single reactor. Carbonylation and hydrogenolysis reactions carried out in the same reactor one. These processes were analyzed in term of technical process, material and energy

  7. Development of a Methodology for Mapping Forest Height and Biomass Using Satellite Based SAR and Lidar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Claudia; Schmullius, Christiane

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents first results of a study investigating satellite, multifrequent radar and lidar data for characterising the three-dimensional forest structure. Biomass is an important structural parameter to asses the carbon pool of forests. The synergy of lidar and SAR data for forest biomass mapping is promising. The study introduced here aims to combine TerraSAR-X, ALOS PALSAR and ICESat/GLAS data. Some preliminary results for the test site in Thuringian Forest, a low mountain range in eastern Germany, with a focus on the GLAS data will be described. Two methods for filtering invalid GLAS shots are investigated. Moreover, different ICESat/GLAS waveforms parameters were calculated and compared to an airborne lidar based Digital Height Model (DHM) and a forest inventory data base.

  8. Study of polyacrylamide grafted starch based algal flocculation towards applications in algal biomass harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Chiranjib; Gupta, Pratibha; Mishra, Sumit; Sen, Gautam; Shukla, Pratyoosh; Bandopadhyay, Rajib

    2012-11-01

    Microalgae may be the source of high amount of lipid and protein. It has the property for carbon dioxide sequestration, recycling and also can remove pollutants from wastewater. Using traditional methods, collection of algal biomass is either cost effective, time consuming or may be toxic due to use of chemical salts. The aim of this study is to harvest freshwater microalgae (Chlorella sp. CB4) biomass by using polymer. Polyacrylamide grafted starch (St-g-PAM) has been synthesized by microwave assisted method involving a synergism of microwave radiation and ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) to initiate the grafting reaction. The synthesis was optimized in terms of CAN and monomer (acrylamide) concentration. The algal flocculation efficacy of all the grades of this graft copolymer was studied through standard 'Jar test' procedure. Effects of percentage grafting, pH and zeta potential on percentage recovery of algal biomass were thoroughly investigated.

  9. The Potential of Forest Biomass Inversion Based on Vegetation Indices Using Multi-Angle CHRIS/PROBA Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-angle remote sensing can either be regarded as an added source of uncertainty for variable retrieval, or as a source of additional information, which enhances variable retrieval compared to traditional single-angle observation. However, the magnitude of these angular and band effects for forest structure parameters is difficult to quantify. We used the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART model and the Zelig model to simulate the forest canopy Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Factor (BRDF in order to build a look-up table, and eight vegetation indices were used to assess the relationship between BRDF and forest biomass in order to find the sensitive angles and bands. Further, the European Space Agency (ESA mission, Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer onboard the Project for On-board Autonomy (CHRIS-PROBA and field sample measurements, were selected to test the angular and band effects on forest biomass retrieval. The results showed that the off-nadir vegetation indices could predict the forest biomass more accurately than the nadir. Additionally, we found that the viewing angle effect is more important, but the band effect could not be ignored, and the sensitive angles for extracting forest biomass are greater viewing angles, especially around the hot and dark spot directions. This work highlighted the combination of angles and bands, and found a new index based on the traditional vegetation index, Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index (ARVI, which is calculated by combining sensitive angles and sensitive bands, such as blue band 490 nm/−55°, green band 530 nm/55°, and the red band 697 nm/55°, and the new index was tested to improve the accuracy of forest biomass retrieval. This is a step forward in multi-angle remote sensing applications for mining the hidden relationship between BRDF and forest structure information, in order to increase the utilization efficiency of remote sensing data.

  10. Investigations into the effects of volatile biomass tar on the performance of Fe-based CLC oxygen carrier materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot-Handford, Matthew E.; Florin, Nick; Fennell, Paul S.

    2016-11-01

    In this study we present findings from investigations into interactions between biomass tar and two iron based oxygen carrier materials (OCMs) designed for chemical-looping applications: a 100% Fe2O3 (100Fe) OCM and a 60 wt% Fe2O3/40 wt% Al2O3 (60Fe40Al) OCM. A novel 6 kWe two-stage, fixed-bed reactor was designed and constructed to simulate a chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process with ex situ gasification of biomass. Beech wood was pyrolysed in the first stage of the reactor at 773 K to produce a tar-containing fuel gas that was used to reduce the OCM loaded into the 2nd stage at 973 K. The presence of either OCM was found to significantly reduce the amount of biomass tars exiting the reactor by up to 71 wt% compared with analogous experiments in which the biomass tar compounds were exposed to an inert bed of sand. The tar cracking effect of the 60Fe40Al OCM was slightly greater than the 100Fe OCM although the reduction in the tar yield was roughly equivalent to the increase in carbon deposition observed for the 60Fe40Al OCM compared with the 100Fe OCM. In both cases, the tar cracking effect of the OCMs appeared to be independent of the oxidation state in which the OCM was exposed to the volatile biomass pyrolysis products (i.e. Fe2O3 or Fe3O4). Exposing the pyrolysis vapours to the OCMs in their oxidised (Fe2O3) form favoured the production of CO2. The production of CO was favoured when the OCMs were in their reduced (Fe3O4) form. Carbon deposition was removed in the subsequent oxidation phase with no obvious deleterious effects on the reactivity in subsequent CLC cycles with reduction by 3 mol% CO.

  11. MOBE: Final report; Modelling and Optimization of Biomass-based Energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trangbaek, K. (Aalborg Univ., Institut for Elektroniske Systemer, Aalborg (Denmark)); Elmegaard, B. (Danmarks Tekniske Univ., Institut for Mekanisk Teknologi, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2008-07-01

    The present report is the documentation of the work in the PSO-project MOBE, ''Modelling and Optimization of biomass-based Energy production''. The aim of the project is to develop better control methods for boilers in central power plant units, so the plant will achieve better controllability with respect to load changes. in particular focus is on the low load operation near and below the Benson point. The introduction of the report includes a description of the challenges the central power stations see in the modern electricity market where wind power delivers a significant prioritized production, and thus, in connection with consumption variations, contributes to the load requirements of the central units. The report documents the work on development of a common simulation platform for the partners in the project and for future model work. The result of this is an integration between the DTU simulation code DNA and Matlab. Other possible tools are suggested. The modelling work in the project has resulted in preliminary studies of time constants of evaporator tubes, an analysis that shows that Ledinegg instabilities do not occur in modern boilers even at low load, development of a validated evaporator model that can be coupled to tools for control system development, and an analysis of two different configurations at the low load system of Benson boilers. Based in a validated power plant model different control strategies have been studied. Because constraints on control signals and temperature gradients are dominating, it is recommended to use model predictive control. It is demonstrated, how such a simulator can handle large low gradients without violating the constraints. By switching between different linearized models the whole load range may be covered. The project indicates that Model predictive control can improve the control in low low significantly. This should be studied further in future projects by realistic tests. At first these

  12. LiDAR based prediction of forest biomass using hierarchical models with spatially varying coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Chad; Finley, Andrew O.; Bradford, John B.; Kolka, Randall K.; Birdsey, Richard A.; Ryan, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies and production inventory systems have shown the utility of coupling covariates derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data with forest variables measured on georeferenced inventory plots through regression models. The objective of this study was to propose and assess the use of a Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework that accommodates both residual spatial dependence and non-stationarity of model covariates through the introduction of spatial random effects. We explored this objective using four forest inventory datasets that are part of the North American Carbon Program, each comprising point-referenced measures of above-ground forest biomass and discrete LiDAR. For each dataset, we considered at least five regression model specifications of varying complexity. Models were assessed based on goodness of fit criteria and predictive performance using a 10-fold cross-validation procedure. Results showed that the addition of spatial random effects to the regression model intercept improved fit and predictive performance in the presence of substantial residual spatial dependence. Additionally, in some cases, allowing either some or all regression slope parameters to vary spatially, via the addition of spatial random effects, further improved model fit and predictive performance. In other instances, models showed improved fit but decreased predictive performance—indicating over-fitting and underscoring the need for cross-validation to assess predictive ability. The proposed Bayesian modeling framework provided access to pixel-level posterior predictive distributions that were useful for uncertainty mapping, diagnosing spatial extrapolation issues, revealing missing model covariates, and discovering locally significant parameters.

  13. Solvent effect on H-bond cooperativity factors in ternary complexes of methanol, octan-1-ol, 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol with some bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonov, Boris N; Varfolomeev, Mikhail A; Abaidullina, Dilyara I

    2008-03-01

    Cooperative hydrogen bonds in ternary complexes (ROH)(2)...B (ROH-alcohols; B-bases) formed in pure bases (B) and solutions in n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane were studied by FTIR spectroscopy. Based on the observations, the authors were able to propose an original method of evaluating solvent effects on cooperativity factors in the complexes. Frequencies of cooperative hydrogen bonds OH...B (nu(b)) were determined for ternary complexes of pyridine with aliphatic alcohols (methanol, octan-1-ol) and for 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol with three different bases (acetonitrile, diethyl ether, tetrahydrofuran). The solvent shifts of nu(b) were found to correlate with an empirical thermochemical parameter of the solvent, S(VW). The cooperativity factors were determined for the complexes (ROH)(2)...B in all studied media. It has been found that the cooperativity factors are almost independent of the solvent. In addition, a method was proposed of estimating the frequencies and cooperativity factors for ternary complexes (ROH)(2)...B in the gas phase. It has been found that in gas phase the cooperativity factors are practically the same as in condensed media.

  14. Direct conversion of algal biomass to biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuguang; Patil, Prafulla D; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-10-14

    A method and system for providing direct conversion of algal biomass. Optionally, the method and system can be used to directly convert dry algal biomass to biodiesels under microwave irradiation by combining the reaction and combining steps. Alternatively, wet algae can be directly processed and converted to fatty acid methyl esters, which have the major components of biodiesels, by reacting with methanol at predetermined pressure and temperature ranges.

  15. Environmental and economic analysis of rice straw methanol synthesis system based on life cycle assessment%基于LCA的稻秸合成甲醇的环境-经济成本分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾吉青; 金保升; 肖军; 仲兆平; 沈来宏

    2009-01-01

    以年产5万t甲醇的稻秸气化合成甲醇系统为研究对象,采用生命周期评价方法,对该系统进行了环境-经济成本分析.结果表明,稻秸合成甲醇系统的环境影响成本是284.99元/t(以甲醇计),且主要集中在生产转化过程和下游甲醇燃料消费2个单元阶段.在不同环境影响类型中,温室效应是生命周期最主要的环境影响因素,由于稻秸固碳作用产生的环境成本是-152.79 元/t,生产上游温室效应影响负荷为负、总环境影响负荷为负.每t稻秸甲醇的真实成本比煤基甲醇低76.84元.%A rice straw gasification for methanol production system of annual 50,0001 was investigated. Based on life cycle assessment, environmental and economic analysis of the process were performed The total environmental cost of the bio-methanol was 284.99 yuan per ton(via methanol), and it was mainly concentrated in methanol production and methanol consumption. The greenhouse effect was the most important impact factor, among the various types environmental cost of the bio-methanol. Environmental cost of rice straw carbon sequestration, in the upstream of production, was -152.79 yuan per ton, so both the greenhouse effect and the overall environmental impact are negative. Through comparison, it was evident that the total cost of the bio-methanol was 76.84 yuan/ton lower than that of coal based methanol.

  16. Structure and mechanical properties of new biomass-based nanocomposite: castor oil-based polyurethane reinforced with acetylated cellulose nanocrystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Song; Huang, Jin; Chang, Peter R; Wei, Siwen; Xu, Yixiang; Zhang, Qiaoxin

    2013-06-01

    New nanocomposites consisting of a castor oil-based polyurethane matrix filled with acetylated cellulose nanocrystals (ACNs) were developed. The ACN exhibited improved dispersion in tetrahydrofuran as a blending medium, and reduced polarity as compared with unmodified cellulose nanocrystals, resulting in a high loading level of 25 wt% in the nanocomposite. As the ACN loading-level increased from 0% to 25%, the tensile strength and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites increased from 2.79 MPa to 10.41 MPa and from 0.98 MPa to 42.61 MPa, respectively. When the ACN loading-level was 10 wt%, the breaking elongation of the nanocomposites reached the maximum value of more than twice that of the polyurethane. The enhanced mechanical performance was primarily attributed to the formation of a three-dimensional ACN network and strong interfacial interactions between filler and matrix. This work produced new polyurethane-based nanocomposites containing modified cellulose nanocrystal with a high biomass content. Its high performance could contribute to potential applications.

  17. A tetranuclear cubane-like nickel(II complex with a tridentate salicylideneimine Schiff base ligand: tetrakis[μ3-4-methyl-N-(2-oxidophenylsalicylideneiminato]tetrakis[methanolnickel(II] methanol 0.8-solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Pavlović

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The tetranuclear title complex, [Ni4(C14H11NO24(CH3OH4]·0.8CH3OH, has a distorted cubane topology shaped by four Schiff base ligands. The cubane [Ni4(μ3-O4] core is formed via the O atoms from the Schiff base ligands. The octahedrally coordinated NiII ions occupy alternating vertices of the cube. Each NiII ion is coordinated by one O,N,O′-tridentate dianionic ligand, two O atoms of oxidophenyl groups from adjacent ligands and the O atom of a coordinating methanol molecule. The cubane core is stabilized via an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond between the hydroxy group of the coordinating methanol molecules and the phenolate O atom of the aldehyde Schiff base fragment. Additional stabilization is obtained via intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds involving aromatic C—H groups and the oxygen atoms of adjacent methanol molecules. In the crystal, complex molecules are linked into chains parallel to the c axis via weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds. The partial-occupancy disordered methanol solvent molecule has a site occupancy of 0.8 and is linked to the tetranuclear unit via an intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond involving a phenolate O atom.

  18. A Biomass-based Model to Estimate the Plausibility of Exoplanet Biosignature Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, S; Hu, R

    2013-01-01

    Biosignature gas detection is one of the ultimate future goals for exoplanet atmosphere studies. We have created a framework for linking biosignature gas detectability to biomass estimates, including atmospheric photochemistry and biological thermodynamics. The new framework is intended to liberate predictive atmosphere models from requiring fixed, Earth-like biosignature gas source fluxes. New biosignature gases can be considered with a check that the biomass estimate is physically plausible. We have validated the models on terrestrial production of NO, H2S, CH4, CH3Cl, and DMS. We have applied the models to propose NH3 as a biosignature gas on a "cold Haber World," a planet with a N2-H2 atmosphere, and to demonstrate why gases such as CH3Cl must have too large of a biomass to be a plausible biosignature gas on planets with Earth or early-Earth-like atmospheres orbiting a Sun-like star. To construct the biomass models, we developed a functional classification of biosignature gases, and found that gases (such...

  19. Process for reducing the oxygen content of biomass using molybdenum-based catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention concerns a process for converting biomass into useful organic building blocks for the chemical industry. The process involves the reduction of a polyol wherein at least two of the hydroxyl groups are located on adjacent carbon atoms in the presence of a molybdenum...

  20. Biomass burning emissions estimated with a global fire assimilation system based on observed fire radiative power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, J.W.; Heil, A.; Andreae, M.O.; Benedetti, A.; Chubarova, N.; Jones, L.; Morcrette, J.J.; Razinger, M.; Schultz, M.G.; Suttie, M.; Werf, van der G.R.

    2012-01-01

    The Global Fire Assimilation System (GFASv1.0) calculates biomass burning emissions by assimilating Fire Radiative Power (FRP) observations from the MODIS instruments onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. It corrects for gaps in the observations, which are mostly due to cloud cover, and filters spu

  1. Biofuel and other biomass based products from contaminated sites - Potentials and barriers from Swedish perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Enell, Anja; Rihm, Thomas; Haglund, Kristina; Wik, Ola (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja; Angelbratt, Alexandra (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Keuning, Sytze (Bioclear b.v., Groningen (Netherlands))

    2009-07-01

    In this report, results are presented based on interviews and literature surveys on the triggers and stoppers for non food crop on contaminated land in Sweden. The report also includes a first estimate of potential marginal land for biofuel production in Sweden. The report is a first step to explore the feasibility of a range of possible approaches to combine risk based land management (RBLM) with non-food crop land-uses and organic matter re-use as appropriate in a Swedish context. The focus of the report is on the treatment of contaminated land by phyto-remediation and on biofuel cultivation. In Sweden, like all other countries in Europe, areas of land have been degraded by past use. Such previously developed land includes areas affected by mining, fallout from industrial processes such as smelting, areas elevated with contaminated dredged sediments, former landfill sites and many other areas where the decline of industrial activity has left a legacy of degraded land and communities. The extent of contamination may not be sufficient to trigger remediation under current regulatory conditions, and there may be little economic incentive to regenerate the affected areas. An ideal solution would be a land management approach that is able to pay for itself. Biomass from coppice or other plantations has long been seen as a possible means of achieving this goal. Phyto remediation offers a low cost method for remediation of areas that are not candidates for conventional regeneration. The optimal conditions for phyto remediation are large land areas of low or mediate contamination. Phyto remediation is also suitable to prevent spreading of contaminants, for example in green areas such as in cities, as waste water buffer and small size remediation areas with diffuse spreading. Phyto remediation implies that plants, fungi or algae are used to remediate, control or increase the natural attenuation of contaminants. Depending on the contaminating species and the site conditions

  2. Sterion membranes in Direct Methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, J. J.; Lobato, J.; Canizares, P.; Rodrigo, M. A.; Fernandez, A.

    2005-07-01

    Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs) has been postulated as an alternative to traditional hydrogen fed Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (H2-PEMFCs). Among their advantages, it can be pointed out the low cost of the fuel, simplicity of design, large availability, easy handling and distribution. However, there are still some challenges in this field, such as the development of electrocatalysts which can enhance the electrokinetics of methanol oxidation, the discovery of an electrolyte membrane with high conductivity and low methanol crossover at the same time and the production of methanol-tolerant electrocatalysts with high activity for oxygen reduction. So far, Nafion 117 has been the polymer membrane most widely used in DMFCs. Yet, it is well known that Nafion (Du Pont Inc.) membranes are not good barrier for methanol, so that the coulombic efficiency of Nafion-based DMFCs is significantly reduced by the chemical oxidation of methanol in the cathode. Recently, a new perfluorinated polymer with sulphonic acid groups (PFSA) has been developed, under the commercial name of Sterion (David Fuel Cell Components). As a difference as opposed to Nafion, this membrane is cast by the solution casting method, which provides a different sulphonic cluster configuration as compared to the extrusion cast Nafion membranes, which may give rise to different methanol crossover behaviour. In this work, it has been studied and analysed the suitability of Sterion in the DMFCs field. For that, it has been measured the methanol permeability of this membrane at different solute concentration and temperature, and its performance in an actual fuel cell at different operational conditions, such as methanol concentration, temperature and back pressure. Tests have been made using both oxygen and air in the cathode and half-cell potentials have been evaluated in some measurements in order to discriminate the contribution of both semi-reactions to the overall cell overvoltage. A lifetime

  3. Cascading of Biomass. 13 Solutions for a Sustainable Bio-based Economy. Making Better Choices for Use of Biomass Residues, By-products and Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odegard, I.; Croezen, H.; Bergsma, G.

    2012-08-15

    Smarter and more efficient use of biomass, referred to as cascading, can lead to an almost 30% reduction in European greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared with 2010. As the title study makes clear, cascading of woody biomass, agricultural and industrial residues and other waste can make a significant contribution to a greening of the economy. With the thirteen options quantitatively examined annual emissions of between 330 and 400 Mt CO2 can be avoided by making more efficient use of the same volume of biomass as well as by other means. 75% of the potential CO2 gains can be achieved with just four options: (1) bio-ethanol from straw, for use as a chemical feedstock; (2) biogas from manure; (3) biorefining of grass; and (4) optimisation of paper recycling. Some of the options make multiple use of residues, with biomass being used to produce bioplastics that, after several rounds of recycling, are converted to heat and power at the end of their life, for example. In other cases higher-grade applications are envisaged: more efficient use of recyclable paper and wood waste, in both economic and ecological terms, using them as raw materials for new paper and chipboard rather than as an energy source. Finally, by using smart technologies biomass can be converted to multiple products.

  4. Biofuel and other biomass based products from contaminated sites - Potentials and barriers from Swedish perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Enell, Anja; Rihm, Thomas; Haglund, Kristina; Wik, Ola (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja; Angelbratt, Alexandra (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Keuning, Sytze (Bioclear b.v., Groningen (Netherlands))

    2009-07-01

    In this report, results are presented based on interviews and literature surveys on the triggers and stoppers for non food crop on contaminated land in Sweden. The report also includes a first estimate of potential marginal land for biofuel production in Sweden. The report is a first step to explore the feasibility of a range of possible approaches to combine risk based land management (RBLM) with non-food crop land-uses and organic matter re-use as appropriate in a Swedish context. The focus of the report is on the treatment of contaminated land by phyto-remediation and on biofuel cultivation. In Sweden, like all other countries in Europe, areas of land have been degraded by past use. Such previously developed land includes areas affected by mining, fallout from industrial processes such as smelting, areas elevated with contaminated dredged sediments, former landfill sites and many other areas where the decline of industrial activity has left a legacy of degraded land and communities. The extent of contamination may not be sufficient to trigger remediation under current regulatory conditions, and there may be little economic incentive to regenerate the affected areas. An ideal solution would be a land management approach that is able to pay for itself. Biomass from coppice or other plantations has long been seen as a possible means of achieving this goal. Phyto remediation offers a low cost method for remediation of areas that are not candidates for conventional regeneration. The optimal conditions for phyto remediation are large land areas of low or mediate contamination. Phyto remediation is also suitable to prevent spreading of contaminants, for example in green areas such as in cities, as waste water buffer and small size remediation areas with diffuse spreading. Phyto remediation implies that plants, fungi or algae are used to remediate, control or increase the natural attenuation of contaminants. Depending on the contaminating species and the site conditions

  5. Effect of lake water on algal biomass and microbial community structure in municipal wastewater-based lab-scale photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krustok, I; Truu, J; Odlare, M; Truu, M; Ligi, T; Tiirik, K; Nehrenheim, E

    2015-08-01

    Photobioreactors are a novel environmental technology that can produce biofuels with the simultaneous removal of nutrients and pollutants from wastewaters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lake water inoculation on the production of algal biomass and phylogenetic and functional structure of the algal and bacterial communities in municipal wastewater-treating lab-scale photobioreactors. Inoculating the reactors with lake water had a significant benefit to the overall algal biomass growth and nutrient reduction in the reactors with wastewater and lake water (ratio 70/30 v/v). The metagenome-based survey showed that the most abundant algal phylum in these reactors was Chlorophyta with Scenedesmus being the most prominent genus. The most abundant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes with most dominant families being Sphingobacteriaceae, Cytophagaceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Comamonadaceae, Planctomycetaceae, Nocardiaceae and Nostocaceae. These photobioreactors were also effective in reducing the overall amount of pathogens in wastewater compared to reactors with wastewater/tap water mixture. Functional analysis of the photobioreactor metagenomes revealed an increase in relative abundance genes related to photosynthesis, synthesis of vitamins important for auxotrophic algae and decrease in virulence and nitrogen metabolism subsystems in lake water reactors. The results of the study indicate that adding lake water to the wastewater-based photobioreactor leads to an altered bacterial community phylogenetic and functional structure that could be linked to higher algal biomass production, as well as to enhanced nutrient and pathogen reduction in these reactors.

  6. Thermodynamic properties of direct methanol polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Ji Yun; Bae, Young Chan [Division of Chemical Engineering and Molecular Thermodynamics Laboratory, Hanyang University, Sungdonggu Haengdangdong 17, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Sun, Yang Kook [Division of Chemical Engineering and Center for Information and Communication, Materials, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-08-18

    A new semi-empirical model is established to describe the cell voltage of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) as a function of current density. The model equation is validated experimental data over a wide range of a methanol concentration and temperatures. A number of existing models are semi-empirical. They, however, have a serious mathematical defect. When the current density, j, becomes zero, the equation should reduce to the open circuit voltage, E{sub 0}. These models, however, do not meet the mathematical boundary condition. The proposed model focuses on very unfavorable conditions for the cell operation, i.e. low methanol solution concentrations and relatively low cell temperatures. A newly developed semi-empirical equation with reasonable boundary conditions includes the methanol crossover effect that plays a major role in determining the cell voltage of DMFC. Also, it contains methanol activity based on thermodynamic functions to represent methanol crossover effect. (author)

  7. Efficiency of neural network-based combinatorial model predicting optimal culture conditions for maximum biomass yields in hairy root cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Shakti; Prakash, O; Khan, Feroz; Kukreja, A K

    2013-02-01

    KEY MESSAGE : ANN-based combinatorial model is proposed and its efficiency is assessed for the prediction of optimal culture conditions to achieve maximum productivity in a bioprocess in terms of high biomass. A neural network approach is utilized in combination with Hidden Markov concept to assess the optimal values of different environmental factors that result in maximum biomass productivity of cultured tissues after definite culture duration. Five hidden Markov models (HMMs) were derived for five test culture conditions, i.e. pH of liquid growth medium, volume of medium per culture vessel, sucrose concentration (%w/v) in growth medium, nitrate concentration (g/l) in the medium and finally the density of initial inoculum (g fresh weight) per culture vessel and their corresponding fresh weight biomass. The artificial neural network (ANN) model was represented as the function of these five Markov models, and the overall simulation of fresh weight biomass was done with this combinatorial ANN-HMM. The empirical results of Rauwolfia serpentina hairy roots were taken as model and compared with simulated results obtained from pure ANN and ANN-HMMs. The stochastic testing and Cronbach's α-value of pure and combinatorial model revealed more internal consistency and skewed character (0.4635) in histogram of ANN-HMM compared to pure ANN (0.3804). The simulated results for optimal conditions of maximum fresh weight production obtained from ANN-HMM and ANN model closely resemble the experimentally optimized culture conditions based on which highest fresh weight was obtained. However, only 2.99 % deviation from the experimental values could be observed in the values obtained from combinatorial model when compared to the pure ANN model (5.44 %). This comparison showed 45 % better potential of combinatorial model for the prediction of optimal culture conditions for the best growth of hairy root cultures.

  8. The toxicity of methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tephly, T.R. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Methanol toxicity in humans and monkeys is characterized by a latent period of many hours followed by a metabolic acidosis and ocular toxicity. This is not observed in most lower animals. The metabolic acidosis and blindness is apparently due to formic acid accumulation in humans and monkeys, a feature not seen in lower animals. The accumulation of formate is due to a deficiency in formate metabolism which is, in turn, related, in part, to low hepatic tetrahydrofolate (H{sub 4}folate). An excellent correlation between hepatic H{sub 4} folate and formate oxidation rates has been shown within and across species. Thus, humans and monkeys possess low hepatic H{sub 4}folate levels, low rates of formate oxidation and accumulation of formate after methanol. Formate, itself, produces blindness in monkeys in the absence of metabolic acidosis. In addition to low hepatic H{sub 4}folate concentrations, monkeys and humans also have low hepatic 10-formyl H{sub 4}folate dehydrogenase levels, the enzyme which is the ultimate catalyst for conversion of formate to carbon dioxide. This review presents the basis for the role of folic acid-dependent reactions in the regulation of methanol toxicity.

  9. Biomass burning emissions estimated with a global fire assimilation system based on observed fire radiative power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Kaiser

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Global Fire Assimilation System (GFASv1.0 calculates biomass burning emissions by assimilating Fire Radiative Power (FRP observations from the MODIS instruments onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. It corrects for gaps in the observations, which are mostly due to cloud cover, and filters spurious FRP observations of volcanoes, gas flares and other industrial activity. The combustion rate is subsequently calculated with land cover-specific conversion factors. Emission factors for 40 gas-phase and aerosol trace species have been compiled from a literature survey. The corresponding daily emissions have been calculated on a global 0.5° × 0.5° grid from 2003 to the present. General consistency with the Global Fire Emission Database version 3.1 (GFED3.1 within its accuracy is achieved while maintaining the advantages of an FRP-based approach: GFASv1.0 makes use of the quantitative information on the combustion rate that is contained in the observations, and it detects fires in real time at high spatial and temporal resolution. GFASv1.0 indicates omission errors in GFED3.1 due to undetected small fires. It also exhibits slightly longer fire seasons in South America and North Africa and a slightly shorter fire season in Southeast Asia. GFASv1.0 has already been used for atmospheric reactive gas simulations in an independent study, which found good agreement with atmospheric observations. We have performed simulations of the atmospheric aerosol distribution with and without the assimilation of MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD. They indicate that the emissions of particulate matter need to be boosted with a factor of 2–4 to reproduce the global distribution of organic matter and black carbon. This discrepancy is also evident in the comparison of previously published top-down and bottom-up estimates. For the time being, a global enhancement of the particulate matter emissions by 3.4 is recommended. Validation with independent AOD and PM10

  10. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  11. Paths to bioenergy villages. A guideline for a independent supply of heat and electricity based on biomass in rural area. 3. ed.; Wege zum Bioenergiedorf. Leitfaden fuer eine eigenstaendige Waerme- und Stromversrogung auf Basis von Biomasse im laendlichen Raum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, Hans; Eigner-Thiel, Swantje; Girschner, Walter; Karpenstein-Machan, Marianne; Roland, Folker; Ruwisch, Volker; Sauer, Benedikt; Schmuck, Peter

    2010-12-15

    Bioenergy villages are one component for the sustainable energy supply in rural areas. The guideline under consideration is intended to encourage people in villages to switch their heat supply and electricity supply on the bases of biomass. The focus of this process-oriented guideline is on: (1) A presentation of the social feasibility, especially the involvement, motivation and encouragement of the population; (2) The presentation of concepts for a nature-friendly cultivation of the required biomass; (3) The treatment of economic and legal issues from the perspective of the people involved.

  12. Ammonium nitrate fertiliser production based on biomass - environmental effects from a life cycle perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, Serina; Baky, Andras; Bernesson, Sven; Nordberg, Ke; Norén, Olle; Hansson, Per-Anders

    2008-11-01

    Ammonium nitrate and calcium ammonium nitrate are the most commonly used straight nitrogen fertilisers in Europe, accounting for 43% of the total nitrogen used for fertilisers. They are both produced in a similar way; carbonate can be added as a last step to produce calcium ammonium nitrate. The environmental impact, fossil energy input and land use from using gasified biomass (cereal straw and short rotation willow (Salix) coppice) as feedstock in ammonium nitrate production were studied in a cradle-to-gate evaluation using life cycle assessment methodology. The global warming potential in the biomass systems was only 22-30% of the impact from conventional production using natural gas. The eutrophication potential was higher for the biomass systems due to nutrient leaching during cultivation, while the acidification was about the same in all systems. The primary fossil energy use was calculated to be 1.45 and 1.37MJ/kg nitrogen for Salix and straw, respectively, compared to 35.14MJ for natural gas. The biomass production was assumed to be self-supporting with nutrients by returning part of the ammonium nitrate produced together with the ash from the gasification. For the production of nitrogen from Salix, it was calculated that 3914kg of nitrogen can be produced every year from 1ha, after that 1.6% of the produced nitrogen has been returned to the Salix production. From wheat straw, 1615kg of nitrogen can be produced annually from 1ha, after that 0.6% of the nitrogen has been returned.

  13. Viability assessment of regional biomass pre-processing center based bioethanol value chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Joseph E.

    Petroleum accounts for 94% of all liquid fuels and 36% of the total of all energy consumed in the United States. Petroleum dependence is problematic because global petroleum reserves are estimated to last only for 40 to 60 years at current consumption rates; global supplies are often located in politically unstable or unfriendly regions; and fossil fuels have negative environmental footprints. Domestic policies have aimed at promoting alternative, renewable liquid fuels, specifically bio-fuels derived from organic matter. Cellulosic bio-ethanol is one promising alternative fuel that has featured prominently in federal bio-fuel mandates under the Energy Independence and Security Act, 2007. However, the cellulosic bio-ethanol industry faces several technical, physical and industrial organization challenges. This dissertation examines the concept of a network of regional biomass pre-treatment centers (RBPC) that form an extended biomass supply chain feeding into a simplified biorefinery as a way to overcome these challenges. The analyses conducted address the structural and transactional issues facing bio-ethanol value chain establishment; the technical and financial feasibility of a stand alone pre-treatment center (RBPC); the impact of distributed pre-treatment on biomass transport costs; a comparative systems cost evaluation of the performance of the RBPC chain versus a fully integrated biorefinery (gIBRh), followed by application of the analytical framework to three case study regions.

  14. Biomass carbon stocks in China’s forests between 2000 and 2050:A prediction based on forest biomass-age relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China’s forests are characterized by young forest age,low carbon density and a large area of planted forests,and thus have high potential to act as carbon sinks in the future.Using China’s national forest inventory data during 1994-1998 and 1999-2003,and direct field measurements,we investigated the relationships between forest biomass density and forest age for 36 major forest types.Statistical approaches and the predicted future forest area from the national forestry development plan were applied to estimate the potential of forest biomass carbon storage in China during 2000-2050.Under an assumption of continuous natural forest growth,China’s existing forest biomass carbon(C) stock would increase from 5.86 Pg C(1 Pg=1015 g) in 1999-2003 to 10.23 Pg C in 2050,resulting in a total increase of 4.37 Pg C.Newly planted forests through afforestation and reforestation will sequestrate an additional 2.86 Pg C in biomass.Overall,China’s forests will potentially act as a carbon sink for 7.23 Pg C during the period 2000-2050,with an average carbon sink of 0.14 Pg C yr-1.This suggests that China’s forests will be a significant carbon sink in the next 50 years.

  15. Effect of Oxide Coating on Performance of Copper-Zinc Oxide-Based Catalyst for Methanol Synthesis via Hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Umegaki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of oxide coating on the activity of a copper-zinc oxide–based catalyst for methanol synthesis via the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide was investigated. A commercial catalyst was coated with various oxides by a sol-gel method. The influence of the types of promoters used in the sol-gel reaction was investigated. Temperature-programmed reduction-thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the reduction peak assigned to the copper species in the oxide-coated catalysts prepared using ammonia shifts to lower temperatures than that of the pristine catalyst; in contrast, the reduction peak shifts to higher temperatures for the catalysts prepared using L(+-arginine. These observations indicated that the copper species were weakly bonded with the oxide and were easily reduced by using ammonia. The catalysts prepared using ammonia show higher CO2 conversion than the catalysts prepared using L(+-arginine. Among the catalysts prepared using ammonia, the silica-coated catalyst displayed a high activity at high temperatures, while the zirconia-coated catalyst and titania-coated catalyst had high activity at low temperatures. At high temperature the conversion over the silica-coated catalyst does not significantly change with reaction temperature, while the conversion over the zirconia-coated catalyst and titania-coated catalyst decreases with reaction time. From the results of FTIR, the durability depends on hydrophilicity of the oxides.

  16. Sustainable Application of Pecan Nutshell Waste: Greener Synthesis of Pd-based Nanocatalysts for Electro-oxidation of Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladium-based electrocatalysts are widely used in alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells. Thesynthesis and characterization of carbon-supported bimetallic nanoparticles (NP) of AuPdand AgPd is described using pecan nutshell extract (Carya illinoinensis) which serves asboth, reducin...

  17. Liquid transportation fuels via large-scale fluidised-bed gasification of lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, I.; Kurkela, E.

    2013-04-15

    With the objective of gaining a better understanding of the system design trade-offs and economics that pertain to biomass-to-liquids processes, 20 individual BTL plant designs were evaluated based on their technical and economic performance. The investigation was focused on gasification-based processes that enable the conversion of biomass to methanol, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch liquids or synthetic gasoline at a large (300 MWth of biomass) scale. The biomass conversion technology was based on pressurised steam/O2-blown fluidised-bed gasification, followed by hot-gas filtration and catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons and tars. This technology has seen extensive development and demonstration activities in Finland during the recent years and newly generated experimental data has also been used in our simulation models. Our study included conceptual design issues, process descriptions, mass and energy balances and production cost estimates. Several studies exist that discuss the overall efficiency and economics of biomass conversion to transportation liquids, but very few studies have presented a detailed comparison between various syntheses using consistent process designs and uniform cost database. In addition, no studies exist that examine and compare BTL plant designs using the same front-end configuration as described in this work. Our analysis shows that it is possible to produce sustainable low-carbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass with first-law efficiency in the range of 49.6-66.7% depending on the end-product and process conditions. Production cost estimates were calculated assuming Nth plant economics and without public investment support, CO2 credits or tax assumptions. They are 58-65 euro/MWh for methanol, 58-66 euro/MWh for DME, 64-75 euro/MWh for Fischer-Tropsch liquids and 68-78 euro/MWh for synthetic gasoline. (orig.)

  18. Atmospheric methanol measurement using selective catalytic methanol to formaldehyde conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Solomon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel atmospheric methanol measurement technique, employing selective gas-phase catalytic conversion of methanol to formaldehyde followed by detection of the formaldehyde product, has been developed and tested. The effects of temperature, gas flow rate, gas composition, reactor-bed length, and reactor-bed composition on the methanol conversion efficiency of a molybdenum-rich, iron-molybdate catalyst [Mo-Fe-O] were studied. Best results were achieved using a 1:4 mixture (w/w of the catalyst in quartz sand. Optimal methanol to formaldehyde conversion (>95% efficiency occurred at a catalyst housing temperature of 345°C and an estimated sample-air/catalyst contact time of <0.2 seconds. Potential interferences arising from conversion of methane and a number of common volatile organic compounds (VOC to formaldehyde were found to be negligible under most atmospheric conditions and catalyst housing temperatures. Using the new technique, atmospheric measurements of methanol were made at the University of Bremen campus from 1 to 15 July 2004. Methanol mixing ratios ranged from 1 to 5 ppb with distinct maxima at night. Formaldehyde mixing ratios, obtained in conjunction with methanol by periodically bypassing the catalytic converter, ranged from 0.2 to 1.6 ppb with maxima during midday. These results suggest that selective, catalytic methanol to formaldehyde conversion, coupled with existing formaldehyde measurement instrumentation, is an inexpensive and effective means for monitoring atmospheric methanol.

  19. Atmospheric methanol measurement using selective catalytic methanol to formaldehyde conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Solomon

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel atmospheric methanol measurement technique, employing selective gas-phase catalytic conversion of methanol to formaldehyde followed by detection of the formaldehyde product, has been developed and tested. The effects of temperature, gas flow rate, gas composition, reactor-bed length, and reactor-bed composition on the methanol conversion efficiency of a molybdenum-rich, iron-molybdate catalyst [Mo-Fe-O] were studied. Best results were achieved using a 1:4 mixture (w/w of the catalyst in quartz sand. Optimal methanol to formaldehyde conversion (>95% efficiency occurred at a catalyst housing temperature of 345°C and an estimated sample-air/catalyst contact time of <0.2 s. Potential interferences arising from conversion of methane and a number of common volatile organic compounds (VOC to formaldehyde were found to be negligible under most atmospheric conditions and catalyst housing temperatures. Using the new technique, atmospheric measurements of methanol were made at the University of Bremen campus from 1 to 15 July 2004. Methanol mixing ratios ranged from 1 to 5 ppb with distinct maxima at night. Formaldehyde mixing ratios, obtained in conjunction with methanol by periodically bypassing the catalytic converter, ranged from 0.2 to 1.6 ppb with maxima during midday. These results suggest that selective, catalytic methanol to formaldehyde conversion, coupled with existing formaldehyde measurement instrumentation, is an inexpensive and effective means for monitoring atmospheric methanol.

  20. Using CORE Model-Based Systems Engineering Software to Support Program Management in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Project: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, C.; Sandor, D.; Simpkins, P.

    2006-11-01

    This paper describes how a model-based systems engineering software, CORE, is helping the U. S. Department of Energy's Office of Biomass Program assist with bringing biomass-derived biofuels to the market. This software tool provides information to guide informed decision-making as biomass-to-biofuels systems are advanced from concept to commercial adoption. It facilitates management and communication of program status by automatically generating custom reports, Gantt charts, and tables using the widely available programs of Microsoft Word, Project and Excel.

  1. Cytochemical Studies on the Localization of Methanol Oxidase and Other Oxidases in Peroxisomes of Methanol-Grown Hansenula polyrnorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhuis, M.; Dijken, J.P. van; Harder, W.

    1976-01-01

    The localization of methanol oxidase activity in cells of methanol-limited chemostat cultures of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha has been studied with different cytochemical staining techniques. The methods were based on enzymatic or chemical trapping of the hydrogen peroxide produced by the enzyme d

  2. Flight-based chemical characterization of biomass burning aerosols within two prescribed burn smoke plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Pratt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning represents a major global source of aerosols impacting direct radiative forcing and cloud properties. Thus, the goal of a number of current studies involves developing a better understanding of how the chemical composition and mixing state of biomass burning aerosols evolve during atmospheric aging processes. During the Ice in Clouds Experiment-Layer Clouds (ICE-L in the fall of 2007, smoke plumes from two small Wyoming Bureau of Land Management prescribed burns were measured by on-line aerosol instrumentation aboard a C-130 aircraft, providing a detailed chemical characterization of the particles. After ~2–4 min of aging, submicron smoke particles, produced primarily from sagebrush combustion, consisted predominantly of organics by mass, but were comprised primarily of internal mixtures of organic carbon, elemental carbon, potassium chloride, and potassium sulfate. Significantly, the fresh biomass burning particles contained minor mass fractions of nitrate and sulfate, suggesting that hygroscopic material is incorporated very near or at the point of emission. The mass fractions of ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate increased with aging up to ~81–88 min and resulted in acidic particles. Decreasing black carbon mass concentrations occurred due to dilution of the plume. Increases in the fraction of oxygenated organic carbon and the presence of dicarboxylic acids, in particular, were observed with aging. Cloud condensation nuclei measurements suggested all particles >100 nm were active at 0.5% water supersaturation in the smoke plumes, confirming the relatively high hygroscopicity of the freshly emitted particles. For immersion/condensation freezing, ice nuclei measurements at −32 °C suggested activation of ~0.03–0.07% of the particles with diameters greater than 500 nm.

  3. Flight-based chemical characterization of biomass burning aerosols within two prescribed burn smoke plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Pratt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning represents a major global source of aerosols impacting direct radiative forcing and cloud properties. Thus, the goal of a number of current studies involves developing a better understanding of how the chemical composition and mixing state of biomass burning aerosols evolve during atmospheric aging processes. During the Ice in Cloud Experiment – Layer Clouds (ICE-L in fall of 2007, smoke plumes from two small Wyoming Bureau of Land Management prescribed burns were measured by on-line aerosol instrumentation aboard a C-130 aircraft, providing a detailed chemical characterization of the particles. After ~2–4 min of aging, submicron smoke particles, produced primarily from sagebrush combustion, consisted predominantly of organics by mass, but were comprised primarily of internal mixtures of organic carbon, elemental carbon, potassium chloride, and potassium sulfate. Significantly, 100 % of the fresh biomass burning particles contained minor mass fractions of nitrate and sulfate, suggesting that hygroscopic material is incorporated very near or at the point of emission. The mass fractions of ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate increased with aging up to ~81–88 min and resulted in acidic particles, with both nitric acid and sulfuric acid present. Decreasing black carbon mass concentrations occurred due to dilution of the plume. Increases in the fraction of oxygenated organic carbon and the presence of dicarboxylic acids, in particular, were observed with aging. Cloud condensation nuclei measurements suggested all particles >100 nm were active at 0.5 % water supersaturation in the smoke plumes, confirming the relatively high hygroscopicity of the freshly emitted particles. For immersion/condensation freezing, ice nuclei measurements at −32 °C suggested activation of ~0.03–0.07 % of the particles with diameters greater than 500 nm.

  4. Kinetic Model of Biomass Pyrolysis Based on Three-component Independent Parallel First-order Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新运; 万新军; 陈明强; 王君

    2012-01-01

    The pyrolysis behavior of two kinds of typical biomass (pine wood and cotton stalk) was studied in nitrogen atmosphere at various heating rates by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).The pyrolysis process can be divided into three stages:evolution of moisture (<200 ℃),devolatilization (200~400 ℃) and carbonization (>400 ℃).The comparison of DTG curves of two biomass materials show that the higher the hemicellulose content of biomass,the more evident the shoulder peak of DTG curve.The weight loss process of two materials was simulated by the kinetic model assuming cellulose,hemicellulose and lignin pyrolyzing independently and in parallel,obeying first-order reactions.The pyrolysis kinetic parameters corresponding to the three components were estimated by the nonlinear least square algorithm.The results show that their fitting curves are in good agreement with the experimental data.Their activation energy values for pine wood and cotton stalk are in the range of 188~215,90~102,29~49 and 187~214,95~101,30~38 kJ/mol,respectively.The corresponding pre-exponential factors are in the range of 1.8×1015~2.0×1016,1.6×107~7.1×108,9.3×101~l.5×103 and 1.2× 1015~6.7×1017,1.2× 108~1.4×109,1.4× 102~4.6× 102 min-1,respectively.In addition,the activation energy of cellulose and lignin increased and their contributions to volatile tended to fall,whereas the activation energy of herricellulose decreased and its contribution to volatile tended to rise with increasing of heating rate.

  5. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for methanol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthoff, Sabrina; Schmitz, Katja; Niedenführ, Sebastian; Nöh, Katharina; Noack, Stephan; Bott, Michael; Marienhagen, Jan

    2015-03-01

    Methanol is already an important carbon feedstock in the chemical industry, but it has found only limited application in biotechnological production processes. This can be mostly attributed to the inability of most microbial platform organisms to utilize methanol as a carbon and energy source. With the aim to turn methanol into a suitable feedstock for microbial production processes, we engineered the industrially important but nonmethylotrophic bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum toward the utilization of methanol as an auxiliary carbon source in a sugar-based medium. Initial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde was achieved by heterologous expression of a methanol dehydrogenase from Bacillus methanolicus, whereas assimilation of formaldehyde was realized by implementing the two key enzymes of the ribulose monophosphate pathway of Bacillus subtilis: 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase and 6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase. The recombinant C. glutamicum strain showed an average methanol consumption rate of 1.7 ± 0.3 mM/h (mean ± standard deviation) in a glucose-methanol medium, and the culture grew to a higher cell density than in medium without methanol. In addition, [(13)C]methanol-labeling experiments revealed labeling fractions of 3 to 10% in the m + 1 mass isotopomers of various intracellular metabolites. In the background of a C. glutamicum Δald ΔadhE mutant being strongly impaired in its ability to oxidize formaldehyde to CO2, the m + 1 labeling of these intermediates was increased (8 to 25%), pointing toward higher formaldehyde assimilation capabilities of this strain. The engineered C. glutamicum strains represent a promising starting point for the development of sugar-based biotechnological production processes using methanol as an auxiliary substrate.

  6. Considerations Based on Reaction Rate on Char Gasification Behavior in Two-stage Gasifier for Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Miki; Nishiyama, Akio; Sasauchi, Kenichi; Ito, Yusuke; Akamatsu, Fumiteru

    In order to develop a small-scale gasifier in which biomass can be converted to energy with high efficiency, we planned a gasification process that consists of two parts: pyrolysis part (rotary kiln) and gasification part (downdraft gasifier). We performed fundamental experiments on gasification part and discussed the appropriate conditions such as air supply location, air ratio, air temperature and hearth load. We considered the results by calculating reaction rates of representative reactions on char gasification part and found that water gas reaction is dominant in the reduction area and its behavior gives important information to decide the adequate length of the char layer.

  7. Biomass [updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Biomass resources and conversion technologies are diverse. Substantial biomass resources exist including woody crops, herbaceous perennials and annuals, forest resources, agricultural residues, and algae. Conversion processes available include fermentation, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, combustion, and transesterification. Bioderived products include liquid fuels (e.g. ethanol, biodiesel, and gasoline and diesel substitutes), gases, electricity, biochemical, and wood pellets. At present the major sources of biomass-derived liquid fuels are from first generation biofuels; ethanol from maize and sugar cane (89 billion L in 2013) and biodiesel from vegetable oils and fats (24 billion liters in 2011). For other than traditional uses, policy in the forms of mandates, targets, subsidies, and greenhouse gas emission targets has largely been driving biomass utilization. Second generation biofuels have been slow to take off.

  8. Bio-oil extraction of Jatropha curcas with ionic liquid co-solvent: Fate of biomass protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severa, Godwin; Edwards, Melisa; Cooney, Michael J

    2017-02-01

    The fate of oil-seed biomass protein has been tracked through all steps of a multi-phase extraction process using an ionic liquid based co-solvent system previously demonstrated to extract bio-oil and phorbol esters and to recover fermentable sugars from Jatropha oil seed. These analyses, however, did not address the fate of biomass protein. This work demonstrated that the majority of protein (∼86%) tracked with the biomass with the balance lost to co-solvent (∼12%) and methanol (∼2%) washes. A significant portion of the ionic liquid remained with the treated biomass and required aggressive methanol washes to recover. A system analysis showed a net-positive energy balance and thus the potential of this system to produce both bio-oil and protein-rich toxin-free biomass. While these results further support Jatropha as an oil seed crop, the additional costs of solvent recovery will need to be addressed if commercialization is to be realized.

  9. Biomass producer gas tar removal technology based on recovery idea%基于回收理念的生物质燃气焦油脱除研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娟; 陈海军; 朱跃钊; 廖传华; 杨丽

    2013-01-01

    Biomass gasification is an interesting technology in the future development of a worldwide sustainable energy system,as an alternative to fossil fuels. Tar is one of the main barriers to biomass gasification technology in its commercial application as a source of renewable energy. To achieve better efficiency of the biomass producer gas applications,tar must be removed to lower than 20 mg/m3 before the gas is used for downstream internal combustion engines,gas turbines,and in particular for methanol synthesis. In this paper,tar fouling and blocking problems in downstream equipments using the biomass producer gas are presented. Tar definition and classification are described. Advantages of tar reduction based on recovery idea (secondary methods,or named as mechanical/physical method) are analyzed. The new technologies in term of biomass tar removal based on recovery idea are reviewed. The representative biomass gasification technologies,which have lately been successfully demonstrated or commercialized,using the water or oil scrubber recovery method to remove tar,are also discussed. In addition,the future main research areas and potential applications of the advanced multi-stage adsorption or membrane separation for tar deep removal,based on oil-based gas washer (OLGA),and integrating appropriate pore size corresponding to different tar molecules,are presented.%生物质气化是重要的可再生能源方式。焦油是生物质气化过程大规模工业化的主要障碍之一。为了提高生物质燃气用于内燃机和燃气轮机发电以及甲醇合成的效率,燃气中的焦油必须深度脱除至低于20 mg/m3。本文简述了焦油污染和堵塞燃气下游设备的危害,介绍了焦油的特征和分类,分析了基于回收过程的焦油脱除方法优势,评述了回收法焦油脱除的研究进展,阐述了水洗和油洗回收脱焦的典型应用实例。指出了以油洗回收法为基础,将焦油和微孔材料的孔径进

  10. One-dimensional isothermal multicomponent diffusion-reaction model and its application to methanol synthesis over commercial Cu-based catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Kun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work was a study on global reaction rate of methanol synthesis. We measured experimentally the global reaction rate in the internal recycle gradientless reactor over catalyst SC309. The diffusion-reaction model of methanol synthesis was suggested. For model we chose the hydrogenation of CO and CO2 as key reaction. CO and CO2 were key components in our model. The internal diffusion effectiveness factors of CO and CO2 in the catalyst were calculated by the numerical integration. A comparison with the experiment showed that all the absolute values of the relative error were less than 10%. The simulation results showed that decreasing reaction temperature and catalyst diameter were conducive to reduce the influence of the internal diffusion on the methanol synthesis.

  11. Annual boom-bust cycles of polar phytoplankton biomass revealed by space-based lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Hu, Yongxiang; O'Malley, Robert T.; Boss, Emmanuel S.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Siegel, David A.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Schulien, Jennifer; Hair, Johnathan W.; Lu, Xiaomei; Rodier, Sharon; Scarino, Amy Jo

    2016-12-01

    Polar plankton communities are among the most productive, seasonally dynamic and rapidly changing ecosystems in the global ocean. However, persistent cloud cover, periods of constant night and prevailing low solar elevations in polar regions severely limit traditional passive satellite ocean colour measurements and leave vast areas unobserved for many consecutive months each year. Consequently, our understanding of the annual cycles of polar plankton and their interannual variations is incomplete. Here we use space-borne lidar observations to overcome the limitations of historical passive sensors and report a decade of uninterrupted polar phytoplankton biomass cycles. We find that polar phytoplankton dynamics are categorized by `boom-bust' cycles resulting from slight imbalances in plankton predator-prey equilibria. The observed seasonal-to-interannual variations in biomass are predicted by mathematically modelled rates of change in phytoplankton division. Furthermore, we find that changes in ice cover dominated variability in Antarctic phytoplankton stocks over the past decade, whereas ecological processes were the predominant drivers of change in the Arctic. We conclude that subtle and environmentally driven imbalances in polar food webs underlie annual phytoplankton boom-bust cycles, which vary interannually at each pole.

  12. Fundamental studies of synthesis-gas production based on fluidised-bed gasification of biomass (UCGFunda)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinikainen, M.; Moilanen, A.; Simell, P.; Hannula, I.; Nasrullah, M.; Kurkela, E. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2009-10-15

    The research is directed towards methods of producing transportation bio-fuels via the synthesis-gas route, with emphasis on the synthesis-gas production and gas cleaning steps. The subtopics of the research project are (1) fuel characterisation and ash behaviour in the gasification step, (2) reaction mechanisms related to gas cleaning, (3) evaluations of alternative process configurations and applications and (4) international co-operation. VTT itself finances also two additional subtopics: (5) new analysis techniques and (6) hydrogen from biomass via gasification. A lot of data on the reactivity and ash sintering properties of various kinds of biomasses has been obtained in the project and the information will now be formulated into a mathematical model. In addition to catalysis also thermal reactions play an important role in gas cleaning. Both experimental and modelling work on both of the reaction types is being carried out. Three techno-economic evaluations on alternative and competing technologies will be completed in the coming year. International development in syngas technology has been closely monitored in all subtopics as well as by participating in relevant IEA-tasks. New analysis techniques developed in the project have proven very useful and for instance a fast on-line tar analysis method is now well established. (orig.)

  13. HIGH SOLID AND LOW ENZYME LOADING BASED SACCHARIFICATION OF AGRICULTURAL BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Two agricultural biomass materials, namely wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse, were pretreated with NaOH and then used as substrates for enzymatic saccharification. After the pretreatment, the increase in glucan content and the decrease in lignin content were more than 65%, while less than 20% increase occurred in xylan content. The enzymatic saccharification was initiated with solid loading 9% (w/v, and then 8%, 7% and 6% (w/v solid was fed at 8, 24, and 48 h, respectively. The final enzyme solid loading was 9.60 FPU/g solid and 30% (w/v, respectively. At 144 h, the produced glucose, xylose, and reducing sugar concentrations for wheat straw were 81.88, 20.30, and 115.25 g/L, respectively, and for sugarcane bagasse they were 125.97, 8.66, and 169.50 g/L, respectively. The final conversions of wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse were 34.57% and 50.85%, respectively. SEM images showed that the surface structure of the two materials changed a lot via alkali-pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. In summary, a high concentration sugar is produced from the two agricultural biomass materials by high solid and low enzyme loading. Compared to wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse is more suitable for use in sugar production.

  14. The application of biosorption for production of micronutrient fertilizers based on waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhy, Lukasz; Samoraj, Mateusz; Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper, new environmental-friendly fertilizer components were produced in biosorption process by the enrichment of the biomass with zinc, essential in plant cultivation. The obtained new preparations can be used as controlled release micronutrient fertilizers because microelements are bound to the functional groups present in the cell wall structures of the biomass. It is assumed that new fertilizing materials will be characterized by higher bioavailability, gradual release of micronutrients required by plants, and lower leaching to groundwater. The biological origin of the material used in plant fertilization results in the elimination of toxic effect towards plants and groundwater mainly caused by low biodegradability of fertilizers. Utilitarian properties of new formulations enable to reduce negative implications of fertilizers for environmental quality and influence ecological health. In this work, the utilitarian properties of materials such as peat, bark, seaweeds, seaweed post-extraction residues, and spent mushroom substrate enriched via biosorption with Zn(II) ions were examined in germination tests on Lepidium sativum. Obtained results were compared with conventional fertilizers-inorganic salt and chelate. It was shown that zinc fertilization led to biofortification of plant in these micronutrients. Moreover, the mass of plants fertilized with zinc was higher than in the control group.

  15. Methanol induces low temperature resilient methanogens and improves methane generation from domestic wastewater at low to moderate temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shaswati; Badhe, Neha; De Vrieze, Jo; Biswas, Rima; Nandy, Tapas

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature (methanol is a preferred substrate by methanogens in cold habitats. The study hypothesizes that methanol can induce the growth of low-temperature resilient, methanol utilizing, hydrogenotrophs in UASB reactor. The hypothesis was tested in field conditions to evaluate the impact of seasonal temperature variations on methane yield in the presence and absence of methanol. Results show that 0.04% (v/v) methanol increased methane up to 15 times and its effect was more pronounced at lower temperatures. The qPCR analysis showed the presence of Methanobacteriales along with Methanosetaceae in large numbers. This indicates methanol induced the growth of both the hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic groups through direct and indirect routes, respectively. This study thus demonstrated that methanol can impart resistance in methanogenic biomass to low temperature and can improve performance of UASB reactor.

  16. Subtask 3.11 - Production of CBTL-Based Jet Fuels from Biomass-Based Feedstocks and Montana Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ramesh

    2014-06-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from Exxon Mobil, undertook Subtask 3.11 to use a recently installed bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. The process involves liquefaction of Rosebud mine coal (Montana coal) coupled with an upgrading scheme to produce a naphthenic fuel. The upgrading comprises catalytic hydrotreating and saturation to produce naphthenic fuel. A synthetic jet fuel was prepared by blending equal volumes of naphthenic fuel with similar aliphatic fuel derived from biomass and 11 volume % of aromatic hydrocarbons. The synthetic fuel was tested using standard ASTM International techniques to determine compliance with JP-8 fuel. The composite fuel thus produced not only meets but exceeds the military aviation fuel-screening criteria. A 500-milliliter synthetic jet fuel sample which met internal screening criteria was submitted to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright–Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria. The results show that this fuel meets or exceeds the key specification parameters for JP-8, a petroleum-based jet fuel widely used by the U.S. military. JP-8 specifications include parameters such as freeze point, density, flash point, and others; all of which were met by the EERC fuel sample. The fuel also exceeds the thermal stability specification of JP-8 fuel as determined by the quartz crystalline microbalance (QCM) test also performed at an independent laboratory as well as AFRL. This means that the EERC fuel looks and acts identically to petroleum-derived jet fuel and can be used

  17. Application prospect of direct methanol fuel cell in communicative base station%直接甲醇燃料电池在通信基站的应用前景展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟彦伟

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, through the analysis of the characteristics of the direct methanol fuel cell itself, its usage prospect in communicative base station would be discussed herein.%本文通过对直接甲醇燃料电池本身的特性特点进行分析,并对其在通信基站的使用前景进行了展望。

  18. Competing uses of biomass : Assessment and comparison of the performance of bio-based heat, power, fuels and materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen-Gondelach, S. J.; Saygin, D.; Wicke, B.; Patel, M. K.; Faaij, A. P. C.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing production of modern bioenergy carriers and biomaterials intensifies the competition for different applications of biomass. To be able to optimize and develop biomass utilization in a sustainable way, this paper first reviews the status and prospects of biomass value chains for heat,

  19. Polarimetric analysis of radar backscatter from ground-based scatterometers and wheat biomass monitoring with advanced synthetic aperture radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lei; Tong, Ling; Li, Yuxia; Chen, Yan; Tan, Longfei; Guo, Caizheng

    2016-04-01

    This article presents an analysis of the scattering measurements for an entire wheat growth cycle by ground-based scatterometers at a frequency of 5.3 GHz. Since wheat ears are related to wheat growth and yield, the radar backscatter of wheat was analyzed at two different periods, i.e., with and without wheat ears. Simultaneously, parameters such as wheat and soil characteristics as well as volume scattering and soil scattering were analyzed for the two periods during the entire growth cycle. Wheat ears have been demonstrated to have a great influence on radar backscatter; therefore, a modified version of water-cloud model used for retrieving biomass should consider the effect of wheat ears. This work presents two retrieval models based on the water-cloud model and adopts the advanced integral equation model to simulate the soil backscatter before the heading stage and the backscatter from the layer under wheat ears after the heading stage. The research results showed that the biomass retrieved from the advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR) images to agree well with the data measured in situ after setting the modified water-cloud model for the growth stages with ears. Furthermore, it was concluded that wheat ears should form an essential component of theoretical modeling as they influence the final yield.

  20. Stakeholder analysis in the biomass energy development based on the experts’ opinions: the example of Triglav National Park in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grilli Gianluca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method for identifying and classifying local stakeholders involved in renewable energy development. The method is based on the expert assessment and comprises three main steps: (1 identification of the independent experts considering their expertise and knowledge of the local context; (2 identification of the local stakeholders based on expert assessment; and (3 analytical categorisation of stakeholders taking into account the professional relationship network. Using forest biomass (bioenergy production as example, the stakeholder analysis is illustrated on the case study of Triglav National Park, which is characterised by a high potential of woody biomass production and a large number of stakeholders involved in land use and management. The first stage of stakeholder analysis identifies the key stakeholders to be involved in bioenergy development, through a survey with local experts. The results highlight eight key stakeholders and several primary and secondary stakeholders that should be involved to ensure socially acceptable decision-making about the renewable energy development in the Triglav National Park.

  1. Rising critical emission of air pollutants from renewable biomass based cogeneration from the sugar industry in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S. K.; Ohara, T.; Beig, G.; Kurokawa, J.; Nagashima, T.

    2015-09-01

    In the recent past, the emerging India economy is highly dependent on conventional as well as renewable energy to deal with energy security. Keeping the potential of biomass and its plentiful availability, the Indian government has been encouraging various industrial sectors to generate their own energy from it. The Indian sugar industry has adopted and made impressive growth in bagasse (a renewable biomass, i.e. left after sugercane is crushed) based cogeneration power to fulfil their energy need, as well as to export a big chunk of energy to grid power. Like fossil fuel, bagasse combustion also generates various critical pollutants. This article provides the first ever estimation, current status and overview of magnitude of air pollutant emissions from rapidly growing bagasse based cogeneration technology in Indian sugar mills. The estimated emission from the world’s second largest sugar industry in India for particulate matter, NOX, SO2, CO and CO2 is estimated to be 444 ± 225 Gg yr-1, 188 ± 95 Gg yr-1, 43 ± 22 Gg yr-1, 463 ± 240 Gg yr-1 and 47.4 ± 9 Tg yr-1, respectively in 2014. The studies also analyze and identify potential hot spot regions across the country and explore the possible further potential growth for this sector. This first ever estimation not only improves the existing national emission inventory, but is also useful in chemical transport modeling studies, as well as for policy makers.

  2. Direct Biodiesel Production from Wet Microalgae Biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa through In Situ Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hechun Cao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-step process was applied to directly converting wet oil-bearing microalgae biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa containing about 90% of water into biodiesel. In order to investigate the effects of water content on biodiesel production, distilled water was added to dried microalgae biomass to form wet biomass used to produce biodiesel. The results showed that at lower temperature of 90°C, water had a negative effect on biodiesel production. The biodiesel yield decreased from 91.4% to 10.3% as water content increased from 0% to 90%. Higher temperature could compensate the negative effect. When temperature reached 150°C, there was no negative effect, and biodiesel yield was over 100%. Based on the above research, wet microalgae biomass was directly applied to biodiesel production, and the optimal conditions were investigated. Under the optimal conditions of 100 mg dry weight equivalent wet microalgae biomass, 4 mL methanol, 8 mL n-hexane, 0.5 M H2SO4, 120°C, and 180 min reaction time, the biodiesel yield reached as high as 92.5% and the FAME content was 93.2%. The results suggested that biodiesel could be effectively produced directly from wet microalgae biomass and this effort may offer the benefits of energy requirements for biodiesel production.

  3. Direct biodiesel production from wet microalgae biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa through in situ transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hechun; Zhang, Zhiling; Wu, Xuwen; Miao, Xiaoling

    2013-01-01

    A one-step process was applied to directly converting wet oil-bearing microalgae biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa containing about 90% of water into biodiesel. In order to investigate the effects of water content on biodiesel production, distilled water was added to dried microalgae biomass to form wet biomass used to produce biodiesel. The results showed that at lower temperature of 90°C, water had a negative effect on biodiesel production. The biodiesel yield decreased from 91.4% to 10.3% as water content increased from 0% to 90%. Higher temperature could compensate the negative effect. When temperature reached 150°C, there was no negative effect, and biodiesel yield was over 100%. Based on the above research, wet microalgae biomass was directly applied to biodiesel production, and the optimal conditions were investigated. Under the optimal conditions of 100 mg dry weight equivalent wet microalgae biomass, 4 mL methanol, 8 mL n-hexane, 0.5 M H2SO4, 120°C, and 180 min reaction time, the biodiesel yield reached as high as 92.5% and the FAME content was 93.2%. The results suggested that biodiesel could be effectively produced directly from wet microalgae biomass and this effort may offer the benefits of energy requirements for biodiesel production.

  4. [Study on the Visualization of the Biomass of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp. Based on Hyperspectral Imaging Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lu-lu; Wet, Xuan; Zhao, Yan-ru; Shao, Yong-ni; Qiu, Zheng-jun; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Effective cultivation of the microalgae is the key issue for microalgal bio-energy utilization. In nutrient rich culture conditions, the microalge have a fast growth rate, but they are more susceptible to environmental pollution and influence. So to monitor the the growth process of microalgae is significant during cultivating. Hyperspectral imaging has the advantages of both spectra and image analysis. The spectra contain abundant material quality signal and the image contains abundant spatial information of the material about the chemical distribution. It can achieve the rapid information acquisition and access a large amount of data. In this paper, the authors collected the hyperspectral images of forty-five samples of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., respectively. The average spectra of the region of interest (ROI) were extracted. After applying successive projection algorithm (SPA), the authors established the multiple linear regression (MLR) model with the spectra and corresponding biomass of 30 samples, 15 samples were used as the prediction set. For Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., the correlation coefficient of prediction (r(pre)) are 0.950, 0.969 and 0.961, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for 0.010 2, 0.010 7 and 0.007 1, respectively. Finally, the authors used the MLR model to predict biomass for each pixel in the images of prediction set; images displayed in different colors for visualization based on pseudo-color images with the help of a Matlab program. The results show that using hyperspectral imaging technique to predict the biomass of Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. were better, but for the Isochrysis galbana visualization needs to be further improved. This research set the basis for rapidly detecting the growth of microalgae and using the microalgae as the bio-energy.

  5. From photons to biomass and biofuels: evaluation of different strategies for the improvement of algal biotechnology based on comparative energy balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Christian; Jakob, Torsten

    2011-12-01

    Microalgal based biofuels are discussed as future sustainable energy source because of their higher photosynthetic and water use efficiency to produce biomass. In the context of climate CO2 mitigation strategies, algal mass production is discussed as a potential CO2 sequestration technology which uses CO2 emissions to produce biomass with high-oil content independent on arable land. In this short review, it is presented how complete energy balances from photon to harvestable biomass can help to identify the limiting processes on the cellular level. The results show that high productivity is always correlated with high metabolic costs. The overall efficiency of biomass formation can be improved by a photobioreactor design which is kinetically adapted to the rate-limiting steps in cell physiology. However, taking into account the real photon demand per assimilated carbon and the energy input for biorefinement, it becomes obvious that alternative strategies must be developed to reach the goal of a real CO2 sequestration.

  6. Methylnaltrexone bromide methanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Zhou

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound [systematic name: (4R,4aS,7aR,12bS-3-cyclopropylmethyl-4a,9-hydroxy-7-oxo-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-3-ium bromide methanol monosolvate], C21H26NO4+·Br−·CH3OH, two of the three six-membered rings adopt chair conformations while the third, which contains a C=C double bond, adopts an approximate half-boat conformation. The 2,3-dihydrofuran ring adopts an envelope conformation. In the crystal, the components are linked by O—H...O and O—H...Br hydrogen bonds. The absolute stereochemistry was inferred from one of the starting materials.

  7. Comparing the performance of Miscanthus x giganteus and wheat straw biomass in sulfuric acid based pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärcher, M A; Iqbal, Y; Lewandowski, I; Senn, T

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare the suitability of Miscanthus x giganteus and wheat straw biomass in dilute acid catalyzed pretreatment. Miscanthus and wheat straw were treated in a dilute sulfuric acid/steam explosion pretreatment. As a result of combining dilute sulfuric acid- and steam explosion pretreatment the hemicellulose hydrolysis yields (96% in wheat straw and 90% in miscanthus) in both substrates were higher than reported in literature. The combined severity factor (=CSF) for optimal hemicellulose hydrolysis was 1.9 and 1.5 in for miscanthus and wheat straw respectively. Because of the higher CSF value more furfural, furfuryl alcohol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and acetic acid was formed in miscanthus than in wheat straw pretreatment.

  8. Cationic inulin: a plant based natural biopolymer for algal biomass harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahul, Rahul; Kumar, Sunil; Jha, Usha; Sen, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of cationic inulin (CI) and its application in algal biomass harvesting have been investigated. (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethylammonium chloride (CHPTAC) was used as the etherifying reagent to introduce quaternary amine groups onto the backbone of the biopolymer. The resulting cationized adduct was characterized by various physicochemical techniques such as intrinsic viscosity measurement, elemental analysis (C, H, N and O), FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. The algal flocculation efficacy of the synthesized product was studied through standard jar test procedure. High removal efficiency of 88.61% within 15 min was achieved at the optimal flocculant dosage (60 mg/L), for fresh water green algae, viz., Botryococcus sp.

  9. Behaviors of Char Gasification Based on Two-stage Gasifier of Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Miki; Sasauchi, Kenichi; Ahn, Chulju; Ito, Yusuke; Hayashi, Toshiaki; Akamatsu, Fumiteru

    In order to develop a small-scale gasifier in which biomass can be converted to energy with high efficiency, we planed a gasification process that consists of two parts: pyrolysis part (rotary kiln) and gasification part (downdraft gasifier). We performed fundamental experiments on gasification part and discussed the apropriate conditions such as air supply location, air ratio, air temperature and hearth load. The following results was found: 1) the air supply into the char bed is more effective than that into the gas phase, 2) we can have the maximum cold gas efficiency of 80% on the following conditions: air supply location: char layer, air temperature: 20°C, air ratio: 0.2. 3) As air temperature is higher, the cold gas efficiency is larger. As for the hearth load, the cold gas efficiency becomes higher and reaches the constant level. It is expected from the results that high temperature in the char layer is effective on the char gasification.

  10. Experimental investigations and modeling of devolatilization based on superimposed kinetics of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Anker Degn

    obtained in the wire mesh and drop tube reactors. Thus, the modelincluding these two parameters provides an acceptable fit of char yield to the experimental data. The present results showedthat the proposed kinetic model for the fast biomass pyrolysis is relatively simple and predicts reasonably accurately...... relies on the concept applied in fast pyrolysis of cellulose throughthe formation of an intermediate liquid (so called metaplast) which reacts further to char and gas. The kinetics of the fastpyrolysis was described by the Broido-Shafizadeh scheme.The influence of particle size and shape was included...... meshand drop tube reactors with respect to the stronger catalytic effect of potassium on the char yield at low and intermediateheating rates compared to pyrolysis at high heating rates. The heating rate and potassium content affected significantly thechar yield as evi denced from the experimental data...

  11. Study of algal biomass harvesting through cationic cassia gum, a natural plant based biopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Chiranjib; Ghosh, Sandipta; Sen, Gautam; Mishra, Sumit; Shukla, Pratyoosh; Bandopadhyay, Rajib

    2014-01-01

    Green unicellular microalgae have a capacity to entrap CO2 to increase their biomass through photosynthesis and are important for the value added product. The presence of COOH and NH2 groups are responsible for imparting negative zeta value. The present work emphasizes on the synthesis of cationic cassia (CCAS) by the insertion of quaternary amine groups onto the backbone of cassia (CAS) from N-3-Chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CHPTAC) which was further characterized via FTIR, SEM, elemental analysis and intrinsic viscosity. The optimal dosage of the synthesized cationic cassia is used to flocculate two different green fresh water algae viz. Chlamydomonas sp. CRP7 and Chlorella sp. CB4 were evaluated. 80 and 35 mg L(-1) was optimized dose for dewatering of above algae, respectively.

  12. Methanol synthesis beyond chemical equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bennekom, J. G.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Winkelman, J. G. M.; Wilbers, E.; Assink, D.; Lemmens, K. P. J.; Heeres, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    In commercial methanol production from syngas, the conversion is thermodynamically limited to 0.3-0.7 leading to large recycles of non-converted syngas. This problem can be overcome to a significant extent by in situ condensation of methanol during its synthesis which is possible nowadays due to the

  13. Bifunctional anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Ferrin, Peter; Tritsaris, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    Using the binding energy of OH* and CO* on close-packed surfaces as reactivity descriptors, we screen bulk and surface alloy catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation activity. Using these two descriptors, we illustrate that a good methanol electro-oxidation catalyst must have three key properties......: (1) the ability to activate methanol, (2) the ability to activate water, and (3) the ability to react off surface intermediates (such as CO* and OH*). Based on this analysis, an alloy catalyst made up of Cu and Pt should have a synergistic effect facilitating the activity towards methanol electro....... Adding Cu to a Pt(111) surface increases the methanol oxidation current by more than a factor of three, supporting our theoretical predictions for improved electrocatalysts....

  14. The Equilibrium Compositions of Methanol Synthesis System by Cornstalk Syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling-feng; Zhao, Qing-ling; Wang, Yang-yang; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Le; Zhang, Run-tao; Liu, Li-li; Zhang, Zhao-yue

    2010-11-01

    Methanol can be used as a promising alternative for conventional gasoline and Diesel fuel. It is necessary to decompose biomass such as cornstalks in order to produce methanol which is a raw material from agricultural residues. A promising route for processing cornstalks is firstly to gasify cornstalks with thermo-chemical method to prepare the syngas, which can be conducted under a down-flow fixed bed gasifier. The low-heat-value cornstalk syngas produced in this way needs purification and a variety of technical procedures such as deoxygenation, desulfurization, catalytic cracking of tar and hydrogenation. In this paper, the catalytic experiments of methanol synthesis with cornstalk syngas were carried out in a tubular-flow integral and isothermal reactor. The effect such as reaction temperature, pressure, catalyst types, catalyst particle size, syngas flow at entering end and composition of syngas was investigated. Moreover, the equilibrium constants (Kf1, Kf2, KP1, KP2), equilibrium compositions and the concentrations of each part of the equilibrium system for methanol synthesis were calculated by SHBWR state equation under given reaction pressure. The results provided basic data for the design of the industrial equipments in which catalyzed synthesis of methanol from cornstalk gases is operated.

  15. Process conditions of preparing methanol from cornstalk gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ling-feng; DU Lei; LI Xin-bao; LI Guo-ting; ZHANG Jie

    2007-01-01

    The low-heat-value cornstalk gas produced in the down-flow fixed bed gasifier was tentatively used for methanol synthesis. The cornstalk gas was purified and the technical procedures such as deoxygenation, desulfurization, catalytic cracking of tar, purification and hydrogenation were studied. The catalytic experiments of methanol synthesis with cornstalk syngas were carried out in a tubular-flow integral and isothermal reactor. The effect of reaction temperature, pressure, catalysttypes, catalyst particle size, syngas flow at entering end and composition of syngas was investigated. The optimum process conditions and yield of methanol from cornstalk syngas were obtained. The experimental results indicated that the proper catalyst of the synthetic reaction was C301 and the optimum catalyst size (φ) was 0.833 mm×0.351 mm. The optimum operating temperature and pressure were found to be 235℃ and 5 Mpa, respectively. The suitable syngas flow 0.9-1.10 mol/h at entering end was selected and the best composition of syngas were CO 10.49%, CO2 8.8%, N2 37.32%, CnHm 0.95% and H2 40.49%. The best methanol yield is 0.418 g/g cornstalk. The study provided the technical support for the industrial test of methanol production from biomass (cornstalk)gas.

  16. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  17. Biomass potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Biomass resources of the industrialised countries are enormous, if only a small fraction of set-aside fields were used for energy crops. Forest resources could also be utilised more efficiently than at present for large-scale energy production. The energy content of the annual net growth of the total wood biomass is estimated to be 180 million toe in Europe without the former USSR, and about 50 million toe of that in the EC area, in 1990. Presently, the harvesting methods of forest biomass for energy production are not yet generally competitive. Among the most promising methods are integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to the industry and wood fuel for energy production. Several new methods for separate harvesting of energy wood are being developed in many countries. (orig.)

  18. Microbial surface displayed enzymes based biofuel cell utilizing degradation products of lignocellulosic biomass for direct electrical energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuqin; Hou, Chuantao; Liang, Bo; Feng, Ruirui; Liu, Aihua

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a bacterial surface displaying enzyme based two-compartment biofuel cell for the direct electrical energy conversion from degradation products of lignocellulosic biomass is reported. Considering that the main degradation products of the lignocellulose are glucose and xylose, xylose dehydrogenase (XDH) displayed bacteria (XDH-bacteria) and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) displayed bacteria (GDH-bacteria) were used as anode catalysts in anode chamber with methylene blue as electron transfer mediator. While the cathode chamber was constructed with laccase/multi-walled-carbon nanotube/glassy-carbon-electrode. XDH-bacteria exhibited 1.75 times higher catalytic efficiency than GDH-bacteria. This assembled enzymatic fuel cell exhibited a high open-circuit potential of 0.80 V, acceptable stability and energy conversion efficiency. Moreover, the maximum power density of the cell could reach 53 μW cm(-2) when fueled with degradation products of corn stalk. Thus, this finding holds great potential to directly convert degradation products of biomass into electrical energy.

  19. Carbon carry capacity and carbon sequestration potential in China based on an integrated analysis of mature forest biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, YingChun; Yu, GuiRui; Wang, QiuFeng; Zhang, YangJian; Xu, ZeHong

    2014-12-01

    Forests play an important role in acting as a carbon sink of terrestrial ecosystem. Although global forests have huge carbon carrying capacity (CCC) and carbon sequestration potential (CSP), there were few quantification reports on Chinese forests. We collected and compiled a forest biomass dataset of China, a total of 5841 sites, based on forest inventory and literature search results. From the dataset we extracted 338 sites with forests aged over 80 years, a threshold for defining mature forest, to establish the mature forest biomass dataset. After analyzing the spatial pattern of the carbon density of Chinese mature forests and its controlling factors, we used carbon density of mature forests as the reference level, and conservatively estimated the CCC of the forests in China by interpolation methods of Regression Kriging, Inverse Distance Weighted and Partial Thin Plate Smoothing Spline. Combining with the sixth National Forest Resources Inventory, we also estimated the forest CSP. The results revealed positive relationships between carbon density of mature forests and temperature, precipitation and stand age, and the horizontal and elevational patterns of carbon density of mature forests can be well predicted by temperature and precipitation. The total CCC and CSP of the existing forests are 19.87 and 13.86 Pg C, respectively. Subtropical forests would have more CCC and CSP than other biomes. Consequently, relying on forests to uptake carbon by decreasing disturbance on forests would be an alternative approach for mitigating greenhouse gas concentration effects besides afforestation and reforestation.

  20. Selectivity of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, Antonino S.; Sebastian, David; Schuster, Michael; Bauer, Bernd; D’Urso, Claudia; Lufrano, Francesco; Baglio, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Sulfonic acid-functionalized polymer electrolyte membranes alternative to Nafion® were developed. These were hydrocarbon systems, such as blend sulfonated polyetheretherketone (s-PEEK), new generation perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) systems, and composite zirconium phosphate–PFSA polymers. The membranes varied in terms of composition, equivalent weight, thickness, and filler and were investigated with regard to their methanol permeation characteristics and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells. The behavior of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) was investigated in fuel cell with the aim to individuate a correlation between membrane characteristics and their performance in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The power density of the DMFC at 60 °C increased according to a square root-like function of the membrane selectivity. This was defined as the reciprocal of the product between area specific resistance and crossover. The power density achieved at 60 °C for the most promising s-PEEK-based membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) was higher than the benchmark Nafion® 115-based MEA (77 mW·cm−2 vs. 64 mW·cm−2). This result was due to a lower methanol crossover (47 mA·cm−2 equivalent current density for s-PEEK vs. 120 mA·cm−2 for Nafion® 115 at 60 °C as recorded at OCV with 2 M methanol) and a suitable area specific resistance (0.15 Ohm cm2 for s-PEEK vs. 0.22 Ohm cm2 for Nafion® 115). PMID:26610582

  1. Selectivity of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino S. Aricò

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonic acid-functionalized polymer electrolyte membranes alternative to Nafion® were developed. These were hydrocarbon systems, such as blend sulfonated polyetheretherketone (s-PEEK, new generation perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA systems, and composite zirconium phosphate–PFSA polymers. The membranes varied in terms of composition, equivalent weight, thickness, and filler and were investigated with regard to their methanol permeation characteristics and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells. The behavior of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEA was investigated in fuel cell with the aim to individuate a correlation between membrane characteristics and their performance in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC. The power density of the DMFC at 60 °C increased according to a square root-like function of the membrane selectivity. This was defined as the reciprocal of the product between area specific resistance and crossover. The power density achieved at 60 °C for the most promising s-PEEK-based membrane-electrode assembly (MEA was higher than the benchmark Nafion® 115-based MEA (77 mW·cm−2 vs. 64 mW·cm−2. This result was due to a lower methanol crossover (47 mA·cm−2 equivalent current density for s-PEEK vs. 120 mA·cm−2 for Nafion® 115 at 60 °C as recorded at OCV with 2 M methanol and a suitable area specific resistance (0.15 Ohm cm2 for s-PEEK vs. 0.22 Ohm cm2 for Nafion® 115.

  2. Biomass feedstock analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The overall objectives of the project `Feasibility of electricity production from biomass by pressurized gasification systems` within the EC Research Programme JOULE II were to evaluate the potential of advanced power production systems based on biomass gasification and to study the technical and economic feasibility of these new processes with different type of biomass feed stocks. This report was prepared as part of this R and D project. The objectives of this task were to perform fuel analyses of potential woody and herbaceous biomasses with specific regard to the gasification properties of the selected feed stocks. The analyses of 15 Scandinavian and European biomass feed stock included density, proximate and ultimate analyses, trace compounds, ash composition and fusion behaviour in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The wood-derived fuels, such as whole-tree chips, forest residues, bark and to some extent willow, can be expected to have good gasification properties. Difficulties caused by ash fusion and sintering in straw combustion and gasification are generally known. The ash and alkali metal contents of the European biomasses harvested in Italy resembled those of the Nordic straws, and it is expected that they behave to a great extent as straw in gasification. Any direct relation between the ash fusion behavior (determined according to the standard method) and, for instance, the alkali metal content was not found in the laboratory determinations. A more profound characterisation of the fuels would require gasification experiments in a thermobalance and a PDU (Process development Unit) rig. (orig.) (10 refs.)

  3. CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF FORMIC ACID TO METHANOL WITH Cu AND Al UNDER HYDROTHERMAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansong Yao,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic conversion of formic acid into methanol was investigated with Cu as a catalyst and Al as a reductant under hydrothermal conditions. It was found that formic acid can be converted into methanol by such means. The highest yield of methanol (30.4% was attained with a temperature of 300 °C and a reaction time of 9 h. The AlO(OH formed from Al oxidation may also play a catalytic role in the formation of methanol. This process may provide a promising solution to producing methanol from carbohydrate biomass combined with the process of converting the carbohydrate into formic acid, which is expected to emit no CO2.

  4. From CO2 to cell: energetic expense of creating biomass using the Calvin-Benson-Bassham and reductive citric acid cycles based on genome data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiapia, Mary; Scott, Kathleen

    2016-04-01

    The factors driving the dominance of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle (CBB) or reductive citric acid cycle (rCAC) in autotrophic microorganisms in different habitats are debated. Based on costs for synthesizing a few metabolic intermediates, it has been suggested that the CBB poses a disadvantage due to higher metabolic cost. The purpose of this study was to extend this estimate of cost from metabolite synthesis to biomass synthesis. For 12 gammaproteobacteria (CBB) and five epsilonproteobacteria (rCAC), the amount of ATP to synthesize a gram of biomass from CO2 was calculated from genome sequences via metabolic maps. The eleven central carbon metabolites needed to synthesize biomass were all less expensive to synthesize via the rCAC (66%-89% of the ATP needed to synthesize them via CBB). Differences in cell compositions did result in differing demands for metabolites among the organisms, but the differences in cost to synthesize biomass were small among organisms that used a particular pathway (e.g. rCAC), compared to the difference between pathways (rCAC versus CBB). The rCAC autotrophs averaged 0.195 moles ATP per g biomass, while their CBB counterparts averaged 0.238. This is the first in silico estimate of the relative expense of both pathways to generate biomass.

  5. Upgrading fuel properties of biomass by torrefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Shang

    2012-12-15

    Torrefaction is a mild thermal (200 - 300 UC) treatment in an inert atmosphere, which is known to increase the energy density of biomass by evaporating water and a proportion of volatiles. In this work, the influence of torrefaction on the chemical and mechanical properties (grindability and hygroscopicity) of wood chips, wood pellets and wheat straw was investigated and compared. The mass loss during torrefaction was found to be a useful indicator for determining the degree of torrefaction. For all three biomass, higher torrefaction temperature or longer residence time resulted in higher mass loss, higher heating value, better grindability, and less moisture absorption. However, severe torrefaction conditions were found not necessary in order to save energy during grinding, since strain energy and grinding energy decreased tremendously in the first 5 - 25% anhydrous weight loss. By correlating the heating value and mass loss, it was found that wheat straw contained less heating value on mass basis than the other two fuels, but the fraction of energy retained in the torrefied sample as a function of mass loss was very similar for all three biomass. Gas products formed during torrefaction of three biomass were detected in situ by coupling mass spectrometer with a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The main components were water, carbon monoxide, formic acid, formaldehyde, methanol, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, and methyl chloride. The cumulative releases of gas products from three biomass fuels at 300 UC for 1 h were compared, and water was found to be the dominant product during torrefaction. The degradation kinetics of wheat straw was studied in TGA by applying a two-step reaction in series model and taking the mass loss during the initial heating period into account. The model and parameters were proven to be able to predict the residual mass of wheat straw in a batch scale torrefaction reactor with different heating rates well. It means the mass yield of solids

  6. Alternative energies for road traffic - methanol. Alternative Energien fuer den Strassenverkehr - Methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Methanol motor fuels are alternative fuels which can supplement to the supply with petrol and diesel fuel from mineral oil to a greater extent. Since 1979, a fleet comprising more than 1,000 vehicles is being tested by customers in a practical large-scale test involving the motor fuels M15 and M100. The study on hand was produced by means of forecasts and facts based on today's technology and state of experience. The part concerning demand development and availability demonstrates in what quantities methanol could be available till the year 2000 (demand tendencies, future methanol production capacity in the world). The part concerning technology examines how the methanol quantities mentioned before could be used in road traffic (Otto engine, diesel engine, state of testing and trial, fuel technology) introduction phase, cost). The part concerning framework conditions notes that, in principle, there are no unsurmountable obstacles with setting up or amending methanol-specific technical and legal regulations.

  7. Methylene blue adsorption by algal biomass based materials: biosorbents characterization and process behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2007-08-17

    Dead algal biomass is a natural material that serves as a basis for developing a new family of sorbent materials potentially suitable for many industrial applications. In this work an algal industrial waste from agar extraction process, algae Gelidium and a composite material obtained by immobilization of the algal waste with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were physical characterized and used as biosorbents for dyes removal using methylene blue as model. The apparent and real densities and the porosity of biosorbents particles were determined by mercury porosimetry and helium picnometry. The methylene blue adsorption in the liquid phase was the method chosen to calculate the specific surface area of biosorbent particles as it seems to reproduce better the surface area accessible to metal ions in the biosorption process than the N2 adsorption-desorption dry method. The porous texture of the biosorbents particles was also studied. Equilibrium isotherms are well described by the Langmuir equation, giving maximum uptake capacities of 171, 104 and 74 mg g(-1), respectively for algae, algal waste and composite material. Kinetic experiments at different initial methylene blue concentrations were performed to evaluate the equilibrium time and the importance of the driving force to overcome mass transfer resistances. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models adequately describe the kinetic data. The biosorbents used in this work proved to be promising materials for removing methylene blue from aqueous solutions.

  8. Information draft on the development of air standards for methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Methanol is a clear, colourless. very mobile liquid with a slightly alcoholic odour in pure form, but a repulsive pungent odour in crude form. Methanol is the raw material in the production of many gasoline additives, is used as a solvent or antifreeze in paint strippers, aerosol spray paints, wall paints, carburetor cleaners, and car windshield washer compounds. Methanol is one of the top pollutants by release quantities in Ontario, the highest release being generated by the pulp and paper industry. Other large emissions come from the plastics and synthetic resin industry. Total release to the air in Canada was 3,668 tonnes in 1996 and the top ten methanol emitting facilities were in Ontario. Methanol is readily absorbed through inhalation, ingestion and skin exposures. Once absorbed, it is oxidized to formaldehyde and then to formic acid. Common symptoms of exposure are visual disturbances, dizziness, nausea, vertigo, pain in the extremities, and headaches. No information was found as to the carcinogenicity of methanol to humans or animals. Current Ontario half-hour POI standard for methanol is 84,000 microgram/cubic meter and the 24-hour AAQC is 28,000 microgram/cubic meter. Both values were established more than 20 years ago. Review of relevant literature, summarized in this report, indicates that five US states have promulgated air quality guidelines or reference exposure levels for methanol, based on occupational exposure limits. The US Environmental Protection Agency is currently reviewing its reference concentration value for methanol. The World Health Organization and the Canadian federal government have not set air quality guidelines for methanol. 37 refs., 1 tab., appendix.

  9. 直接甲醇燃料电池钯基催化剂研究进展%Research Progress in Pd Based Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 杨云裳; 裴春娟

    2014-01-01

    直接甲醇燃料电池(DMFC)阳极催化剂是直接甲醇燃料电池的关键材料之一。由于钯的价格便宜、储量丰富、在碱性条件下活性较高,成为取代铂作为DMFC的潜在的阳极催化剂。着重介绍了近年来钯基阳极催化剂在碱性条件下对甲醇的电氧化的研究进展,展望了其发展前景。%The anode catalyst is one of the key materials for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Pd is more suitable than Pt as a kind of anode catalyst due to its relatively low cost and abundance on the earth. In this paper, Pd-based catalysts for electro-oxidation of methanol in alkaline media were reviewed, and the development of the catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation was prospected.

  10. 煤基氮肥甲醇生产中深度净化技术综述(上)%Summary of deep purification technology in coal-based nitrogen fertilizer methanol production(Part Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐京磐

    2012-01-01

    简要介绍煤基氮肥、甲醇生产中气体深度净化技术,其中涉及中小型合成氨厂的深度净化技术,合成氨和甲醇厂的脱硫脱碳一体化净化技术,大型甲醇厂的深度净化技术,液氮洗净化技术,布朗深冷净化技术,焦炉煤气的深度净化技术等。%The paper briefly introduces deep purification technology in coal-based nitrogen fertilizer, methanol production, which involves deep purification technology in small and medium-sized ammonia plants, desulfurization integrated purification technology in ammonia and methanol plants, deep purification technology in large-scale methanol plants, purification technology in liquid ammonia washing, Brown cryogenic purification technology, deep purification technology in coke oven gas and so on.

  11. Optimized fuel cell grade hydrogen from methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongtaek

    2003-10-01

    To evaluate reaction rates liar making hydrogen from methanol, kinetic studies of methanol decomposition, methanol steam reforming, water gas shift reaction, and CO selective oxidation have been performed. These reactions were studied in a micro reactor testing unit using a commercial Cu-ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst for the first three reactions and Pt-Fe/gamma-alumina catalyst for the last reaction. The activity tests were performed between 120˜325°C and atmospheric pressure with a range of feed rates and compositions. For methanol decomposition, water addition to the feed increased the yield of hydrogen and reduced the formation of by-products. XPS analysis of used catalyst samples and time on-stream data showed that the Cu2+ oxidation state of copper favors methanol decomposition. A simplified reaction network of 5 elementary reactions was proposed and all five rate expressions were obtained using non-linear least squares optimization, numerical integration of a one-dimensional PFR model, and extensive experimental data. Similar numerical analysis was carried out to obtain the rate expressions for methanol steam reaction, the water gas shift reaction, and CO selective oxidation. For the kinetics of the water gas shift reaction, an empirical rate expression was obtained from the experimental data. Based on a review of published work on the WGS reaction mechanism, our study found that a rate expression derived from a regenerative mechanism and another rate expression derived from adsorptive mechanism fit the experimental data equally well. For the kinetics of CO preferential oxidation, a reaction model in which three reactions (CO oxidation, H2 oxidation and the WGS reaction) occur simultaneously was chosen to predict the reactor performance. In particular the reverse water gas shift reaction had an important role when fitting the experimental data precisely and explained the selectivity decrease at higher reaction temperatures. Combining the three reactors and several

  12. Thermodynamic Model of a Very High Efficiency Power Plant based on a Biomass Gasifier, SOFCs, and a Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P V Aravind

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations with a power plant based on a biomass gasifier, SOFCs and a gas turbine are presented. The SOFC anode off-gas which mainly consists of steam and carbon dioxides used as a gasifying agent leading to an allothermal gasification process for which heat is required. Implementation of heat pipes between the SOFC and the gasifier using two SOFC stacks and intercooling the fuel and the cathode streams in between them has shown to be a solution on one hand to drive the allothermal gasification process and on the other hand to cool down the SOFC. It is seen that this helps to reduce the exergy losses in the system significantly. With such a system, electrical efficiency around 73% is shown as achievable.

  13. Colloid-based multiplexed method for screening plant biomass-degrading glycoside hydrolase activities in microbial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reindl, W.; Deng, K.; Gladden, J.M.; Cheng, G.; Wong, A.; Singer, S.W.; Singh, S.; Lee, J.-C.; Yao, J.-S.; Hazen, T.C.; Singh, A.K; Simmons, B.A.; Adams, P.D.; Northen, T.R.

    2011-05-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of long-chain polysaccharides is a crucial step in the conversion of biomass to lignocellulosic biofuels. The identification and characterization of optimal glycoside hydrolases is dependent on enzyme activity assays, however existing methods are limited in terms of compatibility with a broad range of reaction conditions, sample complexity, and especially multiplexity. The method we present is a multiplexed approach based on Nanostructure-Initiator Mass Spectrometry (NIMS) that allowed studying several glycolytic activities in parallel under diverse assay conditions. Although the substrate analogs carried a highly hydrophobic perfluorinated tag, assays could be performed in aqueous solutions due colloid formation of the substrate molecules. We first validated our method by analyzing known {beta}-glucosidase and {beta}-xylosidase activities in single and parallel assay setups, followed by the identification and characterization of yet unknown glycoside hydrolase activities in microbial communities.

  14. Development of new biomass-based furan/glass composites manufactured by the double-vacuum-bag technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Madsen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The present study addresses the development of new biomass-based furan resin/glass fibre composites manufactured by the double-vacuum-bag technique using a two-stage cure cycle to allow removal of water from the resin. The volumetric composition and mechanical properties of the composites...... of conventional thermosetting/glass composites, but with lower strength. The findings of the present study show that a more efficient water removal during manufacturing, a lower porosity content and a less brittle stress–strain behaviour of the furan matrix are to be addressed to further improve the properties...... are measured and analysed with focus on the porosity content. The so-called matrix correlated porosity factor is determined to be 0.096, meaning that the furan matrix itself contains 8.8% porosity. In the optimal case of no matrix porosity, stiffness of the composites compares well with the stiffness...

  15. Water Vapor Adsorption on Biomass Based Carbons under Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Conditions: Effect of Post-Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nausika Querejeta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of post-treatment upon the H2O adsorption performance of biomass-based carbons was studied under post-combustion CO2 capture conditions. Oxygen surface functionalities were partially replaced through heat treatment, acid washing, and wet impregnation with amines. The surface chemistry of the final carbon is strongly affected by the type of post-treatment: acid treatment introduces a greater amount of oxygen whereas it is substantially reduced after thermal treatment. The porous texture of the carbons is also influenced by post-treatment: the wider pore volume is somewhat reduced, while narrow microporosity remains unaltered only after acid treatment. Despite heat treatment leading to a reduction in the number of oxygen surface groups, water vapor adsorption was enhanced in the higher pressure range. On the other hand acid treatment and wet impregnation with amines reduce the total water vapor uptake thus being more suitable for post-combustion CO2 capture applications.

  16. A facile approach to prepare silicon-based Pt-Ag tubular dendritic nano-forests (tDNFs) for solar-light-enhanced methanol oxidation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Ting; Shiao, Ming-Hua; Chang, Mao-Nan; Chu, Nancy; Chen, Yu-Wei; Peng, Yu-Hsuan; Liao, Bo-Huei; Huang, Hung Ji; Hsiao, Chien-Nan; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a facile two-step Galvanic replacement reaction (GRR) is proposed to prepare Pt-Ag tubular dendritic nano-forests (tDNFs) in ambient condition for enhancing methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) under solar illumination. In the first GRR, a homogeneous layer of silver dendritic nano-forests (DNFs) with 10 μm in thickness was grown on Si wafer in 5 min in silver nitride (AgNO3) and buffer oxide etchant (BOE) solution. In the second GRR, we utilized chloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) as the precursor for platinum (Pt) deposition to further transform the prepared Ag DNFs into Pt-Ag tDNFs. The catalytic performance and solar response of the Pt-Ag tDNFs toward methanol electro-oxidation are also studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). The methanol oxidation current was boosted by 6.4% under solar illumination on the Pt-Ag tDNFs due to the induced localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) on the dendritic structure. Current results provide a cost-effective and facile approach to prepare solar-driven metallic electrodes potentially applicable to photo-electro-chemical fuel cells.

  17. Synthesis and electrochemical characterization of palladium-based cathode catalysts, resistant to the presence of methanol; Sintesis y caracterizacion electroquimica de catalizadores catodicos base paladio, resistentes a la presencia de metanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, Jose J. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)] e-mail: jsalvador@cinvestav.mx; Collins, Virginia H. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Solorza Feria, Omar [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    This work presents the synthesis and characterization of palladium-based electrocatalysts (PdSn and PdPtSn) prepared with the salt-reduction method for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The compounds obtained are characterized by sweep electron microscopy, electron transmission microscopy and x-ray diffraction of powder. The electrocatalysts obtained had particle sizes less than 10 nm. The evaluation of the catalytic activity of the catalysts was performed using cyclic voltametry and rotating disc electrode. These experiments were conducted in an H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 0.5 M solution with different methanol concentrations. The presence of methanol improved the catalytic activity of PdSn, but did not show any effect on the PdPtSn alloy. The performance of the DMFC mono cell using PdPtSn as a cathode showed a potential of 10 mW cm{sup -2} at 50 degrees Celsius. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta la sintesis y caracterizacion de electrocatalizadores de base Paladio (PdSn y PdPtSn) preparados mediante el metodo de reduccion de sales, para la reaccion de reduccion de oxigeno (RRO). Los compuestos obtenidos se caracterizaron por microscopia electronica de barrido, microscopia electronica de transmision y difraccion de rayos X de polvos. Los electrocatalizadores obtenidos presentaron un tamano de particula menores a 10 nm. La evaluacion de la actividad catalitica de los catalizadores se llevo a cabo mediante voltametria Ciclica y electrodo de disco rotatorio, estos experimentos fueron realizados en una solucion de H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 0.5 M con diferentes concentraciones de metanol. La presencia de metanol mejoro la actividad catalitica de PdSn, pero no mostro ningun efecto sobre la aleacion PdPtSn. El desempeno de la monocelda de DMFC usando como catodo PdPtSn, mostro una potencia de 10 mW cm{sup -2} a 50 grados centigrados.

  18. Development of a fluorescence-based method for monitoring glucose catabolism and its potential use in a biomass hydrolysis assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anex Robert P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability and low cost of lignocellulosic biomass has caused tremendous interest in the bioconversion of this feedstock into liquid fuels. One measure of the economic viability of the bioconversion process is the ease with which a particular feedstock is hydrolyzed and fermented. Because monitoring the analytes in hydrolysis and fermentation experiments is time consuming, the objective of this study was to develop a rapid fluorescence-based method to monitor sugar production during biomass hydrolysis, and to demonstrate its application in monitoring corn stover hydrolysis. Results Hydrolytic enzymes were used in conjunction with Escherichia coli strain CA8404 (a hexose and pentose-consuming strain, modified to produce green fluorescent protein (GFP. The combination of hydrolytic enzymes and a sugar-consuming organism minimizes feedback inhibition of the hydrolytic enzymes. We observed that culture growth rate as measured by change in culture turbidity is proportional to GFP fluorescence and total growth and growth rate depends upon how much sugar is present at inoculation. Furthermore, it was possible to monitor the course of enzymatic hydrolysis in near real-time, though there are instrumentation challenges in doing this. Conclusion We found that instantaneous fluorescence is proportional to the bacterial growth rate. As growth rate is limited by the availability of sugar, the integral of fluorescence is proportional to the amount of sugar consumed by the microbe. We demonstrate that corn stover varieties can be differentiated based on sugar yields in enzymatic hydrolysis reactions using post-hydrolysis fluorescence measurements. Also, it may be possible to monitor fluorescence in real-time during hydrolysis to compare different hydrolysis protocols.

  19. Novel Approach to Tar Removal from Biomass Producer Gas by Means of a Nickel-Based Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosecký, M.; Kameníková, P.; Pohořelý, M.; Skoblja, S.; Punčochář, M.

    The nickel-based catalyst was exposed to the raw gas from gasification of woody biomass with air in a fluidized-bed. After dust removal on a barrier filter and sulphur compounds capture, namely H2S, on an active sorbent made of CuO and ZnO, higher hydrocarbons as tar components were decomposed/reformed on aNi-catalyst. Steam reforming reactions led to decomposition of tar and all hydrocarbons higher than CH4 into mainly H2 and CO which further underwent reaction with steam via the water gas shift reaction to CO2. The reforming reactions caused approximately 10-20 % decrease in the lower heating values of the producer gas from the inlet values 5.0-6.5 MJ m-3. The gas yield increased fromvalues 2.4-2.6 m3 kg-1 to values 2.8-3.0 m3 kg-1 on dry biomass basis. The chosen tar removal concept based on combination of dolomite in the fluidized-bed with the secondary catalytic reactor was proved by 20 hours long experiment in which the finaltar content below 30 mg m-3 was attained corresponding to more than 97 % tar conversion. H2S content in producer gas was expected to be below 100 vol. ppm, bulk of which was captured on the sorbent. Only limited deactivation of thecatalyst by sulphur compounds was found in the front of the catalyst bed where sulphur content was determined as high as 173 wt. ppm compared to 22 wt. ppm in the fresh sample.

  20. Cultivation and utilization of specific wood biomass for synthesis of cellulose based bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fara, L.; Comaneci, D. [Polytechnic Univ. of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania). Faculty of Applied Sciences; Cincu, C.; Hubca, G.; Zaharia, C.; Diacon, A. [Polytechnic Univ. of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania). Faculty of Applied Chemistry; Filat, M.; Chira, D. [Forest Research and Management Inst., Ilfov (Romania); Nutescu, C. [National Wood Inst., Bucharest (Romania); Fara, S. [Inst. for Research and Design of Automation, Bucharest (Romania)

    2010-07-01

    The energetic characteristics of 6 types of poplar clones cultivated for different pedoclimatic conditions in Romania were determined. Four clones were developed in Italy and 2 in Romania. Five experimental cultures were used to analyze the plant survival rate and biomass production rate. After 2 years of study, the Italian clones were found to have very good adaptability to the pedoclimatic conditions in Romania in comparison with local clones. The Italian clones Monviso and AF-6 registered the most substantial growths and the highest resistance to disease. Bioethanol was synthesized by acidic hydrolysis of the cellulose using 2 approaches. In the first approach the lignocellulosic raw material was hydrolyzed with diluted sulfuric acid at 50 degrees C for 24 hours. After filtration, the solid residue was treated with 30 per cent H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 100 degrees C for 6 hours. The resulting solutions were neutralized with Ca(OH){sub 2} following another filtration and the resulted solution with pH 6.5 was subjected to fermentation with Saccharomices Cerevisiae. In the second approach the lignocellulosic raw material was subjected to hydrolysis with 10 per cent H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 100 degrees C for 4 hours. After filtration, the solid residue was hydrolyzed with 30 per cent H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 100 degrees for 6 hours. The solution was neutralized with Ca(OH){sub 2} and subjected to alcoholic fermentation with Saccharomices Cerevisiae. The fermentation took place at 25 degrees C for 72 hours. The results for the two methods were similar.

  1. Analysis of Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine for Wet Biomass Fuels Based on commercial micro gas turbine data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    fueled by dry biomass assuming negligible pressure loss in the heat exchanger and the combustion chamber, the IFGT fueled with wet biomass (Wet IFGT) assuming no pressure losses, and finally both the Simple and the Wet IFGT incorporating typical data for pressure losses of commercially available micro......The results of a study of a novel gas turbine configuration is being presented. In this power plant, an Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine (IFGT), is being fueled with very wet biomass. The exhaust gas is being used to dry the biomass, but instead of striving to recover as much as possible of the thermal...

  2. Upgrading Fuel Properties of Biomass by Torrefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Holm, Jens Kai

    Torrefaction is a mild thermal (200 – 300 ÛC) treatment in an inert atmosphere, which is known to increase the energy density of biomass by evaporating water and a proportion of volatiles. In this work, the influence of torrefaction on the chemical and mechanical properties (grindability and hygr......Torrefaction is a mild thermal (200 – 300 ÛC) treatment in an inert atmosphere, which is known to increase the energy density of biomass by evaporating water and a proportion of volatiles. In this work, the influence of torrefaction on the chemical and mechanical properties (grindability...... biomass were detected in situ by coupling mass spectrometer with a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The main components were water, carbon monoxide, formic acid, formaldehyde, methanol, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, and methyl chloride. The cumulative releases of gas products from three biomass fuels...

  3. Upgrading Fuel Properties of Biomass by Torrefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Holm, Jens Kai

    biomass were detected in situ by coupling mass spectrometer with a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The main components were water, carbon monoxide, formic acid, formaldehyde, methanol, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, and methyl chloride. The cumulative releases of gas products from three biomass fuels......Torrefaction is a mild thermal (200 – 300 ÛC) treatment in an inert atmosphere, which is known to increase the energy density of biomass by evaporating water and a proportion of volatiles. In this work, the influence of torrefaction on the chemical and mechanical properties (grindability...... and hygroscopicity) of wood chips, wood pellets and wheat straw was investigated and compared. The mass loss during torrefaction was found to be a useful indicator for determining the degree of torrefaction. For all three biomass, higher torrefaction temperature or longer residence time resulted in higher mass loss...

  4. Extraction and analysis of indole derivatives from fungal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartz, J

    1994-01-01

    The occurrence and extraction of indole derivatives in six species from four genera of higher fungi were investigated. By using pure methanol for extraction of the mushrooms analysis revealed the highest concentrations of psilocybin and baeocystin. The psilocin content of the species was higher by using aqueous solutions of alcohols than with methanol alone but was an artificial phenomenon caused by enzymatic destruction of psilocybin. The extraction with dilute acetic acid yielded better results than with the water containing alcohols. The simple one-step procedure with methanol for the quantitative extraction is still the safest method to obtain the genuine alkaloids from fungal biomass.

  5. Optimization of microwave-assisted transesterification of dry algal biomass using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Prafulla D; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar; Mannarswamy, Aravind; Cooke, Peter; Munson-McGee, Stuart; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany; Lammers, Peter; Deng, Shuguang

    2011-01-01

    The effect of microwave irradiation on the simultaneous extraction and transesterification (in situ transesterification) of dry algal biomass to biodiesel was investigated. A high degree of oil/lipid extraction from dry algal biomass and an efficient conversion of the oils/lipids to biodiesel were demonstrated in a set of well-designed experimental runs. A response surface methodology (RSM) was used to analyze the influence of the process variables (dry algae to methanol (wt/vol) ratio, catalyst concentration, and reaction time) on the fatty acid methyl ester conversion. Based on the experimental results and RSM analysis, the optimal conditions for this process were determined as: dry algae to methanol (wt/vol) ratio of around 1:12, catalyst concentration about 2 wt.%, and reaction time of 4 min. The algal biodiesel samples were analyzed with GC-MS and thin layer chromatography (TLC) methods. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the algal biomass samples before and after the extraction/transesterification reaction are also presented.

  6. Radiocarbon-based impact assessment of open biomass burning on regional carbonaceous aerosols in North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong, Zheng [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen, Yingjun, E-mail: yjchen@yic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Tian, Chongguo, E-mail: cgtian@yic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Fang, Yin [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Wang, Xiaoping [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Huang, Guopei; Zhang, Fan [Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Samples of total suspended particulates (TSPs) and fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) were collected from 29th May to 1st July, 2013 at a regional background site in Bohai Rim, North China. Mass concentrations of particulate matter and carbonaceous species showed a total of 50% and 97% of the measured TSP and PM{sub 2.5} levels exceeded the first grade national standard of China, respectively. Daily concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were detected 7.3 and 2.5 μg m{sup −3} in TSP and 5.2 and 2.0 μg m{sup −3} in PM{sub 2.5}, which accounted 5.8% and 2.0% of TSP while 5.6% and 2.2% for PM{sub 2.5}, respectively. The concentrations of OC, EC, TSP and PM{sub 2.5} were observed higher in the day time than those in the night time. The observations were associated with the emission variations from anthropogenic activities. Two merged samples representing from south and north source areas were selected for radiocarbon analysis. The radiocarbon measurements showed 74% of water-insoluble OC (WINSOC) and 59% of EC in PM{sub 2.5} derived from biomass burning and biogenic sources when the air masses were from south region, and 63% and 48% for the air masses from north, respectively. Combined with backward trajectories and daily burned area, open burning of agricultural wastes was found to be predominating, which was confirmed by the potential source contribution function (PSCF). - Highlights: • PM{sub 2.5} and TSP samples collected at Yellow River Delta were analyzed for OC and EC. • OC, EC, TSP and PM{sub 2.5} concentrations were higher in daytime than in nighttime. • Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) tracer, backward trajectories, and fire counts were used for the analysis. • Agricultural waste open burning was a main contributor to summer PM{sub 2.5}, OC and EC.

  7. Can DNA-Based Ecosystem Assessments Quantify Species Abundance? Testing Primer Bias and Biomass--Sequence Relationships with an Innovative Metabarcoding Protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Elbrecht

    Full Text Available Metabarcoding is an emerging genetic tool to rapidly assess biodiversity in ecosystems. It involves high-throughput sequencing of a standard gene from an environmental sample and comparison to a reference database. However, no consensus has emerged regarding laboratory pipelines to screen species diversity and infer species abundances from environmental samples. In particular, the effect of primer bias and the detection limit for specimens with a low biomass has not been systematically examined, when processing samples in bulk. We developed and tested a DNA metabarcoding protocol that utilises the standard cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI barcoding fragment to detect freshwater macroinvertebrate taxa. DNA was extracted in bulk, amplified in a single PCR step, and purified, and the libraries were directly sequenced in two independent MiSeq runs (300-bp paired-end reads. Specifically, we assessed the influence of specimen biomass on sequence read abundance by sequencing 31 specimens of a stonefly species with known haplotypes spanning three orders of magnitude in biomass (experiment I. Then, we tested the recovery of 52 different freshwater invertebrate taxa of similar biomass using the same standard barcoding primers (experiment II. Each experiment was replicated ten times to maximise statistical power. The results of both experiments were consistent across replicates. We found a distinct positive correlation between species biomass and resulting numbers of MiSeq reads. Furthermore, we reliably recovered 83% of the 52 taxa used to test primer bias. However, sequence abundance varied by four orders of magnitudes between taxa despite the use of similar amounts of biomass. Our metabarcoding approach yielded reliable results for high-throughput assessments. However, the results indicated that primer efficiency is highly species-specific, which would prevent straightforward assessments of species abundance and biomass in a sample. Thus, PCR-based

  8. Studies on an ultrasonic atomization feed direct methanol fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chaoqun; Liu, Linghao; Tang, Kai; Chen, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is promising as an energy conversion device for the replacement of conventional chemical cell in future, owing to its convenient fuel storage, high energy density and low working temperature. The development of DMFC technology is currently limited by catalyst poison and methanol crossover. To alleviate the methanol crossover, a novel fuel supply system based on ultrasonic atomization is proposed. Experimental investigations on this fuel supply system to evaluate methanol permeation rates, open circuit voltages (OCVs) and polarization curves under a series of conditions have been carried out and reported in this paper. In comparison with the traditional liquid feed DMFC system, it can be found that the methanol crossover under the ultrasonic atomization feed system was significantly reduced because the DMFC reaches a large stable OCV value. Moreover, the polarization performance does not vary significantly with the liquid feed style. Therefore, the cell fed by ultrasonic atomization can be operated with a high concentration methanol to improve the energy density of DMFC. Under the supply condition of relatively high concentration methanol such as 4M and 8M, the maximum power density fed by ultrasonic atomization is higher than liquid by 6.05% and 12.94% respectively.

  9. Modelling tree biomasses in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repola, J.

    2013-06-01

    Biomass equations for above- and below-ground tree components of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L), Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) and birch (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were compiled using empirical material from a total of 102 stands. These stands (44 Scots pine, 34 Norway spruce and 24 birch stands) were located mainly on mineral soil sites representing a large part of Finland. The biomass models were based on data measured from 1648 sample trees, comprising 908 pine, 613 spruce and 127 birch trees. Biomass equations were derived for the total above-ground biomass and for the individual tree components: stem wood, stem bark, living and dead branches, needles, stump, and roots, as dependent variables. Three multivariate models with different numbers of independent variables for above-ground biomass and one for below-ground biomass were constructed. Variables that are normally measured in forest inventories were used as independent variables. The simplest model formulations, multivariate models (1) were mainly based on tree diameter and height as independent variables. In more elaborated multivariate models, (2) and (3), additional commonly measured tree variables such as age, crown length, bark thickness and radial growth rate were added. Tree biomass modelling includes consecutive phases, which cause unreliability in the prediction of biomass. First, biomasses of sample trees should be determined reliably to decrease the statistical errors caused by sub-sampling. In this study, methods to improve the accuracy of stem biomass estimates of the sample trees were developed. In addition, the reliability of the method applied to estimate sample-tree crown biomass was tested, and no systematic error was detected. Second, the whole information content of data should be utilized in order to achieve reliable parameter estimates and applicable and flexible model structure. In the modelling approach, the basic assumption was that the biomasses of

  10. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  11. Biomass stoves in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    and analyzed in this session. Experimental results regarding the performance of biomass combustion stoves and the effects of real-life practices in terms of thermal efficiency, particulate and gaseous emissions will be addressed. This research is based on the development of a new testing approach that combines...... laboratory and field measurements established in the context of the implications of the upcoming eco-design directive. The communication will cover technical aspects concerning the operating performance of different types of biomass stoves and building envelopes, in order to map the ongoing opportunities...

  12. Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

    2009-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

  13. Small-scale CHP Plant based on a 35 kWel Hermetic Four Cylinder Stirling Engine for Biomass Fuels- Development, Technology and Operating Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obernberger, I.; Carlsen, Henrik; Biedermann, F.

    2003-01-01

    ) process and the Stirling engine process. The ORC process represents an economically interesting technology for small-scale biomass-fired combined heat and power plants in a power range between 400 and 1,500 kWel. A newly developed ORC technology with a nominal electric capacity of 1,000 kW was implemented...... in the biomass CHP plant Lienz (A) in the framework of an EU demonstration project. This plant was put in operation in February 2002. Stirling engines are a promising solution for installations with nominal electric capacities between 10 and 150 kW. A biomass CHP pilot plant based on a 35 kWel-Stirling engine...

  14. Is energy cropping in Europe compatible with biodiversity? – Opportunities and threats to biodiversity from land-based production of biomass for bioenergy purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedroli, G.B.M.; Elbersen, B.S.; Frederiksen, P.; Grandin, U.; Heikkilä, R.; Krogh, P.H.; Izakovicová, Z.; Johansen, A.; Meiresonne, L.; Spijker, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Based on literature and six country studies (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Netherlands, Sweden, Slovakia) this paper discusses the compatibility of the EU 2020 targets for renewable energy with conservation of biodiversity. We conclude that increased demand for biomass for bioenergy purposes may lead t

  15. Molecular level insights to the interaction of toluene with ZrO2-based biomass gasification gas clean-up catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viinikainen, T.; Kauppi, I.; Korhonen, S.; Lefferts, L.; Kanervo, J.; Lehtonen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Gasification of biomass, followed by ZrO2-catalyzed hot gas clean-up at 600–900 °C for the oxidation of impurities (such as tar), is an environmentally attractive way to produce heat and power or synthesis gas. The interaction of toluene (as a model compound for tar) with ZrO2-based gasification gas

  16. Unusual case of methanol poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, L.; Henderson, M. (St. James' s Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Pathology); Madi, S.; Mellor, L. (St. James' s Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medicine, and Pharmacy)

    1993-01-09

    A 31-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse presented to the accident and emergency department complaining of blurred vision. 4 h previously he had drunk 300 mL de-icer fluid. Electrolytes, urea, creatinine, glucose, and blood-gas analysis were normal. Measured osmolality, however, was 368 mosmol/kg with a calculated osmolality of 300 mosmol/kg, which indicated a greatly increased osmolar gap. He was therefore given 150 mL whisky and admitted. Methanol was later reported as 200 mg/dL. Ethylene glycol was not detected, but another glycol, propylene glycol, was present at 47 mg/dL. 10 h after ingestion an intravenous infusion of ethanol was started and he was hemodialysed for 7 h. After dialysis he was given a further 100 mL whisky and the rate of ethanol infusion was reduced to 11 g per h. Methanol and ethanol were measured twice daily until methanol was under 10/mg/dL: The recommendation is that blood ethanol be maintained between 100 and 200 mg/dL during treatment of methanol poisoning. This concentration was not achieved, presumably because of the high rate of ethanol metabolism often found in alcoholics. Antifreeze solutions commonly contain methanol and ethylene glycol. Sometimes propylene glycol is substituted because it has properties similar to those of ethylene glycol but is less toxic. The authors postulate that propylene glycol inhibited the metabolism of methanol in the patient, thus sparing him from the toxic effects of methanol.

  17. Energy efficiency analysis: biomass-to-wheel efficiency related with biofuels production, fuel distribution, and powertrain systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Dong Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Energy efficiency analysis for different biomass-utilization scenarios would help make more informed decisions for developing future biomass-based transportation systems. Diverse biofuels produced from biomass include cellulosic ethanol, butanol, fatty acid ethyl esters, methane, hydrogen, methanol, dimethyether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and bioelectricity; the respective powertrain systems include internal combustion engine (ICE vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles based on gasoline or diesel ICEs, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, sugar fuel cell vehicles (SFCV, and battery electric vehicles (BEV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a simple, straightforward, and transparent biomass-to-wheel (BTW analysis including three separate conversion elements--biomass-to-fuel conversion, fuel transport and distribution, and respective powertrain systems. BTW efficiency is a ratio of the kinetic energy of an automobile's wheels to the chemical energy of delivered biomass just before entering biorefineries. Up to 13 scenarios were analyzed and compared to a base line case--corn ethanol/ICE. This analysis suggests that BEV, whose electricity is generated from stationary fuel cells, and SFCV, based on a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle with an on-board sugar-to-hydrogen bioreformer, would have the highest BTW efficiencies, nearly four times that of ethanol-ICE. SIGNIFICANCE: In the long term, a small fraction of the annual US biomass (e.g., 7.1%, or 700 million tons of biomass would be sufficient to meet 100% of light-duty passenger vehicle fuel needs (i.e., 150 billion gallons of gasoline/ethanol per year, through up to four-fold enhanced BTW efficiencies by using SFCV or BEV. SFCV would have several advantages over BEV: much higher energy storage densities, faster refilling rates, better safety, and less environmental burdens.

  18. Energy Efficiency Analysis: Biomass-to-Wheel Efficiency Related with Biofuels Production, Fuel Distribution, and Powertrain Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2011-01-01

    Background Energy efficiency analysis for different biomass-utilization scenarios would help make more informed decisions for developing future biomass-based transportation systems. Diverse biofuels produced from biomass include cellulosic ethanol, butanol, fatty acid ethyl esters, methane, hydrogen, methanol, dimethyether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and bioelectricity; the respective powertrain systems include internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles based on gasoline or diesel ICEs, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, sugar fuel cell vehicles (SFCV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a simple, straightforward, and transparent biomass-to-wheel (BTW) analysis including three separate conversion elements -- biomass-to-fuel conversion, fuel transport and distribution, and respective powertrain systems. BTW efficiency is a ratio of the kinetic energy of an automobile's wheels to the chemical energy of delivered biomass just before entering biorefineries. Up to 13 scenarios were analyzed and compared to a base line case – corn ethanol/ICE. This analysis suggests that BEV, whose electricity is generated from stationary fuel cells, and SFCV, based on a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle with an on-board sugar-to-hydrogen bioreformer, would have the highest BTW efficiencies, nearly four times that of ethanol-ICE. Significance In the long term, a small fraction of the annual US biomass (e.g., 7.1%, or 700 million tons of biomass) would be sufficient to meet 100% of light-duty passenger vehicle fuel needs (i.e., 150 billion gallons of gasoline/ethanol per year), through up to four-fold enhanced BTW efficiencies by using SFCV or BEV. SFCV would have several advantages over BEV: much higher energy storage densities, faster refilling rates, better safety, and less environmental burdens. PMID:21765941

  19. Lidar-Based Estimates of Above-Ground Biomass in the Continental US and Mexico Using Ground, Airborne, and Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ross; Margolis, Hank; Montesano, Paul; Sun, Guoqing; Cook, Bruce; Corp, Larry; Andersen, Hans-Erik; DeJong, Ben; Pellat, Fernando Paz; Fickel, Thaddeus; Kauffman, Jobriath; Prisley, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Existing national forest inventory plots, an airborne lidar scanning (ALS) system, and a space profiling lidar system (ICESat-GLAS) are used to generate circa 2005 estimates of total aboveground dry biomass (AGB) in forest strata, by state, in the continental United States (CONUS) and Mexico. The airborne lidar is used to link ground observations of AGB to space lidar measurements. Two sets of models are generated, the first relating ground estimates of AGB to airborne laser scanning (ALS) measurements and the second set relating ALS estimates of AGB (generated using the first model set) to GLAS measurements. GLAS then, is used as a sampling tool within a hybrid estimation framework to generate stratum-, state-, and national-level AGB estimates. A two-phase variance estimator is employed to quantify GLAS sampling variability and, additively, ALS-GLAS model variability in this current, three-phase (ground-ALS-space lidar) study. The model variance component characterizes the variability of the regression coefficients used to predict ALS-based estimates of biomass as a function of GLAS measurements. Three different types of predictive models are considered in CONUS to determine which produced biomass totals closest to ground-based national forest inventory estimates - (1) linear (LIN), (2) linear-no-intercept (LNI), and (3) log-linear. For CONUS at the national level, the GLAS LNI model estimate (23.95 +/- 0.45 Gt AGB), agreed most closely with the US national forest inventory ground estimate, 24.17 +/- 0.06 Gt, i.e., within 1%. The national biomass total based on linear ground-ALS and ALS-GLAS models (25.87 +/- 0.49 Gt) overestimated the national ground-based estimate by 7.5%. The comparable log-linear model result (63.29 +/-1.36 Gt) overestimated ground results by 261%. All three national biomass GLAS estimates, LIN, LNI, and log-linear, are based on 241,718 pulses collected on 230 orbits. The US national forest inventory (ground) estimates are based on 119

  20. Light-dependent induction of strongly increased microalgal growth by methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, A; Dörnemann, D; Kotzabasis, K

    2002-11-14

    Low methanol concentrations (about 0.5% v/v) induce biomass production in cultures of the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus by more than 300%, compared to controls without this solvent. This effect on the microalgal growth was found to be dependent on the solvent concentration, the packed cell volume (PCV), light intensity and light quality. It could be shown that methanol addition leads to a decrease in size of the light harvesting complex (LHC) on the basis of chlorophylls and proteins, and thus to changes in structure and functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus. These alterations lead to enhanced photosynthesis and respiration rates. The action of methanol on the photosynthetic apparatus is thus comparable to the effect of enhanced CO(2) concentrations. These findings support the previously proposed pathway for methanol metabolization with CO(2) as the final product. We conclude that the subsequent assimilation of the increased CO(2) amounts by the Calvin-Benson cycle is a possible explanation for the methanol-mediated increase in biomass production in terms of PCV. The methanol effect is observed only in the light and in the presence of a functioning photosynthetic apparatus. Preliminary action spectra suggest that the primary photoreceptor is a chlorophyll-protein complex with two absorption maxima at 680 and 430 nm, which may possibly be attributed to the reaction center of photosystem II (PSII).

  1. Depolymerization of organosolv lignin using doped porous metal oxides in supercritical methanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, Genoa; Hansen, Thomas S; Riisager, Anders; Beach, Evan S; Barta, Katalin; Anastas, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    An isolated, solvent-extracted lignin from candlenut (Aleurites moluccana) biomass was subjected to catalytic depolymerization in the presence of supercritical methanol, using a range of porous metal oxides derived from hydrotalcite-like precursors. The most effective catalysts in terms of lignin co

  2. Antifungal activity of methanol and n-hexane extracts of three Chenopodium species against Macrophomina phaseolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Arshad; Amin, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    Antifungal activity of methanol and n-hexane leaf, stem, root and inflorescence extracts (1, 2, 3 and 4% w/v) of three Chenopodium species (family Chenopodiaceae) namely Chenopodium album L., Chenopodium murale L. and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. was investigated against Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) G. Goid., a soil-borne fungal plant pathogen that has a broad host range and wide geographical distribution. All the extracts of the three Chenopodium species significantly suppressed the test fungal growth. However, there was marked variation among the various extract treatments. Methanol inflorescence extract of C. album exhibited highest antifungal activity resulting in up to 96% reduction in fungal biomass production. By contrast, methanol leaf extract of the same species exhibited least antifungal activity where 21-44% reduction in fungal biomass was recorded due to various employed extract concentrations. The various methanol extracts of C. murale and C. ambrosioides decreased fungal biomass by 62-90 and 50-84%, respectively. Similarly, various n-hexane extracts of C. album, C. murale and C. ambrosioides reduced fungal biomass by 60-94, 43-90 and 49-86%, respectively.

  3. Remote sensing based shrub above-ground biomass and carbon storage mapping in Mu Us desert,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The estimation of above-ground biomass(AGB) and carbon storage is very important for arid and semi-arid ecosystems.HJ-1A/B satellite data combined with field measurement data was used for the estimation of shrub AGB and carbon storage in the Mu Us desert,China.The correlations of shrub AGB and spectral reflectance of four bands as well as their combined vegetation indexes were respectively analyzed and stepwise regression analysis was employed to establish AGB prediction equation.The prediction equation based on ratio vegetation index(RVI)was proved to be more suitable for shrub AGB estimation in the Mu Us desert than others.Shrub AGB and carbon storage were mapped using the RVI based prediction model in final.The statistics showed the western Mu Us desert has relatively high AGB and carbon storage,and that the gross shrub carton storage in Mu Us desert reaches 16 799 200 t,which has greatly contributed to the carbon fixation in northern China.

  4. Spray combustion of biomass-based renewable diesel fuel using multiple injection strategy in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-05-26

    Effect of a two-injection strategy associated with a pilot injection on the spray combustion process was investigated under conventional diesel combustion conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration) for a biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, i.e., biomass to liquid (BTL), and a regular No. 2 diesel in a constant volume combustion chamber using multiband flame measurement and two-color pyrometry. The spray combustion flame structure was visualized by using multiband flame measurement to show features of soot formation, high temperature and low temperature reactions, which can be characterized by the narrow-band emissions of radicals or intermediate species such as OH, HCHO, and CH. The objective of this study was to identify the details of multiple injection combustion, including a pilot and a main injection, and to provide further insights on how the two injections interact. For comparison, three injection strategies were considered for both fuels including a two-injection strategy (Case TI), single injection strategy A (Case SA), and single injection strategy B (Case SB). Multiband flame results show a strong interaction, indicated by OH emissions between the pilot injection and the main injection for Case TI while very weak connection is found for the narrow-band emissions acquired through filters with centerlines of 430 nm and 470 nm. A faster flame development is found for the main injection of Case TI compared to Cases SA and SB, which could be due to the high temperature environment and large air entrainment from the pilot injection. A lower soot level is observed for the BTL flame compared to the diesel flame for all three injection types. Case TI has a lower soot level compared to Cases SA and SB for the BTL fuel, while the diesel fuel maintains a similar soot level among all three injection strategies. Soot temperature of Case TI is lower for both fuels, especially for diesel. Based on these results, it is expected that the two-injection strategy could be

  5. Direct Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether in Microstructured Reactors: The Interactions Between Methanol Synthesis and Methanol Dehydration

    OpenAIRE

    Dadgar, Farbod

    2016-01-01

    The growing concerns about the climate change, energy security and the diminishing oil reserves, stimulate the search for alternative energy sources and non-petroleum-based fuels. Natural gas in the short-term, and biomass in the long-term, have the potential to satisfy an increasing portion of the energy demands and reduce the dependence on carbon-intensive coal and oil. However, exploitation of highly distributed biomass resources and a considerable amount of the natural gas ...

  6. Carbon Fiber from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, Anelia [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States); Booth, Samuel [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Carbon fiber (CF), known also as graphite fiber, is a lightweight, strong, and flexible material used in both structural (load-bearing) and non-structural applications (e.g., thermal insulation). The high cost of precursors (the starting material used to make CF, which comes predominately from fossil sources) and manufacturing have kept CF a niche market with applications limited mostly to high-performance structural materials (e.g., aerospace). Alternative precursors to reduce CF cost and dependence on fossil sources have been investigated over the years, including biomass-derived precursors such as rayon, lignin, glycerol, and lignocellulosic sugars. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of CF precursors from biomass and their market potential. We examine the potential CF production from these precursors, the state of technology and applications, and the production cost (when data are available). We discuss their advantages and limitations. We also discuss the physical properties of biomass-based CF, and we compare them to those of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based CF. We also discuss manufacturing and end-product considerations for bio-based CF, as well as considerations for plant siting and biomass feedstock logistics, feedstock competition, and risk mitigation strategies. The main contribution of this study is that it provides detailed technical and market information about each bio-based CF precursor in one document while other studies focus on one precursor at a time or a particular topic (e.g., processing). Thus, this publication allows for a comprehensive view of the CF potential from all biomass sources and serves as a reference for both novice and experienced professionals interested in CF production from alternative sources.

  7. Hy-NOW. Evaluation of methods and technologies for the production of hydrogen based on biomass. Final Report; Hy-NOW. Evaluierung der Verfahren und Technologien fuer die Bereitstellung von Wasserstoff auf Basis von Biomasse. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zech, Konstantin; Grasemann, Elias; Oehmichen, Katja [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); and others

    2014-07-01

    The conversion of biomass is considered an important option for supplying the future mobility sector with sustainable hydrogen. In this study, various processes and technologies are evaluated that are suitable for a biomass-based production of hydrogen. This includes thermochemical processes such as the gasification of biomass in fixed bed, fluidized bed and entrained-flow gasification and the reforming of secondary bioenergy carriers (e.g. biogas), as well as biochemical processes such as the fermentation of biomass to hydrogen, and the photolysis of water. Following a fundamental prescreening of the processes, three of them are identified as the most promising options for a short or medium-term realization within a demonstration plant. Plant and supply concepts for these processes are defined and analyzed in detail. Two of the concepts are based on allothermal fluidized bed gasification (concepts 1 and 2) and the third one on steam reforming of biogas (concept 3). The hydrogen production capacity amounts to 9 MWH2 (270 kg{sub H2}/h) with concept 1, 3 MW{sub H2} (90 kg{sub H2}/h) with concept 2 and 6 MW{sub H2} (180 kg{sub H2}/h) with concept 3. The hydrogen production and supply concepts are analyzed based on their technical, economic and environmental performance as well as on the availability of the raw materials (biomass) required. For each of the concepts assessed, the availability of feedstock is sufficient to allow for the realization of demonstration plants. Significant parts of the existing biomass potentials, however, are used for other applications already. Hence, thorough examination of potential demonstration sites is crucial, giving due consideration to regional or local raw material availabilities Overall, there are advantages for gasification-based concepts as far as feedstocks are concerned. The technical assessment shows disadvantages for the fermentation-based plant concept in the net efficiency of the hydrogen production, i.e. the conversion

  8. Topological and thermal properties of polypropylene composites based on oil palm biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, A. H., E-mail: aamir.bhat@petronas.com.my, E-mail: anie-yal88@yahoo.com; Dasan, Y. K., E-mail: aamir.bhat@petronas.com.my, E-mail: anie-yal88@yahoo.com [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, 31750 Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Roughness on pristine and polymer composite surfaces is of enormous practical importance for polymer applications. This study deals with the use of varying quantity of oil palm ash as a nanofiller in a polypropylene based matrix. The oil palm ash sample was preprocessed to break the particles into small diameter by using ultra sonication before using microfluidizer for further deduction in size and homogenization. The oil palm ash was made to undergo many passes through the microfluidizer for fine distribution of particles. Polypropylene based composites containing different loading percentage oil palm ash was granulated by twin screw extruder and then injection molded. The surface morphology of the OPA passed through microfluidizer was analyzed by Tapping Mode - Atomic Force Microscopy (TMAFM). Thermal analysis results showed an increase in the activation energy values. The thermal stability of the composite samples showed improvement as compared to the virgin polymer as corroborated by the on-set degradation temperatures and the temperatures at which 50% degradation occurred.

  9. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass

  10. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass

  11. Assessing the regional impact of Indonesian biomass burning emissions based on organic molecular tracers and chemical mass balance modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Engling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning activities commonly occur in Southeast Asia (SEA, and are particularly intense in Indonesia during dry seasons. The effect of biomass smoke emissions on air quality in the city state of Singapore was investigated during a haze episode in October 2006. Substantially increased levels of airborne particulate matter (PM and associated chemical species were observed during the haze period. Specifically, the enhancement in the concentration of molecular tracers for biomass combustion such as levoglucosan by as much as two orders of magnitude and diagnostic ratios of individual organic compounds indicated that biomass burning emissions caused a regional smoke haze episode due to their long-range transport by prevailing winds. With the aid of air mass back trajectories and chemical mass balance modeling, large-scale forest and peat fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan were identified as the sources of the smoke aerosol, exerting a significant impact on air quality in downwind areas, such as Singapore.

  12. Assessing the regional impact of indonesian biomass burning emissions based on organic molecular tracers and chemical mass balance modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engling, G.; He, J.; Betha, R.; Balasubramanian, R.

    2014-08-01

    Biomass burning activities commonly occur in Southeast Asia (SEA), and are particularly intense in Indonesia during the dry seasons. The effect of biomass smoke emissions on air quality in the city state of Singapore was investigated during a haze episode in October 2006. Substantially increased levels of airborne particulate matter (PM) and associated chemical species were observed during the haze period. Specifically, the enhancement in the concentration of molecular tracers for biomass combustion such as levoglucosan by as much as two orders of magnitude and the diagnostic ratios of individual organic compounds indicated that biomass burning emissions caused a regional smoke haze episode due to their long-range transport by prevailing winds. With the aid of air mass backward trajectories and chemical mass balance modeling, large-scale forest and peat fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan were identified as the sources of the smoke aerosol, exerting a significant impact on air quality in downwind areas, such as Singapore.

  13. Recovery Processes of Organic Acids from Fermentation Broths in the Biomass-Based Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian-Zhu; Jiang, Xing-Lin; Feng, Xin-Jun; Wang, Ji-Ming; Sun, Chao; Zhang, Hai-Bo; Xian, Mo; Liu, Hui-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The new movement towards green chemistry and renewable feedstocks makes microbial production of chemicals more competitive. Among the numerous chemicals, organic acids are more attractive targets for process development efforts in the renewable-based biorefinery industry. However, most of the production costs in microbial processes are higher than that in chemical processes, among which over 60% are generated by separation processes. Therefore, the research of separation and purification processes is important for a promising biorefinery industry. This review highlights the progress of recovery processes in the separation and purification of organic acids, including their advantages and disadvantages, current situation, and future prospects in terms of recovery yields and industrial application.

  14. Treatment of agro based industrial wastewater in sequencing batch reactor: performance evaluation and growth kinetics of aerobic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J X; Vadivelu, V M

    2014-12-15

    A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with a working volume of 8 L and an exchange ratio of 25% was used to enrich biomass for the treatment of the anaerobically treated low pH palm oil mill effluent (POME). The influent concentration was stepwise increased from 5000 ± 500 mg COD/L to 11,500 ± 500 mg COD/L. The performance of the reactor was monitored at different organic loading rates (OLRs). It was found that approximately 90% of the COD content of the POME wastewater was successfully removed regardless of the OLR applied to the SBR. Cycle studies of the SBR show that the oxygen uptake by the biomass while there is no COD reduction may be due to the oxidation of the storage product by the biomass. Further, the growth kinetic parameters of the biomass were determined in batch experiments using respirometer. The maximum specific growth rate (μmax) was estimated to be 1.143 day(-1) while the half saturation constant (Ks) with respect to COD was determined to be 0.429 g COD/L. The decay coefficient (bD) and biomass yield (Y) were found to be 0.131 day(-1) and 0.272 mg biomass/mg COD consumed, respectively.

  15. Fundamental studies of synthesis-gas production based on fluidised-bed gasification of biomass-UCGFunda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinikainen, M.; Moilanen, A.; Simell, P.; Hannula, I.; Kurkela, E. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), e-mail: matti.reinikainen@vtt.fi; Suominen, T. P. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland), Teknisk Kemi och Reaktionsteknik), e-mail: timo.suominen@abo.fi; Linnekoski, J. (Aalto Univ., School of Science and Technology, Espoo (Finland), Lab. of Industrial Chemistry)

    2011-11-15

    The research was directed towards methods of producing transportation bio-fuels via the synthesis-gas route, with emphasis on the synthesis-gas production and gas cleaning steps. The subtopics of the research project were (1) fuel characterisation and ash behaviour in the gasification step, (2) reaction mechanisms related to gas cleaning, (3) evaluations of alternative process configurations and applications and (4) international cooperation. VTT itself financed also two additional subtopics: (5) new analysis techniques and (6) hydrogen from biomass via gasification. The project comprised experimental work, modelling, techno-economic evaluations as well as studies based on literature. The project was steered by a wide industrial consortium and the research work was carried out by VTT, Aalto University and Aabo Akademi. International development in syngas technology was closely monitored in all subtopics as well as by participating in relevant IEA-tasks. More information on the project can be found on project webpage http://www.vtt.fi/proj/ucgfunda/ (orig.)

  16. Fusion characterization of biomass ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Teng; Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang;

    2016-01-01

    The ash fusion characteristics are important parameters for thermochemical utilization of biomass. In this research, a method for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash by Thermo-mechanical Analyzer, TMA, is described. The typical TMA shrinking ratio curve can be divided into two...... stages, which are closely related to ash melting behaviors. Several characteristics temperatures based on the TMA curves are used to assess the ash fusion characteristics. A new characteristics temperature, Tm, is proposed to represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. The fusion...... characteristics of six types of biomass ash have been measured by TMA. Compared with standard ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) test, TMA is more suitable for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. The glassy molten areas of the ash samples are sticky and mainly consist of K-Ca-silicates....

  17. Dimethyl ether production from methanol and/or syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, Robert A; Wang, Yong; Baker, Eddie G; Hu, Jianli

    2015-02-17

    Disclosed are methods for producing dimethyl ether (DME) from methanol and for producing DME directly from syngas, such as syngas from biomass. Also disclosed are apparatus for DME production. The disclosed processes generally function at higher temperatures with lower contact times and at lower pressures than conventional processes so as to produce higher DME yields than do conventional processes. Certain embodiments of the processes are carried out in reactors providing greater surface to volume ratios than the presently used DME reactors. Certain embodiments of the processes are carried out in systems comprising multiple microchannel reactors.

  18. Device for measuring thermal conductivity of composites based on biomass waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Velasco Roldán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A standardized test bench has been designed, built and calibrated to determine the thermal conductivity of insulating building materials. The device, simple in design and economical, aims to become a replicable and useful tool for the development of multiple research on innovative materials based on waste or unvalued resources for the production of non-industrial and locally produced cheap thermal insulating materials which lead to the improvement of buildings energy efficiency. The main contribution of the test bench is the possibility of analyzing insulation compounds with more thickness and different formats thanks to the press design, which allows the setting and the pressure of the plates on the samples, holding these in the air and preventing any transmission by unwanted conduction.

  19. Physical characterization of biomass-based pyrolysis liquids. Application of standard fuel oil analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Koponen, P.; Levander, J.; Tapola, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The main purpose of the study was to test the applicability of standard fuel oil methods developed for petroleum-based fuels to pyrolysis liquids. In addition, research on sampling, homogeneity, stability, miscibility and corrosivity was carried out. The standard methods have been tested for several different pyrolysis liquids. Recommendations on sampling, sample size and small modifications of standard methods are presented. In general, most of the methods can be used as such but the accuracy of the analysis can be improved by minor modifications. Fuel oil analyses not suitable for pyrolysis liquids have been identified. Homogeneity of the liquids is the most critical factor in accurate analysis. The presence of air bubbles may disturb in several analyses. Sample preheating and prefiltration should be avoided when possible. The former may cause changes in the composition and structure of the pyrolysis liquid. The latter may remove part of organic material with particles. The size of the sample should be determined on the basis of the homogeneity and the water content of the liquid. The basic analyses of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) include water, pH, solids, ash, Conradson carbon residue, heating value, CHN, density, viscosity, pourpoint, flash point, and stability. Additional analyses are carried out when needed. (orig.) 53 refs.

  20. 非粮燃料乙醇发展综述%Developing summarization on non-food-based biomass ethanol fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳羽丰; 王滨生; 王佳祥

    2009-01-01

    本文分析了中国发展非粮燃料乙醇的原因及必要性,介绍燃料乙醇生产技术分类,国内外燃料乙醇生产研究发展概况,指出从长远来看,生产纤维质原料燃料乙醇是解决非粮燃料乙醇发展的根本出路.%Causes and necessities of the development of on non-food-based biomass ethanol fuel are analyzed, technical classification for the production of ethanol fuel, domestic and external research development indoor is presented. From a long-term point of view, fundamental way-out lies in developing fibre-based biomass for the non-food-based ethanol production.

  1. Novel Strategy of Using Methyl Esters as Slow Release Methanol Source during Lipase Expression by mut+ Pichia pastoris X33

    OpenAIRE

    Arti Kumari; Rani Gupta

    2014-01-01

    One of the major issues with heterologous production of proteins in Pichia pastoris X33 under AOX1 promoter is repeated methanol induction. To obviate repeated methanol induction, methyl esters were used as a slow release source of methanol in lipase expressing mut+ recombinant. Experimental design was based on the strategy that in presence of lipase, methyl esters can be hydrolysed to release their products as methanol and fatty acid. Hence, upon break down of methyl esters by lipase, first ...

  2. 基于Aspen Plus物性分析计算甲醇水溶液凝固点%Calculation for freezing points of methanol aqueous solution based on property analysis of Aspen Plus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光明; 王伟鹏

    2013-01-01

    探讨了气液固多相平衡的机理,利用活度系数法计算各相热力学性质,采用Aspen plus物性分析计算不同浓度的甲醇水溶液凝固点,将计算结果与手册值进行比较,结果表明:模拟计算结果与手册值较为接近,在工程误差允许的范围内,可以用Aspen plus物性分析计算甲醇水溶液凝固点.%The multiphase balance mechanism of gas,liquid and solid was discussed.The thermodynamic properties of which were calculated by activity coefficient method.The freezing points of the methanol aqueous solution with different concentrations were calculated using the properties analysis of Aspen Plus.The results show that the simulation result is much close to the manual value.Within the allowed range of engineering error,the freezing points of the methanol aqueous solution can be simulated based on properties analysis of Aspen Plus and used in the practical engineering.

  3. Catalytic conversion of nonfood woody biomass solids to organic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Katalin; Ford, Peter C

    2014-05-20

    This Account outlines recent efforts in our laboratories addressing a fundamental challenge of sustainability chemistry, the effective utilization of biomass for production of chemicals and fuels. Efficient methods for converting renewable biomass solids to chemicals and liquid fuels would reduce society's dependence on nonrenewable petroleum resources while easing the atmospheric carbon dioxide burden. The major nonfood component of biomass is lignocellulose, a matrix of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. New approaches are needed to effect facile conversion of lignocellulose solids to liquid fuels and to other chemical precursors without the formation of intractable side products and with sufficient specificity to give economically sustainable product streams. We have devised a novel catalytic system whereby the renewable feedstocks cellulose, organosolv lignin, and even lignocellulose composites such as sawdust are transformed into organic liquids. The reaction medium is supercritical methanol (sc-MeOH), while the catalyst is a copper-doped porous metal oxide (PMO) prepared from inexpensive, Earth-abundant starting materials. This transformation occurs in a single stage reactor operating at 300-320 °C and 160-220 bar. The reducing equivalents for these transformations are derived by the reforming of MeOH (to H2 and CO), which thereby serves as a "liquid syngas" in the present case. Water generated by deoxygenation processes is quickly removed by the water-gas shift reaction. The Cu-doped PMO serves multiple purposes, catalyzing substrate hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation as well as the methanol reforming and shift reactions. This one-pot "UCSB process" is quantitative, giving little or no biochar residual. Provided is an overview of these catalysis studies beginning with reactions of the model compound dihydrobenzofuran that help define the key processes occurring. The initial step is phenyl-ether bond hydrogenolysis, and this is followed by

  4. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  5. Power generation based on biomass by combined fermentation and gasification--a new concept derived from experiments and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methling, Torsten; Armbrust, Nina; Haitz, Thilo; Speidel, Michael; Poboss, Norman; Braun-Unkhoff, Marina; Dieter, Heiko; Kempter-Regel, Brigitte; Kraaij, Gerard; Schliessmann, Ursula; Sterr, Yasemin; Wörner, Antje; Hirth, Thomas; Riedel, Uwe; Scheffknecht, Günter

    2014-10-01

    A new concept is proposed for combined fermentation (two-stage high-load fermenter) and gasification (two-stage fluidised bed gasifier with CO2 separation) of sewage sludge and wood, and the subsequent utilisation of the biogenic gases in a hybrid power plant, consisting of a solid oxide fuel cell and a gas turbine. The development and optimisation of the important processes of the new concept (fermentation, gasification, utilisation) are reported in detail. For the gas production, process parameters were experimentally and numerically investigated to achieve high conversion rates of biomass. For the product gas utilisation, important combustion properties (laminar flame speed, ignition delay time) were analysed numerically to evaluate machinery operation (reliability, emissions). Furthermore, the coupling of the processes was numerically analysed and optimised by means of integration of heat and mass flows. The high, simulated electrical efficiency of 42% including the conversion of raw biomass is promising for future power generation by biomass.

  6. Technoeconomic analysis of a low CO2 emission dimethyl ether (DME) plant based on gasification of torrefied biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2010-01-01

    rich stream to a CO2 capture plant, which is used in the conditioning of the syngas.The plant models predict energy efficiencies from torrefied biomass to DME of 66% (RC) and 48% (OT) (LHV). If the exported electricity is included, the efficiencies are 71% (RC) and 64% (OT). When accounting for energy......Two models of a dimethyl ether (DME) fuel production plant were designed and analyzed in DNA and Aspen Plus. The plants produce DME by either recycle (RC) or once through (OT) catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of torrefied woody biomass. Torrefication is a mild pyrolysis...... process that takes place at 200–300°C. Torrefied biomass has properties similar to coal, which enables the use of commercially available coal gasification processing equipment. The DME plants are designed with focus on lowering the total CO2 emissions from the plants; this includes e.g. a recycle of a CO2...

  7. Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Improvements to non acid methanol fuel cells include new formulations for materials. The platinum and ruthenium are more exactly mixed together. Different materials are substituted for these materials. The backing material for the fuel cell electrode is specially treated to improve its characteristics. A special sputtered electrode is formed which is extremely porous. The fuel cell system also comprises a fuel supplying part including a meter which meters an amount of fuel which is used by the fuel cell, and controls the supply of fuel based on said metering.

  8. Swine manure-based pilot-scale algal biomass production system for fuel production and wastewater treatment--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Min; Hu, Bing; Mohr, Michael J; Shi, Aimin; Ding, Jinfeng; Sun, Yong; Jiang, Yongcheng; Fu, Zongqiang; Griffith, Richard; Hussain, Fida; Mu, Dongyan; Nie, Yong; Chen, Paul; Zhou, Wenguang; Ruan, Roger

    2014-02-01

    Integration of wastewater treatment with algae cultivation is one of the promising ways to achieve an economically viable and environmentally sustainable algal biofuel production on a commercial scale. This study focused on pilot-scale algal biomass production system development, cultivation process optimization, and integration with swine manure wastewater treatment. The areal algal biomass productivity for the cultivation system that we developed ranged from 8.08 to 14.59 and 19.15-23.19 g/m(2) × day, based on ash-free dry weight and total suspended solid (TSS), respectively, which were higher than or comparable with those in literature. The harvested algal biomass had lipid content about 1.77-3.55%, which was relatively low, but could be converted to bio-oil via fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis system developed in our lab. The lipids in the harvested algal biomass had a significantly higher percentage of total unsaturated fatty acids than those grown in lab conditions, which may be attributed to the observed temperature and light fluctuations. The nutrient removal rate was highly correlated to the biomass productivity. The NH₃-N, TN, COD, and PO₄-P reduction rates for the north-located photo-bioreactor (PBR-N) in July were 2.65, 3.19, 7.21, and 0.067 g/m(2) × day, respectively, which were higher than those in other studies. The cultivation system had advantages of high mixotrophic growth rate, low operating cost, as well as reduced land footprint due to the stacked-tray bioreactor design used in the study.

  9. My Biomass, Your Biomass, Our Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US is pursuing an array of renewable energy sources to reduce reliance on imported fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass energy and biomass ethanol are key components in the pursuit. The need for biomass feedstock to produce sufficient ethanol to meet any of the numerous stat...

  10. Energy from biomass. Teaching material; Energie aus Biomasse. Ein Lehrmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    The textbook discusses the available options for power and heat generation from biomass as well as the limits of biomass-based power supply. The main obstacle apart from the high cost is a lack of knowledge, which the book intends to remedy. It addresses students of agriculture, forestry, environmental engineering, heating systems engineering and apprentice chimney sweepers, but it will also be useful to all other interested readers. [German] Biomasse kann aufgrund seiner vielfaeltigen Erscheinungs- und Umwandlungsformen sowohl als Brennstoff zur Waerme- und Stromgewinnung oder als Treibstoff eingesetzt werden. Die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse birgt zudem nicht zu verachtende Vorteile. Zum einen wegen des Beitrags zum Klimaschutz aufgrund der CO{sub 2}-Neutralitaet oder einfach, weil Biomasse immer wieder nachwaechst und von fossilen Ressourcen unabhaengig macht. All den bisher erschlossenen Moeglichkeiten der energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse moechte dieses Lehrbuch Rechnung tragen. Es zeigt aber auch die Grenzen auf, die mit der Energieversorgung durch Bioenergie einhergehen. Hohe Kosten und ein erhebliches Informationsdefizit behinderten bisher eine verstaerkte Nutzung dieses Energietraeges. Letzterem soll dieses Lehrbuch entgegenwirken. Das vorliegende Lehrbuch wurde fuer die Aus- und Weiterbildung erstellt. Es richtet sich vor allem an angehende Land- und Forstwirte, Umwelttechniker, Heizungsbauer und Schornsteinfeger, ist aber auch fuer all diejenigen interessant, die das Thema ''Energie aus Biomasse'' verstehen und ueberblicken moechten. (orig.)

  11. Enhanced methanol utilization in direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2001-10-02

    The fuel utilization of a direct methanol fuel cell is enhanced for improved cell efficiency. Distribution plates at the anode and cathode of the fuel cell are configured to distribute reactants vertically and laterally uniformly over a catalyzed membrane surface of the fuel cell. A conductive sheet between the anode distribution plate and the anodic membrane surface forms a mass transport barrier to the methanol fuel that is large relative to a mass transport barrier for a gaseous hydrogen fuel cell. In a preferred embodiment, the distribution plate is a perforated corrugated sheet. The mass transport barrier may be conveniently increased by increasing the thickness of an anode conductive sheet adjacent the membrane surface of the fuel cell.

  12. Fermentation of methanol in the sheep rumen.

    OpenAIRE

    Pol, A.; Demeyer, D. I.

    1988-01-01

    Sheep fed a hay-concentrate diet were adapted to pectin administration and ruminal infusion of methanol. Both treatments resulted in a strong increase in the rate of methanogenesis from methanol. Quantitative data show that methanol was exclusively converted into methane. Treatments did not influence ruminal volatile fatty acid percentages.

  13. The fate of methanol in anaerobic bioreactors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florencio, L.

    1994-01-01

    Methanol is an important component of certain industrial wastewaters. In anaerobic environments, methanol can be utilized by methanogens and acetogens. In wastewater treatment plants, the conversion of methanol into methane is preferred because this conversion is responsible for chemical oxygen dema

  14. Biomass potential assessment in Central and Eastern European Countries and opportunities for the Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faaij, A.; Hoogzaad, J.; Van Dam, J.; Smeets, E.; Lewandowski, I.

    2004-12-15

    This paper discusses an approach to determine future biomass production potentials and cost supply curves based on a bottom-up approach. The approach uses detailed data on NUTS3 level (the nomenclature of territorial units for statistics (NUTS) provides a single, uniform breakdown of the economic territory of the European Union). The NUTS is the territorial classification for the compilation of regional accounts for Central and Eastern European Countries and results in biomass supply curves for different scenario conditions that could occur in a European setting. A first assessment of the Ukraine reveals that even with modest assumptions, the Ukrainian agricultural sector could supply 2,000 to 3,000 PJ of primary biomass per year on medium term (i.e. 2010-2015). Cost levels of liquid fuels produced from biomass (such as methanol or Fischer-Tropsch diesel) could end up around 6 Euro/GJ, which is about competitive with production costs of diesel and gasoline from mineral oil. Given the growing demand for biofuels in particular in the EU, biofuels could prove an extremely valuable export commodity for the Ukraine on shorter term already.

  15. Competition between rice (Oryza sativa L.) and (barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.) as affected by methanol foliar application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeieh, Alireza D; Aminpanah, Hashem; Sadeghi, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Pot experiment was conducted in Iran, to evaluate the effect of methanol on competition between rice (Oryza sativa) and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli). The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with a factorial treatment arrangement and three replicates. Factors were two aqueous methanol foliar applications (0, and 14% v/v) and five rice: barnyardgrass ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:6, and 0:100). Replacement series diagrams for aboveground dry weight illustrated that 'Shiroudi' was more competitive than barnyardgrass as averaged across methanol foliar applications. When methanol was not sprayed, the lines for 'Shiroudi' and barnyardgrass intersected at 75:25 rice: barnyardgrass ratio, but when methanol was sprayed at 14% v/v, the lines for 'Shiroudi' and barnyardgrass intersect at the left of the 75:25 rice: barnyardgrass mixture proportion. These indicate that methanol application reduced competitive ability of 'Shiroudi' against barnyardgrass for aboveground biomass accumulation. At the same time, Methanol foliar application significantly reduced the relative crowding coefficient of 'Shiroudi' while simultaneously it significantly increased the relative crowding coefficient of barnyard grass. This indicates that methanol foliar application reduced the competitive ability of 'Shiroudi' against barnyardgrass for shoot biomass accumulation. This experiment illustrated that foliar spray of aqueous methanol can not be recommended for rice under weedy conditions.

  16. Simulation of Biomass Accumulation Pattern in Vapor-Phase Biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jin-Ying; Hu, Hong-Ying; Zhang, Xian

    2012-06-01

    Existence of inert biomass and its impact on biomass accumulation patterns and biofilter performance were investigated. Four biofilters were set up in parallel to treat gaseous toluene. Each biofilter operated under different inlet toluene loadings for 100 days. Two microbial growth models, one with an inert biomass assumption and the other without, were established and compared. Results from the model with the inert biomass assumption showed better agreement with the experimental data than those based on the model without the inert biomass assumption thus verifying that inert biomass accumulation cannot be ignored in the long-term operation of biofilters. According to the model with an inert biomass assumption, the ratio of active biomass to total biomass will decrease and the inert biomass will become dominant in total biomass after a period of time. Filter bed structure simulation results showed that the void fraction is more sensitive to biomass accumulation than the specific surface area. The final void fraction of the biofilters with the highest inlet toluene loading is only 67% of its initial level while the final specific surface area is 82%. Identification and quantification of inert biomass will give a better understanding of biomass accumulation in biofilters and will result in a more exact simulation of biomass change during long-term operations. Results also indicate that an ideal biomass control technique should be able to remove most inert biomass while simultaneously preserving as much active biomass as possible.

  17. Palladium-Catalyzed Telomerization of 1,3-Butadiene with Biomass-based Oxygenates: Substrate Scope, Mechanism and Catalyst Heterogenization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausoul, P.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic activity of Pd/TOMPP (TOMPP: tris(2-methoxyphenylphosphine) in the telomerization of 1,3-butadiene was screened with carbohydrates and phenolics that can be potentially derived from lignocellulosic biomass. High conversions and selectivities were obtained and clear structure-activity r

  18. Technoeconomic analysis of a low CO2 emission dimethyl ether (DME) plant based on gasification of torrefied biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Two models of a dimethyl ether (DME) fuel production plant were designed and analyzed in DNA and Aspen Plus. The plants produce DME by either recycle (RC) or once through (OT) catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of torrefied woody biomass. Torrefication is a mild pyrolysis...

  19. Acid-Base Bifunctional Zirconium N-Alkyltriphosphate Nanohybrid for Hydrogen Transfer of Biomass-Derived Carboxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hu; He, Jian; Riisager, Anders

    2016-01-01

    sites, and their catalytic activity in converting biomass-derived carbonyl compounds to corresponding alcohols in 2-propanol. Particularly, a quantitative yield of furfuryl alcohol (FFA) was obtained from furfural (FUR) over organotriphosphate-zirconium hybrid (ZrPN) under mild conditions. The presence...

  20. Assessment of a tannin-based organic polymer to harvest Chlorella vulgaris biomass from swine wastewater digestate phycoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzari, M P; da Silva, M L B; Pirolli, M; Perazzoli, S; Steinmetz, R L R; Nunes, E O; Soares, H M

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the efficiency of an organic tannin polymer alone or amended with polyacrylamide to harvest Chlorella vulgaris biomass grown in a laboratory-scale photobioreactor treating swine wastewater digestate. The effect of biomass concentration, tannin (TAN) dosages and changes in pH were evaluated in jar test experiments. Among the TAN concentrations tested (11, 22, 44, 89, 178 mg L(-1)), 11 mg L(-1) showed the highest biomass recovery (97%). The highest coagulation/ flocculation efficiencies were obtained at pH 5 to 7. Flocculation efficiency improved from 50 to 97% concomitant with the increasing biomass concentrations from 45 to 165 mg L(-1), respectively. Recovery efficiencies above 95% were achieved with the same TAN dosage (11 mg L(-1)) irrespective of the concentration of organic carbon present (75 to 300 mg TOC L(-1)). Overall, the results suggest that TAN could become an interesting alternative choice of non-toxic organic polymer for harvesting Chlorella sp. from organic-rich wastewater.

  1. Methanol production method and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Michael J.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    1984-01-01

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  2. A Techno-Economic Comparison between Two Methanol-to-Propylene Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jasper

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The significant increase in natural/shale gas production in the US is causing major changes in the chemical and petrochemical markets. These changes include the increased supply of methanol and the decreased supply of propylene. As such, there are promising opportunities for methanol-to-propylene processes in the US. This paper provides a top-level techno-economic analysis of two pathways: methanol to olefins (MTO and methanol to propylene (MTP. Base-case scenarios are simulated using ASPEN Plus to obtain the key mass and energy balances as well as design data. For each process, two scenarios are considered for the feedstock: buying methanol versus making it from natural gas. The return on investment (ROI is calculated for both processes under broad ranges of the prices of natural gas, methanol, and products. In addition to the techno-economic analysis, the CO2 emissions are evaluated and compared.

  3. Withanolide artifacts formed in methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Cong-Mei; Zhang, Huaping; Gallagher, Robert J; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2013-11-22

    Methanol solutions of the main withanolides (6-8) naturally present in Physalis longifolia yielded five artificial withanolides (1-5), including three new compounds (1-3). Withanolides 1 and 2 were identified as intramolecular Michael addition derivatives, while withanolides 3-5 were the result of intermolecular Michael addition. A comprehensive literature investigation was conducted to identify potential withanolide Michael addition artifacts isolated from Solanaceous species to date.

  4. Climate-change driven range shifts of anchovy biomass projected by bio-physical coupling individual based model in the marginal seas of East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sukgeun; Pang, Ig-Chan; Lee, Joon-ho; Lee, Kyunghwan

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies in the western North Pacific reported a declining standing stock biomass of anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) in the Yellow Sea and a climate-driven southward shift of anchovy catch in Korean waters. We investigated the effects of a warming ocean on the latitudinal shift of anchovy catch by developing and applying individual-based models (IBMs) based on a regional ocean circulation model and an IPCC climate change scenario. Despite the greater uncertainty, our two IBMs projected that, by the 2030s, the strengthened Tsushima warm current in the Korea Strait and the East Sea, driven by global warming, and the subsequent confinement of the relatively cold water masses within the Yellow Sea will decrease larval anchovy biomass in the Yellow Sea, but will increase it in the Korea Strait and the East Sea. The decreasing trend of anchovy biomass in the Yellow Sea was reproduced by our models, but further validation and enhancement of the models is required together with extended ichthyoplankton surveys to understand and reliably project range shifts of anchovy and the impacts such range shifts will have on the marine ecosystems and fisheries in the region.

  5. Catalytic gasification of bagasse for the production of methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Robertus, R.J.

    1985-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of catalytic gasification of bagasse to produce methanol. In previous studies, a catalytic steam gasification process was developed which converted wood to methanol synthesis gas in one step using nickel based catalysts in a fluid-bed gasifier. Tests in a nominal 1 ton/day process development unit (PDU) gasifier with these same catalysts showed bagasse to be a good feedstock for fluid-bed gasifiers, but the catalysts deactivated quite rapidly in the presence of bagasse. Laboratory catalyst screening tests showed K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on the bagasse to be a promising catalyst for converting bagasse to methanol synthesis gas. PDU tests with 10 wt % K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ doped on bagasse showed the technical feasibility of this type of catalyst on a larger scale. A high quality synthesis gas was produced and carbon conversion to gas was high. The gasifier was successfully operated without forming agglomerates of catalyst, ash, and char in the gasifier. There was no loss of activity throughout the runs because catalysts is continually added with the bagasse. Laboratory tests showed about 80% of the potassium carbonate could be recovered and recycled with a simple water wash. An economic evaluation of the process for converting bagasse to methanol showed the required selling price of methanol to be significantly higher than the current market price of methanol. Several factors make this current evaluaton using bagasse as a feedstock less favorable: (1) capital costs are higher due to inflation and some extra costs required to use bagasse, (2) smaller plant sizes were considered so economies of scale are lost, and (3) the market price of methanol in the US has fallen 44% in the last six months. 24 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. Co-firing of biomass with coal: constraints and role of biomass pretreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maciejewska, A.K.; Veringa, H.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Peteves, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    This report aims at introducing the aspects of co-firing of biomass with coal. The main focus is given to problems and constraints related to utilizing biomass together with coal for power generation, and the potential of biomass pre-treatment in mitigating these constraints. The work is based on a

  7. The toxicity of inhaled methanol vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavet, R.; Nauss, K.M. (Environmental Research Information, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Methanol could become a major automotive fuel in the U.S., and its use may result in increased exposure of the public to methanol vapor. Nearly all of the available information on methanol toxicity in humans relates to the consequences of acute, rather than chronic, exposures. Acute methanol toxicity evolves in a well-understood pattern and consists of an uncompensated metabolic acidosis with superimposed toxicity to the visual system. The toxic properties of methanol are rooted in the factors that govern both the conversion of methanol to formic acid and the subsequent metabolism of formate to carbon dioxide in the folate pathway. In short, the toxic syndrome sets in if formate generation continues at a rate that exceeds its rate of metabolism. Current evidence indicates that formate accumulation will not challenge the metabolic capacity of the folate pathway at the anticipated levels of exposure to automotive methanol vapor.117 references.

  8. Biomass treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.

    2010-10-26

    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  9. Chemical oscillation in electrochemical oxidation of methanol on Pt surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on dual path reaction mechanism, a nonlinear dynamics model reflecting the potential oscilla- tion in electrooxidation of methanol on Pt surface was established. The model involves three variables, the electrode potential (e), the surface coverage of carbon monoxide (x), and adsorbed water (y). The chemical reactions and electrode potential were coupled together through the rate constant ki = exp(ai(e ? ei)). The analysis to the established model discloses the following: there are different kinetics be- haviors in different ranges of current densities. The chemical oscillation in methanol electrooxidation is assigned to two aspects, one from poison mediate CO of methanol electrooxidation, which is the in- duced factor of the chemical oscillation, and the other from the oxygen-containing species, such as H2Oa. The formation and disappearance of H2Oa deeply depend on the electrode potential, and directly cause the chemical oscillation. The established model makes clear that the potential oscillation in methanol electrooxidation is the result of the feedback of electrode potential e on the reactions in- volving poison mediates CO and oxygen-containing species H2Oa. The numerical analysis of the estab- lished model successfully explains why the potential oscillation in methanol galvanostatic oxidation on a Pt electrode only happens in a certain range of current densities but not at any current density.

  10. The use of methanol as a fuel for transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, K.E. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Walsh, M.P. [Arlington, VA (United States); Westerholm, R. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    1997-06-01

    The aim of the project was to collect and report international experiences concerning the use of methanol as an automotive fuel. The method has been to study the literature which covers the subject and most of the information has been collected that way. The project started with a participation in a conference and a visit to people who have been involved in activities concerning the use of automotive alcohols. Car manufacturers, environmental authorities and users of alcohol fuels i.e. representatives of bus companies, were interviewed. The different applications for the use of methanol as an automotive fuel has been described in the report as well as the production of methanol. Some results, mostly in form of emission data and other experiences derived from the use of alcohol fuels, have also been presented. The use of ethanol and methanol has been compared and based on information from engine manufacturers and users of alcohol fueled vehicles there seems to be a preference for the use of ethanol. However, the question `methanol or ethanol` has not been answered as the decision which of the two is to be used seems to depend more on economic factors, such as cost of the production of the fuel etc., than on other factors. 165 refs, 15 figs, 14 tabs

  11. Chemical oscillation in electrochemical oxidation of methanol on Pt surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LanLan; WEI ZiDong; QI XueQiang; SUN CaiXin; YIN GuangZhi

    2008-01-01

    Based on dual path reaction mechanism, a nonlinear dynamics model reflecting the potential oscilla-tion in electrooxidation of methanol on Pt surface was established. The model involves three variables, the electrode potential (e), the surface coverage of carbon monoxide (x), and adsorbed water (y). The chemical reactions and electrode potential were coupled together through the rate constant k1= exp(a e-e1)). The analysis to the established model discloses the following: there are different kinetics be-haviors in different ranges of current densities. The chemical oscillation in methanol electrooxidation is assigned to two aspects, one from poison mediate CO of methanol electrooxidallon, which is the in-duced factor of the chemical oscillation, and the other from the oxygen-containing species, such as H2Oa. The formation and disappearance of H2Oa deeply depend on the electrode potential, and directly cause the chemical oscillation. The established model makes clear that the potential oscillation in methanol electrooxidation is the result of the feedback of electrode potential e on the reactions in-volving poison mediates CO and oxygen-containing species H2Oa. The numerical analysis of the estab-lished model successfully explains why the potential oscillation in methanol galvanostatic oxidation on a Pt electrode only happens in a certain range of current densities but not at any current density.

  12. Nature, nomenclature and taxonomy of obligate methanol utilizing strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercel, M

    1999-01-01

    In a screening program, a number of different bacterial strains with the ability to utilize methanol as a sole carbon and energy source were isolated and described. They are well known methanol utilizing genera Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Micrococcus, Methylomonas or, on the contrary, the new, unknown genera and species of methylotrophic bacteria. In the last category, Acinetobacter and Alcaligenes are the new reported genera of organisms able to use methanol as a sole carbon and energy source. The present paper reports the very complex physiological and biochemical modifications when very versatile bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus are cultured on methanol and when the obligate methylotrophic state is compared with the facultative methylotrophic state of the same bacterial strain. Based on experiments and comparisons with literature data, it seems that Methylomonas methanica is the obligate methylotrophic state of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and that Acinetobacter calcoaceticus is the facultative methylotrophic state of Methylococcus capsulatus, an obligate methylotroph. The relationship of the obligate to the facultative and of the facultative to the obligate methylotrophy were established. These new methylotrophic genera and species, the profound physiological and biochemical modifications as well as the new data concerning nature, nomenclature and taxonomy of methanol utilizing bateria were reported for the first time in 1983.

  13. A renewable energy scenario for Aalborg Municipality based on low-temperature geothermal heat, wind power and biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Möller, Bernd;

    2010-01-01

    Aalborg Municipality, Denmark, wishes to investigate the possibilities of becoming independent of fossil fuels. This article describes a scenario for supplying Aalborg Municipality’s energy needs through a combination of low-temperature geothermal heat, wind power and biomass. Of particular focus...... in the scenario is how low-temperature geothermal heat may be utilised in district heating (DH) systems. The analyses show that it is possible to cover Aalborg Municipality’s energy needs through the use of locally available sources in combination with significant electricity savings, heat savings, reductions...... in industrial fuel use and savings and fuel-substitutions in the transport sector. With biomass resources being finite, the two marginal energy resources in Aalborg are geothermal heat and wind power. If geothermal heat is utilised more, wind power may be limited and vice versa. The system still relies...

  14. Aspen Process Flowsheet Simulation Model of a Battelle Biomass-Based Gasification, Fischer-Tropsch Liquefaction and Combined-Cycle Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-10-30

    This study was done to support the research and development program of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels using current state-of-the-art technology. The Mitretek study investigated the use of two biomass gasifiers; the RENUGAS gasifier being developed by the Institute of Gas Technology, and the indirectly heated gasifier being developed by Battelle Columbus. The Battelle Memorial Institute of Columbus, Ohio indirectly heated biomass gasifier was selected for this model development because the syngas produced by it is better suited for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with an iron-based catalyst for which a large amount of experimental data are available. Bechtel with Amoco as a subcontractor developed a conceptual baseline design and several alternative designs for indirect coal liquefaction facilities. In addition, ASPEN Plus process flowsheet simulation models were developed for each of designs. These models were used to perform several parametric studies to investigate various alternatives for improving the economics of indirect coal liquefaction.

  15. Plankton Biomass Models Based on GIS and Remote Sensing Technique for Predicting Marine Megafauna Hotspots in the Solor Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, MIH; Lewis, SA; Kurniasih, EM; Prabuning, D.; Faiqoh, E.

    2016-11-01

    Geographic information system and remote sensing techniques can be used to assist with distribution modelling; a useful tool that helps with strategic design and management plans for MPAs. This study built a pilot model of plankton biomass and distribution in the waters off Solor and Lembata, and is the first study to identify marine megafauna foraging areas in the region. Forty-three samples of zooplankton were collected every 4 km according to the range time and station of aqua MODIS. Generalized additive model (GAM) we used to modelling zooplankton biomass response from environmental properties.Thirty one samples were used to build a model of inverse distance weighting (IDW) (cell size 0.01°) and 12 samples were used as a control to verify the models accuracy. Furthermore, Getis-Ord Gi was used to identify the significance of the hotspot and cold-spot for foraging area. The GAM models was explain 88.1% response of zooplankton biomass and percent to full moon, phytopankton biomassbeing strong predictors. The sampling design was essential in order to build highly accurate models. Our models 96% accurate for phytoplankton and 88% accurate for zooplankton. The foraging behaviour was significantly related to plankton biomass hotspots, which were two times higher compared to plankton cold-spots. In addition, extremely steep slopes of the Lamakera strait support strong upwelling with highly productive waters that affect the presence of marine megafauna. This study detects that the Lamakera strait provides the planktonic requirements for marine megafauna foraging, helping to explain why this region supports such high diversity and abundance of marine megafauna.

  16. Metabolic methanol: molecular pathways and physiological roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorokhov, Yuri L; Shindyapina, Anastasia V; Sheshukova, Ekaterina V; Komarova, Tatiana V

    2015-04-01

    Methanol has been historically considered an exogenous product that leads only to pathological changes in the human body when consumed. However, in normal, healthy individuals, methanol and its short-lived oxidized product, formaldehyde, are naturally occurring compounds whose functions and origins have received limited attention. There are several sources of human physiological methanol. Fruits, vegetables, and alcoholic beverages are likely the main sources of exogenous methanol in the healthy human body. Metabolic methanol may occur as a result of fermentation by gut bacteria and metabolic processes involving S-adenosyl methionine. Regardless of its source, low levels of methanol in the body are maintained by physiological and metabolic clearance mechanisms. Although human blood contains small amounts of methanol and formaldehyde, the content of these molecules increases sharply after receiving even methanol-free ethanol, indicating an endogenous source of the metabolic methanol present at low levels in the blood regulated by a cluster of genes. Recent studies of the pathogenesis of neurological disorders indicate metabolic formaldehyde as a putative causative agent. The detection of increased formaldehyde content in the blood of both neurological patients and the elderly indicates the important role of genetic and biochemical mechanisms of maintaining low levels of methanol and formaldehyde.

  17. Insights into high mass star formation from methanol maser observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Hontas Freeman

    2013-06-01

    We present high angular resolution data on Class I and Class II methanol masers, together with other tracers of star formation like H2O masers, ultracompact (UC) ionized hydrogen (H II) regions, and 4.5 um infrared sources, taken from the literature. The aim is to study what these data tell us about the process of high mass star formation; in particular, whether disk-outflow systems are compatible with the morphology exhibited by Class I and Class II methanol masers. Stars form in the dense cores inside molecular clouds, and while the process of the formation of stars like our Sun is reasonably well understood, details of the formation of stars with masses eight times that of our Sun or greater, the so-called high mass stars, remain a mystery. Being compact and bright sources, masers provide an excellent way to observe high mass star forming regions. In particular, Class II methanol masers are found exclusively in high mass star forming regions. Based on the positions of the Class I and II methanol and H2O masers, UCHII regions and 4.5 um infrared sources, and the center velocities (vLSR) of the Class I methanol and H2O masers, compared to the vLSR of the Class II methanol masers, we propose three disk-outflow models that may be traced by methanol masers. In all three models, we have located the Class II methanol maser near the protostar, and the Class I methanol maser in the outflow, as is known from observations during the last twenty years. In our first model, the H2O masers trace the linear extent of the outflow. In our second model, the H2O masers are located in a circumstellar disk. In our third model, the H2O masers are located in one or more outflows near the terminating shock where the outflow impacts the ambient interstellar medium. Together, these models reiterate the utility of coordinated high angular resolution observations of high mass star forming regions in maser lines and associated star formation tracers.

  18. Endogenous methanol regulates mammalian gene activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V Komarova

    Full Text Available We recently showed that methanol emitted by wounded plants might function as a signaling molecule for plant-to-plant and plant-to-animal communications. In mammals, methanol is considered a poison because the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH converts methanol into toxic formaldehyde. However, the detection of methanol in the blood and exhaled air of healthy volunteers suggests that methanol may be a chemical with specific functions rather than a metabolic waste product. Using a genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain, we demonstrated that an increase in blood methanol concentration led to a change in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes primarily involved in detoxification processes and regulation of the alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases gene cluster. To test the role of ADH in the maintenance of low methanol concentration in the plasma, we used the specific ADH inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP and showed that intraperitoneal administration of 4-MP resulted in a significant increase in the plasma methanol, ethanol and formaldehyde concentrations. Removal of the intestine significantly decreased the rate of methanol addition to the plasma and suggested that the gut flora may be involved in the endogenous production of methanol. ADH in the liver was identified as the main enzyme for metabolizing methanol because an increase in the methanol and ethanol contents in the liver homogenate was observed after 4-MP administration into the portal vein. Liver mRNA quantification showed changes in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes involved in cell signalling and detoxification processes. We hypothesized that endogenous methanol acts as a regulator of homeostasis by controlling the mRNA synthesis.

  19. DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS AT REDUCED CATALYST LOADINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. ZELENAY; F. GUYON; SM. GOTTESFELD

    2001-05-01

    We focus in this paper on the reduction of catalyst loading in direct methanol fuel cells currently under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Based on single-cell DMFC testing, we discuss performance vs. catalyst loading trade-offs and demonstrate optimization of the anode performance. We also show test data for a short five-cell DMFC stack with the average total platinum loading of 0.53 mg cm{sup {minus}2} and compare performance of this stack with the performance of a single direct methanol fuel cell using similar total amount of precious metal.

  20. Direct methanol fuel cells at reduced catalyst loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenay, P. (Piotr); Guyon, F. (Francois); Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2001-01-01

    We focus in this paper on the reduction of catalyst loading in direct methanol fuel cells currently under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Based on single-cell DMFC testing, we discuss performance vs. catalyst loading trade-offs and demonstrate optimization of the anode performance. We also show test data for a short five-cell DMFC stack with the average total platinum loading of 0.53 mg cm{sup -2} and compare performance of this stack with the performance of a single direct methanol fuel cell using similar total amount of precious metal.

  1. Simultaneous production of methanol and dimethylether from synthesis gas

    OpenAIRE

    Akarmazyan, Siranush

    2015-01-01

    Dimethylether is a non-toxic liquefied gas, which is projected to become one of the fundamental chemical feedstock in the future. Dimethylether can be produced from syngas via a two-step (indirect) process that involves synthesis of methanol by hydrogenation of CO/CO2 over a copper based catalyst and subsequent dehydration of methanol to DME over an acidic catalyst. Alternatively, DME can be produced in an one-step (direct) process using a hybrid (bifunctional) catalyst system that permits bo...

  2. Competitive Solvation of the Imidazolium Cation by Water and Methanol

    CERN Document Server

    Chaban, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    Imidazolium-based ionic liquids are widely used in conjunction with molecular liquids for various applications. Solvation, miscibility and similar properties are of fundamental importance for successful implementation of theoretical schemes. This work reports competitive solvation of the 1,3-dimethylimidazolium cation by water and methanol. Employing molecular dynamics simulations powered by semiempirical Hamiltonian (electronic structure level of description), the local structure nearly imidazolium cation is described in terms of radial distribution functions. Although water and methanol are chemically similar, water appears systematically more successful in solvating the 1,3-dimethylimidazolium cation. This result fosters construction of future applications of the ternary ion-molecular systems.

  3. Nafion®/H-ZSM-5 composite membranes with superior performance for direct methanol fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, Mustafa Hakan; Curos, Anna Roca; Motuzas, Julius; Julbe, Anne; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Solution cast composite direct methanol fuel cell membranes (DEZ) based on DE2020 Nafion® dispersion and in-house prepared H-ZSM-5 zeolites with different Si/Al ratios were prepared and thoroughly characterized for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications. All composite membranes have indeed l

  4. Cytochemical Localization of Catalase Activity in Methanol-Grown Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijken, J.P. van; Veenhuis, M.; Vermeulen, C.A.; Harder, W.

    1975-01-01

    The localization of peroxidase activity in methanol-grown cells of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha has been studied by a method based on cytochemical staining with diaminobenzidine (DAB). The oxidation product of DAB occurred in microbodies, which characteristically develop during growth on methanol,

  5. Proceedings of the international symposium on alcohol fuel technology: methanol and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-01

    The papers presented dealt with the following topics: international situation and economic and political aspects, use of alcohol fuels as automotive fuels, production of methanol and methyl fuels, production of ethanol, methanol application and modeling, alcohol fuel optimization, and environmental considerations. Each paper was prepared for introduction into the EDB data base. (JSR)

  6. Noble metal nanowires incorporated Nafion {sup registered} membranes for reduction of methanol crossover in direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Z.X.; Liao, S.J.; Zeng, J.H. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Shi, J.Y. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2010-09-15

    We electrodeposited noble metal (palladium, platinum) nanowires into the hydrophilic pores of Nafion membrane for mitigating the problem of methanol crossover in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The DMFC performance result shows that the composite membranes yield lower rate of methanol crossover and better cell performance than the pure Nafion {sup registered} membrane. At low current densities, the Pd nanowire incorporated Nafion membrane shows the best performance. In comparison, the highest performance is achieved at higher current densities with the Pt nanowire modified Nafion membrane. Based on the above findings, we suggest that for the Pd nanowire incorporated Nafion membrane, the mechanism for the suppression of the methanol crossover is mainly the blocking effect due to the 'narrowed' hydrophilic channels in Nafion membrane. For the Pt nanowire modified Nafion membrane, the mechanism includes both increasing the membrane tortuosity and so-called 'on-way consumption' of methanol on the Pt nanowires deposited into the Nafion membrane when the fuel cell is discharging. (author)

  7. Black Liquor Gasification with Motor Fuel Production - BLGMF II - A techno-economic feasibility study on catalytic Fischer-Tropsch synthesis for synthetic diesel production in comparison with methanol and DME as transport fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekbom, Tomas; Berglin, Niklas; Loegdberg, Sara [Nykomb Synergetics AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-06-15

    The present project presents additional results to the former BLGMF project, which investigate Black Liquor Gasification with Motor Fuels (BLGMF) production. The objectives were to investigate, based on the KAM 2 program Ecocyclic Pulp Mill (2,000 ADt/day of pulp) the feasibility of synthetic fuels production. Specifically the route to Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuels is investigated as comparison to earlier work on methanol/DME. As modern kraft pulp mills have a surplus of energy, they could become key suppliers of renewable fuels. It is thus of great interest to convert the spent cooking product 'black liquor' to an energy carrier of high value. The resulting biomass-to-fuel energy efficiency when only biomass is used as an external energy source was 43% for FTD or 65% for FT products compared with 66% for methanol and 67% for DME. The FTD calculation is considerably more complicated and based on assumptions, therefore the uncertainty is higher. Would the diesel be taken out with a T95% of 320 deg C the FTD efficiency would be 45%. FT synthesis also opens up a possibility to produce e.g. lube oils from waxes produced. The total net FT-products output equals 4115 barrels/day. The FTD production cost is calculated as the energy share of the total production cost and assumes an offset of naphtha covering its own costs, where it is essential that it finds a market. Assuming same petrol (methanol) and diesel (DME, FTD) costs for the consumer the payback time were 2.6, 2.9 and 3.4 years with an IRR of 40%, 45% and 30%, respectively. In conclusion, there are necessary resources and potential for large-scale methanol (or DME, FTD) production and substantial economic incentive for making plant investments and achieving competitive product revenues.

  8. Methanol to propylene. From development to commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, S.; Rothaemel, M. [Air Liquide Forschung und Entwicklung GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Pohl, S.; Gorny, M. [Lurgie GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Air Liquide Global E and C Solutions

    2012-07-01

    In the late 1990s the development of the so-called MTP {sup registered} (methanol-to-propylene) process, a Lurgi Technology (by Air Liquide Global E and C Solutions) started. This constitutes a novel route to a valuable product that would not rely on crude oil as feedstock (as conventional propylene production does), but instead utilizes coal or natural gas and potentially biomass. These alternative feedstocks are first converted to synthesis gas, cleaned, and then converted to methanol. The development of the methanol-to-propylene conversion was achieved in a close collaboration between R and D and engineering. Two pilot plants at the R and D center in Frankfurt and a demonstration plant in Norway have been used to demonstrate the yields, catalyst lifetime and product quality and to support the engineering team in plant design and scale-up. Especially the last item is important as it was clear from the very beginning that the first commercial MTP {sup registered} plant would already be world-scale, actually one of the largest propylene producing plants in the world. This required a safe and diligent scale-up as the MTP {sup registered} reactors in the commercial plant receive about 7,000 times the feed of the demo unit and as much as 100,000 times the feed of the pilot plant. The catalyst used is a zeolite ZSM-5 that was developed by our long-term cooperation partner Sued-Chemie (now Clariant). At the end of 2010, the first commercial MTP {sup registered} plant in Ningdong in the Chinese province of Ningxia was started up as part of a coal-to-chemicals complex owned by the Shenhua Ningxia Coal Industry Group. In this complex the complete chain starting from coal through to the final polypropylene product is realized. The customer successful started the polymer-grade propylene production in April 2011 and then announced in May 2011 that he sold the first 1000 tons of polypropylene made with propylene coming from the MTP {sup registered} unit. Following this

  9. Effects of pulsed atrazine exposures on autotrophic community structure, biomass, and production in field-based stream mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ryan S; Brain, Richard A; Back, Jeffrey A; Becker, Christopher; Wright, Moncie V; Djomte, Valerie Toteu; Scott, W Casan; Virgil, Steven R; Brooks, Bryan W; Hosmer, Alan J; Chambliss, C Kevin

    2016-03-01

    The authors performed a multiple-pulsed atrazine experiment to measure responses of autotrophic endpoints in outdoor stream mesocosms. The experiment was designed to synthetically simulate worst-case atrazine chemographs from streams in agricultural catchments to achieve 60-d mean concentrations of 0 μg/L (control), 10 μg/L, 20 μg/L, and 30 μg/L. The authors dosed triplicate streams with pulses of 0 μg/L, 50 μg/L, 100 μg/L, and 150 μg/L atrazine for 4 d, followed by 7 d without dosing. This 11-d cycle occurred 3 times, followed by a recovery (untreated) period from day 34 to day 60. Mean ± standard error 60-d atrazine concentrations were 0.07 ± 0.03 μg/L, 10.7 ± 0.05 μg/L, 20.9 ± 0.24 μg/L, and 31.0 ± 0.17 μg/L for the control, 10-μg/L, 20-μg/L, and 30-μg/L treatments, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that periphyton and phytoplankton community structure did not differ among treatments on any day of the experiment, including during the atrazine pulses. Control periphyton biomass in riffles was higher immediately following the peak of the first atrazine pulse and remained slightly higher than some of the atrazine treatments on most days through the peak of the last pulse. However, periphyton biomass was not different among treatments at the end of the present study. Phytoplankton biomass was not affected by atrazine. Metaphyton biomass in pools was higher in the controls near the midpoint of the present study and remained higher on most days for the remainder of the study. Ceratophyllum demersum, a submersed macrophyte, biomass was higher in controls than in 20-μg/L and 30-μg/L treatments before pulse 3 but was not different subsequent to pulse 3 through the end of the present study. Maximum daily dissolved oxygen (DO, percentage of saturation) declined during each pulse in approximate proportion to magnitude of dose but rapidly converged among treatments after the third pulse. However

  10. Spatial Distribution of Zeolite ZSM-5 within Catalyst Bodies Affects Selectivity and Stability of Methanol-to-Hydrocarbons Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaño, P.; Ruiz-Martinez, J.; Epelde, E.; Gayubo, A.G.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Solid acids, such as zeolites, are used as catalyst materials in a wide variety of important crude oil refinery, bulk chemical synthesis, and green processes. Examples include fluid catalytic cracking (FCC),[1] methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) conversion,[ 2] plastic waste valorization,[3] and biomass

  11. Ruthenium–Platinum Catalysts and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC: A Review of Theoretical and Experimental Breakthroughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana S. Moura

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing miniaturization of devices creates the need for adequate power sources and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC are a strong option in the various possibilities under current development. DMFC catalysts are mostly based on platinum, for its outperformance in three key areas (activity, selectivity and stability within methanol oxidation framework. However, platinum poisoning with products of methanol oxidation led to the use of alloys. Ruthenium–platinum alloys are preferred catalysts active phases for methanol oxidation from an industrial point of view and, indeed, ruthenium itself is a viable catalyst for this reaction. In addition, the route of methanol decomposition is crucial in the goal of producing H2 from water reaction with methanol. However, the reaction pathway remains elusive and new approaches, namely in computational methods, have been ensued to determine it. This article reviews the various recent theoretical approaches for determining the pathway of methanol decomposition, and systematizes their validation with experimental data, within methodological context.

  12. <