WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomass based liquid

  1. Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass with Ionic Liquids and Ionic Liquid-Based Solvent Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qidong; Ju, Meiting; Li, Weizun; Liu, Le; Chen, Yu; Yang, Qian

    2017-03-20

    Pretreatment is very important for the efficient production of value-added products from lignocellulosic biomass. However, traditional pretreatment methods have several disadvantages, including low efficiency and high pollution. This article gives an overview on the applications of ionic liquids (ILs) and IL-based solvent systems in the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. It is divided into three parts: the first deals with the dissolution of biomass in ILs and IL-based solvent systems; the second focuses on the fractionation of biomass using ILs and IL-based solvent systems as solvents; the third emphasizes the enzymatic saccharification of biomass after pretreatment with ILs and IL-based solvent systems.

  2. Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass with Ionic Liquids and Ionic Liquid-Based Solvent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Qidong Hou; Meiting Ju; Weizun Li; Le Liu; Yu Chen; Qian Yang

    2017-01-01

    Pretreatment is very important for the efficient production of value-added products from lignocellulosic biomass. However, traditional pretreatment methods have several disadvantages, including low efficiency and high pollution. This article gives an overview on the applications of ionic liquids (ILs) and IL-based solvent systems in the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. It is divided into three parts: the first deals with the dissolution of biomass in ILs and IL-based solvent systems; ...

  3. Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass with Ionic Liquids and Ionic Liquid-Based Solvent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qidong Hou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment is very important for the efficient production of value-added products from lignocellulosic biomass. However, traditional pretreatment methods have several disadvantages, including low efficiency and high pollution. This article gives an overview on the applications of ionic liquids (ILs and IL-based solvent systems in the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. It is divided into three parts: the first deals with the dissolution of biomass in ILs and IL-based solvent systems; the second focuses on the fractionation of biomass using ILs and IL-based solvent systems as solvents; the third emphasizes the enzymatic saccharification of biomass after pretreatment with ILs and IL-based solvent systems.

  4. Liquid biofuels from blue biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Jensen, Annette Eva; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Marine (blue) biomasses, such as macroalgaes, represent a huge unexploited amount of biomass. With their various chemical compositions, macroalgaes can be a potential substrate for food, feed, biomaterials, pharmaceuticals, health care products and also for bioenergy. Algae use seawater as a growth...... be the well suited candidates as feedstock for biofuel production in the future. The aim of our studies is to examine the possibility producing liquid biofuel (ethanol and butanol) from macroalgaes....

  5. Producing liquid fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solantausta, Yrjo; Gust, Steven

    The aim of this survey was to compare, on techno-economic criteria, alternatives of producing liquid fuels from indigenous raw materials in Finland. Another aim was to compare methods under development and prepare a proposal for steering research related to this field. Process concepts were prepared for a number of alternatives, as well as analogous balances and production and investment cost assessments for these balances. Carbon dioxide emissions of the alternatives and the price of CO2 reduction were also studied. All the alternatives for producing liquid fuels from indigenous raw materials are utmost unprofitable. There are great differences between the alternatives. While the production cost of ethanol is 6 to 9 times higher than the market value of the product, the equivalent ratio for substitute fuel oil produced from peat by pyrolysis is 3 to 4. However, it should be borne in mind that the technical uncertainties related to the alternatives are of different magnitude. Production of ethanol from barley is of commercial technology, while biomass pyrolysis is still under development. If the aim is to reach smaller carbon dioxide emissions by using liquid biofuels, the most favorable alternative is pyrolysis oil produced from wood. Fuels produced from cultivated biomass are more expensive ways of reducing CO2 emissions. Their potential of reducing CO2 emissions in Finland is insignificant. Integration of liquid fuel production to some other production line is more profitable.

  6. Physical characterization of biomass-based pyrolysis liquids. Application of standard fuel oil analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Koponen, P.; Levander, J.; Tapola, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The main purpose of the study was to test the applicability of standard fuel oil methods developed for petroleum-based fuels to pyrolysis liquids. In addition, research on sampling, homogeneity, stability, miscibility and corrosivity was carried out. The standard methods have been tested for several different pyrolysis liquids. Recommendations on sampling, sample size and small modifications of standard methods are presented. In general, most of the methods can be used as such but the accuracy of the analysis can be improved by minor modifications. Fuel oil analyses not suitable for pyrolysis liquids have been identified. Homogeneity of the liquids is the most critical factor in accurate analysis. The presence of air bubbles may disturb in several analyses. Sample preheating and prefiltration should be avoided when possible. The former may cause changes in the composition and structure of the pyrolysis liquid. The latter may remove part of organic material with particles. The size of the sample should be determined on the basis of the homogeneity and the water content of the liquid. The basic analyses of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) include water, pH, solids, ash, Conradson carbon residue, heating value, CHN, density, viscosity, pourpoint, flash point, and stability. Additional analyses are carried out when needed. (orig.) 53 refs.

  7. Gasification-based biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The gasification-based biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  8. Bioenergy from wastewater-based biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald C. Sims

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE has stated that biomass is the only renewable resource that can supplant petroleum-based liquid transportation fuels in the near term. Wastewater is beginning to be viewed as a potential resource that can be exploited for biomass production and conversion to bioenergy. We suggest that using wastewater from municipalities and industries as a resource for cultivating biomass and combining wastewater treatment with the production of biomass for bioenergy would provide benefits to both industries. Two waste-based biomass production systems that currently have large nationwide infrastructures include: (1 wastewater treatment systems that can be used to cultivate algae biomass, and (2 land application/treatment systems for non-food terrestrial biomass. These existing infrastructures could be used in the relatively near future for waste-based biomass production and conversion to bioenergy, thereby reducing capital costs and scalability challenges while making a contribution to energy independence and national security.

  9. Coal + BiomassLiquids + Electricity (with CCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this presentation, Matt Aitken applies the MARKet ALlocation energy system model to evaluate the market potential for a class of technologies that convert coal and biomass to liquid fuels and electricity (CBtLE), paired with carbon capture and storage (CCS). The technology is ...

  10. Coal + BiomassLiquids + Electricity (with CCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this presentation, Matt Aitken applies the MARKet ALlocation energy system model to evaluate the market potential for a class of technologies that convert coal and biomass to liquid fuels and electricity (CBtLE), paired with carbon capture and storage (CCS). The technology is ...

  11. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-06-30

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current porgram are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  12. Competitive liquid biofuels from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sirnak University, Dean of Engineering Faculty, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sirnak (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    The cost of biodiesels varies depending on the feedstock, geographic area, methanol prices, and seasonal variability in crop production. Most of the biodiesel is currently made from soybean, rapeseed, and palm oils. However, there are large amounts of low-cost oils and fats (e.g., restaurant waste, beef tallow, pork lard, and yellow grease) that could be converted to biodiesel. The crop types, agricultural practices, land and labor costs, plant sizes, processing technologies and government policies in different regions considerably vary ethanol production costs and prices by region. The cost of producing bioethanol in a dry mill plant currently totals US$1.65/galon. The largest ethanol cost component is the plant feedstock. It has been showed that plant size has a major effect on cost. The plant size can reduce operating costs by 15-20%, saving another $0.02-$0.03 per liter. Thus, a large plant with production costs of $0.29 per liter may be saving $0.05-$0.06 per liter over a smaller plant. Viscosity of biofuel and biocrude varies greatly with the liquefaction conditions. The high and increasing viscosity indicates a poor flow characteristic and stability. The increase in the viscosity can be attributed to the continuing polymerization and oxidative coupling reactions in the biocrude upon storage. Although stability of biocrude is typically better than that of bio-oil, the viscosity of biocrude is much higher. The bio-oil produced by flash pyrolysis is a highly oxygenated mixture of carbonyls, carboxyls, phenolics and water. It is acidic and potentially corrosive. Bio-oil can also be potentially upgraded by hydrodeoxygenation. The liquid, termed biocrude, contains 60% carbon, 10-20 wt.% oxygen and 30-36 MJ/kg heating value as opposed to <1 wt.% and 42-46 MJ/kg for petroleum. (author)

  13. Enhanced hydrolysis of bamboo biomass by chitosan based solid acid catalyst with surfactant addition in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Wenqing; Li, Yichen; Zheng, Jie; Wei, Shun'an; Wang, Dan

    2017-10-15

    Surfactants were used for the hydrolysis of bamboo biomass to enhance lignocellulose hydrolysis. Tween 80, polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were tested as surfactants for improving the bamboo hydrolysis with a novel sulfonated cross-linked chitosan solid acid catalyst (SCCAC) in ionic liquid (IL). Compared to the use of only SCCAC in 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), the surfactants facilitated hydrolysis and improved the yield of total reducing sugar (TRS) under the same conditions. Tween 80 was the most effective surfactant, with a TRS yield of 68.01% achieved at 120°C after 24h. Surfactants broke the lignocellulose structure, promoted lignin removal, and increased positive interactions between cellulose and the catalyst, which were favorable for hydrolysis. This novel surfactant-assisted hydrolysis strategy with SCCAC and IL as the solvent demonstrated a promise for the large-scale transformation of biomass into biofuels and bioproducts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Catalytic conversion of nonfood woody biomass solids to organic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barta, Katalin; Ford, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    CONSPECTUS: This Account outlines recent efforts in our laboratories addressing a fundamental challenge of sustainability chemistry, the effective utilization of biomass for production of chemicals and fuels. Efficient methods for converting renewable biomass solids to chemicals and liquid fuels wou

  15. Catalytic conversion of nonfood woody biomass solids to organic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barta, Katalin; Ford, Peter C

    CONSPECTUS: This Account outlines recent efforts in our laboratories addressing a fundamental challenge of sustainability chemistry, the effective utilization of biomass for production of chemicals and fuels. Efficient methods for converting renewable biomass solids to chemicals and liquid fuels

  16. Biomass pyrolysis liquid to citric acid via 2-step bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiguang; Bai, Zhihui; Sun, Hongyan; Yu, Zhisheng; Li, Xingxing; Guo, Yifei; Zhang, Hongxun

    2014-12-31

    The use of fossil carbon sources for fuels and petrochemicals has serious impacts on our environment and is unable to meet the demand in the future. A promising and sustainable alternative is to substitute fossil carbon sources with microbial cell factories converting lignocellulosic biomass into desirable value added products. However, such bioprocesses require tolerance to inhibitory compounds generated during pretreatment of biomass. In this study, the process of sequential two-step bio-conversion of biomass pyrolysis liquid containing levoglucosan (LG) to citric acid without chemical detoxification has been explored, which can greatly improve the utilization efficiency of lignocellulosic biomass. The sequential two-step bio-conversion of corn stover pyrolysis liquid to citric acid has been established. The first step conversion by Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium) is desirable to decrease the content of other compounds except levoglucosan as a pretreatment for the second conversion. The remaining levoglucosan in solution was further converted into citric acid by Aspergillus niger (A. niger) CBX-209. Thus the conversion of cellulose to citric acid is completed by both pyrolysis and bio-conversion technology. Under experimental conditions, levoglucosan yield is 12% based on the feedstock and the citric acid yield can reach 82.1% based on the levoglucosan content in the pyrolysis liquid (namely 82.1 g of citric acid per 100 g of levoglucosan). The study shows that P. chrysosporium and A. niger have the potential to be used as production platforms for value-added products from pyrolyzed lignocellulosic biomass. Selected P. chrysosporium is able to decrease the content of other compounds except levoglucosan and levoglucosan can be further converted into citric acid in the residual liquids by A. niger. Thus the conversion of cellulose to citric acid is completed by both pyrolysis and bio-conversion technology.

  17. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najser, Jan; Peer, Václav; Vantuch, Martin

    2014-08-01

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  18. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najser, Jan, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz [VSB - Technical university of Ostrava, Energy Research Center, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Vantuch, Martin [University of Zilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2014-08-06

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  19. Forest biomass-based energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaki R. R. Alavalapati; Pankaj Lal; Andres Susaeta; Robert C. Abt; David N. Wear

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsHarvesting woody biomass for use as bioenergy is projected to range from 170 million to 336 million green tons by 2050, an increase of 54 to 113 percent over current levels.Consumption projections for forest biomass-based energy, which are based on Energy Information Administration projections, have a high level of...

  20. Hydropyrolysis of biomass to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Final report. Biomass Alternative-Fuels Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, R K; Bodle, W W; Yuen, P C

    1982-10-01

    The ojective of the study is to provide a process design and cost estimates for a biomass hydropyrolysis plant and to establish its economic viability for commercial applications. A plant site, size, product slate, and the most probable feedstock or combination of feedstocks were determined. A base case design was made by adapting IGT's HYFLEX process to Hawaiian biomass feedstocks. The HYFLEX process was developed by IGT to produce liquid and/or gaseous fuels from carbonaceous materials. The essence of the process is the simultaneous extraction of valuable oil and gaseous products from cellulosic biomass feedstocks without forming a heavy hard-to-handle tar. By controlling rection time and temperature, the product slate can be varied according to feedstock and market demand. An optimum design and a final assessment of the applicability of the HYFLEX process to the conversion of Hawaiian biomass was made. In order to determine what feedstocks could be available in Hawaii to meet the demands of the proposed hydropyrolysis plant, various biomass sources were studied. These included sugarcane and pineapple wastes, indigenous and cultivated trees and indigenous and cultivated shrubs and grasses.

  1. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass to liquid energy sources; Hydrothermale Konversion von Biomasse zu fluessigen Energietraegern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, Michael; Peters, Mario; Klemm, Marco; Nelles, Michael [Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ) gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Beside thermo-chemical processes like pyrolysis, torrefaction and gasification another process group called hydrothermal conversion of biomass comes into the focus of research and development. Especially for wet biomass this process has several advantages: as the reaction medium is water wet biomass not needs to be dried. Beside the reaction pathways, which are still not completely understood, it is important to investigate reactor concepts. That gives the possibility to continuously process the given biomass to deduce specific process conditions for the production of chemicals and fuels. Experiments were conducted in a newly developed tubular reactor at temperatures from 150 to 270 C and reaction times from 1 to 6 min. By studying the HPLC analysis of the liquid products the formation and degradation of several products which may be utilized as base materials for chemicals and fuels (furfural, 5-HMF etc.) was conducted. The experiments illustrate the possibility to influence product composition to a certain extend only by varying temperature and time of the hydrothermal process. That could result in an economic and feasible way to produce intermediate chemicals from biomass. In a second step these product analysis will be used to develop catalysts and investigate the possibilities of in-situ-hydrogenation and synthesis of further valuable chemicals and fuels. (orig.)

  2. Catalytic conversion of nonfood woody biomass solids to organic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Katalin; Ford, Peter C

    2014-05-20

    This Account outlines recent efforts in our laboratories addressing a fundamental challenge of sustainability chemistry, the effective utilization of biomass for production of chemicals and fuels. Efficient methods for converting renewable biomass solids to chemicals and liquid fuels would reduce society's dependence on nonrenewable petroleum resources while easing the atmospheric carbon dioxide burden. The major nonfood component of biomass is lignocellulose, a matrix of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. New approaches are needed to effect facile conversion of lignocellulose solids to liquid fuels and to other chemical precursors without the formation of intractable side products and with sufficient specificity to give economically sustainable product streams. We have devised a novel catalytic system whereby the renewable feedstocks cellulose, organosolv lignin, and even lignocellulose composites such as sawdust are transformed into organic liquids. The reaction medium is supercritical methanol (sc-MeOH), while the catalyst is a copper-doped porous metal oxide (PMO) prepared from inexpensive, Earth-abundant starting materials. This transformation occurs in a single stage reactor operating at 300-320 °C and 160-220 bar. The reducing equivalents for these transformations are derived by the reforming of MeOH (to H2 and CO), which thereby serves as a "liquid syngas" in the present case. Water generated by deoxygenation processes is quickly removed by the water-gas shift reaction. The Cu-doped PMO serves multiple purposes, catalyzing substrate hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation as well as the methanol reforming and shift reactions. This one-pot "UCSB process" is quantitative, giving little or no biochar residual. Provided is an overview of these catalysis studies beginning with reactions of the model compound dihydrobenzofuran that help define the key processes occurring. The initial step is phenyl-ether bond hydrogenolysis, and this is followed by

  3. Regulation for Optimal Liquid Products during Biomass Pyrolysis: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Hu, L. J.; Zheng, Y. W.; Huang, Y. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Liu, C.; Kang, J.; Zheng, Z. F.

    2016-08-01

    The liquid product obtained from biomass pyrolysis is very valuable that it could be used for extraction of chemicals as well as for liquid fuel. The desire goal is to obtain the most bio-oil with desired higher heating value (HHV), high physicochemical stability. The yields and chemical composition of products from biomass pyrolysis are closely related to the feedstock, pyrolysis parameters and catalysts. Current researches mainly concentrated on the co-pyrolysis of different biomass and introduce of novel catalysts as well as the combined effect of catalysts and pyrolysis parameters. This review starts with the chemical composition of biomass and the fundamental parameters and focuses on the influence of catalysts on bio-oil. What is more, the pyrolysis facilities at commercial scales were also involved. The classic researches and the current literature about the yield and composition of products (mainly liquid products) are summarized.

  4. Understanding Ionic Liquid Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretreatment of biomass is essential for breaking apart highly ordered and crystalline plant cell walls and loosening the lignin and hemicellulose conjugation to cellulose microfibrills, thereby facilitating enzyme accessibility and adsorption and reducing costs of downstream saccharification proces...

  5. Value added liquid products from waste biomass pyrolysis using pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    Douglas fir wood, a forestry waste, was attempted to be converted into value added products by pretreatments followed by pyrolysis. Four different types of pretreatments were employed, namely, hot water treatment, torrefaction, sulphuric acid and ammonium phosphate doping. Subsequently, pyrolysis was done at 500°C and the resulting bio-oils were analysed for their chemical composition using Karl Fischer titration, thermogravimetry, ion exchange, and gas chromatography. Pretreatment with acid resulted in the highest yield of bio-oil (~60%). The acid and salt pretreatments were responsible for drastic reduction in the lignin oligomers and enhancement of water content in the pyrolytic liquid. The quantity of xylose/mannose reduced as a result of pretreatments. Although, the content of fermentable sugars remained similar across all the pretreatments, the yield of levoglucosan increased. Pretreatment of the biomass with acid yielded the highest amount of levoglucosan in the bio-oil (13.21%). The acid and salt pretreatments also elevated the amount of acetic acid in the bio-oils. Addition of acid and salt to the biomass altered the interaction of cellulose-lignin in the pyrolysis regime. Application of pretreatments should be based on the intended end use of the liquid product having a desired chemical composition.

  6. Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

    2009-11-01

    A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  7. Recyclability of an ionic liquid for biomass pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerachanchai, Piyarat; Lee, Jong-Min

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the possibility of reusing an ionic liquid for the pretreatment of biomass. The effects of lignin and water content in a pretreatment solvent on pretreatment products were examined, along with the recyclability of an ionic liquid for pretreatment. It was discovered that the presence of lignin and water within a pretreatment solvent resulted in a far less effective pretreatment process. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate/ethanolamine (60/40 vol%) presents more promising properties than EMIM-AC, providing a small decrease in sugar conversion and also a small increase of lignin deposition with an increasing lignin amount in the pretreatment solvent. Deteriorations of the ionic liquid were observed from considerably low sugar conversions and lignin extraction after using the 5th and 7th batch, respectively. Furthermore, the changes of ionic liquid properties and lignin accumulation in ionic liquid were determined by analyzing their thermal decomposition behavior (TGA) and chemical functional groups (FTIR and (1)H NMR).

  8. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    A scheme for the production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper was investigated. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150 g samples of lignocellulosic feeds was completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. This is a method recommended in the Forage Fiber Handbook. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis. Work is continuing on characterizing the cellulase and cellobiase enzyme systems derived from the YX strain of Thermomonospora.

  9. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for liquid biofuels production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    Production of 2nd-generation biofuels from biomass residues and waste feedstock is gaining great concerns worldwide. Pyrolysis, a thermochemical conversion process involving rapid heating of feedstock under oxygen-absent condition to moderate temperature and rapid quenching of intermediate products......, is an attractive way for bio-oil production. Various efforts have been made to improve pyrolysis process towards higher yield and quality of liquid biofuels and better energy efficiency. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is one of the promising attempts, mainly due to efficient heating of feedstock by ‘‘microwave...... dielectric heating’’ effects. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass. First, conventional fast pyrolysis and microwave dielectric heating is briefly introduced. Then microwave-assisted pyrolysis process is thoroughly discussed stepwise from biomass...

  10. The Crossover Biorefinery in The Production of Liquid Biofuels and Bioderived Chemicals from Biomass: Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy security and climate change imperatives require large-scale substitution of petroleum-based fuels over the next 15 years. Biofuels offer a diverse range of promising alternatives. Biomass is the only known, large-scale, renewable resource that can be converted into liquid fuels for transpor...

  11. LIQUID BIO-FUEL PRODUCTION FROM NON-FOOD BIOMASS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O' Brien; M. G. McKellar

    2011-11-01

    Bio-Syntrolysis is a hybrid energy process that enables production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), bio-syntrolysis has the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce US dependence on imported oil. Combining hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid transportation fuels via a Fischer-Tropsch process. Conversion of syngas to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power

  12. LIQUID BIO-FUEL PRODUCTION FROM NON-FOOD BIOMASS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O' Brien; M. G. McKellar

    2011-11-01

    Bio-Syntrolysis is a hybrid energy process that enables production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), bio-syntrolysis has the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce US dependence on imported oil. Combining hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid transportation fuels via a Fischer-Tropsch process. Conversion of syngas to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power

  13. Pyroligneous acid-the smoky acidic liquid from plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sindhu; Zakaria, Zainul Akmar

    2015-01-01

    Pyroligneous acid (PA) is a complex highly oxygenated aqueous liquid fraction obtained by the condensation of pyrolysis vapors, which result from the thermochemical breakdown or pyrolysis of plant biomass components such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. PA produced by the slow pyrolysis of plant biomass is a yellowish brown or dark brown liquid with acidic pH and usually comprises a complex mixture of guaiacols, catechols, syringols, phenols, vanillins, furans, pyrans, carboxaldehydes, hydroxyketones, sugars, alkyl aryl ethers, nitrogenated derivatives, alcohols, acetic acid, and other carboxylic acids. The phenolic components, namely guaiacol, alkyl guaiacols, syringol, and alkyl syringols, contribute to the smoky odor of PA. PA finds application in diverse areas, as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, plant growth stimulator, coagulant for natural rubber, and termiticidal and pesticidal agent; is a source for valuable chemicals; and imparts a smoky flavor for food.

  14. High-performance liquid-catalyst fuel cell for direct biomass-into-electricity conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Mu, Wei; Deng, Yulin

    2014-12-01

    Herein, we report high-performance fuel cells that are catalyzed solely by polyoxometalate (POM) solution without any solid metal or metal oxide. The novel design of the liquid-catalyst fuel cells (LCFC) changes the traditional gas-solid-surface heterogeneous reactions to liquid-catalysis reactions. With this design, raw biomasses, such as cellulose, starch, and even grass or wood powders can be directly converted into electricity. The power densities of the fuel cell with switchgrass (dry powder) and bush allamanda (freshly collected) are 44 mW cm(-2) and 51 mW cm(-2) respectively. For the cellulose-based biomass fuel cell, the power density is almost 3000 times higher than that of cellulose-based microbial fuel cells. Unlike noble-metal catalysts, POMs are tolerant to most organic and inorganic contaminants. Therefore, almost any raw biomass can be used directly to produce electricity without prior purification.

  15. Liquid transportation fuels via large-scale fluidised-bed gasification of lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, I.; Kurkela, E.

    2013-04-15

    With the objective of gaining a better understanding of the system design trade-offs and economics that pertain to biomass-to-liquids processes, 20 individual BTL plant designs were evaluated based on their technical and economic performance. The investigation was focused on gasification-based processes that enable the conversion of biomass to methanol, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch liquids or synthetic gasoline at a large (300 MWth of biomass) scale. The biomass conversion technology was based on pressurised steam/O2-blown fluidised-bed gasification, followed by hot-gas filtration and catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons and tars. This technology has seen extensive development and demonstration activities in Finland during the recent years and newly generated experimental data has also been used in our simulation models. Our study included conceptual design issues, process descriptions, mass and energy balances and production cost estimates. Several studies exist that discuss the overall efficiency and economics of biomass conversion to transportation liquids, but very few studies have presented a detailed comparison between various syntheses using consistent process designs and uniform cost database. In addition, no studies exist that examine and compare BTL plant designs using the same front-end configuration as described in this work. Our analysis shows that it is possible to produce sustainable low-carbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass with first-law efficiency in the range of 49.6-66.7% depending on the end-product and process conditions. Production cost estimates were calculated assuming Nth plant economics and without public investment support, CO2 credits or tax assumptions. They are 58-65 euro/MWh for methanol, 58-66 euro/MWh for DME, 64-75 euro/MWh for Fischer-Tropsch liquids and 68-78 euro/MWh for synthetic gasoline. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of economically feasible, natural plant extract-based microbiological media for producing biomass of the dry rot biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens P22Y05 in liquid culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Sadia; Ali, Tasneem Adam; Skory, Chris; Slininger, Patricia J; Schisler, David A

    2016-02-01

    The production of microbial biomass in liquid media often represents an indispensable step in the research and development of bacterial and fungal strains. Costs of commercially prepared nutrient media or purified media components, however, can represent a significant hurdle to conducting research in locations where obtaining these products is difficult. A less expensive option for providing components essential to microbial growth in liquid culture is the use of extracts of fresh or dried plant products obtained by using hot water extraction techniques. A total of 13 plant extract-based media were prepared from a variety of plant fruits, pods or seeds of plant species including Allium cepa (red onion bulb), Phaseolus vulgaris (green bean pods), and Lens culinaris (lentil seeds). In shake flask tests, cell production by potato dry rot antagonist Pseudomonas fluorescens P22Y05 in plant extract-based media was generally statistically indistinguishable from that in commercially produced tryptic soy broth and nutrient broth as measured by optical density and colony forming units/ml produced (P ≤ 0.05, Fisher's protected LSD). The efficacy of biomass produced in the best plant extract-based media or commercial media was equivalent in reducing Fusarium dry rot by 50-96% compared to controls. In studies using a high-throughput microbioreactor, logarithmic growth of P22Y05 in plant extract-based media initiated in 3-5 h in most cases but specific growth rate and the time of maximum OD varied as did the maximum pH obtained in media. Nutrient analysis of selected media before and after cell growth indicated that nitrogen in the form of NH4 accumulated in culture supernatants, possibly due to unbalanced growth conditions brought on by a scarcity of simple sugars in the media tested. The potential of plant extract-based media to economically produce biomass of microbes active in reducing plant disease is considerable and deserves further research.

  17. Biomass Pretreatment using Ionic Liquid and Glycerol Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Joan Goerss

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable, sustainable resource that can replace or supplement fossil fuels use for liquid fuels and chemicals. However, its recalcitrant structure including interwoven cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin biomacromolecules is challenging to deconstruct. Pretreating biomass so that it can be converted to useful liquids dominates process economics. Many pretreatment methods exist, but most require hazardous chemicals or processing conditions. Many ionic liquids (ILs), salts molten below 100°C, can be used to deconstruct lignocellulosic biomass and are less hazardous than the volatile organic compounds typically used. While effective, relatively safe, and recyclable, ILs are expensive. To reduce costs, dilution with other safe compounds is desirable, if there is no impact on deconstruction efficiency. Glycerol, a food additive, is inexpensive and becoming even more so since it is a by-product of the burgeoning biodiesel industry. Use of glycerol as an additive or diluent for ILs is extensively evaluated in this work. Rice hulls are an abundant biomass, with over 100 million tons produced per year, but with little practical use. The IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium formate ([C2mim][O2CH] or EMIM Form) when mixed with an equal amount of glycerol has been shown to be effective in pretreating rice hulls. Ambient pressure, a pretreatment temperature of 110°C, and a reaction time of three hours produced rice hulls that could be enzymatically hydrolyzed to give reasonably good glucose and xylose yields considering the recalcitrance of this silica-armored biomass. The IL [C2mim][O2CH] was also effective when mixed with an equal amount of glycerol to pretreat loblolly pine, a fast-growing softwood. Loblolly pine was pretreated at 140°C for three hours to produce a solid rich in cellulose and hemicelluloses, while a lignin-rich product could be precipitated from the IL. Similar products were obtained from pretreatment with a mixture of 75% 1

  18. Biomass valorisation by staged degasification A new pyrolysis-based thermochemical conversion option to produce value-added chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wild, P. J.; den Uil, H.; Reith, J. H.; Kiel, J. H. A.; Heeres, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass leads to an array Of useful solid, liquid and gaseous products. Staged degasification is a pyrolysis-based conversion route to generate value-added chemicals from biomass. Because of different thermal stabilities of the main biomass constituents hemicellulose. ce

  19. The study of different methods of bio-liquids production from wood biomass and from biomass/polyolefine mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 660049 Krasnoyarsk, K. Marx str., 42 (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, Svobodny, 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Sharypov, V.I.; Kuznetsova, S.A.; Taraban' ko, V.E.; Ivanchenko, N.M. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 660049 Krasnoyarsk, K. Marx str., 42 (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-15

    The different methods of wood biomass thermal liquefaction at atmospheric and elevated pressures were investigated in order to select the more effective one. Wood biomass liquefaction by melted formate/alkali mixtures and with the use of metallic iron/Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} system is carried out at low pressures. But these methods give only moderate yield of bio-liquids. The highest yield of bio-liquid was obtained in the process of biomass dissolvation in methanol media in the presence of Zn-Cr-Fe catalyst at 20 MPa. Co-pyrolysis and co-hydropyrolysis of biomass/polyolefine mixtures makes it possible to obtain the rather high yield of bio-liquid at the moderate pressures (3 MPa). (author)

  20. Pyrolysis kinetics study of three biomass solid wastes for thermochemical conversion into liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuly, S. S.; Parveen, M.; Islam, M. R.; Rahman, M. S.; Haniu, H.

    2017-06-01

    Pyrolysis has been considered as the most efficient way of producing liquid fuel from biomass and its wastes. In this study the thermal degradation characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics of three selected biomass samples of Jute stick (Corchorus capsularis), Japanese cedar wood (Cryptomeria japonica) and Tamarind seed (Tamarindus indica) have been investigated in a nitrogen atmosphere at heating rates of 10°C/min and 60°C/min over a temperature range of 30°C to 800°C. The weight loss region for the three biomass solid wastes has shifted to a higher temperature range and the weight loss rate has increased with increasing heating rate. In this case, the three biomass samples have represented the similar behavior. The initial reaction temperature has decreased with increasing heating rate but the reaction range and reaction rate have increased. The percentage of total weight loss is higher for cedar wood than jute stick and tamarind seed. For the three biomass wastes, the overall rate equation has been modeled properly by one simplified equation and from here it is possible to determine kinetic parameters of unreacted materials based on Arrhenious form. The calculated rate equation compares thoroughly well with the measured TG and DTG data.

  1. Evaluation of economically feasible, natural plant extract-based microbiological media for producing biomass of the dry rot biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens P22Y05 in liquid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The production of microbial biomass in liquid media often represents an indispensable step in the research and development of bacterial and fungal strains. Costs of commercially prepared nutrient media or purified media components, however, can represent a significant hurdle to conducting research i...

  2. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-02-21

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass

  3. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Progress report No. 6, 1 October-31 December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, J.E.; Wise, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of the previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study, it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation both by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids to aliphatic hydrocarbons via Kolbe Electrolysis, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current program are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids. The primary task in this regard is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300 liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process. The primary task in this regard is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; and (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter. The accomplishments in this program are on schedule. Experimental results show that the electrolysis of organic acids produced by fermentation to liquid hydrocarbon fuels already have a favorable energy balance of 6/1 based on the applied potential and over 10/1 based on the working potential.

  4. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Progress report No. 7, January 1-March 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, J.E.; Garcia-Martinez, D.V.; George, G.S.; Dillon, J.J.; Wise, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of the previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study, it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids to aliphatic hydrocarbons via Kolbe Electrolysis, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current program are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids. The primary task in this regard is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300 liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process. The primary task in this regard is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the ouput of the 300 liter fermenter. The accomplishments in this program are on schedule. Experimental results have shown that the electrolysis of organic acids produced by fermentation to liquid hydrocarbon fuels is already operating with a favorable energy balance of 6/1 based on the applied potential and over 10/1 based on the working potential. 2-Bromoethanesulfonic acid, a coenzyme M analogue, has been shown to be an effective methane suppressor, and the program is being rapidly expanded to include biomass substrates other than marine algae. In addition, considerable effort has been directed toward refining the process design and economic analysis presented previously.

  5. Survey of renewable chemicals produced from lignocellulosic biomass during ionic liquid pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varanasi Patanjali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lignin is often overlooked in the valorization of lignocellulosic biomass, but lignin-based materials and chemicals represent potential value-added products for biorefineries that could significantly improve the economics of a biorefinery. Fluctuating crude oil prices and changing fuel specifications are some of the driving factors to develop new technologies that could be used to convert polymeric lignin into low molecular weight lignin and or monomeric aromatic feedstocks to assist in the displacement of the current products associated with the conversion of a whole barrel of oil. We present an approach to produce these chemicals based on the selective breakdown of lignin during ionic liquid pretreatment. Results The lignin breakdown products generated are found to be dependent on the starting biomass, and significant levels were generated on dissolution at 160°C for 6 hrs. Guaiacol was produced on dissolution of biomass and technical lignins. Vanillin was produced on dissolution of kraft lignin and eucalytpus. Syringol and allyl guaiacol were the major products observed on dissolution of switchgrass and pine, respectively, whereas syringol and allyl syringol were obtained by dissolution of eucalyptus. Furthermore, it was observed that different lignin-derived products could be generated by tuning the process conditions. Conclusions We have developed an ionic liquid based process that depolymerizes lignin and converts the low molecular weight lignin fractions into a variety of renewable chemicals from biomass. The generated chemicals (phenols, guaiacols, syringols, eugenol, catechols, their oxidized products (vanillin, vanillic acid, syringaldehyde and their easily derivatized hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene, styrene, biphenyls and cyclohexane already have relatively high market value as commodity and specialty chemicals, green building materials, nylons, and resins.

  6. Improving Heterogeneous Catalyst Stability for Liquid-phase Biomass Conversion and Reforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héroguel, Florent; Rozmysłowicz, Bartosz; Luterbacher, Jeremy S

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is a possible renewable alternative to fossil carbon sources. Today, many bio-resources can be converted to direct substitutes or suitable alternatives to fossil-based fuels and chemicals. However, catalyst deactivation under the harsh, often liquid-phase reaction conditions required for biomass treatment is a major obstacle to developing processes that can compete with the petrochemical industry. This review presents recently developed strategies to limit reversible and irreversible catalyst deactivation such as metal sintering and leaching, metal poisoning and support collapse. Methods aiming to increase catalyst lifetime include passivation of low-stability atoms by overcoating, creation of microenvironments hostile to poisons, improvement of metal stability, or reduction of deactivation by process engineering.

  7. Biomass based energy. A review on raw materials and processing methods; Energie aus Biomasse. Eine Uebersicht ueber Rohstoffe und Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woellauer, P.

    2007-07-01

    The book reviews the variety of biogenic raw materials and the technologically important biomass conversion techniques. The chapter on the different kinds of biomass includes a) wood from forestry, landscape culturing and saw mills, bark and old wood; b) plants (corn, miscanthus, cannabis, wheat, rye, sugar beets, grass, rape, etc.), residuals and wastes (straw, liquid manure, slaughthouse wastes, kitchen wastes, sewage sludge, others). The chapter on biomass conversion processing discusses combustion, oxidation in spercritical water, gasification and reforming, fermentation, extrusion or extraction, and downstream processes. The chapter on biomass based electricity and mechanical energy includes refrigeration engineering, direct utilization: Otto engines, Diesel engines, microgas turbine fuel cells, and heat processing: Striling engine, vapour turbine, ORC turbine, externally fired gas turbine, and the Kalina process.

  8. Ionic liquid induced changes in cellulose structure associated with enhanced biomass hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samayam, Indira P; Hanson, B Leif; Langan, Paul; Schall, Constance A

    2011-01-01

    The effects of varying ionic liquid pretreatment parameters on various sources of lignocellulosic biomass have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fiber diffraction and compositional analysis. Comparative enzymatic hydrolysis and sugar analysis were used to relate the observed changes in cellulose structure to biomass digestibility. In this study the factor most clearly associated with enhanced biomass hydrolysis is the conversion of cellulose fibers from the cellulose I to the cellulose II crystal phase. PMID:21740062

  9. Ionic liquid induced changes in cellulose structure associated with enhanced biomass hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Samayam, Indira P; Hanson, B. Leif; Langan, Paul; Schall, Constance A

    2011-01-01

    The effects of varying ionic liquid pretreatment parameters on various sources of lignocellulosic biomass have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fiber diffraction and compositional analysis. Comparative enzymatic hydrolysis and sugar analysis were used to relate the observed changes in cellulose structure to biomass digestibility. In this study the factor most clearly associated with enhanced biomass hydrolysis is the conversion of cellulose fibers from the cellulose I to the...

  10. LCA of biomass-based energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2012-01-01

    supplied could be significantly reduced (from 68 to 17 Gg CO2-eq/PJ) by increased use of wind and residual biomass resources as well as by electrifying the transport sector. Energy crops for production of biofuels and the use of these biofuels for heavy terrestrial transportation were responsible for most......Decrease of fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector is an important step towards more sustainable energy production. Environmental impacts related to potential future energy systems in Denmark with high shares of wind and biomass energy were evaluated using life-cycle assessment (LCA). Based...... on the reference year 2008, energy scenarios for 2030 and 2050 were assessed. For 2050 three alternatives for supply of transport fuels were considered: (1) fossil fuels, (2) rapeseed based biodiesel, and (3) Fischer–Tropsch based biodiesel. Overall, the results showed that greenhouse gas emissions per PJ energy...

  11. Feasibilities of a Coal-Biomass to Liquids Plant in Southern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Debangsu [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); DVallance, David [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Henthorn, Greg [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Grushecky, Shawn [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This project has generated comprehensive and realistic results of feasibilities for a coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) plant in southern West Virginia; and evaluated the sensitivity of the analyses to various anticipated scenarios and parametric uncertainties. Specifically the project has addressed economic feasibility, technical feasibility, market feasibility, and financial feasibility. In the economic feasibility study, a multi-objective siting model was developed and was then used to identify and rank the suitable facility sites. Spatial models were also developed to assess the biomass and coal feedstock availabilities and economics. Environmental impact analysis was conducted mainly to assess life cycle analysis and greenhouse gas emission. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also investigated in this study. Sensitivity analyses on required selling price (RSP) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of CBTL fuels were conducted according to feedstock availability and price, biomass to coal mix ratio, conversion rate, internal rate of return (IRR), capital cost, operational and maintenance cost. The study of siting and capacity showed that feedstock mixed ratio limited the CBTL production. The price of coal had a more dominant effect on RSP than that of biomass. Different mix ratios in the feedstock and conversion rates led to RSP ranging from $104.3 - $157.9/bbl. LCA results indicated that GHG emissions ranged from 80.62 kg CO2 eq to 101.46 kg CO2 eq/1,000 MJ of liquid fuel at various biomass to coal mix ratios and conversion rates if carbon capture and storage (CCS) was applied. Most of water and fossil energy were consumed in conversion process. Compared to petroleum-derived-liquid fuels, the reduction in GHG emissions could be between -2.7% and 16.2% with CBTL substitution. As for the technical study, three approaches of coal and biomass to liquids, direct, indirect and hybrid, were considered in the analysis. The process models including

  12. One-Pot Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose and of Woody Biomass Solids to Liquid Fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matson, Theodore D.; Barta, Katalin; Iretskii, Alexei V.; Ford, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient methodologies for converting biomass solids to liquid fuels have the potential to reduce dependence on imported petroleum while easing the atmospheric carbon dioxide burden. Here, we report quantitative catalytic conversions of wood and cellulosic solids to liquid and gaseous products in a

  13. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Progress report No. 5, July 1-September 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, J.E.; Wise, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of the previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study, it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation both by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids to aliphatic hydrocarbons via Kolbe Electrolysis, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current program are: (1) Establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids. The primary task in this regard is methane suppression. (2) Modify the current 300 liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode. (3) Change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction. (4) Optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process. The primary task in this regard is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density. (5) Scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter. The accomplishments in this program are on schedule. Substantial progress has been made on the problem of methane suppression through the use of sulfide addition and the identification of bromoethane-sulfonic acid as a specific inhibitor of methanogenesis. A conceptual design of a continuously fed fixed packed bed fermenter is presented. Experimental results show that the electrolysis of organic acids produced by fermentation to liquid hydrocarbon fuels already have a favorable energy balance of 6/1 based on the applied potential and over 10/1 based on the working potential.

  14. Bio-oil extraction of Jatropha curcas with ionic liquid co-solvent: Fate of biomass protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severa, Godwin; Edwards, Melisa; Cooney, Michael J

    2017-02-01

    The fate of oil-seed biomass protein has been tracked through all steps of a multi-phase extraction process using an ionic liquid based co-solvent system previously demonstrated to extract bio-oil and phorbol esters and to recover fermentable sugars from Jatropha oil seed. These analyses, however, did not address the fate of biomass protein. This work demonstrated that the majority of protein (∼86%) tracked with the biomass with the balance lost to co-solvent (∼12%) and methanol (∼2%) washes. A significant portion of the ionic liquid remained with the treated biomass and required aggressive methanol washes to recover. A system analysis showed a net-positive energy balance and thus the potential of this system to produce both bio-oil and protein-rich toxin-free biomass. While these results further support Jatropha as an oil seed crop, the additional costs of solvent recovery will need to be addressed if commercialization is to be realized.

  15. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Progress report No. 8, April 1-June 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, J.E.; Garcia-Martinez, D.V.; George, G.S.; Dillon, J.J.; Molyneaux, M.S.; Barnard, G.W.; Wise, D.L.

    1979-07-23

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of the previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study, it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation both by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids to aliphatic hydrocarbons via Kolbe Electrolysis, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The accompishments in this program for the first year of work are as follows: a coenzyme M anologue, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid has been shown to be an effective suppressor of methane in nonsterile anaerobic fermentation of cellulosic substrates; a tapered auger device has been designed and built which has been demonstrated on the bench to be effective for adding substrate and removing residue in a continuous manner from a fixed packed bed fermenter; a solvent extracter system using kerosene as the nonaqueous phase has been constructed and is currently in operation in series with the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermenter; although additional work is required to optimize the electrolysis process the electrolytic oxidation of organic acids produced in the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermenter is operating with a favorable energy balance of 6/1 based on the applied potential; the liquid-liquid extractor system is operating in line with 300 liter fixed packed bed fermentor; the other components of an integrated continuous system, the continuous feed device and the Kolbe electrolysis cell are operating satisfactorily out of line on a scale compatible with the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermentor; and an economic analysis for a 1000 ton per day plant has been performed and has been improved and updated based on additional experimental results.

  16. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Machinal, Michelle A.

    2011-06-01

    ). This study is part of an ongoing effort within the Department of Energy to meet the renewable energy goals for liquid transportation fuels. The objective of this report is to present a techno-economic evaluation of the performance and cost of various biomass based thermochemical fuel production. This report also documents the economics that were originally developed for the report entitled “Biofuels in Oregon and Washington: A Business Case Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges” (Stiles et al. 2008). Although the resource assessments were specific to the Pacific Northwest, the production economics presented in this report are not regionally limited. This study uses a consistent technical and economic analysis approach and assumptions to gasification and liquefaction based fuel production technologies. The end fuels studied are methanol, ethanol, DME, SNG, gasoline and diesel.

  17. Biomass use in chemical and mechanical pulping with biomass-based energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Jonas M.; Gustavsson, Leif [Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    The pulp and paper industry is energy intensive and consumes large amounts of wood. Biomass is a limited resource and its efficient use is therefore important. In this study, the total amount of biomass used for pulp and for energy is estimated for the production of several woodfree (containing only chemical pulp) and mechanical (containing mechanical pulp) printing paper products, under Swedish conditions. Chemical pulp mills today are largely self-sufficient in energy while mechanical pulp mills depend on large amounts of external electricity. Technically, all energy used in pulp- and papermaking can be biomass based. Here, we assume that all energy used, including external electricity and motor fuels, is based on forest biomass. The whole cradle-to-gate chain is included in the analyses. The results indicate that the total amount of biomass required per tonne paper is slightly lower for woodfree than for mechanical paper. For the biomass use per paper area, the paper grammage is decisive. If the grammage can be lowered by increasing the proportion of mechanical pulp, this may lower the biomass use per paper area, despite the higher biomass use per unit mass in mechanical paper. In the production of woodfree paper, energy recovery from residues in the mill accounts for most of the biomass use, while external electricity production accounts for the largest part for mechanical paper. Motor fuel production accounts for 5-7% of the biomass use. The biomass contained in the final paper product is 21-42% of the total biomass use, indicating that waste paper recovery is important. The biomass use was found to be about 15-17% lower for modelled, modern mills compared with mills representative of today's average technology. (author)

  18. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2016-07-05

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  19. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2016-07-05

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  20. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2017-05-23

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  1. Peracetic acid-ionic liquid pretreatment to enhance enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uju; Abe, Kojiro; Uemura, Nobuyuki; Oshima, Toyoji; Goto, Masahiro; Kamiya, Noriho

    2013-06-01

    To enhance enzymatic saccharification of pine biomass, the pretreatment reagents peracetic acid (PAA) and ionic liquid (IL) were validated in single reagent pretreatments or combination pretreatments with different sequences. In a 1h saccharification, 5-25% cellulose conversion was obtained from the single pretreatment of PAA or IL. In contrast, a marked enhancement in conversion rates was achieved by PAA-IL combination pretreatments (45-70%). The PAA followed by IL (PAA+IL) pretreatment sequence was the most effective for preparing an enzymatic digestible regenerated biomass with 250-fold higher glucose formation rates than untreated biomass and 2- to 12-fold higher than single pretreatments with PAA or IL alone. Structural analysis confirmed that this pretreatment resulted in biomass with highly porous structural fibers associated with the reduction of lignin content and acetyl groups. Using the PAA+IL sequence, biomass loading in the pretreatment step can be increased from 5% to 15% without significant decrease in cellulose conversion.

  2. Factors governing dissolution process of lignocellulosic biomass in ionic liquid: current status, overview and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgujar, Kirtikumar C; Bhanage, Bhalchandra M

    2015-02-01

    The utilisation of non-feed lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable bio-energy and synthesis of fine chemical products is necessary for the sustainable development. The methods for the dissolution of lignocellulosic biomass in conventional solvents are complex and tedious due to the complex chemical ultra-structure of biomass. In view of this, recent developments for the use of ionic liquid solvent (IL) has received great attention, as ILs can solubilise such complex biomass and thus provides industrial scale-up potential. In this review, we have discussed the state-of-art for the dissolution of lignocellulosic material in representative ILs. Furthermore, various process parameters and their influence for biomass dissolution were reviewed. In addition to this, overview of challenges and opportunities related to this interesting area is presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A granular-biomass high temperature pyrolysis model based on the Darcy flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jian; Qi, Guoli; Dong, Peng

    2015-03-01

    We established a model for the chemical reaction kinetics of biomass pyrolysis via the high-temperature thermal cracking of liquid products. We divided the condensable volatiles into two groups, based on the characteristics of the liquid prdoducts., tar and biomass oil. The effects of temperature, residence time, particle size, velocity, pressure, and other parameters on biomass pyrolysis and high-temperature tar cracking were investigated numerically, and the results were compared with experimental data. The simulation results showed a large endothermic pyrolysis reaction effect on temperature and the reaction process. The pyrolysis reaction zone had a constant temperature period in several layers near the center of large biomass particles. A purely physical heating process was observed before and after this period, according to the temperature index curve.

  4. Simulated Moving Bed Chromatography: Separation and Recovery of Sugars and Ionic Liquid from Biomass Hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caes, Benjamin R.; Van Oosbree, Thomas R.; Lu, Fachuang; Ralph, John; Maravelias, Christos T.

    2015-01-01

    Simulated moving bed chromatography, a continuous separation method, enables the nearly quantitative recovery of sugar products and ionic liquid solvent from chemical hydrolysates of biomass. The ensuing sugars support microbial growth, and the residual lignin from the process is intact. PMID:23939991

  5. Understanding changes in cellulose crystalline structure of lignocellulosic biomass during ionic liquid pretreatment by XRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiafu; Wang, Yixun; Zhang, Liye; Zhang, Ruihong; Liu, Guangqing; Cheng, Gang

    2014-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to understand the interactions of cellulose in lignocellulosic biomass with ionic liquids (ILs). The experiment was designed in such a way that the process of swelling and solubilization of crystalline cellulose in plant cell walls was followed by XRD. Three different feedstocks, switchgrass, corn stover and rice husk, were pretreated using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C4mim][OAc]) at temperatures of 50-130°C for 6h. At a 5 wt.% biomass loading, increasing pretreatment temperature led to a drop in biomass crystallinity index (CrI), which was due to swelling of crystalline cellulose. After most of the crystalline cellulose was swollen with IL molecules, a low-order structure was found in the pretreated samples. Upon further increasing temperature, cellulose II structure started to form in the pretreated biomass samples as a result of solubilization of cellulose in [C4mim][OAc] and subsequent regeneration.

  6. Recent trends in ionic liquid (IL) tolerant enzymes and microorganisms for biomass conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Maria Del Carmen; Saadeddin, Anas

    2015-01-01

    Second generation biofuel production depends on lignocellulosic (LC) biomass transformation into simple sugars and their subsequent fermentation into alcohols. However, the main obstacle in this process is the efficient breakdown of the recalcitrant cellulose to sugar monomers. Hence, efficient feedstock pretreatment and hydrolysis are necessary to produce a cost effective biofuel. Recently, ionic liquids (ILs) have been recognized as a promising solvent able to dissolve different biomass feedstocks, providing higher sugar yields. However, most of the hydrolytic enzymes and microorganisms are inactivated, completely or partially, in the presence of even low concentrations of IL, making necessary the discovery of novel hydrolytic enzymes and fermentative microorganisms that are tolerant to ILs. In this review, the current state and the challenges of using ILs as a pretreatment of LC biomass was evaluated, underlining the advances in the discovery and identification of new IL-tolerant enzymes and microorganisms that could improve the bioprocessing of biomass to fuels and chemicals.

  7. Life cycle assessment of biomass-to-liquid fuels - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungbluth, N.; Buesser, S.; Frischknecht, R.; Tuchschmid, M.

    2008-02-15

    This study elaborates a life cycle assessment of using of BTL-fuels (biomass-to-liquid). This type of fuel is produced in synthesis process from e.g. wood, straw or other biomass. The life cycle inventory data of the fuel provision with different types of conversion concepts are based on the detailed life cycle assessment compiled and published within a European research project. The inventory of the fuel use emissions is based on information published by automobile manufacturers on reductions due to the use of BTL-fuels. Passenger cars fulfilling the EURO3 emission standards are the basis for the comparison. The life cycle inventories of the use of BTL-fuels for driving in passenger cars are investigated from cradle to grave. The full life cycle is investigated with the transportation of one person over one kilometre (pkm) as a functional unit. This includes all stages of the life cycle of a fuel (biomass and fuel production, distribution, combustion) and the necessary infrastructure (e.g. tractors, conversion plant, cars and streets). The use of biofuels is mainly promoted for the reason of reducing the climate change impact and the use of scarce non-renewable resources e.g. crude oil. The possible implementation of BTL-fuel production processes would potentially help to achieve this goal. The emissions of greenhouse gases due to transport services could be reduced by 28% to 69% with the BTL-processes using straw, forest wood or short-rotation wood as a biomass input. The reduction potential concerning non-renewable energy resources varies between 37% und 61%. A previous study showed that many biofuels cause higher environmental impacts than fossil fuels if several types of ecological problems are considered. The study uses two single score impact assessment methods for the evaluation of the overall environmental impacts, namely the Eco-indicator 99 (H,A) and the Swiss ecological scarcity 2006 method. The transportation with the best BTL-fuel from short

  8. Application of Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis in Biomass to Liquid Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwu Lu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fischer–Tropsch synthesis is a set of catalytic processes that can be used to produce fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas (mixture of CO and H2, which can be derived from natural gas, coal, or biomass. Biomass to Liquid via Fischer–Tropsch (BTL-FT synthesis is gaining increasing interests from academia and industry because of its ability to produce carbon neutral and environmentally friendly clean fuels; such kinds of fuels can help to meet the globally increasing energy demand and to meet the stricter environmental regulations in the future. In the BTL-FT process, biomass, such as woodchips and straw stalk, is firstly converted into biomass-derived syngas (bio-syngas by gasification. Then, a cleaning process is applied to remove impurities from the bio-syngas to produce clean bio-syngas which meets the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis requirements. Cleaned bio-syngas is then conducted into a Fischer–Tropsch catalytic reactor to produce green gasoline, diesel and other clean biofuels. This review will analyze the three main steps of BTL-FT process, and discuss the issues related to biomass gasification, bio-syngas cleaning methods and conversion of bio-syngas into liquid hydrocarbons via Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Some features in regard to increasing carbon utilization, enhancing catalyst activity, maximizing selectivity and avoiding catalyst deactivation in bio-syngas conversion process are also discussed.

  9. Improvement of biomass properties by pretreatment with ionic liquids for bioconversion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerachanchai, Piyarat; Leong, Susanna Su Jan; Chang, Matthew Wook; Ching, Chi Bun; Lee, Jong-Min

    2012-05-01

    Cassava pulp residue and rice straw were used as a precursor for pretreatment with ionic liquids to study the effects of pretreatment conditions on product yield and properties. Cassava pulp residue is a potential biomass in the bioconversion process due to it requiring mild pretreatment conditions while providing a high sugar conversion. The maximum sugar conversion and lignin extraction are attained from pretreatment of biomasses with particle size of 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate at 120°C for 24h. The effectiveness of ionic liquid for biomass pretreatment process follows the sequence: 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate>1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate>1,3-Dimethylimidazolium methyl sulfate. The increase of pretreatment temperature from 25 to 120°C and decrease of biomass particle size renders higher sugar conversion, lignin extraction and lower crystallinity index. However, pretreatment at temperatures higher than 120°C shows a sharp decline of regenerated biomass yield, sugar conversion and lignin extraction and giving higher crystallinity index at pretreatment temperature of 180°C.

  10. Anaerobic biotechnological approaches for production of liquid energy carriers from biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Angelidaki, Irini

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the use of renewable biomass for energy production. Anaerobic biotechnological approaches for production of liquid energy carriers (ethanol and a mixture of acetone, butanol and ethanol) from biomass can be employed to decrease environmental...... is determined by substrates and microbial communities available as well as the operating conditions applied. In this review, we evaluate the recent biotechnological approaches employed in ethanol and ABE fermentation. Practical applicability of different technologies is discussed taking into account...... the microbiology and biochemistry of the processes....

  11. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report, for period ending June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-01-01

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current program are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  12. MICROALGAE BIOMASS PRODUCTION BASED ON WASTEWATER FROM DAIRY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Dębowski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of culturing high-oil algae biomass based on wastewater from dairy processing plants. The experiments were conducted in laboratory scale with tubular photobioreactor using. The best technological properties were demonstrated for eluates from an anaerobic reactor treating dairy wastewater. The use of a substrate of this type yielded algae biomass concentration at a level of 3490 mg d.m./dm3, with the mean rate of algae biomass growth at 176 mg d.m./dm3∙d. The mean content of oil in the proliferated biomass of algae approximated 20%.

  13. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James

    2013-12-17

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogenous catalyst for gasification.

  14. Acetic acid based oil palm biomass refining process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, P.F.H.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Lips, S.J.J.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Engelen-Smit, N.P.E.

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for refining a biomass from empty fruit bunches of oil palm with a dry matter content of 5-95 wt.%, based on the total wt. of the biomass, where the process comprises the subsequent stages of (a) water extn. under atm. pressure conditions and at pH of 5-7, (b) pre

  15. Multi-scale sustainability assessments for biomass-based and coal-based fuels in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yi; Xiao, Honghua; Cai, Wei; Yang, Siyu

    2017-12-01

    Transportation liquid fuels production is heavily depend on oil. In recent years, developing biomass based and coal based fuels are regarded as promising alternatives for non-petroleum based fuels in China. With the rapid growth of constructing and planning b biomass based and coal based fuels production projects, sustainability assessments are needed to simultaneously consider the resource, the economic, and the environmental factors. This paper performs multi-scale analyses on the biomass based and coal based fuels in China. The production cost, life cycle cost, and ecological life cycle cost (ELCC) of these synfuels are investigated to compare their pros to cons and reveal the sustainability. The results show that BTL fuels has high production cost. It lacks of economic attractiveness. However, insignificant resource cost and environmental cost lead to a substantially lower ELCC, which may indicate better ecological sustainability. CTL fuels, on the contrary, is lower in production cost and reliable for economic benefit. But its coal consumption and pollutant emissions are both serious, leading to overwhelming resource cost and environmental cost. A shifting from petroleum to CTL fuels could double the ELCC, posing great threat to the sustainability of the entire fuels industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. One-pot catalytic conversion of cellulose and of woody biomass solids to liquid fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Theodore D; Barta, Katalin; Iretskii, Alexei V; Ford, Peter C

    2011-09-07

    Efficient methodologies for converting biomass solids to liquid fuels have the potential to reduce dependence on imported petroleum while easing the atmospheric carbon dioxide burden. Here, we report quantitative catalytic conversions of wood and cellulosic solids to liquid and gaseous products in a single stage reactor operating at 300-320 °C and 160-220 bar. Little or no char is formed during this process. The reaction medium is supercritical methanol (sc-MeOH) and the catalyst, a copper-doped porous metal oxide, is composed of earth-abundant materials. The major liquid product is a mixture of C(2)-C(6) aliphatic alcohols and methylated derivatives thereof that are, in principle, suitable for applications as liquid fuels.

  17. Techno-economic evaluation of alternative process configurations for the production of biomass-to-liquid (BTL) fuels and chemicals; Techno-oekonomische Bewertung alternativer Verfahrenskonfigurationen zur Herstellung von Biomass-to-Liquid (BtL) Kraftstoffen und Chemikalien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippe, Frederik

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present work is to identify, from a technical and economic point of view promising procedural configurations of a biomass-to-liquid (BTL) concept for the production of fuels and chemicals from biomass and to evaluate. The example of the process bioliq a techno-economic assessment model is developed, the process design parameters directly linked to their economic impact.

  18. Indian Farmers’ Perceptions and Willingness to Supply Surplus Biomass to an Envisioned Biomass-Based Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Zyadin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this socio-technical study are to investigate the Indian farmers’ biomass production capacities and their perceptions and willingness to supply their surplus biomass to fuel an envisioned biomass-based power plant in three selected Indian states: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. For doing so, 471 farmers (about one-third from each state have been interviewed in the field with info-sheet filled in by the field investigators. The farmers from all of the states appeared very much willing to sell their surplus biomass directly to a power plant. The farmers seem to depreciate the involvement of a middleman in the biomass procurement process. The farmers, however, appeared to highly appreciate a community-based association to regulate the biomass prices, with varying perceptions regarding government intervention. The majority of the farmers perceived the establishment of a biomass-based power plant in their region with positive economic outcomes. The farmers identified several barriers to supply biomass to a power plant where transportation logistics appeared to be the main barrier. The study recommends considering biomass collection, storage and transportation logistics as a fundamental segment of any envisioned investment in a biomass-based power plant. Biomass processing, such as pelletization or briquetting is recommended for efficient transportation of biomass at longer distances to reduce the transportation costs. The study further encourages the establishment of a farmers’ association aimed at collecting and selling biomass in agriculture areas predominant for small land holdings.

  19. MODIS Based Estimation of Forest Aboveground Biomass in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guodong; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Yan; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Piao, Shilong

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of forest biomass C stock is essential to understand carbon cycles. However, current estimates of Chinese forest biomass are mostly based on inventory-based timber volumes and empirical conversion factors at the provincial scale, which could introduce large uncertainties in forest biomass estimation. Here we provide a data-driven estimate of Chinese forest aboveground biomass from 2001 to 2013 at a spatial resolution of 1 km by integrating a recently reviewed plot-level ground-measured forest aboveground biomass database with geospatial information from 1-km Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) dataset in a machine learning algorithm (the model tree ensemble, MTE). We show that Chinese forest aboveground biomass is 8.56 Pg C, which is mainly contributed by evergreen needle-leaf forests and deciduous broadleaf forests. The mean forest aboveground biomass density is 56.1 Mg C ha-1, with high values observed in temperate humid regions. The responses of forest aboveground biomass density to mean annual temperature are closely tied to water conditions; that is, negative responses dominate regions with mean annual precipitation less than 1300 mm y-1 and positive responses prevail in regions with mean annual precipitation higher than 2800 mm y-1. During the 2000s, the forests in China sequestered C by 61.9 Tg C y-1, and this C sink is mainly distributed in north China and may be attributed to warming climate, rising CO2 concentration, N deposition, and growth of young forests.

  20. Combined pretreatment with torrefaction and washing using torrefaction liquid products to yield upgraded biomass and pyrolysis products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Mei, Jiaming; Li, Haiping; Li, Yiming; Lu, Mengting; Ma, Tingting; Ma, Zhongqing

    2017-03-01

    This study presented an approach to upgrade biomass and pyrolysis products using a process based on torrefaction liquid washing combined with torrefaction pretreatment. The torrefaction of cotton stalk was first conducted at 250°C for 30min and then the resulting torrefaction liquid products were collected and reused to wash cottonstalk. The pyrolysis of the original and pretreated cotton stalk was performed at 500°C for 15min in a fixed-bed reactor. The results indicated that the combined pretreatment obviously reduced the metallic species in cotton stalk, decreased the water and acids contents while promoted phenols in bio-oil, declined the ash content in biochar, as well as improved the heating value of non-condensable gas. Overall, the combined pretreatment did not only allow to reuse the liquid products issued from torrefaction pretreatment but also improved the quality of biomass and the pyrolysis products, making it a novel promising pretreatment method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Techno-Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Production from Woody Biomass via Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2014-09-15

    A series of experimental work was conducted to convert woody biomass to gasoline and diesel range products via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and catalytic hydroprocessing. Based on the best available test data, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) was developed for a large scale woody biomass based HTL and upgrading system to evaluate the feasibility of this technology. In this system, 2000 dry metric ton per day woody biomass was assumed to be converted to bio-oil in hot compressed water and the bio-oil was hydrotreated and/or hydrocracked to produce gasoline and diesel range liquid fuel. Two cases were evaluated: a stage-of-technology (SOT) case based on the tests results, and a goal case considering potential improvements based on the SOT case. Process simulation models were developed and cost analysis was implemented based on the performance results. The major performance results included final products and co-products yields, raw materials consumption, carbon efficiency, and energy efficiency. The overall efficiency (higher heating value basis) was 52% for the SOT case and 66% for the goal case. The production cost, with a 10% internal rate of return and 2007 constant dollars, was estimated to be $1.29 /L for the SOT case and $0.74 /L for the goal case. The cost impacts of major improvements for moving from the SOT to the goal case were evaluated and the assumption of reducing the organics loss to the water phase lead to the biggest reduction in the production cost. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the final products yields had the largest impact on the production cost compared to other parameters. Plant size analysis demonstrated that the process was economically attractive if the woody biomass feed rate was over 1,500 dry tonne/day, the production cost was competitive with the then current petroleum-based gasoline price.

  2. Production of dimethylfuran for liquid fuels from biomass-derived carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Leshkov, Yuriy; Barrett, Christopher J; Liu, Zhen Y; Dumesic, James A

    2007-06-21

    Diminishing fossil fuel reserves and growing concerns about global warming indicate that sustainable sources of energy are needed in the near future. For fuels to be useful in the transportation sector, they must have specific physical properties that allow for efficient distribution, storage and combustion; these properties are currently fulfilled by non-renewable petroleum-derived liquid fuels. Ethanol, the only renewable liquid fuel currently produced in large quantities, suffers from several limitations, including low energy density, high volatility, and contamination by the absorption of water from the atmosphere. Here we present a catalytic strategy for the production of 2,5-dimethylfuran from fructose (a carbohydrate obtained directly from biomass or by the isomerization of glucose) for use as a liquid transportation fuel. Compared to ethanol, 2,5-dimethylfuran has a higher energy density (by 40 per cent), a higher boiling point (by 20 K), and is not soluble in water. This catalytic strategy creates a route for transforming abundant renewable biomass resources into a liquid fuel suitable for the transportation sector, and may diminish our reliance on petroleum.

  3. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert Toerne; John Bick

    2003-01-01

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this widespread fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be used as a supplemental fuel in an existing utility boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with a variety of conventional boilers including natural gas and oil fired boilers, pulverized coal fired conventional and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a wider selection of biomass as fuel and providing opportunity in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere through the commercialization of this technology. This study evaluated two plants: Wester Kentucky Energy Corporation's (WKE's) Reid Plant and TXU Energy's Monticello Plant for technical and economical feasibility. These plants were selected for their proximity to large supply of poultry litter in the area. The Reid plant is located in Henderson County in southwest Kentucky, with a large poultry processing facility nearby. Within a fifty-mile radius of the Reid plant, there are large-scale poultry farms that generate over 75,000 tons/year of poultry litter. The local poultry farmers are actively seeking environmentally more benign alternatives to the current use of the litter as landfill or as a farm spread as fertilizer. The Monticello plant is located in Titus County, TX near the town of Pittsburgh, TX, where again a large poultry processor and poultry farmers in the area generate over 110,000 tons/year of poultry litter. Disposal of this litter in the area is also a concern. This project offers a model opportunity to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass co-firing and at the same time eliminate

  4. Single-reactor process for producing liquid-phase organic compounds from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumesic, James A.; Simonetti, Dante A.; Kunkes, Edward L.

    2011-12-13

    Disclosed is a method for preparing liquid fuel and chemical intermediates from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons. The method includes the steps of reacting in a single reactor an aqueous solution of a biomass-derived, water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon reactant, in the presence of a catalyst comprising a metal selected from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au, at a temperature, and a pressure, and for a time sufficient to yield a self-separating, three-phase product stream comprising a vapor phase, an organic phase containing linear and/or cyclic mono-oxygenated hydrocarbons, and an aqueous phase.

  5. Potential of Biomass Based Electricity Generation in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KP Ariyadasa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass has attracted much attention as a primary energy source for electricity generation due to its potential to supply low cost fuel source with considerable environmental and socio-economic benefits. Despite having favorable climatic conditions to grow and use biomass for electricity generation, biomass based electricity generation in Sri Lanka is lagging behind due to many reasons. Many countries rely on the agricultural or forestry by-products or residuals as the main source of biomass for electricity generation mainly due to the comparatively low cost and sustainable supply of these by-products. Sri Lanka does not have this advantage and has to rely mainly on purposely grown biomass for electricity generation. Development of short rotation energy plantations seems to be the best option available for Sri Lanka to produce biomass for commercial scale electricity generation. The highly favorable growing conditions, availability of promising tree species and a variety of plantation management options and significant environmental and socio-economic benefits associated with energy plantation development greatly favor this option. This paper examines the potential of using plantation grown biomass as a fuel source for electricity generation in Sri Lanka.

  6. Potential for rural electrification based on biomass gasification in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hitofumi [Ecosystems Research Group, School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Katayama, Akio [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Nippon Koei Co. Ltd., Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Sah, Bhuwneshwar P. [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Pasco Corporation, Tokyo 153-0043 (Japan); Toriu, Tsuyoshi [JICA study team for ' The Master Plan Study on Rural Electrification by Renewable Energy in The Kingdom of Cambodia' , Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Sojitz Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo 107-0052 (Japan); Samy, Sat; Pheach, Phon [Ministry of Industry, Mines and Energy, Phnom Penh (Democratic Kampuchea); Adams, Mark A. [School of Biological Earth and Environmental Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Grierson, Pauline F. [Ecosystems Research Group, School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2007-09-15

    Around 76% of the 10,452 villages of Cambodia will still be without electricity in the year 2010. We examined the potential of biomass gasification fuelled by alternative resources of agricultural residues and woody biomass to increase rural power supply, using geographic and social economic databases provided by the Royal Government of Cambodia. About 77% of villages currently without electricity have sufficient land available for tree planting for electricity generation based on a requirement of 0.02 ha per household. Among 8008 villages with sufficient land, we assumed that those villages that had greater than 10% of households owning a television (powered by a battery or a generator) would have both a high electricity demand and a capacity to pay for electricity generation. Those 6418 villages were considered appropriate candidates for mini-grid installation by biomass gasification. This study demonstrated that while agricultural residues such as rice husks or cashew nut shells may have high energy potential, only tree farming or plantations would provide sufficient sustainable resources to supply a biomass gasification system. Cost per unit electricity generation by biomass gasification is less than diesel generation when the plant capacity factor exceeds 13%. In order to ensure long-term ecological sustainability as well as appropriate tree-farming technology for farmers, there is an urgent need for studies aimed at quantifying biomass production across multiple rotations and with different species across Cambodia. (author)

  7. Liquid–Liquid Equilibrium Measurements for Model Systems Related to Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasperson, Louis V.; McDougal, Rubin J.; Diky, Vladimir; Paulechka, Eugene; Chirico, Robert D.; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Iisa, Kristiina; Dutta, Abhijit

    2017-01-12

    We report liquid-liquid mutual solubilities for binary aqueous mixtures involving 2-, 3-, and 4-ethylphenol, 2-, 3-, and 4-methoxyphenol, benzofuran, and 1H-indene for the temperature range (300 < T/K < 360). Measurements in the water-rich phase for (2-ethylphenol + water) were extended to T = 440 K to facilitate comparison with literature values. Liquid-liquid equilibrium tie-line determinations were made for four ternary systems involving (water + toluene) mixed with a third component; phenol, 3-ethylphenol, 4-methoxyphenol, or 2,4-dimethylphenol. Literature values at higher temperatures are available for the three (ethylphenol + water) systems, and, in general, good agreement is seen. The ternary system (water + toluene + phenol) has been studied previously with inconsistent results reported in the literature, and one report is shown to be anomalous. All systems are modeled with the predictive methods NIST-Modified-UNIFAC and NIST-COSMO-SAC, with generally good success in the temperature range of interest (300 < T/K < 360). This work is part of a larger project on the testing and development of predictive phase equilibrium models for compound types occurring in catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass, and background information for the larger project is provided.

  8. Small-Scale Coal-Biomass to Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwal, Santosh K. [Southern Research Institute, Durham, NC (United States); McCabe, Kevin [Southern Research Institute, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The research project advanced coal-to-liquids (CTL) and coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) processes by testing and validating Chevron’s highly selective and active cobalt-zeolite hybrid Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalyst to convert gasifier syngas predominantly to gasoline, jet fuel and diesel range hydrocarbon liquids, thereby eliminating expensive wax upgrading operations The National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) operated by Southern Company (SC) at Wilsonville, Alabama served as the host site for the gasifier slip-stream testing/demonstration. Southern Research designed, installed and commissioned a bench scale skid mounted FT reactor system (SR-CBTL test rig) that was fully integrated with a slip stream from SC/NCCC’s transport integrated gasifier (TRIGTM). The test-rig was designed to receive up to 5 lb/h raw syngas augmented with bottled syngas to adjust the H2/CO molar ratio to 2, clean it to cobalt FT catalyst specifications, and produce liquid FT products at the design capacity of 2 to 4 L/day. It employed a 2-inch diameter boiling water jacketed fixed-bed heat-exchange FT reactor incorporating Chevron’s catalyst in Intramicron’s high thermal conductivity micro-fibrous entrapped catalyst (MFEC) packing to efficiently remove heat produced by the highly exothermic FT reaction.

  9. Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals Using Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei; Zheng, Richard; Brown, Heather; Li, Joanne; Holladay, John; Cooper, Alan; Rao, Tony

    2012-04-13

    This project provides critical innovations and fundamental understandings that enable development of an economically-viable process for catalytic conversion of biomass (sugar) to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A low-cost ionic liquid (Cyphos 106) is discovered for fast conversion of fructose into HMF under moderate reaction conditions without any catalyst. HMF yield from fructose is almost 100% on the carbon molar basis. Adsorbent materials and adsorption process are invented and demonstrated for separation of 99% pure HMF product and recovery of the ionic liquid from the reaction mixtures. The adsorbent material appears very stable in repeated adsorption/regeneration cycles. Novel membrane-coated adsorbent particles are made and demonstrated to achieve excellent adsorption separation performances at low pressure drops. This is very important for a practical adsorption process because ionic liquids are known of high viscosity. Nearly 100% conversion (or dissolution) of cellulose in the catalytic ionic liquid into small molecules was observed. It is promising to produce HMF, sugars and other fermentable species directly from cellulose feedstock. However, several gaps were identified and could not be resolved in this project. Reaction and separation tests at larger scales are needed to minimize impacts of incidental errors on the mass balance and to show 99.9% ionic liquid recovery. The cellulose reaction tests were troubled with poor reproducibility. Further studies on cellulose conversion in ionic liquids under better controlled conditions are necessary to delineate reaction products, dissolution kinetics, effects of mass and heat transfer in the reactor on conversion, and separation of final reaction mixtures.

  10. Design and System Analysis of Quad-Generation Plant Based on Biomass Gasification Integrated with District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman

    . Different biomass resources are used to generate heat and electricity, to produce gas fuel like bio-SNG (synthesis natural gas) and also to produce liquid fuels, such as ethanol, and biodiesel. Due to the fact that the trend of establishing new and modern plants for handling and processing biomass......This thesis presents the development of energy system for simulation, techno-economic optimization and design of a quad-generation energy system based on biomass gasification. An efficient way of reducing CO2 emission from the environment is by increasing the use of biomass in the energy sector......, it possible to lay a foundation for future gasification based power sector to produce flexible output such as electricity, heat, chemicals or bio-fuels by improving energy system of existing DHP(district heating plant) integrating gasification technology. The present study investigate energy system...

  11. A review of the toxicity of biomass pyrolysis liquids formed at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, J P [Thermalchemie, Inc., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The scaleup of biomass fast pyrolysis systems to large pilot and commercial scales will expose an increasingly large number of personnel to potential health hazards, especially during the evaluation of the commercial use of the pyrolysis condensates. Although the concept of fast pyrolysis to optimize liquid products is relatively new, low-temperature pyrolysis processes have been used over the aeons to produce charcoal and liquid by-products, e.g., smoky food flavors, food preservatives, and aerosols containing narcotics, e.g., nicotine. There are a number of studies in the historical literature that concern the hazards of acute and long-term exposure to smoke and to the historical pyrolysis liquids formed at low temperatures. The reported toxicity of smoke, smoke food flavors, and fast pyrolysis oils is reviewed. The data found for these complex mixtures suggest that the toxicity may be less than that of the individual components. It is speculated that there may be chemical reactions that take place that serve to reduce the toxicity during aging. 81 refs.

  12. Liquid alkanes with targeted molecular weights from biomass-derived carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Ryan M; Liu, Zhen Y; Peter, Maximilian; Dumesic, James A

    2008-01-01

    Liquid transportation fuels must burn cleanly and have high energy densities, criteria that are currently fulfilled by petroleum, a non-renewable resource, the combustion of which leads to increasing levels of atmospheric CO(2). An attractive approach for the production of transportation fuels from renewable biomass resources is to convert carbohydrates into alkanes with targeted molecular weights, such as C(8)-C(15) for jet-fuel applications. Targeted n-alkanes can be produced directly from fructose by an integrated process involving first the dehydration of this C(6) sugar to form 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, followed by controlled formation of C-C bonds with acetone to form C(9) and C(15) compounds, and completed by hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation reactions to form the corresponding n-alkanes. Analogous reactions are demonstrated starting with 5-methylfurfural or 2-furaldehyde, with the latter leading to C(8) and C(13) n-alkanes.

  13. Improvement of Rice Biomass Yield through QTL-Based Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Matsubara

    Full Text Available Biomass yield of rice (Oryza sativa L. is an important breeding target, yet it is not easy to improve because the trait is complex and phenotyping is laborious. Using progeny derived from a cross between two high-yielding Japanese cultivars, we evaluated whether quantitative trait locus (QTL-based selection can improve biomass yield. As a measure of biomass yield, we used plant weight (aboveground parts only, which included grain weight and stem and leaf weight. We measured these and related traits in recombinant inbred lines. Phenotypic values for these traits showed a continuous distribution with transgressive segregation, suggesting that selection can affect plant weight in the progeny. Four significant QTLs were mapped for plant weight, three for grain weight, and five for stem and leaf weight (at α = 0.05; some of them overlapped. Multiple regression analysis showed that about 43% of the phenotypic variance of plant weight was significantly explained (P < 0.0001 by six of the QTLs. From F2 plants derived from the same parental cross as the recombinant inbred lines, we divergently selected lines that carried alleles with positive or negative additive effects at these QTLs, and performed successive selfing. In the resulting F6 lines and parents, plant weight significantly differed among the genotypes (at α = 0.05. These results demonstrate that QTL-based selection is effective in improving rice biomass yield.

  14. On the atomization and combustion of liquid biofuels in gas turbines: towards the application of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sallevelt, Johan Leonard Hendrik Pieter

    2015-01-01

    The combustion of liquid biofuels in gas turbines is an efficient way of generating heat and power from biomass. Gas turbines play a major role in the global energy supply and are suitable for a wide range of applications. However, biofuels generally have different properties compared to conventiona

  15. [Effects of organic fish protein liquid fertilizer on enzyme activities and microbial biomass C and N in a silt soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiu-Li; Lei, Ping; Shi, Wei-Yong

    2010-08-01

    By the method of thermostatic culture, this paper studied the effects of different application rates (0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 ml x kg(-1)) of organic fish protein liquid fertilizer on the enzyme activities and microbial biomass C and N in a silt soil, and the relationships between these parameters and soil nutrient contents. Under the application of the liquid fertilizer, soil pH varied in the range of 7.07-7.31, but had no significant difference from the control. With the increasing application rate of the liquid fertilizer, the activities of soil phosphatase, urease, and protease, as well as the soil biomass C and N, all increased significantly, and the increment was 127, 190 and 196%, 39.81, 78.06 and 173.24%, 56.37, 108.29 and 199.98%, 167, 395 and 474%, and 121, 243 and 406%, respectively, compared with the control. The peak time of the soil urease and protease activities and microbial biomass C and N differed with the fertilization treatments. Soil phosphase, urease, and protease activities and microbial biomass C and N were significantly positively correlated with soil nutrient contents, suggesting that applying organic fish protein liquid fertilizer to silt soil could improve soil microbial growth and enzyme activities, and accordingly, promote the decomposition and transformation of soil organic matter and the release of soil available nutrient elements.

  16. Environmental assessment of biomass based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel

    level. The temporal scope is defined by the impact category considered. The technological scope includes both current environmental performance of biomaterials and a discussion of future perspectives, including potentials for future change in their environmental impacts compared to fossil based...... place in biomaterials, on which there is currently no consensus. Other important environmental aspects related to biomaterials that are currently not generally included in LCAs are land use and land use change (LULUC) related impacts, such as changes in biogenic carbon stocks (especially including soil......Goal and scope The goal of this PhD project is to contribute to a more consistent methodology for life cycle assessment (LCA) of biomaterials and to address the environmental performance and perspectives of biomaterials. In particular, it is the goal to develop an approach for dealing...

  17. Biomass CHP based on a Stirling engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowburn, D.A.; Dando, R.L.

    1997-12-31

    Combined heat and power (CHP) schemes offer a means of converting fuel to useful energy with much higher efficiencies (up to 80 percent) compared to electricity generating stations (efficiencies <36 percent). This has led to many EEC member states, including the UK, and other industrial countries encouraging the use of CHP. At the smaller scale (<500 kWe) steam based systems have generally proven too costly to provide solid fuel with an opportunity to exploit this potentially attractive CHP market sector. The Stirling engine offers a technology which can produce mechanical power from solid fuels without the need to raise steam. This project has been directed towards producing a Stirling engine design capable of producing an output of 150 kW{sub e} from solid fuel. The participants in the projects, CRE Group Ltd., Basys Marine Ltd. (formerly Cray Marine) and Gamos Ltd., brought together a wide range of experience in the areas of gasification, combustion, heat transfer, Stirling engine technology and high precision engineering. A novel form of low pressure nitrogen charged Stirling engine has been designed specifically for stationary applications. This avoided the drawbacks of high pressures with H{sub e} or H used as the working fluids and consequent requirement for exotic sealing arrangements, which have been associated with previous Stirling engine`s aimed primarily at the automotive market. (author)

  18. Biomass-based hydrogen production: A review and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinci, Yildiz [Department of Technical Programs, Izmir Vocational High School, Dokuz Eylul University, Education Campus Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Hepbasli, Arif [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Dincer, Ibrahim [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    In this study, various processes for conversion of biomass into hydrogen gas are comprehensively reviewed in terms of two main groups, namely (i) thermo-chemical processes (pyrolysis, conventional gasification, supercritical water gasification (SCWG)), and (ii) biological conversions (fermentative hydrogen production, photosynthesis, biological water gas shift reactions (BWGS)). Biomass-based hydrogen production systems are discussed in terms of their energetic and exergetic aspects. Literature studies and potential methods are then summarized for comparison purposes. In addition, a biomass gasification process via oxygen and steam in a downdraft gasifier is exergetically studied for performance assessment as a case study. The operating conditions and strategies are really important for better performance of the system for hydrogen production. A distinct range of temperatures and pressures is used, such as that the temperatures may vary from 480 to 1400 C, while the pressures are in the range of 0.1-50 MPa in various thermo-chemical processes reviewed. For the operating conditions considered the data for steam biomass ratio (SBR) and equivalence ratio (ER) range from 0.6 to 10 and 0.1 to 0.4, respectively. In the study considered, steam is used as the gasifying agent with a product gas heating value of about 10-15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}, compared to an air gasification of biomass process with 3-6 MJ/Nm{sup 3}. The exergy efficiency value for the case study system is calculated to be 56.8%, while irreversibility and improvement potential rates are found to be 670.43 and 288.28 kW, respectively. Also, exergetic fuel and product rates of the downdraft gasifier are calculated as 1572.08 and 901.64 kW, while fuel depletion and productivity lack ratios are 43% and 74.3%, respectively. (author)

  19. Powerful peracetic acid-ionic liquid pretreatment process for the efficient chemical hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uju; Goto, Masahiro; Kamiya, Noriho

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to design a new method for the efficient saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass (LB) using a combination of peracetic acid (PAA) pretreatment with ionic liquid (IL)-HCl hydrolysis. The pretreatment of LBs with PAA disrupted the lignin fractions, enhanced the dissolution of LB and led to a significant increase in the initial rate of the IL-HCl hydrolysis. The pretreatment of Bagasse with PAA prior to its 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim][Cl])-HCl hydrolysis, led to an improvement in the cellulose conversion from 20% to 70% in 1.5h. Interestingly, the 1-buthyl-3-methylpyridium chloride ([Bmpy][Cl])-HCl hydrolysis of Bagasse gave a cellulose conversion greater than 80%, with or without the PAA pretreatment. For LB derived from seaweed waste, the cellulose conversion reached 98% in 1h. The strong hydrolysis power of [Bmpy][Cl] was attributed to its ability to transform cellulose I to II, and lowering the degree of polymerization of cellulose.

  20. Ionic liquid pretreatment to increase succinic acid production from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caixia; Yan, Daojiang; Li, Qiang; Sun, Wei; Xing, Jianmin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, pinewood and corn stover pretreated with the ionic liquid (IL) 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) were used as a feedstock for succinic acid production. Results reveal that 5% (v/v) AmimCl inhibited bacterial growth, whereas 0.01% (v/v) AmimCl inhibited succinic acid production. AmimCl was effective in extracting cellulose from pinewood and in degrading pinewood into a uniform pulp, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of pinewood extract reached 72.16%. The combinations of AmimCl pretreatment with steam explosion or with hot compressed water were effective in treating corn stover, whereas AmimCl treatment alone did not result in a significant improvement. Pinewood extract produced 20.7g/L succinic acid with an average yield of 0.37g per gram of biomass. Workflow calculations indicated pine wood pretreated with IL has a theoretical yield of succinic acid of 57.1%. IL pretreatment led to increase in succinic acid yields.

  1. Identification of Nutrient Contents in Six Potential Green Biomasses for Developing Liquid Organic Fertilizer in Closed Agricultural Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Fahrurrozi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of solid organic fertilizer in closed agricultural production system must be combined with foliar application to improve fertilizing effectiveness.  Nutrient contents in tissues of green biomass determine the quality of liquid organic fertilizer. Six potential green biomasses, Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray, Gliricidia sepium  (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp., Leucaena leucocephala (Lamk. de Wit, Ageratum conyzoides L., Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.  Solms,  and banana corms were identified its nutrient contents.  Samples were dried at 60oC for 48 hours, grinded, analyzed for N, P, K, Ca-ex, Mg-ex, C, cellulose and lignin contents. Results indicated that T. diversifolia and A. conyzoides had the highest N content compared to other biomasses.  A. conyzoides had the highest P content, followed by T. diversifolia.   A. conyzoides had the highest K content, followed by G. sepium.  The highest Ca-ex content was in L. leucocephala, followed by A. conyzoides. The highest Mg-ex content was found in A. conyzoides, followed by L. leucocephala. The highest C content was found in E.crassipes, followed by G. Sepium.  T. diversifolia had the highest cellulose content, followed by E.crassipes.  Lignin content of all biomasses was similar.  Lastly, E.crassipes had the highest C/N compared to other biomass, and both  T. diversifolia and A. conyzoides had the lowest C/N. It is concluded that  A. conyzoides  is the most promising green biomass for production of liquid organic fertilizer, followed by T. diversifolia and G. sepium.

  2. Activation of lignocellulosic biomass for higher sugar yields using aqueous ionic liquid at low severity process conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan; Sun, Jian; Dutta, Tanmoy; Sun, Ning; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Murthy Konda, N V S N; Peralta, Angelo Gabriel; Simmons, Blake A; Singh, Seema

    2016-01-01

    Concerns around greenhouse gas emissions necessitate the development of sustainable processes for the production of chemicals, materials, and fuels from alternative renewable sources. The lignocellulosic plant cell walls are one of the most abundant sources of carbon for renewable bioenergy production. Certain ionic liquids (ILs) are very effective at disrupting the plant cell walls of lignocellulose, and generate a substrate that is effectively hydrolyzed into fermentable sugars. Conventional ILs are relatively expensive in terms of purchase price, and the most effective imidazolium-based ILs also require energy intensive processing conditions (>140 °C, 3 h) to release >90 % fermentable sugar yields after saccharification. We have developed a highly effective pretreatment technology utilizing the relatively inexpensive IL comprised tetrabutylammonium [TBA](+) and hydroxide [OH](-) ions that generate high glucose yields (~95 %) after pretreatment at very mild processing conditions (50 °C). The efficiency of [TBA][OH] pretreatment of lignocellulose was further studied by analyzing chemical composition, powder X-ray diffraction for cellulose structure, NMR and SEC for lignin dissolution/depolymerization, and glycome profiling for cell wall modifications. Glycome profiling experiments and computational results indicate that removal of the noncellulosic polysaccharides occurs due to the ionic mobility of [TBA][OH] and is the key factor in determining pretreatment efficiency. Process modeling and energy demand analysis suggests that this [TBA][OH] pretreatment could potentially reduce the energy required in the pretreatment unit operation by more than 75 %. By leveraging the benefits of ILs that are effective at very mild processing conditions, such as [TBA][OH], lignocellulosic biomass can be pretreated at similar efficiency as top performing conventional ILs, such as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C2C1Im][OAc], but at much lower temperatures, and with

  3. Emerging Technologies for the Production of Renewable Liquid Transport Fuels from Biomass Sources Enriched in Plant Cell Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwei-Ting Tan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls are composed predominantly of cellulose, a range of non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin. The walls account for a large proportion not only of crop residues such as wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse, but also of residues of the timber industry and specialist grasses and other plants being grown specifically for biofuel production. The polysaccharide components of plant cell walls have long been recognized as an extraordinarily large source of fermentable sugars that might be used for the production of bioethanol and other renewable liquid transport fuels. Estimates place annual plant cellulose production from captured light energy in the order of hundreds of billions of tonnes. Lignin is synthesised in the same order of magnitude and, as a very large polymer of phenylpropanoid residues, lignin is also an abundant, high energy macromolecule. However, one of the major functions of these cell wall constituents in plants is to provide the extreme tensile and compressive strengths that enable plants to resist the forces of gravity and a broad range of other mechanical forces. Over millions of years these wall constituents have evolved under natural selection to generate extremely tough and resilient biomaterials. The rapid degradation of these tough cell wall composites to fermentable sugars is therefore a difficult task and has significantly slowed the development of a viable lignocellulose-based biofuels industry. However, good progress has been made in overcoming this so-called recalcitrance of lignocellulosic feedstocks for the biofuels industry, through modifications to the lignocellulose itself, innovative pre-treatments of the biomass, improved enzymes and the development of superior yeasts and other microorganisms for the fermentation process. Nevertheless, it has been argued that bioethanol might not be the best or only biofuel that can be generated from lignocellulosic biomass sources and that hydrocarbons with

  4. Biomass prediction model in maize based on satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Herbei; Florin, Sala

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring of crops by satellite techniques is very useful in the context of precision agriculture, regarding crops management and agricultural production. The present study has evaluated the interrelationship between maize biomass production and satellite indices (NDVI and NDBR) during five development stages (BBCH code), highlighting different levels of correlation. Biomass production recorded was between 2.39±0.005 t ha-1 (12-13 BBCH code) and 51.92±0.028 t ha-1 (83-85 BBCH code), in relation to vegetation stages studied. Values of chlorophyll content ranged from 24.1±0.25 SPAD unit (12-13 BBCH code) to 58.63±0.47 SPAD unit (71-73 BBCH code), and the obtained satellite indices ranged from 0.035641±0.002 and 0.320839±0.002 for NDVI indices respectively 0.035095±0.034 and 0.491038±0.018 in the case of NDBR indices. By regression analysis it was possible to obtain predictive models of biomass in maize based on the satellite indices, in statistical accurate conditions. The most accurate prediction was possible based on NDBR index (R2 = 0.986, F = 144.23, p<0.001, RMSE = 1.446), then based on chlorophyll content (R2 = 0.834, F = 16.14, p = 0.012, RMSE = 6.927) and NDVI index (R2 = 0.682, F = 3.869, p = 0.116, RMSE = 12.178).

  5. Economic and environmental evaluation of coal-and-biomass-to-liquids-and-electricity plants equipped with carbon capture and storage (data for figures and tables)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data used in the manuscript's tables and figures. Most data represent the modeled optimal capacity of the coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuels-and-electricity (CBTLE)...

  6. Potential evaluation of biomass-based energy sources for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Ozcan; Semra Öztürk; Yuksel Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Turkey has great potential with respect to renewable energy sources (RES) and, among such sources, “biomass energy” is of particular importance. The purpose of this study is to determine the primary electrical energy potential obtainable from the biomass potential, according to different biomass source types. In this study, the biomass sources of municipal solid wastes, energy crops, animal manure and urban wastewater treatment sludge are evaluated. For each source, individual biogas and biom...

  7. Catalytic processes towards the production of biofuels in a palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Thiam Leng; Bhatia, Subhash

    2008-11-01

    In Malaysia, there has been interest in the utilization of palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of environmental friendly biofuels. A biorefinery based on palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of biofuels has been proposed. The catalytic technology plays major role in the different processing stages in a biorefinery for the production of liquid as well as gaseous biofuels. There are number of challenges to find suitable catalytic technology to be used in a typical biorefinery. These challenges include (1) economic barriers, (2) catalysts that facilitate highly selective conversion of substrate to desired products and (3) the issues related to design, operation and control of catalytic reactor. Therefore, the catalytic technology is one of the critical factors that control the successful operation of biorefinery. There are number of catalytic processes in a biorefinery which convert the renewable feedstocks into the desired biofuels. These include biodiesel production from palm oil, catalytic cracking of palm oil for the production of biofuels, the production of hydrogen as well as syngas from biomass gasification, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) for the conversion of syngas into liquid fuels and upgrading of liquid/gas fuels obtained from liquefaction/pyrolysis of biomass. The selection of catalysts for these processes is essential in determining the product distribution (olefins, paraffins and oxygenated products). The integration of catalytic technology with compatible separation processes is a key challenge for biorefinery operation from the economic point of view. This paper focuses on different types of catalysts and their role in the catalytic processes for the production of biofuels in a typical palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery.

  8. Development and Optimization of a Flocculation Procedure for Improved Solid-Liquid Separation of Digested Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Caroline; Lischeske, James J.; Sievers, David A.

    2015-11-03

    One viable treatment method for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels begins with saccharification (thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis), followed by fermentation or catalytic upgrading to fuels such as ethanol, butanol, or other hydrocarbons. The post-hydrolysis slurry is typically 4-8 percent insoluble solids, predominantly consisting of lignin. Suspended solids are known to inhibit fermentation as well as poison catalysts and obstruct flow in catalyst beds. Thus a solid-liquid separation following enzymatic hydrolysis would be highly favorable for process economics, however the material is not easily separated by filtration or gravimetric methods. Use of a polyacrylamide flocculant to bind the suspended particles in a corn stover hydrolyzate slurry into larger flocs (1-2mm diameter) has been found to be extremely helpful in improving separation. Recent and ongoing research on novel pretreatment methods yields hydrolyzate material with diverse characteristics. Therefore, we need a thorough understanding of rapid and successful flocculation design in order to quickly achieve process design goals. In this study potential indicators of flocculation performance were investigated in order to develop a rapid analysis method for flocculation procedure in the context of a novel hydrolyzate material. Flocculation conditions were optimized on flocculant type and loading, pH, and mixing time. Filtration flux of the hydrolyzate slurry was improved 170-fold using a cationic polyacrylamide flocculant with a dosing of approximately 22 mg flocculant/g insoluble solids at an approximate pH of 3. With cake washing, sugar recovery exceeded 90 percent with asymptotic yield at 15 L wash water/kg insoluble solids.

  9. A Novel Slurry-Based Biomass Reforming Process Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerson, Sean C. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Davis, Timothy D. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Peles, A. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); She, Ying [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Sheffel, Joshua [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Willigan, Rhonda R. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Vanderspurt, Thomas H. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Zhu, Tianli [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2011-09-30

    This project was focused on developing a catalytic means of producing H2 from raw, ground biomass, such as fast growing poplar trees, willow trees, or switch grass. The use of a renewable, biomass feedstock with minimal processing can enable a carbon neutral means of producing H2 in that the carbon dioxide produced from the process can be used in the environment to produce additional biomass. For economically viable production of H2, the biomass is hydrolyzed and then reformed without any additional purification steps. Any unreacted biomass and other byproduct streams are burned to provide process energy. Thus, the development of a catalyst that can operate in the demanding corrosive environment and presence of potential poisons is vital to this approach. The concept for this project is shown in Figure 1. The initial feed is assumed to be a >5 wt% slurry of ground wood in dilute base, such as potassium carbonate (K2CO3). Base hydrolysis and reforming of the wood is carried out at high but sub-critical pressures and temperatures in the presence of a solid catalyst. A Pd alloy membrane allows the continuous removal of pure , while the retentate, including methane is used as fuel in the plant. The project showed that it is possible to economically produce H2 from woody biomass in a carbon neutral manner. Technoeconomic analyses using HYSYS and the DOE's H2A tool [1] were used to design a 2000 ton day-1 (dry basis) biomass to hydrogen plant with an efficiency of 46% to 56%, depending on the mode of operation and economic assumptions, exceeding the DOE 2012 target of 43%. The cost of producing the hydrogen from such a plant would be in the range of $1/kg H2 to $2/kg H2. By using raw biomass as a feedstock, the cost of producing hydrogen at large biomass consumption rates is more cost effective than steam reforming of hydrocarbons or biomass gasification and can achieve the overall cost goals of the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program. The complete conversion of wood

  10. A Novel Slurry-Based Biomass Reforming Process Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerson, Sean C. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Davis, Timothy D. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Peles, A. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); She, Ying [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Sheffel, Joshua [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Willigan, Rhonda R. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Vanderspurt, Thomas H. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Zhu, Tianli [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2011-09-30

    This project was focused on developing a catalytic means of producing H2 from raw, ground biomass, such as fast growing poplar trees, willow trees, or switch grass. The use of a renewable, biomass feedstock with minimal processing can enable a carbon neutral means of producing H2 in that the carbon dioxide produced from the process can be used in the environment to produce additional biomass. For economically viable production of H2, the biomass is hydrolyzed and then reformed without any additional purification steps. Any unreacted biomass and other byproduct streams are burned to provide process energy. Thus, the development of a catalyst that can operate in the demanding corrosive environment and presence of potential poisons is vital to this approach. The concept for this project is shown in Figure 1. The initial feed is assumed to be a >5 wt% slurry of ground wood in dilute base, such as potassium carbonate (K2CO3). Base hydrolysis and reforming of the wood is carried out at high but sub-critical pressures and temperatures in the presence of a solid catalyst. A Pd alloy membrane allows the continuous removal of pure , while the retentate, including methane is used as fuel in the plant. The project showed that it is possible to economically produce H2 from woody biomass in a carbon neutral manner. Technoeconomic analyses using HYSYS and the DOE's H2A tool [1] were used to design a 2000 ton day-1 (dry basis) biomass to hydrogen plant with an efficiency of 46% to 56%, depending on the mode of operation and economic assumptions, exceeding the DOE 2012 target of 43%. The cost of producing the hydrogen from such a plant would be in the range of $1/kg H2 to $2/kg H2. By using raw biomass as a feedstock, the cost of producing hydrogen at large biomass consumption rates is more cost effective than steam reforming of hydrocarbons or biomass gasification and can achieve the overall cost goals of the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program. The complete conversion of wood

  11. Liquid phase in situ hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived phenolic compounds to hydrocarbons over bifunctional catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junfeng Feng; Chung-yun Hse; Zhongzhi Yang; Kui Wang; Jianchun Jiang; Junming Xu

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find an effective method for converting renewable biomass-derived phenolic compounds into hydrocarbons bio-fuel via in situ catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. The in situ hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived phenolic compounds was carried out in methanol-water solvent over bifunctional catalysts of Raney Ni and HZSM-5 or H-Beta. In the in...

  12. Enhancing the growth and yield of Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.) by ramie biomass waste in liquid form and gibberellic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman, C.; Nuraini, A.; Wulandari, A. P.; Kadapi, M.

    2017-05-01

    Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.) is one of the most important sources of natural fibre, a sustainable biomass. The growth and yield of ramie are affected by mineral nutrients. In the present study, we usedfertilizers from waste of ramie biomass in liquid form (liquid organic fertilizer, LOF) and the other treatment is by gibberellic acid (GA3). This study was to obtain the effect of treatments on enhance the growth and yield of ramie. Hence, we measure the character that related to the important parameter for biomass product of ramie. Such plant height, stem diameter, dry plant weight, and ramie fresh stem weight of ramie clone Pujon 13. This research was conducted from January 2016 to March 2016 at Research Field Ciparanje, Faculty of Agriculture, Padjadjaran University, Jatinangor, Sumedang, West Java with an altitude of about ± 750 m above sea level. The type of Soil in this area is Inceptisolsoil order and thetype of rainfall according to Schmidt and Fergusson Classification is C type. The experiment used Randomized Block Design (RBD) which consisted of eight treatments (GA and LOF) and four replications. The concentration of GA from 0, 50, 100 and 150 ppm and for concentration of LOF is 40 mlL-1. We suggested the treatment of GA 150 ppm with 40 mlL-1 LOF was the best treatment on enhancing plant height and stem fresh weight of ramie clone Pujon 13.

  13. Ionic liquid pretreatment of biomass for sugars production: Driving factors with a plausible mechanism for higher enzymatic digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Tirath; Gaur, Ruchi; Dixit, Pooja; Gupta, Ravi P; Kagdiyal, V; Kumar, Ravindra; Tuli, Deepak K

    2016-09-20

    In this study, five ionic liquids (ILs) have been explored for biomass pretreatment for the production of fermentable sugar. We also investigated the driving factors responsible for improved enzymatic digestibility of various ILs treated biomass along with postulating the plausible mechanism thereof. Post pretreatment, mainly two factors impacted the enzymatic digestibility (i) structural deformation (cellulose I to II) along with xylan/lignin removal and (ii) properties of ILs; wherein, K-T parameters, viscosity and surface tension had a direct influence on pretreatment. A systematic investigation of these parameters and their impact on enzymatic digestibility is drawn. [C2mim][OAc] with β-value 1.32 resulted 97.7% of glucose yield using 10 FPU/g of biomass. A closer insight into the cellulose structural transformation has prompted a plausible mechanism explaining the better digestibility. The impact of these parameters on the digestibility can pave the way to customize the process to make biomass vulnerable to enzymatic attack.

  14. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y.; Wilen, C.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the project was to assess the competitiveness and market potential of small-scale power plant concepts based on biomass gasification and on diesel/gas engines, and to study the effect of process parameters on the efficiency of the circulating fluidized-bed gasifier and on the formation of tarry impurities. Alternative diesel/gas engine power plant concepts based on gasification in scale 6-50 MW{sub e} were assessed. In the basic version, where the electricity is generated only by the a diesel/gas engine, the efficiency level of 37 % is achieved in power generation. When steam cycle is added to the process the efficiency of power generation increases to 44-48 %. The efficiencies achieved in the process are very high compared with those of biomass power plant processes on a commercial level or under development. The most significant potential of biomass-based power generation is made up by wastes of sugar industries in south and Central America and in Asia. There are also very extensive growth potentials of bioenergy use in the NAFTA countries (USA, Canada and Mexico) and in Europe. In Europe, the bioenergy use is expected to grow most sharply in Italy, Spain, Germany and Poland. Carbon conversion obtained in the gasifier was in the range of 99.0-99.9 % for sawdust and 96-98 % for forest residue chips. The tar content of the product gas 10-15 g/m- m{sup 3}{sub n}, for sawdust in the gasification temperature of 830-930 deg C and with sand as circulating fluid-bed. When dolomite was used as circulating fluid-bed, the tar contents were 2-3 g/m{sup 3}{sub n} at as low temperatures as 880-890 deg C. The tar content of gas can be reduced sharply by phasing of gasification air and by using catalytic circulating fluid-bed material Bioenergy Research Programme; LIEKKI 2 Research Programme. 26 refs., 40 figs.

  15. Estimation of above ground biomass in boreal forest using ground-based Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheriazad, L.; Moghadas, H.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, A.

    2017-05-01

    Assessing above ground biomass of forest is important for carbon storage monitoring in boreal forest. In this study, a new model is developed to estimate the above ground biomass using ground based Lidar data. 21 trees were measured and scanned across the plot area study in boreal forests of Alberta, Canada. The study area was scanned in the summer season 2014 to quantify the green biomass. The average of total crown biomass and green biomass in this study was 377 kg (standard deviation, S.D. = 243 kg) and 6.42 kg (S.D. = 2.69 m), respectively.

  16. Potential evaluation of biomass-based energy sources for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ozcan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has great potential with respect to renewable energy sources (RES and, among such sources, “biomass energy” is of particular importance. The purpose of this study is to determine the primary electrical energy potential obtainable from the biomass potential, according to different biomass source types. In this study, the biomass sources of municipal solid wastes, energy crops, animal manure and urban wastewater treatment sludge are evaluated. For each source, individual biogas and biomass energy potential calculations are made. Methods for energy conversion from wastes applicable to the conditions of Turkey, and technical and economic parameters are used. As a result of the calculations made, the total primary energy value of biogas obtainable from the examined sources is 188.21 TWh/year. The total primary energy value related to the potential of the evaluated biomass sources is 278.40 TWh/year.

  17. Biomass supply chain optimisation for Organosolv-based biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarola, Sara; Patel, Mayank; Shah, Nilay

    2014-05-01

    This work aims at providing a Mixed Integer Linear Programming modelling framework to help define planning strategies for the development of sustainable biorefineries. The up-scaling of an Organosolv biorefinery was addressed via optimisation of the whole system economics. Three real world case studies were addressed to show the high-level flexibility and wide applicability of the tool to model different biomass typologies (i.e. forest fellings, cereal residues and energy crops) and supply strategies. Model outcomes have revealed how supply chain optimisation techniques could help shed light on the development of sustainable biorefineries. Feedstock quality, quantity, temporal and geographical availability are crucial to determine biorefinery location and the cost-efficient way to supply the feedstock to the plant. Storage costs are relevant for biorefineries based on cereal stubble, while wood supply chains present dominant pretreatment operations costs.

  18. Phosphonium-based ionic liquids and uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Sesto, Rico E; Koppisch, Andrew T; Lovejoy, Katherine S; Purdy, Geraldine M

    2014-12-30

    Phosphonium-based room temperature ionic liquids ("RTILs") were prepared. They were used as matrices for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry and also for preparing samples of dyes for analysis.

  19. Characterization of white poplar and eucalyptus after ionic liquid pretreatment as a function of biomass loading using X-ray diffraction and small angle neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Xueming [Beijing Univ. of Chemical Technology (China); Duan, Yonghao [Beijing Univ. of Chemical Technology (China); He, Lilin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Singh, Seema [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Simmons, Blake [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheng, Gang [Beijing Univ. of Chemical Technology (China); Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-02-08

    A systematic study was done to understand interactions among biomass loading during ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment, biomass type and biomass structures. White poplar and eucalyptus samples were pretreated using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimOAc) at 110 °C for 3 h at biomass loadings of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt%. All of the samples were chemically characterized and tested for enzymatic hydrolysis. Physical structures including biomass crystallinity and porosity were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS), respectively. SANS detected pores of radii ranging from ~25 to 625 Å, enabling assessment of contributions of pores with different sizes to increased porosity after pretreatment. Contrasting dependences of sugar conversion on white poplar and eucalyptus as a function of biomass loading were observed and cellulose crystalline structure was found to play an important role.

  20. Structural analysis of Catliq® bio-oil produced by catalytic liquid conversion of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib Sohail; Rosendahl, Lasse; Nielsen, Mads Pagh;

    Liq® process compared with combustion is that also wet material can be processed. In the process, the waste is transformed to bio-oil, combustible gases and water-soluble organic compounds. The raw material used in this study was DDGS (Dried Distilled Grain with Solubles), a residual product in 1st generation......) process is a second generation process for the production of bio-oil from different biomass-based waste materials. The process is carried out at subcritical conditions (280-350 °C and 180-250 bar) and in the presence of homogeneous (KOH) and heterogeneous (ZrO2) catalysts. The great advantage with the Cat...... ethanol production, available in huge quantities. DDGS is today used as animal feed but in a future with increasing production of DDGS, converting it into bio-oil may be an attractive alternative. The bio-oil can be used for green electricity production or it can be upgraded to bio-diesel. In the current...

  1. Live above- and belowground biomass of a Mozambican evergreen forest:a comparison of estimates based on regression equations and biomass expansion factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tarquinio; Mateus; Magalhães

    2016-01-01

    Background:Biomass regression equations are claimed to yield the most accurate biomass estimates than biomass expansion factors (BEFs). Yet, national and regional biomass estimates are general y calculated based on BEFs, especial y when using national forest inventory data. Comparison of regression equations based and BEF-based biomass estimates are scarce. Thus, this study was intended to compare these two commonly used methods for estimating tree and forest biomass with regard to errors and biases. Methods:The data were col ected in 2012 and 2014. In 2012, a two-phase sampling design was used to fit tree component biomass regression models and determine tree BEFs. In 2014, additional trees were fel ed outside sampling plots to estimate the biases associated with regression equation based and BEF-based biomass estimates;those estimates were then compared in terms of the fol owing sources of error: plot selection and variability, biomass model, model parameter estimates, and residual variability around model prediction. Results:The regression equation based below-, aboveground and whole tree biomass stocks were, approximately, 7.7, 8.5 and 8.3%larger than the BEF-based ones. For the whole tree biomass stock, the percentage of the total error attributed to first phase (random plot selection and variability) was 90 and 88%for regression-and BEF-based estimates, respectively, being the remaining attributed to biomass models (regression and BEF models, respectively). The percent bias of regression equation based and BEF-based biomass estimates for the whole tree biomass stock were−2.7 and 5.4%, respectively. The errors due to model parameter estimates, those due to residual variability around model prediction, and the percentage of the total error attributed to biomass model were larger for BEF models (than for regression models), except for stem and stem wood components. Conclusions:The regression equation based biomass stocks were found to be slightly larger

  2. Live above- and belowground biomass of a Mozambican evergreen forest: a comparison of estimates based on regression equations and biomass expansion factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarquinio Mateus Magalhães

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Biomass regression equations are claimed to yield the most accurate biomass estimates than biomass expansion factors (BEFs. Yet, national and regional biomass estimates are generally calculated based on BEFs, especially when using national forest inventory data. Comparison of regression equations based and BEF-based biomass estimates are scarce. Thus, this study was intended to compare these two commonly used methods for estimating tree and forest biomass with regard to errors and biases. Methods The data were collected in 2012 and 2014. In 2012, a two-phase sampling design was used to fit tree component biomass regression models and determine tree BEFs. In 2014, additional trees were felled outside sampling plots to estimate the biases associated with regression equation based and BEF-based biomass estimates; those estimates were then compared in terms of the following sources of error: plot selection and variability, biomass model, model parameter estimates, and residual variability around model prediction. Results The regression equation based below-, aboveground and whole tree biomass stocks were, approximately, 7.7, 8.5 and 8.3 % larger than the BEF-based ones. For the whole tree biomass stock, the percentage of the total error attributed to first phase (random plot selection and variability was 90 and 88 % for regression- and BEF-based estimates, respectively, being the remaining attributed to biomass models (regression and BEF models, respectively. The percent bias of regression equation based and BEF-based biomass estimates for the whole tree biomass stock were −2.7 and 5.4 %, respectively. The errors due to model parameter estimates, those due to residual variability around model prediction, and the percentage of the total error attributed to biomass model were larger for BEF models (than for regression models, except for stem and stem wood components. Conclusions The regression equation based biomass stocks were found to

  3. Systems Based Approaches for Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Bioenergy and Bioproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Steven [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    2016-07-11

    Auburn’s Center for Bioenergy and Bioproducts conducts research on production of synthesis gas for use in power generation and the production of liquid fuels. The overall goal of our gasification research is to identify optimal processes for producing clean syngas to use in production of fuels and chemicals from underutilized agricultural and forest biomass feedstocks. This project focused on construction and commissioning of a bubbling-bed fluidized-bed gasifier and subsequent shakedown of the gasification and gas cleanup system. The result of this project is a fully commissioned gasification laboratory that is conducting testing on agricultural and forest biomass. Initial tests on forest biomass have served as the foundation for follow-up studies on gasification under a more extensive range of temperatures, pressures, and oxidant conditions. The laboratory gasification system consists of a biomass storage tank capable of holding up to 6 tons of biomass; a biomass feeding system, with loss-in-weight metering system, capable of feeding biomass at pressures up to 650 psig; a bubbling-bed fluidized-bed gasification reactor capable of operating at pressures up to 650 psig and temperatures of 1500oF with biomass flowrates of 80 lb/hr and syngas production rates of 37 scfm; a warm-gas filtration system; fixed bed reactors for gas conditioning; and a final quench cooling system and activated carbon filtration system for gas conditioning prior to routing to Fischer-Tropsch reactors, or storage, or venting. This completed laboratory enables research to help develop economically feasible technologies for production of biomass-derived synthesis gases that will be used for clean, renewable power generation and for production of liquid transportation fuels. Moreover, this research program provides the infrastructure to educate the next generation of engineers and scientists needed to implement these technologies.

  4. Chemical and physical characterisation of biomass-based pyrolysis oils. Literature view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagernaes, L. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1995-12-31

    Biomass-based pyrolysis oils are complex mixtures of mainly organic compounds and water. The determination of their physical and chemical properties and chemical composition is a challenge for researchers. Characterisation of biomass pyrolysis oils has been studied at many universities in North America and Europe in the 1980s and 1990s. The existing literature on the analytical methods used for these oils is reviewed in this report. For characterising the chemical composition, the bio-oils have first been mainly fractionated into different classes. Solvent extraction and adsorption chromatography are the most general methods used. In adsorption chromatography, the oils have been fractionated into different hydrocarbon and polar fractions. The fractions obtained have been analysed with various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique is the analytical method most widely used and well adaptable for the fractions. For high-molecular-mass and highly polar compounds liquid chromatographic (LC) techniques as well as infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 13C NMR) spectroscopies are more suitable due to the low volatility of pyrolysis oils. For whole pyrolysis oils, LC techniques, primarily size exclusion chromatography and FT-IR and FT-NMR spectroscopies have proved to be useful methods

  5. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement was implemented by two-color pyrometry under quiescent type diesel engine conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration). Different fuel quantities, which correspond to different injection widths from 0.5 ms to 2 ms under constant injection pressure (1000 bar), were used to simulate different loads in engines. For a given fuel, soot temperature and KL factor show a different trend at initial stage for different fuel quantities, where a higher soot temperature can be found in a small fuel quantity case but a higher KL factor is observed in a large fuel quantity case generally. Another difference occurs at the end of combustion due to the termination of fuel injection. Additionally, BTL flame has a lower soot temperature, especially under a larger fuel quantity (2 ms injection width). Meanwhile, average soot level is lower for BTL flame, especially under a lower fuel quantity (0.5 ms injection width). BTL shows an overall low sooting behavior with low soot temperature compared to diesel, however, trade-off between soot level and soot temperature needs to be carefully selected when different loads are used.

  6. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30

    This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a

  7. Estimation of winter wheat biomass based on remote sensing data at various spatial and spectral resolutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yansong BAO; Wei GAO; Zhiqiang GAO

    2009-01-01

    Biomass can indicate plant growth status, so it is an important index for plant growth monitoring. This paper focused on the methodology of estimating the winter wheat biomass based on hyperspectral field data, including the LANDSAT TM and EOS MODIS images. In order to develop the method of retrieving the wheat biomass from remote sensed data, routine field measurements were initiated during periods when the LANDSAT satellite passed over the study region. In the course of the experiment, five LANDSAT TM images were acquired respectively at early erecting stage, jointing stage, earring stage, flowering stage and grain-filling stage of the winter wheat, and the wheat biomass was measured at each stage. Based on the TM and MODIS images, spectral indices such as NDVI, RDVI, EVI, MSAVI, SIPI and NDWI were calculated. At the same time, the hyperspectral field data was used to compute the normalized difference in spectral indices, red-edge parameters, spectral absorption, and reflection feature parameters. Then the correlation coefficients between the wheat biomass and spectral parameters of the experiment sites were computed. According to the correlation coefficients, the optimal spectral parameters for estimating the wheat biomass were determined. The bestfitting method was employed to build the relationship models between the wheat biomass and the optimal spectral parameters. Finally, the models were used to estimate the wheat biomass based on the TM and MODIS data. The maximum RMSE of estimated biomass was 66.403 g/m2.

  8. Methods for pretreating biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo

    2017-05-09

    A method for pretreating biomass is provided, which includes, in a reactor, allowing gaseous ammonia to condense on the biomass and react with water present in the biomass to produce pretreated biomass, wherein reactivity of polysaccharides in the biomass is increased during subsequent biological conversion as compared to the reactivity of polysaccharides in biomass which has not been pretreated. A method for pretreating biomass with a liquid ammonia and recovering the liquid ammonia is also provided. Related systems which include a biochemical or biofuel production facility are also disclosed.

  9. UAV-BASED AUTOMATIC TREE GROWTH MEASUREMENT FOR BIOMASS ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karpina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Manual in-situ measurements of geometric tree parameters for the biomass volume estimation are time-consuming and economically non-effective. Photogrammetric techniques can be deployed in order to automate the measurement procedure. The purpose of the presented work is an automatic tree growth estimation based on Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle (UAV imagery. The experiment was conducted in an agriculture test field with scots pine canopies. The data was collected using a Leica Aibotix X6V2 platform equipped with a Nikon D800 camera. Reference geometric parameters of selected sample plants were measured manually each week. In situ measurements were correlated with the UAV data acquisition. The correlation aimed at the investigation of optimal conditions for a flight and parameter settings for image acquisition. The collected images are processed in a state of the art tool resulting in a generation of dense 3D point clouds. The algorithm is developed in order to estimate geometric tree parameters from 3D points. Stem positions and tree tops are identified automatically in a cross section, followed by the calculation of tree heights. The automatically derived height values are compared to the reference measurements performed manually. The comparison allows for the evaluation of automatic growth estimation process. The accuracy achieved using UAV photogrammetry for tree heights estimation is about 5cm.

  10. Uav-Based Automatic Tree Growth Measurement for Biomass Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpina, M.; Jarząbek-Rychard, M.; Tymków, P.; Borkowski, A.

    2016-06-01

    Manual in-situ measurements of geometric tree parameters for the biomass volume estimation are time-consuming and economically non-effective. Photogrammetric techniques can be deployed in order to automate the measurement procedure. The purpose of the presented work is an automatic tree growth estimation based on Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle (UAV) imagery. The experiment was conducted in an agriculture test field with scots pine canopies. The data was collected using a Leica Aibotix X6V2 platform equipped with a Nikon D800 camera. Reference geometric parameters of selected sample plants were measured manually each week. In situ measurements were correlated with the UAV data acquisition. The correlation aimed at the investigation of optimal conditions for a flight and parameter settings for image acquisition. The collected images are processed in a state of the art tool resulting in a generation of dense 3D point clouds. The algorithm is developed in order to estimate geometric tree parameters from 3D points. Stem positions and tree tops are identified automatically in a cross section, followed by the calculation of tree heights. The automatically derived height values are compared to the reference measurements performed manually. The comparison allows for the evaluation of automatic growth estimation process. The accuracy achieved using UAV photogrammetry for tree heights estimation is about 5cm.

  11. Design of novel DME/methanol synthesis plants based on gasification of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    is lost in the biomass torrefaction process, the total efficiencies based on untreated biomass to DME were 64% for the RC plant and 59% for the OT plant. CO2 emissions could be reduced to 3% (RC) or 10% (OT) of the input carbon in the torrefied biomass, by using CO2 capture and storage together...... with certain plant design changes. Accounting for the torrefaction process, which occurs outside the plant, the emissions became 22% (RC) and 28% (OT) of the carbon in the untreated biomass. The estimated costs of the produced DME were $11.9/GJLHV for the RC plant, and $12.9/GJLHV for the OT plant...... complete conversion of the carbon in the torrefied biomass, to carbon in the produced methanol, was achieved (97% conversion). The methanol yield per unit biomass input was therefore increased from 66% (the large-scale DME plant) to 128% (LHV). The total energy efficiency was however reduced from 71% (the...

  12. Bio-based liquid crystalline polyesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsens, Carolus; Rastogi, Sanjay; Dutch Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    The reported thin-film polymerization has been used as a screening method in order to find bio-based liquid crystalline polyesters with convenient melting temperatures for melt-processing purposes. An in depth study of the structural, morphological and chemical changes occurring during the ongoing polycondensation reactions of these polymers have been performed. Structural and conformational changes during polymerization for different compositions have been followed by time resolved X-ray and Infrared spectroscopy. In this study, bio-based monomers such as vanillic acid and 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid are successfully incorporated in liquid crystalline polyesters and it is shown that bio-based liquid crystalline polymers with high aromatic content and convenient processing temperatures can be synthesized. Special thanks to the Dutch Polymer Institute for financial support

  13. Marginal land-based biomass energy production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ya; Xie, Jia-Sui; Geng, Shu

    2010-01-01

    Fast economic development in China has resulted in a significant increase in energy demand. Coal accounts for 70% of China's primary energy consumption and its combustion has caused many environmental and health problems. Energy security and environmental protection requirements are the main drivers for renewable energy development in China. Small farmland and food security make bioenergy derived from corn or sugarcane unacceptable to China: the focus should be on generating bioenergy from ligno-cellulosic feedstock sources. As China cannot afford biomass energy production from its croplands, marginal lands may play an important role in biomass energy production. Although on a small scale, marginal land has already been used for various purposes. It is estimated that some 45 million hm(2) of marginal land could be brought into high potential biomass energy production. For the success of such an initiative, it will likely be necessary to develop multipurpose plants. A case study, carried out on marginal land in Ningnan County, Sichuan Province with per capita cropland of 0.07 ha, indicated that some 380,000 tons of dry biomass could be produced each year from annual pruning of mulberry trees. This study supports the feasibility of producing large quantities of biomass from marginal land sources.

  14. Biomass [updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Biomass resources and conversion technologies are diverse. Substantial biomass resources exist including woody crops, herbaceous perennials and annuals, forest resources, agricultural residues, and algae. Conversion processes available include fermentation, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, combustion, and transesterification. Bioderived products include liquid fuels (e.g. ethanol, biodiesel, and gasoline and diesel substitutes), gases, electricity, biochemical, and wood pellets. At present the major sources of biomass-derived liquid fuels are from first generation biofuels; ethanol from maize and sugar cane (89 billion L in 2013) and biodiesel from vegetable oils and fats (24 billion liters in 2011). For other than traditional uses, policy in the forms of mandates, targets, subsidies, and greenhouse gas emission targets has largely been driving biomass utilization. Second generation biofuels have been slow to take off.

  15. Catalytic conversion of biomass-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest global threats of the 21st century. Fossil fuels constitute by far the most important energy source for transportation and the different governments are starting to take action to promote the use of cleaner fuels. Biomass-derived fuels are a promising alternative for diversifying fuel sources, reducing fossil fuel dependency and abating greenhouse gas emissions. The research interest has quickly shifted from first-generation biofuels, obtained from food co...

  16. Sustainable production of microalgae biomass in liquid digestates and by products from agro-food industries

    OpenAIRE

    Massa, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Globally, there is growing interest in microalgae production as innovative vegetable biomass rich in phytochemicals at high added value to apply in different commercial sectors (food, feed, nutraceutical, cosmetician and wastewaters depuration) and as future biodiesel source for the high lipid content and fatty acid profile of some species. To date the microalgae market for food and feed is a niche market but it is increasingly relevant and strictly correlate to their chemical com...

  17. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-06-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

  18. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-04-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

  19. U.S. Biomass Opportunities for Value-added Biomass Exports based on the European Union Renewable Energy Share Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises Lacoa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available World energy demand is expected to continue increasing in the coming years. This situation has created a worldwide pressure for the development of alternative fuel and energy sources, pursuing a more environmentally friendly usage of biofuels. The EU has the target of generating 20% of its energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. Member States have different individual targets to meet this overall target. Meanwhile in the United States, there are about 750 million acres [300 million hectares] of forestland, with slightly more than two-thirds classified as timberland or land capable of producing 20 cubic feet per acre [1.4 m3 per hectare] annually of roundwood. Given these circumstances, this research aimed to understand the U.S. opportunities to export woody biomass based on the targets that the European Union has imposed to its Member States. The data collected allowed several scenario developments by identifying the possible EU’s biomass deficits and U.S.’s capacity to supply the gaps. Considering the physical availability, the U.S. would be able to satisfy between 42 and 48% depending on the energy efficiency scenario. Nevertheless, when considering reasonable biomass prices, only a small portion of the EU demand could be covered by the U.S.

  20. REMOVAL OF TEXTILE DYE NOVACRON YELLOW USING THE FUNGAL BIOMASS BASED ON CLADOSPORIUM SP. GENUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Diniz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present an economically viable adsorbent material based on fungal biomass of genus Cladosporium sp. The molecule used as adsorbate was the commercial dye Novacron Yellow (NY. The water sample used in the fungal isolation was collected in the effluent from a textile factory. The ITS-rRNA sequence of fungal biomass used in this study match with Cladosporium sp genus. The FTIR spectrums of fungal biomass are compatibles with chitin structure. The maximum adsorption capacity exhibited by fungal biomass is 56mg.g-1. These results can inserts the biomass based on Cladosporium sp as a good alternative to adsorption of organic dyes with high molecular weight such as Novacron Yellow

  1. [Endogenous respiration process analysis of heterotrophic biomass and autotrophic biomass based on respiration map ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-hua; Bai, Xu-li; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Yi; He, Chun-bo

    2014-09-01

    The endogenous process is an important metabolic part of the activated sludge, and the understanding of this process is still unclear. Characteristics of endogenous respiration for heterotrophic bacteria and autotrophic nitrifiers were analyzed using respirogram. Results showed that both heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria entered the stage of endogenous respiration at almost the same time, but heterotrophic bacteria first entered the stage of dormancy i. e. , they were easier to recover a higher proportion of biomass during the dormancy stage, indicating that heterotrophic bacteria exhibited strong environmental adaptability. Autotrophic bacteria were, however, quite different. This finding confirmed that autotrophic bacteria were more vulnerable from the viewpoint of endogenous respiration. In addition, the study also found that the increase of endogenous respiration rate ratio reflected the decreased sludge activity. And the proportion of endogenous respiration was an important parameter to characterize the activity of activated sludge, which can be used as a quantitative index for the health status of activated sludge. The findings further deepened the understanding of endogenous respiration process and provided a theoretical basis for the operation and management of wastewater treatment plants.

  2. Green Polymer Precursors from Biomass-Based Levulinic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalid, M.; Heeres, H.J.; Broekhuis, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Levulinic acid (LA) has been identified as a suitable chemical feedstock that can be isolated from biomass. Its conversion into γ-valerolactone (GVL) via hydrogenation and ringclosure to the lactone has been studied as a versatile route to the manufacture of biodegradable polyesters. For

  3. Evaluation of research in plant biomass production for liquid fuel conversion: The case of India, Brazil and Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S.M. (Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom))

    1992-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify research activities in the field of plant biomass production for liquid fuel conversion and to evaluate research in areas outside the USA and EEC. Results are presented for three countries: Japan, India and Brazil. Research groups were identified from a range of information sources. Data were collected by interview and related to funding, information access, staffing, publication policy and degree of awareness of other research groups in the field. Bibliometric analysis and peer review were used as indicators in an attempt to assess research output. The findings are discussed in relation to agro-industrial policy in Japan, the use of marginal land in India and the Proalcohol program in Brazil.

  4. Novel renewable ionic liquids as highly effective solvents for pretreatment of rice straw biomass by selective removal of lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xue-Dan; Smith, Thomas J; Li, Ning; Zong, Min-Hua

    2012-10-01

    Cholinium amino acids ionic liquids ([Ch][AA] ILs), a novel type of bio-ILs that can easily be prepared from renewable biomaterials, were investigated for pretreatment of rice straw by selective extraction of lignin from this abundant lignocellulosic biomass material. Of the eight ILs examined, most were demonstrated to be excellent pretreatment solvents. Upon pretreatment using these ILs, the initial saccharification rates of rice straw residues were substantially improved as well as the extent to which polysaccharides could be digested (>90% for cellulose and >60% for xylan). Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw by Trichoderma reesei cellulase/xylanase furnished glucose and xylose with the yields in excess of 80% and 30%, respectively. Detailed spectroscopic characterization showed that the enhancement of polysaccharides degestibility derived mainly from delignification rather than changes in cellulose crystallinity. The yields of fermentable reducing sugars were significantly improved after individual optimization of pretreatment temperature and duration. With [Ch][Lys] as the solvent, the sugar yields of 84.0% for glucose and 42.1% for xylose were achieved after pretreatment at 90°C for 5 h. The IL [Ch][Lys] showed excellent reusability across five successive batches in pretreatment of rice straw. These bio-ILs performed as well as or better than previously investigated non-renewable ILs, and thus present a new and environmentally friendly way to pretreat lignocellulose for production of fermentable sugars and total utilization of the biomass. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. In silico insights into the solvation characteristics of the ionic liquid 1-methyltriethoxy-3-ethylimidazolium acetate for cellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutt, Timothy C; Bharadwaj, Vivek S; Hegde, Govind A; Johns, Adam J; Mark Maupin, C

    2016-09-14

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a domestically grown, sustainable, and potentially carbon-neutral feedstock for the production of liquid fuels and other value added chemicals. This underutilized renewable feedstock has the potential to alleviate some of the current socio-economic dependence on foreign petroleum supplies while stimulating rural economies. Unfortunately, the potential of biomass has largely been underdeveloped due to the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic materials. Task-specific ionic liquids (ILs) have shown considerable promise as an alternative non-aqueous solvent for solvation and deconstruction of lignocellulose in the presence of metal chloride catalyst or enzymes. Recently it has been hypothesized that adding oxygen atoms to the tail of an imidazolium cation would alleviate some of the negative characteristics of the ILs by increasing mass transport properties, and decreasing IL deactivation of enzymes, while at the same time retaining favorable solvation characteristics for lignocellulose. Reported here are fully atomistic molecular dynamic simulations of 1-methyltriethoxy-3-ethylimidazolium acetate ([Me-(OEt)3-Et-IM(+)] [OAc(-)]) that elucidate promising molecular-level details pertaining to the solvation characteristics of model compounds of cellulose, and IL-induced side-chain and ring puckering conformations. It is found that the anion interactions with the saccharide induce alternate ring puckering conformations from those seen in aqueous environments (i.e.(1)C4), while the cation interactions are found to influence the conformation of the ω dihedral. These perturbations in saccharide structures are discussed in the context of their contribution to the disruption of hydrogen bonding in cellulosic architecture and their role in solvation.

  6. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-07-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop. The workshop, held March 20–21, 2014, in Golden, Colorado, discussed and detailed the research and development needs for biomass indirect liquefaction. Discussions focused on pathways that convert biomass-based syngas (or any carbon monoxide, hydrogen gaseous stream) to liquid intermediates (alcohols or acids) and further synthesize those intermediates to liquid hydrocarbons that are compatible as either a refinery feed or neat fuel.

  7. Ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of aromatic amines in water samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Chang Fan; Zheng Liang Hu; Mei Lan Chen; Chao Shen Tu; Yan Zhu

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a new microextraction method termed ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME) was demonstrated for the extraction of 2-methylaniline, 4-chloroaniline, 1-naphthylamine and 4-aminobiphenyl in aqueous matrices. After extraction the ionic liquid (IL) phase was injected directly into the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system for determination. Some parameters that might affect the extraction efficiency were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, good linear relationship, sensitivity and reproducibility were obtained. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) for the four analytes were in the range of 0.45-2.6 μg L-1. The relative standard deviations (R.S.D., n = 6) were in the range of 6.2-9.8%. This method was applied for the analysis of the real water samples. The recoveries ranged from 93.4 to 106.4%. The main advantages of the method are high speed, high recovery, good repeatability and volatile organic solvent-free.

  8. Evaluating the Remote Sensing and Inventory-Based Estimation of Biomass in the Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen G. Moisen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the potential of forest ecosystems as global carbon sinks requires a thorough knowledge of forest carbon dynamics, including both sequestration and fluxes among multiple pools. The accurate quantification of biomass is important to better understand forest productivity and carbon cycling dynamics. Stand-based inventories (SBIs are widely used for quantifying forest characteristics and for estimating biomass, but information may quickly become outdated in dynamic forest environments. Satellite remote sensing may provide a supplement or substitute. We tested the accuracy of aboveground biomass estimates modeled from a combination of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM imagery and topographic data, as well as SBI-derived variables in a Picea abies forest in the Western Carpathian Mountains. We employed Random Forests for non-parametric, regression tree-based modeling. Results indicated a difference in the importance of SBI-based and remote sensing-based predictors when estimating aboveground biomass. The most accurate models for biomass prediction ranged from a correlation coefficient of 0.52 for the TM- and topography-based model, to 0.98 for the inventory-based model. While Landsat-based biomass estimates were measurably less accurate than those derived from SBI, adding tree height or stand-volume as a field-based predictor to TM and topography-based models increased performance to 0.36 and 0.86, respectively. Our results illustrate the potential of spectral data to reveal spatial details in stand structure and ecological complexity.

  9. Steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment refining technology of plant biomass to bio-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Zhang; Liu, Zhi-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Pretreatment is a key unit operation affecting the refinery efficiency of plant biomass. However, the poor efficiency of pretreatment and the lack of basic theory are the main challenges to the industrial implementation of the plant biomass refinery. The purpose of this work is to review steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment as a means of overcoming the intrinsic characteristics of plant biomass, including recalcitrance, heterogeneity, multi-composition, and diversity. The main advantages of the selective use of steam explosion and other combinatorial pretreatments across the diversity of raw materials are introduced. Combinatorial pretreatment integrated with other unit operations is proposed as a means to exploit the high-efficiency production of bio-based products from plant biomass. Finally, several pilot- and demonstration-scale operations of the plant biomass refinery are described. Based on the principle of selective function and structure fractionation, and multi-level and directional composition conversion, an integrated process with the combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments as the core should be feasible and conform to the plant biomass refinery concept. Combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments should be further exploited based on the type and intrinsic characteristics of the plant biomass used, the bio-based products to be made, and the complementarity of the processes.

  10. Energy Analysis of a Biomass Co-firing Based Pulverized Coal Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The results are reported of an energy analysis of a biomass/coal co-firing based power generation system, carried out to investigate the impacts of biomass co-firing on system performance. The power generation system is a typical pulverized coal-fired steam cycle unit, in which four biomass fuels (rice husk, pine sawdust, chicken litter, and refuse derived fuel and two coals (bituminous coal and lignite are considered. Key system performance parameters are evaluated for various fuel combinations and co-firing ratios, using a system model and numerical simulation. The results indicate that plant energy efficiency decreases with increase of biomass proportion in the fuel mixture, and that the extent of the decrease depends on specific properties of the coal and biomass types.

  11. Sustainable Liquid Biofuels from Biomass Biorefining (SUNLIBB). Policy Brief No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-01

    The SUNLIBB project is funded under the European Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) within the Energy theme: Second Generation Biofuels -- EU Brazil Coordinated Call. SUNLIBB started on 1 October 2010 for 4 years and collaborates with a parallel project in Brazil, CeProBIO. First generation biofuels -- which are mainly produced from food crops such as grains, sugarcane and vegetable oils -- have triggered one of the most highly contentious debates on the current international sustainability agenda, given their links to energy security, transport, trade, food security, land-use impacts and climate change concerns. Developing second generation biofuels has emerged as a more attractive option, as these are manufactured from inedible sources, such as woody crops, energy grasses, or even agricultural and forestry residues. Residues from sugarcane and biomass from maize, as well as 'whole-crop' miscanthus are all potential raw material (called 'feedstock') for second generation bioethanol production. Because these three plants are all closely related, processing the biomass from these crops raises common technical challenges, which offers the opportunity for breakthroughs in one species to be rapidly exploited in the others. Despite the potential sustainability benefits of second generation bioethanol, the current inefficiency of production makes it economically uncompetitive. Taking up this challenge, the SUNLIBB consortium's multidisciplinary team of scientists -- in cooperation with CeProBIO, the sister project in Brazil -- combines European and Brazilian research strengths so as to open the way for environmentally, socially and economically sustainable second generation bioethanol production.

  12. Sustainable Liquid Biofuels from Biomass Biorefining (SUNLIBB). Policy Brief No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-15

    The SUNLIBB project is funded under the European Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) within the Energy theme: Second Generation Biofuels -- EU Brazil Coordinated Call. SUNLIBB started on 1 October 2010 for 4 years and collaborates with a parallel project in Brazil, CeProBIO. This is the second in a series of policy briefs providing an update on the project. The first brief was issued in March 2012. The project focus is on looking at developing second generation biofuels that hope to improve on issues seen with the first generation options. Second generation biofuels are manufactured from inedible sources, such as woody crops, energy grasses, or even agricultural and forestry residues. Residues from sugarcane and biomass from maize, as well as 'whole-crop' miscanthus are all potential raw material (called 'feedstock') for second generation bioethanol production. Because these three plants are all closely related, processing the biomass from these crops raises common technical challenges, which offers the opportunity for breakthroughs in one species to be rapidly exploited in the others. Despite the potential sustainability benefits of second generation bioethanol, the current inefficiency of production makes it economically uncompetitive. Taking up this challenge, the SUNLIBB consortium's multidisciplinary team of scientists -- in cooperation with CeProBIO, the sister project in Brazil -- combines European and Brazilian research strengths so as to open the way for environmentally, socially and economically sustainable second generation bioethanol production.

  13. Hydrophilic compounds in liquids of enzymatic hydrolyzed spruce and pine biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Sirén

    2015-12-01

    Using capillary electrophoresis and liquid chromatography techniques, we identified 14 different organic acids and phenolic acids with good yields. With inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy 11 metals were quantified and further detailed analysis/results from these data are available in Sirén et al. (2015 [1].

  14. Hydropyrolysis of biomass and related materials for the production of liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodle, W. W.; Wright, K. A.

    Test data for the pyrolytic conversion of eucalyptus wood, leucaena wood, and peat to liquid fuel was analyzed. Charts were developed to facilitate prediction of the quantity and composition of the various end products as a function of operating conditions such as temperature, pressure, and carrier gas composition.

  15. Renewable liquid fuels from catalytic reforming of biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Christopher J.

    Diminishing fossil fuel reserves and growing concerns about global warming require the development of sustainable sources of energy. Fuels for use in the transportation sector must have specific physical properties that allow for efficient distribution, storage, and combustion; these requirements are currently fulfilled by petroleum-derived liquid fuels. The focus of this work has been the development of two new biofuels that have the potential to become widely used transportation fuels from carbohydrate intermediates. Our first biofuel has cetane numbers ranging from 63 to 97 and is comprised of C7 to C15 straight chain alkanes. These alkanes can be blended with diesel like fuels or with P-series biofuel. Production involves a solid base catalyzed aldol condensation with mixed Mg-Al-oxide between furfural or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and acetone, followed by hydrogenation over Pd/Al2O3, and finally hydrogenation/dehydration over Pt/SiO2-Al2O3. Water was the solvent for all process steps, except for the hydrogenation/dehydration stage where hexadecane was co-fed to spontaneously separate out all alkane products and eliminate the need for energy intensive distillation. A later optimization identified Pd/MgO-ZrO2 as a hydrothermally stable bifunctional catalyst to replace Pd/Al2O3 and the hydrothermally unstable Mg-Al-oxide catalysts along with optimizing process parameters, such as temperature and molar ratios of reactants to maximize yields to heavier alkanes. Our second biofuel involved creating an improved process to produce HMF through the acid-catalyzed dehydration of fructose in a biphasic reactor. Additionally, we developed a technique to further convert HMF into 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) by hydrogenolysis of C-O bonds over a copper-ruthenium catalyst. DMF has many properties that make it a superior blending agent to ethanol: it has a high research octane number at 119, a 40% higher energy density than ethanol, 20 K higher boiling point, and is insoluble in

  16. Cogeneration based on gasified biomass - a comparison of concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Fredrik

    1999-01-01

    In this report, integration of drying and gasification of biomass into cogeneration power plants, comprising gas turbines, is investigated. The thermodynamic cycles considered are the combined cycle and the humid air turbine cycle. These are combined with either pressurised or near atmospheric gasification, and steam or exhaust gas dryer, in a number of combinations. An effort is made to facilitate a comparison of the different concepts by using, and presenting, similar assumptions and input data for all studied systems. The resulting systems are modelled using the software package ASPEN PLUS{sup TM}, and for each system both the electrical efficiency and the fuel utilisation are calculated. The investigation of integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCC), reveals that systems with pressurised gasification have a potential for electrical efficiencies approaching 45% (LHV). That is 4 - 5 percentage points higher than the corresponding systems with near atmospheric gasification. The type of dryer in the system mainly influences the fuel utilisation, with an advantage of approximately 8 percentage points (LHV) for the steam dryer. The resulting values of fuel utilisation for the IGCC systems are in the range of 78 - 94% (LHV). The results for the integrated gasification humid air turbine systems (IGHAT) indicate that electrical efficiencies close to the IGCC are achievable, provided combustion of the fuel gas in highly humidified air is feasible. Reaching a high fuel utilisation is more difficult for this concept, unless the temperature levels in the district heating network are low. For comparison a conventional cogeneration plant, based on a CFB boiler and a steam turbine (Rankine cycle), is also modelled in ASPEN PLUS{sup TM}. The IGCC and IGHAT show electrical efficiencies in the range of 37 - 45% (LHV), compared with a calculated value of 31% (LHV) for the Rankine cycle cogeneration plant. Apart from the electrical efficiency, also a high value of fuel

  17. Biomass pretreatment: fundamentals toward application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbor, Valery B; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Berlin, Alex; Levin, David B

    2011-01-01

    Development of sustainable energy systems based on renewable biomass feedstocks is now a global effort. Lignocellulosic biomass contains polymers of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, bound together in a complex structure. Liquid biofuels, such as ethanol, can be made from biomass via fermentation of sugars derived from the cellulose and hemicellulose within lignocellulosic materials, but the biomass must be subjected to pretreatment processes to liberate the sugars needed for fermentation. Production of value-added co-products along-side biofuels through integrated biorefinery processes creates the need for selectivity during pretreatment. This paper presents a survey of biomass pretreatment technologies with emphasis on concepts, mechanism of action and practicability. The advantages and disadvantages, and the potential for industrial applications of different pretreatment technologies are the highlights of this paper. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Biomass fuel based on wastes from the paper industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzyń Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastes from paper industry are mostly combustible. It is possible to recycle them with energy recovery. These wastes have a high moisture content (up to 60% and thus a small calorific value. An alternative to waste incineration is the production of solid recovered fuel. The benefits are: easy adjustment of the physical and chemical properties of the fuel (via the change of proportions of ingredients, low moisture and high calorific value. The study involved the following types of cellulose wastes: - Belmer - the rejects from recovered paper, Krofta - deinking sludge, sludge - wastewater treatment sludge, bark - the rejects from virgin pulps. The results of investigations of waste produced in one of the biggest Polish paper mill - are shown. Following aspects were investigated: energy properties, content of carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, chlorine and nitrogen, chemical composition of ash. Authors proposed two formulas of the biomass fuel. The properties of the fuel such as the content of carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, chlorine or nitrogen, the chemical composition of the ash were investigated. Due to the fact that the combustion of the biomass fuel is preferred in view of law regulations (zero CO2 emission, green certificates the content of biodegradable fraction was examined. It has been shown that the fuel is a biomass one. Fuel from waste can be a substitute for approx. 25% of primary fuel (coal used by the paper mill.

  19. Recovery of sugars from ionic liquid biomass liquor by solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, Timothy Charles R.; Holmes, Bradley M.; Simmons, Blake A.; Blanch, Harvey W.

    2015-10-13

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a solution comprising (a) an ionic liquid (IL) or ionic liquid-aqueous (ILA) phase and (b) an organic phase, wherein the solution comprises a sugar and a boronic acid. The present invention also provides for a method of removing a sugar from a solution, comprising: (a) providing a solution comprising (i) an IL or ILA phase and (ii) an organic phase, wherein the solution comprises an IL, a sugar and a boronic acid; (b) contacting the sugar with the boronic acid to form a sugar-boronic acid complex, (c) separating the organic phase and the aqueous phase, wherein the organic phase contains the sugar-boronic acid complex, and optionally (d) separating the sugar from the organic phase.

  20. Intermediate pyrolysis of biomass energy pellets for producing sustainable liquid, gaseous and solid fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Brammer, J G; Mahmood, A S N; Hornung, A

    2014-10-01

    This work describes the use of intermediate pyrolysis system to produce liquid, gaseous and solid fuels from pelletised wood and barley straw feedstock. Experiments were conducted in a pilot-scale system and all products were collected and analysed. The liquid products were separated into an aqueous phase and an organic phase (pyrolysis oil) under gravity. The oil yields were 34.1 wt.% and 12.0 wt.% for wood and barley straw, respectively. Analysis found that both oils were rich in heterocyclic and phenolic compounds and have heating values over 24 MJ/kg. The yields of char for both feedstocks were found to be about 30 wt.%, with heating values similar to that of typical sub-bituminous class coal. Gas yields were calculated to be approximately 20 wt.%. Studies showed that both gases had heating values similar to that of downdraft gasification producer gas. Analysis on product energy yields indicated the process efficiency was about 75%.

  1. Decision-making of biomass ethanol fuel policy based on life cycle 3E assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LENG Ru-bo; DAI Du; CHEN Xiao-jun; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the environmental, economic, energy performance of biomass ethanol fuel in China and tosupport the decision-making of biomass ethanol energy policy, an assessment method of life cycle 3E (economy, en vironment, energy) was applied to the three biomass ethanol fuel cycle alternatives, which includes cassava-based, corn-based and wheat-based ethanol fuel. The assessments provide a comparison of the economical performance, energy efficiency and environmental impacts of the three alternatives. And the development potential of the three alternatives in China was examined. The results are very useful for the Chinese government to make decisions on the biomass ethanol energy policy, and some advises for the decision-making of Chinese government were given.

  2. Reduction of CO{sub 2} emission and oil dependency with biomass-based polygeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joelsson, Jonas M.; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology and Environmental Science, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-07-15

    We compare different options for the use of lignocellulosic biomass to reduce CO{sub 2} emission and oil use, focusing on polygeneration of biomass-based motor fuels and electricity, and discuss methodological issues related to such comparisons. The use of biomass can significantly reduce CO{sub 2} emission and oil use, but there is a trade-off between the reductions in CO{sub 2} emission and oil use. Bioelectricity from stand-alone plants replacing coal-based electricity reduced CO{sub 2} emission by 99 kg per GJ biomass input but gave no oil use reduction. Stand-alone produced methanol replacing diesel reduced the CO{sub 2} emission with 38 kg and the oil use with 0.67 GJ per GJ biomass, indicating that a potential CO{sub 2} emission reduction of 90 kg is lost per GJ oil reduced. CO{sub 2} emission and oil use reduction for alternatives co-producing fuel and electricity fall between the stand-alone alternatives. Plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles using bioelectricity reduced CO{sub 2} emission by 75-88 kg and oil use by 0.99-1.2 GJ, per GJ biomass input. Biomass can also reduce CO{sub 2} emission and/or oil use more efficiently if fossil-fuel-fired boilers or electric heating is replaced by district heating from biomass-based combined heat and power generation. This is also true if electricity or motor fuel is produced from black liquor gasification in pulp mills or if wood is used instead of concrete in building construction. Biomass gasification is an important technology to achieve large reductions, irrespective of whether CO{sub 2} emission or oil use reduction is prioritised. (author)

  3. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jürgen O.; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO2 content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  4. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jürgen O; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO(2) content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  5. Combustion performance of cellulosic biomass in a gasifier-based cookstove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Shaharin A.; Romli, Raffisyazana

    2012-06-01

    Depletion in fossil fuel and increase in the world population may change the trend in future kitchens in households. Cooking with LPG fuel may one day become impossible and households would have to consider alternatives such as electric stoves. One other solution to this problem is through the use of biomass cook stoves. However, traditional cook stoves, predominantly used in the households, are not efficient and its utilizations for domestic cooking have been a major contributor to the ill effects related in respiratory and other health problem. Improved cook stoves programs implemented in the developing world attempt to address these problems. Biomass gasification appears to have significant potential in Asia for domestic cooking applications. Gasifier-based cook stoves are fuel efficient in comparison to traditional cook stove. The objective of this paper is to study the performance of various type of cellulosic biomass in a gasifier-based cook stove. The biomass considered in this study are oil palm fronds, dried leaves, wood sticks, coconut shells, bagasse, charcoal, and saw dust. The samples are analyzed in order to study their chemical properties. The thermochemical properties of the biomass were characterized. The performance of the each of the samples is studied by observing the time taken to boil water. It is found that oil palm fronds are the best type of biomass for the gasifer cook stove. It is also concluded that the higher the carbon content and the calorific value in a biomass, the lesser the time taken to boil the water.

  6. Natural Forest Biomass Estimation Based on Plantation Information Using PALSAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtar, Ram; Suzuki, Rikie; Sawada, Haruo

    2014-01-01

    Forests play a vital role in terrestrial carbon cycling; therefore, monitoring forest biomass at local to global scales has become a challenging issue in the context of climate change. In this study, we investigated the backscattering properties of Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data in cashew and rubber plantation areas of Cambodia. The PALSAR backscattering coefficient (σ0) had different responses in the two plantation types because of differences in biophysical parameters. The PALSAR σ0 showed a higher correlation with field-based measurements and lower saturation in cashew plants compared with rubber plants. Multiple linear regression (MLR) models based on field-based biomass of cashew (C-MLR) and rubber (R-MLR) plants with PALSAR σ0 were created. These MLR models were used to estimate natural forest biomass in Cambodia. The cashew plant-based MLR model (C-MLR) produced better results than the rubber plant-based MLR model (R-MLR). The C-MLR-estimated natural forest biomass was validated using forest inventory data for natural forests in Cambodia. The validation results showed a strong correlation (R2 = 0.64) between C-MLR-estimated natural forest biomass and field-based biomass, with RMSE  = 23.2 Mg/ha in deciduous forests. In high-biomass regions, such as dense evergreen forests, this model had a weaker correlation because of the high biomass and the multiple-story tree structure of evergreen forests, which caused saturation of the PALSAR signal. PMID:24465908

  7. Determination of pyrethroid pesticides in tomato using ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dandan; Tang, Baokun; Row, Kyung Ho

    2014-03-01

    A sensitive determination method was developed for the analysis of pyrethroid pesticide residues in tomato samples using ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. A hydrophobic ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) and acetonitrile were used as the extraction solvent and dispersive solvent, respectively. The following experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were examined: types of extraction solvent and volume of extraction solvent, types of dispersive solvent and volume of dispersive solvent and pH and ion strength of the sample solution. Under the optimum conditions, the extraction recoveries ranged from 83.9 to 96.7%. Moreover, the enrichment factors for esbiothrin, fenpropathrin and cyhalothrin were 42, 48 and 45, respectively. The calibration curves were linear with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9997 to 0.9999 at concentrations of 0.05-1.5 µg/kg. The relative standard deviation (n = 5) was 1.7-4.5%. The limits of detection for esbiothrin, fenpropathrin and cyhalothrin were 8.1, 9.9 and 14.3 µg/kg, respectively.

  8. An Unexpected Reaction between 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids at High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongbao K. Zhao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A new compound was detected during the production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF from glucose and cellulose in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl at high temperatures. Further experiments found that it was derived from the reaction of HMF with [Bmim]Cl. The structure of new compound was established as 1-butyl-2-(5’-methyl-2’-furoylimidazole (BMI based on nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry analysis, and a possible mechanism for its formation was proposed. Reactions of HMF with other imidazolium-based ionic liquids were performed to check the formation of BMI. Our results provided new insights in terms of side reactions between HMF and imidazolium-based ionic liquids, which should be valuable for designing better processes for the production of furans using biomass and related materials.

  9. Optofluidic router based on tunable liquid-liquid mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Philipp; Kopp, Daniel; Llobera, Andreu; Zappe, Hans

    2014-02-21

    We present an electrically tunable 1 × 5 optofluidic router for on-chip light routing. The device can redirect light from an optical input channel into five output channels by exploiting total internal reflection (TIR) at a liquid-liquid interface. The liquid-liquid mirrors, demonstrated for the first time, are tuned using integrated electrowetting-on-dielectrics (EWOD) actuators. The router is assembled from two chips fabricated by standard MEMS techniques. Through a combination of microfluidic with micro-optical components on chip, reliable light routing is achieved with switching times of [1.5-3.3] s, efficiencies of coupling into channels of up to 12%, optical cross-talk as low as -24 dB, a required drive voltage of 50 V, and a low power consumption of router could thus lead to novel laboratory measurement systems.

  10. Efficiency of neural network-based combinatorial model predicting optimal culture conditions for maximum biomass yields in hairy root cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Shakti; Prakash, O; Khan, Feroz; Kukreja, A K

    2013-02-01

    KEY MESSAGE : ANN-based combinatorial model is proposed and its efficiency is assessed for the prediction of optimal culture conditions to achieve maximum productivity in a bioprocess in terms of high biomass. A neural network approach is utilized in combination with Hidden Markov concept to assess the optimal values of different environmental factors that result in maximum biomass productivity of cultured tissues after definite culture duration. Five hidden Markov models (HMMs) were derived for five test culture conditions, i.e. pH of liquid growth medium, volume of medium per culture vessel, sucrose concentration (%w/v) in growth medium, nitrate concentration (g/l) in the medium and finally the density of initial inoculum (g fresh weight) per culture vessel and their corresponding fresh weight biomass. The artificial neural network (ANN) model was represented as the function of these five Markov models, and the overall simulation of fresh weight biomass was done with this combinatorial ANN-HMM. The empirical results of Rauwolfia serpentina hairy roots were taken as model and compared with simulated results obtained from pure ANN and ANN-HMMs. The stochastic testing and Cronbach's α-value of pure and combinatorial model revealed more internal consistency and skewed character (0.4635) in histogram of ANN-HMM compared to pure ANN (0.3804). The simulated results for optimal conditions of maximum fresh weight production obtained from ANN-HMM and ANN model closely resemble the experimentally optimized culture conditions based on which highest fresh weight was obtained. However, only 2.99 % deviation from the experimental values could be observed in the values obtained from combinatorial model when compared to the pure ANN model (5.44 %). This comparison showed 45 % better potential of combinatorial model for the prediction of optimal culture conditions for the best growth of hairy root cultures.

  11. Biomass based micro-turbine plant and distribution network stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurado, F.; Cano, A. [Jaen Univ., Linares (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Carpio, J. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2004-10-01

    Micro-turbine systems that enable the use of biomass are important for future technologies for electricity production. These distributed resources are dynamic devices, and when connected to the distribution system, they will affect its dynamic behavior. The micro-turbine is capable of providing effective load following service in the distribution system. However, the results also show that the micro-turbine system is not an uninterruptible power supply and does not protect the load from voltage instability while in a grid connect mode. (Author)

  12. Scientific bases of biomass processing into basic component of aviation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachalov, V. V.; Lavrenov, V. A.; Lishchiner, I. I.; Malova, O. V.; Tarasov, A. L.; Zaichenko, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    A combination of feedstock pyrolysis and the cracking of the volatile pyrolysis products on the charcoal at 1000 °C allows to obtain a tarless synthesis gas which contains 90 vol% or more of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in approximately equal proportions. Basic component of aviation fuel was synthesized in a two-stage process from gas obtained by pyrolytic processing of biomass. Methanol and dimethyl ether can be efficiently produced in a two-layer loading of methanolic catalyst and γ-Al2O3. The total conversion of CO per pass was 38.2% using for the synthesis of oxygenates a synthesis gas with adverse ratio of H2/CO = 0.96. Conversion of CO to CH3OH was 15.3% and the conversion of CO to dimethyl ether was 20.9%. A high yield of basic component per oxygenates mass (44.6%) was obtained during conversion. The high selectivity of the synthesis process for liquid hydrocarbons was observed. An optimal recipe of aviation fuel B-92 based on a synthesized basic component was developed. The prototype of aviation fuel meets the requirements for B-92 when straight fractions of 50-100 °C (up to 35 wt%), isooctane (up to 10 wt%) and ethyl fluid (2.0 g/kg calculated as tetraethyl lead) is added to the basic component.

  13. Energy-Based Evaluations on Eucalyptus Biomass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago L. Romanelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependence on finite resources brings economic, social, and environmental concerns. Planted forests are a biomass alternative to the exploitation of natural forests. In the exploitation of the planted forests, planning and management are key to achieve success, so in forestry operations, both economic and noneconomic factors must be considered. This study aimed to compare eucalyptus biomass production through energy embodiment of anthropogenic inputs and resource embodiment including environmental contribution (emergy for the commercial forest in the Sao Paulo, Brazil. Energy analyses and emergy synthesis were accomplished for the eucalyptus production cycles. It was determined that emergy synthesis of eucalyptus production and sensibility analysis for three scenarios to adjust soil acidity (lime, ash, and sludge. For both, energy analysis and emergy synthesis, harvesting presented the highest input demand. Results show the differences between energy analysis and emergy synthesis are in the conceptual underpinnings and accounting procedures. Both evaluations present similar trends and differ in the magnitude of the participation of an input due to its origin. For instance, inputs extracted from ores, which represent environmental contribution, are more relevant for emergy synthesis. On the other hand, inputs from industrial processes are more important for energy analysis.

  14. Bio refinery: towards a Biomass-based Sustainable Economy; Biorrefineria: hacia una economia sostenible basada en la biomasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros Perdices, M.

    2010-07-01

    At present, biomass is converted into energy in separate installations that have little capacity to obtain many products (ethanol, fatty acid esters, heat, electricity, etc) and that do not take advantage of all the economic potential offered by biomass. The future development of biomass as an energy source will be based on a single installation where all the fractions and byproducts of the biomass will be used to produce a large range of products: energy, bio fuels, chemicals and biomaterials. (Author) 1 refs.

  15. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass. Annual report, September 1, 1978-August 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pye, E.K.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1979-01-01

    The production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper were studied. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The process is aimed at achieving total raw material utilization and maximization of high value by-product recovery. Specific goals of the investigation are the demonstration of the process technical feasibility and economic practicality and its optimization for maximum economic yield and efficiency. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150g samples of lignocellulosic feeds has been completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis.

  16. Experimental investigations and modeling of devolatilization based on superimposed kinetics of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Anker Degn

    A non-isothermal one-dimensional model has been developed to describe biomass pyrolysis at fast heating rate (600-104 Ks-1), high temperatures (up to 1500C) and is valid for different biomass particle sizes (char. The model...... heatingrates. The predicted results by one-dimensional model are in agreement with the experimental work, and emphasize a keyrole of intra-particle heat conduction in biomass particles > 0.45 mm.The potassium influence on the char yield was implemented in the model based on the experimental results in the wire...... obtained in the wire mesh and drop tube reactors. Thus, the modelincluding these two parameters provides an acceptable fit of char yield to the experimental data. The present results showedthat the proposed kinetic model for the fast biomass pyrolysis is relatively simple and predicts reasonably accurately...

  17. Development of new Polysiloxane Based Liquid Scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Palma, M.; Quaranta, A. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento,Via Sommarive, 9, 38123 Trento (Italy); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro,Viale dell' Universita, 2, 35020 Legnaro - Padova (Italy); Gramegna, F.; Marchi, T.; Cinausero, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro,Viale dell' Universita, 2, 35020 Legnaro - Padova (Italy); Carturan, S.; Collazuol, G.; Checchia, C. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro,Viale dell' Universita, 2, 35020 Legnaro - Padova (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova, Via Marzolo, 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Degerlier, M. [Department of Physics, Nevsehir Haci Bektas Veli University, Science and Art Faculty, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey)

    2015-07-01

    In the last decade, attention toward neutron detection has been growing in the scientific community, driven by new requirements in different fields of application ranging from homeland security to medical and material analysis, from research physics, to nuclear energy production. So far neutron detection, with particular attention to fast neutrons, has been mainly based on organic liquid scintillators, owing to their good efficiency and pulse shape discrimination (PSD) capability. Most of these liquids have however some main drawbacks given by toxicity, flammability, volatility and sensitivity to dissolved oxygen that limits the duration and the quality of their performances with worse handiness and increased costs. Phenyl-substituted polysiloxanes could address most of these issues, being characterized by low toxicity, low volatility and low flammability. Their optical properties can be tailored by changing the phenyl distribution and concentration thus allowing to increase the solubility of organic dyes, to modify the fluorescence spectra and to vary the refractive index of the medium. Furthermore, polysiloxanes have been recently exploited for the production of plastic scintillators with very good chemical and thermal stability and very good radiation hardness and the development of polysiloxane liquid scintillators could allow to combine these interesting properties with the supremacy of liquid scintillators as regarding PSD over plastics. For these reasons, the properties of several phenyl-substituted polysiloxane with different phenyl amounts and different viscosities have been investigated, with particular attention to the scintillation response and the pulse shape discrimination capability, and the results of the investigation are reported in this work. More in details, the scintillation light yield towards gamma rays ({sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs) of several polysiloxane liquids has been analyzed and compared with the light yield of a commercial non

  18. Evaluation of storage methods for the conversion of corn stover biomass to sugars based on steam explosion pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Qin, Lei; Jin, Ming-Jie; Pang, Feng; Li, Bing-Zhi; Kang, Yong; Dale, Bruce E; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2013-03-01

    Effects of dry and wet storage methods without or with shredding on the conversion of corn stover biomass were investigated using steam explosion pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Sugar conversions and yields for wet stored biomass were obviously higher than those for dry stored biomass. Shredding reduced sugar conversions compared with non-shredding, but increased sugar yields. Glucan conversion and glucose yield for non-shredded wet stored biomass reached 91.5% and 87.6% after 3-month storage, respectively. Data of micro-structure and crystallinity of biomass indicated that corn stover biomass maintained the flexible and porous structure after wet storage, and hence led to the high permeability of corn stover biomass and the high efficiency of pretreatment and hydrolysis. Therefore, the wet storage methods would be desirable for the conversion of corn stover biomass to fermentable sugars based on steam explosion pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis.

  19. Viability assessment of regional biomass pre-processing center based bioethanol value chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Joseph E.

    Petroleum accounts for 94% of all liquid fuels and 36% of the total of all energy consumed in the United States. Petroleum dependence is problematic because global petroleum reserves are estimated to last only for 40 to 60 years at current consumption rates; global supplies are often located in politically unstable or unfriendly regions; and fossil fuels have negative environmental footprints. Domestic policies have aimed at promoting alternative, renewable liquid fuels, specifically bio-fuels derived from organic matter. Cellulosic bio-ethanol is one promising alternative fuel that has featured prominently in federal bio-fuel mandates under the Energy Independence and Security Act, 2007. However, the cellulosic bio-ethanol industry faces several technical, physical and industrial organization challenges. This dissertation examines the concept of a network of regional biomass pre-treatment centers (RBPC) that form an extended biomass supply chain feeding into a simplified biorefinery as a way to overcome these challenges. The analyses conducted address the structural and transactional issues facing bio-ethanol value chain establishment; the technical and financial feasibility of a stand alone pre-treatment center (RBPC); the impact of distributed pre-treatment on biomass transport costs; a comparative systems cost evaluation of the performance of the RBPC chain versus a fully integrated biorefinery (gIBRh), followed by application of the analytical framework to three case study regions.

  20. [Simultaneous determination of organic acids and saccharides in lactic acid fermentation broth from biomass using high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Ouyang, Jia; Li, Xin; Lian, Zhina; Cai, Cong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: A high performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of organic acids and saccharides in lactic acid fermentation broth from biomass was developed. A Bio-Rad Aminex HPX-87H column was used at 55 degrees C. The mobile phase was 5 mmol/L sulfuric acid solution at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The samples were detected by a refractive index detector (RID). The results showed that six organic acids and three saccharides in fermentation broth were completely separated and determined in 17 min. The linear correlation coefficients were above 0.999 8 in the range of 0.15-5.19 g/L. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries of the organic acids and saccharides in Rhizopus oryzae fermentation broth at two spiked levels were in the range of 96.91%-103.11% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) of 0.81%-4.61%. This method is fast and accurate for the quantitative analysis of the organic acids and saccharides in microbial fermentation broths.

  1. [Feasibility of the use of degraded inedible biomass of plants as a nutrient liquid for hydroponic cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S S; Ai, W D; Hou, W H; Shi, W W

    2001-10-01

    Objective. To demonstrate that the recycled liquid, which originated from lettuce inedible biomass degraded by fixed microorganism (correction of microorgannism) and enzyme, can be used as a nutrient solution for lettuce hydroponic cultivation. Method. After biologically degrading the weighted, oven-dried and milled leaves and roots of lettuce in a biological reactor under aerobic condition, the original effluent and its supplemented effluent were used as nutrients for lettuce hydroponic cultivation. Result. The average dried weight (ADW) of lettuce from the original effluent group was approximately half of that from the control group, and the ADW from supplemented effluent group was about equal to that from the control group; some qualities of the lettuce such as a relatively lower content of NO3- from both the original effluent group and the supplemented effluent one improved, and some of those such as a relatively higher content of NO2- dropped. Conclusion. The biologically-degraded effluent was able to be used as nutrient solution for lettuce hydroponic cultivation, although the effects of the inorganic ion-supplemented effluent were much better; the plants of lettuce from the biologically-degraded effluent were safely edible.

  2. Optimization of Preparation Program for Biomass Based Porous Active Carbon by Response Surface Methodology Based on Adsorptive Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With waste walnut shell as raw material, biomass based porous active carbon was made by microwave oven method. The effects of microwave power, activation time and mass fraction of phosphoric acid on adsorptive property of biomass based porous active carbon in the process of physical activation of active carbon precursor were studied by response surface method and numerical simulation method, the preparation plan of biomass based porous active carbon was optimized, and the optimal biomass based porous active carbon property was characterized. The results show that three factors affect the adsorptive property of biomass based porous active carbon, but the effect of microwave power is obviously more significant than that of mass fraction of phosphoric acid, and the effect of mass fraction of phosphoric acid is more significant than that of activation time. The optimized preparation conditions are:microwave power is 746W, activation time is 11.2min and mass fraction of phosphoric acid is 85.9% in the process of physical activation of activated carbon precursor by microwave heating method. For the optimal biomass based porous active carbon, the adsorption value of iodine is 1074.57mg/g, adsorption value of methylene blue is 294.4mL/g and gain rate is 52.1%.

  3. Environmental status of plant-based industries. Biomass and bio-materials; Bilan environnemental des filieres vegetales. Biomasse et biomateriaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vindimian, E.; Boeglin, N.; Houillon, G.; Osset, Ph.; Vial, E.; Leguern, Y.; Gosse, G.; Gabrielle, B.; Dohy, M.; Bewa, H.; Rigal, L.; Guilbert, St.; Cesar, G.; Pandard, P.; Oster, D.; Normand, N.; Piccardi, M.; Garoux, V.; Arnaud, L.; Barbier, J.; Mougin, G.; Krausz, P.; Pluquet, V.; Massacrier, L.; Dussaud, J.

    2005-07-01

    The French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) and the agency of Agriculture for chemistry and energy (Agrice) have jointly organized these technical days about the potentialities of plant-based products in front of the big environmental stakes of the diversification of energy sources, the development of new outputs for agriculture and the opening of new fields of industrial innovation. This document gathers the articles and transparencies of the presentations given during these 2 days of conference: 1 - Biomass and life cycle analysis (LCA) - impacts and benefits: introduction to LCA (E. Vindimian), keys to understand this environmental evaluation tool (N. Boeglin); environmental status of plant-based industries for chemistry, materials and energy: LCA knowledge status, plant versus fossil (G. Houillon), detailed analysis of 2 industries: agro-materials and bio-polymers (J. Payet); example of environmental and LCA studies: energy and greenhouse gas statuses of the biofuel production processes (P. Osset, E. Vial), LCA of collective and industrial wood-fueled space heating (Y. Leguern), contribution and limitations of LCA for plant-based industries (G. Gosse, B. Gabrielle), conclusion of the first day (M. Dohy). 2 - Biomass and materials: a reality: biomaterials in the Agrice program (H. Bewa), plant-derived materials: resources, status and perspectives (L. Rigal); biopolymers: overview of the industrial use of biopolymers: materials and markets, applications (S. Guibert), degradation mechanisms of biopolymers used in agriculture: biodegradability, eco-toxicity and accumulation in soils (G. Cesar, P. Pandard), present and future regulatory framework: specifications and methods of biodegradability evaluation of materials for agriculture and horticulture (D. Oster), standardization: necessity and possibilities (N. Normand); vegetable fibers and composite materials: market of new vegetable fiber uses (M. Piccardi, V. Garoux), vegetable particulates and

  4. Landsat Imagery-Based Above Ground Biomass Estimation and Change Investigation Related to Human Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaofan Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Forest biomass is a significant indicator for substance accumulation and forest succession, and a spatiotemporal biomass map would provide valuable information for forest management and scientific planning. In this study, Landsat imagery and field data cooperated with a random forest regression approach were used to estimate spatiotemporal Above Ground Biomass (AGB in Fuyang County, Zhejiang Province of East China. As a result, the AGB retrieval showed an increasing trend for the past decade, from 74.24 ton/ha in 2004 to 99.63 ton/ha in 2013. Topography and forest management were investigated to find their relationships with the spatial distribution change of biomass. In general, the simulated AGB increases with higher elevation, especially in the range of 80–200 m, wherein AGB acquires the highest increase rate. Moreover, the forest policy of ecological forest has a positive effect on the AGB increase, particularly within the national level ecological forest. The result in this study demonstrates that human activities have a great impact on biomass distribution and change tendency. Furthermore, Landsat image-based biomass estimates would provide illuminating information for forest policy-making and sustainable development.

  5. [Band depth analysis and partial least square regression based winter wheat biomass estimation using hyperspectral measurements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Ji-Hua; Yang, Gui-Jun; Song, Xiao-Yu; Xu, Xin-Gang; Feng, Hai-Kuan

    2013-05-01

    The major limitation of using existing vegetation indices for crop biomass estimation is that it approaches a saturation level asymptotically for a certain range of biomass. In order to resolve this problem, band depth analysis and partial least square regression (PLSR) were combined to establish winter wheat biomass estimation model in the present study. The models based on the combination of band depth analysis and PLSR were compared with the models based on common vegetation indexes from the point of view of estimation accuracy, subsequently. Band depth analysis was conducted in the visible spectral domain (550-750 nm). Band depth, band depth ratio (BDR), normalized band depth index, and band depth normalized to area were utilized to represent band depth information. Among the calibrated estimation models, the models based on the combination of band depth analysis and PLSR reached higher accuracy than those based on the vegetation indices. Among them, the combination of BDR and PLSR got the highest accuracy (R2 = 0.792, RMSE = 0.164 kg x m(-2)). The results indicated that the combination of band depth analysis and PLSR could well overcome the saturation problem and improve the biomass estimation accuracy when winter wheat biomass is large.

  6. Analysis of life cycle technology of BTL (Biomass to Liquid): state of art and recommendations; Analise do ciclo de vida das tecnologias BTL: estado da arte e recomendacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Maria Luiza G.; Lora, Electo E.S. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida; Ugaya, Cassia M.L. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. Academico de Mecanica

    2008-07-01

    In the last decades, the intensive and no rational use of energy resources from fossil fuels has been causing climatic changes, due to the increase in air pollutants, mainly Co2. The production of liquid fuels from biomass stands out as one of the principal energy alternatives with low environmental impact that could substitute the fuels derived from petroleum in the transportation section. The present work shows a revision from the main Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) studies performed for biofuel production by BTL (Biomass to Liquid) route. In this revision, it is possible to identify some of the main environmental impacts associated with this type of fuel production, as a function of the energy and material required to its production. Likewise, it is possible to elaborate recommendations in fuel production that allow the increase of benefits to the environment. (author)

  7. Grey Comprehensive Evaluation of Biomass Power Generation Project Based on Group Judgement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Huicong; Niu, Dongxiao

    2017-06-01

    The comprehensive evaluation of benefit is an important task needed to be carried out at all stages of biomass power generation projects. This paper proposed an improved grey comprehensive evaluation method based on triangle whiten function. To improve the objectivity of weight calculation result of only reference comparison judgment method, this paper introduced group judgment to the weighting process. In the process of grey comprehensive evaluation, this paper invited a number of experts to estimate the benefit level of projects, and optimized the basic estimations based on the minimum variance principle to improve the accuracy of evaluation result. Taking a biomass power generation project as an example, the grey comprehensive evaluation result showed that the benefit level of this project was good. This example demonstrates the feasibility of grey comprehensive evaluation method based on group judgment for benefit evaluation of biomass power generation project.

  8. Composition of structural carbohydrates in biomass: precision of a liquid chromatography method using a neutral detergent extraction and a charged aerosol detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Bruno; Agneessens, Richard; Gerin, Patrick A; Delcarte, Jérôme

    2011-09-30

    We adapted and optimized a method to quantify the cellulose, hemicellulose, xylan, arabinan, mannan, galactan contents in lignocellulosic biomass. This method is based on a neutral detergent extraction (NDE) of the interfering biomass components, followed by a sulfuric acid hydrolysis (SAH) of the structural polysaccharides, and a liquid chromatography with charged aerosol detection (LC-CAD) to analyze the released monosaccharides. The first step of this NDE-SAH-LC-CAD method aims at removing all compounds that interfere with the subsequent sulphuric acid hydrolysis or with the subsequent chromatographic quantification of the cellulosic and hemicellulosic monosaccharides. This step includes starch hydrolysis with an analytical thermostable α-amylase followed by an extraction of soluble compounds by a Van Soest neutral detergent solution (NDE). The aim of this paper was to assess the precision of this method when choosing fiber sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) as representative lignocellulosic biomass. The cellulose content of fiber sorghum, tall fescue and fiber hemp determined by the NDE-SAH-LC-CAD method were 28.7 ± 1.0, 29.7 ± 1.0 and 43.6 ± 1.2g/100g dry matter, respectively, and their hemicellulose content were 18.6 ± 0.5, 16.5 ± 0.5 and 14.5 ± 0.2g/100g dry matter, respectively. Cellulose, mannan and galactan contents were higher in fiber hemp (dicotyledon) as compared to tall fescue and fiber sorghum (monocotyledons). The xylan, arabinan and total hemicellulose contents were higher in tall fescue and fiber sorghum as compared to fiber hemp. The precision of the NDE-SAH-LC-CAD method was better for polysaccharide concentration levels above 1g/100g dry matter. Galactan analysis offered a lower precision, due to a lower CAD response intensity to galactose as compared to the other monosaccharides. The dispersions of the results (expanded uncertainty) of the NDE

  9. Potential Occupational Exposures and Health Risks Associated with Biomass-Based Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Annette C.; Campleman, Sharan L.; Long, Christopher M.; Peterson, Michael K.; Weatherstone, Susan; Quick, Will; Lewis, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly being used for power generation; however, assessment of potential occupational health and safety (OH&S) concerns related to usage of biomass fuels in combustion-based generation remains limited. We reviewed the available literature on known and potential OH&S issues associated with biomass-based fuel usage for electricity generation at the utility scale. We considered three potential exposure scenarios—pre-combustion exposure to material associated with the fuel, exposure to combustion products, and post-combustion exposure to ash and residues. Testing of dust, fungal and bacterial levels at two power stations was also undertaken. Results indicated that dust concentrations within biomass plants can be extremely variable, with peak levels in some areas exceeding occupational exposure limits for wood dust and general inhalable dust. Fungal spore types, identified as common environmental species, were higher than in outdoor air. Our review suggests that pre-combustion risks, including bioaerosols and biogenic organics, should be considered further. Combustion and post-combustion risks appear similar to current fossil-based combustion. In light of limited available information, additional studies at power plants utilizing a variety of technologies and biomass fuels are recommended. PMID:26206568

  10. Perspective on Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils: Essential Roles of Fe-based Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Yongchun; Hensley, Alyssa; McEwen, Jean-Sabin; Wang, Yong

    2016-06-27

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis is the most promising approach for biofuel production, due to its simple process and versatility to handle lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks with varying and complex compositions. Compared with in situ catalytic fast pyrolysis, ex situ catalytic pyrolysis has the flexibility of optimizing the pyrolysis step and catalytic process individually to improve the quality of pyrolysis oil (stability, oxygen content, acid number, etc.) and to maximize the carbon efficiency in the conversion of biomass to pyrolysis oil. Hydrodeoxygenation is one of the key catalytic functions in ex situ catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recently, Fe-based catalysts have been reported to exhibit superior catalytic properties in hydrodeoxygenation of model compounds in pyrolysis oil, which potentially makes the ex situ pyrolysis of biomass commercially viable due to the abundance and low cost of Fe. Here, we briefly summarize the recent progress on Fe-based catalysts for hydrodeoxygenation of biomass, and provide perspectives on how to further improve Fe-based catalysts (activity and stability) for their potential applications in the emerging area of biomass conversion.

  11. Potential Occupational Exposures and Health Risks Associated with Biomass-Based Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette C. Rohr

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is increasingly being used for power generation; however, assessment of potential occupational health and safety (OH&S concerns related to usage of biomass fuels in combustion-based generation remains limited. We reviewed the available literature on known and potential OH&S issues associated with biomass-based fuel usage for electricity generation at the utility scale. We considered three potential exposure scenarios—pre-combustion exposure to material associated with the fuel, exposure to combustion products, and post-combustion exposure to ash and residues. Testing of dust, fungal and bacterial levels at two power stations was also undertaken. Results indicated that dust concentrations within biomass plants can be extremely variable, with peak levels in some areas exceeding occupational exposure limits for wood dust and general inhalable dust. Fungal spore types, identified as common environmental species, were higher than in outdoor air. Our review suggests that pre-combustion risks, including bioaerosols and biogenic organics, should be considered further. Combustion and post-combustion risks appear similar to current fossil-based combustion. In light of limited available information, additional studies at power plants utilizing a variety of technologies and biomass fuels are recommended.

  12. Comparison of the sustainability metrics of the petrochemical and biomass-based routes to methionine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.P.M.; Sheldon, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability metrics, based on material efficiency, energy input, land use and costs, of three processesfor the manufacture of methionine are compared. The petrochemical process affords dl-methionine whilethe two biomass-based routes afford the l-enantiomer. From the point of view of the major

  13. Feasibility of Producing and Using Biomass-Based Diesel and Jet Fuel in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kinchin, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The study summarizes the best available public data on the production, capacity, cost, market demand, and feedstock availability for the production of biomass-based diesel and jet fuel. It includes an overview of the current conversion processes and current state-of-development for the production of biomass-based jet and diesel fuel, as well as the key companies pursuing this effort. Thediscussion analyzes all this information in the context of meeting the RFS mandate, highlights uncertainties for the future industry development, and key business opportunities.

  14. Research Progress on Preparation for Biomass-based SiC Ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUI He-shuai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Silicon carbide (SiC ceramics prepared by the conventional process has excellent properties and wide application prospects, but the increased cost of high-temperature preparation process restricts its further development. In contrast, the abundant porous structure of biomass makes itself to be ideal replacement of SiC ceramic prepared at low temperature. This paper reviewed the structure characteristics, preparation methods, pyrolysis mechanism and influence parameters of biomass-based SiC ceramic, and eventually explored the current problems and development trends of the pretreatment of carbon source and silicon source, the pyrolysis process and the application research on the preparation for biomass-based SiC ceramic.

  15. Assessing biomass based on canopy height profiles using airborne laser scanning data in eucalypt plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Gracioso Peres Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to map the stem biomass of an even-aged eucalyptus plantation in southeastern Brazil based on canopy height profile (CHPs statistics using wall-to-wall discrete return airborne laser scanning (ALS, and compare the results with alternative maps generated by ordinary kriging interpolation from field-derived measurements. The assessment of stem biomass with ALS data was carried out using regression analysis methods. Initially, CHPs were determined to express the distribution of laser point heights in the ALS cloud for each sample plot. The probability density function (pdf used was the Weibull distribution, with two parameters that in a secondary task, were used as explanatory variables to model stem biomass. ALS metrics such as height percentiles, dispersion of heights, and proportion of points were also investigated. A simple linear regression model of stem biomass as a function of the Weibull scale parameter showed high correlation (adj.R2 = 0.89. The alternative model considering the 30th percentile and the Weibull shape parameter slightly improved the quality of the estimation (adj.R2 = 0.93. Stem biomass maps based on the Weibull scale parameter doubled the accuracy of the ordinary kriging approach (relative root mean square error = 6 % and 13 %, respectively.

  16. The prediction of elemental composition of biomass based on proximate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Jianfeng [School of Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China); Zhu Shuguang, E-mail: zhushuguang@tsinghua.org.c [School of Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China); Liu Xinzhi; Zhang Houlei; Tan Junjie [School of Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Elemental composition is one of the most important properties for biomass utilization. The experimental determination of ultimate analysis data require special instrumentation, while proximate analysis data can be obtained easily by using common equipments. This paper presents new correlations for calculating the elemental composition based on proximate analysis of biomass. The correlations with the effect of ash content taken into account are derived by using 66 data points, and validated by using 20 data points selected from different categories of biomass than that for correlations derivation. The correlations are given as: C = 0.635FC + 0.460VM - 0.095ASH, H = 0.059FC + 0.060VM + 0.010ASH, O = 0.340FC + 0.469VM - 0.023ASH, where 9.2% <= FC <= 32.79%, 57.2% <= VM <= 90.6%, 0.1% <= ASH <= 24.6%, 36.2% <= C <= 53.1%, 4.7% <= H <= 6.61%, and 31.37% <= O <= 48.0% in wt.% on dry basis. The average absolute errors of these correlations are 3.17%, 4.47% and 3.16%, and the average bias errors are 0.19%, -0.34% and 0.19% compared with measured values of C, H and O, respectively. The new developed correlations can be used to compute elemental composition of biomass accurately, especially for those biomass whose ash content are high, based on simple proximate analysis.

  17. The prediction of elemental composition of biomass based on proximate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianfeng Shen; Shuguang Zhu; Xinzhi Liu; Houlei Zhang; Junjie Tan [School of Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Elemental composition is one of the most important properties for biomass utilization. The experimental determination of ultimate analysis data require special instrumentation, while proximate analysis data can be obtained easily by using common equipments. This paper presents new correlations for calculating the elemental composition based on proximate analysis of biomass. The correlations with the effect of ash content taken into account are derived by using 66 data points, and validated by using 20 data points selected from different categories of biomass than that for correlations derivation. The correlations are given as: C = 0.635FC + 0.460VM - 0.095ASH, H = 0.059FC + 0.060VM + 0.010ASH, O = 0.340FC + 0.469VM - 0.023ASH, where 9.2% {<=} FC {<=} 32.79%, 57.2% {<=} VM {<=} 90.6%, 0.1% {<=} ASH {<=} 24.6%, 36.2% {<=} C {<=} 53.1%, 4.7% {<=} H {<=} 6.61%, and 31.37% {<=} O {<=} 48.0% in wt.% on dry basis. The average absolute errors of these correlations are 3.17%, 4.47% and 3.16%, and the average bias errors are 0.19%, -0.34% and 0.19% compared with measured values of C, H and O, respectively. The new developed correlations can be used to compute elemental composition of biomass accurately, especially for those biomass whose ash content are high, based on simple proximate analysis. (author)

  18. Dynamic Evaluation of Water Quality Improvement Based on Effective Utilization of Stockbreeding Biomass Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The stockbreeding industry is growing rapidly in rural regions of China, carrying a high risk to the water environment due to the emission of huge amounts of pollutants in terms of COD, T-N and T-P to rivers. On the other hand, as a typical biomass resource, stockbreeding waste can be used as a clean energy source by biomass utilization technologies. In this paper, we constructed a dynamic linear optimization model to simulate the synthetic water environment management policies which includes both the water environment system and social-economic situational changes over 10 years. Based on the simulation, the model can precisely estimate trends of water quality, production of stockbreeding biomass energy and economic development under certain restrictions of the water environment. We examined seven towns of Shunyi district of Beijing as the target area to analyse synthetic water environment management policies by computer simulation based on the effective utilization of stockbreeding biomass resources to improve water quality and realize sustainable development. The purpose of our research is to establish an effective utilization method of biomass resources incorporating water environment preservation, resource reutilization and economic development, and finally realize the sustainable development of the society.

  19. Application of thin-layer chromatography with fluorescence scanning densitometry for analysing saturates in heavy liquids derived from co-pyrolysis of biomass and plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebolla, V.L. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Instituto de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain); Matt, M. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences; Membrado, L. [Universite de Metz, Saint-Avold (FR). Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications] [and others

    2002-01-01

    Two alternative methods, based on Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) with Fluorescence Scanning Densitometry have been developed for characterization of heavy liquids from copyrolysis of different kinds of biomass and plastics in autoclaves under inert atmosphere. A conventional TLC system, which includes a vertical developing tank, and a High Performance TLC (HPTLC) system, with a horizontal developing chamber and the use of HPTLC plates, have been used. The analytical method involves in both cases the measurement of two chromatograms per sample: the first, on a silica gel berberine-impregnated plate, for detection of saturates using the phenomenon of berberine-induced fluorescence; and the second, on a silica gel plate, for detection of aromatic-polars and polars, by native fluorescence. Although the HPTLC system is more sensitive and faster, both techniques represent an improvement with regard to current methods for analyzing these kinds of products. However their application depends on the particular solubility of each sample and on its slope of the fluorescent response-sample load regression. (orig.)

  20. Wave-based liquid-interface metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, N; Xia, H; Punzmann, H; Fontana, P W; Shats, M

    2017-01-01

    The control of matter motion at liquid–gas interfaces opens an opportunity to create two-dimensional materials with remotely tunable properties. In analogy with optical lattices used in ultra-cold atom physics, such materials can be created by a wave field capable of dynamically guiding matter into periodic spatial structures. Here we show experimentally that such structures can be realized at the macroscopic scale on a liquid surface by using rotating waves. The wave angular momentum is transferred to floating micro-particles, guiding them along closed trajectories. These orbits form stable spatially periodic patterns, the unit cells of a two-dimensional wave-based material. Such dynamic patterns, a mirror image of the concept of metamaterials, are scalable and biocompatible. They can be used in assembly applications, conversion of wave energy into mean two-dimensional flows and for organising motion of active swimmers. PMID:28181490

  1. MODEL BASED BIOMASS SYSTEM DESIGN OF FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY SYSTEMS FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Jacob J. Jacobson; Kenneth M. Bryden

    2013-08-01

    Engineering feedstock supply systems that deliver affordable, high-quality biomass remains a challenge for the emerging bioenergy industry. Cellulosic biomass is geographically distributed and has diverse physical and chemical properties. Because of this feedstock supply systems that deliver cellulosic biomass resources to biorefineries require integration of a broad set of engineered unit operations. These unit operations include harvest and collection, storage, preprocessing, and transportation processes. Design decisions for each feedstock supply system unit operation impact the engineering design and performance of the other system elements. These interdependencies are further complicated by spatial and temporal variances such as climate conditions and biomass characteristics. This paper develops an integrated model that couples a SQL-based data management engine and systems dynamics models to design and evaluate biomass feedstock supply systems. The integrated model, called the Biomass Logistics Model (BLM), includes a suite of databases that provide 1) engineering performance data for hundreds of equipment systems, 2) spatially explicit labor cost datasets, and 3) local tax and regulation data. The BLM analytic engine is built in the systems dynamics software package PowersimTM. The BLM is designed to work with thermochemical and biochemical based biofuel conversion platforms and accommodates a range of cellulosic biomass types (i.e., herbaceous residues, short- rotation woody and herbaceous energy crops, woody residues, algae, etc.). The BLM simulates the flow of biomass through the entire supply chain, tracking changes in feedstock characteristics (i.e., moisture content, dry matter, ash content, and dry bulk density) as influenced by the various operations in the supply chain. By accounting for all of the equipment that comes into contact with biomass from the point of harvest to the throat of the conversion facility and the change in characteristics, the

  2. Impact Assessment of Biomass Burning on Air Quality in Southeast and East Asia During BASE-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat

    2013-01-01

    A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast Asia (SE Asia) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in MarcheApril when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K(+), OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via longrange transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.

  3. Remote Sensing-Based Biomass Estimation and Its Spatio-Temporal Variations in Temperate Grassland, Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxiang Jin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Grassland biomass is essential for maintaining grassland ecosystems. Moreover, biomass is an important characteristic of grassland. In this study, we combined field sampling with remote sensing data and calculated five vegetation indices (VIs. Using this combined information, we quantified a remote sensing estimation model and estimated biomass in a temperate grassland of northern China. We also explored the dynamic spatio-temporal variation of biomass from 2006 to 2012. Our results indicated that all VIs investigated in the study were strongly correlated with biomass (α < 0.01. The precision of the model for estimating biomass based on ground data and remote sensing was greater than 73%. Additionally, the results of our analysis indicated that the annual average biomass was 11.86 million tons and that the average yield was 604.5 kg/ha. The distribution of biomass exhibited substantial spatial heterogeneity, and the biomass decreased from the eastern portion of the study area to the western portion. The interannual biomass exhibited strong fluctuations during 2006–2012, with a coefficient of variation of 26.95%. The coefficient of variation of biomass differed among the grassland types. The highest coefficient of variation was found for the desert steppe, followed by the typical steppe and the meadow steppe.

  4. Liquid-crystal-based hyperspectral image projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnenberger, Anna; Masterson, Hugh; Rice, Joseph P.; Stockley, Jay

    2010-04-01

    A hyperspectral image projector (HIP) is introduced that is built with liquid crystal based spatial light modulators (SLM) as opposed to micromirror arrays. The use of an SLM as a broadband intensity modulator presents several benefits to this application. With slight modifications to the SLM design, SLMs can be built for a wide range of spectral regimes, ranging from the ultraviolet (UV) to the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR). SLMs can have a large pixel pitch, significantly reducing diffraction in the mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and LWIR. Liquid crystal based devices offer direct analog intensity modulation, thus eliminating flicker from time sequential drive schemes. SLMs allow for an on-axis configuration, enabling a simple and compact optical layout. The design of the HIP system is broken into two parts consisting of a spectral and spatial engine. In the spectral engine a diffraction grating is used to disperse a broadband source into spectral components, where an SLM modulates the relative intensity of the components to dynamically generate complex spectra. The recombined output is fed to the spatial engine which is used to construct two-dimensional scenes. The system is used to simulate a broad range of real world environments, and will be delivered to the National Institute of Standards and Technology as an enabling tool for the development of calibration standards and performance testing techniques for multispectral and hyperspectral imagers. The focus of this paper is on a visible-band HIP system; however, related work is presented with regard to SLM use in the MWIR and LWIR.

  5. Comparison of machine-learning methods for above-ground biomass estimation based on Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chaofan; Shen, Huanhuan; Shen, Aihua; Deng, Jinsong; Gan, Muye; Zhu, Jinxia; Xu, Hongwei; Wang, Ke

    2016-07-01

    Biomass is one significant biophysical parameter of a forest ecosystem, and accurate biomass estimation on the regional scale provides important information for carbon-cycle investigation and sustainable forest management. In this study, Landsat satellite imagery data combined with field-based measurements were integrated through comparisons of five regression approaches [stepwise linear regression, K-nearest neighbor, support vector regression, random forest (RF), and stochastic gradient boosting] with two different candidate variable strategies to implement the optimal spatial above-ground biomass (AGB) estimation. The results suggested that RF algorithm exhibited the best performance by 10-fold cross-validation with respect to R2 (0.63) and root-mean-square error (26.44 ton/ha). Consequently, the map of estimated AGB was generated with a mean value of 89.34 ton/ha in northwestern Zhejiang Province, China, with a similar pattern to the distribution mode of local forest species. This research indicates that machine-learning approaches associated with Landsat imagery provide an economical way for biomass estimation. Moreover, ensemble methods using all candidate variables, especially for Landsat images, provide an alternative for regional biomass simulation.

  6. Steam generation unit in a simple version of biomass based small cogeneration unit

    OpenAIRE

    Sornek Krzysztof; Filipowicz Mariusz; Szubel Mateusz; Bożek Estera; Izdebski Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is a very promising process for the conversion of low or medium temperature heat to electricity in small and micro scale biomass powered systems. Classic ORC is analogous to Clausius–Rankine cycle in a steam power plant, but instead of water it uses low boiling, organic working fluids. Seeking energy and economical optimization of biomass-based ORC systems, we have proposed some modifications e.g. in low boiling fluid circuit construction. Due to the fact that ...

  7. Algal Biomass Analysis by Laser-Based Analytical Techniques—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Pořízka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Algal biomass that is represented mainly by commercially grown algal strains has recently found many potential applications in various fields of interest. Its utilization has been found advantageous in the fields of bioremediation, biofuel production and the food industry. This paper reviews recent developments in the analysis of algal biomass with the main focus on the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and partly Laser-Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma techniques. The advantages of the selected laser-based analytical techniques are revealed and their fields of use are discussed in detail.

  8. Externalities of biomass based electricity production compared to power generation from coal in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.; Meuleman, B.

    2006-01-01

    Externalities of electricity production from biomass and coal are investigated and compared for the Dutch context. Effects on economic activity and employment are investigated with help of Input/Output and multiplier tables. Valuations of damage from emissions to air are based on generic data from o

  9. Evaluating the remote sensing and inventory-based estimation of biomass in the western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalena Main-Knorn; Gretchen G. Moisen; Sean P. Healey; William S. Keeton; Elizabeth A. Freeman; Patrick Hostert

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the potential of forest ecosystems as global carbon sinks requires a thorough knowledge of forest carbon dynamics, including both sequestration and fluxes among multiple pools. The accurate quantification of biomass is important to better understand forest productivity and carbon cycling dynamics. Stand-based inventories (SBIs) are widely used for...

  10. 76 FR 31604 - Lyonsdale Biomass LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lyonsdale Biomass LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Lyonsdale Biomass LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  11. Biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector; Biomassebaserade energibaerare foer transportsektorn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Bengt

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to study the technical and economic prerequisites to attain reduced carbon dioxide emissions through the use of biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector, and to study other environmental impacts resulting from an increased use of biomass-based energy carriers. CO{sub 2} emission reduction per unit arable and forest land used for biomass production (kg CO{sub 2}/ha,year) and costs for CO{sub 2} emission reduction (SEK/kg CO{sub 2}) are estimated for the substitution of gasoline and diesel with rape methyl ester, biogas from lucerne, ethanol from wheat and ethanol, methanol, hydrogen and electricity from Salix and logging residues. Of the studied energy carriers, those based on Salix provide the largest CO{sub 2} emission reduction. In a medium long perspective, the costs for CO{sub 2} emission reduction seem to be lowest for methanol from Salix and logging residues. The use of fuel cell vehicles, using methanol or hydrogen as energy carriers, can in a longer perspective provide more energy efficient utilization of biomass for transportation than the use of internal combustion engine vehicles. 136 refs, 12 figs, 25 tabs

  12. Life-Cycle Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Water Consumption – Effects of Coal and Biomass Conversion to Liquid Fuels as Analyzed with the GREET Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qianfeng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The vast reserves of coal in the U.S. provide a significant incentive for the development of processes for coal conversion to liquid fuels (CTL). Also, CTL using domestic coal can help move the U.S. toward greater energy independence and security. However, current conversion technologies are less economically competitive and generate greater greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than production of petroleum fuels. Altex Technologies Corporation (Altex, hereinafter) and Pennsylvania State University have developed a hybrid technology to produce jet fuel from a feedstock blend of coal and biomass. Collaborating with Altex, Argonne National Laboratory has expanded and used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model to assess the life-cycle GHG emissions and water consumption of this hybrid technology. Biomass feedstocks include corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw. The option of biomass densification (bales to pellets) is also evaluated in this study. The results show that the densification process generates additional GHG emissions as a result of additional biomass process energy demand. This process coproduces a large amount of char, and this study investigates two scenarios to treat char: landfill disposal (Char-LF) and combustion for combined heat and power (CHP). Since the CHP scenarios export excess heat and electricity as coproducts, two coproduct handling methods are used for well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis: displacement (Char-CHP-Disp) and energy allocation (Char-CHP-EnAllo). When the feedstock contains 15 wt% densified wheat straw and 85 wt% lignite coal, WTWa GHG emissions of the coal-and-biomass-to-liquid pathways are 116, 97, and 137 gCO2e per megajoule (MJ) under the Char-LF, Char-CHP-Disp, and Char-CHP-EnAllo scenarios, respectively, as compared to conventional jet fuel production at 84 gCO2e/MJ. WTWa water consumption values are 0.072, -0.046, and 0.044 gal/MJ for Char-LF, Char-CHP-Disp, and Char

  13. Biomass-based targets and the management of multispecies coral reef fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, T R; Graham, N A J; MacNeil, M A; Cinner, J E

    2015-04-01

    The failure of fisheries management among multispecies coral reef fisheries is well documented and has dire implications for the 100 million people engaged in these small-scale operations. Weak or missing management institutions, a lack of research capacity, and the complex nature of these ecosystems have heralded a call for ecosystem-based management approaches. However, ecosystem-based management of coral reef fisheries has proved challenging due to the multispecies nature of catches and the diversity of fish functional roles. We used data on fish communities collected from 233 individual sites in 9 western Indian Ocean countries to evaluate changes in the site's functional composition and associated life-history characteristics along a large range of fish biomass. As biomass increased along this range, fish were larger and grew and matured more slowly while the abundance of scraping and predatory species increased. The greatest changes in functional composition occurred below relatively low standing stock biomass (<600 kg/ha); abundances of piscivores, apex predators, and scraping herbivores were low at very light levels of fishing. This suggests potential trade-offs in ecosystem function and estimated yields for different management systems. Current fishing gear and area restrictions are not achieving conservation targets (proposed here as standing stock biomass of 1150 kg/ha) and result in losses of life history and ecological functions. Fish in reefs where destructive gears were restricted typically had very similar biomass and functions to young and low compliance closures. This indicates the potentially important role of fisheries restrictions in providing some gains in biomass and associated ecological functions when fully protected area enforcement potential is limited and likely to fail. Our results indicate that biomass alone can provide broad ecosystem-based fisheries management targets that can be easily applied even where research capacity and

  14. Preparation of liquid chemical feedstocks by co-pyrolysis of electronic waste and biomass without formation of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Xue-Song; Yang, Guang-Xi

    2013-01-01

    The co-pyrolysis of waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEEs) and waste biomass to obtain pyrolysis-oil, a liquid fuel or chemical feedstock, was carried out in the present work. The pyrolysis-oil yield of co-pyrolysis reached 62.3% which was significantly higher than those of pyrolysis of WEEEs and biomass alone (i.e., 53.1% for WEEEs and 46.3% for biomass), suggesting that synergistic effects of the WEEEs and biomass happened during the co-pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis-oil mainly contained aromatic compounds, including many aromatic hydrocarbons. More than 90 wt.% of bromides were enriched in pyrolysis-oil and char, which is easily to be recovered by further treatments, and no polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) were detected in all products which may be attributed to the blocking of PBDD/Fs generation under special reductive environment of pyrolysis. This work provided a green and environmentally friendly approach for the disposal of the WEEEs as well as resource recovery.

  15. Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass in a Spout-fluidized Bed Reactor--Analysis of Composition and Combustion Characteristics of Liquid Product from Biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明强; 王君; 王新运; 张学才; 张素平; 任铮伟; 颜涌捷

    2006-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the fast pyrolysis mechanism of biomass and the relationship between bio-oil composition and pyrolysis reaction conditions, to assess the possibility for the raw bio-oil to be used as fuel, and to evaluate the concept of spout-fluidized bed reactor as the reactor for fast pyrolysis of biomass to prepare fuel oil, the composition and combustion characteristics of bio-oil prepared in a spout-fluidized bed reactor with a designed maximum capacity 5 kg/h of sawdust as feeding material, were investigated by GC-MS and thermogravimetry. 14 aromatic series chemicals were identified. The thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the bio-oil was liable to combustion, the combustion temperature increased with the heating rate, and only minute ash was generated when it burned. The kinetics of the combustion reaction was studied and the kinetic parameters were calculated by both Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Popsecu methods. The results agree well with each other. The most probable combustion mechanism functions determined by Popescu method are f(α)=k(1-α)2(400~406 ℃), f(α)=1/2k(1-α)3 (406~416 ℃) and f( α)=2k(1-α)3/2 (416~430 ℃) respectively.

  16. Base stable quaternary ammonium ionic liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Lethesh, Kallidanthiyil Chellappan; Dehaen, Wim; Binnemans, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquids with the bis(2-ethylhexyl)dimethylammonium cation, [BEDMA]+, were prepared by a halide-free route starting from the readily available secondary amine bis(2-ethylhexyl)amine. The following anions were considered: chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, hydrogensulphate, dihydrogenphosphate, formate, acetate, propionate, trifluoroacetate, methyl sulphate, methanesulphonate, tosylate, isonicotinate, nicotinate and picolinate. Several of the compounds are room-temperature ionic liquids,...

  17. Allocation of Energy Use in the Biomass-based Fuel Ethanol System and Its Use in Decision Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LENG Ru-bo; YU Sui-ran; FANG Fang; DAI Du; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese government is developing biomass ethanol as one of its automobile fuels for energy security and environmental improvement reasons. The energy efficiency of the biomass-based fuel ethanol is critical issue. To investigate the energy use in the three biomass-base ethanol fuel systems, energy content approach, Market value approach and Product displacement approach methods were used to allocate the energy use based on life cycle energy assessment. The results shows that the net energy of corn based, wheat based, and cassava-based ethanol fuel are 12543MJ, 10299MJ and 13112MJ when get one ton biomassbased ethanol, respectively, and they do produce positive net energy.

  18. Design of Biomass Gasification and Combined Heat and Power Plant Based on Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydary, Juma; Jelemenský, Ľudovít

    Three types of wooden biomass were characterized by calorimetric measurements, proximate and elemental analysis, thermogravimetry, kinetics of thermal decomposition and gas composition. Using the Aspen steady state simulation, a plant with the processing capacity of 18 ton/h of biomass was modelled based on the experimental data obtained under laboratory conditions. The gasification process has been modelled in two steps. The first step of the model describes the thermal decomposition of the biomass based on a kinetic model and in the second step, the equilibrium composition of syngas is calculated by the Gibbs free energy of the expected components. The computer model of the plant besides the reactor model includes also a simulation of other plant facilities such as: feed drying employing the energy from the process, ash and tar separation, gas-steam cycle, and hot water production heat exchangers. The effect of the steam to air ratio on the conversion, syngas composition, and reactor temperature was analyzed. Employment of oxygen and air for partial combustion was compared. The designed computer model using all Aspen simulation facilities can be applied to study different aspects of biomass gasification in a Combined Heat and Power plant.

  19. Evaluating the influences of biomass burning during 2006 BASE-ASIA: a regional chemical transport modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Fu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of biomass burning from Southeast Asia to East Asia, this study conducted numerical simulations during NASA's 2006 Biomass-burning Aerosols in South-East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA. Two typical episode periods (27–28 March and 13–14 April were examined. Two emission inventories, FLAMBE and GFED, were used in the simulations. The influences during two episodes in the source region (Southeast Asia contributed to the surface CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations as high as 400 ppbv, 20 ppbv and 80 μg m−3, respectively. The perturbations with and without biomass burning of the above three species during the intense episodes were in the range of 10 to 60%, 10 to 20% and 30 to 70%, respectively. The impact due to long-range transport could spread over the southeastern parts of East Asia and could reach about 160 to 360 ppbv, 8 to 18 ppbv and 8 to 64 μg m−3 on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively; the percentage impact could reach 20 to 50% on CO, 10 to 30% on O3, and as high as 70% on PM2.5. In March, the impact of biomass burning was mainly concentrated in Southeast Asia and Southern China, while in April the impact becomes slightly broader, potentially including the Yangtze River Delta region.

    Two cross-sections at 15° N and 20° N were used to compare the vertical flux of biomass burning. In the source region (Southeast Asia, CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations had a strong upward transport from surface to high altitudes. The eastward transport becomes strong from 2 to 8 km in the free troposphere. The subsidence process during the long-range transport contributed 60 to 70%, 20 to 50%, and 80% to CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively to surface in the downwind area. The study reveals the significant impact of Southeastern Asia biomass burning on the air quality in both local and

  20. Application of agro-based biomasses for zinc removal from wastewater - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Balomajumder, Chandrajit; Mondal, Prejit [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee (India)

    2011-07-15

    Zinc remediation of aqueous streams is of special concern due to its highly toxic and persistent nature. Conventional treatment technologies for the removal of zinc are not economical and further generate huge quantity of toxic chemical sludge. Biosorption is emerging as a potential alternative to the existing conventional technologies for the removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions. Mechanisms involved in the biosorption process include chemisorption, complexation, adsorption-complexation on surface and pores, ion exchange, microprecipitation, heavy metal hydroxide condensation onto the bio surface, and surface adsorption. Biosorption largely depends on parameters such as pH, the initial metal ion concentration, biomass concentration, presence of various competitive metal ions in solution, and to a limited extent on temperature. Biosorption using biomass such as agricultural wastes, industrial residues, municipal solid waste, biosolids, food processing waste, aquatic plants, animal wastes, etc., is regarded as a cost-effective technique for the treatment of high volume and low concentration complex wastewaters containing zinc metal. Very few reviews are available where readers can get an overview of the sorption capacities of agro based biomasses used for zinc remediation together with the traditional remediation methods. The purpose of this review article is to provide the scattered available information on various aspects of utilization of the agro based biomasses for zinc metal ions removal. An extensive table summarizes the sorption capacities of various adsorbents. These biosorbents can be modified using various methods for better efficiency and multiple reuses to enhance their applicability at industrial scale. We have incorporated most of the valuable available literature on zinc removal from waste water using agro based biomasses in this review. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. High stability and low competitive inhibition of thermophilic Thermopolyspora flexuosa GH10 xylanase in biomass-dissolving ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarasan, Sasikala; Wahlström, Ronny; Hummel, Michael; Ojamo, Heikki; Sixta, Herbert; Turunen, Ossi

    2017-02-01

    Thermophilic Thermopolyspora flexuosa GH10 xylanase (TfXYN10A) was studied in the presence of biomass-dissolving hydrophilic ionic liquids (ILs) [EMIM]OAc, [EMIM]DMP and [DBNH]OAc. The temperature optimum of TfXYN10A with insoluble xylan in the pulp was at 65-70 °C, with solubilised 1 % xylan at 70-75 °C and with 3 % xylan at 75-80 °C. Therefore, the amount of soluble substrate affects the enzyme activity at high temperatures. The experiments with ILs were done with 1 % substrate. TfXYN10A can partially hydrolyse soluble xylan even in the presence of 40 % (v/v) ILs. Although ILs decrease the apparent temperature optimum, a surprising finding was that at the inactivating temperatures (80-90 °C), especially [EMIM]OAc increases the stability of TfXYN10A indicating that the binding of IL molecules strengthens the protein structure. Earlier kinetic studies showed an increased K m with ILs, indicating that ILs function as competitive inhibitors. TfXYN10A showed low increase of K m, which was 2-, 3- and 4-fold with 15 % [EMIM]OAc, [DBNH]OAc and [EMIM]DMP, respectively. One reason for the low competitive inhibition could be the high affinity to the substrate (low K m). Xylanases with low K m (~1 mg/mL) appear to show higher tolerance to ILs than xylanases with higher K m (~2 mg/mL). Capillary electrophoresis showed that TfXYN10A hydrolyses xylan to the end-products in 15-35 % ILs practically as completely as without IL, also indicating good binding of the short substrate molecules by TfXYN10A despite of major apparent IL binding sites above the catalytic residues. Substrate binding interactions in the active site appear to explain the high tolerance of TfXYN10A to ILs.

  2. Crop production without fossil fuel: production systems for tractor fuel and mineral nitrogen based on biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlgren, Serina

    2009-12-15

    With diminishing fossil fuel reserves and concerns about global warming, the agricultural sector needs to reduce its use of fossil fuels. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate different systems for biomass-based production of tractor fuel and mineral nitrogen fertilisers, which at present are the two largest fossil energy carriers in Swedish agriculture. The land use, energy input and environmental load of the systems were calculated using life cycle assessment methodology. Two categories of renewable tractor fuel were studied: first generation fuels and second generation fuels, the latter defined as fuels not yet produced on a commercial scale. An organic farm self-sufficient in tractor fuel was modelled. Raw material from the farm was assumed to be delivered to a large fuel production facility and fuel transported back to the farm, where it was utilised. In general, the second generation renewable fuels had higher energy balance and lower environmental impact than the first generation fuels. However all systems studied reduced the use of fossil fuels to a great extent and lowered the contribution to global warming. The land needed to be set aside for tractor fuel varied between 2% and 5% of the farm's available land. Two major routes for biomass-based production of mineral nitrogen for conventional agriculture were studied, one based on anaerobic digestion and one on thermochemical gasification of biomass. The crops studied were able to produce between 1.6 and 3.9 tonnes N per hectare in the form of ammonium nitrate. The use of fossil fuel for ammonium nitrate production was 35 MJ per kg N in the fossil reference scenario, but only 1-4 MJ per kg N in the biomass systems. The contribution to global warming can be greatly reduced by the biomass systems, but there is an increased risk of eutrophication and acidification. It is clear that the agricultural sector has great potential to reduce the use of fossil fuel and to lower the emissions of greenhouse

  3. 规模生猪养殖液态生物质资源循环开发仿真分析%Simulation analysis of scale pig breeding liquid biomass development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翠霞; 章先华; 贾仁安; 丁雄; 张理康

    2012-01-01

    It studies the issue of Scale Pig Breeding Liquid Biomass Development of Yinghe corp. via simulation analysis. Based on the record and five-year, 10-year development plan of Yinhe,by using the rate variable funndamental in-tree progressively modeling approach, we develop a simulation model with seven in-trees. The simulation results indicates that a large amount of breeding waste biomass will be produced during the company plan implementation course, and the bio-liquid and biogas produced by anaerobic fermentation on breeding waste contains a large amount of biomass. Thus, based on the simulation results and the feedback structure of the system, we point out three management strategies, which are implemented preliminary.%对银河杜仲基于沼气工程的液态生物质资源的循环开发进行仿真分析.根据历史数据和公司五年、十年发展规划,使用基于反馈调控参数的入树逐步建模法,构建7棵入树仿真模型;通过仿真定量揭示公司规划实施过程中将产生大量废弃物类生物质,沼气工程对废弃物开发产生的沼液和沼气中含大量的生物质能;为此,基于仿真结果及系统反馈结构,提出促进消除环境与猪肉产品双污染,实现绿色安全猪肉生产和改善环境双重目标的三条管理对策,并进行初步实施.

  4. Transition of cellulose crystalline structure and surface morphology of biomass as a function of ionic liquid pretreatment and its relation to enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gang; Varanasi, Patanjali; Li, Chenlin; Liu, Hanbin; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Simmons, Blake A; Kent, Michael S; Singh, Seema

    2011-04-11

    Cellulose is inherently resistant to breakdown, and the native crystalline structure (cellulose I) of cellulose is considered to be one of the major factors limiting its potential in terms of cost-competitive lignocellulosic biofuel production. Here we report the impact of ionic liquid pretreatment on the cellulose crystalline structure in different feedstocks, including microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), pine ( Pinus radiata ), and eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus globulus ), and its influence on cellulose hydrolysis kinetics of the resultant biomass. These feedstocks were pretreated using 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]) at 120 and 160 °C for 1, 3, 6, and 12 h. The influence of the pretreatment conditions on the cellulose crystalline structure was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). On a larger length scale, the impact of ionic liquid pretreatment on the surface roughness of the biomass was determined by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Pretreatment resulted in a loss of native cellulose crystalline structure. However, the transformation processes were distinctly different for Avicel and for the biomass samples. For Avicel, a transformation to cellulose II occurred for all processing conditions. For the biomass samples, the data suggest that pretreatment for most conditions resulted in an expanded cellulose I lattice. For switchgrass, first evidence of cellulose II only occurred after 12 h of pretreatment at 120 °C. For eucalyptus, first evidence of cellulose II required more intense pretreatment (3 h at 160 °C). For pine, no clear evidence of cellulose II content was detected for the most intense pretreatment conditions of this study (12 h at 160 °C). Interestingly, the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of Avicel was slightly lower for pretreatment at 160 °C compared with pretreatment at 120 °C. For the biomass samples, the hydrolysis rate was much greater for pretreatment at 160 °C compared with pretreatment

  5. Biomass based energy combines with motor fuel production; Biobraenslebaserade energikombinat med tillverkning av drivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    In the report the state of development of production processes for various motor fuels, such as FT diesel, methanol , DME and ethanol, from biomass is reviewed. Biomass and black liquor gasification processes as well as processes for ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass are discussed. The processes are complicated and still not very well tried in their whole context. The gas cleaning steps, which are necessary to reach acceptable catalyst lifetimes in the motor fuel production processes based on gasification, have been tested in the oil industry and to some extent in coal gasification plants, but not with syngas from biomass or black liquor gasification. For black liquor gasification particularly, also material selection and material lifetime issues remain to be solved. For ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass process development is needed, to increase the yield in the pre-treatment, hydrolysis and fermentation steps. The energy yields of the processes are dependent on the degree of complexity of the processes, as well as on the integration and balancing of energy demanding steps and steps with energy surplus. This is especially valid for the processes based on gasification, due to high temperatures in the gasifier and some of the catalytic steps, but also for the ethanol process, which benefit from optimal steam integration in the evaporation and distillation steps. Also steam integration with cogeneration plants, or for black liquor gasification with pulp mills, improves the overall energy balance. In addition, the energy yield when motor fuels are produced by gasification is dependent on the usage of the off-gas. The efficiency is improved when the off-gas is burned in a boiler or gas turbine, than when it is flared. In the report examples are given of processes with and without integration.

  6. [The inversion processing of vegetation biomass along Yongding River based on multispectral information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cheng; Feng, Zhong-Ke; Han, Xu; Sun, Meng-Ying; Gong, Yin-Xi; Gao, Yuan; Dong, Bin

    2012-12-01

    Researching on vegetation biomass using the traditional measurement method is time-consuming and hard sledding, and prediction precision of biomass is always not good because of uncertain influencing factors. The present article aims at the current situation of Hebei-Beijing reach along Yongding River, using the Thematic Mapper data in this place on 20th July 2009 as source data, with the 30 meters Digital Elevation Model data in Beijing and other auxiliary information, meanwhile through field observation data, to find out the possible functional relationship along vegetation biomass and remote sensing image factor. The authros sorted out the vegetation biomass and remote sensing image factor on the sample plot, then set up an inverse model through multiple linear regression analysis, and analyzed the precision of inverse model. After calculating the measured value and predicted value, the authors got the global relative error is -0.025%, the average relative error is -0.016%, and the general predictive precision is 84.56%. The establishment of this model is able to investigate eco-environmental factors on large range timely, quickly and accurately, also can provide the experimental base for the eco-environmental survey on river basin, and make the foundation for the problem diagnosis of ecological environment and the research on ecosystem degradation mechanism of Yongding River.

  7. Assessment of technical and economical potential of biomass exploitation in Sicily - A GIS based methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beccali, M.; Cellura, M.; D' Alberti, V. [DREAM Dipartimento di Ricerche Energetiche ed Ambientali, Universita di Palermo (Italy); Columba, P. [DESAF Dipartimento di Economia dei Sistemi Agro-Forestali, Universita di Palermo (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    A Geographical Information System (GIS) supported methodology has been defined and adopted in order to assess the real technical and economical potential of biomass for energy production in Sicily contest. This methodology is based on a data referred to a (GIS) collecting data about cover land use, transport facilities, urban cartography, regional territorial planning, terrain digital model, lithology, climatic types, civil and industry users. By means of that GIS was possible to highlight the potential areas where gather the residues coming from pruning of olives, vineyards and other agricultures crops and to assess the tons of biomass available for energy purpose. The economic availability has been assessed assuming a price of the biomass comparing it with other fuels and the evaluation carried out shows the strong competitiveness of firewood in comparison with the traditional fossil fuels when the collection system is implemented in efficient way. At the same time the study has shown a good competitiveness of the finished biomasses (pellets), and good potentiality for a long term development of this market. According to these, as important result of the study is to show the opportunities stemming from the harmonisation of Energy Policy with the Waste Management System. (orig.)

  8. The Interpolation Method for Estimating the Above-Ground Biomass Using Terrestrial-Based Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Surati Jaya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined several methods for interpolating biomass on logged-over dry land forest using terrestrial-based forest inventory in Labanan, East Kalimantan and Lamandau, Kota Wringing Barat, Central Kalimantan. The plot-distances examined was 1,000−1,050 m for Labanan and 1,000−899m for Lawanda. The main objective of this study was to obtain the best interpolation method having the most accurate prediction on spatial distribution of forest biomass for dry land forest. Two main interpolation methods were examined: (1 deterministic approach using the IDW method and (2 geo-statistics approach using Kriging with spherical, circular, linear, exponential, and Gaussian models. The study results at both sites consistently showed that the IDW method was better than the Kriging method for estimating the spatial distribution of biomass. The validation results using chi-square test showed that the IDW interpolation provided accurate biomass estimation. Using the percentage of mean deviation value (MD(%, it was also recognized that the IDWs with power parameter (p of 2 provided relatively low value , i.e., only 15% for Labanan, East Kalimantan Province and 17% for Lamandau, Kota Wringing Barat Central Kalimantan Province. In general, IDW interpolation method provided better results than the Kriging, where the Kriging method provided MD(% of about 27% and 21% for Lamandau and Labanan sites, respectively.

  9. Photoresponsive Liquid Crystals Based on Dihydroazulene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ugleholdt

    alignment between the transition dipole moment and the direction of the nematic host,showing that azulene could be a useful dye for doping into liquid crystalline host materials.As esters are a commonly used linking group in liquid crystalline chemistry, it was chosen toinvestigate the physical properties...... of a series of thioester analogues. Only few examples of liquidcrystalline thioesters have been reported in the literature. It was shown that these materials haveindeed been overlooked in the field of liquid crystal chemistry, as they were found to showinteresting properties.Chiral azulenes were made......, and a synthesis of alinear “double DHA”. As these projects did not end up being viable strategies for liquid crystallinematerials, they are not included in the thesis but the articles are attached in the appendix....

  10. Synthesis of octyl-ethers of biomass-based glycols through two competitive catalytic routes: Telomerization and etherification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parvulescu, A.N.; Hausoul, P.J.C.; Bruijnincx, P.C.A.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing interest in biomass valorization has triggered a worldwide search for new catalytic routes to transform biomass-based derivatives in transportation fuels and valuable chemicals. It is anticipated that in most cases more than one catalytic pathway can be followed for the synthesis of the

  11. An overview of dehydration, aldol-condensation and hydrogenation processes for production of liquid alkanes from biomass-derived carbohydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chheda, Juben N.; Dumesic, James A. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2007-05-30

    We present results for the conversion of carbohydrate feedstocks to liquid alkanes by the combination of dehydration, aldol-condensation/hydrogenation, and dehydration/hydrogenation processing. With respect to the first dehydration step, we demonstrate that HMF can be produced in good selectivity from abundantly available polysaccharides (such as inulin, sucrose) containing fructose monomer units using a biphasic batch reactor system. The reaction system can be optimized to achieve good yields to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from fructose by varying the contents of aqueous-phase modifiers such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP). Regarding the aldol-condensation/hydrogenation step, we present the development of stable, solid base catalysts in aqueous environments. We address the effects of various reaction parameters such as the molar ratio of reactants and temperature on overall product yield for sequential aldol-condensation and hydrogenation steps. Overall, our results show that it is technically possible to convert carbohydrate feedstocks to produce liquid alkanes by the combination of dehydration, aldol-condensation/hydrogenation, and dehydration/hydrogenation processing; however, further optimization of these processes is required to decrease the overall number of separate steps (and reactors) required in this conversion. (author)

  12. Ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for high-throughput multiple food contaminant screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yee-Man; Tsoi, Yeuk-Ki; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes an innovation of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction enabling multiple-component analysis of eight high-priority food contaminants in two chemically distinctive families: Sudan dyes and phthalate plasticizers. To provide convenient sample handling for solid and solid-containing matrices, a modified dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure used an extractant precoated frit to perform simultaneous filtration, solvent mixing, and phase dispersion in one simple step. A binary ionic liquid extractant system was carefully tuned to deliver high quality analysis based only on affordable LC with diode array detector instrumentation. The method is comprehensively validated for robust quantification with good precision (6.9-9.8% RSD) in a linear 2-1000 μg/L range. Having accomplished enrichment factors up to 451, the treatment enables sensitive detection at 0.09-1.01 μg/L levels. Analysis of six high-risk solid condiments and sauces further verified its practical applicability within a 70-120% recovery range. Compared to other approaches, the current dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction treatment offers major advantages in terms of minimal solvent (1.5 mL) and sample (0.1 g) consumption, ultra-high analytical throughput (6 min), and the ability to handle complex solid matrices. The idea of performing simultaneous analysis for multiple contaminants presented here fosters a more effective mode of operation in food control routines.

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions from the treatment of household plastic containers and packaging: replacement with biomass-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Junya; Hirai, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Shin-ichi; Tsubota, Jun

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction that could be achieved by replacement of fossil-derived materials with biodegradable, biomass-based materials for household plastic containers and packaging, considering a variety of their treatment options. The biomass-based materials were 100% polylactide or a combination of polybutylene succinate adipate and polylactide. A scenario analysis was conducted considering alternative recycling methods. Five scenarios were considered: two for existing fossil-derived materials (the current approach in Japan) and the three for biomass-based materials. Production and waste disposal of 1 m(3) of plastic containers and packaging from households was defined as the functional unit. The results showed that replacement of fossil-derived materials with biomass-based materials could reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 14-20%. Source separation and recycling should be promoted. When the separate collection ratio reached 100%, replacement with biomass-based materials could potentially reduce GHG emissions by 31.9%. Food containers are a priority for replacement, because they alone could reduce GHG emissions by 10%. A recycling system for biomass-based plastics must be carefully designed, considering aspects such as the transition period from fossil-derived plastics to biomass-based plastics.

  14. A decision model for cost effective design of biomass based green energy supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz Balaman, Şebnem; Selim, Hasan

    2015-09-01

    The core driver of this study is to deal with the design of anaerobic digestion based biomass to energy supply chains in a cost effective manner. In this concern, a decision model is developed. The model is based on fuzzy multi objective decision making in order to simultaneously optimize multiple economic objectives and tackle the inherent uncertainties in the parameters and decision makers' aspiration levels for the goals. The viability of the decision model is explored with computational experiments on a real-world biomass to energy supply chain and further analyses are performed to observe the effects of different conditions. To this aim, scenario analyses are conducted to investigate the effects of energy crop utilization and operational costs on supply chain structure and performance measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis)-based thin film, a novel biomass material with high performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fei; Xu, Chen; Bao, Wen-Yi; Wang, Xiu-Li; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2015-03-30

    Exploration of biomass based materials to replace conventional petroleum based ones has been a trend in recent decades. In this work, bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis) with abundant resources was used for the first time to prepare films in the presence of cellulose. The effects of weight ratio of bamboo/cellulose on the appearances and properties of the films were investigated. It was confirmed there existed strong interactions between bamboo and cellulose, which were favorable to formation of homogeneous structure of blend films. Particularly, the presence of bamboo could improve the surface hydrophobicity, water resistance and thermal stability of blend films, and the films possessed an excellent oxygen barrier property, compared with generally used commercial packaging films. The bamboo biomass, therefore, is successfully used to create a new film material with a good application prospect in the fields of packaging, coating, and food industry.

  16. The Interpolation Method for Estimating the Above-Ground Biomass Using Terrestrial-Based Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Surati Jaya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined several methods for interpolating biomass on logged-over dry land forest using terrestrial-based forest inventory in Labanan, East Kalimantan and Lamandau, Kota Wringing Barat, Central Kalimantan.  The plot-distances examined was 1,000−1,050 m for Labanan and 1,000−899m for Lawanda.  The main objective of this study was to obtain the best interpolation method having the most accurate prediction on spatial distribution of forest biomass for dry land forest. Two main interpolation methods were examined: (1 deterministic approach using the IDW method and (2 geo-statistics approach  using Kriging with spherical, circular, linear, exponential, and Gaussian models.   The study results at both sites consistently showed that the IDW method was better than the Kriging method for estimating the spatial distribution of biomass.  The validation results using chi-square test showed that the IDW interpolation provided accurate biomass estimation.   Using the percentage of mean deviation value (MD(%, it was also recognized that the IDWs with power parameter (p of 2 provided relatively low value , i.e., only 15% for Labanan, East Kalimantan Province and 17% for Lamandau, Kota Wringing Barat Central Kalimantan Province. In general, IDW interpolation method provided better results than the Kriging, where the Kriging method provided MD(% of about 27% and 21% for Lamandau and Labanan sites, respectively.Keywords:  deterministic, geostatistics, IDW, Kriging, above-groung biomass

  17. Hydrothermal Stability of Ru/SiO2–C: A Promising Catalyst for Biomass Processing through Liquid-Phase Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín N. Gatti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, structural and morphological properties of SiO2–C composite material to be used as support for catalysts in the conversion of biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons, such as glycerol, were investigated in liquid water under various temperatures conditions. The results show that this material does not lose surface area, and the hot liquid water does not generate changes in the structure. Neither change in relative concentrations of oxygen functional groups nor in Si/C ratio due to hydrothermal treatment was revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analysis. Raman analysis showed that the material is made of a disordered graphitic structure in an amorphous silica matrix, which remains stable after hydrothermal treatment. Results of the hydrogenolysis of glycerol using a Ru/SiO2–C catalyst indicate that the support gives more stability to the active phase than a Ru/SiO2 consisting of commercial silica.

  18. Experimental investigations and modeling of devolatilization based on superimposed kinetics of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Anker Degn

    obtained in the wire mesh and drop tube reactors. Thus, the modelincluding these two parameters provides an acceptable fit of char yield to the experimental data. The present results showedthat the proposed kinetic model for the fast biomass pyrolysis is relatively simple and predicts reasonably accurately...... relies on the concept applied in fast pyrolysis of cellulose throughthe formation of an intermediate liquid (so called metaplast) which reacts further to char and gas. The kinetics of the fastpyrolysis was described by the Broido-Shafizadeh scheme.The influence of particle size and shape was included...... meshand drop tube reactors with respect to the stronger catalytic effect of potassium on the char yield at low and intermediateheating rates compared to pyrolysis at high heating rates. The heating rate and potassium content affected significantly thechar yield as evi denced from the experimental data...

  19. Thermoreversible (Ionic-Liquid-Based) Aqueous Biphasic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Helena; Luís, Andreia; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G

    2016-02-04

    The ability to induce reversible phase transitions between homogeneous solutions and biphasic liquid-liquid systems, at pre-defined and suitable operating temperatures, is of crucial relevance in the design of separation processes. Ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic systems (IL-based ABS) have demonstrated superior performance as alternative extraction platforms, and their thermoreversible behaviour is here disclosed by the use of protic ILs. The applicability of the temperature-induced phase switching is further demonstrated with the complete extraction of two value-added proteins, achieved in a single-step. It is shown that these temperature-induced mono(bi)phasic systems are significantly more versatile than classical liquid-liquid systems which are constrained by their critical temperatures. IL-based ABS allow to work in a wide range of temperatures and compositions which can be tailored to fit the requirements of a given separation process.

  20. Development of a fluorescence-based method for monitoring glucose catabolism and its potential use in a biomass hydrolysis assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anex Robert P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability and low cost of lignocellulosic biomass has caused tremendous interest in the bioconversion of this feedstock into liquid fuels. One measure of the economic viability of the bioconversion process is the ease with which a particular feedstock is hydrolyzed and fermented. Because monitoring the analytes in hydrolysis and fermentation experiments is time consuming, the objective of this study was to develop a rapid fluorescence-based method to monitor sugar production during biomass hydrolysis, and to demonstrate its application in monitoring corn stover hydrolysis. Results Hydrolytic enzymes were used in conjunction with Escherichia coli strain CA8404 (a hexose and pentose-consuming strain, modified to produce green fluorescent protein (GFP. The combination of hydrolytic enzymes and a sugar-consuming organism minimizes feedback inhibition of the hydrolytic enzymes. We observed that culture growth rate as measured by change in culture turbidity is proportional to GFP fluorescence and total growth and growth rate depends upon how much sugar is present at inoculation. Furthermore, it was possible to monitor the course of enzymatic hydrolysis in near real-time, though there are instrumentation challenges in doing this. Conclusion We found that instantaneous fluorescence is proportional to the bacterial growth rate. As growth rate is limited by the availability of sugar, the integral of fluorescence is proportional to the amount of sugar consumed by the microbe. We demonstrate that corn stover varieties can be differentiated based on sugar yields in enzymatic hydrolysis reactions using post-hydrolysis fluorescence measurements. Also, it may be possible to monitor fluorescence in real-time during hydrolysis to compare different hydrolysis protocols.

  1. Energy from Biomass for Conversion of Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolins, J.; Gravitis, J.

    2009-01-01

    Along with estimates of minimum energy required by steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass some general problems concerning biomass conversion into chemicals, materials, and fuels are discussed. The energy necessary for processing biomass by steam explosion auto-hydrolysis is compared with the heat content of wood and calculated in terms of the amount of saturated steam consumed per unit mass of the dry content of wood biomass. The fraction of processed biomass available for conversion after steam explosion pre-treatment is presented as function of the amount of steam consumed per unit mass of the dry content of wood. The estimates based on a simple model of energy flows show the energy required by steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass being within 10% of the heat content of biomass - a realistic amount demonstrating that energy for the process can be supplied from a reasonable proportion of biomass used as the source of energy for steam explosion pre-treatment.

  2. Biomass IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, K.; Keraenen, H. [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Enviropower Inc. is developing a modern power plant concept based on pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC). The process is capable of maximising the electricity production with a variety of solid fuels - different biomass and coal types - mixed or separately. The development work is conducted on many levels. These and demonstration efforts are highlighted in this article. The feasibility of a pressurised gasification based processes compared to competing technologies in different applications is discussed. The potential of power production from biomass is also reviewed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  3. Hollow fiber-based liquid-liquid-liquid micro-extraction with osmosis: I. Theoretical simulation and verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Wu, Dapeng; Geng, Xuhui; Shen, Zheng; Guan, Yafeng

    2012-07-27

    Osmosis in hollow fiber-based liquid-liquid-liquid micro-extraction (HF-LLLME) was validated and utilized to improve enrichment factor of extraction in this study. When donor phase (sample solution) with higher ion strength than acceptor phase (extraction phase) was used, osmosis was established from acceptor phase, through organic membrane to donor phase. The mass flux expression of analytes across the organic membrane was established based on the convective-diffusive kinetic model, and the kinetic process for HF-LLLME with osmosis was simulated. Simulation results indicated that osmosis from acceptor phase to donor phase can increase enrichment factor of HF-LLLME, accelerate extraction process, and even result in the distribution ratio of analytes between donor and acceptor phase exceeding their partition coefficient. This phenomenon was verified by the experimental data of extraction with six organic acids and four organic bases as the model analytes.

  4. Opportunities and trade-offs of biomass based negative emissions within planetary boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Vera; Gerten, Dieter; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    The Paris Agreement requires "a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in the second half of the century" (UNFCCC, 2015). Without a full decarbonization of the energy and land use sector until the second half of this century, negative emission technologies (NETs) are required to achieve net zero greenhouse gas emissions. Integrated assessment studies indicate that bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), a land based NET, has the potential to contribute substantially to balancing anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions. However, significant negative emission potentials from BECCS require substantial biomass potentials, which can only be achieved by intensively managed (fertilized and irrigated) large-scale biomass plantations. Additional to direct trade-offs of land and water availability, the implementation of large-scale biomass plantations implies major restructuring of the land surface on top of existing land use and would be accompanied by indirect trade-offs such as changes in moisture and energy fluxes. In the context of the planetary boundaries framework as proposed by Rockström et al. (2009), BECCS might contribute to reduce the transgression of the planetary boundary (PB) for climate change, but would most likely steer the Earth system closer to the PB for freshwater use and lead to further transgression of the PBs for land system change, biosphere integrity and biogeochemical flows. This presentation will investigate the opportunities of second generation biomass potentials within the safe operating space for humanity and highlight the multidimensional trade-offs between biomass potentials for BECCS in relation to the PBs. Scenarios of land availability for biomass plantations and land based carbon sequestration were developed with a spatially explicit multi-criterial optimization framework, considering the precautionary need to stay within the safe operating space vis-à-vis the need to

  5. A comparison of liquid-based cytology with conventional cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, C; Gezginç, K; Toy, H; Findik, S; Yilmaz, O

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the 2 methods of cytologic screening to detect abnormalities of the cervical epithelium. This study with 3 groups of women was performed at Selcuk University Meram Medical School between January 2004 and March 2006. In one group (paired sample for specimen collection) women were screened with conventional cytology; in another group (paired sample for specimen collection) they were screened with liquid-based cytology; and in the third group (split sample for specimen collection) they were screened by both methods. The rate of unsatisfactory results was lower in the liquid-based than in the conventional cytology group (6.1% vs. 2.6%; Pliquid-based method, but the difference was not statistically significant. Also, no statistically significant differences between liquid-based and conventional cytology were observed in the detection of other epithelial abnormalities (P>0.05). The liquid-based and conventional cytology methods were found to be equivalent in the detection of cervical epithelial abnormalities.

  6. Biorefinery based on olive biomass. State of the art and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-García, J M; Niño, L; Martínez-Patiño, C; Álvarez, C; Castro, E; Negro, M J

    2014-05-01

    With currently more than nine million hectares, olive tree cultivation has spread worldwide, table olives and olive oil as the main products. Moreover, a number of by-products and residues derived from both tree cultivation and the process of industrial olive oil production, most having no practical applications, are obtained yearly. This paper reviews the research regarding these by-products, namely biomass from olive tree pruning, olive stones, olive pomace and wastewaters obtained from the process of olive oil production. Furthermore, a wide range of compounds has been identified and can be produced using a broad definition of the term biorefinery based on olive tree biomass. As an example, this paper reviews ethanol production as one of the main proposed applications, as well as research on other value-added products. Finally, this paper also assesses recent technological advances, future perspectives and challenges in each stage of the process.

  7. Feasibility of Biomass-based Fuel Cells for Manned Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipoli, Tiziana

    2005-05-01

    The increasing quantity of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the decrease in fossil fuels availability are driving massive investigation of alternative, sustainable energy sources for Earth applications. Among others, different processes for the conversion of biomass into useful fuels are under development or have been already implemented in various Countries. The transfer of this technology to space is promising in view of the ambitious plans for future manned planetary exploration missions, where power generation represents a critical aspect. Recycling organic waste increases the availability of fuel and at the same time reduces the issues of waste disposal and planetary protection. This work presents a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of a biomass-based fuel cell system during a human mission to Mars.

  8. A decision support system for planning biomass-based energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frombo, Francesco; Robba, Michela [DIST, Department of Communication, Computer and System Sciences, University of Genoa, Via Opera Pia 13, 16145 Genova (Italy); Renewable Energy Laboratory, Modelling and Optimization, Via A. Magliotto 2, 17100 Savona (Italy); Minciardi, Riccardo; Sacile, Roberto [DIST, Department of Communication, Computer and System Sciences, University of Genoa, Via Opera Pia 13, 16145 Genova (Italy)

    2009-03-15

    Environmental decision support systems (EDSS) are recognized as valuable tools for environmental planning and management. In this paper, a geographic information system (GIS)-based EDSS for the optimal planning of forest biomass use for energy production is presented. A user-friendly interface allows the creation of Scenarios and the running of the developed decision and environmental models. In particular, the optimization model regards decisions over a long-term period (e.g. years) and includes decision variables related to plant locations, conversion processes (pyrolisis, gasification, combustion), harvested biomass. Moreover, different energy products and different definitions of the harvesting and pre-treatment operations are taken into account. The correct management of the forest is considered through specific constraints, security factors, and procedures for parcel selection. The EDSS features and capabilities are described in detail, with specific reference to a case study. Discussion and further research are reported. (author)

  9. Energy and exergy analyses of a biomass-based hydrogen production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohce, M K; Dincer, I; Rosen, M A

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, a novel biomass-based hydrogen production plant is investigated. The system uses oil palm shell as a feedstock. The main plant processes are biomass gasification, steam methane reforming and shift reaction. The modeling of the gasifier uses the Gibbs free energy minimization approach and chemical equilibrium considerations. The plant, with modifications, is simulated and analyzed thermodynamically using the Aspen Plus process simulation code (version 11.1). Exergy analysis, a useful tool for understanding and improving efficiency, is used throughout the investigation, in addition to energy analysis. The overall performance of the system is evaluated, and its efficiencies become 19% for exergy efficiency and 22% energy efficiency while the gasifier cold gas efficiency is 18%.

  10. Biomass Catalytic Pyrolysis with Ni Based Catalyst to Produce Hydrogen Rich Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mingfeng; LIU Min; XU Xiwei; LI Bosong; ZHANG Qiang; JIAN Enchen

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen rich gas was produced using rice husk as biomass material on the continuous biomass pyrolysis apparatus which consisted of continuous pyrolysis reactor and secondary catalytic cracking reactor. Ni based catalysts of different Ni/Al mass ratio and calcined temperature were prepared by impregnating method. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),scan electron microscope (SEM) and FT-IR Spectrometer (FT-IR). Ni based catalyst showed good selectivity for H2 production from biomass. Catalysts prepared under different conditions had little influence on the yields of three states products when used at the same cracking temperature. Ni/Al mass ratio played an important role in products selectivity. However, the content of NiO increased further when Ni/Al mass ratio values reached 0.7 : 10, and the yield of H2 slightly increased. Hydrogen yield was greatly impacted by calcined temperature. Catalyst calcined at 550"C performed best. When the catalyst was calcined at high temperature, NiO in the catalyst transformed into NiAl2O4, and the acid site also changed, which caused the deactivation of the catalyst. The hydrogen yield increased with the cracking temperature. The highest stable yield of hydrogen was about 30% without increasing with the cracking temperature.

  11. Pesticide extraction from table grapes and plums using ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo-Pérez, Lidia M; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Herrera-Herrera, Antonio V; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2009-12-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have been used as extraction solvents in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the determination of eight multi-class pesticides (i.e. thiophanate-methyl, carbofuran, carbaryl, tebuconazole, iprodione, oxyfluorfen, hexythiazox, and fenazaquin) in table grapes and plums. The developed method involves the combination of DLLME and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Samples were first homogenized and extracted with acetonitrile. After evaporation and reconstitution of the extract in water containing sodium chloride, a quick DLLME procedure that used the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(6)MIM][PF(6)]) and methanol was developed. The RTIL dissolved in a very small volume of acetonitrile was directed injected in the chromatographic system. The comparison between the calibration curves obtained from standards and from spiked sample extracts (matrix-matched calibration) showed the existence of a strong matrix effect for most of the analyzed pesticides. A recovery study was also developed with five consecutive extractions of the two types of fruits spiked at three concentration levels. Mean recovery values were in the range of 72-100% for table grapes and 66-105% for plum samples (except for thiophanate-methyl and carbofuran, which were 64-75% and 58-66%, respectively). Limits of detection (LODs) were in the range 0.651-5.44 microg/kg for table grapes and 0.902-6.33 microg/kg for plums, representing LODs below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the European Union in these fruits. The potential of the method was demonstrated by analyzing 12 commercial fruit samples (six of each type).

  12. Ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the extraction of pesticides from bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo-Pérez, Lidia M; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Asensio-Ramos, María; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2009-10-23

    This paper describes a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) procedure using room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection capable of quantifying trace amounts of eight pesticides (i.e. thiophanate-methyl, carbofuran, carbaryl, tebuconazole, iprodione, oxyfluorfen, hexythiazox and fenazaquin) in bananas. Fruit samples were first homogenized and extracted (1g) with acetonitrile and after suitable evaporation and reconstitution of the extract in 10 mL of water, a DLLME procedure using 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(6)MIM][PF(6)]) as extraction solvent was used. Experimental conditions affecting the DLLME procedure (sample pH, sodium chloride percentage, ionic liquid amount and volume of disperser solvent) were optimized by means of an experimental design. In order to determine the presence of a matrix effect, calibration curves for standards and fortified banana extracts (matrix matched calibration) were studied. Mean recovery values of the extraction of the pesticides from banana samples were in the range of 69-97% (except for thiophanate-methyl and carbofuran, which were 53-63%) with a relative standard deviation lower than 8.7% in all cases. Limits of detection achieved (0.320-4.66 microg/kg) were below the harmonized maximum residue limits established by the European Union (EU). The proposed method, was also applied to the analysis of this group of pesticides in nine banana samples taken from the local markets of the Canary Islands (Spain). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of RTILs as extraction solvents for DLLME of pesticides from samples different than water.

  13. Determination of lead in biomass and products of the pyrolysis process by direct solid or liquid sample analysis using HR-CS GF AAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Álvaro T; Borges, Aline R; Zmozinski, Ariane V; Dessuy, Morgana B; Welz, Bernhard; de Andrade, Jailson B; Vale, Maria Goreti R

    2016-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of lead in biomass, bio-oil, pyrolysis aqueous phase, and biomass ashes by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF AAS) and direct solid or liquid sample analysis. All measurements were performed without chemical modifier and calibration could be carried out using aqueous standard solutions. A pyrolysis temperature of 800°C and an atomization temperature of 2200°C were applied. The limits of detection and quantification were, respectively, 0.5 µg kg(-1) and 2 µg kg(-1) using the analytical line at 217.001 nm and 6 µg kg(-1) and 19 µg kg(-1) at 283.306 nm. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was between 3% and 10%, which is suitable for direct analysis. The lead concentrations found for the solid samples varied between 0.28 and 1.4 mg kg(-1) for biomass and between 0.25 and 2.3 mg kg(-1) for ashes, these values were much higher than those found for bio-oil (2.2-16.8 µg kg(-1)) and pyrolysis aqueous phase (3.2-18.5 µg kg(-1)). After the determination of lead in the samples, it was possible to estimate the relative distribution of this element in the fractions of the pyrolysis products, and it was observed that most of the lead present in the biomass was eliminated to the environment during the pyrolysis process, with a significant portion retained in the ashes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Economic and environmental evaluation of coal-and-biomass-to-liquids-and-electricity plants equipped with carbon capture and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among various clean energy technologies, one innovative option for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions involves pairing carbon capture and storage (CCS) with the production of synthetic fuels and electricity from co-processed coal and biomass. With a relatively pure CO2 strea...

  15. Biomass Conversion to Produce Hydrocarbon Liquid Fuel Via Hot-vapor Filtered Fast Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydrotreating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huamin; Elliott, Douglas C; French, Richard J; Deutch, Steve; Iisa, Kristiina

    2016-12-25

    Lignocellulosic biomass conversion to produce biofuels has received significant attention because of the quest for a replacement for fossil fuels. Among the various thermochemical and biochemical routes, fast pyrolysis followed by catalytic hydrotreating is considered to be a promising near-term opportunity. This paper reports on experimental methods used 1) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass to produce bio-oils in a fluidized-bed reactor and 2) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for catalytic hydrotreating of bio-oils in a two-stage, fixed-bed, continuous-flow catalytic reactor. The configurations of the reactor systems, the operating procedures, and the processing and analysis of feedstocks, bio-oils, and biofuels are described in detail in this paper. We also demonstrate hot-vapor filtration during fast pyrolysis to remove fine char particles and inorganic contaminants from bio-oil. Representative results showed successful conversion of biomass feedstocks to fuel-range hydrocarbon biofuels and, specifically, the effect of hot-vapor filtration on bio-oil production and upgrading. The protocols provided in this report could help to generate rigorous and reliable data for biomass pyrolysis and bio-oil hydrotreating research.

  16. Economic and environmental evaluation of coal-and-biomass-to-liquids-and-electricity plants equipped with carbon capture and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among various clean energy technologies, one innovative option for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions involves pairing carbon capture and storage (CCS) with the production of synthetic fuels and electricity from co-processed coal and biomass. With a relatively pure CO2 strea...

  17. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Morgan, W. T.; Coe, H.; Johnson, B.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground-based measurements over Brazil, aimed to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm), occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO), freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ~1000 cm-3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm-3 (during biomass burning (BB) events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m-3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m-3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m-3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed, on average, at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m-3, respectively. Equivalent black carbon (BCe) ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m-3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m-3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe), among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the aerosol processing (O : C ≅ 0

  18. Ground based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the Southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon forest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground based measurements over Brazil, aiming to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm, occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO, freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ∼1000 cm−3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm−3 during biomass burning (BB events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m−3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m−3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m−3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed on average at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m−3, respectively. Equivalent Black Carbon (BCe ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m−3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m−3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe, among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol (BBOA using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the aerosol

  19. Matching the Best Viewing Angle in Depth Cameras for Biomass Estimation Based on Poplar Seedling Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andújar, Dionisio; Fernández-Quintanilla, César; Dorado, José

    2015-01-01

    In energy crops for biomass production a proper plant structure is important to optimize wood yields. A precise crop characterization in early stages may contribute to the choice of proper cropping techniques. This study assesses the potential of the Microsoft Kinect for Windows v.1 sensor to determine the best viewing angle of the sensor to estimate the plant biomass based on poplar seedling geometry. Kinect Fusion algorithms were used to generate a 3D point cloud from the depth video stream. The sensor was mounted in different positions facing the tree in order to obtain depth (RGB-D) images from different angles. Individuals of two different ages, e.g., one month and one year old, were scanned. Four different viewing angles were compared: top view (0°), 45° downwards view, front view (90°) and ground upwards view (−45°). The ground-truth used to validate the sensor readings consisted of a destructive sampling in which the height, leaf area and biomass (dry weight basis) were measured in each individual plant. The depth image models agreed well with 45°, 90° and −45° measurements in one-year poplar trees. Good correlations (0.88 to 0.92) between dry biomass and the area measured with the Kinect were found. In addition, plant height was accurately estimated with a few centimeters error. The comparison between different viewing angles revealed that top views showed poorer results due to the fact the top leaves occluded the rest of the tree. However, the other views led to good results. Conversely, small poplars showed better correlations with actual parameters from the top view (0°). Therefore, although the Microsoft Kinect for Windows v.1 sensor provides good opportunities for biomass estimation, the viewing angle must be chosen taking into account the developmental stage of the crop and the desired parameters. The results of this study indicate that Kinect is a promising tool for a rapid canopy characterization, i.e., for estimating crop biomass

  20. Deactivation of solid catalysts in liquid media: the case of leaching of active sites in biomass conversion reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sádaba, Irantzu; Lopez Granados, Manuel; Riisager, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    This review is aimed to be a brief tutorial covering the deactivation of solid catalysts in the liquid phase, with specific focus on leaching, which can be especially helpful to researchers not familiarized with catalytic processes in the liquid phase. Leaching refers to the loss of active specie...

  1. Experiment, modeling and optimization of liquid phase adsorption of Cu(II) using dried and carbonized biomass of Lyngbya majuscula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Deepika; Dutta, Susmita

    2017-05-01

    The present work aims at evaluation of the potential of cyanobacterial biomass to remove Cu(II) from simulated wastewater. Both dried and carbonized forms of Lyngbya majuscula, a cyanobacterial strain, have been used for such purpose. The influences of different experimental parameters viz., initial Cu(II) concentration, solution pH and adsorbent dose have been examined on sorption of Cu(II). Kinetic and equilibrium studies on Cu(II) removal from simulated wastewater have been done using both dried and carbonized biomass individually. Pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir isotherm have been found to fit most satisfactorily to the kinetic and equilibrium data, respectively. Maximum 87.99 and 99.15 % of Cu(II) removal have been achieved with initial Cu(II) concentration of 10 and 25 mg/L for dried and carbonized algae, respectively, at an adsorbent dose of 10 g/L for 20 min of contact time and optimum pH 6. To optimize the removal process, Response Surface Methodology has been employed using both the dried and carbonized biomass. Removal with initial Cu(II) concentration of 20 mg/L, with 0.25 g adsorbent dose in 50 mL solution at pH 6 has been found to be optimum with both the adsorbents. This is the first ever attempt to make a comparative study on Cu(II) removal using both dried algal biomass and its activated carbon. Furthermore, regeneration of matrix was attempted and more than 70% and 80% of the adsorbent has been regenerated successfully in the case of dried and carbonized biomass respectively upto the 3rd cycle of regeneration study.

  2. Woody biomass-based bioenergy development at the Atikokan Power Generating Station: Local perceptions and public opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baten, Cassia Sanzida

    To tackle climate change, reduce air pollution and promote development of renewable energy, the Ontario government is investing in the conversion of the coal-based Atikokan Power Generating Station (APGS) in Atikokan, Ontario, to woody biomass feedstock. This research offers one of the first looks at the perspectives of different individuals and groups on converting woody biomass to energy. Using a combination of study instruments which include literature review, surveys, interviews with key informants, semi-structured interviews, and focus group discussions, this dissertation uses qualitative research to provide a picture of the public's opinions and attitudes towards the APGS biomass energy development. Given Ontario's huge and sustainably managed forest resource, woody biomass is expected to be a major component of renewable energy production in Ontario. The move towards renewable energy that replaces fossil fuels with woody biomass will have considerable socio-economic implications for local and First Nation communities living in and around the bioenergy power generating station. Findings indicate that there is wide support for biomass utilization at the APGS by local people, especially since the project would create sustainable employment. The connection of woody biomass-based energy generation and rural community development provides opportunities and challenges for Atikokan's economic development. Respondents identified economic, environmental and social barriers to biomass utilization, and emphasized trust and transparency as key elements in the successful implementation of the APGS project. As demand for woody biomass-based energy increases, special attention will be needed to ensure and maintain the social, economic and environmental sustainability of biomass use at the APGS. In this research, respondents' views about biomass utilization for energy mainly focused on forest-related issues rather than energy. In Atikokan much of the project's social

  3. Graphene-based liquid crystal device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Peter; Brimicombe, Paul D; Nair, Rahul R; Booth, Tim J; Jiang, Da; Schedin, Fred; Ponomarenko, Leonid A; Morozov, Sergey V; Gleeson, Helen F; Hill, Ernie W; Geim, Andre K; Novoselov, Kostya S

    2008-06-01

    Graphene is only one atom thick, optically transparent, chemically inert, and an excellent conductor. These properties seem to make this material an excellent candidate for applications in various photonic devices that require conducting but transparent thin films. In this letter, we demonstrate liquid crystal devices with electrodes made of graphene that show excellent performance with a high contrast ratio. We also discuss the advantages of graphene compared to conventionally used metal oxides in terms of low resistivity, high transparency and chemical stability.

  4. Prediction of product distribution in fine biomass pyrolysis in fluidized beds based on proximate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Won

    2015-01-01

    A predictive model was satisfactorily developed to describe the general trends of product distribution in fluidized beds of lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis. The model was made of mass balance based on proximate analysis and an empirical relationship with operating parameters including fluidization hydrodynamics. The empirical relationships between product yields and fluidization conditions in fluidized bed pyrolyzers were derived from the data of this study and literature. The gas and char yields showed strong functions of temperature and vapor residence time in the pyrolyzer. The yields showed a good correlation with fluidization variables related with hydrodynamics and bed mixing. The predicted product yields based on the model well accorded well with the experimental data.

  5. Subtask 3.11 - Production of CBTL-Based Jet Fuels from Biomass-Based Feedstocks and Montana Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ramesh

    2014-06-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from Exxon Mobil, undertook Subtask 3.11 to use a recently installed bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. The process involves liquefaction of Rosebud mine coal (Montana coal) coupled with an upgrading scheme to produce a naphthenic fuel. The upgrading comprises catalytic hydrotreating and saturation to produce naphthenic fuel. A synthetic jet fuel was prepared by blending equal volumes of naphthenic fuel with similar aliphatic fuel derived from biomass and 11 volume % of aromatic hydrocarbons. The synthetic fuel was tested using standard ASTM International techniques to determine compliance with JP-8 fuel. The composite fuel thus produced not only meets but exceeds the military aviation fuel-screening criteria. A 500-milliliter synthetic jet fuel sample which met internal screening criteria was submitted to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright–Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria. The results show that this fuel meets or exceeds the key specification parameters for JP-8, a petroleum-based jet fuel widely used by the U.S. military. JP-8 specifications include parameters such as freeze point, density, flash point, and others; all of which were met by the EERC fuel sample. The fuel also exceeds the thermal stability specification of JP-8 fuel as determined by the quartz crystalline microbalance (QCM) test also performed at an independent laboratory as well as AFRL. This means that the EERC fuel looks and acts identically to petroleum-derived jet fuel and can be used

  6. Prediction of pyrolysis kinetic parameters from biomass constituents based on simplex-lattice mixture design☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Panusit Sungsuk; Sasiporn Chayaporn; Sasithorn Sunphorka; Prapan Kuchonthara; Pornpote Piumsomboon; Benjapon Chalermsinsuwan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of the main chemical components of biomass:cel ulose, hemicel-lulose and lignin, on chemical kinetics of biomass pyrolysis. The experiments were designed based on a simplex-lattice mixture design. The pyrolysis was observed by using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The curves obtained from the employed analytical method fit the experimental data (R2 N 0.9). This indicated that this method has the potential to determine the kinetic parameters such as the activation energy (Ea), frequency factor (A) and re-action order (n) for each point of the experimental design. The results obtained from the simplex-lattice mixture design indicated that cellulose had a significant effect on Ea and A, and the interaction between cellulose and lignin had an important effect on the reaction order, n. The proposed models were then proved to be useful for predicting pyrolysis behavior in real biomass and so could be used as a simple approximation for predicting the overall trend of chemical reaction kinetics.

  7. Direct Reduction of High-phosphorus Oolitic Hematite Ore Based on Biomass Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-bo HUANG; Yan-bing ZONG; Ru-fei WEI; Wei GAO; Xiao-ming LIU

    2016-01-01

    Direct reduction of high-phosphorus oolitic hematite ore based on biomass pyrolysis gases (CO,H2 ,and CH4 ),tar,and char was conducted to investigate the effects of reduction temperature,iron ore-biomass mass ratio, and reduction time on the metallization rate.In addition,the effect of particle size on the dephosphorization and iron recovery rate was studied by magnetic separation.It was determined that the metallization rate of the hematite ore could reach 99.35% at iron ore-biomass mass ratio of 1∶0.6,reduction temperature of 1 100 ℃,and reduction time of 5 5 min.The metallization rate and the aggregation degree of iron particles increase with the increase of reduction temperature.The particle size of direct reduced iron (DRI)has a great influence on the quality of the iron concentrate during magnetic separation.The separation degree of slag and iron was improved by the addition of 1 5 mass% sodi-um carbonate.DRI with iron grade of 89.11%,iron recovery rate of 83.47%,and phosphorus content of 0.28% can be obtained when ore fines with particle size of -10μm account for 78.15%.

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from the treatment of household plastic containers and packaging: replacement with biomass-based materials.

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Junya; Hirai, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Shin-ichi; Tsubota, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction that could be achieved by replacement of fossil-derived materials with biodegradable, biomass-based materials for household plastic containers and packaging, considering a variety of their treatment options. The biomass-based materials were 100% polylactide or a combination of polybutylene succinate adipate and polylactide. A scenario analysis was conducted considering alternative recycling metho...

  9. Dynamic relationships between microbial biomass, respiration, inorganic nutrients and enzyme activities: informing enzyme based decomposition models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl L Moorhead

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We re-examined data from a recent litter decay study to determine if additional insights could be gained to inform decomposition modeling. Rinkes et al. (2013 conducted 14-day laboratory incubations of sugar maple (Acer saccharum or white oak (Quercus alba leaves, mixed with sand (0.4% organic C content or loam (4.1% organic C. They measured microbial biomass C, carbon dioxide efflux, soil ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate concentrations, and β-glucosidase (BG, β-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG, and acid phosphatase (AP activities on days 1, 3, and 14. Analyses of relationships among variables yielded different insights than original analyses of individual variables. For example, although respiration rates per g soil were higher for loam than sand, rates per g soil C were actually higher for sand than loam, and rates per g microbial C showed little difference between treatments. Microbial biomass C peaked on day 3 when biomass-specific activities of enzymes were lowest, suggesting uptake of litter C without extracellular hydrolysis. This result refuted a common model assumption that all enzyme production is constitutive and thus proportional to biomass, and/or indicated that part of litter decay is independent of enzyme activity. The length and angle of vectors defined by ratios of enzyme activities (BG/NAG versus BG/AP represent relative microbial investments in C (length, and N and P (angle acquiring enzymes. Shorter lengths on day 3 suggested low C limitation, whereas greater lengths on day 14 suggested an increase in C limitation with decay. The soils and litter in this study generally had stronger P limitation (angles > 45˚. Reductions in vector angles to < 45˚ for sand by day 14 suggested a shift to N limitation. These relational variables inform enzyme-based models, and are usually much less ambiguous when obtained from a single study in which measurements were made on the same samples than when extrapolated from separate studies.

  10. Design and construction of coal/biomass to liquids (CBTL) process development unit (PDU) at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placido, Andrew [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Liu, Kunlei [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Challman, Don [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Andrews, Rodney [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Jacques, David [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2015-10-30

    This report describes a first phase of a project to design, construct and commission an integrated coal/biomass-to-liquids facility at a capacity of 1 bbl. /day at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) – specifically for construction of the building and upstream process units for feed handling, gasification, and gas cleaning, conditioning and compression. The deliverables from the operation of this pilot plant [when fully equipped with the downstream process units] will be firstly the liquid FT products and finished fuels which are of interest to UK-CAER’s academic, government and industrial research partners. The facility will produce research quantities of FT liquids and finished fuels for subsequent Fuel Quality Testing, Performance and Acceptability. Moreover, the facility is expected to be employed for a range of research and investigations related to: Feed Preparation, Characteristics and Quality; Coal and Biomass Gasification; Gas Clean-up/ Conditioning; Gas Conversion by FT Synthesis; Product Work-up and Refining; Systems Analysis and Integration; and Scale-up and Demonstration. Environmental Considerations - particularly how to manage and reduce carbon dioxide emissions from CBTL facilities and from use of the fuels - will be a primary research objectives. Such a facility has required significant lead time for environmental review, architectural/building construction, and EPC services. UK, with DOE support, has advanced the facility in several important ways. These include: a formal EA/FONSI, and permits and approvals; construction of a building; selection of a range of technologies and vendors; and completion of the upstream process units. The results of this project are the FEED and detailed engineering studies, the alternate configurations and the as-built plant - its equipment and capabilities for future research and demonstration and its adaptability for re-purposing to meet other needs. These are described in

  11. Hydrothermal pretreatment conditions to enhance ethanol production from poplar biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Maria José; Manzanares, Paloma; Ballesteros, Ignacio; Oliva, Jose Miguel; Cabañas, Araceli; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2003-01-01

    Pretreatment has been recognized as a key step in enzyme-based conversion processes of lignocellulose biomass to ethanol. The aim of this study is to evaluate two hydrothermal pretreatments (steam explosion and liquid hot water) to enhance ethanol production from poplar (Populus nigra) biomass by a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. The composition of liquid and solid fractions obtained after pretreatment, enzymatic digestibility, and ethanol production of poplar biomass pretreated at different experimental conditions was analyzed. The best results were obtained in steam explosion pretreatment at 210 C and 4 min, taking into account cellulose recovery above 95%, enzymatic hydrolysis yield of about 60%, SSF yield of 60% of theoretical, and 41% xylose recovery in the liquid fraction. Large particles can be used for poplar biomass in both pretreatments, since no significant effect of particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis and SSF was obtained.

  12. Hydropyrolysis of biomass to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Report on Energy Tree Farm Workshop No. 2, Hilo, Hawaii, June 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy, M. (ed.)

    1982-11-01

    Results of the workshop show that a eucalyptus tree plantation, including a small nursery to produce the seedlings not available from the Waimea State Tree Nursery, could be established on 12,000 acres of Puna Sugar Company land. At approximately six years of age, the trees could be harvested, chipped, and burned in the renovated Puna Sugar Company's bagasse boiler to generate electricity. The cost of a bone dry ton of chips would be $37 if a real money rate of 3% is assumed, and $50 at a real money rate of 8%. Electricity could be produced at 7.7 cents per kWh assuming a 3% real money rate, and at 9.8 cents per kWh at an 8% rate. This workshop included an evaluation of soils at the selected Keeau site. Tree crop requirements were matched with soil and other environmental characteristics such as rainfall, altitude, and temperature. Leucaena Leucocephala, L. diversifolia, Eucalyptus saligna, E. grandis, and E. robusta were among the primary species considered, and based upon known environmental requirements and previous experience, E. grandis was selected. A conservative yield estimate for E. grandis at the specified site is 10 bone dry tons (20 green tons)/acre/year of total biomass. The 12,000 acre area would be planted continuously over period of six years at an annual production rate of 2000 acres per year. Spacing would be 6x6, or 1210 trees per acre, which, including a 10% seedling discard rate, would bring the total number of seedlings required to 2.7 million/year. Harvesting operations would begin in the 7th year, and three coppice crops would be harvested before replanting became necessary again. For the production of 120,000 bone dry tons (240,000 green tons) per year, four separate harvesting systems would be needed. Each would consist of 1 mobile whole tree chipper, 2 tracked feller-bunchers, 3 rubber-tired and tracked grapple skidders, 2 truck trailers, 3 chip vans, and 1 D-4 dozer. 10 figures, 31 tables.

  13. Fuzzy Multi-actor Multi-criteria Decision Making for Sustainability Assessment of biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Fedele, Andrea; Mason, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a sustainability assessment method to rank the prior sequence of biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production. A novel fuzzy Multi-actor Multi-criteria Decision Making method which allows multiple groups of decision-makers to use linguistic variables...... to assess the biomass-based technologies for hydrogen production has been developed. Fifteen criteria relevant to in economic, environmental, technological and social-political aspects have been used in sustainability assessment. Four biomass-based technologies including pyrolysis, conventional gasification......, supercritical water gasification and fermentative hydrogen production have been studied by the proposed method, and biomass gasification has been considered as the most sustainable scenario and can be chosen for further development....

  14. Comparative techno-economic analysis and process design for indirect liquefaction pathways to distillate-range fuels via biomass-derived oxygenated intermediates upgrading: Liquid Transportation Fuel Production via Biomass-derived Oxygenated Intermediates Upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C. D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Jones, Susanne [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Gray, Michel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Dagle, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Padmaperuma, Asanga [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Gerber, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Sahir, Asad H. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Zhang, Yanan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA

    2016-09-27

    This paper presents a comparative techno-economic analysis (TEA) of five conversion pathways from biomass to gasoline-, jet-, and diesel-range hydrocarbons via indirect liquefaction with a specific focus on pathways utilizing oxygenated intermediates. The four emerging pathways of interest are compared with one conventional pathway (Fischer-Tropsch) for the production of the hydrocarbon blendstocks. The processing steps of the four emerging pathways include biomass-to-syngas via indirect gasification, syngas clean-up, conversion of syngas to alcohols/oxygenates followed by conversion of alcohols/oxygenates to hydrocarbon blendstocks via dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation. Conversion of biomass-derived syngas to oxygenated intermediates occurs via three different pathways, producing: (i) mixed alcohols over a MoS2 catalyst, (ii) mixed oxygenates (a mixture of C2+ oxygenated compounds, predominantly ethanol, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate) using an Rh-based catalyst, and (iii) ethanol from syngas fermentation. This is followed by the conversion of oxygenates/alcohols to fuel-range olefins in two approaches: (i) mixed alcohols/ethanol to 1-butanol rich mixture via Guerbet reaction, followed by alcohol dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation, and (ii) mixed oxygenates/ethanol to isobutene rich mixture and followed by oligomerization and hydrogenation. The design features a processing capacity of 2000 tonnes/day (2205 short tons) of dry biomass. The minimum fuel selling prices (MFSPs) for the four developing pathways range from $3.40 to $5.04 per gasoline-gallon equivalent (GGE), in 2011 US dollars. Sensitivity studies show that MFSPs can be improved with co-product credits and are comparable to the commercial Fischer-Tropsch benchmark ($3.58/GGE). Overall, this comparative TEA study documents potential economics for the developmental biofuel pathways via mixed oxygenates.

  15. Comparative techno-economic analysis and process design for indirect liquefaction pathways to distillate-range fuels via biomass-derived oxygenated intermediates upgrading: Liquid Transportation Fuel Production via Biomass-derived Oxygenated Intermediates Upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C. D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Jones, Susanne [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Gray, Michel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Dagle, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Padmaperuma, Asanga [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Gerber, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Sahir, Asad H. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Zhang, Yanan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA

    2016-09-27

    This paper presents a comparative techno-economic analysis (TEA) of five conversion pathways from biomass to gasoline-, jet-, and diesel-range hydrocarbons via indirect liquefaction with specific focus on pathways utilizing oxygenated intermediates. The four emerging pathways of interest are compared with one conventional pathway (Fischer-Tropsch) for the production of the hydrocarbon blendstocks. The processing steps of the four emerging pathways include: biomass to syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, conversion of syngas to alcohols/oxygenates followed by conversion of alcohols/oxygenates to hydrocarbon blendstocks via dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation. Conversion of biomass-derived syngas to oxygenated intermediates occurs via three different pathways, producing: 1) mixed alcohols over a MoS2 catalyst, 2) mixed oxygenates (a mixture of C2+ oxygenated compounds, predominantly ethanol, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate) using an Rh-based catalyst, and 3) ethanol from syngas fermentation. This is followed by the conversion of oxygenates/alcohols to fuel-range olefins in two approaches: 1) mixed alcohols/ethanol to 1-butanol rich mixture via Guerbet reaction, followed by alcohol dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation, and 2) mixed oxygenates/ethanol to isobutene rich mixture and followed by oligomerization and hydrogenation. The design features a processing capacity of 2,000 tonnes/day (2,205 short tons) of dry biomass. The minimum fuel selling prices (MFSPs) for the four developing pathways range from $3.40 to $5.04 per gasoline-gallon equivalent (GGE), in 2011 US dollars. Sensitivity studies show that MFSPs can be improved with co-product credits and are comparable to the commercial Fischer-Tropsch benchmark ($3.58/GGE). Overall, this comparative TEA study documents potential economics for the developmental biofuel pathways via mixed oxygenates.

  16. Liquid crystal-based hydrophone arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzeli, Zourab; Silvestri, Leonardo; Michie, Andrew; Chigrinov, Vladimir G.; Guo, Qi; Pozhidaev, Eugene P.; Kiselev, Alexei D.; Ladouceur, Francois

    2012-09-01

    We describe a fiber optic hydrophone array system that could be used for underwater acoustic surveillance applications (e.g. military, counter terrorist, and customs authorities in protecting ports and harbors), offshore production facilities or coastal approaches as well as various marine applications. In this paper, we propose a new approach to underwater sonar systems using the voltage-controlled liquid crystals and simple multiplexing method. The proposed method permits measurement of sound under water at multiple points along an optical fiber using the low cost components and standard single mode fiber, without complex interferometric measurement techniques, electronics or demodulation software.

  17. Aspen Process Flowsheet Simulation Model of a Battelle Biomass-Based Gasification, Fischer-Tropsch Liquefaction and Combined-Cycle Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-10-30

    This study was done to support the research and development program of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels using current state-of-the-art technology. The Mitretek study investigated the use of two biomass gasifiers; the RENUGAS gasifier being developed by the Institute of Gas Technology, and the indirectly heated gasifier being developed by Battelle Columbus. The Battelle Memorial Institute of Columbus, Ohio indirectly heated biomass gasifier was selected for this model development because the syngas produced by it is better suited for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with an iron-based catalyst for which a large amount of experimental data are available. Bechtel with Amoco as a subcontractor developed a conceptual baseline design and several alternative designs for indirect coal liquefaction facilities. In addition, ASPEN Plus process flowsheet simulation models were developed for each of designs. These models were used to perform several parametric studies to investigate various alternatives for improving the economics of indirect coal liquefaction.

  18. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuen dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (1) suitability to small scale electricity production (<5-10 MWe), (2) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (3) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (1) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (2) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers. The studies are scheduled to be completed in March 1996. (author)

  19. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuvien dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y.; Wilen, C.

    1995-12-31

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (a) suitability to small scale electricity production (< 5-10 MWe), (b) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (c) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (a) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (b) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT. Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers

  20. Diesel power plants based on biomass gasification; Biomassan ja turpeen kaasutukseen perustuvien dieselvoimalaitosten toteutettavuustutkimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Solantausta, Y.; Wilen, C. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Different power production systems have been developed for biomass feedstocks. However, only few of these systems can meet the following three requirements: (a) suitability to small scale electricity production (< 5-10 MWe), (b) reliable operation with realistically available biomass feedstocks, and (c) potential for economical competitiveness. The fluidized-bed boilers have been successfully operated with wood waste and peat down to outputs of the order of 5 MWe and the investment costs have been successfully lowered to a reasonable level. However, this concept is most suitable for combined heat and electricity production and smaller plant sizes are not considered feasible. One of the most promising alternative for this commercially proven technology is the diesel power plant based on gasification. This concept has a potential for higher power to heat ratios in cogeneration or higher efficiency in separate electricity production. The objectives of this project were (a) to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of diesel power plants based on biomass gasification and (b) to study the effects of operating conditions (temperature, bed material and air staging) on the performance of a circulating fluidized-bed gasifies. The experimental part of the project was carried out on a new PDU-scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Gasification test facility of VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland). Wood residues were used as the feedstocks and the experiments were mainly focused on tar formation and gasifier performance. The results will be compared to earlier VTT data obtained for the bubbling-bed reactors. The techno-economic feasibility studies are carried out using existing process modelling tools of VTT and the gasification based diesel plants will be compared to conventional fluidized-bed boilers. (orig.)

  1. Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Puneet

    of ethanol produced at the mill was found to be 3.2. The unit cost of production of ethanol was estimated to be $2.05 per gasoline gallon energy equivalent. The study also found that the emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets will significantly increase land expectation values and, thus, the profitability of landowners. Results suggest that the optimal rotation age is insensible to alternate management scenarios. Finally, it was found that all stakeholder groups perceive that the overall benefits of forest biomass-based bioenergy development were higher than its weaknesses.

  2. Measurement of Radiation Damage of Water-based Liquid Scintillator and Liquid Scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Bignell, Lindsey J; Hans, Sunej; Jaffe, David E; Rosero, Richard; Vigdor, Steven; Viren, Brett; Worcester, Elizabeth; Yeh, Minfang; Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Liquid scintillating phantoms have been proposed as a means to perform real-time 3D dosimetry for proton therapy treatment plan verification. We have studied what effect radiation damage to the scintillator will have upon this application. We have performed measurements of the degradation of the light yield and optical attenuation length of liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator after irradiation by 201 MeV proton beams that deposited doses of approximately 52 Gy, 300 Gy, and 800 Gy in the scintillator. Liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator (composed of $5\\%$ scintillating phase) exhibit light yield reductions of $1.74 \\pm 0.55 \\%$ and $1.31 \\pm 0.59 \\%$ after $\\approx$ 800 Gy of proton dose, respectively. Whilst some increased optical attenuation was observed in the irradiated samples, the measured reduction to the light yield is also due to damage to the scintillation light production. Based on our results and conservative estimates of the expected dose in a clinical conte...

  3. Gasification of Woody Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jianjun; Saayman, Jean; Grace, John R; Ellis, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Interest in biomass to produce heat, power, liquid fuels, hydrogen, and value-added chemicals with reduced greenhouse gas emissions is increasing worldwide. Gasification is becoming a promising technology for biomass utilization with a positive environmental impact. This review focuses specifically on woody biomass gasification and recent advances in the field. The physical properties, chemical structure, and composition of biomass greatly affect gasification performance, pretreatment, and handling. Primary and secondary catalysts are of key importance to improve the conversion and cracking of tars, and lime-enhanced gasification advantageously combines CO2 capture with gasification. These topics are covered here, including the reaction mechanisms and biomass characterization. Experimental research and industrial experience are investigated to elucidate concepts, processes, and characteristics of woody biomass gasification and to identify challenges.

  4. Ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid-based homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of tanshinones in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibing; Cao, Bocheng; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Hanqi; Qiu, Fangping

    2015-02-01

    The ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid-based homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction has been developed and applied to the extraction of four tanshinones, including dihydrotanshinone, tanshinone I, cryptotanshinone and tanshinone IIA in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. root. High performance liquid chromatography was applied to the separation and determination of the analytes. The ionic liquid was used as extraction solvent and target analytes were extracted with help of ultrasound. Then, ion-pairing agent was added into the sample solution, which resulted in the formation of water-insoluble ionic liquid in the solution. The phase separation was performed by centrifugation. The extraction, concentration and purification of target analytes were performed simultaneously. The experimental parameters, including type and volume of ionic liquid, sample amount, the size of sample particle, pH value of extraction medium, extraction temperature, extraction time, amount of ion-pairing agent and centrifuging time, were investigated and optimized. The calibration curves showed good linear relationship (r>0.9997). The limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 0.052-0.093 and 0.17-0.31 μg mL(-1), respectively. The recoveries were between 70.45% and 94.23% with relative standard deviations lower than 5.31%. The present method is free of volatile organic solvents, and represents lower expenditures of sample, extraction time and solvent, compared with UAE and HRE. There was no obvious difference in the extraction yields of active constitutions obtained by the three extraction methods.

  5. An ionic liquid based strain sensor for large displacement measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keulemans, Grim; Ceyssens, Frederik; Puers, Robert

    2017-03-01

    A robust and low cost ionic liquid based strain sensor is fabricated for high strain measurements in biomedical applications (up to 40 % and higher). A tubular 5 mm long silicone microchannel with an inner diameter of 310 µm and an outer diameter of 650 µm is filled with an ionic liquid. Three ionic liquids have been investigated: 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide, ethylammonium nitrate and cholinium ethanoate. When the channel is axially stretched, geometrical deformations change the electrical impedance of the liquid channel. The sensors display a linear response and low hysteresis with an average gauge factors of 1.99 for strains up to 40 %. Additionally, to fix the sensor by surgical stitching to soft biological tissue, a sensor with tube clamps consisting of photopatternable SU-8 epoxy-based resin is proposed.

  6. Development of Ni-Based Catalysts for Steam Reforming of Tar Derived from Biomass Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dalin LI; Yoshinao NAKAGAWA; Keiichi TOMISHIGE

    2012-01-01

    Nickel catalysts are effective for the steam reforming of tar derived from biomass pyrolysis,but the improvement is needed in terms of activity,stability,suppression of coke deposition and aggregation,and regeneration.Our recent development of Ni-based catalysts for the steam reforming of tar is reviewed including the modification with CeO2 (or MnO),trace Pt,and MgO.The role of additives such as CeO2,MnO,Pt,and MgO is also discussed.

  7. Imidazolium-based ionic liquids for cellulose pretreatment: recent progresses and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yujin; Zhang, Rubing; Cheng, Tao; Guo, Jing; Xian, Mo; Liu, Huizhou

    2017-01-01

    As the most abundant biomass in nature, cellulose is considered to be an excellent feedstock to produce renewable fuels and fine chemicals. Due to its hydrogen-bonded supramolecular structure, cellulose is hardly soluble in water and most conventional organic solvents, limiting its further applications. The emergence of ionic liquids (ILs) provides an environmentally friendly, biodegradable solvent system to dissolve cellulose. This review summarizes recent advances concerning imidazolium-based ILs for cellulose pretreatment. The structure of cations and anions which has an influence on the solubility is emphasized. Methods to assist cellulose pretreatment with ILs are discussed. The state of art of the recovery, regeneration, and reuse aspects of ILs is also presented in this work. The current challenges and development directions of cellulose dissolution in ILs are put forward. Although further studies are still much required, commercialization of IL-based processes has made great progress in recent years.

  8. Oxygen quenching in LAB based liquid scintillator and nitrogen bubbling

    CERN Document Server

    Hua-Lin, Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen quenching effect in Linear Alkl Benzne (LAB) based liquid scintillator (LAB+3g/L POPOP+ 15 mg Bis--MSB) was studied by measuring the light yield as the function of nitrogen bubbling time. it shows that the light yield of fully purged liquid scintillator would increase of nearly 11% in room temperature and room atmosphere pressure. A simple model of nitrogen bubbling was built to describe the relationship between relative light yield (oxygen quenching factor) and bubbling time.

  9. Heterocyclic benzoxazole-based liquid crystals: Synthesis and mesomorphic properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sie Tiong Ha; Kok Leei Foo; Ramesh T. Subramaniam; Masato M. Ito; S. Sreehari Sastry; Siew Teng Ong

    2011-01-01

    New Schiff base liquid crystals containing benzoxazole core and alkanoyloxy chain at the end group of the molecules (Cn-1H2n-1COO-, n= 14,16,18) was synthesized. The present compounds are enantiotropic smectic A liquid crystals. It was also found that the end groups of the molecules and polar chloro substituent at the benzoxazole fragment had effect on the mesomorphic properties.

  10. Ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of formaldehyde in wastewaters and detergents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvand, Majid; Bozorgzadeh, Elahe; Shariati, Shahab; Zanjanchi, Mohammad Ali

    2012-12-01

    Spectrophotometry in combination with ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was applied for the extraction and determination of formaldehyde in real samples. The method is based on the reaction of formaldehyde with methyl acetoacetate in the presence of ammonia. The variation in the absorbance of the reaction product was measured at 375 nm. An appropriate mixture of ethanol (disperser solvent) and ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazoliumhexafluoro-phosphate [C(6)MIM][PF(6)] (extraction solvent) was rapidly injected into a water sample containing formaldehyde. After extraction, sedimented phase was analyzed by spectrophotometry. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.1-20 ng mL(-1) with the detection limit of 0.02 ng mL(-1) and limit of quantification of 0.08 ng mL(-1) for formaldehyde. The relative standard deviation (RSD%, n = 5) for the extraction and determination of 0.8 ng mL(-1) of formaldehyde in the aqueous samples was 2.5%. The results showed that DLLME is a very simple, rapid, sensitive, and efficient analytical method for the determination of trace amounts of formaldehyde in wastewaters and detergents, and suitable results were obtained.

  11. Techno-Economic Assessment of a Biomass-Based Cogeneration Plant with CO2 Capture and Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, N

    2004-01-01

    Reduction of CO2 emissions from energy systems could be achieved through: CO2 capture and storage, energy savings, fuel switching among fossil fuels, increased use of renewable energy sources, and nuclear power. In addition, atmospheric CO2 reduction could also be achieved through increasing the carbon stock in soils and standing biomass. The CO2 capture and storage option for mitigating CO2 emissions from biomass-based cogeneration plants, considering critical aspects such future development...

  12. Characterisation and use of biomass fly ash in cement-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamma, Rejini; Ball, Richard J; Tarelho, Luís A C; Allen, Geoff C; Labrincha, João A; Ferreira, Victor M

    2009-12-30

    This paper presents results about the characterisation of the biomass fly ashes sourced from a thermal power plant and from a co-generation power plant located in Portugal, and the study of new cement formulations incorporated with the biomass fly ashes. The study includes a comparative analysis of the phase formation, setting and mechanical behaviour of the new cement-fly ash formulations based on these biomass fly ashes. Techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and environmental scanning electron spectroscopy (ESEM) were used to determine the structure and composition of the formulations. Fly ash F1 from the thermal power plant contained levels of SiO(2), Al(2)O(3) and Fe(2)O(3) indicating the possibility of exhibiting pozzolanic properties. Fly ash F2 from the co-generation plant contained a higher quantity of CaO ( approximately 25%). The fly ashes are similar to class C fly ashes according to EN 450 on the basis of chemical composition. The hydration rate and phase formation are greatly dependant on the samples' alkali content and water to binder (w/b) ratio. In cement based mortar with 10% fly ash the basic strength was maintained, however, when 20% fly ash was added the mechanical strength was around 75% of the reference cement mortar. The fly ashes contained significant levels of chloride and sulphate and it is suggested that the performance of fly ash-cement binders could be improved by the removal or control of these chemical species.

  13. Photoresponsive Liquid Crystals Based on Dihydroazulene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ugleholdt

    . Irradiation of such a DHA in the nematic phase gave partial conversion to avinylheptafulvene (VHF), not showing any changes in the mesophase, though a higher alignmentwas obtained when this sample was irradiated in its liquid crystalline state.Photomicrographs of the DHA under crossed polarizers before...... into a nematic host material, the conversion fromDHA to VHF upon irradiation did not affect any change in the dielectric anisotropy. However, theorder parameter was strongly affected by the formation of the VHF structure. It was found that thisDHA in a nematic host absorbed light when photons were passed through...... parallel to the alignmentof the nematic phase, while when the incident angle was perpendicular, the absorbance wasdrastically reduced. These differences for parallel and perpendicular absorbances wereindistinguishable for the VHF form. The corresponding azulene systems were also studied, whichshowed good...

  14. Ionic liquid supported acid/base-catalyzed production of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapis, Alexandre A M; de Oliveira, Luciane F; Neto, Brenno A D; Dupont, Jairton

    2008-01-01

    The transesterification (alcoholysis) reaction was successfully applied to synthesize biodiesel from vegetable oils using imidazolium-based ionic liquids under multiphase acidic and basic conditions. Under basic conditions, the combination of the ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMINTf2), alcohols, and K2CO3 (40 mol %) results in the production of biodiesel from soybean oil in high yields (>98%) and purity. H2SO4 immobilized in BMINTf2 efficiently promotes the transesterification reaction of soybean oil and various primary and secondary alcohols. In this multiphase process the acid is almost completely retained in the ionic liquid phase, while the biodiesel forms a separate phase. The recovered ionic liquid containing the acid could be reused at least six times without any significant loss in the biodiesel yield or selectivity. In both catalytic processes (acid and base), the reactions proceed as typical multiphasic systems in which the formed biodiesel accumulates as the upper phase and the glycerol by-product is selectively captured by the alcohol-ionic liquid-acid/base phase. Classical ionic liquids such as 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and hexafluorophosphate are not stable under these acidic or basic conditions and decompose.

  15. Liquid crystals based sensing platform-technological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zakir; Qazi, Farah; Ahmed, Muhammad Imran; Usman, Adil; Riaz, Asim; Abbasi, Amna Didar

    2016-11-15

    In bulk phase, liquid crystalline molecules are organized due to non-covalent interactions and due to delicate nature of the present forces; this organization can easily be disrupted by any small external stimuli. This delicate nature of force balance in liquid crystals organization forms the basis of Liquid-crystals based sensing scheme which has been exploited by many researchers for the optical visualization and sensing of many biological interactions as well as detection of number of analytes. In this review, we present not only an overview of the state of the art in liquid crystals based sensing scheme but also highlight its limitations. The approaches described below revolve around possibilities and limitations of key components of such sensing platform including bottom substrates, alignments layers, nature and type of liquid crystals, sensing compartments, various interfaces etc. This review also highlights potential materials to not only improve performance of the sensing scheme but also to bridge the gap between science and technology of liquid crystals based sensing scheme.

  16. Digital image processing based identification of nodes and internodes of chopped biomass stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical composition of biomass feedstock is an important parameter for optimizing the yield and economics of various bioconversion pathways. Although understandably, the chemical composition of biomass varies among species, varieties, and plant components, there is distinct variation even among ste...

  17. Extraction of proteins with ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system based on guanidine ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qun; Wang, Yuzhi; Li, Na; Huang, Xiu; Ding, Xueqin; Lin, Xiao; Huang, Songyun; Liu, Xiaojie

    2013-11-15

    Eight kinds of green ionic liquids were synthesized, and an ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system (ILATPS) based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguandine acrylate (TMGA) guanidine ionic liquid was first time studied for the extraction of proteins. Single factor experiments proved that the extraction efficiency of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was influenced by the mass of IL, K2HPO4 and BSA, also related to the separation time and temperature. The optimum conditions were determined through orthogonal experiment by the five factors described above. The results showed that under the optimum conditions, the extraction efficiency could reach up to 99.6243%. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of extraction efficiencies in precision experiment, repeatability experiment and stability experiment were 0.8156% (n=5), 1.6173% (n=5) and 1.6292% (n=5), respectively. UV-vis and FT-IR spectra confirmed that there were no chemical interactions between BSA and ionic liquid in the extraction process, and the conformation of the protein was not changed after extraction. The conductivity, DLS and TEM were combined to investigate the microstructure of the top phase and the possible mechanism for the extraction. The results showed that hydrophobic interaction, hydrogen bonding interaction and the salt out effect played important roles in the transferring process, and the aggregation and embrace phenomenon was the main driving force for the separation. All these results proved that guanidine ionic liquid-based ATPSs have the potential to offer new possibility in the extraction of proteins.

  18. Ground based characterization of biomass burning aerosols during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment in Brazil during Sept - Oct 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Varanda Rizzo, Luciana; Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Freitas, Saulo; Coe, Hugh

    2013-04-01

    Biomass burning is one of the major drivers for atmospheric composition in the Southern hemisphere. In Amazonia, deforestation rates have been steadily decreasing, from 27,000 Km² in 2004 to about 5,000 Km² in 2011. This large reduction (by factor 5) was not followed by similar reduction in aerosol loading in the atmosphere due to the increase in agricultural fires. AERONET measurements from 5 sites show a large year-to year variability due to climatic and socio-economic issues. Besides this strong reduction in deforestation rate, biomass burning emissions in Amazonia increases concentrations of aerosol particles, CO, ozone and other species, and also change the surface radiation balance in a significant way. To complement the long term biomass burning measurements in Amazonia, it was organized in 2012 the intensive campaign of the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) experiment with an airborne and a ground based components. A sampling site was set up at Porto Velho, with measurements of aerosol size distribution, optical properties such as absorption and scattering at several wavelengths, organic aerosol characterization with an ACSM - Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. CO, CO2 and O3 were also measured to characterize combustion efficiency and photochemical processes. Filters for trace elements measured by XRF and for OC/EC determined using a Sunset instrument were also collected. An AERONET CIMEL sunphotometer was operated in parallel with a multifilter radiometer (MFR). A large data set was collected from August to October 2012. PM2.5 aerosol concentrations up to 250 ug/m3 were measured, with up to 20 ug/m3 of black carbon. Ozone went up to 60 ppb at mid-day in August. At night time ozone was consumed completely most of the time. ACSM shows that more than 85% of the aerosol mass was organic with a clear diurnal pattern. The organic aerosol volatility was very variable depending on the air mass sampled over Porto Velho. Aerosol optical depth at

  19. Development and Deployment of a Particle-into-Liquid sampling - Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometer (PiLs-ESI/MS) for Characterization of Water-Soluble Biomass Burning Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, C.; Witkowski, B.; Talukdar, R. K.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Roberts, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) is a major influence on Earth's atmosphere as it is an important source of primary and secondary aerosols. Measuring the aerosol composition for such complex mixtures remains an analytical challenge and the characterization of the water-soluble portion of BB aerosol has been traditionally limited to off-line analysis and/or qualitative techniques. In this work, we present a new method of directly interfacing a particle-into-liquid sampler with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer (PiLs-ESI/MS). This technique allows real-time, sensitive, and chemically-specific speciation of water-soluble organics and inorganics for the quantification of fresh BB aerosol sampled during the recent Firelab component of the NOAA FIREX experiments. The aerosol composition is fuel and combustion-phase dependent, and several polar organic species thought to be main contributors to aerosol brown carbon and secondary organic aerosol were measured.

  20. Pilot-scale experience with biological nutrient removal and biomass yield reduction in a liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Nabin; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse; Islam, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    A pilot-scale liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed (LSCFB) bioreactor was developed at the Adelaide Pollution Control Plant, London, Ontario, Canada, to study its commercial viability for biological nutrient removal. Lava rock particles of 600 microm were used as a biomass carrier media. The LSCFB removed approximately 90% organic, 80% nitrogen, and 70% phosphorus at loading rates of 4.12 kg COD/m3 x d, 0.26 kg N/m3 x d, and 0.052 kg P/m3 x d, and an empty bed contact time of 1.5 hours. Effluent characterized by < 1.0 mg NH4-N/L, < 5.0 mg NO3-N/ L, < 1.0 mg PO4-P/L, < 10 mg TN/L, < 10 mg SBOD/L, and 10 to 15 mg volatile suspended solids (VSS)/L can easily meet the criteria for nonpotable reuse of treated wastewater. The system removed nutrients without using any chemicals, and the secondary clarifier removed suspended solids removal without chemicals. A significant reduction (approximately 75%) in biomass yield to 0.12 to 0.16 g VSS/g chemical oxygen demand (COD) was observed, primarily because of long biological solids retention time (SRT) of 20 to 39 days and a combination of anoxic and aerobic COD consumption.

  1. ZERO-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF A DIMETHYL ETHER (DME) PLANT BASED ON GASIFICATION OF TORREFIED BIOMASS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2009-01-01

    A model of a DME fuel production plant was designed and analyzed in Aspen Plus. The plant produces DME by catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of torrefied woody biomass. Torrefication is a mild pyrolysis process that takes place at 200-300°C. Torrefied biomass has properties...... % (LHV) from torrefied biomass to DME and 70 % (LHV) if the exported electricity is included. When accounting for raw, untreated biomass, the efficiency for DME production is reduced to about 60 %....

  2. Monitoring coniferous forest biomass change using a Landsat trajectory-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalena Main-Knorn; Warren B. Cohen; Robert E. Kennedy; Wojciech Grodzki; Dirk Pflugmacher; Patrick Griffiths; Patrick Hostert

    2013-01-01

    Forest biomass is a major store of carbon and thus plays an important role in the regional and global carbon cycle. Accurate forest carbon sequestration assessment requires estimation of both forest biomass and forest biomass dynamics over time. Forest dynamics are characterized by disturbances and recovery, key processes affecting site productivity and the forest...

  3. Seismic base isolation technologies for Korea advanced liquid metal reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, B.; Lee, J.-H.; Koo, G.-H.; Lee, H.-Y.; Kim, J.-B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    This paper describes the status and prospects of the seismic base isolation technologies for Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (KALIMER). The research and development program on the seismic base isolation for KALIMER began in 1993 by KAERI under the national long-term R and D program. The objective of this program is to enhance the seismic safety, to accomplish the economic design, and to standardize the plant design through the establishment of technologies on seismic base isolation for liquid metal reactors. In this paper, tests and analyses performed in the program are presented. (orig.)

  4. Particle Morphology Analysis of Biomass Material Based on Improved Image Processing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhaolin; Hu, Xiaojuan; Lu, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Particle morphology, including size and shape, is an important factor that significantly influences the physical and chemical properties of biomass material. Based on image processing technology, a method was developed to process sample images, measure particle dimensions, and analyse the particle size and shape distributions of knife-milled wheat straw, which had been preclassified into five nominal size groups using mechanical sieving approach. Considering the great variation of particle size from micrometer to millimeter, the powders greater than 250 μm were photographed by a flatbed scanner without zoom function, and the others were photographed using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with high-image resolution. Actual imaging tests confirmed the excellent effect of backscattered electron (BSE) imaging mode of SEM. Particle aggregation is an important factor that affects the recognition accuracy of the image processing method. In sample preparation, the singulated arrangement and ultrasonic dispersion methods were used to separate powders into particles that were larger and smaller than the nominal size of 250 μm. In addition, an image segmentation algorithm based on particle geometrical information was proposed to recognise the finer clustered powders. Experimental results demonstrated that the improved image processing method was suitable to analyse the particle size and shape distributions of ground biomass materials and solve the size inconsistencies in sieving analysis.

  5. Heat dissipation for microprocessor using multiwalled carbon nanotubes based liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung Thang, Bui; Trinh, Pham Van; Chuc, Nguyen Van; Khoi, Phan Hong; Minh, Phan Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the most valuable materials with high thermal conductivity (2000 W/m · K compared with thermal conductivity of Ag 419 W/m · K). This suggested an approach in applying the CNTs in thermal dissipation system for high power electronic devices, such as computer processor and high brightness light emitting diode (HB-LED). In this work, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based liquid was made by COOH functionalized MWCNTs dispersed in distilled water with concentration in the range between 0.2 and 1.2 gram/liter. MWCNT based liquid was used in liquid cooling system to enhance thermal dissipation for computer processor. By using distilled water in liquid cooling system, CPU's temperature decreases by about 10°C compared with using fan cooling system. By using MWCNT liquid with concentration of 1 gram/liter MWCNTs, the CPU's temperature decreases by 7°C compared with using distilled water in cooling system. Theoretically, we also showed that the presence of MWCNTs reduced thermal resistance and increased the thermal conductivity of liquid cooling system. The results have confirmed the advantages of the MWCNTs for thermal dissipation systems for the μ -processor and other high power electronic devices.

  6. Heat Dissipation for Microprocessor Using Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Based Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Hung Thang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are one of the most valuable materials with high thermal conductivity (2000 W/m·K compared with thermal conductivity of Ag 419 W/m·K. This suggested an approach in applying the CNTs in thermal dissipation system for high power electronic devices, such as computer processor and high brightness light emitting diode (HB-LED. In this work, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs based liquid was made by COOH functionalized MWCNTs dispersed in distilled water with concentration in the range between 0.2 and 1.2 gram/liter. MWCNT based liquid was used in liquid cooling system to enhance thermal dissipation for computer processor. By using distilled water in liquid cooling system, CPU’s temperature decreases by about 10°C compared with using fan cooling system. By using MWCNT liquid with concentration of 1 gram/liter MWCNTs, the CPU’s temperature decreases by 7°C compared with using distilled water in cooling system. Theoretically, we also showed that the presence of MWCNTs reduced thermal resistance and increased the thermal conductivity of liquid cooling system. The results have confirmed the advantages of the MWCNTs for thermal dissipation systems for the μ-processor and other high power electronic devices.

  7. Sugarcane bagasse pretreatment using three imidazolium-based ionic liquids; mass balances and enzyme kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karatzos Sergios

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective pretreatment is key to achieving high enzymatic saccharification efficiency in processing lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars, biofuels and value-added products. Ionic liquids (ILs, still relatively new class of solvents, are attractive for biomass pretreatment because some demonstrate the rare ability to dissolve all components of lignocellulosic biomass including highly ordered (crystalline cellulose. In the present study, three ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim]Cl, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim]OAc are used to dissolve/pretreat and fractionate sugarcane bagasse. In these IL-based pretreatments the biomass is completely or partially dissolved in ILs at temperatures greater than 130°C and then precipitated by the addition of an antisolvent to the IL biomass mixture. For the first time mass balances of IL-based pretreatments are reported. Such mass balances, along with kinetics data, can be used in process modelling and design. Results Lignin removals of 10% mass of lignin in bagasse with [C4mim]Cl, 50% mass with [C2mim]Cl and 60% mass with [C2mim]OAc, are achieved by limiting the amount of water added as antisolvent to 0.5 water:IL mass ratio thus minimising lignin precipitation. Enzyme saccharification (24 h, 15FPU yields (% cellulose mass in starting bagasse from the recovered solids rank as: [C2mim]OAc(83% > >[C2mim]Cl(53% = [C4mim]Cl(53%. Composition of [C2mim]OAc-treated solids such as low lignin, low acetyl group content and preservation of arabinosyl groups are characteristic of aqueous alkali pretreatments while those of chloride IL-treated solids resemble aqueous acid pretreatments. All ILs are fully recovered after use (100% mass as determined by ion chromatography. Conclusions In all three ILs regulated addition of water as an antisolvent effected a polysaccharide enriched precipitate since some of the lignin

  8. Simulated performance of biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant for community scale application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Mondal, P.; Ghosh, S.

    2016-07-01

    Thermal performance analysis and sizing of a biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant (CPR) is reported in this study. The plant is capable of producing 100 kWe of electrical output while simultaneously producing a refrigeration effect, varying from 28-68 ton of refrigeration (TR). The topping gas turbine cycle is an indirectly heated all-air cycle. A combustor heat exchanger duplex (CHX) unit burns producer gas and transfer heat to air. This arrangement avoids complex gas cleaning requirements for the biomass-derived producer gas. The exhaust air of the topping GT is utilized to run a bottoming ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) cycle via a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), steam produced in the HRSG supplying heat to the generator of the refrigeration cycle. Effects of major operating parameters like topping cycle pressure ratio (rp) and turbine inlet temperature (TIT) on the energetic performance of the plant are studied. Energetic performance of the plant is evaluated via energy efficiency, required biomass consumption and fuel energy savings ratio (FESR). The FESR calculation method is significant for indicating the savings in fuel of a combined power and process heat plant instead of separate plants for power and process heat. The study reveals that, topping cycle attains maximum power efficiency of 30%in pressure ratio range of 8-10. Up to a certain value of pressure ratio the required air flow rate through the GT unit decreases with increase in pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The capacity of refrigeration of the AAR unit initially decreases up to a certain value of topping GT cycle pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The FESR is found to be maximized at a pressure ratio of 9 (when TIT=1100°C), the maximum value being 53%. The FESR is higher for higher TIT. The heat exchanger sizing is also influenced by the topping cycle pressure ratio and GT-TIT.

  9. Hot Corrosion of Nickel-Base Alloys in Biomass-Derived Fuel Simulated Atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyens, C.; Pint, B.A.; Wright, I.G.

    1999-02-28

    Biomass fuels are considered to be a promising renewable source of energy. However, impurities present in the fuel may cause corrosion problems with the materials used in the hot sections of gas turbines and only limited data are available so far. As part of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy, the present study provides initial data on the hot corrosion resistance of different nickel-base alloys against sodium sulfate-induced corrosion as a baseline, and against salt compositions simulating biomass-derived fuel deposits. Single crystal nickel-superalloy Rene N5, a cast NiCrAlY alloy, a NiCoCrAlY alloy representing industrially used overlay compositions, and a model {beta}NiAl+Hf alloy were tested in 1h thermal cycles at 950 C with different salt coatings deposited onto the surfaces. Whereas the NiCoCrAlY alloy exhibited reasonable resistance against pure sodium sulfate deposits, the NiCrAiY alloy and Rene N5 were attacked severely. Although considered to be an ideal alumina former in air and oxygen at higher temperatures, {beta}NiAl+Hf also suffered from rapid corrosion attack at 950 C when coated with sodium sulfate. The higher level of potassium present in biomass fuels compared with conventional fuels was addressed by testing a NiCoCrAlY alloy coated with salts of different K/Na atomic ratios. Starting at zero Na, the corrosion rate increased considerably when sodium was added to potassium sulfate. In an intermediate region the corrosion rate was initially insensitive to the K/Na ratio but accelerated when very Na-rich compositions were deposited. The key driver for corrosion of the NiCoCrAlY alloy was sodium sulfate rather than potassium sulfate, and no simple additive or synergistic effect of combining sodium and potassium was found.

  10. Methylene blue adsorption by algal biomass based materials: biosorbents characterization and process behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2007-08-17

    Dead algal biomass is a natural material that serves as a basis for developing a new family of sorbent materials potentially suitable for many industrial applications. In this work an algal industrial waste from agar extraction process, algae Gelidium and a composite material obtained by immobilization of the algal waste with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were physical characterized and used as biosorbents for dyes removal using methylene blue as model. The apparent and real densities and the porosity of biosorbents particles were determined by mercury porosimetry and helium picnometry. The methylene blue adsorption in the liquid phase was the method chosen to calculate the specific surface area of biosorbent particles as it seems to reproduce better the surface area accessible to metal ions in the biosorption process than the N2 adsorption-desorption dry method. The porous texture of the biosorbents particles was also studied. Equilibrium isotherms are well described by the Langmuir equation, giving maximum uptake capacities of 171, 104 and 74 mg g(-1), respectively for algae, algal waste and composite material. Kinetic experiments at different initial methylene blue concentrations were performed to evaluate the equilibrium time and the importance of the driving force to overcome mass transfer resistances. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models adequately describe the kinetic data. The biosorbents used in this work proved to be promising materials for removing methylene blue from aqueous solutions.

  11. Possible incorporation of petroleum-based carbons in biochemicals produced by bioprocess--biomass carbon ratio measured by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunioka, Masao

    2010-06-01

    The biomass carbon ratios of biochemicals related to biomass have been reviewed. Commercial products from biomass were explained. The biomass carbon ratios of biochemical compounds were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) based on the (14)C concentration of carbons in the compounds. This measuring method uses the mechanism that biomass carbons include a very low level of (14)C and petroleum carbons do not include (14)C similar to the carbon dating measuring method. It was confirmed that there were some biochemicals synthesized from petroleum-based carbons. This AMS method has a high accuracy with a small standard deviation and can be applied to plastic products.

  12. Thiolene and SIFEL-based Microfluidic Platforms for Liquid-Liquid Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sachit; Desai, Amit V; Lewis, Robert W; Ranganathan, David R; Li, Hairong; Zeng, Dexing; Reichert, David E; Kenis, Paul J A

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic platforms provide several advantages for liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) processes over conventional methods, for example with respect to lower consumption of solvents and enhanced extraction efficiencies due to the inherent shorter diffusional distances. Here, we report the development of polymer-based parallel-flow microfluidic platforms for LLE. To date, parallel-flow microfluidic platforms have predominantly been made out of silicon or glass due to their compatibility with most organic solvents used for LLE. Fabrication of silicon and glass-based LLE platforms typically requires extensive use of photolithography, plasma or laser-based etching, high temperature (anodic) bonding, and/or wet etching with KOH or HF solutions. In contrast, polymeric microfluidic platforms can be fabricated using less involved processes, typically photolithography in combination with replica molding, hot embossing, and/or bonding at much lower temperatures. Here we report the fabrication and testing of microfluidic LLE platforms comprised of thiolene or a perfluoropolyether-based material, SIFEL, where the choice of materials was mainly guided by the need for solvent compatibility and fabrication amenability. Suitable designs for polymer-based LLE platforms that maximize extraction efficiencies within the constraints of the fabrication methods and feasible operational conditions were obtained using analytical modeling. To optimize the performance of the polymer-based LLE platforms, we systematically studied the effect of surface functionalization and of microstructures on the stability of the liquid-liquid interface and on the ability to separate the phases. As demonstrative examples, we report (i) a thiolene-based platform to determine the lipophilicity of caffeine, and (ii) a SIFEL-based platform to extract radioactive copper from an acidic aqueous solution.

  13. Biomass-based gasifiers for internal combustion (IC) engines—A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashish Malik; S K Mohapatra

    2013-06-01

    The world is facing severe problems of energy crisis and environmental problem. This situation makes people to focus their attention on sustainable energy resources for their survival. Biomass is recognized to be the major potential source for energy production. There are ranges of biomass utilization technologies that produce useful energy from biomass. Gasification is one of the important techniques out of direct combustion, anaerobic digestion – Biogas, ethanol production. Gasification enables conversion of these materials into combustible gas (producer gas), mechanical and electrical power, synthetic fuels, and chemical. The gasification of biomass into useful fuel enhances its potential as a renewable energy resource. This paper gives a comprehensive review of the techniques used for utilizing biomass, experimental investigation on biomass fuels, characterization, merits, demerits and challenges faced by biomass fuels.

  14. Challenges of Biomass in a Development Model Based on Renewable Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros, F.; González-González, A.; Ruiz-Celma, A.; López-Rodríguez, F.; García-Sanz-Calcedo, J.; García, J. A.; Mena, A.

    Although fire has been known to mankind for about 500,000 years, the implementation of biomass energy in the world has barely changed since then, having been used mainly for heat production. To this end, an estimated global consumption of biomass accounts for 10.6% of total world consumption of primary energy. However, the use of biomass as transportation fuel or for generation of electricity is not displayed in the annual world, European, or national statistics, as if its contribution to primary energy consumption was insignificant. What is the reason behind this? Why is the development of biomass only limited to its thermal use? Why is the production of biomass for electricity and transportation purposes not increasing? And what is then happening to biomass? The present article addresses issues that, in our view, limit the incursion of biomass in current energy systems and provides some answers to solve them.

  15. Spray combustion of biomass-based renewable diesel fuel using multiple injection strategy in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-05-26

    Effect of a two-injection strategy associated with a pilot injection on the spray combustion process was investigated under conventional diesel combustion conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration) for a biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, i.e., biomass to liquid (BTL), and a regular No. 2 diesel in a constant volume combustion chamber using multiband flame measurement and two-color pyrometry. The spray combustion flame structure was visualized by using multiband flame measurement to show features of soot formation, high temperature and low temperature reactions, which can be characterized by the narrow-band emissions of radicals or intermediate species such as OH, HCHO, and CH. The objective of this study was to identify the details of multiple injection combustion, including a pilot and a main injection, and to provide further insights on how the two injections interact. For comparison, three injection strategies were considered for both fuels including a two-injection strategy (Case TI), single injection strategy A (Case SA), and single injection strategy B (Case SB). Multiband flame results show a strong interaction, indicated by OH emissions between the pilot injection and the main injection for Case TI while very weak connection is found for the narrow-band emissions acquired through filters with centerlines of 430 nm and 470 nm. A faster flame development is found for the main injection of Case TI compared to Cases SA and SB, which could be due to the high temperature environment and large air entrainment from the pilot injection. A lower soot level is observed for the BTL flame compared to the diesel flame for all three injection types. Case TI has a lower soot level compared to Cases SA and SB for the BTL fuel, while the diesel fuel maintains a similar soot level among all three injection strategies. Soot temperature of Case TI is lower for both fuels, especially for diesel. Based on these results, it is expected that the two-injection strategy could be

  16. Choline-based ionic liquids-enhanced biodegradation of azo dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Sudharshan; Surianarayanan, Mahadevan; Ranganathan, Vijayaraghavan; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2012-05-01

    Industrial wastewaters such as tannery and textile processing effluents are often characterized by a high content of dissolved organic dyes, resulting in large values of chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD and BOD) in the aquatic systems into which they are discharged. Such wastewater streams are of rapidly growing concern as a major environmental issue in developing countries. Hence there is a need to mitigate this challenge by effective approaches to degrade dye-contaminated wastewater. In this study, several choline-based salts originally developed for use as biocompatible hydrated ionic liquids (i.e., choline sacchrinate (CS), choline dihydrogen phosphate (CDP), choline lactate (CL), and choline tartarate (CT)) have been successfully employed as the cosubstrate with S. lentus in the biodegradation of an azo dye in aqueous solution. We also demonstrate that the azo dye has been degraded to less toxic components coupled with low biomass formation.

  17. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Biomass is one of the most abundant sources of renewable energy, and will be an important part of a more sustainable future energy system. In addition to direct combustion, there is growing attention on conversion of biomass into liquid en-ergy carriers. These conversion methods are divided...... into liquid biofuels, with the aim of describing the current status and development challenges of the technology. During the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the biomass macromolecules are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive...... into biochemical/biotechnical methods and thermochemical methods; such as direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction etc. This chapter will focus on hydrothermal liquefaction, where high pressures and intermediate temperatures together with the presence of water are used to convert biomass...

  18. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Biomass is one of the most abundant sources of renewable energy, and will be an important part of a more sustainable future energy system. In addition to direct combustion, there is growing attention on conversion of biomass into liquid en-ergy carriers. These conversion methods are divided...... into biochemical/biotechnical methods and thermochemical methods; such as direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction etc. This chapter will focus on hydrothermal liquefaction, where high pressures and intermediate temperatures together with the presence of water are used to convert biomass...... into liquid biofuels, with the aim of describing the current status and development challenges of the technology. During the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the biomass macromolecules are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive...

  19. Liquid Chromatography with Electrospray Ionization and Tandem Mass Spectrometry Applied in the Quantitative Analysis of Chitin-Derived Glucosamine for a Rapid Estimation of Fungal Biomass in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelen A. Olofsson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This method employs liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to rapidly quantify chitin-derived glucosamine for estimating fungal biomass. Analyte retention was achieved using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, with a zwitter-ionic stationary phase (ZIC-HILIC, and isocratic elution using 60% 5 mM ammonium formate buffer (pH 3.0 and 40% ACN. Inclusion of muramic acid and its chromatographic separation from glucosamine enabled calculation of the bacterial contribution to the latter. Galactosamine, an isobaric isomer to glucosamine, found in significant amounts in soil samples, was also investigated. The two isomers form the same precursor and product ions and could not be chromatographically separated using this rapid method. Instead, glucosamine and galactosamine were distinguished mathematically, using the linear relationships describing the differences in product ion intensities for the two analytes. The m/z transitions of 180 → 72 and 180 → 84 were applied for the detection of glucosamine and galactosamine and that of 252 → 126 for muramic acid. Limits of detection were in the nanomolar range for all included analytes. The total analysis time was 6 min, providing a high sample throughput method.

  20. Oil crop biomass residue-based media for enhanced algal lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Ma, Xiaochen; Zhou, Wenguang; Min, Min; Cheng, Yanling; Chen, Paul; Shi, Jian; Wang, Qin; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of hydrolysates from acid hydrolysis of four different oil crop biomass residues (OCBR) as low cost culture media for algae growth. The one-factor-at-a-time method was used to design a series of experiments to optimize the acid hydrolysis conditions through examining the total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, and ammonia nitrogen in the hydrolysates. The optimal conditions were found to be using 3% sulfuric acid and hydrolyzing residues at 90 °C for 20 h. The hydrolysates (OCBR media) produced under the optimal conditions were used to cultivate the two algae strains, namely UM258 and UM268. The results from 5 days of cultivation showed that the OCBR media supported faster algae growth with maximal algal biomass yield of 2.7 and 3 g/L, respectively. Moreover, the total lipids for UM258 and UM268 were 54 and 35%, respectively, after 5 days of cultivation, which suggested that the OCBR media allowed the algae strains to accumulate higher lipids probably due to high C/N ratio. Furthermore, over 3% of omega-3 fatty acid (EPA) was produced for the two algae strains. In conclusion, OCBR media are excellent alternative for algae growth and have a great potential for large-scale production of algae-based ingredients for biodiesel as well as high-value food and pharmaceutical products.

  1. Steam generation unit in a simple version of biomass based small cogeneration unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sornek Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic Rankine cycle (ORC is a very promising process for the conversion of low or medium temperature heat to electricity in small and micro scale biomass powered systems. Classic ORC is analogous to Clausius–Rankine cycle in a steam power plant, but instead of water it uses low boiling, organic working fluids. Seeking energy and economical optimization of biomass-based ORC systems, we have proposed some modifications e.g. in low boiling fluid circuit construction. Due to the fact that the operation of a micro steam turbine is rather inefficient from the technical and economic point of view, a specially modified air compressor can be used as a steam piston engine. Such engine should be designed to work at low pressure of the working medium. Studies regarding the first version of the prototype installation were focused on the confirmation of applicability of a straw boiler in the prototype ORC power system. The results of the previous studies and the studies described in the paper (on the new cogeneration unit confirmed the high potential of the developed solution. Of course, many further studies have to be carried out.

  2. [Transferability of remote sensing-based models for estimating moso bamboo forest aboveground biomass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao-Lin; Du, Hua-Qiang; Zhou, Guo-Mo; Xu, Xiao-Jun; Gui, Zu-Yun

    2012-09-01

    Taking the moso bamboo production areas Lin'an, Anji, and Longquan in Zhejiang Province of East China as study areas, and based on the integration of field survey data and Landsat 5 Thematic Mappr images, five models for estimating the moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens) forest biomass were constructed by using linear, nonlinear, stepwise regression, multiple regression, and Erf-BP neural network, and the models were evaluated. The models with higher precision were then transferred to the study areas for examining the model's transferability. The results indicated that for the three moso bamboo production areas, Erf-BP neural network model presented the highest precision, followed by stepwise regression and nonlinear models. The Erf-BP neural network model had the best transferability. Model type and independent variables had relatively high effects on the transferability of statistical-based models.

  3. Oil palm biomass-based adsorbents for the removal of water pollutants--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tanweer; Rafatullah, Mohd; Ghazali, Arniza; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah

    2011-07-01

    This article presents a review on the role of oil palm biomass (trunks, fronds, leaves, empty fruit bunches, shells, etc.) as adsorbents in the removal of water pollutants such as acid and basic dyes, heavy metals, phenolic compounds, various gaseous pollutants, and so on. Numerous studies on adsorption properties of various low-cost adsorbents, such as agricultural wastes and its based activated carbons, have been reported in recent years. Studies have shown that oil palm-based adsorbent, among the low-cost adsorbents mentioned, is the most promising adsorbent for removing water pollutants. Further, these bioadsorbents can be chemically modified for better efficiency and can undergo multiple reuses to enhance their applicability at an industrial scale. It is evident from a literature survey of more than 100 recent papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for various pollutants. The conclusion is been drawn from the reviewed literature, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  4. Sustainability of biomass in a bio-based economy. A quick-scan analysis of the biomass demand of a bio-based economy in 2030 compared to the sustainable supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, J.; Olivier, J.; Notenboom, J. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Croezen, H.; Bergsma, G. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    The conversion of a fossil fuel-based economy into a bio-based economy will probably be restricted in the European Union (EU) by the limited supply of ecologically sustainable biomass. It appears realistic that, for the EU, the sustainable biomass supply will be enough to meet about 10% of the final energy and feedstock consumption in 2030. Under optimistic assumptions, this supply might increase to 20%. EU Member States, in their Renewable Energy Action Plans for 2020, already aim to apply an amount of biomass that already approaches this 10%. Therefore, from a sustainability perspective, there is an urgent need to guarantee ecologically sustainable biomass production. In considering sustainable biomass production, land use is the most critical issue, especially the indirect land-use impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and biodiversity. The use of waste resources and agricultural and forestry residues, that does not involve additional land use, therefore, would be a sustainable option. Technically, it is possible to use these types of resources for most applications in a bio-based economy. However, it seems unlikely that, by 2030, waste and residue resources will contribute more than three to four per cent to the final energy and feedstock consumption in Europe. Moreover, many waste and residue resources currently already have useful applications; for instance, as feed or soil improvers. These are the main findings of a quick-scan analysis carried out by the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and CE Delft on the sustainability of a bio-based economy. Three priorities can be distinguished in the transition to an ecologically sustainable bio-based economy that aims to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels: (1) develop new technologies, procedures and infrastructure to collect or to produce more biomass without using directly or indirectly valuable natural land; (2) develop technologies to produce hydrocarbons from types of biomass that have potentially

  5. Optical detection of sepsis markers using liquid crystal based biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCamley, Maureen K.; Artenstein, Andrew W.; Opal, Steven M.; Crawford, Gregory P.

    2007-02-01

    A liquid crystal based biosensor for the detection and diagnosis of sepsis is currently in development. Sepsis, a major clinical syndrome with a significant public health burden in the US due to a large elderly population, is the systemic response of the body to a localized infection and is defined as the combination of pathologic infection and physiological changes. Bacterial infections are responsible for 90% of cases of sepsis in the US. Currently there is no bedside diagnostic available to positively identify sepsis. The basic detection scheme employed in a liquid crystal biosensor contains attributes that would find value in a clinical setting, especially for the early detection of sepsis. Utilizing the unique properties of liquid crystals, such as birefringence, a bedside diagnostic is in development which will optically report the presence of biomolecules. In a septic patient, an endotoxin known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is released from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and can be found in the blood stream. It is hypothesized that this long chained molecule will cause local disruptions to the open surface of a sensor containing aligned liquid crystal. The bulk liquid crystal ampli.es these local changes at the surface due to the presence of the sepsis marker, providing an optical readout through polarizing microscopy images. Liquid crystal sensors consisting of both square and circular grids, 100-200 μm in size, have been fabricated and filled with a common liquid crystal material, 5CB. Homeotropic alignment was confirmed using polarizing microscopy. The grids were then contacted with either saline only (control), or saline with varying concentrations of LPS. Changes in the con.guration of the nematic director of the liquid crystal were observed through the range of concentrations tested (5mg/mL - 1pg/mL) which have been confirmed by a consulting physician as clinically relevant levels.

  6. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brito

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground-based measurements over Brazil, aimed to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm, occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO, freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ~1000 cm−3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm−3 (during biomass burning (BB events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m−3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m−3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m−3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed, on average, at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m−3, respectively. Equivalent black carbon (BCe ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m−3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m−3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe, among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the

  7. New type of liquid rubber and compositions based on it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semikolenov, S V; Nartova, A V; Voronchikhin, V D; Dubkov, K A

    2014-11-01

    The new method for producing the functionalized polymers and oligomers containing carbonyl C=O groups is developed. The method is based on the noncatalytic oxidation of unsaturated rubbers by nitrous oxide (N2O) at 180-230 °С. The proposed method allows obtaining the new type of functionalized rubbers-liquid unsaturated polyketones with regulated molecular weight and concentration of C=O groups. The influence of the liquid polyketone addition on properties of rubber-based composites is investigated. The study indicates good prospects of using the liquid polyketones for the improvement of properties and operating characteristics of the various types of rubbers and the rubber-cord systems.

  8. Inventory-based estimation of forest biomass in Shitai County, China: A comparison of five methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Tang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several comparative studies have reported that there can be great discrepancies between different methods used to estimate forest biomass. With the development of carbon markets, an accurate estimation at the regional scale (i.e. county level is becoming increasingly important for local government. In this study, we applied five methodologies [continuous biomass expansion factor (CBEF approach, mean biomass density (MB approach, mean biomass expansion factor (MBEF approach, national continuous biomass expansion factors (NCBEF proposed by Fang et al (2002, standard IPCC approach] to estimate the total biomass for Shitai County, China. The CBEF is generally considered to provide the most realistic estimates in term of regional biomass because CBEF reflects the change of BEF to stand density, stand age and site conditions. The forests of the whole county were divided into four forest types, namely Chinese fir plantations (CF, hardwood broadleaved forests (HB, softwood–broadleaved forests (SB and mason pine forests (MP according to the local forest management inventory of 2004. Generally, the MBEF approach overestimated forest biomass while the IPCC approach underestimated forest biomass for all forest types when CBEF derived biomass was used as a control. The MB approach provided the most similar biomass estimates for all forest types and could be an alternative approach when a CBEF equation is lacking in the study area. The total biomass derived from MBEF was highest at 1.44×107 t, followed by 1.32 ×107 t from CBEF, 1.31 ×107 t from NCBEF, 1.25 ×107 t from MB and 1.16 ×107 t from IPCC. Our results facilitate method selection for regional forest biomass estimation and provide statistical evidence for local government planning to enter the potential carbon market.

  9. Inventory-based estimation of forest biomass in Shitai County, China: A comparison of five methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Tang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several comparative studies have reported that there can be great discrepancies between different methods used to estimate forest biomass. With the development of carbon markets, an accurate estimation at the regional scale (i.e. county level is becoming increasingly important for local government. In this study, we applied five methodologies [continuous biomass expansion factor (CBEF approach, mean biomass density (MB approach, mean biomass expansion factor (MBEF approach, national continuous biomass expansion factors (NCBEF proposed by Fang et al (2002, standard IPCC approach] to estimate the total biomass for Shitai County, China. The CBEF is generally considered to provide the most realistic estimates in term of regional biomass because CBEF reflects the change of BEF to stand density, stand age and site conditions. The forests of the whole county were divided into four forest types, namely Chinese fir plantations (CF, hardwood broadleaved forests (HB, softwood–broadleaved forests (SB and mason pine forests (MP according to the local forest management inventory of 2004. Generally, the MBEF approach overestimated forest biomass while the IPCC approach underestimated forest biomass for all forest types when CBEF derived biomass was used as a control. The MB approach provided the most similar biomass estimates for all forest types and could be an alternative approach when a CBEF equation is lacking in the study area. The total biomass derived from MBEF was highest at 1.44×107 t, followed by 1.32 ×107 t from CBEF, 1.31 ×107 t from NCBEF, 1.25 ×107 t from MB and 1.16 ×107 t from IPCC. Our results facilitate method selection for regional forest biomass estimation and provide statistical evidence for local government planning to enter the potential carbon market.

  10. BioMeeT. Planning of biomass based methanol energy combine - Trollhaettan region. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandberg, Aake; Hjortsberg, Hans; Saevbark, Bengt [Ecotraffic R and D AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Ekbom, Tomas; Hjerpe, Carl-Johan; Landaelv, Ingvar [Nykomb Synergetics AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    The conversion of biomass in an energy combine based on primary gasification yields a gas that can be used as fuels gas, for synthesis of motor fuels (methanol or other) or for electric power production. The study gives examples of alternative product mixes. The conclusions of the study are: (1) Potential of new, not yet utilised biomass is available, and new areas of applications, where oil is presently used, are needed to develop the potential. Motor fuel production (methanol, DME) is a presumption in the BioMeeT-study. (2) Yield figures in the energy combine are comparable to those of now used bio-systems for power and co-generation. (3) Which one of the cases in the BioMeeT-project is the most favourable cannot be decided on a plant-to-plant basis alone but the entire system for supply energy carriers in the region has to be considered, as the all plants within the system may change. This would require further investigations. Moreover, the results will be different in various regions in Sweden and Europe due to the markets for all energy carriers. (4) At today's conditions in the Trollhaettan region it must be stated that there is only room for dedicated bio-methanol/DME production (provided such a market will come) with moderate addition to the district heating system as in the BAL-project. (5) In the longer term the future supply of all energy carriers, including new electric power and new bio-fuels, has to be considered for new plants and at renewals. In such a case an energy combine as in the BioMeeT-project may be a central conversion plant with gas deliveries to satellites such as local co-generation, district heat and industries in a regional system within a 50 - 100 km radius. This should be included in regional planning for the future. (6) Estimated investment costs per kW feedstock input is higher for the energy combine compared to present technologies (mature technologies for power and heat) but have to be judged for all plants taken together in

  11. Ionic liquid-based stable nanofluids containing gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baogang; Wang, Xiaobo; Lou, Wenjing; Hao, Jingcheng

    2011-10-01

    A one-phase and/or two-phase method were used to prepare the stable ionic liquid-based nanofluids containing same volume fraction but different sizes or surface states of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and their thermal conductivities were investigated in more detail. Five significant experiment parameters, i.e. temperature, dispersion condition, particle size and surface state, and viscosity of base liquid, were evaluated to supply experimental explanations for heat transport mechanisms. The conspicuously temperature-dependent and greatly enhanced thermal conductivity under high temperatures verify that Brownian motion should be one key effect factor in the heat transport processes of ionic liquid-based gold nanofluids. While the positive influences of proper aggregation and the optimized particle size on their thermal conductivity enhancements under some specific conditions demonstrate that clustering may be another critical effect factor in heat transport processes. Moreover, the remarkable difference of the thermal conductivity enhancements of the nanofluids containing Au NPs with different surface states could be attributed to the surface state which has a strong correlation with not only Brownian motion but also clustering. Whilst the close relationship between their thermal conductivity enhancements and the viscosity of base liquid further indicate Brownian motion must occupy the leading position among various influencing factors. Finally, a promisingly synergistic effect of Brownian motion and clustering based on experimental clues and theoretical analyses was first proposed, justifying different mechanisms are sure related. The results may shed lights on comprehensive understanding of heat transport mechanisms in nanofluids.

  12. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Rudolf, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass with the aim of describing the current status of the technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a medium-temperature, high-pressure thermochemical process, which produces a liquid product, often called bio-oil or bi-crude. During...... the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the macromolecules of the biomass are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive and can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed...... by dehydration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of bio-oil are highly dependent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass constitutes of various components such as protein; carbohydrates, lignin and fat, and each of them produce distinct spectra of compounds during hydrothermal liquefaction...

  13. EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygarlicke, C J; Schmidt, D D; Olson, E S; Leroux, K M; Wocken, C A; Aulich, T A; WIlliams, K D

    2008-07-28

    Biomass utilization is one solution to our nation’s addiction to oil and fossil fuels. What is needed now is applied fundamental research that will cause economic technology development for the utilization of the diverse biomass resources in the United States. This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) applied fundamental research project contributes to the development of economical biomass utilization for energy, transportation fuels, and marketable chemicals using biorefinery methods that include thermochemical and fermentation processes. The fundamental and basic applied research supports the broad scientific objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program, especially in the area of developing alternative renewable biofuels, sustainable bioenergy, technologies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and environmental remediation. Its deliverables include 1) identifying and understanding environmental consequences of energy production from biomass, including the impacts on greenhouse gas production, carbon emission abatement, and utilization of waste biomass residues and 2) developing biology-based solutions that address DOE and national needs related to waste cleanup, hydrogen production from renewable biomass, biological and chemical processes for energy and fuel production, and environmental stewardship. This project serves the public purpose of encouraging good environmental stewardship by developing biomass-refining technologies that can dramatically increase domestic energy production to counter current trends of rising dependence upon petroleum imports. Decreasing the nation’s reliance on foreign oil and energy will enhance national security, the economy of rural communities, and future competitiveness. Although renewable energy has many forms, such as wind and solar, biomass is the only renewable energy source that can be governed through agricultural methods and that has an energy density that can realistically compete with

  14. Initial Market Assessment for Small-Scale Biomass-Based CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.; Mann, M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to reexamine the energy generation market opportunities for biomass CHP applications smaller than 20 MW. This paper provides an overview of the benefits of and challenges for biomass CHP in terms of policy, including a discussion of the drivers behind, and constraints on, the biomass CHP market. The report provides a summary discussion of the available biomass supply types and technologies that could be used to feed the market. Two primary markets are outlined--rural/agricultural and urban--for small-scale biomass CHP, and illustrate the primary intersections of supply and demand for those markets. The paper concludes by summarizing the potential markets and suggests next steps for identifying and utilizing small-scale biomass.

  15. Initial Market Assessment for Small-Scale Biomass-Based CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.; Mann, M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to reexamine the energy generation market opportunities for biomass CHP applications smaller than 20 MW. This paper provides an overview of the benefits of and challenges for biomass CHP in terms of policy, including a discussion of the drivers behind, and constraints on, the biomass CHP market. The report provides a summary discussion of the available biomass supply types and technologies that could be used to feed the market. Two primary markets are outlined--rural/agricultural and urban--for small-scale biomass CHP, and illustrate the primary intersections of supply and demand for those markets. The paper concludes by summarizing the potential markets and suggests next steps for identifying and utilizing small-scale biomass.

  16. Ionic Liquid-based Microwave-assisted Liquid-liquid Microextraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Determination of Sulfonamides from Animal Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xu-dong; LIANG Fang-hui; SU Rui; WU Li-jie; LI Xue-yuan; WANG Xing-hua; ZHANG Han-qi

    2013-01-01

    The authors performed ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction(IL-based MALLME) coupled with high performance liquid chromatographic separation for the determination of 6 sulfonamides (SAs) from animal oils.The target analytes were extracted from animal oil samples with sodium hydroxide solution containing 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborateand as the extraction solvent under microwave irradiation.The experimental parameters of the IL-based MALLME,including types of ILs,volume of IL,amount of ion-pairing agent(NH4PF6),pH value of sample solution,and extraction temperature and time were evaluated.The limits of detection and quantification obtained were in a range of 0.4-0.5 μg/kg and a range of 1.2-1.8 μg/kg,respectively.The accuracy of the method was evaluated by analyzing five spiked animal oil samples at two fortified levels(5 and 50 μg/kg),and the recoveries of SAs varied from 81.4% to 114.5% with relative standard deviations ranging from 0.8% to 9.0%.

  17. Liquid Crystalline Furandicarboxylic Acid-based Aaromatic Polyesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WILSENS, CAROLUS HENRICUS R. MARIA; RASTOGI, SANJAY; VELD, MARTIJN ARNOLDUS JOHANNES; KLOP, ENNO ANTON; NOORDOVER, BART ADRIANUS JOHANNES

    2013-01-01

    The invention pertains to a fully aromatic liquid crystalline furandicarboxylic acid- based aromatic polyester obtainable from a mixture of monomers comprising 2,5- furandicarboxylic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, an aromatic diol, and 5-40 mol% of an aromatic monocarboxylic acid selected from vanilli

  18. Liquid Flow Meter based on a Thermal Anemometer Microsensor

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg Sazhin

    2016-01-01

    An analytical model of a thermal anemometer sensor is developed. A thermal anemometer microsensor utilizing doped polycrystalline silicon is created. A liquid flow meter prototype based on a thermal anemometer microsensor is designed. Results of the flow meter testing are presented.

  19. Technoeconomic analysis of a methanol plant based on gasification of biomass and electrolysis of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Houbak, N.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Methanol production process configurations based on renewable energy sources have been designed. The processes were analyzed in the thermodynamic process simulation tool DNA. The syngas used for the catalytic methanol production was produced by gasification of biomass, electrolysis of water, CO2...... with a different syngas production method, were compared. The plants achieve methanol exergy efficiencies of 59-72%, the best from a configuration incorporating autothermal reforming of biogas and electrolysis of water for syngas production. The different processes in the plants are highly heat integrated......, and the low-temperature waste heat is used for district heat production. This results in high total energy efficiencies (similar to 90%) for the plants. The specific methanol costs for the six plants are in the range 11.8-25.3 (sic)/GJ(exergy). The lowest cost is obtained by a plant using electrolysis...

  20. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by adsorption on biomass based adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Sultan; Azmatullah, M. [Malakand Univ., Chakdara, Dir (Pakistan). Dept. of Chemistry; Bangash, Fazlullah Khan [Peshawar Univ. (Pakistan). Inst. of Chemical Sciences; Amin, Noor-ul [Abdul Wali Khan Univ., Mardan (Pakistan). Dept. of Chemistry

    2013-09-15

    Removal of heavy metals i.e. Zn{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} from aqueous solution by adsorption onto biomass based adsorbent was investigated as a function of time and different concentrations. The sample was characterized by FTIR, EDS, BET surface area and Zeta potential technique, which was reported earlier. Adsorption kinetics of Zn{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} was tested by first order kinetics, 'Elovich and parabolic diffusion kinetic equations which show that the process of adsorption is diffusion controlled process. The rate of adsorption was high at high adsorption temperature. Thermodynamic parameters like {Delta}H , {Delta}S and {Delta}G were calculated from the kinetic data. The negative value of Gibbs free energy ({Delta}G ) shows the spontaneous nature of the process. Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin isotherms and distribution coefficient were found fit to the adsorption isotherm data. (orig.)

  1. Technoeconomic analysis of a methanol plant based on gasification of biomass and electrolysis of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Houbak, N.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Methanol production process configurations based on renewable energy sources have been designed. The processes were analyzed in the thermodynamic process simulation tool DNA. The syngas used for the catalytic methanol production was produced by gasification of biomass, electrolysis of water, CO2...... from post-combustion capture and autothermal reforming of natural gas or biogas. Underground gas storage of hydrogen and oxygen was used in connection with the electrolysis to enable the electrolyser to follow the variations in the power produced by renewables. Six plant configurations, each...... with a different syngas production method, were compared. The plants achieve methanol exergy efficiencies of 59-72%, the best from a configuration incorporating autothermal reforming of biogas and electrolysis of water for syngas production. The different processes in the plants are highly heat integrated...

  2. Production of Biofuel from Waste Lignocellulosic Biomass Materials Based on Energy Saving Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Maki; Hoshino, Kazuhiro

    To develop biofuel production from waste lignocellulosic biomass materials the rice straw was selected one of renewable material and the degradation condition about pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis to obtain effectively fermentable sugars was investigated. Rice straw was pretreated by five kinds of methods and then the components ratio of rice straw was examined. First, the steam explosion was selected based on the degradability and the requirement energy. In addition, the best suitable combination of two cellulases to effective and economical hydrolyze was determined from the degradability of these pretreated rice straws. In the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the steam explosion rice straw by combining cellulase cocktail and a novel fermenting fungus, 13.2 g/L ethanol was able to product for 96 h.

  3. Fundamental studies of synthesis-gas production based on fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Reinikainen, M.; Moilanen, A.; Simell, P.; McKeough, P.; Hannula, I. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2008-07-01

    The research is directed towards methods of producing transportation bio-fuels via the synthesis-gas route, with emphasis on the synthesis-gas production and gas cleaning steps. The project will both broaden and deepen the knowledge base and, in particular, will generate new fundamental information about the most critical process steps from the point of view of the realisation of the technology. The results will be exploited in the ongoing industrial-driven development and demonstration projects. The subtopics of the research project are (1) fuel characterisation and ash behaviour in the gasification step, (2) reaction mechanisms related to gas cleaning, in particular the reactions of hydrocarbons at gasification temperatures, during hot-gas filtration and on catalytic surfaces, (3) evaluations of alternative process configurations and applications and (4) monitoring of developments elsewhere in the world. In addition VTT itself finances two additions subtopics (5) new analysis techniques and (6) hydrogen from biomass via gasification. (orig.)

  4. Fundamental studies of synthesis-gas production based on fluidised-bed gasification of biomass - UCGFunda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinikainen, M.; Moilanen, A.; Simell, P.; Hannula, I.; Kurkela, E. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), Email: matti.reinikainen@vtt.fi; Suominen, T.P. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Lab. of Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering); Linnekoski, J.; Roenkkoenen, E. (Aalto University, School of Science and Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Industrial Chemistry.)

    2010-10-15

    The research is directed towards methods of producing transportation bio-fuels via the synthesis-gas route, with emphasis on the synthesis-gas production and gas cleaning steps. The subtopics of the research project are (1) fuel characterisation and ash behaviour in the gasification step, (2) reaction mechanisms related to gas cleaning, (3) evaluations of alternative process configurations and applications and (4) international cooperation. VTT itself finances also two additional subtopics: (5) new analysis techniques and (6) hydrogen from biomass via gasification. The project comprises experimental work, modelling, techno-economic evaluations as well as studies based on literature. The project is steered by a wide industrial consortium and the research work is carried out by VTT, Aalto University and Aabo Akademi. International development in syngas technology has been closely monitored in all subtopics as well as by participating in relevant IEA-tasks. (orig.)

  5. Environmental impact of biomass based polygeneration - A case study through life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Kuntal; De, Sudipta

    2017-03-01

    Multi-generation or polygeneration is considered to be a potential sustainable energy solution. To assess environmental sustainability of multi-generation, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a useful tool. In this paper, environmental impact of polygeneration using an agro waste (rice straw) is assessed by LCA. Then it is compared with stand alone conventional plants with same utility outputs. Power, ethanol, heating and cooling are utility outputs of the polygeneration plant. System boundary for this polygeneration is defined for surplus biomass only. Exergy based allocation method is used for this analysis. Results of LCA are shown through both mid-point and end-point indicators. Results indicate that polygeneration with surplus rice straw is more environment-friendly than conventional stand-alone generation of same utilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A sustainable approach to empower the bio-based future: upgrading of biomass via process intensification

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — An economically viable and environmentally benign continuous flow intensified process has been developed that demonstrates its ability to upgrade biomass into...

  7. Diffractive devices based on blue phase liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Huang, Shuaijia; Su, Yikai

    2016-09-01

    Blue phase liquid crystal (BPLC) has been attractive for display and photonic applications for its sub-millisecond response time, no need for surface alignment, and an optically isotropic dark state. Because of these advantages, diffractive devices based on blue phase liquid crystals have great potential for wide applications. In this work, we present several BPLC diffractive devices. The operation principles, fabrication and experimental measurements will be discussed in details for two BPLC gratings realized by holographic method and a BPLC Fresnel lens using a spatial light modulator projector. All of these devices exhibit several attractive features such as sub-millisecond response, relatively high spatial resolution and polarization-independence.

  8. Digital Beam Deflectors Based Partly on Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouch, John J.; Miranda, Felix A.; Kreminska, Liubov; Pishnyak, Oleg; Golovin, Andrii; Winker, Bruce K.

    2007-01-01

    A digital beam deflector based partly on liquid crystals has been demonstrated as a prototype of a class of optical beam-steering devices that contain no mechanical actuators or solid moving parts. Such beam-steering devices could be useful in a variety of applications, including free-space optical communications, switching in fiber-optic communications, general optical switching, and optical scanning. Liquid crystals are of special interest as active materials in nonmechanical beam steerers and deflectors because of their structural flexibility, low operating voltages, and the relatively low costs of fabrication of devices that contain them.

  9. Inkjet print microchannels based on a liquid template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuzhen; Li, Lihong; Li, Fengyu; Zhou, Haihua; Song, Yanlin

    2015-04-07

    A simple method to fabricate microchannels is demonstrated based on an inkjet printing liquid template. The morphology of the liquid template can be well controlled by using ink with viscosity sensitive to temperature. The as-prepared Y-shape microchannel is used as a microfluidic reactor for an acylation fluorigenic reaction in a matrix of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Arbitrary modification of the microchannels could be easily realized synchronously with the formation of the microchannels. By grafting polyethylene glycol (PEG) onto the internal surface, an anti-biosorption microchannel is obtained. The facile method will be significant for the fabrication of a microfluidic chip with functional modifications.

  10. Structure-based coarse-graining in liquid slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Mara; Andrienko, Denis; Kremer, Kurt; Peter, Christine

    2012-08-14

    Structure-based coarse-graining relies on matching the pair correlation functions of a reference (atomistic) and a coarse-grained system. As such, it is designed for systems with uniform density distributions. Here, we demonstrate how it can be generalized for inhomogeneous systems by coarse-graining slabs of liquid water and methanol in vacuum, as well as a single benzene molecule at the water-vacuum interface. Our conclusion is that coarse-graining performed in inhomogeneous systems improves thermodynamic properties and the structure of interfaces without significant alterations to the local structure of the bulk liquid.

  11. Size-exclusion chromatography of large molecules from coal liquids, petroleum residues, soots, biomass tars and humic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herod, Alan A; Zhuo, Yuqun; Kandiyoti, Rafael

    2003-06-30

    Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) using 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) as eluent has been calibrated using various standard polymers and model compounds and applied to the analysis of extracts of coal, petroleum and kerogens, to petroleum vacuum residues, soots, biomass tars and humic substances. Three separate columns of different molecular mass (MM) ranges were used, with detection by UV absorption; an evaporative light scattering detector was used for samples with no UV absorption. Fractionation was useful to separate signal from the less abundant high-mass material, which was normally masked by the strong signal from the more abundant low-mass material in the absence of fractionation. Fractionation methods used to isolate high-mass materials before SEC analysis included planar chromatography, column chromatography and solvent solubility. The apparently large molecules were concentrated into the fractions not soluble in common solvents and were relatively immobile in planar chromatography. All samples and fractions contained some material excluded from the column porosity. Evidence from other techniques suggests that the excluded material is of different structures from that of the resolved material rather than consisting of aggregates of small molecules. We speculate that the excluded material may elute early because the structures of this material are three-dimensional rather than planar or near planar.

  12. 生物质快速热解液化技术研究进展%Progresses in Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass to Liquid Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱锡锋; 李明

    2013-01-01

    总结了生物质热解液化技术在原料预处理、热解工艺和生物油精制3个方面的最新研究成果.在原料预处理方面,介绍了干燥、烘焙、压缩成型和酸洗4种方法;在热解工艺方面,列举了国内外具有代表性的热解反应器类型,重点介绍了催化热解和混合热解两种新工艺;在生物油精制方面,介绍了包括催化加氢、催化裂解、催化酯化和乳化等几种常用的生物油精制方法,并分析了各精制技术发展的关键问题.%The recent progresses in raw materials pretreatment,pyrolytic process and biooil upgrading for the fast pyrolysis of biomass to liquid fuel were reviewed.In the raw materials pretreatment,drying,torrefaction,compression moulding and acid-washing were introduced.In the pyrolytic process,typical fast pyrolysis reactors are enumerated and two novel pyrolytic processes,namely fast catalytic pyrolysis and co-liquefaction of both biomass and coal,were discussed.Finally,some upgrading methods were discussed,which included catalytic hydroprocessing,catalytic cracking,catalytic esterification,and emulsification with diesel.The key problems involved in these upgrading methods were also analyzed.

  13. Liquid base cytology in evaluation of thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyhani, Elahe; Sharghi, Sasan A; Amini, Rana; Sharghi, Sina A; Karimlou, Masoud; Moghaddam, Fatemeh A; Larijani, Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Palpable thyroid nodules are present in 4-7% of general population and Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) is now accepted by endocrinologists and thyroid surgeons as a safe, simple and cost effective procedure for evaluating a thyroid nodule. The obtained sample can be spread directly on slides, processed as cell block preparations or prepared as liquid base smears. Liquid base method has been recently accepted due to its shorter preparation time and better preservation of nuclear details. The aim of this study is to compare the diagnostic results of two commonly used methods: Liquid Base Preparation and Cell Block Preparation in evaluation of thyroid nodules. The samples were taken from 100 patients with a solitary nodule or a prominent nodule on a multinodular goiter background (excluding hot nodules). The obtained samples were used to prepare conventional smears (CS), Cell Block Preparations (CBP) and Liquid Base Preparations (LBP). The slides were studied by two pathologists, considering the following parameters: Cellularity, Colloid, Lymphocytes/Plasma cells and Macrophages. 87% of cases revealed informative results in LBP method while in the same group of patients only 69% of samples were informative after processing by CBP method. Sensitivity and specificity of both methods compared with the conventional smears and with each other and it is concluded that LBP is a reliable method for evaluating of a thyroid nodule. Other studies also show the same results. The liquid base method should be trusted due to its easier procedure, cleaner slide background, its higher specificity and higher diagnostic yields. It can be used instead of CBP and in association with CS to increase the accuracy of evaluation of thyroid nodules.

  14. Monitoring mangrove biomass change in Vietnam using SPOT images and an object-based approach combined with machine learning algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Lien T. H.; Brabyn, Lars

    2017-06-01

    Mangrove forests are well-known for their provision of ecosystem services and capacity to reduce carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. Mapping and quantifying mangrove biomass is useful for the effective management of these forests and maximizing their ecosystem service performance. The objectives of this research were to model, map, and analyse the biomass change between 2000 and 2011 of mangrove forests in the Cangio region in Vietnam. SPOT 4 and 5 images were used in conjunction with object-based image analysis and machine learning algorithms. The study area included natural and planted mangroves of diverse species. After image preparation, three different mangrove associations were identified using two levels of image segmentation followed by a Support Vector Machine classifier and a range of spectral, texture and GIS information for classification. The overall classification accuracy for the 2000 and 2011 images were 77.1% and 82.9%, respectively. Random Forest regression algorithms were then used for modelling and mapping biomass. The model that integrated spectral, vegetation association type, texture, and vegetation indices obtained the highest accuracy (R2adj = 0.73). Among the different variables, vegetation association type was the most important variable identified by the Random Forest model. Based on the biomass maps generated from the Random Forest, total biomass in the Cangio mangrove forest increased by 820,136 tons over this period, although this change varied between the three different mangrove associations.

  15. Network-based integration of systems genetics data reveals pathways associated with lignocellulosic biomass accumulation and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizrachi, Eshchar; Verbeke, Lieven; Christie, Nanette; Fierro, Ana C.; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Davis, Mark F.; Gjersing, Erica; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Van Montagu, Marc; Van de Peer, Yves; Marchal, Kathleen; Myburg, Alexander A.

    2017-01-17

    As a consequence of their remarkable adaptability, fast growth, and superior wood properties, eucalypt tree plantations have emerged as key renewable feedstocks (over 20 million ha globally) for the production of pulp, paper, bioenergy, and other lignocellulosic products. However, most biomass properties such as growth, wood density, and wood chemistry are complex traits that are hard to improve in long-lived perennials. Systems genetics, a process of harnessing multiple levels of component trait information (e.g., transcript, protein, and metabolite variation) in populations that vary in complex traits, has proven effective for dissecting the genetics and biology of such traits. We have applied a network-based data integration (NBDI) method for a systems-level analysis of genes, processes and pathways underlying biomass and bioenergy-related traits using a segregating Eucalyptus hybrid population. We show that the integrative approach can link biologically meaningful sets of genes to complex traits and at the same time reveal the molecular basis of trait variation. Gene sets identified for related woody biomass traits were found to share regulatory loci, cluster in network neighborhoods, and exhibit enrichment for molecular functions such as xylan metabolism and cell wall development. These findings offer a framework for identifying the molecular underpinnings of complex biomass and bioprocessing-related traits. A more thorough understanding of the molecular basis of plant biomass traits should provide additional opportunities for the establishment of a sustainable bio-based economy.

  16. Network-based integration of systems genetics data reveals pathways associated with lignocellulosic biomass accumulation and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrachi, Eshchar; Verbeke, Lieven; Christie, Nanette; Fierro, Ana C; Mansfield, Shawn D; Davis, Mark F; Gjersing, Erica; Tuskan, Gerald A; Van Montagu, Marc; Van de Peer, Yves; Marchal, Kathleen; Myburg, Alexander A

    2017-01-31

    As a consequence of their remarkable adaptability, fast growth, and superior wood properties, eucalypt tree plantations have emerged as key renewable feedstocks (over 20 million ha globally) for the production of pulp, paper, bioenergy, and other lignocellulosic products. However, most biomass properties such as growth, wood density, and wood chemistry are complex traits that are hard to improve in long-lived perennials. Systems genetics, a process of harnessing multiple levels of component trait information (e.g., transcript, protein, and metabolite variation) in populations that vary in complex traits, has proven effective for dissecting the genetics and biology of such traits. We have applied a network-based data integration (NBDI) method for a systems-level analysis of genes, processes and pathways underlying biomass and bioenergy-related traits using a segregating Eucalyptus hybrid population. We show that the integrative approach can link biologically meaningful sets of genes to complex traits and at the same time reveal the molecular basis of trait variation. Gene sets identified for related woody biomass traits were found to share regulatory loci, cluster in network neighborhoods, and exhibit enrichment for molecular functions such as xylan metabolism and cell wall development. These findings offer a framework for identifying the molecular underpinnings of complex biomass and bioprocessing-related traits. A more thorough understanding of the molecular basis of plant biomass traits should provide additional opportunities for the establishment of a sustainable bio-based economy.

  17. Gamma thermometer based reactor core liquid level detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Thomas J.

    1983-01-01

    A system is provided which employs a modified gamma thermometer for determining the liquid coolant level within a nuclear reactor core. The gamma thermometer which normally is employed to monitor local core heat generation rate (reactor power), is modified by thermocouple junctions and leads to obtain an unambiguous indication of the presence or absence of coolant liquid at the gamma thermometer location. A signal processor generates a signal based on the thermometer surface heat transfer coefficient by comparing the signals from the thermocouples at the thermometer location. The generated signal is a direct indication of loss of coolant due to the change in surface heat transfer when coolant liquid drops below the thermometer location. The loss of coolant indication is independent of reactor power at the thermometer location. Further, the same thermometer may still be used for the normal power monitoring function.

  18. Long-Term Impact of Soil Management on Microbial Biomass C, N and P in Rice-Based Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A 12-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different tillage methods and fertilization systems on microbial biomass C, N and P of a gray fluvo-aguic soil in rice-based cropping system. Five fertilization treatments were designed under conventional tillage (CT) or no tillage (NT) system: no fertilizer (CK); chemical fertilizer only (CF); combining chemical fertilizer with pig manure (PM); combining chemical fertilizer with crop straw (CS) and fallow (F). The results showed that biomass C, N and P were enriched in the surface layer of no-tilled soil, whereas they distributed relatively evenly in the tilled soil, which might result from enrichment of crop residue, organic manure and mineral fertilizer, and surficial development of root systems under NT. Under the cultivation system, NT had slightly greater biomass C, N and P at 0~5 cm depth, significantly less biomass C, N and P at 5~15 cm depth, less microbial biomass C, N and equivalent biomass P at 15~30 cm depth as compared to CT, indicating that tillage was beneficial for the multiplication of organisms in the plowed layer of soil. Under the fallow system, biomass C, N and P in the surface layer were significantly greater for NT than CT while their differences between the two tillage methods were negligible in the deeper layers. In the surface layer, biomass C, N and P in the soils amended with organic manure combined with mineral fertilizers were significantly greater than those of the treatments only with mineral fertilizers and the control. Soils without fertilizer had the least biomass nutrient contents among the five fertilization treatments. Obviously, the long-term application of organic manure could maintain the higher activity of microorganisms in soils. The amounts of biomass C, N and P in the fallowed soils varied with the tillage methods; they were much greater under NT than under CT, especially in the surface layer, suggesting that the frequent plowing could decrease

  19. Study concerning the utilization of the ocean spreading center environment for the conversion of biomass to a liquid fuel. (Includes Appendix A: hydrothermal petroleum genesis). [Supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steverson, M.; Stormberg, G.

    1985-01-01

    This document contains a report on the feasibility of utilizing energy obtained from ocean spreading centers as process heat for the conversion of municipal solid wastes to liquid fuels. The appendix contains a paper describing hydrothermal petroleum genesis. Both have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  20. Simulated performance of biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant for community scale application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, S., E-mail: suman.mech09@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIT, Agarpara, Kolkata – 700109, West Bengal (India); Mondal, P., E-mail: mondal.pradip87@gmail.com; Ghosh, S., E-mail: sudipghosh.becollege@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIEST, Shibpur, Howrah – 711103, West Bengal (India)

    2016-07-12

    Thermal performance analysis and sizing of a biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant (CPR) is reported in this study. The plant is capable of producing 100 kWe of electrical output while simultaneously producing a refrigeration effect, varying from 28-68 ton of refrigeration (TR). The topping gas turbine cycle is an indirectly heated all-air cycle. A combustor heat exchanger duplex (CHX) unit burns producer gas and transfer heat to air. This arrangement avoids complex gas cleaning requirements for the biomass-derived producer gas. The exhaust air of the topping GT is utilized to run a bottoming ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) cycle via a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), steam produced in the HRSG supplying heat to the generator of the refrigeration cycle. Effects of major operating parameters like topping cycle pressure ratio (r{sub p}) and turbine inlet temperature (TIT) on the energetic performance of the plant are studied. Energetic performance of the plant is evaluated via energy efficiency, required biomass consumption and fuel energy savings ratio (FESR). The FESR calculation method is significant for indicating the savings in fuel of a combined power and process heat plant instead of separate plants for power and process heat. The study reveals that, topping cycle attains maximum power efficiency of 30%in pressure ratio range of 8-10. Up to a certain value of pressure ratio the required air flow rate through the GT unit decreases with increase in pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The capacity of refrigeration of the AAR unit initially decreases up to a certain value of topping GT cycle pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The FESR is found to be maximized at a pressure ratio of 9 (when TIT=1100°C), the maximum value being 53%. The FESR is higher for higher TIT. The heat exchanger sizing is also influenced by the topping cycle pressure ratio

  1. Novel Role of Rural Official Organization in the Biomass-Based Power Supply Chain in China: A Combined Game Theory and Agent-Based Simulation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyan Luo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Developing biomass-based power generation is helpful for China to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and to release the targets of carbon emission peak. The decentralized farming method leads to Chinese farmers’ weak willingness to collect and sell crop residues to biomass-based power plants. The purpose of this paper is to solve the issue by proposing a novel biomass feedstock supply model with China’s rural official organization—villagers’ committee, which has great influence on villagers’ decision making. Introducing it into the biomass-based power supply chain is beneficial to motivating farmers’ supplying enthusiasm. A combined game theory and agent-based simulation approach is applied to study the effectiveness of this new supply model. Multiple simulation scenarios are built to study impacts of different simulation parameters, and results show that farmers tend to supply more biomass material for electricity production in the proposed villagers’ committee model, compared with the two conventional supply models, direct-deal and broker models. The supply model incorporating the rural official organization can ensure the feedstock sufficiency for plants. A proper model design depends on the feed-in tariff subsidy for biomass-based electricity, feedstock shipping distance, performance appraisal system of the villagers’ committee, as well as farmers’ utility weights on net income and public service improvement.

  2. Impacts of Tree Height-Dbh Allometry on Lidar-Based Tree Aboveground Biomass Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, R.

    2016-06-01

    Lidar has been widely used in tree aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation at plot or stand levels. Lidar-based AGB models are usually constructed with the ground AGB reference as the response variable and lidar canopy indices as predictor variables. Tree diameter at breast height (dbh) is the major variable of most allometric models for estimating reference AGB. However, lidar measurements are mainly related to tree vertical structure. Therefore, tree height-dbh allometric model residuals are expected to have a large impact on lidar-based AGB model performance. This study attempts to investigate sensitivity of lidar-based AGB model to the decreasing strength of height-dbh relationship using a Monte Carlo simulation approach. Striking decrease in R2 and increase in relative RMSE were found in lidar-based AGB model, as the variance of height-dbh model residuals grew. I, therefore, concluded that individual tree height-dbh model residuals fundamentally introduce errors to lidar-AGB models.

  3. Application of CaO-Based Bed Material for Dual Fluidized Bed Steam Biomass Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppatz, S.; Pfeifer, C.; Kreuzeder, A.; Soukup, G.; Hofbauer, H.

    Gasification of biomass is a suitable option for decentralized energy supply based on renewable sources in the range of up to 50 MW fuel input. The paper presents the dual fluidized bed (DFB) steam gasification process, which is applied to generate high quality and nitrogen-free product gas. Essential part of the DFB process is the bed material used in the fluidized reactors, which has significant impact on the product gas quality. By the use of catalytically active bed materials the performance of the overall process is increased, since the bed material favors reactions of the steam gasification. In particular, tar reforming reactions are favored. Within the paper, the pilot plant based on the DFB process with 100kW fuel input at Vienna University of Technology, Austria is presented. Actual investigations with focus on CaO-based bed materials (limestone) as well as with natural olivine as bed material were carried out at the pilot plant. The application of CaO-based bed material shows mainly decreased tar content in the product gas in contrast to experiments with olivine as bed material. The paper presents the results of steam gasification experiments with limestone and olivine, whereby the product gas composition as well as the tar content and the tar composition are outlined.

  4. Modeling changes in biomass composition during microwave-based alkali pretreatment of switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshwani, Deepak R; Cheng, Jay J

    2010-01-01

    This study used two different approaches to model changes in biomass composition during microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass: kinetic modeling using a time-dependent rate coefficient, and a Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system. In both modeling approaches, the dielectric loss tangent of the alkali reagent and pretreatment time were used as predictors for changes in amounts of lignin, cellulose, and xylan during the pretreatment. Training and testing data sets for development and validation of the models were obtained from pretreatment experiments conducted using 1-3% w/v NaOH (sodium hydroxide) and pretreatment times ranging from 5 to 20 min. The kinetic modeling approach for lignin and xylan gave comparable results for training and testing data sets, and the differences between the predictions and experimental values were within 2%. The kinetic modeling approach for cellulose was not as effective, and the differences were within 5-7%. The time-dependent rate coefficients of the kinetic models estimated from experimental data were consistent with the heterogeneity of individual biomass components. The Mamdani-type fuzzy inference was shown to be an effective approach to model the pretreatment process and yielded predictions with less than 2% deviation from the experimental values for lignin and with less than 3% deviation from the experimental values for cellulose and xylan. The entropies of the fuzzy outputs from the Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system were calculated to quantify the uncertainty associated with the predictions. Results indicate that there is no significant difference between the entropies associated with the predictions for lignin, cellulose, and xylan. It is anticipated that these models could be used in process simulations of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic materials.

  5. Pyridinium ionic liquid-based liquid-solid extraction of inorganic and organic iodine from Laminaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li-Qing; Yu, Wen-Yan; Xu, Jing-Jing; Cao, Jun

    2018-01-15

    A simple, green and effective extraction method, namely, pyridinium ionic liquid- (IL) based liquid-solid extraction (LSE), was first designed to extract the main inorganic and organic iodine compounds (I(-), monoiodo-tyrosine (MIT) and diiodo-tyrosine (DIT)). The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasonic intensity 100W, IL ([EPy]Br) concentration 200mM, extraction time 30min, liquid/solid ratio 10mL/g, and pH value 6.5. The morphologies of Laminaria were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The recovery values of I(-), MIT and DIT from Laminaria were in the range of 88% to 94%, and limits of detection were in the range of 59.40 to 283.6ng/g. The proposed method was applied to the extraction and determination of iodine compounds in three Laminaria. The results showed that IL-based LSE could be a promising method for rapid extraction of bioactive iodine from complex food matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Model Effects on GLAS-Based Regional Estimates of Forest Biomass and Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ross F.

    2010-01-01

    Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) / Geosciences Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) waveform data are used to estimate biomass and carbon on a 1.27 X 10(exp 6) square km study area in the Province of Quebec, Canada, below the tree line. The same input datasets and sampling design are used in conjunction with four different predictive models to estimate total aboveground dry forest biomass and forest carbon. The four models include non-stratified and stratified versions of a multiple linear model where either biomass or (biomass)(exp 0.5) serves as the dependent variable. The use of different models in Quebec introduces differences in Provincial dry biomass estimates of up to 0.35 G, with a range of 4.94 +/- 0.28 Gt to 5.29 +/-0.36 Gt. The differences among model estimates are statistically non-significant, however, and the results demonstrate the degree to which carbon estimates vary strictly as a function of the model used to estimate regional biomass. Results also indicate that GLAS measurements become problematic with respect to height and biomass retrievals in the boreal forest when biomass values fall below 20 t/ha and when GLAS 75th percentile heights fall below 7 m.

  7. An Optimization-Based System Model of Disturbance-Generated Forest Biomass Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Guy L.; Coulson, Robert N.; Gan, Jianbang; Tchakerian, Maria D.; Smith, C. Tattersall

    2008-01-01

    Disturbance-generated biomass results from endogenous and exogenous natural and cultural disturbances that affect the health and productivity of forest ecosystems. These disturbances can create large quantities of plant biomass on predictable cycles. A systems analysis model has been developed to quantify aspects of system capacities (harvest,…

  8. Comprehensive database of diameter-based biomass regressions for North American tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer C. Jenkins; David C. Chojnacky; Linda S. Heath; Richard A. Birdsey

    2004-01-01

    A database consisting of 2,640 equations compiled from the literature for predicting the biomass of trees and tree components from diameter measurements of species found in North America. Bibliographic information, geographic locations, diameter limits, diameter and biomass units, equation forms, statistical errors, and coefficients are provided for each equation,...

  9. Ozone exposure- and flux-based response relationships with photosynthesis, leaf morphology and biomass in two poplar clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Bo; Feng, Zhaozhong; Li, Pin; Yuan, Xiangyang; Xu, Yansen; Calatayud, Vicent

    2017-12-15

    Poplar clones 546 (P. deltoides cv. '55/56'×P. deltoides cv. 'Imperial') and 107 (P. euramericana cv. '74/76') were exposed to five ozone concentrations in 15 open-top chambers (OTCs). Both ozone exposure (AOT40, Accumulation Over a Threshold hourly ozone concentration of 40ppb) and flux-based (POD7, Phytotoxic Ozone Dose above an hourly flux threshold of 7nmol O3 m(-2) PLA (projected leaf area) s(-1)) response relationships were established with photosynthesis, leaf morphology and biomass variables. Increases in both metrics showed significant negative relationships with light-saturated photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll content, leaf mass per area, actual photochemical efficiency of PSII in the light and root biomass but not with stomatal conductance (gs), leaf and stem biomass. Ozone had a greater impact on belowground than on aboveground biomass. The ranking of these indicators from higher to lower sensitivity to ozone was: photosynthetic parameters, morphological index, and biomass. Clone 546 had a higher sensitivity to ozone than clone 107. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) were similar between exposure- and flux-based dose-response relationships for each variable. The critical levels (CLs) for a 5% reduction in total biomass for the two poplar clones were 14.8ppmh for AOT40 and 9.8mmol O3 m(-2) PLA for POD7. In comparison, equivalent reduction occurred at much lower values in photosynthetic parameters (4ppmh for AOT40 and 3mmol O3 m(-2) PLA for POD7) and LMA (5.8ppmh for AOT40 and 4mmol O3 m(-2) PLA for POD7). While in recent decades different CLs have been proposed for several plant receptors especially in Europe, studies focusing on both flux-based dose-response relationships and CLs are still scarce in Asia. This study is therefore valuable for regional O3 risk assessment in Asia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel thiosalicylate-based ionic liquids for heavy metal extractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyma, Raphlin; Platzer, Sonja [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Jirsa, Franz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Zoology, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006, Johannesburg (South Africa); Kandioller, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.kandioller@univie.ac.at [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Krachler, Regina; Keppler, Bernhard K. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Six thiosalicylate-based ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquids (ILs) were newly synthesized. • ILs showed good extraction of cadmium, copper, and zinc. • Phosphonium ILs showed better extraction efficiencies than their ammonium counterparts. - Abstract: This study aims to develop novel ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquids (ILs) with thiosalicylate (TS) derivatives as anions and evaluate their extracting efficiencies towards heavy metals in aqueous solutions. Six ILs were synthesized, characterized, and investigated for their extracting efficacies for cadmium, copper, and zinc. Liquid-liquid extractions of Cu, Zn, or Cd with ILs after 1–24 h using model solutions (pH 7; 0.1 M CaCl{sub 2}) were assessed using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (F-AAS). Phosphonium-based ILs trihexyltetradecylphosphonium 2-(propylthio)benzoate [P{sub 66614}][PTB] and 2-(benzylthio)benzoate [P{sub 66614}][BTB] showed best extraction efficiency for copper and cadmium, respectively and zinc was extracted to a high degree by [P{sub 66614}][BTB] exclusively.

  11. Influence of preoxidation on high temperature corrosion of a Ni-based alloy under conditions relevant to biomass firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Montgomery, Melanie; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    of preoxidized layers formed on a commercial Cr-Ti-Al-containing Ni-based alloy (Nimonic 80A) to withstand biomass-induced corrosion was investigated. Preoxidation treatments at 900 °C in O2 and O2 + 10 vol% H2O, respectively, were conducted before samples were exposed to conditions that mimicked biomass firing...... attack and formed porous non-protective oxides containing the alloying elements, Ni, Cr, Ti and Al. The influence of the preoxidation layers on the corrosion mechanism is discussed....

  12. Determination of diflubenzuron and chlorbenzuron in fruits by combining acetonitrile-based extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Chunqiang; Zhao, Xiang; Liu, Chenglan

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a simple and low-organic-solvent-consuming method combining an acetonitrile-partitioning extraction procedure followed by "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe" cleanup with ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was developed for the determination of diflubenzuron and chlorbenzuron in grapes and pears. Ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was performed using the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate as the extractive solvent and acetonitrile extract as the dispersive solvent. The main factors influencing the efficiency of the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction were evaluated, including the extractive solvent type and volume and the dispersive solvent volume. The validation parameters indicated the suitability of the method for routine analyses of benzoylurea insecticides in a large number of samples. The relative recoveries at three spiked levels ranged between 98.6 and 109.3% with relative standard deviations of less than 5.2%. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/kg for the two insecticides. The proposed method was successfully used for the rapid determination of diflubenzuron and chlorbenzuron residues in real fruit samples.

  13. Humin based by-products from biomass processing as a potential carbonaceous source for synthesis gas production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.M.C.; Eck, van E.R.H.; Bula, W.P.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; Lefferts, L.; Seshan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is addressed as potential sustainable feedstock for green fuels and chemicals. (Hemi)cellulose is the largest constituent of the material. Conversion of these polysaccharides to bio-based platform chemicals is important in green chemical/fuel production and biorefinery. Hydro

  14. Statistical properties of mean stand biomass estimators in a LIDAR-based double sampling forest survey design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E. Anderson; J. Breidenbach

    2007-01-01

    Airborne laser scanning (LIDAR) can be a valuable tool in double-sampling forest survey designs. LIDAR-derived forest structure metrics are often highly correlated with important forest inventory variables, such as mean stand biomass, and LIDAR-based synthetic regression estimators have the potential to be highly efficient compared to single-stage estimators, which...

  15. Biodegradability of immidazolium, pyridinium, piperidinium and pyrrolidinium based ionic liquid in different water source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, S.; Quraishi, K. S.; Aminuddin, N. F.; Mazlan, F. A.; Leveque, J.-M.

    2016-11-01

    Ionic Liquid (IL), combination of an organic cation with an organic or inorganic cation, possess some remarkable physical chemical properties such as no virtual vapor pressure (allowing recyclability and reusability), wide liquid range, high thermal and chemical stability, ease to choose hydrophobic/hydrophilic character and wide electrochemical window. Owing to that, they have become increasingly popular as green solvents/additives/catalysts for organic synthetic chemistry, extraction, electrochemistry, catalysis, biomass conversion, biotechnologies and pharmaceutical applications. This is acknowledged by the exponential number of yearly published articles related to them. However, even if these are very widely studied in the international scientific community, they are not or very little used on an industrial scale, particularly because of the lack of data on their toxicity and biodegradability. Notably hydrophobic ILs seems to display higher toxicity towards microorganisms and lower biodegradability compared to their hydrophilic analogues since they are not readily disassociated in water. This present work aims to explore the biodegradability of 8 different insoluble ILs in different sources of water bearing varied amount of microorganisms to study the impact of the used water on the biodegradability assessment. The water sources used are Type III Water, Pond water and filtered Sewage Water. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the type of water has a very minor influence on the biodegradability effect of insoluble ILs. However, there is still some degree of influence on the type of water with the biodegradability.

  16. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates to Levulinate Ester over Heteropolyanion-Based Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Changhua; Liu, Sijie; Peng, Xinwen; Long, Jinxing; Lou, Wenyong; Li, Xuehui

    2016-12-08

    An efficient one-pot approach for the production of levulinate ester from renewable carbohydrates is demonstrated over heteropolyanion-based ionic liquid (IL-POM) catalysts with alcohols as the promoters and solvents. The relationships between the structure, acidic strength, and solubility of the IL-POM in methanol and the catalytic performance were studied intensively. A cellulose conversion of 100 % could be achieved with a 71.4 % yield of methyl levulinate over the catalyst [PyPS]3 PW12 O40 [PyPS=1-(3-sulfopropyl)pyridinium] at 150 °C for 5 h. This high efficiency is ascribed to the reasonably high activity of the ionic liquid (IL) catalyst and reaction coupling with rapid in situ esterification of the generated levulinic acid with the alcohol promoter, which allows the insolubility of cellulose encountered in biomass conversion to be overcome. Furthermore, the present process exhibits high feedstock adaptability for typical carbohydrates and handy catalyst recovery by a simple self-separation procedure through temperature control. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Research and evaluation of biomass resources/conversion/utilization systems (market/experimental analysis for development of a data base for a fuels from biomass model). Quarterly technical progress report, Februray 1, 1980-April 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Y.K.; Chen, Y.C.; Chen, H.T.; Helm, R.W.; Nelson, E.T.; Shields, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    The project will result in two distinct products: (1) a biomass allocation model which will serve as a tool for the energy planner. (2) the experimental data is being generated to help compare and contrast the behavior of a large number of biomass material in thermochemical environments. Based on information in the literature, values have been developed for regional biomass costs and availabilities and for fuel costs and demands. This data is now stored in data banks and may be updated as better data become available. Seventeen biomass materials have been run on the small TGA and the results partially analyzed. Ash analysis has been performed on 60 biomass materials. The Effluent Gas Analyzer with its associated gas chromatographs has been made operational and some runs have been carried out. Using a computerized program for developing product costs, parametric studies on all but 1 of the 14 process configurations being considered have been performed. Background economic data for all the configuration have been developed. Models to simulate biomass gasifications in an entrained and fixed bed have been developed using models previously used for coal gasification. Runs have been carried out in the fluidized and fixed bed reactor modes using a variety of biomass materials in atmospheres of steam, O/sub 2/ and air. Check aout of the system continues using fabricated manufacturing cost and efficiency data. A users manual has been written.

  18. A High-Throughput, Field-Based Phenotyping Technology for Tall Biomass Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas Fernandez, Maria G; Bao, Yin; Tang, Lie; Schnable, Patrick S

    2017-08-01

    Recent advances in omics technologies have not been accompanied by equally efficient, cost-effective, and accurate phenotyping methods required to dissect the genetic architecture of complex traits. Even though high-throughput phenotyping platforms have been developed for controlled environments, field-based aerial and ground technologies have only been designed and deployed for short-stature crops. Therefore, we developed and tested Phenobot 1.0, an auto-steered and self-propelled field-based high-throughput phenotyping platform for tall dense canopy crops, such as sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Phenobot 1.0 was equipped with laterally positioned and vertically stacked stereo RGB cameras. Images collected from 307 diverse sorghum lines were reconstructed in 3D for feature extraction. User interfaces were developed, and multiple algorithms were evaluated for their accuracy in estimating plant height and stem diameter. Tested feature extraction methods included the following: (1) User-interactive Individual Plant Height Extraction (UsIn-PHe) based on dense stereo three-dimensional reconstruction; (2) Automatic Hedge-based Plant Height Extraction (Auto-PHe) based on dense stereo 3D reconstruction; (3) User-interactive Dense Stereo Matching Stem Diameter Extraction; and (4) User-interactive Image Patch Stereo Matching Stem Diameter Extraction (IPaS-Di). Comparative genome-wide association analysis and ground-truth validation demonstrated that both UsIn-PHe and Auto-PHe were accurate methods to estimate plant height, while Auto-PHe had the additional advantage of being a completely automated process. For stem diameter, IPaS-Di generated the most accurate estimates of this biomass-related architectural trait. In summary, our technology was proven robust to obtain ground-based high-throughput plant architecture parameters of sorghum, a tall and densely planted crop species. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. A High-Throughput, Field-Based Phenotyping Technology for Tall Biomass Crops1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in omics technologies have not been accompanied by equally efficient, cost-effective, and accurate phenotyping methods required to dissect the genetic architecture of complex traits. Even though high-throughput phenotyping platforms have been developed for controlled environments, field-based aerial and ground technologies have only been designed and deployed for short-stature crops. Therefore, we developed and tested Phenobot 1.0, an auto-steered and self-propelled field-based high-throughput phenotyping platform for tall dense canopy crops, such as sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Phenobot 1.0 was equipped with laterally positioned and vertically stacked stereo RGB cameras. Images collected from 307 diverse sorghum lines were reconstructed in 3D for feature extraction. User interfaces were developed, and multiple algorithms were evaluated for their accuracy in estimating plant height and stem diameter. Tested feature extraction methods included the following: (1) User-interactive Individual Plant Height Extraction (UsIn-PHe) based on dense stereo three-dimensional reconstruction; (2) Automatic Hedge-based Plant Height Extraction (Auto-PHe) based on dense stereo 3D reconstruction; (3) User-interactive Dense Stereo Matching Stem Diameter Extraction; and (4) User-interactive Image Patch Stereo Matching Stem Diameter Extraction (IPaS-Di). Comparative genome-wide association analysis and ground-truth validation demonstrated that both UsIn-PHe and Auto-PHe were accurate methods to estimate plant height, while Auto-PHe had the additional advantage of being a completely automated process. For stem diameter, IPaS-Di generated the most accurate estimates of this biomass-related architectural trait. In summary, our technology was proven robust to obtain ground-based high-throughput plant architecture parameters of sorghum, a tall and densely planted crop species. PMID:28620124

  20. Estimating Biomass of Barley Using Crop Surface Models (CSMs Derived from UAV-Based RGB Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Bendig

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Crop monitoring is important in precision agriculture. Estimating above-ground biomass helps to monitor crop vitality and to predict yield. In this study, we estimated fresh and dry biomass on a summer barley test site with 18 cultivars and two nitrogen (N-treatments using the plant height (PH from crop surface models (CSMs. The super-high resolution, multi-temporal (1 cm/pixel CSMs were derived from red, green, blue (RGB images captured from a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. Comparison with PH reference measurements yielded an R2 of 0.92. The test site with different cultivars and treatments was monitored during “Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt und CHemische Industrie” (BBCH Stages 24–89. A high correlation was found between PH from CSMs and fresh biomass (R2 = 0.81 and dry biomass (R2 = 0.82. Five models for above-ground fresh and dry biomass estimation were tested by cross-validation. Modelling biomass between different N-treatments for fresh biomass produced the best results (R2 = 0.71. The main limitation was the influence of lodging cultivars in the later growth stages, producing irregular plant heights. The method has potential for future application by non-professionals, i.e., farmers.

  1. Characterization and Modeling of a Water-based Liquid Scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Bignell, Lindsey J; Diwan, Milind V; Hans, Sunej; Jaffe, David E; Kettell, Steven; Rosero, Richard; Themann, Harry W; Viren, Brett; Worcester, Elizabeth; Yeh, Minfang; Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    We have characterised Water-based Liquid Scintillator (WbLS) using low energy protons, UV-VIS absorbance, and fluorescence spectroscopy. We have also developed and validated a simulation model that describes the behaviour of WbLS in our detector configurations for proton beam energies of 2 GeV, 475 MeV, and 210 MeV and for two WbLS compositions. Our results have enabled us to estimate the light yield and ionisation quenching of WbLS, as well as to understand the influence of the wavelength shifting of Cerenkov light on our measurements. These results are relevant to the suitability of water-based liquid scintillator materials for next generation intensity frontier experiments.

  2. Fabrication of a Biomass-Based Hydrous Zirconium Oxide Nanocomposite for Preferable Phosphate Removal and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hui; Liang, Chen; Zhang, Xiaolin; Chen, Mindong; Zhao, Yunxia; Tao, Tao; Xu, Zhengwen; Liu, Gang

    2015-09-23

    Advanced removal of phosphate by low-cost adsorbents from municipal wastewater or industrial effluents is an effective and economic way to prevent the occurrence of eutrophication. Here, we proposed a novel method to immobilize hydrous zirconium oxide nanoparticle within quaternary-aminated wheat straw, and obtained an inexpensive, eco-friendly nanocomposite Ws-N-Zr. The biomass-based Ws-N-Zr exhibited higher preference toward phosphate than commercial anion exchanger IRA-900 when competing sulfate ions coexisted at relatively high levels. Such excellent performance of Ws-N-Zr resulted from its specific hybrid structure, the quaternary ammonium groups bonded on the host favor the preconcentration of phosphate ions inside the wheat straw based on Donnan effect, and the encapsulated HZO nanoparticle exhibits preferable sequestration of phosphate ions through specific interaction, as further demonstrated by FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cycle adsorption and regeneration experiments demonstrated that Ws-N-Zr could be employed for repeated use without significant capacity loss, when the binary NaOH-NaCl solution was employed as the regenerant. The influence of solution pH and contact time was also examined. The results suggested that Ws-N-Zr has a great potential in efficient removal of phosphate in contaminated waters.

  3. Evaluation of biomass combustion based energy systems by cumulative energy demand and energy yield coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.; Oser, M.

    2004-07-01

    This final report prepared for the International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 32 presents a method for a comparison of different energy systems with respect to the overall energy yield during their life cycles. For this purpose, the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) based on primary energy and the Energy Yield Factor (EYC) are introduced and determined for the following scenarios: Log wood, wood chips, and wood pellets for residential heating and - except for log wood - also for district heating. As an alternative to heat production, power production via combustion and use of the electricity for decentralised heat pumps is also looked at. The evaluation and comparison of both the EYC for all fuels and the EYC{sub N}R for the non-renewable part enables a ranking of energy systems without a subjective weighing of non-renewable and renewable fuels to be made. For a sustainable energy supply, it is proposed to implement renewable energy systems in future which achieve an energy yield EYC{sub N}R of at least greater than 2 but favourably greater than 5. The evaluation of the different scenarios presented is proposed as the future basis for the choice of the most efficient energy systems based on biomass combustion.

  4. Biomass energy production. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P. W.

    1980-01-01

    These 210 citations from the international literature describe the production and/or utilization of most forms of biomass as a source of energy, fuel, food, and chemical intermediates or feedstocks. Biomass conversion by incineration, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or fermentation, as well as by catalytic, photosynthetic, chemosynthetic, and bio-electrochemical means are among the conversion processes considered. Discussions include biomass plantation and material productivity, transportation and equipment requirements, effects, comparisons of means and efficiencies of utilization and conversion, assessments of limitations, and evaluations of economic potential.

  5. Biomass Deconstruction and Recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Heng

    system, a plate incubator and a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. In comparison with the reported HTS platforms, the Copenhagen platform is featured by the fully automatic biomass sample preparation system, the bench-scale hydrothermal pretreatment setup, and precise sugar measurement...

  6. Liquid-based cytology in oral cavity squamous cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navone, Roberto; Pentenero, Monica; Gandolfo, Sergio

    2011-04-01

    Oral exfoliative cytology is a practical tool for early diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and potentially malignant lesion (OPML), but is not yet extensively used. A literature review evaluated conventional and liquid-based oral diagnostic cytology efficacy and efficiency. 'Special' techniques like liquid-based cytology, computer-assisted cytology, Oral CDx, DNA ploidy, immunocytochemistry, molecular analyses and microhistology were reviewed. Cytology was useful when diagnosing OSCC and OPML. Oral CDx may assess dysplastic changes in clinically suspicious (class I) lesions, with doubtful efficacy in apparently innocuous (class II) lesions. Flow and/or image cytometry and immunocytochemistry can identify markers for the prediction of evolution of the OPML to OSCC. Molecular biology can detect the minimal residual clonal population of cancer cells in field cancerization and oral mucosa surgical margins. Microhistology is a reliable first level test in class II lesions for selected cases requiring surgical biopsy. Conventional cytology helps in OSCC and OPML screening; liquid-based cytology gives better results, enhancing both sensitivity and specificity, and provides material for further investigation. Sampling with the 'curette technique' permits collection of 'accidental' tissue fragments used as microbiopsies and proved a useful first-level test for the management of class II OPML.

  7. Liquid-based endometrial cytology: the Florence and Bari experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccoliero, A M; Resta, L; Napoli, A; Taddei, G L

    2009-04-01

    Several diagnostic procedures are available to investigate the endometrium, i.e. sonography, hysteroscopy, biopsy, endometrial curettage and cytology. Among these, endometrial cytology is less commonly utilized. Although the use of cytology in the diagnosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma has already been proposed due to its low cost and simple execution, a general consensus has not been reached. The improvement of the diagnostic capacity of endometrial cytology following the introduction of a liquid-based method suggests that this test should be routinely used in endometrial diagnosis. The main advantages of this method are the reduction in confounding factors, the distribution of cells on a thin layer and the possibility to obtain more slides from the same sample. The aim of this article is to focus on the methodological procedures and diagnostic criteria in liquid-based endometrial cytology based on the experience in two Italian centres: Department of Pathology, University of Bari and Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, University of Florence. The sampling method used by the Bari authors consists in the collection of liquid for uterine distension during hysteroscopy, while the Florence group used an endometrial brush. The sensitivity and specificity at Bari were 75% and 83%, respectively, and were 94-100% and 95-100% at Florence, respectively. Endometrial cytology provided sufficient diagnostic material significantly more often than biopsy. We thus propose that endometrial cytology can be used in routine diagnosis either alone or in association with other diagnostic procedures in order to improve diagnostic accuracy.

  8. Usefulness of liquid-based preparation in urine cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eu Chang; Park, Seong Hoon; Jung, Seung Il; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Park, Kwangsung; Ryu, Soo Bang; Park, Chang Soo

    2007-07-01

    ThinPrep (TP), a liquid-based cytological and non-invasive technique to confirm the diagnosis of bladder cancer, is reported to be a better screening test than the conventional cytospin method. This study compared the new MonoPrep2 (MP), a liquid-based cytological technique, with TP for diagnosing bladder cancer. Between January 2003 and June 2004, urine samples from 284 patients were processed using the TP and MP methods. The cytological diagnosis and the determination of specimen quality were performed separately. The cytological diagnoses were classified into four categories: unsatisfactory, benign, borderline, and malignant. A subsequent biopsy was performed in 73 patients. The cytological diagnoses were compared with the biopsy results to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the two methods. Considering all the features examined, the overall specimen quality was comparable between the MP and TP techniques in the majority of cases. The rate of satisfactory specimens was 100% for TP and 98.6% for MP. The diagnostic capacity was similar between MP and TP. The overall sensitivities with MP and TP were 58.6 and 62.0%, respectively, and the specificities were 100 and 97.7%; the differences were not significant (P > 0.05). MP and TP produced comparable results in diagnosing bladder cancer. As MP is less expensive than TP, we recommend MP as an alternative liquid-based cytology method for use in bladder cancer screening.

  9. Refractive Index Measurement of Liquids Based on Microstructured Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review is focused on microstructured optical fiber sensors developed in recent years for liquid RI sensing. The review is divided into three parts: the first section introduces a general view of the most relevant refractometric sensors that have been reported over the last thirty years. Section 2 discusses several microstructured optical fiber designs, namely, suspended-core fiber, photonic crystal fiber, large-core air-clad photonic crystal fiber, and others. This part is also divided into two main groups: the interferometric-based and resonance-based configurations. The sensing methods rely either on full/selective filling of the microstructured fiber air holes with a liquid analyte or by simply immersing the sensing fiber into the liquid analyte. The sensitivities and resolutions are tabled at the end of this section followed by a brief discussion of the obtained results. The last section concludes with some remarks about the microstructured fiber-based configurations developed for RI sensing and their potential for future applications.

  10. Integration of mixed conducting membranes in an oxygen–steam biomass gasification process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Soprani, Stefano; Søgaard, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen–steam biomass gasification produces a high quality syngas with a high H2/CO ratio that is suitable for upgrading to liquid fuels. Such a gas is also well suited for use in conjunction with solid oxide fuel cells giving rise to a system yielding high electrical efficiency based on biomass....... The two configurations demonstrating the highest efficiency are then thermally integrated into an oxygen– steam biomass gasification plant. The energy demand for oxygen production and the membrane area required for a 6 MWth biomass plant are calculated for different operating conditions. Increasing...

  11. Assimilating satellite-based canopy height within an ecosystem model to estimate aboveground forest biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joetzjer, E.; Pillet, M.; Ciais, P.; Barbier, N.; Chave, J.; Schlund, M.; Maignan, F.; Barichivich, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Hérault, B.; von Poncet, F.; Poulter, B.

    2017-07-01

    Despite advances in Earth observation and modeling, estimating tropical biomass remains a challenge. Recent work suggests that integrating satellite measurements of canopy height within ecosystem models is a promising approach to infer biomass. We tested the feasibility of this approach to retrieve aboveground biomass (AGB) at three tropical forest sites by assimilating remotely sensed canopy height derived from a texture analysis algorithm applied to the high-resolution Pleiades imager in the Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems Canopy (ORCHIDEE-CAN) ecosystem model. While mean AGB could be estimated within 10% of AGB derived from census data in average across sites, canopy height derived from Pleiades product was spatially too smooth, thus unable to accurately resolve large height (and biomass) variations within the site considered. The error budget was evaluated in details, and systematic errors related to the ORCHIDEE-CAN structure contribute as a secondary source of error and could be overcome by using improved allometric equations.

  12. Pyrolysis based bio-refinery for the production of bioethanol from demineralized ligno-cellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luque, L.; Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria; van Rossum, G.; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Berruti, F.; Rehmann, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates a novel biorefinery approach for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass from pinewood. A combination of thermochemical and biochemical conversion was chosen with the main product being ethanol. Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomasss with fractional condensation of the

  13. Optical Remote Sensing Method to Estimate Green Tide Biomass Based on Floating Algae Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lianbo; Hu, Chuanmin; He, Mingxia

    2014-11-01

    Floating Algae Index (FAI) has been developed to detect various floating algae in open ocean environments using the medium-resolution (250- and 500-m) data from operational MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instruments. FAI method has been routinely used to identify and calculate the covering area of green tide in the Yellow Sea (YS) since 2009. In addition to green tide covering area, knowledge of the biomass is also important in studying green tide recycling, nutrient load, carbon cycling and for government management. In this study, in situ experiments were conducted to simultaneously measure the biomass and reflectance spectra of green tide on the sea surface in coastal waters off Qingdao on 9 and 11 June 2013. The in situ measurements showed high correlation between green tide biomass and FAI, from which an empirical method to estimate biomass using FAI could be developed.

  14. ZERO-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF A DIMETHYL ETHER (DME) PLANT BASED ON GASIFICATION OF TORREFIED BIOMASS

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels; Braun, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    A model of a DME fuel production plant was designed and analyzed in Aspen Plus. The plant produces DME by catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of torrefied woody biomass. Torrefication is a mild pyrolysis process that takes place at 200-300°C. Torrefied biomass has properties similar to coal, which enables the use of commercially available coal gasification processing equipment. The DME plant model is integrated with a steam cycle that utilizes waste heat from the plant ...

  15. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment

    OpenAIRE

    De Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Morgan, W. T.; Coe, H.; Johnson, B; Haywood, J.; LONGO, K.; Freitas, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field ...

  16. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  17. (abstract) Sensitivity to Forest Biomass Based on Analysis of Scattering Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, JoBea; Bachman, Jennifer E.; Paige, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The estimation of forest biomass on a global scale is an important input to global climate and carbon cycle models. Remote sensing using synthetic aperture radar offers a means to obtain such a data set. Although it has been clear for some time that radar signals penetrate forest canopies, only recently has it been demonstrated that these signals are indeed sensitive to biomass. Inasmuch as the majority of a forest's biomass is in the trunks, it is important that the radar is sensing the trunk biomass as opposed to the branch or leaf biomass. In this study we use polarimetric AIRSAR P- and L-band data from a variety of forests to determine if the radar penetrates to the trunk by examining the scattering mechanism as determined using van Zyl's scattering interaction model, and the levels at which saturation occurs with respect to sensitivity of radar backscatter to total biomass. In particular, the added sensitivity of P-band relative to L-band is addressed. Results using data from the Duke Forest in North Carolina, the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest in Alaska, Shasta Forest in California, the Black Forest in Germany, the temporate/boreal transition forests in northern Michigan, and coastal forests along the Oregon Transect will be presented.

  18. Guideline for implementing Co-generation based on biomass waste from Thai industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lybaek, R.

    2005-07-01

    Due to the large-scale industrial development in Thailand the consumption of energy - primarily based on fossil fuels - has increased enormously, even though the economic growth has slowed down since the economic crisis in 1997. It is, therefore, important to reduce the environmental impact of this energy consumption, which can be achieved by energy conservation, higher efficiency in the production of energy, or by the use of different kinds of renewable energy. This thesis seeks to develop new strategies for the use of waste heat as a part of the industrial process heat, which can be supplied to industries by a district-heating network. By substituting process heat - produced by electricity or by boilers using fossil fuel in individual industries - with process heat, produced by a co-generation plant - using the industries own biomass waste as fuel - process heat can be supplied to industries participating in a small scale district heating network. Thus, an Industrial Materials Network can be created, which is environmentally as well as economically beneficial for both industry and society. On the basis of a case study of the industrial area, Navanakorn Industrial Promotion Zone in Thailand, such initiatives for efficient materials and energy uses have been conducted and proved successful, and industries - as well as local and national governmental agencies, NGOs and branch organizations etc. - have shown interest in supporting the implementation of such scheme. In this thesis, a Guideline for large-scale implementation of Industrial Materials Network in Thailand was developed. By following a series of actions, the Guideline defines the initiatives that must be taken in order to ensure correct implementation. Chronologically, the emphasis of the Guideline is on pointing to relevant stakeholders who can pursue the implementation, and then appropriate areas and types of industries for Industrial Materials Network implementation. Thereafter, guidance for the

  19. Pyrolysis based bio-refinery for the production of bioethanol from demineralized ligno-cellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Luis; Westerhof, Roel; Van Rossum, Guus; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Kersten, Sascha; Berruti, Franco; Rehmann, Lars

    2014-06-01

    This paper evaluates a novel biorefinery approach for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass from pinewood. A combination of thermochemical and biochemical conversion was chosen with the main product being ethanol. Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomasss with fractional condensation of the products was used as the thermochemical process to obtain a pyrolysis-oil rich in anhydro-sugars (levoglucosan) and low in inhibitors. After hydrolysis of these anhydro-sugars, glucose was obtained which was successfully fermented, after detoxification, to obtain bioethanol. Ethanol yields comparable to traditional biochemical processing were achieved (41.3% of theoretical yield based on cellulose fraction). Additional benefits of the proposed biorefinery concept comprise valuable by-products of the thermochemical conversion like bio-char, mono-phenols (production of BTX) and pyrolytic lignin as a source of aromatic rich fuel additive. The inhibitory effect of thermochemically derived fermentation substrates was quantified numerically to compare the effects of different process configurations and upgrading steps within the biorefinery approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of biomass-based energy strategy: Using an impact matrix framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weldu, Yemane W., E-mail: ywweldem@ucalgary.ca [Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta 2500, University Drive NW, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Assefa, Getachew [Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta 2500, University Drive NW, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Athena Chair in Life Cycle Assessment in Design (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    A roadmap for a more sustainable energy strategy is complex, as its development interacts critically with the economic, social, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. This paper applied an impact matrix method to evaluate the environmental sustainability and to identify the desirable policy objectives of biomass-based energy strategy for the case of Alberta. A matrix with the sustainability domains on one axis and areas of environmental impact on the other was presented to evaluate the nexus effect of policy objectives and bioenergy production. As per to our analysis, economic diversification, technological innovation, and resource conservation came up as the desirable policy objectives of sustainable development for Alberta because they demonstrated environmental benefits in all environmental impact categories, namely climate change, human health, and ecosystem. On the other hand, human health and ecosystem impacts were identified as trade-offs when the policy objectives for sustainability were energy security, job creation, and climate change. Thus, bioenergy can mitigate climate change but may impact human health and ecosystem which then in turn can become issues of concern. Energy strategies may result in shifting of risks from one environmental impact category to another, and from one sustainable domain to another if the technical and policy-related issues are not identified.

  1. Development of economic and environmental metrics for forest-based biomass harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F. L.; Wang, J. J.; Liu, S. H.; Zhang, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    An assessment of the economic, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission dimensions of forest-based biomass harvest stage in the state of Michigan, U.S. through gathering data from literature, database, and other relevant sources, was performed. The assessment differentiates harvesting systems (cut-to-length harvesting, whole tree harvesting, and motor-manual harvesting), harvest types (30%, 70%, and 100% cut) and forest types (hardwoods, softwoods, mixed hardwood/softwood, and softwood plantations) that characterize Michigan's logging industry. Machine rate methods were employed to determine unit harvesting cost. A life cycle inventory was applied to calculating energy demand and GHG emissions of different harvesting scenarios, considering energy and material inputs (diesel, machinery, etc.) and outputs (emissions) for each process (cutting, forwarding/skidding, etc.). A sensitivity analysis was performed for selected input variables for the harvesting operation in order to explore their relative importance. The results indicated that productivity had the largest impact on harvesting cost followed by machinery purchase price, yearly scheduled hours, and expected utilization. Productivity and fuel use, as well as fuel factors, are the most influential environmental impacts of harvesting operations.

  2. Uncertainty analysis for regional-level above-ground biomass estimates based on individual tree biomass model%单木生物量模型估计区域尺度生物量的不确定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅煜; 雷渊才; 曾伟生

    2015-01-01

    采用系统抽样体系江西省固定样地杉木连续观测数据和生物量数据,通过Monte Carlo法反复模拟由单木生物量模型推算区域尺度地上生物量的过程,估计了江西省杉木地上总生物量。基于不同水平建模样本量n及不同决定系数R2的设计,分别研究了单木生物量模型参数变异性及模型残差变异性对区域尺度生物量估计不确定性的影响。研究结果表明:2009年江西省杉木地上生物量估计值为(19.84±1.27) t/hm2,不确定性占生物量估计值约6.41%。生物量估计值和不确定性值达到平稳状态所需的运算时间随建模样本量及决定系数R2的增大而减小;相对于模型参数变异性,残差变异性对不确定性的影响更小。%Above-ground forest biomass at regional-level is typically estimated by adding model predictions of biomass from individual trees in a plot, and subsequently aggregating predictions from plots to large areas. There are multiple sources of uncertainties in model predictions during this aggregated process. These uncertainties always affect the precision of large area biomass estimates, and the effects are generally overlooked; however, failure to account for these uncertainties will cause erroneously optimistic precision estimates. Monte Carlo simulation is an effective method for estimating large-scale biomass and assessing the uncertainty associated with multiple sources of errors and complex models. In this paper, we applied the Monte Carlo approach to simulate regional-level above-ground biomass and to assess uncertainties related to the variability from model residuals and parameters separately. A nonlinear model form was used. Data were obtained from permanent sample plots and biomass observation of Cunninghamia lanceolata in JiangXi Province, China. Overall, 70 individual trees were destructively sampled for biomass estimation from June to September, 2009. Based on the commonly used allometric model

  3. Gallium-Based Room Temperature Liquid Metals and its Application to Single Channel Two-Liquid Hyperelastic Capacitive Strain Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shanliangzi

    Gallium-based liquid metals are of interest for a variety of applications including flexible electronics, soft robotics, and biomedical devices. Still, nano- to microscale device fabrication with these materials is challenging because of their strong adhesion to a majority of substrates. This unusual high adhesion is attributed to the formation of a thin oxide shell; however, its role in the adhesion process has not yet been established. In the first part of the thesis, we described a multiscale study aiming at understanding the fundamental mechanisms governing wetting and adhesion of gallium-based liquid metals. In particular, macroscale dynamic contact angle measurements were coupled with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) imaging to relate macroscopic drop adhesion to morphology of the liquid metal-surface interface. In addition, room temperature liquid-metal microfluidic devices are also attractive systems for hyperelastic strain sensing. Currently two types of liquid metal-based strain sensors exist for inplane measurements: single-microchannel resistive and two-microchannel capacitive devices. However, with a winding serpentine channel geometry, these sensors typically have a footprint of about a square centimeter, limiting the number of sensors that can be embedded into. In the second part of the thesis, firstly, simulations and an experimental setup consisting of two GaInSn filled tubes submerged within a dielectric liquid bath are used to quantify the effects of the cylindrical electrode geometry including diameter, spacing, and meniscus shape as well as dielectric constant of the insulating liquid and the presence of tubing on the overall system's capacitance. Furthermore, a procedure for fabricating the two-liquid capacitor within a single straight polydiemethylsiloxane channel is developed. Lastly, capacitance and response of this compact device to strain and operational issues arising from complex hydrodynamics near liquid-liquid and liquid

  4. Seismic Base Isolation Analysis for PASCAR Liquid Metal Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kuk Hee; Yoo, Bong; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    This paper presents a study for developing a seismic isolation system for the PASCAR (Proliferation resistant, Accident-tolerant, Self-supported, Capsular and Assured Reactor) liquid metal reactor design. PASCAR use lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) as coolant. Because the density (10,000kg/m{sup 3}) of LBE coolant is very heavier than sodium coolant and water, this presents a challenge to designers of the seismic isolation systems that will be used with these heavy liquid metal reactors. Finite element analysis is adapted to determine the characteristics of the isolator device. Results are presented from a study on the use of three-dimensional seismic isolation devices to the full-scale reactor. The seismic analysis responses of the two-dimensional and the three-dimensional isolation systems for the PASCAR are compared with that of the conventional fixed base system.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Tetramethylethylenediamine-Based Hypergolic Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Teng; Cai, Huiwu; Zhang, Yanqiang; Liu, Long; Zhang, Suojiang

    2016-04-01

    Four energetic salts (including two ionic liquids) based on 2-(dimethylamino)-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium and N,N‧-dialkyl-N,N,N‧,N‧-tetramethylethane-1,2-diaminium was prepared and characterized by 1H- and 13C-NMR, infrared and Raman spectroscopies, and elemental analysis. Their physicochemical properties such as melting and decomposition temperatures, density, viscosity, heat of formation, detonation performance, and specific impulse were measured or calculated. With thermal stability up to 200°C, the resulting ionic liquids show densities from 1.02 to 1.19 g cm-3 and heats of formation from 85.1 to 154.4 kJ mol-1. Moreover, 2-(dimethylamino)-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium dicyanamide is hypergolic with the oxidizer (100% HNO3) and exhibits potential as a green fuel for bipropellants.

  6. Formulation and Characterization of ADN-Based Liquid Monopropellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingborg, N.; Eldsäter, C.; Skifs, H.

    2004-10-01

    Ternary ionic solutions are promising green propellants to replace monopropellant hydrazine. Ammonium dinitramide, ADN, is well suited as oxidizer in these propellants due to its high solubility. This paper presents the formulation of different ADN-based liquid monopropellants and the characterization of their properties such as stability, density, viscosity and sensitivity. To be able to use ADN-based monopropellants for propulsion applications, ADN must be produced in a way to minimize the effect on the environment and in sufficient quantities. This paper thus also briefly presents the industrial production of ADN in Sweden and the efforts made to optimize the process.

  7. Enhanced Acid/Base Catalysis in High Temperature Liquid Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Yang LU; Qi JING; Zhun LI; Lei YUAN; Fei GAO; Xin LIU

    2006-01-01

    Two novel and environmentally benign solvent systems, organic acids-enriched high temperature liquid water (HTLW) and NH3-enriched HTLW, were developed, which can enhance the reaction rate of acid/base-catalyzed organic reactions in HTLW. We investigated the decomposition of fructose in organic acids-enriched HTLW, hydrolysis of cinnamaldehyde and aldol condensation of phenylaldehyde with acetaldehyde in NH3-enriched HTLW. The experimental results demonstrated that organic acids-enriched or NH3-enriched HTLW can greatly accelerate acid/base-catalyzed organic reactions in HTLW.

  8. A radiative transfer model-based method for the estimation of grassland aboveground biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Xingwen; He, Binbin; Yebra, Marta; Yin, Changming; Liao, Zhanmang; Zhang, Xueting; Li, Xing

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a novel method to derive grassland aboveground biomass (AGB) based on the PROSAILH (PROSPECT + SAILH) radiative transfer model (RTM). Two variables, leaf area index (LAI, m2m-2, defined as a one-side leaf area per unit of horizontal ground area) and dry matter content (DMC, gcm-2, defined as the dry matter per leaf area), were retrieved using PROSAILH and reflectance data from Landsat 8 OLI product. The result of LAI × DMC was regarded as the estimated grassland AGB according to their definitions. The well-known ill-posed inversion problem when inverting PROSAILH was alleviated using ecological criteria to constrain the simulation scenario and therefore the number of simulated spectra. A case study of the presented method was applied to a plateau grassland in China to estimate its AGB. The results were compared to those obtained using an exponential regression, a partial least squares regression (PLSR) and an artificial neural networks (ANN). The RTM-based method offered higher accuracy (R2 = 0.64 and RMSE = 42.67 gm-2) than the exponential regression (R2 = 0.48 and RMSE = 41.65 gm-2) and the ANN (R2 = 0.43 and RMSE = 46.26 gm-2). However, the proposed method offered similar performance than PLSR as presented better determination coefficient than PLSR (R2 = 0.55) but higher RMSE (RMSE = 37.79 gm-2). Although it is still necessary to test these methodologies in other areas, the RTM-based method offers greater robustness and reproducibility to estimate grassland AGB at large scale without the need to collect field measurements and therefore is considered the most promising methodology.

  9. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  10. Bulk chemicals from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a

  11. Maximizing biomass productivity and cell density of Chlorella vulgaris by using light-emitting diode-based photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Weiqi; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Feist, Adam M; Herjolfsson, Gisli; Brynjolfsson, Sigurdur; Palsson, Bernhard Ø

    2012-10-31

    Green microalgae have recently drawn attention as promising organisms for biofuel production; however, the question is whether they can grow sufficient biomass relative to limiting input factors to be economically feasible. We have explored this question by determining how much biomass the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris can produce in photobioreactors based on highly efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs). First, growth results were improved under the less expensive light of 660 nm LEDs, developing them in the laboratory to meet the performance levels of the traditional but more expensive 680 nm LEDs by adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE). We then optimized several other key parameters, including input superficial gas velocity, CO(2) concentration, light distribution, and growth media in reference to nutrient stoichiometry. Biomass density thereby rose to approximately 20 g dry-cell-weight (gDCW) per liter (L). Since the light supply was recognized as a limiting factor, illumination was augmented by optimization at systematic level, providing for a biomass productivity of up to 2.11 gDCW/L/day, with a light yield of 0.81 gDCW/Einstein. These figures, which represent the best results ever reported, point to new dimensions in the photoautotrophic performance of microalgal cultures.

  12. Study of a 30 MW bubbling fluidized bed combustor based on co-firing biomass and coal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hemant Kumar; S K Mohapatra; Ravi Inder Singh

    2015-06-01

    Today’s power generation sources are largely dependent on fossil fuels due to which the future sustainable development has become a challenge. A significant amount of the pollutant emissions such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide from the power sector is related to the use of fossil fuels for power generation. As the demand for electricity is growing rapidly, emissions of carbon dioxide and other pollutants from this sector can be expected to increase unless other alternatives are made available. Among the energy sources that can substitute fossil fuels, biomass fuels appear as one of the options with a high worldwide potential. In the Punjab region of India, Fluidized-bed combustion technology is being used for converting biomass into thermal energy and power generation in various small scale units. The investigation of biomass-based plant through experimental activities and numerical simulation is the scope of this study. The investigations were done at Captive Power Plant (CPP), Ambuja Cement Limited, a project of Holcim, District Ropar, India. During experimental investigations, the study of bed temperatures and steam temperatures at different zones has been done for coal fired and biomass fired combustors with 30% share. No clear effects of co-firing on boiler performance are observed. However, the operational behavior of the boiler in terms of bed temperature and stack emissions shows a different trend. During simulation, the contours of temperature have been obtained for both the boilers and the trends are found in agreement with real process.

  13. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    , enzymatic hydrolysis, and product fermentation options. Biomass Recalcitrance is essential reading for researchers, process chemists and engineers working in biomass conversion, also plant scientists working in cell wall biology and plant biotechnology. This book examines the connection between biomass...... - this collective resistance is known as "biomass recalcitrance." Breakthrough technologies are needed to overcome barriers to developing cost-effective processes for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals. This book examines the connection between biomass structure, ultrastructure, and composition......, to resistance to enzymatic deconstruction, with the aim of discovering new cost-effective technologies for biorefineries. It contains chapters on topics extending from the highest levels of biorefinery design and biomass life-cycle analysis, to detailed aspects of plant cell wall structure, chemical treatments...

  14. Economizer Based Data Center Liquid Cooling with Advanced Metal Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Chainer

    2012-11-30

    A new chiller-less data center liquid cooling system utilizing the outside air environment has been shown to achieve up to 90% reduction in cooling energy compared to traditional chiller based data center cooling systems. The system removes heat from Volume servers inside a Sealed Rack and transports the heat using a liquid loop to an Outdoor Heat Exchanger which rejects the heat to the outdoor ambient environment. The servers in the rack are cooled using a hybrid cooling system by removing the majority of the heat generated by the processors and memory by direct thermal conduction using coldplates and the heat generated by the remaining components using forced air convection to an air- to- liquid heat exchanger inside the Sealed Rack. The anticipated benefits of such energy-centric configurations are significant energy savings at the data center level. When compared to a traditional 10 MW data center, which typically uses 25% of its total data center energy consumption for cooling this technology could potentially enable a cost savings of up to $800,000-$2,200,000/year (assuming electricity costs of 4 to 11 cents per kilowatt-hour) through the reduction in electrical energy usage.

  15. Ionic Vapor Composition in Pyridinium-Based Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2016-05-26

    Strong electrostatic interactions in ionic compounds make vaporization a complex process. The gas phase can contain a broad range of ionic clusters, and the cluster composition can differ greatly from that in the liquid phase. Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) constitute a complicated case due to their ionic nature, asymmetric structure, and a huge versatility of ions and ionic clusters. This work reports vapor-liquid equilibria and vapor compositions of butylpyridinium (BPY) RTILs formed with hexafluorophosphate (PF6), trifluoromethanesulfonate (TF), and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI) anions. Unlike inorganic crystals, the pyridinium-based RTILs contain significant percentages of charged clusters in the vapor phase. Ion triplets and ion quadruplets each constitute up to 10% of the vapor phase composition. Triples prevail over quadruples in [BPY][PF6] due to the size difference of the cation and the anion. The percentage of charged ionic clusters in the gas phase is in inverse proportion to the mass of the anion. The largest identified vaporized ionic cluster comprises eight ions, with a formation probability below 1%. Higher temperature fosters formation of larger clusters due to an increase of the saturated vapor density.

  16. Method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb M.; Brown, Robert C.; Dalluge, Dustin Lee

    2015-08-18

    The present invention relates to a method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass containing alkali and/or alkaline earth metal (AAEM). The method comprises providing a lignocellulosic biomass containing AAEM; determining the amount of the AAEM present in the lignocellulosic biomass; identifying, based on said determining, the amount of a mineral acid sufficient to completely convert the AAEM in the lignocellulosic biomass to thermally-stable, catalytically-inert salts; and treating the lignocellulosic biomass with the identified amount of the mineral acid, wherein the treated lignocellulosic biomass contains thermally-stable, catalytically inert AAEM salts.

  17. Carbon stock estimates for forests in the Castilla y Leon region, Spain. A GIS based method for evaluating spatial distribution of residual biomass for bio-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Maria Victoria; Blanco, Daniel; Carballo, Maria Teresa; Calvo, Luis Fernando [Chemical Engineering, Institute of Natural Resources, University of Leon, Avenida de Portugal, 41, 24071 Leon (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Analysis of aboveground biomass and carbon stocks (as equivalent CO{sub 2}) was performed in the Castilla y Leon region, Spain. Data from the second and third Spanish Forest Inventories (1996 and 2006) were used. Total aboveground biomass was calculated using allometric biomass equations and biomass expansion factors (BEF), the first method giving higher values. Forests of Castilla y Leon stored 77,051,308 Mg of biomass, with a mean of 8.18 Mg ha{sup -1}, in 1996 and 135,531,737 Mg of biomass, with a mean of 14.4 Mg ha{sup -1}, in 2006. The total equivalent CO{sub 2} in this region's forests increased 9,608,824 Mg year{sup -1} between 1996 and 2006. In relation to the Kyoto Protocol, the Castilla y Leon forests have sequestered 3 million tons of CO{sub 2} per year, which represents 6.4% of the total regional emission of CO{sub 2}. A Geographic Information System (GIS) based method was also used to assess the geographic distribution of residual forest biomass for bio-energy in the region. The forest statistics data on area of each species were used. The fraction of vegetation cover, land slope and protected areas were also considered. The residual forest biomass in Castilla y Leon was 1,464,991 Mg year{sup -1}, or 1.90% of the total aboveground biomass in 1996. The residual forest biomass was concentrated in specific zones of the Castilla y Leon region, suitable for the location of industries that utilize biomass as energy source. The energy potential of the residual forest biomass in the Castilla y Leon region is 7350 million MJ per year. (author)

  18. Development of a Methodology for Mapping Forest Height and Biomass Using Satellite Based SAR and Lidar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Claudia; Schmullius, Christiane

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents first results of a study investigating satellite, multifrequent radar and lidar data for characterising the three-dimensional forest structure. Biomass is an important structural parameter to asses the carbon pool of forests. The synergy of lidar and SAR data for forest biomass mapping is promising. The study introduced here aims to combine TerraSAR-X, ALOS PALSAR and ICESat/GLAS data. Some preliminary results for the test site in Thuringian Forest, a low mountain range in eastern Germany, with a focus on the GLAS data will be described. Two methods for filtering invalid GLAS shots are investigated. Moreover, different ICESat/GLAS waveforms parameters were calculated and compared to an airborne lidar based Digital Height Model (DHM) and a forest inventory data base.

  19. Investigations into the effects of volatile biomass tar on the performance of Fe-based CLC oxygen carrier materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot-Handford, Matthew E.; Florin, Nick; Fennell, Paul S.

    2016-11-01

    In this study we present findings from investigations into interactions between biomass tar and two iron based oxygen carrier materials (OCMs) designed for chemical-looping applications: a 100% Fe2O3 (100Fe) OCM and a 60 wt% Fe2O3/40 wt% Al2O3 (60Fe40Al) OCM. A novel 6 kWe two-stage, fixed-bed reactor was designed and constructed to simulate a chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process with ex situ gasification of biomass. Beech wood was pyrolysed in the first stage of the reactor at 773 K to produce a tar-containing fuel gas that was used to reduce the OCM loaded into the 2nd stage at 973 K. The presence of either OCM was found to significantly reduce the amount of biomass tars exiting the reactor by up to 71 wt% compared with analogous experiments in which the biomass tar compounds were exposed to an inert bed of sand. The tar cracking effect of the 60Fe40Al OCM was slightly greater than the 100Fe OCM although the reduction in the tar yield was roughly equivalent to the increase in carbon deposition observed for the 60Fe40Al OCM compared with the 100Fe OCM. In both cases, the tar cracking effect of the OCMs appeared to be independent of the oxidation state in which the OCM was exposed to the volatile biomass pyrolysis products (i.e. Fe2O3 or Fe3O4). Exposing the pyrolysis vapours to the OCMs in their oxidised (Fe2O3) form favoured the production of CO2. The production of CO was favoured when the OCMs were in their reduced (Fe3O4) form. Carbon deposition was removed in the subsequent oxidation phase with no obvious deleterious effects on the reactivity in subsequent CLC cycles with reduction by 3 mol% CO.

  20. The Potential of Forest Biomass Inversion Based on Vegetation Indices Using Multi-Angle CHRIS/PROBA Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-angle remote sensing can either be regarded as an added source of uncertainty for variable retrieval, or as a source of additional information, which enhances variable retrieval compared to traditional single-angle observation. However, the magnitude of these angular and band effects for forest structure parameters is difficult to quantify. We used the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART model and the Zelig model to simulate the forest canopy Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Factor (BRDF in order to build a look-up table, and eight vegetation indices were used to assess the relationship between BRDF and forest biomass in order to find the sensitive angles and bands. Further, the European Space Agency (ESA mission, Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer onboard the Project for On-board Autonomy (CHRIS-PROBA and field sample measurements, were selected to test the angular and band effects on forest biomass retrieval. The results showed that the off-nadir vegetation indices could predict the forest biomass more accurately than the nadir. Additionally, we found that the viewing angle effect is more important, but the band effect could not be ignored, and the sensitive angles for extracting forest biomass are greater viewing angles, especially around the hot and dark spot directions. This work highlighted the combination of angles and bands, and found a new index based on the traditional vegetation index, Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index (ARVI, which is calculated by combining sensitive angles and sensitive bands, such as blue band 490 nm/−55°, green band 530 nm/55°, and the red band 697 nm/55°, and the new index was tested to improve the accuracy of forest biomass retrieval. This is a step forward in multi-angle remote sensing applications for mining the hidden relationship between BRDF and forest structure information, in order to increase the utilization efficiency of remote sensing data.

  1. Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment in the Amazonas (BASE-A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Setzer, A.; Ward, D.; Tanre, D.; Holben, B. N.; Menzel, P.; Pereira, M. C.; Rasmussen, R.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented on measurements of the trace gas and particulate matter emissions due to biomass burning during deforestation and grassland fires in South America, conducted as part of the Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment in the Amazonas in September 1989. Field observations by an instrumented aircraft were used to estimate concentrations of O3, CO2, CO, CH4, and particulate matter. Fires were observed from satellite imagery, and the smoke optical thickness, particle size, and profiles of the extinction coefficient were measured from the aircraft and from the ground. Four smoke plumes were sampled, three vertical profiles were measured, and extensive ground measurements of smoke optical characteristics were carried out for different smoke types. The simultaneous measurements of the trace gases, smoke particles, and the distribution of fires were used to correlate biomass burning with the elevated levels of ozone.

  2. Study of polyacrylamide grafted starch based algal flocculation towards applications in algal biomass harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Chiranjib; Gupta, Pratibha; Mishra, Sumit; Sen, Gautam; Shukla, Pratyoosh; Bandopadhyay, Rajib

    2012-11-01

    Microalgae may be the source of high amount of lipid and protein. It has the property for carbon dioxide sequestration, recycling and also can remove pollutants from wastewater. Using traditional methods, collection of algal biomass is either cost effective, time consuming or may be toxic due to use of chemical salts. The aim of this study is to harvest freshwater microalgae (Chlorella sp. CB4) biomass by using polymer. Polyacrylamide grafted starch (St-g-PAM) has been synthesized by microwave assisted method involving a synergism of microwave radiation and ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) to initiate the grafting reaction. The synthesis was optimized in terms of CAN and monomer (acrylamide) concentration. The algal flocculation efficacy of all the grades of this graft copolymer was studied through standard 'Jar test' procedure. Effects of percentage grafting, pH and zeta potential on percentage recovery of algal biomass were thoroughly investigated.

  3. Pressure Induced Liquid-to-Liquid Transition in Zr-based Supercooled Melts and Pressure Quenched Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmowski, W.; Gierlotka, S.; Wang, Z.; Yokoyama, Y.; Palosz, B.; Egami, T.

    2017-07-26

    Through high-energy x-ray diffraction and atomic pair density function analysis we find that Zr-based metallic alloy, heated to the supercooled liquid state under hydrostatic pressure and then quenched to room temperature, exhibits a distinct glassy structure. The PDF indicates that the Zr-Zr distances in this glass are significantly reduced compared to those quenched without pressure. Annealing at the glass transition temperature at ambient pressure reverses structural changes and the initial glassy state is recovered. This result suggests that pressure causes a liquid-to-liquid phase transition in this metallic alloy supercooled melt. Such a pressure induced transition is known for covalent liquids, but has not been observed for metallic liquids. The High Pressure Quenched glasses are stable in ambient conditions after decompression.

  4. MOBE: Final report; Modelling and Optimization of Biomass-based Energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trangbaek, K. (Aalborg Univ., Institut for Elektroniske Systemer, Aalborg (Denmark)); Elmegaard, B. (Danmarks Tekniske Univ., Institut for Mekanisk Teknologi, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2008-07-01

    The present report is the documentation of the work in the PSO-project MOBE, ''Modelling and Optimization of biomass-based Energy production''. The aim of the project is to develop better control methods for boilers in central power plant units, so the plant will achieve better controllability with respect to load changes. in particular focus is on the low load operation near and below the Benson point. The introduction of the report includes a description of the challenges the central power stations see in the modern electricity market where wind power delivers a significant prioritized production, and thus, in connection with consumption variations, contributes to the load requirements of the central units. The report documents the work on development of a common simulation platform for the partners in the project and for future model work. The result of this is an integration between the DTU simulation code DNA and Matlab. Other possible tools are suggested. The modelling work in the project has resulted in preliminary studies of time constants of evaporator tubes, an analysis that shows that Ledinegg instabilities do not occur in modern boilers even at low load, development of a validated evaporator model that can be coupled to tools for control system development, and an analysis of two different configurations at the low load system of Benson boilers. Based in a validated power plant model different control strategies have been studied. Because constraints on control signals and temperature gradients are dominating, it is recommended to use model predictive control. It is demonstrated, how such a simulator can handle large low gradients without violating the constraints. By switching between different linearized models the whole load range may be covered. The project indicates that Model predictive control can improve the control in low low significantly. This should be studied further in future projects by realistic tests. At first these

  5. Lead-selective neutral carrier based liquid membrane electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, E.; Toth, K.; Pungor, E.; Behm, F.; Oggenfuss, P.; Welti, D.H.; Ammann, D.; Morf, W.E.; Pretsch, E.; Simon, W.

    1984-06-01

    Certain synthetic, lipophilic oxa- and dioxadicarboxylic amides act as lead-selective neutral carriers in liquid-membrane electrodes. Lead is detected as monovalent permeating species of the type PbX/sup +/ (X: OH/sup -/, Cl/sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, CH/sub 3/COO/sup -/). Membranes based on N,N-dioctadecyl-N',N'-dipropyl-3,6-dioxaoctanediamide reject alkali metal ions by a factor of at least 10/sup 3/ and alkaline-earth metal ions by at least 10/sup 4/. 18 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  6. Investigation of an electromagnetic calorimeter based on liquid krypton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulchenko, V.M.; Klimenko, S.G.; Kolachev, G.M.; Leontiev, L.A.; Onuchin, A.P.; Panin, V.S.; Pril, Yu.V.; Rodyakin, V.A.; Rylin, A.V.; Tayursky, V.A.; Tikhonov, Yu.A. (AN SSSR, Novosibirsk. Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki (The Netherlands)); Cantoni, P.; Frabetti, P.L.; Stagni, L. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy) Bologna Univ. (Italy)); Lo Bianco, G.; Palombo, F. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy) Milan Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica); Manfredi, P.F.; Re, V.; Speziali, V. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy) Pavia Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Elettronica)

    1990-04-15

    Effects determining the energy and spatial resolution of a calorimeter based on liquid krypton have been studied. With cathode strips of 10 mm a spatial resolution of 0.4 mm has been obtained in a cosmic rays test. The energy resolution of the calorimeter (0.4 ton of krypton) has been measured with positrons, achieving a rms of 5.7% at E=130 MeV and 1.7% at E=1200 MeV. The measurements are compared to Monte Carlo simulations. (orig.).

  7. LiDAR based prediction of forest biomass using hierarchical models with spatially varying coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Chad; Finley, Andrew O.; Bradford, John B.; Kolka, Randall K.; Birdsey, Richard A.; Ryan, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies and production inventory systems have shown the utility of coupling covariates derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data with forest variables measured on georeferenced inventory plots through regression models. The objective of this study was to propose and assess the use of a Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework that accommodates both residual spatial dependence and non-stationarity of model covariates through the introduction of spatial random effects. We explored this objective using four forest inventory datasets that are part of the North American Carbon Program, each comprising point-referenced measures of above-ground forest biomass and discrete LiDAR. For each dataset, we considered at least five regression model specifications of varying complexity. Models were assessed based on goodness of fit criteria and predictive performance using a 10-fold cross-validation procedure. Results showed that the addition of spatial random effects to the regression model intercept improved fit and predictive performance in the presence of substantial residual spatial dependence. Additionally, in some cases, allowing either some or all regression slope parameters to vary spatially, via the addition of spatial random effects, further improved model fit and predictive performance. In other instances, models showed improved fit but decreased predictive performance—indicating over-fitting and underscoring the need for cross-validation to assess predictive ability. The proposed Bayesian modeling framework provided access to pixel-level posterior predictive distributions that were useful for uncertainty mapping, diagnosing spatial extrapolation issues, revealing missing model covariates, and discovering locally significant parameters.

  8. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-Biomass to Liquid Jet Fuel Compared to Petroleum-Derived JP-8 Jet Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    other chemical reactions (e.g., manufacture of cement ). CO2 is also removed from the atmosphere (or “sequestered”) when it is absorbed by plants as...systems and dedicated biomass burners . The advantage of having separate feed systems would be that, if the biomass system becomes inoperable for a

  9. Optimization of enzymatic saccharification of Chaetomorpha linum biomass for the production of macroalgae-based third generation bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Slaheddine Masmoudi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of marine macro-algae Chaetomorpha linum as a potential biofuel resource, the effects of the enzymatic treatment conditions on sugar yield were evaluated using a three factor three level Box-Behnken design. The hydrothermally pretreated C. linum biomass was treated with Aspergillus niger cellulase at various liquid to solid ratios (50–100 mL/g, enzyme concentrations (10–60 U/g and incubations times (4–44 h. Data obtained from the response surface methodology were subjected to the analysis of variance and analyzed using a second order polynomial equation. The fitted model was found to be robust and was used to optimize the sugar yield (% during enzymatic hydrolysis. The optimum saccharification conditions were: L/S ratio 100 mL/g; enzyme concentration 52 U/g; and time 44 h. Their application led to a maximum sugar yield of 30.2 g/100g dry matter. Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of the algal hydrolysate provided 8.6 g ethanol/100g dry matter. These results showed a promising future of applying C. linum biomass as potential feedstock for third generation bioethanol production.

  10. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes - this co......Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes...... - this collective resistance is known as "biomass recalcitrance." Breakthrough technologies are needed to overcome barriers to developing cost-effective processes for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals. This book examines the connection between biomass structure, ultrastructure, and composition......, to resistance to enzymatic deconstruction, with the aim of discovering new cost-effective technologies for biorefineries. It contains chapters on topics extending from the highest levels of biorefinery design and biomass life-cycle analysis, to detailed aspects of plant cell wall structure, chemical treatments...

  11. Aging research of the LAB-based liquid scintillator in stainless steel container

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hai-tao; Yu, Bo-Xiang; Shan, Qing; Ding, Ya-yun; Du, Bing; Liu, Shu-tong; Zhang, Xuan; Zhou, Li; Jia, Wen-bao; Fang, Jian; Ye, Xing-Chen; HU, Wei; Niu, Shun-Li; Yan, Jia-qing; Zhao, Hang

    2014-01-01

    Stainless steel is the material used for the storage vessels and piping systems of LAB-based liquid scintillator in JUNO experiment. Aging is recognized as one of the main degradation mechanisms affecting the properties of liquid scintillator. LAB-based liquid scintillator aging experiments were carried out in different material of containers (type 316 and 304 stainless steel and glass) at two different temperature (40 and 25 degrees Celsius). For the continuous liquid scintillator properties...

  12. Imidazolium-based ionic liquids grafted on solid surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Bingwei; Hao, Jingcheng

    2014-01-01

    Supported ionic liquids (SILs), which refer to ionic liquids (ILs) immobilized on supports, are among the most important derivatives of ILs. The immobilization process of ILs can transfer their desired properties to substrates. Combination of the advantages of ILs with those of support materials will derive novel performances while retaining properties of both moieties. SILs have been widely applied in almost all of fields involving ILs, and have brought about drastic expansion of the ionic liquid area. As green media in organic catalytic reactions, based on utilizing the ability of ILs to stabilize the catalysts, they have many advantages over free ILs, including avoiding the leaching of ILs, reducing their amount, and improving the recoverability and reusability of both themselves and catalysts. This has critical significance from both environmental and economical points of view. As novel functional materials in surface science and material chemistry, SILs are ideal surface modifying agents. They can modify and improve the properties of solids, such as wettability, lubricating property, separation efficiency and electrochemical response. With the achievements in the field of ILs, using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to SILs has drawn increasing attention in catalytic reactions and separation technologies, and achieved substantial progress. The combination of MNPs and ILs renders magnetic SILs, which exhibit the unique properties of ILs as well as facile separation by an external magnetic field. In this article, we focus on imidazolium-based ILs covalently grafted to non-porous and porous inorganic materials. The excellent stability and durability of this kind of SILs offer a great advantage compared with free ILs and IL films physically adsorbed on substrates without covalent bonds. Including examples from our own research, we overview mainly the applications and achievements of covalent-linked SILs in catalytic reactions, surface modification, separation

  13. Structure and mechanical properties of new biomass-based nanocomposite: castor oil-based polyurethane reinforced with acetylated cellulose nanocrystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Song; Huang, Jin; Chang, Peter R; Wei, Siwen; Xu, Yixiang; Zhang, Qiaoxin

    2013-06-05

    New nanocomposites consisting of a castor oil-based polyurethane matrix filled with acetylated cellulose nanocrystals (ACNs) were developed. The ACN exhibited improved dispersion in tetrahydrofuran as a blending medium, and reduced polarity as compared with unmodified cellulose nanocrystals, resulting in a high loading level of 25 wt% in the nanocomposite. As the ACN loading-level increased from 0% to 25%, the tensile strength and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites increased from 2.79 MPa to 10.41 MPa and from 0.98 MPa to 42.61 MPa, respectively. When the ACN loading-level was 10 wt%, the breaking elongation of the nanocomposites reached the maximum value of more than twice that of the polyurethane. The enhanced mechanical performance was primarily attributed to the formation of a three-dimensional ACN network and strong interfacial interactions between filler and matrix. This work produced new polyurethane-based nanocomposites containing modified cellulose nanocrystal with a high biomass content. Its high performance could contribute to potential applications. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Production of methanol/DME from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrenfeldt, J.; Birk Henriksen, U.; Muenster-Swendsen, J.; Fink, A.; Roengaard Clausen, L.; Munkholt Christensen, J.; Qin, K.; Lin, W.; Arendt Jensen, P.; Degn Jensen, A.

    2011-07-01

    In this project the production of DME/methanol from biomass has been investigated. Production of DME/methanol from biomass requires the use of a gasifier to transform the solid fuel to a synthesis gas (syngas) - this syngas can then be catalytically converted to DME/methanol. Two different gasifier types have been investigated in this project: 1) The Two-Stage Gasifier (Viking Gasifier), designed to produce a very clean gas to be used in a gas engine, has been connected to a lab-scale methanol plant, to prove that the gas from the gasifier could be used for methanol production with a minimum of gas cleaning. This was proved by experiments. Thermodynamic computer models of DME and methanol plants based on using the Two-Stage Gasification concept were created to show the potential of such plants. The models showed that the potential biomass to DME/methanol + net electricity energy efficiency was 51-58% (LHV). By using waste heat from the plants for district heating, the total energy efficiencies could reach 87-88% (LHV). 2) A lab-scale electrically heated entrained flow gasifier has been used to gasify wood and straw. Entrained flow gasifiers are today the preferred gasifier type for commercial coal gasification, but little information exists on using these types of gasifiers for biomass gasification. The experiments performed provided quantitative data on product and gas composition as a function of operation conditions. Biomass can be gasified with less oxygen consumption compared to coal. The organic fraction of the biomass that is not converted to gas appears as soot. Thermodynamic computer models of DME and methanol plants based on using entrained flow gasification were created to show the potential of such plants. These models showed that the potential torrefied biomass to DME/methanol + net electricity energy efficiency was 65-71% (LHV). Different routes to produce liquid transport fuels from biomass are possible. They include production of RME (rapeseed oil

  15. An ice-core-based record of biomass burning in the Arctic and Subarctic, 1750 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, S.; Mayewski, P.; Dibb, J.; Holdsworth, G.; Twickler, M.

    1994-07-01

    Ammonium records from 3 ice cores, 20D and GISP2 (Greenland) and Mt. Logan (Yukon), covering the period from 1750 to the 1980s are analyzed. For each data set, samples with NH4+ concentrations greater than one standard deviation above the mean value also tend to be enriched in NO3 and K+, similar to the chemical composition of aerosols from aged biomass burning plumes. We believe the NH4+ spikes originate from biomass burning events. There is not a one to one correspondence between documented large fires and NH4+ spikes, nor are specific annual layers with elevated NH4+ concentrations often found in more than one core. However, frequency of NH4+ spikes increase during periods of more extensive and intensive biomass burning in the NH4+ source areas for the ice core sites. The 20D and GISP2 records are characterized by increased spike frequency from 1790 to 1810 and from 1830 to 1910. This latter time coincides with a period of increased biomass burning documented in the historical fire records for northern North America. In contrast to both Greenland ice core records, the Mt. Logan NH4+ record shows periods of increased spike frequency from 1770 1790, 1810 1830, 1850 1870 and 1930 1980. The poor agreement between the Mt. Logan record and the records from Greenland suggests that another source area, perhaps Siberia, may be the dominant summertime source area for NH4+ spikes in Mt. Logan snow.

  16. Carbon-Flow-Based Modeling of Ecophysiological Processes and Biomass Dynamics of Submersed Aquatic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    the simulated peak was lower than the measured one. The latter difference was attributed to temporal decreases in water depth in the lake, while water...lakes from which the measured biomass values originated (Patancheru 17o N, Kashmir Lake 32o N); however, more northern clima - tological data from

  17. Statistical prediction of biomethane potentials based on the composition of lignocellulosic biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Spliid, Henrik; Østergård, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Mixture models are introduced as a new and stronger methodology for statistical prediction of biomethane potentials (BPM) from lignocellulosic biomass compared to the linear regression models previously used. A large dataset from literature combined with our own data were analysed using canonical...

  18. Process for reducing the oxygen content of biomass using molybdenum-based catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention concerns a process for converting biomass into useful organic building blocks for the chemical industry. The process involves the reduction of a polyol wherein at least two of the hydroxyl groups are located on adjacent carbon atoms in the presence of a molybdenum...

  19. Characterization of three plant biomass-degrading microbial consortia by metagenomics- and metasecretomics-based approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Brossi, Maria Julia de Lima; Schuckel, Julia; Kracun, Stjepan Kresimir; Willats, William George Tycho; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The selection of microbes by enrichment on plant biomass has been proposed as an efficient way to develop new strategies for lignocellulose saccharification. Here, we report an in-depth analysis of soil-derived microbial consortia that were trained to degrade once-used wheat straw (WS1-M),

  20. A Biomass-based Model to Estimate the Plausibility of Exoplanet Biosignature Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, S; Hu, R

    2013-01-01

    Biosignature gas detection is one of the ultimate future goals for exoplanet atmosphere studies. We have created a framework for linking biosignature gas detectability to biomass estimates, including atmospheric photochemistry and biological thermodynamics. The new framework is intended to liberate predictive atmosphere models from requiring fixed, Earth-like biosignature gas source fluxes. New biosignature gases can be considered with a check that the biomass estimate is physically plausible. We have validated the models on terrestrial production of NO, H2S, CH4, CH3Cl, and DMS. We have applied the models to propose NH3 as a biosignature gas on a "cold Haber World," a planet with a N2-H2 atmosphere, and to demonstrate why gases such as CH3Cl must have too large of a biomass to be a plausible biosignature gas on planets with Earth or early-Earth-like atmospheres orbiting a Sun-like star. To construct the biomass models, we developed a functional classification of biosignature gases, and found that gases (such...

  1. Biomass burning emissions estimated with a global fire assimilation system based on observed fire radiative power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, J.W.; Heil, A.; Andreae, M.O.; Benedetti, A.; Chubarova, N.; Jones, L.; Morcrette, J.J.; Razinger, M.; Schultz, M.G.; Suttie, M.; Werf, van der G.R.

    2012-01-01

    The Global Fire Assimilation System (GFASv1.0) calculates biomass burning emissions by assimilating Fire Radiative Power (FRP) observations from the MODIS instruments onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. It corrects for gaps in the observations, which are mostly due to cloud cover, and filters spu

  2. Newly developed liquid-based cytology. TACAS™: cytological appearance and HPV testing using liquid-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubushiro, Kaneyuki; Taoka, Hideki; Sakurai, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Kurasaki, Akiko; Asakawa, Yasuyuki; Iwahara, Minoru; Takahashi, Kei

    2011-09-01

    Cell profiles determined by the thin-layer advanced cytology assay system (TACAS™), a liquid-based cytology technique newly developed in Japan, were analyzed in this study. Hybrid capture 2 (HC-2) was also performed using the liquid-based samples prepared by TACAS to ascertain its ability to detect human papillomavirus (HPV). Cell collection samples from uterine cervix were obtained from 359 patients and examined cytologically. A HC-2 assay for HPV was carried out in the cell specimens. All specimens were found to show background factors such as leukocytes. After excluding the 5 unsatisfactory cases from the total 354 cases, 82 cases (23.2%) were positive and 272 cases (76.8%) were negative for HPV. Cell specimens from 30 HPV-positive cases and 166 HPV-negative cases were subjected to 4 weeks of preservation at room temperature. Then, when subsequently re-assayed, 28 cases (93.3%) in the former group were found to be HPV positive and 164 cases (98.8%) in the latter group were found to be HPV negative. These results supported the excellent reproducibility of TACAS for HPV testing. A reasonable inference from the foregoing analysis is that TACAS may be distinguished from other liquid-based cytological approaches, such as ThinPrep and SurePath, in that it can retain the cell backgrounds. Furthermore, this study raises the possibility that cell specimens prepared using TACAS could be preserved for at least 4 weeks prior to carrying out a HC-2 assay for HPV.

  3. Multi-functional biomass systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dornburg, Veronika

    2004-01-01

    Biomass can play a role in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions by substituting conventional materials and supplying biomass based fuels. Main reason for the low share of biomass applications in Europe is their often-high production costs, among others due to the relatively low availability of

  4. Dual-beam laser autofocusing system based on liquid lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fumin; Yao, Yannan; Qu, Xinghua; Zhang, Tong; Pei, Bing

    2017-02-01

    A dual-beam laser autofocusing system is designed in this paper. The autofocusing system is based on a liquid lens with less moving parts and fast response time, which makes the system simple, reliable, compact and fast. A novel scheme "Time-sharing focus, fast conversion" is innovatively proposed. The scheme effectively solves the problem that the guiding laser and the working laser cannot focus at the same target point because of the existence of chromatic aberration. This scheme not only makes both guiding laser and working laser achieve optimal focusing in guiding stage and working stage respectively, but also greatly reduces the system complexity and simplifies the focusing process as well as makes autofocusing time of the working laser reduce to about 10 ms. In the distance range of 1 m to 30 m, the autofocusing spot size is kept under 4.3 mm at 30 m and just 0.18 mm at 1 m. The spot size is much less influenced by the target distance compared with the collimated laser with a micro divergence angle for its self-adaptivity. The dual-beam laser autofocusing system based on liquid lens is fully automatic, compact and efficient. It is fully meet the need of dynamicity and adaptivity and it will play an important role in a number of long-range control applications.

  5. Performance of Water-Based Liquid Scintillator: An Independent Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Beznosko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The water-based liquid scintillator (WbLS is a new material currently under development. It is based on the idea of dissolving the organic scintillator in water using special surfactants. This material strives to achieve the novel detection techniques by combining the Cerenkov rings and scintillation light, as well as the total cost reduction compared to pure liquid scintillator (LS. The independent light yield measurement analysis for the light yield measurements using three different proton beam energies (210 MeV, 475 MeV, and 2000 MeV for water, two different WbLS formulations (0.4% and 0.99%, and pure LS conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, is presented. The results show that a goal of ~100 optical photons/MeV, indicated by the simulation to be an optimal light yield for observing both the Cerenkov ring and the scintillation light from the proton decay in a large water detector, has been achieved.

  6. Liquid crystal devices based on photoalignment and photopatterning materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigrinov, Vladimir

    2014-02-01

    Liquid crystal (LC) display and photonics devices based on photo-alignment and photo-patterning LC cells are developed. A fast switchable grating based on ferroelectric liquid crystals and orthogonal planar alignment by means of photo alignments. Both 1D and 2D gratings have been constructed. The proposed diffracting element provides fast response time of around 20 μs, contrast of 7000:1 and high diffraction efficiency, at the electric field of 6V/μm. A switchable LC Fresnel zone lens was also developed with the efficiency of ~42% that can be further improved, and the switching time for the 3 μm thick cell is ~6.7 ms which is relatively fast in comparison of existing devices. Thus, because of the photoalignment technology the fabrication of Fresnel lens became considerably simpler than others. A thin high spatial resolution, photo-patterned micropolarizer array for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors was implemented for the complete optical visualization of so called "invisible" objects, which are completely transparent (reflective) and colorless. Four Stokes parameters, which fully characterized the reflected light beam can be simultaneously detected using the array of photo-patterned polarizers on CMOS sensor plate. The cheap, high resolution photo-patterned LC matrix sensor was developed to be able successfully compete with the expensive and low reliable wire grid polarizer patterned arrays currently used for the purpose.

  7. Cascading of Biomass. 13 Solutions for a Sustainable Bio-based Economy. Making Better Choices for Use of Biomass Residues, By-products and Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odegard, I.; Croezen, H.; Bergsma, G.

    2012-08-15

    Smarter and more efficient use of biomass, referred to as cascading, can lead to an almost 30% reduction in European greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared with 2010. As the title study makes clear, cascading of woody biomass, agricultural and industrial residues and other waste can make a significant contribution to a greening of the economy. With the thirteen options quantitatively examined annual emissions of between 330 and 400 Mt CO2 can be avoided by making more efficient use of the same volume of biomass as well as by other means. 75% of the potential CO2 gains can be achieved with just four options: (1) bio-ethanol from straw, for use as a chemical feedstock; (2) biogas from manure; (3) biorefining of grass; and (4) optimisation of paper recycling. Some of the options make multiple use of residues, with biomass being used to produce bioplastics that, after several rounds of recycling, are converted to heat and power at the end of their life, for example. In other cases higher-grade applications are envisaged: more efficient use of recyclable paper and wood waste, in both economic and ecological terms, using them as raw materials for new paper and chipboard rather than as an energy source. Finally, by using smart technologies biomass can be converted to multiple products.

  8. BIOMASS AS A RENEWABLE SOURCE OF CHEMICALS FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, M. Murtala

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide demand for cleaner burning fuels and ‘clean’ chemicals has been increasing from the global issues of environmental concern. This lead to a greater utilization of renewable resources to replace the old and existing fossil based feedstock for liquid fuels and chemicals. The ability to re-grow harvested biomass and recapture the carbon emitted to the atmosphere through photosynthesis allows the possibility of carbon neutrality encouraged the use of biomass. Moreso, the unstable rise of oil prices, the negative effects of petroleum on the environment and the advantages of biomass towards sustainability of resources accelerated the development and utilization of unused biomass. This paper reviewed some of the potentials of biomass as a source of chemicals for industrial applications. Pyrolysis is considered to be one of the most employed technologies for the conversion of biomass into bio-oil, char and gases. The utilization of biomass for chemical manufacture can significantly eliminate the harmful effects of fossil based chemicals on the environment.

  9. Improved prediction of higher heating value of biomass using an artificial neural network model based on proximate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Harun; Yıldız, Zeynep; Goldfarb, Jillian L; Ceylan, Selim

    2017-06-01

    As biomass becomes more integrated into our energy feedstocks, the ability to predict its combustion enthalpies from routine data such as carbon, ash, and moisture content enables rapid decisions about utilization. The present work constructs a novel artificial neural network model with a 3-3-1 tangent sigmoid architecture to predict biomasses' higher heating values from only their proximate analyses, requiring minimal specificity as compared to models based on elemental composition. The model presented has a considerably higher correlation coefficient (0.963) and lower root mean square (0.375), mean absolute (0.328), and mean bias errors (0.010) than other models presented in the literature which, at least when applied to the present data set, tend to under-predict the combustion enthalpy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of lake water on algal biomass and microbial community structure in municipal wastewater-based lab-scale photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krustok, I; Truu, J; Odlare, M; Truu, M; Ligi, T; Tiirik, K; Nehrenheim, E

    2015-08-01

    Photobioreactors are a novel environmental technology that can produce biofuels with the simultaneous removal of nutrients and pollutants from wastewaters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lake water inoculation on the production of algal biomass and phylogenetic and functional structure of the algal and bacterial communities in municipal wastewater-treating lab-scale photobioreactors. Inoculating the reactors with lake water had a significant benefit to the overall algal biomass growth and nutrient reduction in the reactors with wastewater and lake water (ratio 70/30 v/v). The metagenome-based survey showed that the most abundant algal phylum in these reactors was Chlorophyta with Scenedesmus being the most prominent genus. The most abundant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes with most dominant families being Sphingobacteriaceae, Cytophagaceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Comamonadaceae, Planctomycetaceae, Nocardiaceae and Nostocaceae. These photobioreactors were also effective in reducing the overall amount of pathogens in wastewater compared to reactors with wastewater/tap water mixture. Functional analysis of the photobioreactor metagenomes revealed an increase in relative abundance genes related to photosynthesis, synthesis of vitamins important for auxotrophic algae and decrease in virulence and nitrogen metabolism subsystems in lake water reactors. The results of the study indicate that adding lake water to the wastewater-based photobioreactor leads to an altered bacterial community phylogenetic and functional structure that could be linked to higher algal biomass production, as well as to enhanced nutrient and pathogen reduction in these reactors.

  11. Biofuel and other biomass based products from contaminated sites - Potentials and barriers from Swedish perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Enell, Anja; Rihm, Thomas; Haglund, Kristina; Wik, Ola (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja; Angelbratt, Alexandra (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Keuning, Sytze (Bioclear b.v., Groningen (Netherlands))

    2009-07-01

    In this report, results are presented based on interviews and literature surveys on the triggers and stoppers for non food crop on contaminated land in Sweden. The report also includes a first estimate of potential marginal land for biofuel production in Sweden. The report is a first step to explore the feasibility of a range of possible approaches to combine risk based land management (RBLM) with non-food crop land-uses and organic matter re-use as appropriate in a Swedish context. The focus of the report is on the treatment of contaminated land by phyto-remediation and on biofuel cultivation. In Sweden, like all other countries in Europe, areas of land have been degraded by past use. Such previously developed land includes areas affected by mining, fallout from industrial processes such as smelting, areas elevated with contaminated dredged sediments, former landfill sites and many other areas where the decline of industrial activity has left a legacy of degraded land and communities. The extent of contamination may not be sufficient to trigger remediation under current regulatory conditions, and there may be little economic incentive to regenerate the affected areas. An ideal solution would be a land management approach that is able to pay for itself. Biomass from coppice or other plantations has long been seen as a possible means of achieving this goal. Phyto remediation offers a low cost method for remediation of areas that are not candidates for conventional regeneration. The optimal conditions for phyto remediation are large land areas of low or mediate contamination. Phyto remediation is also suitable to prevent spreading of contaminants, for example in green areas such as in cities, as waste water buffer and small size remediation areas with diffuse spreading. Phyto remediation implies that plants, fungi or algae are used to remediate, control or increase the natural attenuation of contaminants. Depending on the contaminating species and the site conditions

  12. Biofuel and other biomass based products from contaminated sites - Potentials and barriers from Swedish perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Enell, Anja; Rihm, Thomas; Haglund, Kristina; Wik, Ola (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja; Angelbratt, Alexandra (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Keuning, Sytze (Bioclear b.v., Groningen (Netherlands))

    2009-07-01

    In this report, results are presented based on interviews and literature surveys on the triggers and stoppers for non food crop on contaminated land in Sweden. The report also includes a first estimate of potential marginal land for biofuel production in Sweden. The report is a first step to explore the feasibility of a range of possible approaches to combine risk based land management (RBLM) with non-food crop land-uses and organic matter re-use as appropriate in a Swedish context. The focus of the report is on the treatment of contaminated land by phyto-remediation and on biofuel cultivation. In Sweden, like all other countries in Europe, areas of land have been degraded by past use. Such previously developed land includes areas affected by mining, fallout from industrial processes such as smelting, areas elevated with contaminated dredged sediments, former landfill sites and many other areas where the decline of industrial activity has left a legacy of degraded land and communities. The extent of contamination may not be sufficient to trigger remediation under current regulatory conditions, and there may be little economic incentive to regenerate the affected areas. An ideal solution would be a land management approach that is able to pay for itself. Biomass from coppice or other plantations has long been seen as a possible means of achieving this goal. Phyto remediation offers a low cost method for remediation of areas that are not candidates for conventional regeneration. The optimal conditions for phyto remediation are large land areas of low or mediate contamination. Phyto remediation is also suitable to prevent spreading of contaminants, for example in green areas such as in cities, as waste water buffer and small size remediation areas with diffuse spreading. Phyto remediation implies that plants, fungi or algae are used to remediate, control or increase the natural attenuation of contaminants. Depending on the contaminating species and the site conditions

  13. Extractive Deep Desulfurization of Liquid Fuels Using Lewis-Based Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil A. Dharaskar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new class of green solvents, known as ionic liquids (ILs, has recently been the subject of intensive research on the extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels because of the limitation of traditional hydrodesulfurization method. In present work, eleven Lewis acid ionic liquids were synthesized and employed as promising extractants for deep desulfurization of the liquid fuel containing dibenzothiophene (DBT to test the desulfurization efficiency. [Bmim]Cl/FeCl3 was the most promising ionic liquid and performed the best among studied ionic liquids under the same operating conditions. It can remove dibenzothiophene from the model liquid fuel in the single-stage extraction process with the maximum desulfurization efficiency of 75.6%. It was also found that [Bmim]Cl/FeCl3 may be reused without regeneration with considerable extraction efficiency of 47.3%. Huge saving on energy can be achieved if we make use of this ionic liquids behavior in process design, instead of regenerating ionic liquids after every time of extraction.

  14. Homogeneous lithium electrodeposition with pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquid electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Lorenzo; von Zamory, Jan; Koch, Stephan L; Kalhoff, Julian; Paillard, Elie; Passerini, Stefano

    2015-03-18

    In this study, we report on the electroplating and stripping of lithium in two ionic liquid (IL) based electrolytes, namely N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl) imide (Pyr14FSI) and N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Pyr14TFSI), and mixtures thereof, both on nickel and lithium electrodes. An improved method to evaluate the Li cycling efficiency confirmed that homogeneous electroplating (and stripping) of Li is possible with TFSI-based ILs. Moreover, the presence of native surface features on lithium, directly observable via scanning electron microscope imaging, was used to demonstrate the enhanced electrolyte interphase (SEI)-forming ability, that is, fast cathodic reactivity of this class of electrolytes and the suppressed dendrite growth. Finally, the induced inhomogeneous deposition enabled us to witness the SEI cracking and revealed previously unreported bundled Li fibers below the pre-existing SEI and nonrod-shaped protuberances resulting from Li extrusion.

  15. Emerging Applications of Liquid Crystals Based on Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Inn Sohn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Diverse functionalities of liquid crystals (LCs offer enormous opportunities for their potential use in advanced mobile and smart displays, as well as novel non-display applications. Here, we present snapshots of the research carried out on emerging applications of LCs ranging from electronics to holography and self-powered systems. In addition, we will show our recent results focused on the development of new LC applications, such as programmable transistors, a transparent and active-type two-dimensional optical array and self-powered display systems based on LCs, and will briefly discuss their novel concepts and basic operating principles. Our research will give insights not only into comprehensively understanding technical and scientific applications of LCs, but also developing new discoveries of other LC-based devices.

  16. SERI Biomass Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, P. W.; Corder, R. E.; Hill, A. M.; Lindsey, H.; Lowenstein, M. Z.

    1983-02-01

    The biomass with which this report is concerned includes aquatic plants, which can be converted into liquid fuels and chemicals; organic wastes (crop residues as well as animal and municipal wastes), from which biogas can be produced via anerobic digestion; and organic or inorganic waste streams, from which hydrogen can be produced by photobiological processes. The Biomass Program Office supports research in three areas which, although distinct, all use living organisms to create the desired products. The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) supports research on organisms that are themselves processed into the final products, while the Anaerobic Digestion (ADP) and Photo/Biological Hydrogen Program (P/BHP) deals with organisms that transform waste streams into energy products. The P/BHP is also investigating systems using water as a feedstock and cell-free systems which do not utilize living organisms. This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the SERI Biomass Program during FY 1982.

  17. Paths to bioenergy villages. A guideline for a independent supply of heat and electricity based on biomass in rural area. 3. ed.; Wege zum Bioenergiedorf. Leitfaden fuer eine eigenstaendige Waerme- und Stromversrogung auf Basis von Biomasse im laendlichen Raum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, Hans; Eigner-Thiel, Swantje; Girschner, Walter; Karpenstein-Machan, Marianne; Roland, Folker; Ruwisch, Volker; Sauer, Benedikt; Schmuck, Peter

    2010-12-15

    Bioenergy villages are one component for the sustainable energy supply in rural areas. The guideline under consideration is intended to encourage people in villages to switch their heat supply and electricity supply on the bases of biomass. The focus of this process-oriented guideline is on: (1) A presentation of the social feasibility, especially the involvement, motivation and encouragement of the population; (2) The presentation of concepts for a nature-friendly cultivation of the required biomass; (3) The treatment of economic and legal issues from the perspective of the people involved.

  18. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  19. Biomass burning emissions estimated with a global fire assimilation system based on observed fire radiative power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Kaiser

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Global Fire Assimilation System (GFASv1.0 calculates biomass burning emissions by assimilating Fire Radiative Power (FRP observations from the MODIS instruments onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. It corrects for gaps in the observations, which are mostly due to cloud cover, and filters spurious FRP observations of volcanoes, gas flares and other industrial activity. The combustion rate is subsequently calculated with land cover-specific conversion factors. Emission factors for 40 gas-phase and aerosol trace species have been compiled from a literature survey. The corresponding daily emissions have been calculated on a global 0.5° × 0.5° grid from 2003 to the present. General consistency with the Global Fire Emission Database version 3.1 (GFED3.1 within its accuracy is achieved while maintaining the advantages of an FRP-based approach: GFASv1.0 makes use of the quantitative information on the combustion rate that is contained in the observations, and it detects fires in real time at high spatial and temporal resolution. GFASv1.0 indicates omission errors in GFED3.1 due to undetected small fires. It also exhibits slightly longer fire seasons in South America and North Africa and a slightly shorter fire season in Southeast Asia. GFASv1.0 has already been used for atmospheric reactive gas simulations in an independent study, which found good agreement with atmospheric observations. We have performed simulations of the atmospheric aerosol distribution with and without the assimilation of MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD. They indicate that the emissions of particulate matter need to be boosted with a factor of 2–4 to reproduce the global distribution of organic matter and black carbon. This discrepancy is also evident in the comparison of previously published top-down and bottom-up estimates. For the time being, a global enhancement of the particulate matter emissions by 3.4 is recommended. Validation with independent AOD and PM10

  20. Investigation of polymer electrolyte based on agar and ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to use natural polymer as ionic conducting matrix was investigated in this study. Samples of agarbased electrolytes with different ionic liquids were prepared and characterized by physical and chemical analyses. The ionic liquids used in this work were 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate, [C2mim][C2SO4], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [C2mim][OAc] and trimethyl-ethanolammonium acetate, [Ch][OAc]. Samples of solvent-free electrolytes were prepared and characterized by ionic conductivity measurements, thermal analysis, electrochemical stability, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy. Electrolyte samples are thermally stable up to approximately 190°C. All the materials synthesized are semicrystalline. The electrochemical stability domain of all samples is about 2.0 V versus Li/Li+. The preliminary studies carried out with electrochromic devices (ECDs incorporating optimized compositions have confirmed that these materials may perform as satisfactory multifunctional component layers in the field of ‘smart windows’, as well as ECD-based devices.

  1. Thermodynamic and structural properties of Bi-based liquid alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, S. K.; Jha, L. N.; Adhikari, D.

    2015-10-01

    Thermodynamic and microscopic structural properties of two Bi-based liquid alloys, such as In-Bi at 900 K and Tl-Bi at 750 K have been studied employing the regular associated solution model. We have estimated the mole fractions of the complexes and the free monomers assuming the existence of complexes In2 Bi in In-Bi melt and TlBi in Tl-Bi melt. The thermodynamic properties have been studied by computing the Gibbs free energy of mixing, enthalpy of mixing, entropy of mixing and activities of the monomers. The compositional contributions of the heat associated with the formation of complexes and the heat of mixing of the monomers to the net enthalpy change has also been studied. The structural properties of the liquid alloys have been studied by computing concentration fluctuation in the long-wavelength limit, chemical short-range order parameter and the ratio of mutual to intrinsic diffusion coefficients. For both of the alloy systems, the theoretical as well as the experimental values of SCC (0) are found to be lower than the corresponding ideal values over the whole composition range, indicating the hetero-coordinating nature of Bi-In and Bi-Tl alloy melts. All the interaction energy parameters are found to be negative and temperature dependent, and both the alloy systems are found to be weakly interacting.

  2. Composite hollow fiber membranes for organic solvent-based liquid-liquid extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, T.; Bolhuis-Versteeg, Lydia A.M.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Wessling, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    Instability issues of liquid membranes extraction significantly limit its wide application in industry. We report research on the application of a new composite hollow fiber membrane to stabilizing liquid membrane extraction. These type of composite membranes have either a polysulfone (PSf) ultrafil

  3. Composite hollow fiber membranes for organic solvent-based liquid-liquid extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, T.; Versteeg, L.A.M.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Wessling, M.

    2004-01-01

    Instability issues of liquid membranes extraction significantly limit its wide application in industry. We report research on the application of a new composite hollow fiber membrane to stabilizing liquid membrane extraction. These type of composite membranes have either a polysulfone (PSf) ultrafil

  4. Ammonium nitrate fertiliser production based on biomass - environmental effects from a life cycle perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, Serina; Baky, Andras; Bernesson, Sven; Nordberg, Ke; Norén, Olle; Hansson, Per-Anders

    2008-11-01

    Ammonium nitrate and calcium ammonium nitrate are the most commonly used straight nitrogen fertilisers in Europe, accounting for 43% of the total nitrogen used for fertilisers. They are both produced in a similar way; carbonate can be added as a last step to produce calcium ammonium nitrate. The environmental impact, fossil energy input and land use from using gasified biomass (cereal straw and short rotation willow (Salix) coppice) as feedstock in ammonium nitrate production were studied in a cradle-to-gate evaluation using life cycle assessment methodology. The global warming potential in the biomass systems was only 22-30% of the impact from conventional production using natural gas. The eutrophication potential was higher for the biomass systems due to nutrient leaching during cultivation, while the acidification was about the same in all systems. The primary fossil energy use was calculated to be 1.45 and 1.37MJ/kg nitrogen for Salix and straw, respectively, compared to 35.14MJ for natural gas. The biomass production was assumed to be self-supporting with nutrients by returning part of the ammonium nitrate produced together with the ash from the gasification. For the production of nitrogen from Salix, it was calculated that 3914kg of nitrogen can be produced every year from 1ha, after that 1.6% of the produced nitrogen has been returned to the Salix production. From wheat straw, 1615kg of nitrogen can be produced annually from 1ha, after that 0.6% of the nitrogen has been returned.

  5. Biomass carbon stocks in China’s forests between 2000 and 2050:A prediction based on forest biomass-age relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China’s forests are characterized by young forest age,low carbon density and a large area of planted forests,and thus have high potential to act as carbon sinks in the future.Using China’s national forest inventory data during 1994-1998 and 1999-2003,and direct field measurements,we investigated the relationships between forest biomass density and forest age for 36 major forest types.Statistical approaches and the predicted future forest area from the national forestry development plan were applied to estimate the potential of forest biomass carbon storage in China during 2000-2050.Under an assumption of continuous natural forest growth,China’s existing forest biomass carbon(C) stock would increase from 5.86 Pg C(1 Pg=1015 g) in 1999-2003 to 10.23 Pg C in 2050,resulting in a total increase of 4.37 Pg C.Newly planted forests through afforestation and reforestation will sequestrate an additional 2.86 Pg C in biomass.Overall,China’s forests will potentially act as a carbon sink for 7.23 Pg C during the period 2000-2050,with an average carbon sink of 0.14 Pg C yr-1.This suggests that China’s forests will be a significant carbon sink in the next 50 years.

  6. Thermophysical Properties of Liquid AlTi-Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egry, I.; Holland-Moritz, D.; Novakovic, R.; Ricci, E.; Wunderlich, R.; Sobczak, N.

    2010-05-01

    The surface tension and density of three liquid AlTi-based alloys (AlTiV, AlTiNb, and AlTiTa) have been measured using electromagnetic levitation as a tool for containerless processing. Surface tension has been determined by the oscillating-drop method, while the density was measured using a shadowgraph technique. Both quantities were determined over a wide temperature range, including the undercooled regime. In addition, sessile-drop and pendant-drop experiments to determine the surface tension were performed in a recently built high-temperature furnace. The measured data were compared to thermodynamic calculations using phenomenological models and the Butler equation. Generally, good agreement was found.

  7. Enantioselective Nanoporous Carbon Based on Chiral Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Ido; Fechler, Nina; Antonietti, Markus; Mastai, Yitzhak

    2016-01-04

    One of the greatest challenges in modern chemical processing is to achieve enantiospecific control in chemical reactions using chiral media such as chiral mesoporous materials. Herein, we describe a novel and effective synthetic pathway for the preparation of enantioselective nanoporous carbon, based on chiral ionic liquids (CILs). CILs of phenylalanine (CIL(Phe)) are used as precursors for the carbonization of chiral mesoporous carbon. We employ circular dichroism spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and chronoamperometry in order to demonstrate the chiral nature of the mesoporous carbon. The approach presented in this paper is highly significant for the development of a new type of chiral porous materials for enantioselective chemistry. In addition, it contributes significantly to our understanding of the structure and nature of chiral nanoporous materials and surfaces. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Semitransparent Polymer Solar Cells Based on Liquid Crystal Reflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaopeng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of liquid crystal (LC reflectors on semitransparent polymer solar cells (PSCs were investigated in this paper. By improving the cathode, we manufactured semitransparent PSCs based on the conventional PSCs. We then incorporated the LC reflector into the semitransparent PSCs, which increased the power conversion efficiency (PCE from 2.11% to 2.71%. Subsequently adjusting the concentration and spinning speed of the active layer material changed its thickness. The maximum light absorption for the active layer was obtained using the optimum thickness, and the PCE eventually reached 3.01%. These results provide a reference for selecting LC reflectors that are suitable for different active layer materials to improve the PCE of semitransparent PSCs.

  9. Small-scale CHP Plant based on a 35 kWel Hermetic Four Cylinder Stirling Engine for Biomass Fuels- Development, Technology and Operating Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obernberger, I.; Carlsen, Henrik; Biedermann, F.

    2003-01-01

    Within the scope of a comprehensive study and two development and demonstration projects, various technologies in the power range of up to 2 MWel for small-scale biomass-fired CHP plants have been investigated, evaluated and compared considering technical as well as economic aspects. Such plants...... in the biomass CHP plant Lienz (A) in the framework of an EU demonstration project. This plant was put in operation in February 2002. Stirling engines are a promising solution for installations with nominal electric capacities between 10 and 150 kW. A biomass CHP pilot plant based on a 35 kWel-Stirling engine...

  10. Using CORE Model-Based Systems Engineering Software to Support Program Management in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Project: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, C.; Sandor, D.; Simpkins, P.

    2006-11-01

    This paper describes how a model-based systems engineering software, CORE, is helping the U. S. Department of Energy's Office of Biomass Program assist with bringing biomass-derived biofuels to the market. This software tool provides information to guide informed decision-making as biomass-to-biofuels systems are advanced from concept to commercial adoption. It facilitates management and communication of program status by automatically generating custom reports, Gantt charts, and tables using the widely available programs of Microsoft Word, Project and Excel.

  11. [Effect of ensilage on bioconversion of switchgrass to ethanol based on liquid hot water pretreatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wentao; Ju, Meiting; Liu, Jinpeng; Liu, Boqun

    2016-04-25

    Ensilage is a traditional way of preserving fresh biomass. However, in order to apply ensilage to the ethanol biorefinery, two parameters need to be evaluated: quantity and quality changes of the biomass; and its effects on bioconversion process. To study these two aspects, switchgrass harvested on three different time points (Early, mid and late fall) were used as feedstock. The early fall harvested biomass was ensiled at 5 moisture levels ranging from 30% to 70%. Silage of 40% moisture and 3 other raw switchgrass were pretreated with liquid hot water, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis as well as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. After 21 days storage pH values of all silages decreased below 4.0 and the dry matter losses were less than 2.0%, and structural sugars contents did not change dramatically. Liquid hot water caused more hemicellulose dissolution in the silage than in unensiled switchgrass. However, ensilage also increased the risk of releasing more sugar degradation products; After enzymatic hydrolysis, silage obtained higher total glucose, xylose and galactose yields than raw materials; After simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, ethanol concentration in silage was 12.1 g/L, higher than the unensiled switchgrass (10.3 g/L, 9.7 g/L and 10.6 g/L for early, mid and late fall respectively). Our results suggest that ensilage helps increase pretreatment efficiency and sugar yield, which increases final ethanol production.

  12. Robustness of model-based high-resolution prediction of forest biomass against different field plot designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junttila, Virpi; Gautam, Basanta; Karky, Bhaskar Singh; Maguya, Almasi; Tegel, Katri; Kauranne, Tuomo; Gunia, Katja; Hämäläinen, Jarno; Latva-Käyrä, Petri; Nikolaeva, Ekaterina; Peuhkurinen, Jussi

    2015-12-01

    Participatory forest monitoring has been promoted as a means to engage local forest-dependent communities in concrete climate mitigation activities as it brings a sense of ownership to the communities and hence increases the likelihood of success of forest preservation measures. However, sceptics of this approach argue that local community forest members will not easily attain the level of technical proficiency that accurate monitoring needs. Thus it is interesting to establish if local communities can attain such a level of technical proficiency. This paper addresses this issue by assessing the robustness of biomass estimation models based on air-borne laser data using models calibrated with two different field sample designs namely, field data gathered by professional forester teams and field data collected by local communities trained by professional foresters in two study sites in Nepal. The aim is to find if the two field sample data sets can give similar results (LiDAR models) and whether the data can be combined and used together in estimating biomass. Results show that even though the sampling designs and principles of both field campaigns were different, they produced equivalent regression models based on LiDAR data. This was successful in one of the sites (Gorkha). At the other site (Chitwan), however, major discrepancies remained in model-based estimates that used different field sample data sets. This discrepancy can be attributed to the complex terrain and dense forest in the site which makes it difficult to obtain an accurate digital elevation model (DTM) from LiDAR data, and neither set of data produced satisfactory results. Field sample data produced by professional foresters and field sample data produced by professionally trained communities can be used together without affecting prediction performance provided that the correlation between LiDAR predictors and biomass estimates is good enough.

  13. Elucidating Interactions between DMSO and Chelate-Based Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hang; Wang, Xinyu; Yao, Jia; Chen, Kexian; Guo, Yan; Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Haoran

    2015-12-21

    The C-D bond stretching vibrations of deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide ([D6 ]DMSO) and the C2 -H bond stretching vibrations of 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoropentane-2,4-dione (hfac) ligand in anion are chosen as probes to elucidate the solvent-solute interaction between chelate-based ionic liquids (ILs) and DMSO by vibrational spectroscopic studies. The indirect effect from the interaction of the adjacent S=O functional group of DMSO with the cation [C10 mim](+) and anion [Mn(hfac)3 ](-) of the ILs leads to the blue-shift of the C-D stretching vibrations of DMSO. The C2 -H bond stretching vibrations in hfac ligand is closely related to the ionic hydrogen bond strength between the cation and anion of chelate-based ILs. EPR studies reveal that the crystal field of the central metal is kept when the chelate-based ILs are in different microstructure environment in the solution.

  14. Renewable feedstocks in green solvents: thermodynamic study on phase diagrams of D-sorbitol and xylitol with dicyanamide based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduszyński, Kamil; Okuniewski, Marcin; Domańska, Urszula

    2013-06-13

    Experimental and theoretical studies on thermodynamic properties of three ionic liquids based on dicyanamide anion (namely, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide, and 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium dicyanamide) and their binary mixtures with sugar alcohols (D-sorbitol and xylitol) were conducted in order to assess the applicability of the salts ionic liquids for dissolution of those biomass-related materials. Density and dynamic viscosity (at ambient pressure) of pure ionic liquids are reported in the temperature range from T = 293.15 to 363.15 K. Solid-liquid equilibrium phase diagrams in binary systems {sugar alcohol + ionic liquid} were measured with dynamic method up to the fusion temperature of sugar alcohol. The impact of the chemical structure of both the ionic liquid and sugar alcohol were established and discussed. For the very first time, the experimental solubility data were reproduced and analyzed in terms of equation of state rooted in statistical mechanics. For this purpose, perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) was employed. In particular, new molecular schemes for the ionic liquids, D-sorbitol, and xylitol were proposed, and then the pure chemicals were parametrized by using available density and vapor pressure data. The model allowed accurate correlation of pure fluid properties for both ionic liquids and sugar alcohols, when the association term is taken into account. The results of solid-liquid equilibria modeling were also satisfactory. However, one or two adjustable binary corrections to the adopted combining rules were required to be adjusted in order to accurately capture the phase behavior. It was shown that a consistent thermodynamic description of extremely complex systems can be achieved by using relatively simple (but physically grounded) theoretical tools and molecular schemes.

  15. Kinetic Model of Biomass Pyrolysis Based on Three-component Independent Parallel First-order Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新运; 万新军; 陈明强; 王君

    2012-01-01

    The pyrolysis behavior of two kinds of typical biomass (pine wood and cotton stalk) was studied in nitrogen atmosphere at various heating rates by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).The pyrolysis process can be divided into three stages:evolution of moisture (<200 ℃),devolatilization (200~400 ℃) and carbonization (>400 ℃).The comparison of DTG curves of two biomass materials show that the higher the hemicellulose content of biomass,the more evident the shoulder peak of DTG curve.The weight loss process of two materials was simulated by the kinetic model assuming cellulose,hemicellulose and lignin pyrolyzing independently and in parallel,obeying first-order reactions.The pyrolysis kinetic parameters corresponding to the three components were estimated by the nonlinear least square algorithm.The results show that their fitting curves are in good agreement with the experimental data.Their activation energy values for pine wood and cotton stalk are in the range of 188~215,90~102,29~49 and 187~214,95~101,30~38 kJ/mol,respectively.The corresponding pre-exponential factors are in the range of 1.8×1015~2.0×1016,1.6×107~7.1×108,9.3×101~l.5×103 and 1.2× 1015~6.7×1017,1.2× 108~1.4×109,1.4× 102~4.6× 102 min-1,respectively.In addition,the activation energy of cellulose and lignin increased and their contributions to volatile tended to fall,whereas the activation energy of herricellulose decreased and its contribution to volatile tended to rise with increasing of heating rate.

  16. Flight-based chemical characterization of biomass burning aerosols within two prescribed burn smoke plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Pratt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning represents a major global source of aerosols impacting direct radiative forcing and cloud properties. Thus, the goal of a number of current studies involves developing a better understanding of how the chemical composition and mixing state of biomass burning aerosols evolve during atmospheric aging processes. During the Ice in Cloud Experiment – Layer Clouds (ICE-L in fall of 2007, smoke plumes from two small Wyoming Bureau of Land Management prescribed burns were measured by on-line aerosol instrumentation aboard a C-130 aircraft, providing a detailed chemical characterization of the particles. After ~2–4 min of aging, submicron smoke particles, produced primarily from sagebrush combustion, consisted predominantly of organics by mass, but were comprised primarily of internal mixtures of organic carbon, elemental carbon, potassium chloride, and potassium sulfate. Significantly, 100 % of the fresh biomass burning particles contained minor mass fractions of nitrate and sulfate, suggesting that hygroscopic material is incorporated very near or at the point of emission. The mass fractions of ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate increased with aging up to ~81–88 min and resulted in acidic particles, with both nitric acid and sulfuric acid present. Decreasing black carbon mass concentrations occurred due to dilution of the plume. Increases in the fraction of oxygenated organic carbon and the presence of dicarboxylic acids, in particular, were observed with aging. Cloud condensation nuclei measurements suggested all particles >100 nm were active at 0.5 % water supersaturation in the smoke plumes, confirming the relatively high hygroscopicity of the freshly emitted particles. For immersion/condensation freezing, ice nuclei measurements at −32 °C suggested activation of ~0.03–0.07 % of the particles with diameters greater than 500 nm.

  17. Flight-based chemical characterization of biomass burning aerosols within two prescribed burn smoke plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Pratt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning represents a major global source of aerosols impacting direct radiative forcing and cloud properties. Thus, the goal of a number of current studies involves developing a better understanding of how the chemical composition and mixing state of biomass burning aerosols evolve during atmospheric aging processes. During the Ice in Clouds Experiment-Layer Clouds (ICE-L in the fall of 2007, smoke plumes from two small Wyoming Bureau of Land Management prescribed burns were measured by on-line aerosol instrumentation aboard a C-130 aircraft, providing a detailed chemical characterization of the particles. After ~2–4 min of aging, submicron smoke particles, produced primarily from sagebrush combustion, consisted predominantly of organics by mass, but were comprised primarily of internal mixtures of organic carbon, elemental carbon, potassium chloride, and potassium sulfate. Significantly, the fresh biomass burning particles contained minor mass fractions of nitrate and sulfate, suggesting that hygroscopic material is incorporated very near or at the point of emission. The mass fractions of ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate increased with aging up to ~81–88 min and resulted in acidic particles. Decreasing black carbon mass concentrations occurred due to dilution of the plume. Increases in the fraction of oxygenated organic carbon and the presence of dicarboxylic acids, in particular, were observed with aging. Cloud condensation nuclei measurements suggested all particles >100 nm were active at 0.5% water supersaturation in the smoke plumes, confirming the relatively high hygroscopicity of the freshly emitted particles. For immersion/condensation freezing, ice nuclei measurements at −32 °C suggested activation of ~0.03–0.07% of the particles with diameters greater than 500 nm.

  18. Considerations Based on Reaction Rate on Char Gasification Behavior in Two-stage Gasifier for Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Miki; Nishiyama, Akio; Sasauchi, Kenichi; Ito, Yusuke; Akamatsu, Fumiteru

    In order to develop a small-scale gasifier in which biomass can be converted to energy with high efficiency, we planned a gasification process that consists of two parts: pyrolysis part (rotary kiln) and gasification part (downdraft gasifier). We performed fundamental experiments on gasification part and discussed the appropriate conditions such as air supply location, air ratio, air temperature and hearth load. We considered the results by calculating reaction rates of representative reactions on char gasification part and found that water gas reaction is dominant in the reduction area and its behavior gives important information to decide the adequate length of the char layer.

  19. Study on the release of chlorhexidine base and salts from different liquid crystalline structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Edit; Kiss, Dorottya; Zelkó, Romána

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of two types of chlorhexidine species, chlorhexidine base and its salts, on the physico-chemical features of liquid crystalline systems and on drug transport through lipophilic membranes. A non-ionic surfactant, Synperonic A7 (PEG7-C13-15) was selected for the preparation of the liquid crystalline systems. Mixtures of different ratios of Synperonic A7 and water were prepared. The liquid crystalline systems were characterized using polarizing microscopy and dynamic oscillatory test. Membrane transport was also examined. The addition of chlorhexidine species to the liquid crystalline system modified the structure of the liquid crystalline system. As a result of the changes of liquid crystalline structures, the drug release of various types of chlorhexidine could be also modified. The combination of the base and salt forms of the drug in one dosage form could eliminate the drug release changes from liquid crystalline systems of dynamically changeable structures.

  20. Ionic liquid-based materials: a platform to design engineered CO2 separation membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Liliana C; Marrucho, Isabel M

    2016-05-21

    During the past decade, significant advances in ionic liquid-based materials for the development of CO2 separation membranes have been accomplished. This review presents a perspective on different strategies that use ionic liquid-based materials as a unique tuneable platform to design task-specific advanced materials for CO2 separation membranes. Based on compilation and analysis of the data hitherto reported, we provide a judicious assessment of the CO2 separation efficiency of different membranes, and highlight breakthroughs and key challenges in this field. In particular, configurations such as supported ionic liquid membranes, polymer/ionic liquid composite membranes, gelled ionic liquid membranes and poly(ionic liquid)-based membranes are detailed, discussed and evaluated in terms of their efficiency, which is attributed to their chemical and structural features. Finally, an integrated perspective on technology, economy and sustainability is provided.

  1. Predictive modeling of biomass component tradeoffs in Brassica napus developing oilseeds based on in silico manipulation of storage metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwender, Jörg; Hay, Jordan O

    2012-11-01

    Seed oil content is a key agronomical trait, while the control of carbon allocation into different seed storage compounds is still poorly understood and hard to manipulate. Using bna572, a large-scale model of cellular metabolism in developing embryos of rapeseed (Brassica napus) oilseeds, we present an in silico approach for the analysis of carbon allocation into seed storage products. Optimal metabolic flux states were obtained by flux variability analysis based on minimization of the uptakes of substrates in the natural environment of the embryo. For a typical embryo biomass composition, flux sensitivities to changes in different storage components were derived. Upper and lower flux bounds of each reaction were categorized as oil or protein responsive. Among the most oil-responsive reactions were glycolytic reactions, while reactions related to mitochondrial ATP production were most protein responsive. To assess different biomass compositions, a tradeoff between the fractions of oil and protein was simulated. Based on flux-bound discontinuities and shadow prices along the tradeoff, three main metabolic phases with distinct pathway usage were identified. Transitions between the phases can be related to changing modes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, reorganizing the usage of organic carbon and nitrogen sources for protein synthesis and acetyl-coenzyme A for cytosol-localized fatty acid elongation. The phase close to equal oil and protein fractions included an unexpected pathway bypassing α-ketoglutarate-oxidizing steps in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The in vivo relevance of the findings is discussed based on literature on seed storage metabolism.

  2. Phase transformation and liquid density redistribution during solidification of Ni-based superalloy Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ling

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The influences of chemical segregation and phase transformation on liquid density variation during solidification of Ni-based supperalloy Inconel 718 were investigated using SEM and EDS. It was found that significant segregation in liquid prompts high Nb phase to precipitate directly from liquid, which results in the redistribution of alloy elements and liquid density in their vicinity. The term “inter-precipitate liquid density” is therefore proposed and this concept should be applied to determine the solidification behavior of superalloy Inconel 718.

  3. Superfluorinated Ionic Liquid Crystals Based on Supramolecular, Halogen-Bonded Anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Gabriella; Terraneo, Giancarlo; Monfredini, Alessandro; Saccone, Marco; Priimagi, Arri; Pilati, Tullio; Resnati, Giuseppe; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Bruce, Duncan W

    2016-05-17

    Unconventional ionic liquid crystals in which the liquid crystallinity is enabled by halogen-bonded supramolecular anions [Cn F2 n+1 -I⋅⋅⋅I⋅⋅⋅I-Cn F2 n+1 ](-) are reported. The material system is unique in many ways, demonstrating for the first time 1) ionic, halogen-bonded liquid crystals, and 2) imidazolium-based ionic liquid crystals in which the occurrence of liquid crystallinity is not driven by the alkyl chains of the cation.

  4. Warren-Spring based model for the shear yield locus of cohesive biomass powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste-Ibarcq, Clément; Melkior, Thierry; de Ryck, Alain

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of this work are to determine accurately the cohesion of biomass powders from simple measures and to propose a new method for the description of the yield locus of powders with easy to measure parameters. The cohesion of 32 powders (wood, other biomasses and inorganic powders) have been analysed with two methods. The first method is the determination of the yield locus from shear tests at 3 kPa, performed with a powder rheometer, which gives an access to parameters such as cohesion (Y-intercept) and traction (X-intercept). The second method is the measurement of avalanche angles in a rotating drum. A linear relation is found between this angle and the cohesion length, ratio of the cohesion derived from the yield locus and the aerated density. Finally, a model is proposed for the prediction of the cohesion and the yield locus at 3 kPa, using only 2 parameters easy to measure: the avalanche angle and the aerated density.

  5. Annual boom-bust cycles of polar phytoplankton biomass revealed by space-based lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Hu, Yongxiang; O'Malley, Robert T.; Boss, Emmanuel S.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Siegel, David A.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Schulien, Jennifer; Hair, Johnathan W.; Lu, Xiaomei; Rodier, Sharon; Scarino, Amy Jo

    2017-02-01

    Polar plankton communities are among the most productive, seasonally dynamic and rapidly changing ecosystems in the global ocean. However, persistent cloud cover, periods of constant night and prevailing low solar elevations in polar regions severely limit traditional passive satellite ocean colour measurements and leave vast areas unobserved for many consecutive months each year. Consequently, our understanding of the annual cycles of polar plankton and their interannual variations is incomplete. Here we use space-borne lidar observations to overcome the limitations of historical passive sensors and report a decade of uninterrupted polar phytoplankton biomass cycles. We find that polar phytoplankton dynamics are categorized by `boom-bust' cycles resulting from slight imbalances in plankton predator-prey equilibria. The observed seasonal-to-interannual variations in biomass are predicted by mathematically modelled rates of change in phytoplankton division. Furthermore, we find that changes in ice cover dominated variability in Antarctic phytoplankton stocks over the past decade, whereas ecological processes were the predominant drivers of change in the Arctic. We conclude that subtle and environmentally driven imbalances in polar food webs underlie annual phytoplankton boom-bust cycles, which vary interannually at each pole.

  6. HIGH SOLID AND LOW ENZYME LOADING BASED SACCHARIFICATION OF AGRICULTURAL BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Two agricultural biomass materials, namely wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse, were pretreated with NaOH and then used as substrates for enzymatic saccharification. After the pretreatment, the increase in glucan content and the decrease in lignin content were more than 65%, while less than 20% increase occurred in xylan content. The enzymatic saccharification was initiated with solid loading 9% (w/v, and then 8%, 7% and 6% (w/v solid was fed at 8, 24, and 48 h, respectively. The final enzyme solid loading was 9.60 FPU/g solid and 30% (w/v, respectively. At 144 h, the produced glucose, xylose, and reducing sugar concentrations for wheat straw were 81.88, 20.30, and 115.25 g/L, respectively, and for sugarcane bagasse they were 125.97, 8.66, and 169.50 g/L, respectively. The final conversions of wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse were 34.57% and 50.85%, respectively. SEM images showed that the surface structure of the two materials changed a lot via alkali-pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. In summary, a high concentration sugar is produced from the two agricultural biomass materials by high solid and low enzyme loading. Compared to wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse is more suitable for use in sugar production.

  7. The application of biosorption for production of micronutrient fertilizers based on waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhy, Lukasz; Samoraj, Mateusz; Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper, new environmental-friendly fertilizer components were produced in biosorption process by the enrichment of the biomass with zinc, essential in plant cultivation. The obtained new preparations can be used as controlled release micronutrient fertilizers because microelements are bound to the functional groups present in the cell wall structures of the biomass. It is assumed that new fertilizing materials will be characterized by higher bioavailability, gradual release of micronutrients required by plants, and lower leaching to groundwater. The biological origin of the material used in plant fertilization results in the elimination of toxic effect towards plants and groundwater mainly caused by low biodegradability of fertilizers. Utilitarian properties of new formulations enable to reduce negative implications of fertilizers for environmental quality and influence ecological health. In this work, the utilitarian properties of materials such as peat, bark, seaweeds, seaweed post-extraction residues, and spent mushroom substrate enriched via biosorption with Zn(II) ions were examined in germination tests on Lepidium sativum. Obtained results were compared with conventional fertilizers-inorganic salt and chelate. It was shown that zinc fertilization led to biofortification of plant in these micronutrients. Moreover, the mass of plants fertilized with zinc was higher than in the control group.

  8. Annual boom-bust cycles of polar phytoplankton biomass revealed by space-based lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Hu, Yongxiang; O'Malley, Robert T.; Boss, Emmanuel S.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Siegel, David A.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Schulien, Jennifer; Hair, Johnathan W.; Lu, Xiaomei; Rodier, Sharon; Scarino, Amy Jo

    2016-12-01

    Polar plankton communities are among the most productive, seasonally dynamic and rapidly changing ecosystems in the global ocean. However, persistent cloud cover, periods of constant night and prevailing low solar elevations in polar regions severely limit traditional passive satellite ocean colour measurements and leave vast areas unobserved for many consecutive months each year. Consequently, our understanding of the annual cycles of polar plankton and their interannual variations is incomplete. Here we use space-borne lidar observations to overcome the limitations of historical passive sensors and report a decade of uninterrupted polar phytoplankton biomass cycles. We find that polar phytoplankton dynamics are categorized by `boom-bust' cycles resulting from slight imbalances in plankton predator-prey equilibria. The observed seasonal-to-interannual variations in biomass are predicted by mathematically modelled rates of change in phytoplankton division. Furthermore, we find that changes in ice cover dominated variability in Antarctic phytoplankton stocks over the past decade, whereas ecological processes were the predominant drivers of change in the Arctic. We conclude that subtle and environmentally driven imbalances in polar food webs underlie annual phytoplankton boom-bust cycles, which vary interannually at each pole.

  9. Fundamental studies of synthesis-gas production based on fluidised-bed gasification of biomass (UCGFunda)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinikainen, M.; Moilanen, A.; Simell, P.; Hannula, I.; Nasrullah, M.; Kurkela, E. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2009-10-15

    The research is directed towards methods of producing transportation bio-fuels via the synthesis-gas route, with emphasis on the synthesis-gas production and gas cleaning steps. The subtopics of the research project are (1) fuel characterisation and ash behaviour in the gasification step, (2) reaction mechanisms related to gas cleaning, (3) evaluations of alternative process configurations and applications and (4) international co-operation. VTT itself finances also two additional subtopics: (5) new analysis techniques and (6) hydrogen from biomass via gasification. A lot of data on the reactivity and ash sintering properties of various kinds of biomasses has been obtained in the project and the information will now be formulated into a mathematical model. In addition to catalysis also thermal reactions play an important role in gas cleaning. Both experimental and modelling work on both of the reaction types is being carried out. Three techno-economic evaluations on alternative and competing technologies will be completed in the coming year. International development in syngas technology has been closely monitored in all subtopics as well as by participating in relevant IEA-tasks. New analysis techniques developed in the project have proven very useful and for instance a fast on-line tar analysis method is now well established. (orig.)

  10. Ionic liquid matrix-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for enhanced MALDI-MS analysis of phospholipids in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivas, Kamlesh; Tapadia, Kavita

    2015-09-15

    Ionic liquid matrix (ILM) is found to be a very versatile substance for analysis of broad range of organic molecules in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) due to good solubility for a variety of analytes, formation of homogenous crystals and high vacuum stability of the matrix. In the present work, an ILM, cyno-4-hydroxycinnamic acid-butylamine (CHCAB) was employed in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) as sample probe and matrix for extraction and ionization of phospholipids from food samples (soybean) prior to MALDI-MS analysis. With the employed technique, 8-125 fold improvement in signal intensity and limit of detection were achieved for the analysis of phospholipids. The best extraction efficiency of phospholipids in ILM-DLLME was obtained with 5min extraction time in presence 30mg/mL CHCAB and 1.2% NaCl using chloroform as an extracting solvent and methanol as a dispersing solvent. Further, the developed ILM-DLLME procedure has been successfully applied for the analysis of phospholipids in soybean samples in MALDI-MS.

  11. Determination of metal ions in tea samples using task-specific ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Justyna

    2016-04-01

    Task-specific ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was used for the preconcentration of cadmium(II), cobalt(II), and lead(II) ions in tea samples, which were subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography with UV detection. The proposed method of preconcentration is free of volatile organic compounds, which are often used as extractants and dispersing solvents in classic techniques of microextraction. A task-specific ionic liquid trioctylmethylammonium thiosalicylate was used as an extractant and a chelating agent. Ultrasound was used to disperse the ionic liquid. After microextraction, the phases were separated by centrifugation, and the ionic liquid phase was solubilized in methanol and directly injected into the liquid chromatograph. Selected microextraction parameters, such as the volume of ionic liquid, the pH of the sample, the duration of ultrasound treatment, the speed and time of centrifugation, and the effect of ionic strength, were optimized. Under optimal conditions an enrichment factor of 200 was obtained for each analyte. The limits of detection were 0.002 mg/kg for Cd(II), 0.009 mg/kg for Co(II), and 0.013 mg/kg for Pb(II). The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by an analysis of the Certified Reference Materials (INCT-TL-1, INCT-MPH-2) with the recovery values in the range of 90-104%.

  12. Gasohol - Analysis and biomass alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    The economics of fermentation ethanol as a near-term alternative to liquid hydrocarbon fuels are analyzed and alternatives to grain-fermented ethanol are examined. Based on estimates of raw material and production costs and energy consumption, it is shown that net production costs for alcohol fuel from corn amount to $2.14/gallon, with no significant net consumption or gain in energy. It is also pointed out that the use of grain for alcohol production will influence quantities available for livestock production and export, and that land available for grain production is limited. Consideration is then given to the economic potential of using cellulosic biomass from agricultural and forest residues in the production of ethanol fuels and coal gasification for methanol production, and it is pointed out that these alternatives offer economic, energy and oil-savings advantages over ethanol production from grains.

  13. Competing uses of biomass