WorldWideScience

Sample records for biomass area density

  1. BOREAS TE-18 Biomass Density Image of the SSA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This biomass density image covers almost the entire BOREAS SSA. The pixels for which biomass density is computed include areas that are in conifer land...

  2. BOREAS TE-18 Biomass Density Image of the SSA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This biomass density image covers almost the entire BOREAS SSA. The pixels for which biomass density is computed include areas that are in conifer land cover classes...

  3. Evaluating lidar point densities for effective estimation of aboveground biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhuoting; Dye, Dennis G.; Stoker, Jason M.; Vogel, John M.; Velasco, Miguel G.; Middleton, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) was recently established to provide airborne lidar data coverage on a national scale. As part of a broader research effort of the USGS to develop an effective remote sensing-based methodology for the creation of an operational biomass Essential Climate Variable (Biomass ECV) data product, we evaluated the performance of airborne lidar data at various pulse densities against Landsat 8 satellite imagery in estimating above ground biomass for forests and woodlands in a study area in east-central Arizona, U.S. High point density airborne lidar data, were randomly sampled to produce five lidar datasets with reduced densities ranging from 0.5 to 8 point(s)/m2, corresponding to the point density range of 3DEP to provide national lidar coverage over time. Lidar-derived aboveground biomass estimate errors showed an overall decreasing trend as lidar point density increased from 0.5 to 8 points/m2. Landsat 8-based aboveground biomass estimates produced errors larger than the lowest lidar point density of 0.5 point/m2, and therefore Landsat 8 observations alone were ineffective relative to airborne lidar for generating a Biomass ECV product, at least for the forest and woodland vegetation types of the Southwestern U.S. While a national Biomass ECV product with optimal accuracy could potentially be achieved with 3DEP data at 8 points/m2, our results indicate that even lower density lidar data could be sufficient to provide a national Biomass ECV product with accuracies significantly higher than that from Landsat observations alone.

  4. Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Angie [Northeast Iowa Resource Conservation & Development, Inc., Postville, IA (United States); Bertjens, Steve [Natural Resources Conservation Service, Madison, WI (United States); Lieurance, Mike [Northeast Iowa Resource Conservation & Development, Inc., Postville, IA (United States); Berguson, Bill [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Natural Resources Research Inst.; Buchman, Dan [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Natural Resources Research Inst.

    2012-12-31

    The Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project evaluated the potential for biomass energy production and utilization throughout the Driftless Region of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The research and demonstration aspect of the project specifically focused on biomass energy feedstock availability and production potential in the region, as well as utilization potential of biomass feedstocks for heat, electrical energy production, or combined heat and power operations. The Driftless Region was evaluated because the topography of the area offers more acres of marginal soils on steep slopes, wooded areas, and riparian corridors than the surrounding “Corn Belt”. These regional land characteristics were identified as potentially providing opportunity for biomass feedstock production that could compete with traditional agriculture commodity crops economically. The project researched establishment methods and costs for growing switchgrass on marginal agricultural lands to determine the economic and quantitative feasibility of switchgrass production for biomass energy purposes. The project was successful in identifying the best management and establishment practices for switchgrass in the Driftless Area, but also demonstrated that simple economic payback versus commodity crops could not be achieved at the time of the research. The project also analyzed the availability of woody biomass and production potential for growing woody biomass for large scale biomass energy production in the Driftless Area. Analysis determined that significant resources exist, but costs to harvest and deliver to the site were roughly 60% greater than that of natural gas at the time of the study. The project contributed significantly to identifying both production potential of biomass energy crops and existing feedstock availability in the Driftless Area. The project also analyzed the economic feasibility of dedicated energy crops in the Driftless Area. High commodity crop prices

  5. Biomass-derived nitrogen-doped porous carbons with tailored hierarchical porosity and high specific surface area for high energy and power density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junting; Niu, Jin; Liu, Mengyue; Ji, Jing; Dou, Meiling; Wang, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Porous carbon materials with hierarchical structures attract intense interest for the development of high-performance supercapacitors. Herein, we demonstrate a facile and efficient strategy to synthesize nitrogen-doped hierarchically porous carbons with tailored porous structure combined with high specific surface area (SSA), which involves a pre-carbonization and a subsequent carbonization combined with KOH activation of silkworm cocoon precursors. Through adjusting the mass ratio of the activator (KOH) to pre-carbonized precursor in the activation process, the hierarchically porous carbon prepared at the mass ratio of 2 (referred to as NHPC-2) possesses a high defect density and a high SSA of 3386 m2 g-1 as well as the relatively high volumetric proportion of mesopores and macropores (45.5%). As a result, the energy density and power density of the symmetric supercapacitor based on NHPC-2 electrode are as high as 34.41 Wh kg-1 and 31.25 kW kg-1 in organic-solvent electrolyte, and are further improved to 112.1 Wh kg-1 and 23.91 kW kg-1 in ionic-liquid electrolyte.

  6. Temporal and Spatial variability in Reef fish Density and Biomass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Underwater Visual Census (UVC) techniques were used for the assessment of reef fish density and biomass, and line intercept transect (LIT) was used for the estimation of benthic cover. Results showed that there was a significant seasonal and temporal variation in fish density and biomass at both Mbundya and Bongoyo ...

  7. Aruscular mycorhizal fungi alter plant allometry and biomass - density relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Lu; Weiner, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant biomass–density relationships during self-thinning are determined mainly by allometry. Both allometry and biomass–density relationship have been shown to vary with abiotic conditions, but the effects of biotic interactions have not been investigated. Arbuscular mycorrhizal...... mycorrhizal levels were obtained by applying benomyl (low AMF) or not (high AMF). Experiment 1 investigated the effects of AMF on plant growth in the absence of competition. Experiment 2 was a factorial design with two mycorrhizal levels and two plant densities (6000 and 17 500 seeds m-2). Shoot biomass, root....... In self-thinning populations, the slope of the log (mean shoot biomass) vs. log density relationship was significantly steeper for the high AMF treatment (slope = –1·480) than for the low AMF treatment (–1·133). The canopy radius–biomass allometric exponents were not significantly affected by AMF level...

  8. Biomass of tree species as a response to planting density and interspecific competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Planting trees is an important way to promote the recovery of degraded areas in the Caatinga region. Experiments (E1, E2, and E3 were conducted in a randomized blocks design, with three, three, and five replicates, respectively. The objectives were to evaluate biomass of the shoots of: a gliricidia (G and sabiá (S, as a response to planting density; b G, S, and neem (N in competition; c G, and S in agroforestry. E1 was conducted in split-plots, and planting densities (400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 plants ha-1 as subplots. E2 consisted of a factorial comprising the following plots: GGG, NGN, SGS, NNN, GNG, SNS, SSS, GSG, NSN (each letter represents a row of plants. E3 was conducted with G and S in agroforestry experiment. The trees were harvested after 54, 42, and 27 months old, in E1, E2 and E3, respectively. In E1, G presented higher green biomass of the stems and leaf at smaller densities than S, but lower green biomass of branches at most densities. The species did not differ for mean stem dry biomass and leaf dry biomass, but G showed higher branch dry biomass at most densities. Higher planting densities increased green and dry biomass of stems, branches, and leaves in S, but decreased those characteristics in G, with the exception of leaf dry mass, which was not influenced by density. In E2, the behavior of each species was identical in plots containing the same or different species. Griricidia showed the highest green biomass of stems and branches, and the highest values for geren biomass of the leaf were observed for gliricidia and neem. The highest stem, branch, and leaf dry biomass values were obtained for G, S, and N, respectively. In E3, G was superior for stem and leaf green biomass, and for stem and branch dry biomass. There were no differences between species for the other biomass values.

  9. Effects of fine root length density and root biomass on soil preferential flow in forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghu Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The study was conducted to characterize the impacts of plant roots systems (e.g., root length density and root biomass on soil preferential flow in forest ecosystems. Area of study: The study was carried out in Jiufeng National Forest Park, Beijing, China. Material and methods: The flow patterns were measured by field dye tracing experiments. Different species (Sophora japonica Linn,Platycladus orientalis Franco, Quercus dentata Thunbwere quantified in two replicates, and 12 soil depth were applied. Plant roots were sampled in the sieving methods. Root length density and root biomass were measured by WinRHIZO. Dye coverage was implied in the image analysis, and maximum depth of dye infiltration by direct measurement. Main results: Root length density and root biomass decreased with the increasing distance from soil surface, and root length density was 81.6% higher in preferential pathways than in soil matrix, and 66.7% for root biomass with respect to all experimental plots. Plant roots were densely distributed in the upper soil layers. Dye coverage was almost 100% in the upper 5-10 cm, but then decreased rapidly with soil depth. Root length density and root biomass were different from species: Platycladus orientalis Franco > Quercus dentata Thunb > Sophora japonica Linn. Research highlights: The results indicated that fine roots systems had strong effects on soil preferential flow, particularly root channels enhancing nutrition transport across soil profiles in forest dynamics.

  10. Spatial Variation of Biomass Carbon Density in a Subtropical Region of Southeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Fu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial pattern information of forest biomass carbon (FBC density in forest ecosystems plays an important role in evaluating carbon sequestration potentials and forest management. The spatial variation of FBC density in a subtropical region of southeastern China was studied using geostatistics combined with Moran’s I and geographical information systems (GIS. Forest biomass carbon density values were variable, ranging from 0.12 Mg ha−1 to 182.12 Mg ha−1, with an average of 27.33 Mg ha−1. The FBC density had the strongest positive correlation with forest age, followed by forest litter and elevation. The FBC density had significant positive spatial autocorrelation revealed by global Moran’s I. Clear spatial patterns were observed based on local Moran’s I. High FBC density values were mainly distributed in the northwestern and southwestern parts of Zhejiang province, which were related to adopting long-term policy of forest conservation in these areas, while low FBC density values located in the middle part and southeastern coastal area of the study area due to low forest coverage and intensive management of economic forests. The Moran’s I combined with geostatistical interpolation proved to be a useful tool for studying spatial variation of FBC density.

  11. Generalized biomass and leaf area allometric equations for European tree species incorporating stand structure, tree age and climate

    OpenAIRE

    FORRESTER DAVID; TACHAUER ELOISE; ANNIGHOEFER PETER; BARBEITO IGNACIO; PRETZSCH HANS; RUIZ-PEINADO RICARDO; STARK HENDRIK; VACCHIANO GIORGIO; ZLATANOV TZVETAN; CHAKRABORTY TAMALIKA; SAHA SOMID; SILESHI GUDETA W.

    2017-01-01

    Biomass and leaf area equations are often required to assess or model forest productivity, carbon stocks and other ecosystem services. These factors are influenced by climate, age and stand structural attributes including stand density and tree species diversity or species composition. However, such covariates are rarely included in biomass and leaf area equations. We reviewed the literature and built a database of biomass and leaf area equations for 24 European tree species and 3 introduced ...

  12. Allometric Biomass, Biomass Expansion Factor and Wood Density Models for the OP42 Hybrid Poplar in Southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Tærø; Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Stupak, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Biomass and biomass expansion factor functions are important in wood resource assessment, especially with regards to bioenergy feedstocks and carbon pools. We sampled 48 poplar trees in seven stands with the purpose of estimating allometric models for predicting biomass of individual tree...... components, stem-to-aboveground biomass expansion factors (BEF) and stem basic densities of the OP42 hybrid poplar clone in southern Scandinavia. Stand age ranged from 3 to 31 years, individual tree diameter at breast height (dbh) from 1.2 to 41 cm and aboveground tree biomass from 0.39 to 670 kg. Models...

  13. Temperature effects on wood anatomy, wood density, photosynthesis and biomass partitioning of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D S; Montagu, K D; Conroy, J P

    2007-02-01

    Wood density, a gross measure of wood mass relative to wood volume, is important in our understanding of stem volume growth, carbon sequestration and leaf water supply. Disproportionate changes in the ratio of wood mass to volume may occur at the level of the whole stem or the individual cell. In general, there is a positive relationship between temperature and wood density of eucalypts, although this relationship has broken down in recent years with wood density decreasing as global temperatures have risen. To determine the anatomical causes of the effects of temperature on wood density, Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden seedlings were grown in controlled-environment cabinets at constant temperatures from 10 to 35 degrees C. The 20% increase in wood density of E. grandis seedlings grown at the higher temperatures was variously related to a 40% reduction in lumen area of xylem vessels, a 10% reduction in the lumen area of fiber cells and a 10% increase in fiber cell wall thickness. The changes in cell wall characteristics could be considered analogous to changes in carbon supply. Lumen area of fiber cells declined because of reduced fiber cell expansion and increased fiber cell wall thickening. Fiber cell wall thickness was positively related to canopy CO2 assimilation rate (Ac), which increased 26-fold because of a 24-fold increase in leaf area and a doubling in leaf CO2 assimilation rate from minima at 10 and 35 degrees C to maxima at 25 and 30 degrees C. Increased Ac increased seedling volume, biomass and wood density; but increased wood density was also related to a shift in partitioning of seedling biomass from roots to stems as temperature increased.

  14. Effects of LiDAR point density and landscape context on the retrieval of urban forest biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K. K.; Chen, G.; McCarter, J. B.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), as an alternative to conventional optical remote sensing, is being increasingly used to accurately estimate aboveground forest biomass ranging from individual tree to stand levels. Recent advancements in LiDAR technology have resulted in higher point densities and better data accuracies, which however pose challenges to the procurement and processing of LiDAR data for large-area assessments. Reducing point density cuts data acquisition costs and overcome computational challenges for broad-scale forest management. However, how does that impact the accuracy of biomass estimation in an urban environment containing a great level of anthropogenic disturbances? The main goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of LiDAR point density on the biomass estimation of remnant forests in the rapidly urbanizing regions of Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. We used multiple linear regression to establish the statistical relationship between field-measured biomass and predictor variables (PVs) derived from LiDAR point clouds with varying densities. We compared the estimation accuracies between the general Urban Forest models (no discrimination of forest type) and the Forest Type models (evergreen, deciduous, and mixed), which was followed by quantifying the degree to which landscape context influenced biomass estimation. The explained biomass variance of Urban Forest models, adjusted R2, was fairly consistent across the reduced point densities with the highest difference of 11.5% between the 100% and 1% point densities. The combined estimates of Forest Type biomass models outperformed the Urban Forest models using two representative point densities (100% and 40%). The Urban Forest biomass model with development density of 125 m radius produced the highest adjusted R2 (0.83 and 0.82 at 100% and 40% LiDAR point densities, respectively) and the lowest RMSE values, signifying the distance impact of development on biomass estimation. Our evaluation

  15. Regulation of bacterioplankton density and biomass in tropical shallow coastal lagoons

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    Fabiana MacCord

    Full Text Available AIM: Estimating bacterioplankton density and biomass and their regulating factors is important in order to evaluate aquatic systems' carrying capacity, regarding bacterial growth and the stock of matter in the bacterial community, which can be consumed by higher trophic levels. We aim to evaluate the limnological factors which regulate - in space and time - the bacterioplankton dynamics (abundance and biomass in five tropical coastal lagoons in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHOD: The current study was carried out at the following lagoons: Imboassica, Cabiúnas, Comprida, Carapebus and Garças. They differ in morphology and in their main limnological factors. The limnological variables as well as bacterioplankton abundance and biomass were monthly sampled for 14 months. Model selection analyses were performed in order to evaluate the main variables regulating the bacterioplankton's dynamics in these lagoons. RESULT: The salt concentration and the "space" factor (i.e. different lagoons explained great part of the bacterial density and biomass variance in the studied tropical coastal lagoons. When the lagoons were analyzed separately, salinity still explained great part of the variation of bacterial density and biomass in the Imboassica and Garças lagoons. On the other hand, phosphorus concentration was the main factor explaining the variance of bacterial density and biomass in the distrophic Cabiúnas, Comprida and Carapebus lagoons. There was a strong correlation between bacterial density and biomass (r² = 0.70, p < 0.05, indicating that bacterial biomass variations are highly dependent on bacterial density variations. CONCLUSION: (i Different limnological variables regulate the bacterial density and biomass in the studied coastal lagoons, (ii salt and phosphorus concentrations greatly explained the variation of bacterial density and biomass in the saline and distrophic lagoons, respectively, and (iii N-nitrate and chlorophyll

  16. Biorefineries: Relocating Biomass Refineries to the Rural Area

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    Franka Papendiek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The field for application of biomass is rising. The demand for food and feeding stuff rises while at the same time energy, chemicals and other materials also need to be produced from biomass because of decreasing fossil resources. However, the biorefinery ideas and concepts can help to use the limited renewable raw materials more efficiently than today. With biorefineries, valuable products, such as platform chemicals, can be produced from agricultural feedstock, which can subsequently be further processed into a variety of substances by the chemical industry. Due to the role they play as producers of biomass, rural areas will grow in importance in the decades to come. Parts of the biorefinery process can be relocated to the rural areas to bring a high added value to these regions. By refining biomass at the place of production, new economic opportunities may arise for agriculturists, and the industry gets high-grade pre-products. Additionally, an on-farm refining can increase the quality of the products because of the instant processing. To reduce competition with the food production and to find new possibilities of utilisation for these habitats, the focus for new agricultural biomass should be on grasslands. But also croplands can provide more renewable raw materials without endangering a sustainable agriculture, e.g. by implementing legumes in the crop rotation. To decide if a region can provide adequate amounts of raw material for a biorefinery, new raw material assessment procedures have to be developed. In doing so, involvement of farmers is inevitable to generate a reliable study of the biomass refinery potentials.

  17. Fruit production and branching density affect shoot and whole-tree wood to leaf biomass ratio in olive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Adolfo; Paoletti, Andrea; Al Hariri, Raeed; Famiani, Franco

    2018-02-14

    The amount of shoot stem (i.e., woody part of the shoot) dry matter per unit shoot leaf dry matter (i.e., the shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio) has been reported to be lower in short shoots than in long ones, and this is related to the greater and earlier ability of short shoots to export carbon. This is important in fruit trees, since the greater and earlier carbon export ability of shoots with a lower wood to leaf biomass ratio improves fruit production. This ratio may vary with cultivars, training systems or plant age, but no study has previously investigated the possible effect of fruit production. In this study on two olive cultivars (i.e., Arbequina, with low growth rate, and Frantoio, with high growth rate) subject to different fruit production treatments, we found that at increasing fruit production, shoot length and shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio were proportionally reduced in the new shoots growing at the same time as the fruit. Specifically, fruit production proportionally reduced total new-shoot biomass, length, leaf area and average shoot length. With decreasing shoot length, shoot diameter, stem mass, internode length, individual leaf area and shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio also decreased. This may be viewed as a plant strategy to better support fruit growth in the current year, given the greater and earlier ability of short shoots to export carbon. Moreover, at the whole-tree level, the percentage of total tree biomass production invested in leaves was closely correlated with branching density, which differed significantly across cultivars. By branching more, Arbequina concentrates more shoots (thus leaves) per unit of wood (trunk, branches and root) mass, decreasing wood to leaf biomass ratio at the whole-tree level. Therefore, while, at the shoot level, shoot length determines shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio, at the canopy level branching density is also an important determinant of whole-tree wood to leaf biomass ratio. Whole-tree wood to leaf

  18. ( Amaranthus retroflexus ) density and biomass on peanut ( Arachis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were conducted in 2004 and 2005 to evaluate the effect of redroot pigweed on peanut. Redroot pigweed aboveground dry weight was 44, 42, 40, 38, 35 and 30 g plant-1 at density of 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, 1.2, 2.3, or 4.7 plants m-1 of crop row. Peanut yield decreased as weed density increased. Yield reduction under redroot ...

  19. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  20. Modelling stand biomass fractions in Galician Eucalyptus globulus plantations by use of different LiDAR pulse densities

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    E.M. González-Ferreiro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims of study: To evaluate the potential use of canopy height and intensity distributions, determined by airborne LiDAR, for the estimation of crown, stem and aboveground biomass fractions.To assess the effects of a reduction in LiDAR pulse densities on model precision.Area of study: The study area is located in Galicia, NW Spain. The forests are representative of Eucalyptus globules stands in NW Spain, characterized by low-intensity silvicultural treatments and by the presence of tall shrub.Material and methods: Linear, multiplicative power and exponential models were used to establish empirical relationships between field measurements and LiDAR metrics.A random selection of LiDAR returns and a comparison of the prediction errors by LiDAR pulse density factor were performed to study a possible loss of fit in these models.Main results: Models showed similar goodness-of-fit statistics to those reported in the international literature. R2 ranged from 0.52 to 0.75 for stand crown biomass, from 0.64 to 0.87 for stand stem biomass, and from 0.63 to 0.86 for stand aboveground biomass. The RMSE/MEAN · 100 of the set of fitted models ranged from 17.4% to 28.4%.Models precision was essentially maintained when 87.5% of the original point cloud was reduced, i.e. a reduction from 4 pulses m–2 to 0.5 pulses m–2.Research highlights: Considering the results of this study, the low-density LiDAR data that are released by the Spanish National Geographic Institute will be an excellent source of information for reducing the cost of forest inventories.Key words: Eucalypt plantations; airborne laser scanning; aboveground biomass; carbon stocks; remote sensing; forest inventory.

  1. Distribution, density, and biomass of introduced small mammals in the southern mariana islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewel, A.S.; Adams, A.A.Y.; Rodda, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that introduced small mammals have detrimental effects on island ecology, our understanding of these effects is frequently limited by incomplete knowledge of small mammal distribution, density, and biomass. Such information is especially critical in the Mariana Islands, where small mammal density is inversely related to effectiveness of Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis) control tools, such as mouse-attractant traps. We used mark-recapture sampling to determine introduced small mammal distribution, density, and biomass in the major habitats of Guam, Rota, Saipan, and Tinian, including grassland, Leucaena forest, and native limestone forest. Of the five species captured, Rattus diardii (sensu Robins et al. 2007) was most common across habitats and islands. In contrast, Mus musculus was rarely captured at forested sites, Suncus murinus was not captured on Rota, and R. exulans and R. norvegicus captures were uncommon. Modeling indicated that neophobia, island, sex, reproductive status, and rain amount influenced R. diardii capture probability, whereas time, island, and capture heterogeneity influenced S. murinus and M. musculus capture probability. Density and biomass were much greater on Rota, Saipan, and Tinian than on Guam, most likely a result of Brown Tree Snake predation pressure on the latter island. Rattus diardii and M. musculus density and biomass were greatest in grassland, whereas S. murinus density and biomass were greatest in Leucaena forest. The high densities documented during this research suggest that introduced small mammals (especially R. diardii) are impacting abundance and diversity of the native fauna and flora of the Mariana Islands. Further, Brown Tree Snake control and management tools that rely on mouse attractants will be less effective on Rota, Saipan, and Tinian than on Guam. If the Brown Tree Snake becomes established on these islands, high-density introduced small mammal populations will likely

  2. Bed structure (frond bleaching, density and biomass) of the red alga Gelidium corneum under different irradiance levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintano, E.; Díez, I.; Muguerza, N.; Figueroa, F. L.; Gorostiaga, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades a decline in the foundation species Gelidium corneum (Hudson) J. V. Lamouroux has been detected along the Basque coast (northern Spain). This decline has been attributed to several factors, but recent studies have found a relationship between high irradiance and the biochemical and physiological stress of G. corneum. Since physiological responses to changes in light occur well before variations in morphology, the present study seeks to use a size-class demographic approach to investigate whether shallow subtidal populations of G. corneum off the Basque coast show different frond bleaching, density and biomass under different irradiance conditions. The results revealed that the bleaching incidence and cover were positively related to irradiance, whereas biomass was negatively related. The effect of the irradiance level on frond density was found to vary with size-class, i.e. fronds up to 15 cm showed greater densities under high light conditions (126.6 to 262.2 W m- 2) whereas the number of larger fronds (> 20 cm) per unit area was lower. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that irradiance might be a key factor for controlling along-shore bleaching, frond density and biomass in G. corneum. Further research should be carried out on the physiology of this canopy species in relation to its bed structure and on the interaction of irradiance and other abiotic (nutrients, temperature, wave energy) and biotic factors (grazing pressure).

  3. Effect of planting date and crop density of autumn wheat (Triticum aestivum L. on density and biomass of weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghorbani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Weeds in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. fields have always been a big problem in Iran and worldwide and must be managed by non-chemical especially cultural methods. A field experiment as factorial based on a randomized complete block design with four replications in a 1000 m2 field in Research Farm of Shirvan College of Agriculture was conducted during 2007-2008. Treatments included wheat densities of 400, 600 and 800 plants.m-2and planting dates of 1st of Nov., 20th of Nov., and 1st of Dec 2007. The results represented that the presence of Rapistrum rogusum, Phalaris spp., Descurainia sophia, Alopecurus myosurides and Hordeum murinum dominance. Delay in planting of wheat increased relative density of weeds. The lowest relative frequency of weeds was observed in planting date of 1st of November. Increase in crop density significantly decreased weed biomass, while it showed little effect on weed density trend. Effect of planting date was also significant on weed biomass. The highest weed biomass occurred in the planting date of Dec. the 1st. In conclusion, delay in planting of wheat create more chance and space for weed establishment, and therefore planting dense (600 plants.m-2 and early in season of wheat is recommended for lower weed damage.

  4. Geographical variation in oligochaete density and biomass in subtropical mangrove wetlands of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinwei; Cai, Lizhe; Zhou, Xiping; Rao, Yiyong

    2017-10-01

    Oligochaetes play an important role in nutrient cycling and energy flow in benthic food webs as well as in mangrove wetlands. However, they have not been as extensively studied as other macrofaunal groups such as polychaetes, gastropods, bivalves, and crustaceans. Under the assumption that oligochaete density and biomass obey specific geographical distribution patterns in subtropical mangrove wetlands of China, we investigated these two parameters in the Luoyang Estuary of Quanzhou Bay, Zhangjiang Estuary and Gaoqiao mangrove wetlands. A geographical gradient in oligochaete density was present in Aegiceras corniculatum and Kandelia obovata habitats, whereby it decreased from lower latitudes to higher latitudes. Further, ANOVA tests on oligochaete distribution revealed that both oligochaete density and biomass were significantly influenced by region, season and region × season at the A. corniculatum and K. obovata habitats. The annual average oligochaete density and biomass at the A. corniculatum habitat were higher than that at the K. obovata habitat, in both the Luoyang and Zhangjiang estuaries. There were significant correlations between oligochaete density and biomass and sediment particle size parameters, confirming that sand, silt, and clay contents were the key environmental factors affecting oligochaete distribution.

  5. Matsalu wetland area biomass as a bio fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lausmaa, Toenu

    2000-01-01

    To preserve Matsalu as an especially interesting and specific wetland area even on the international scale, the Matsalu Nature Reserve was founded in 1957. The most natural and characteristic bio topes at Matsalu are undoubtedly the reed stands, covering almost 3000 ha. The reed is rather thin and mixed with common hay plants near the land but towards the bay it becomes increasingly abundant and thick. The characterise features of several bio topes at the Nature Reserve (water-meadows, coastal pastures and meadows etc.) can be preserved only by human activity. Without human activity the landscape encompassing coastal pastures and meadows would go through changes and these areas would be soon covered with junipers. The reed harvesting in Matsalu goes back in the Middle Ages and even before that. The reed was harvested mainly in winter and only seldom in summer. The main goal of the reed harvesting was to obtain material for hatched roofs. The reed cutting is economically justified and environmentally benign activity even now, but only less than 1% of the total area of reed stands is cut nowadays. In spite of the fact that reed harvesting is now economical undertaking (export to Germany and Denmark), it could be much more escalated if were possible to use better technical equipment to that end and get low interest loans. Unfortunately, not all the reed in the wetland of Matsalu Nature Reserve is suitable for hatched roofs. Therefore, it is needed to find some other practical usage for reed as well. The most perspective of these new choices is, indeed, to use the reed biomass as a bio fuel for space heating in the local area of Matsalu. According to Matsalu wetland protection regulation, the constant human care of reed stands and meadows is one of the priorities in nature protection for this area. One possible field of use for the cut down biomass is to use it as a bio fuel. It is not only a good chance to run Matsalu Nature Reserve in sustainable way in terms of

  6. Initial density affects biomassdensity and allometric relationships in self-thinning populations of Fagopyrum esculentum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lei; Weiner, Jacob; Zhou, Daowei

    2013-01-01

    and the biomass–density trajectory, we grew Fagopyrum esculentum populations at three high densities and measured shoot biomass, density and the height and diameter of individual plants at six harvests. * Initial density did not affect the slope of the log biomass–log density relationship, but there was a clear...... by the biomass density: the relationship between mass and volume. Initial density could affect this by altering allometric growth in a way that influences architectural compactness. An alternative hypothesis is that competition at higher initial density is more size symmetric, which has been shown to reduce...

  7. Influences of soil solarization and barley straw mulch on weed density and biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhaneh Asgarpour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, due to the problems caused by herbicide application, there is a strong interest in developing alternative methods of weed control. To study the effects of soil solarization, barley straw mulch on weed flora, a field experiment was conducted at Research station of faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during the growing season of 2007-2008. This experiment was based on a randomized complete block design arranged as a split plot with three replications. Soil solarization treatment (Clear and black polyethylene and non-solarized control and various straw mulch rates (0, 300 and 600 gm-2 were arranged on the main plots and sub plots, respectively. Seventeen weed species was identified by studying weed population which were mainly annual broad-leaves species. Results indicated that solarization with clear and black sheets reduced weed density and biomass after removing polyethylene sheets. Solarization with clear sheets reduced weed density and biomass, after application of straw mulch. Straw mulch had no significant effect on weed density, but in last sampling date it reduced biomass up to 44.15% and 52.90% in 300 and 600 gm-2, respectively. The interaction effects of solarization and straw mulch on weed biomass was significant but only at 90 days after application of straw mulch. The lowest weed biomass observed in solarized bared plots with applying clear sheets.

  8. MIXED AND MONOSPECIFIC STANDS OF EUCALYPTUS AND BLACKWATTLE. II – FINE ROOT BIOMASS DENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate fine root biomass density (FRBD in mixed and monospecific stands of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla and Acacia mearnsii (black wattle in Bagé-RS (Southern Brazil. An experimental trial was installed with three treatments: 100% Eucalyptus (100E; 100% Acacia mearnsii (100A; 50% Eucalyptus + 50% Acacia mearnsii (50E:50A. The trial was carried using a randomized block design with three replicates. The fine root (≤ 2.0mm biomass density was determined 8 and 18 months after planting the trees. Soil samples were collected, with a cylindrical extractor auger (d = 7.0 cm, from four depths (0 - 5, 5 - 10, 10 - 20 and 20 - 30 cm at each sampling point. After 8 months, the FRBD distribution was the same in both species and in all soil layers, reaching the maximum projection at 125 cm from the tree trunk. After 18 months, the root biomass density was higher in the monospecific black wattle stand than in the monospecific eucalyptus stand and the mixed stand. The fine root biomass density was highest in the 5 - 10 cm layer close to the trunk, for the planting row spacing, the planting line and the diagonals between two planting lines. Knowledge about fine root growth and distribution in soil at initial stages of stand development may help in decision-making for intensive forestry, thus ensuring more efficient use of soil resources.

  9. Modelling stand biomass fractions in Galician Eucalyptus globulus plantations by use of different LiDAR pulse densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Ferreiro, E.; Miranda, D.; Barreiro-Fernandez, L.; Bujan, S.; Garcia-Gutierrez, J.; Dieguez-Aranda, U.

    2013-07-01

    Aims of study: To evaluate the potential use of canopy height and intensity distributions, determined by airborne LiDAR, for the estimation of crown, stem and aboveground biomass fractions. To assess the effects of a reduction in LiDAR pulse densities on model precision. Area of study: The study area is located in Galicia, NW Spain. The forests are representative of Eucalyptus globulus stands in NW Spain, characterized by low-intensity silvicultural treatments and by the presence of tall shrub. Material and methods: Linear, multiplicative power and exponential models were used to establish empirical relationships between field measurements and LiDAR metrics. A random selection of LiDAR returns and a comparison of the prediction errors by LiDAR pulse density factor were performed to study a possible loss of fit in these models. Main results: Models showed similar goodness-of-fit statistics to those reported in the international literature. R2 ranged from 0.52 to 0.75 for stand crown biomass, from 0.64 to 0.87 for stand stem biomass, and from 0.63 to 0.86 for stand aboveground biomass. The RMSE/MEAN 100 of the set of fitted models ranged from 17.4% to 28.4%. Models precision was essentially maintained when 87.5% of the original point cloud was reduced, i.e. a reduction from 4 pulses m{sup 2} to 0.5 pulses m{sup 2}. Research highlights: Considering the results of this study, the low-density LiDAR data that are released by the Spanish National Geographic Institute will be an excellent source of information for reducing the cost of forest inventories. (Author)

  10. Relationships between human population density and burned area at continental and global scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistinas, Ioannis; Oom, Duarte; Sá, Ana C L; Harrison, Sandy P; Prentice, I Colin; Pereira, José M C

    2013-01-01

    We explore the large spatial variation in the relationship between population density and burned area, using continental-scale Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) based on 13 years of satellite-derived burned area maps from the global fire emissions database (GFED) and the human population density from the gridded population of the world (GPW 2005). Significant relationships are observed over 51.5% of the global land area, and the area affected varies from continent to continent: population density has a significant impact on fire over most of Asia and Africa but is important in explaining fire over population density is associated with both increased and decreased in fire. The nature of the relationship depends on land-use: increasing population density is associated with increased burned are in rangelands but with decreased burned area in croplands. Overall, the relationship between population density and burned area is non-monotonic: burned area initially increases with population density and then decreases when population density exceeds a threshold. These thresholds vary regionally. Our study contributes to improved understanding of how human activities relate to burned area, and should contribute to a better estimate of atmospheric emissions from biomass burning.

  11. Interest of Integrating Spaceborne LiDAR Data to Improve the Estimation of Biomass in High Biomass Forested Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad El Hajj

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mapping forest AGB (Above Ground Biomass is of crucial importance to estimate the carbon emissions associated with tropical deforestation. This study proposes a method to overcome the saturation at high AGB values of existing AGB map (Vieilledent’s AGB map by using a map of correction factors generated from GLAS (Geoscience Laser Altimeter System spaceborne LiDAR data. The Vieilledent’s AGB map of Madagascar was established using optical images, with parameters calculated from the SRTM Digital Elevation Model, climatic variables, and field inventories. In the present study, first, GLAS LiDAR data were used to obtain a spatially distributed (GLAS footprints geolocation estimation of AGB (GLAS AGB covering Madagascar forested areas, with a density of 0.52 footprint/km2. Second, the difference between the AGB from the Vieilledent’s AGB map and GLAS AGB at each GLAS footprint location was calculated, and additional spatially distributed correction factors were obtained. Third, an ordinary kriging interpolation was thus performed by taking into account the spatial structure of these additional correction factors to provide a continuous correction factor map. Finally, the existing and the correction factor maps were summed to improve the Vieilledent’s AGB map. The results showed that the integration of GLAS data improves the precision of Vieilledent’s AGB map by approximately 7 t/ha. By integrating GLAS data, the RMSE on AGB estimates decreases from 81 t/ha (R2 = 0.62 to 74.1 t/ha (R2 = 0.71. Most importantly, we showed that this approach using LiDAR data avoids underestimating high biomass values (new maximum AGB of 650 t/ha compared to 550 t/ha with the first approach.

  12. Models for high cell density bioreactors must consider biomass volume fraction: Cell recycle example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monbouquette, H G

    1987-06-01

    Intrinsic models, which take into account biomass volume fraction, must be formulated for adequate simulation of high-biomass-density fermentations with cell recycle. Through comparison of corresponding intrinsic and non-intrinsic models in dimensionless form, constraints for non-intrinsic model usage in terms of biokinetic and fermenter operating parameters can be identified a priori. Analysis of a simple product-inhibition model indicates that the non-intrinsic approach is suitable only when the attainable biomass volume fraction in the fermentation broth is less than about 0.10. Inappropriate application of a non-intrinsic model can lead to gross errors in calculated substrate and product concentrations, substrate conversion, and volumetric productivity.

  13. Models for high cell density bioreactors must consider biomass volume fraction: cell recycle example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monbouquette, H.G.

    1987-06-01

    Intrinsic models, which take into account biomass volume fraction, must be formulated for adequate simulation of high-biomass-density fermentations with cell recycle. Through comparison of corresponding intrinsic and non-intrinsic models in dimensionless form, constraints for non-intrinsic model usage in terms of biokinetic and fermenter operating parameters can be identified a priori. Analysis of a simple product-inhibition model indicates that the non-intrinsic approach is suitable only when the attainable biomass volume fraction in the fermentation broth is less than about 0.10. Inappropriate application of a non-intrinsic model can lead to gross errors in calculated substrate and product concentrations, substrate conversion, and volumetric productivity. (Refs. 14).

  14. Combining enhanced biomass density with reduced lignin level for improved forage quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Shadle, Gail; Shen, Hui; Barros-Rios, Jaime; Fresquet Corrales, Sandra; Wang, Huanzhong; Dixon, Richard A

    2016-03-01

    To generate a forage crop with increased biomass density that retains forage quality, we have genetically transformed lines of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) expressing antisense constructs targeting two different lignin pathway biosynthetic genes with a construct for down-regulation of a WRKY family transcription factor that acts as a repressor of secondary cell wall formation in pith tissues. Plants with low-level expression of the WRKY dominant repressor construct produced lignified cell walls in pith tissues and exhibited enhanced biomass and biomass density, with an increase in total sugars in the cell wall fraction; however, lines with high expression of the WRKY dominant repressor construct exhibited a very different phenotype, with loss of interfascicular fibres associated with repression of the NST1 transcription factor. This latter phenotype was not observed in transgenic lines in which the WRKY transcription factor was down-regulated by RNA interference. Enhanced and/or ectopic deposition of secondary cell walls was also seen in corn and switchgrass expressing WRKY dominant repressor constructs, with enhanced biomass in corn but reduced biomass in switchgrass. Neutral detergent fibre digestibility was not impacted by WRKY expression in corn. Cell walls from WRKY-DR-expressing alfalfa plants with enhanced secondary cell wall formation exhibited increased sugar release efficiency, and WRKY dominant repressor expression further increased sugar release in alfalfa down-regulated in the COMT, but not the HCT, genes of lignin biosynthesis. These results suggest that significant enhancements in forage biomass and quality can be achieved through engineering WRKY transcription factors in both monocots and dicots. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Co-pelletization of sewage sludge and biomass: the density and hardness of pellet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Longbo; Liang, Jie; Yuan, Xingzhong; Li, Hui; Li, Changzhu; Xiao, Zhihua; Huang, Huajun; Wang, Hou; Zeng, Guangming

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, the effects of process parameters on pellet properties were investigated for the co-pelletization of sludge and biomass materials. The relaxed pellet density and Meyer hardness of pellets were identified. Scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR spectra and chemical analysis were conducted to investigate the mechanisms of inter-particular adhesion bonding. Thermogravimetric analysis was applied to investigate the combustion characteristics. Results showed that the pellet density was increased with the parameters increasing, such as pressure, sludge ratio and temperature. High hardness pellets could be obtained at low pressure, temperature and biomass size. The optimal moisture content for co-pelletization was 10-15%. Moreover, the addition of sludge can reduce the diversity of pellet hardness caused by the heterogeneity of biomass. Increasing ratio of sludge in the pellet would slow down the release of volatile. Synergistic effects of protein and lignin can be the mechanism in the co-pelletization of sludge and biomass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Importance of tree basic density in biomass estimation and associated uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njana, Marco Andrew; Meilby, Henrik; Eid, Tron

    2016-01-01

    Key message Aboveground and belowground tree basic densities varied between and within the three mangrove species. If appropriately determined and applied, basic density may be useful in estimation of tree biomass. Predictive accuracy of the common (i.e. multi-species) models including aboveground...... of sustainable forest management, conservation and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+) initiatives offer an opportunity for sustainable management of forests including mangroves. In carbon accounting for REDD+, it is required that carbon estimates prepared for monitoring reporting and verification schemes...... and examine uncertainties in estimation of tree biomass using indirect methods. Methods This study focused on three dominant mangrove species (Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh, Sonneratia alba J. Smith and Rhizophora mucronata Lam.) in Tanzania. A total of 120 trees were destructively sampled for aboveground...

  17. Landscape Patterns of Wood Density and Aboveground Biomass Along a Tropical Elevation Gradient in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    This research sought to understand how tree wood density and taxonomic diversity relate to topography and three-dimensional vegetation structure in the tropical montane forest of Braulio Carrillo National Park in Costa Rica. The study utilized forest inventory and botanical data from twenty 1-ha plots ranging from 55 m to 2800 m above sea level and remote sensing data from an airborne lidar sensor (NASA's Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor [LVIS]) to quantify variations in forest structure. There is growing evidence that ecosystem structure may help to control the functional variations across landscapes. This study relates patterns of tree functional wood density and alpha diversity to three-dimensional structure using remote sensing observations of forest structure. We were able to test the effect of the gradient on wood density measured from collected tree cores and on the subsequent aboveground biomass estimations. We sought to determine if there was a significant pattern of wood density across the altitudinal gradient, which has implications for conservation of both ecosystem services and biodiversity. We also wanted to determine how many random individuals could be sampled to accurately estimate aboveground biomass in a one-hectare plot. Our results indicate that there is a strong relationship between LVIS-derived forest 3D-structure and alpha diversity, likely controlled by variations in abiotic factors and topography along the elevation. Using spatial analysis with the aid of remote sensing data, we found patterns along the environmental gradients defining species composition and forest structure. Wood density values were found to vary significantly from database values for the same species. This variation in tree growth has repercussions on overall forest structure, and subsequent carbon estimates extrapolated from field measurements. Because these wood density values are directly tied to biomass estimates, it is possible that carbon storage has been

  18. LEAF AREA INDEX DERIVED FROM HEMISPHERICAL PHOTOGRAPH AND ITS CORRELATION WITH ABOVEGROUND FOREST BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyas Mutiara Basuki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI is one of the key physical factors in the energy exchange between terrestrial ecosystem and atmosphere. It determines the photosynthesis process to produce biomass and plays an important role in performing forest stand reflectance. Therefore building relationship between LAI and biomass from field measurements can be used to develop allometric equations for biomass estimation. This paper studies the relationship between diameter at breast height (DBH and leaves biomass, DBH and crown biomass (sum up of leaves, twigs and branches as well as between LAI and leaves biomass; LAI and crown biomass; LAI and Total Above-ground Biomass (TAGB in East Kalimantan Province. Destructive sampling was conducted to develop allometric equations. The DBH measurements from 52 sample plots were used as training data for model development (35 plots and for validation (17 plots. A hemispherical photograph was used to record LAI. The result shows that strong corelation (r exists between natural logarithmic (ln DBH and crown biomass ranging from 0.88 to 0.98. The correlation (r between LAI and biomass of leaves; leaves + twigs + branches; TAGB were 0.742, 0.768 and 0.772, respectively. Improvement of (r between LAI and biomass can be conducted by proper time of LAI measurement, when the sky is uniformly overcast.

  19. Co-assessment of biomass and soil organic carbon stocks in a future reservoir area located in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descloux, Stéphane; Chanudet, Vincent; Poilvé, Hervé; Grégoire, Alain

    2011-02-01

    An assessment of the organic carbon stock present in living or dead vegetation and in the soil on the 450 km2 of the future Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric reservoir in Lao People's Democratic Republic was made. Nine land cover types were defined on the studied area: dense, medium, light, degraded, and riparian forests; agricultural soil; swamps; water; and others (roads, construction sites, and so on). Their geographical distribution was assessed by remote sensing using two 2008 SPOT 5 images. The area is mainly covered by dense and light forests (59%), while agricultural soil and swamps account for 11% and 2%, respectively. For each of these cover types, except water, organic carbon density was measured in the five pools defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: aboveground biomass, litter, deadwood, belowground biomass, and soil organic carbon. The area-weighted mean carbon densities for these pools were estimated at 45.4, 2.0, 2.2, 3.4, and 62.2 tC/ha, respectively, i.e., a total of about 115±15 tC/ha for a soil thickness of 30 cm, corresponding to a total flooded organic carbon stock of 5.1±0.7 MtC. This value is much lower than the carbon density for some South American reservoirs for example where total organic carbon stocks range from 251 to 326 tC/ha. It can be mainly explained by (1) the higher biomass density of South American tropical primary rainforest than of forests in this study and (2) the high proportion of areas with low carbon density, such as agricultural or slash-and-burn zones, in the studied area.

  20. Extension of biomass estimates to pre-assessment periods using density dependent surplus production approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbowy, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Biomass reconstructions to pre-assessment periods for commercially important and exploitable fish species are important tools for understanding long-term processes and fluctuation on stock and ecosystem level. For some stocks only fisheries statistics and fishery dependent data are available, for periods before surveys were conducted. The methods for the backward extension of the analytical assessment of biomass for years for which only total catch volumes are available were developed and tested in this paper. Two of the approaches developed apply the concept of the surplus production rate (SPR), which is shown to be stock density dependent if stock dynamics is governed by classical stock-production models. The other approach used a modified form of the Schaefer production model that allows for backward biomass estimation. The performance of the methods was tested on the Arctic cod and North Sea herring stocks, for which analytical biomass estimates extend back to the late 1940s. Next, the methods were applied to extend biomass estimates of the North-east Atlantic mackerel from the 1970s (analytical biomass estimates available) to the 1950s, for which only total catch volumes were available. For comparison with other methods which employs a constant SPR estimated as an average of the observed values, was also applied. The analyses showed that the performance of the methods is stock and data specific; the methods that work well for one stock may fail for the others. The constant SPR method is not recommended in those cases when the SPR is relatively high and the catch volumes in the reconstructed period are low. PMID:29131850

  1. Extension of biomass estimates to pre-assessment periods using density dependent surplus production approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Horbowy

    Full Text Available Biomass reconstructions to pre-assessment periods for commercially important and exploitable fish species are important tools for understanding long-term processes and fluctuation on stock and ecosystem level. For some stocks only fisheries statistics and fishery dependent data are available, for periods before surveys were conducted. The methods for the backward extension of the analytical assessment of biomass for years for which only total catch volumes are available were developed and tested in this paper. Two of the approaches developed apply the concept of the surplus production rate (SPR, which is shown to be stock density dependent if stock dynamics is governed by classical stock-production models. The other approach used a modified form of the Schaefer production model that allows for backward biomass estimation. The performance of the methods was tested on the Arctic cod and North Sea herring stocks, for which analytical biomass estimates extend back to the late 1940s. Next, the methods were applied to extend biomass estimates of the North-east Atlantic mackerel from the 1970s (analytical biomass estimates available to the 1950s, for which only total catch volumes were available. For comparison with other methods which employs a constant SPR estimated as an average of the observed values, was also applied. The analyses showed that the performance of the methods is stock and data specific; the methods that work well for one stock may fail for the others. The constant SPR method is not recommended in those cases when the SPR is relatively high and the catch volumes in the reconstructed period are low.

  2. Biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    Biomass constitutes the energetic form more important and of greater potential after solar energy (source of origin), being consumed in direct form through the combustion, or indirectly through the fossil fuels (those which originates) or by means of different technical of thermochemical and of biochemistry for its conversion and utilization. The current document describes the origin and the energetic characteristics of biomass, its energetic and environmental importance for a developing Country as Colombia, its possibilities of production and the technologies developed for its utilization and transformation, mainly, of the residual biomass

  3. A Simultaneous Density-Integral System for Estimating Stem Profile and Biomass: Slash Pine and Willow Oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol; Charles E. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    In the wood utilization industry, both stem profile and biomass are important quantities. The two have traditionally been estimated separately. The introduction of a density-integral method allows for coincident estimation of stem profile and biomass, based on the calculus of mass theory, and provides an alternative to weight-ratio methodology. In the initial...

  4. BIOMASS AND DENSITY OF BROWN AND RAINBOW TROUT IN NEW MEXICO STREAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srečko Lainer

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Mean stream numerical density of the brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario Linnaeus, 1758 and the rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792 was 0.090 fish/m2 of which brown trout averaged 69% (72% in total biomass in 15 high-elevation New Mexico streams (1,661-2,560 m above sea level. Total trout density varied from 0.008/m2 in 1988 and 1989. Mean trout density ranged between 0.023-0.121 fish/m2 at site s open to public fishing. Considerably higher densities (0.142-0.409 fish/m2 were observed at sites closed for fishing. In the seven selected streams shared by both species, brown trout density exceeded rainbow trout density except at the two sites closed to fishing. Brown trout were stocked only as fingerlings (average 7,000 fish/stream/year while rainbow trout were stocked only in harvestable sizes (11,000 fish/stream/year. Reported total trout yield rates exceeded the total number of fish estimated to be in the stream by 1.01 to 11.63 in most small streams open to fishing. The proportional stock density (PSD ranged between O and 50 percent. Streams with low to moderate intensities of fishing had the highest PSD.

  5. [Does sea-grass biomass control the density of peracarids (Crustacea: Peracarida) in tropical lagoons?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, Ignacio; Cházaro-Olvera, Sergio; Alvarez, Fernando

    2007-03-01

    We analyzed the time-space variation of the peracarid crustaceans that inhabit seagrasses of the Alvarado Lagoon System, Veracruz, Gulf of Mexico. The organisms were collected from 108 samples in six sites with Ruppia maritima beds (December 1992 to November 1994). The assemblage was composed of 11 species. Eight species of Amphipoda (Hourstonius laguna, Cerapus benthophilus, Apocorophium louisianum, Grandidierella bonnieroides, Leptocheirus rhizophorae, Gammarus mucronatus, Melita longisetosa and Haustorius sp.), one of Isopoda (Cassidinidea ovalis) and two of Tanaidacea (Discapseudes holthuisi and Leptochelia savignyi) were identified. Taxocoenosis, density and biomass of peracarids showed seasonal pulses related to R. maritima biomass, salinity variation, epicontinental affluent and inlets. The species C. ovalis, G. mucronatus, A. louisianum and D. holthuisi were dominant.

  6. A wood density and aboveground biomass variability assessment using pre-felling inventory data in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svob, Sienna; Arroyo-Mora, J Pablo; Kalacska, Margaret

    2014-12-01

    The high spatio-temporal variability of aboveground biomass (AGB) in tropical forests is a large source of uncertainty in forest carbon stock estimation. Due to their spatial distribution and sampling intensity, pre-felling inventories are a potential source of ground level data that could help reduce this uncertainty at larger spatial scales. Further, exploring the factors known to influence tropical forest biomass, such as wood density and large tree density, will improve our knowledge of biomass distribution across tropical regions. Here, we evaluate (1) the variability of wood density and (2) the variability of AGB across five ecosystems of Costa Rica. Using forest management (pre-felling) inventories we found that, of the regions studied, Huetar Norte had the highest mean wood density of trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH) greater than or equal to 30 cm, 0.623 ± 0.182 g cm -3 (mean ± standard deviation). Although the greatest wood density was observed in Huetar Norte, the highest mean estimated AGB (EAGB) of trees with a DBH greater than or equal to 30 cm was observed in Osa peninsula (173.47 ± 60.23 Mg ha -1 ). The density of large trees explained approximately 50% of EAGB variability across the five ecosystems studied. Comparing our study's EAGB to published estimates reveals that, in the regions of Costa Rica where AGB has been previously sampled, our forest management data produced similar values. This study presents the most spatially rich analysis of ground level AGB data in Costa Rica to date. Using forest management data, we found that EAGB within and among five Costa Rican ecosystems is highly variable. Combining commercial logging inventories with ecological plots will provide a more representative ground level dataset for the calibration of the models and remotely sensed data used to EAGB at regional and national scales. Additionally, because the non-protected areas of the tropics offer the greatest opportunity to reduce

  7. Size-resolved chemical composition, effective density, and optical properties of biomass burning particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning aerosol has an important impact on the global radiative budget. A better understanding of the correlations between the mixing states of biomass burning particles and their optical properties is the goal of a number of current studies. In this work, the effective density, chemical composition, and optical properties of rice straw burning particles in the size range of 50–400 nm were measured using a suite of online methods. We found that the major components of particles produced by burning rice straw included black carbon (BC, organic carbon (OC, and potassium salts, but the mixing states of particles were strongly size dependent. Particles of 50 nm had the smallest effective density (1.16 g cm−3 due to a relatively large proportion of aggregate BC. The average effective densities of 100–400 nm particles ranged from 1.35 to 1.51 g cm−3 with OC and inorganic salts as dominant components. Both density distribution and single-particle mass spectrometry showed more complex mixing states in larger particles. Upon heating, the separation of the effective density distribution modes confirmed the external mixing state of less-volatile BC or soot and potassium salts. The size-resolved optical properties of biomass burning particles were investigated at two wavelengths (λ =  450 and 530 nm. The single-scattering albedo (SSA showed the lowest value for 50 nm particles (0.741 ± 0.007 and 0.889 ± 0.006 because of the larger proportion of BC content. Brown carbon played an important role for the SSA of 100–400 nm particles. The Ångström absorption exponent (AAE values for all particles were above 1.6, indicating the significant presence of brown carbon in all sizes. Concurrent measurements in our work provide a basis for discussing the physicochemical properties of biomass burning aerosol and its effects on the global climate and atmospheric environment.

  8. SAFARI 2000 1-Degree Estimates of Burned Biomass, Area, and Emissions, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: A new method is used to generate spatial estimates of monthly averaged biomass burned area and spatial and temporal estimates of trace gas and aerosol...

  9. CMS: Estimated Deforested Area Biomass, Tropical America, Africa, and Asia, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides estimates of pre-deforestation aboveground live woody biomass (AGLB) at 30-m resolution for deforested areas of tropical America, tropical...

  10. SAFARI 2000 1-Degree Estimates of Burned Biomass, Area, and Emissions, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new method is used to generate spatial estimates of monthly averaged biomass burned area and spatial and temporal estimates of trace gas and aerosol emissions from...

  11. Global 1-degree Maps of Forest Area, Carbon Stocks, and Biomass, 1950-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides global forest area, forest growing stock, and forest biomass data at 1-degree resolution for the period 1950-2010. The data set is based on a...

  12. Impacts of Airborne Lidar Pulse Density on Estimating Biomass Stocks and Changes in a Selectively Logged Tropical Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Airborne lidar is a technology well-suited for mapping many forest attributes, including aboveground biomass (AGB stocks and changes in selective logging in tropical forests. However, trade-offs still exist between lidar pulse density and accuracy of AGB estimates. We assessed the impacts of lidar pulse density on the estimation of AGB stocks and changes using airborne lidar and field plot data in a selectively logged tropical forest located near Paragominas, Pará, Brazil. Field-derived AGB was computed at 85 square 50 × 50 m plots in 2014. Lidar data were acquired in 2012 and 2014, and for each dataset the pulse density was subsampled from its original density of 13.8 and 37.5 pulses·m−2 to lower densities of 12, 10, 8, 6, 4, 2, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4 and 0.2 pulses·m−2. For each pulse density dataset, a power-law model was developed to estimate AGB stocks from lidar-derived mean height and corresponding changes between the years 2012 and 2014. We found that AGB change estimates at the plot level were only slightly affected by pulse density. However, at the landscape level we observed differences in estimated AGB change of >20 Mg·ha−1 when pulse density decreased from 12 to 0.2 pulses·m−2. The effects of pulse density were more pronounced in areas of steep slope, especially when the digital terrain models (DTMs used in the lidar derived forest height were created from reduced pulse density data. In particular, when the DTM from high pulse density in 2014 was used to derive the forest height from both years, the effects on forest height and the estimated AGB stock and changes did not exceed 20 Mg·ha−1. The results suggest that AGB change can be monitored in selective logging in tropical forests with reasonable accuracy and low cost with low pulse density lidar surveys if a baseline high-quality DTM is available from at least one lidar survey. We recommend the results of this study to be considered in developing projects and national

  13. NEW CONCEPTS AND TEST METHODS OF CURVE PROFILE AREA DENSITY IN SURFACE: ESTIMATION OF AREAL DENSITY ON CURVED SPATIAL SURFACE

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Shen

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of curve profile, curve intercept, curve intercept density, curve profile area density, intersection density in containing intersection (or intersection density relied on intersection reference), curve profile intersection density in surface (or curve intercept intersection density relied on intersection of containing curve), and curve profile area density in surface (AS) were defined. AS expressed the amount of curve profile area of Y phase in the unit containing surface area, S...

  14. Annual variation in reproductive success and biomass of the major macrozoobenthic species living in a tidal flat area of the Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukema, J. J.

    Annual variation in recruitment and biomass was studied during 13 years for the 5 species contributing most to total zoobenthic biomass in a tidal flat area in the westernmost part of the Wadden Sea. In all of these species annual biomass values tended to be more stable than numbers of recruits. In Cerastoderma edule and in Mytilus edulis recruitment variability was high, and was passed on almost completely to biomass, probably as a consequence of rapid juvenile growth and a high mortality, also in the adult stage, leaving few year-classes in the population. In Arenicola marina and in Mya arenaria biomass values varied much less than recruit numbers. Both species showed a low adult mortality rate with many year-classes present in the population, holding many old and heavy specimens that dominated biomass. Macoma balathica took an intermediate position in these respects. Recruitment was relatively stable in Arenicola and was probably controlled by the high numbers of adults. Recruitment variability was fairly low too in Macoma, but in this species juvenile mortality appeared to be directly related to their own density. Successful and poor years for recruitment were roughly the same for the 4 bivalve species. Particularly heavy spatfall was found during the summer following the severe 1978-1979 winter. Such synchronized recruitment does not fully add to variability in annual biomass values as the time needed for the recruted cohorts to reach maximum biomass values differs greatly between most of the high-biomass species.

  15. Impacts of mangrove density on surface sediment accretion, belowground biomass and biogeochemistry in Puttalam Lagoon, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D.H.; Kumara, M.P.; Jayatissa, L.P.; Krauss, Ken W.; Huxham, M.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the effects of seedling density on sediment accretion, biogeochemistry and belowground biomass in mangrove systems can help explain ecological functioning and inform appropriate planting densities during restoration or climate change mitigation programs. The objectives of this study were to examine: 1) impacts of mangrove seedling density on surface sediment accretion, texture, belowground biomass and biogeochemistry, and 2) origins of the carbon (C) supplied to the mangroves in Palakuda, Puttalam Lagoon, Sri Lanka. Rhizophora mucronata propagules were planted at densities of 6.96, 3.26, 1.93 and 0.95 seedlings m−2along with an unplanted control (0 seedlings m−2). The highest seedling density generally had higher sediment accretion rates, finer sediments, higher belowground biomass, greatest number of fine roots and highest concentrations of C and nitrogen (N) (and the lowest C/N ratio). Sediment accretion rates, belowground biomass (over 1370 days), and C and N concentrations differed significantly between seedling densities. Fine roots were significantly greater compared to medium and coarse roots across all plantation densities. Sulphur and carbon stable isotopes did not vary significantly between different density treatments. Isotope signatures suggest surface sediment C (to a depth of 1 cm) is not derived predominantly from the trees, but from seagrass adjacent to the site.

  16. Biomass production and potential water stress increase with planting density in four highly productive clonal Eucalyptus genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Hakamada; Robert M. Hubbard; Silvio Ferraz; Jose Luiz Stape; Cristiane Lemos

    2017-01-01

    The choice of planting density and tree genotype are basic decisions when establishing a forest stand. Understanding the interaction between planting density and genotype, and their relationship with biomass production and potential water stress, is crucial as forest managers are faced with a changing climate. However, few studies have investigated this relationship,...

  17. Assessing biomass and forest area classifications from modis satellite data while incrementing the number of FIA data panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru Salajanu; Dennis M. Jacobs

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to determine at what level biomass and forest area obtained from 2, 3, 4, or 5 panels of forest inventory data compares well with forested area and biomass estimates from the national inventory data. A subset of 2605 inventory plots (100% forested, 100% non-forested) was used to classify the land cover and model the biomass in South Carolina. Mixed...

  18. Benthic invertebrate density, biomass, and instantaneous secondary production along a fifth-order human-impacted tropical river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Anna Carolina Fornero; Gücker, Björn; Brauns, Mario; Hille, Sandra; Boëchat, Iola Gonçalves

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess land use effects on the density, biomass, and instantaneous secondary production (IP) of benthic invertebrates in a fifth-order tropical river. Invertebrates were sampled at 11 stations along the Rio das Mortes (upper Rio Grande, Southeast Brazil) in the dry and the rainy season 2010/2011. Invertebrates were counted, determined, and measured to estimate their density, biomass, and IP. Water chemical characteristics, sediment heterogeneity, and habitat structural integrity were assessed in parallel. Total invertebrate density, biomass, and IP were higher in the dry season than those in the rainy season, but did not differ significantly among sampling stations along the river. However, taxon-specific density, biomass, and IP differed similarly among sampling stations along the river and between seasons, suggesting that these metrics had the same bioindication potential. Variability in density, biomass, and IP was mainly explained by seasonality and the percentage of sandy sediment in the riverbed, and not directly by urban or agricultural land use. Our results suggest that the consistently high degradation status of the river, observed from its headwaters to mouth, weakened the response of the invertebrate community to specific land use impacts, so that only local habitat characteristics and seasonality exerted effects.

  19. Biomass conversion and expansion factors in Douglas-fir stands of different planting density: variation according to individual growth and prediction equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marziliano, P.A.; Menguzzato, G.; Scuderi, A.; Scalise, C.; Coletta, V.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: We built biomass expansion factors (BCEFs) from Douglas-fir felled trees planted with different planting densities to evaluate the differences according tree size and planting density. Area of study: The Douglas-fir plantation under study is located on the northern coastal chain of Calabria (Tyrrhenian side) south Italy. Materials and methods: We derived tree level BCEFs, relative to crown (BCEFc), to stem (BCEFst = basic density, BD) and total above-ground (BCEFt) from destructive measurements carried out in a Douglas-fir plantation where four study plots were selected according to different planting densities (from 833 to 2500 trees per hectare). The measured BCEFs were regressed against diameter at breast height and total height, planting density, site productivity (SP) and their interactions to test the variation of BCEFs. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the post hoc Tukey comparison test were used to test differences in BCEFt, BCEFc and in BD between plots with different planting density. Main results: BCEFs decreased with increasing total height and DBH, but large dispersion measures were obtained for any of the compartments in the analysis. An increasing trend with planting density was found for all the analyzed BCEFs, but together with planting density, BCEFs also resulted dependent upon site productivity. BCEFt average values ranged between 1.40 Mg m-3 in planting density with 833 trees/ha (PD833) to 2.09 Mg m-3 in planting density with 2500 trees/ha (PD2500), which are in the range of IPCC prescribed values for Douglas-fir trees. Research highlights: Our results showed that the application of BCEF to estimate forest biomass in stands with different planting densities should explicitly account for the effect of planting density and site productivity.

  20. Bilateral symmetrical low density areas in the basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Ihara, Yasuo

    1984-01-01

    We reported a case with dysarthria and gait disturbance, in which CT revealed symmetrical well-demarcated low density areas in the basal ganglia. The patient was a 43-year-old woman. Her family history and past history were not contributory. She had a little difficulty in speaking at the age of 17. Gait disturbance and micrographia appeared later. Although her expressionless face resembles to that seen in Parkinsonism, rigidity, akinesia and small-stepped gait were not present. The unclassified types of dysarthria and gait disturbance, which characterize the present case, were considered to be a kind of extrapyramidal symptoms, which were distinct from those of Parkinsonism. CT showed well demarcated low density areas predominantly in bilateral putamen. Metrizamide CT failed to show any communication between low density areas and subarachnoid spaces. To date, six cases, which presented similar clinical features and almost same CT findings as our case, were reported. (author)

  1. Low/Medium Density Biomass, Coastal and Ocean Carbon: A Carbon Cycle Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Jaime; Gervin, Jan; Kirchman, Frank; Middleton, Elizabeth; Knox, Robert; Gregg, Watson; Mannino, Antonio; McClain, Charles; Herman, Jay; Hall, Forrest

    2003-01-01

    As part of the Global Carbon Cycle research effort, an agency-wide planning initiative was organized between October 2000 and June 2001 by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) at the behest of the Associate Administrator for Earth Science. The goal was to define future research and technology development activities needed for implementing a cohesive scientific observation plan. A timeline for development of missions necessary to acquire the selected new measurements was laid out, and included missions for low - medium density terrestrial biomass / coastal ocean / and ocean carbon. This paper will begin with the scientific justification and measurement requirements for these specific activities, explore the options for having separate or combined missions, and follow-up with an implementation study centered on a hyperspectral imager at geosynchronous altitudes.

  2. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randerson, J.T; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G.R.; Rogers, B.M.; Morton, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often

  3. Influence of Sowing Times, Densities, and Soils to Biomass and Ethanol Yield of Sweet Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Dang Xuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of biofuels helps to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels and therefore decreases CO2 emission. Ethanol mixed with gasoline in mandatory percentages has been used in many countries. However, production of ethanol mainly depends on food crops, commonly associated with problems such as governmental policies and social controversies. Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench is one of the most potential and appropriate alternative crops for biofuel production because of its high biomass and sugar content, strong tolerance to environmental stress conditions and diseases, and wide adaptability to various soils and climates. The aim of this study was to select prospective varieties of sweet sorghum, optimum sowing times and densities to achieve high yields of ethanol production and to establish stable operational conditions in cultivating this crop. The summer-autumn cropping season combined with the sowing densities of 8.3–10.9 plant m−2 obtained the highest ethanol yield. Among cultivated locations, the soil with pH of 5.5 and contents of Al and Zn of 39.4 and 0.6 g kg−1, respectively, was the best condition to have an ethanol yield >5000 L ha−1. The pH ≥ 6.0 may be responsible for the significant reduction of zinc content in soils, which decreases both biomass of sweet sorghum and ethanol yield, while contents of N, P, K, organic carbon (OC and cation exchange capacity (CEC, and Fe likely play no role. The cultivar 4A was the preferred candidate for ethanol production and resistant to pests and diseases, especially cut worm (Agrotis spp..

  4. Effects of Planting Date, Time and Methods of Weed Control on Weed Density and Biomass in Cumin Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghorbani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two field experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the effect of planting date, method and date of weed control on weed density and biomass in the experimental research field, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2006 and 2007. Treatments included planting date (30 December, 20 January and 30 February, weeding date (first true leaf, start of branching and beginning of flowering stages and weed control methods (hand weeding, fire treatment and control. The results showed that there were significant differences in the number of weeds between different sowing dates, weeding dates and control methods. The highest mean density and biomass of weeds were obtained on the planting date, 30 February, and when weed was controlled at the first leaf appearance stage with fire treatment. The most appropriate time for weed control was at the beginning of cumin flowering. Fire treatment reduced weed growth in the first half of growing season. However, hand weeding significantly reduced weed density and biomass in the second half of cumin growing season. The first planting date caused the lowest mean weed biomass and the highest cumin yield compared to later planting dates. Hand weeding treatment contained lower mean weed density and biomass compared to fire treatment, however, cumin yield was lower in hand weeding plots than fire treatment. Keywords: Cultural control, Cuminum cyminum, Fire, Hand weeding, Control time

  5. Promoting the energy structure optimization around Chinese Beijing-Tianjin area by developing biomass energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Sun, Du; Wang, Shi-Yu; Zhao, Feng-Qing

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, remarkable achievements in the utilization of biomass energy have been made in China. However, there are still some problems, such as irrational industry layout, immature existing market survival mechanism and lack of core competitiveness. On the basis of investigation and research, some recommendations and strategies are proposed for the development of biomass energy around Chinese Beijing-Tianjin area: scientific planning and precise laying out of biomass industry; rationalizing the relationship between government and enterprises and promoting the establishment of a market-oriented survival mechanism; combining ‘supply side’ with ‘demand side’ to optimize product structure; extending industrial chain to promote industry upgrading and sustainable development; and comprehensive co-ordinating various types of biomass resources and extending product chain to achieve better economic benefits.

  6. Effective Area and Charge Density of Iridium Oxide Neural Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Alexander R.; Paolini, Antonio G.; Wallace, Gordon G.

    2017-01-01

    The effective electrode area and charge density of iridium metal and anodically activated iridium has been measured by optical and electrochemical techniques. The degree of electrode activation could be assessed by changes in electrode colour. The reduction charge, activation charge, number of activation pulses and charge density were all strongly correlated. Activated iridium showed slow electron transfer kinetics for reduction of a dissolved redox species. At fast voltammetric scan rates the linear diffusion electroactive area was unaffected by iridium activation. At slow voltammetric scan rates, the steady state diffusion electroactive area was reduced by iridium activation. The steady state current was consistent with a ring electrode geometry, with lateral resistance reducing the electrode area. Slow electron transfer on activated iridium would require a larger overpotential to reduce or oxidise dissolved species in tissue, limiting the electrodes charge capacity but also reducing the likelihood of generating toxic species in vivo.

  7. Catalytic co-pyrolysis of paper biomass and plastic mixtures (HDPE (high density polyethylene), PP (polypropylene) and PET (polyethylene terephthalate)) and product analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, Jayeeta; Pathak, T.S.; Srivastava, R.; Singh, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic co-pyrolysis of biomass and plastics (HDPE (high density polyethylene), PP (polypropylene) and PET (polyethylene terephthalate)) has been performed in a fixed-bed reactor in presence of cobalt based alumina, ceria and ceria-alumina catalysts to analyze the product distribution and selectivity. Catalysts are synthesized using co-precipitation method and characterized by BET (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller) surface area and XRD analysis. The effect of catalytic co-pyrolysis at different temperature with product distribution has been evaluated. The results have clearly shown the synergistic effect between biomass and plastics, the liquid products gradually increases forming with rise in the plastic content in the blend. Gaseous products have yielded most during pyrolysis of blend having biomass/plastics ratio of 5:1 with the presence of 40% Co/30% CeO 2 /30% Al 2 O 3 catalyst with hydrogen gas production touched its peak of 47 vol%. Catalytic performance enhanced with increase with the cobalt loading, with best performance attributing to 40% Co/30% CeO 2 /30% Al 2 O 3 catalyst. - Highlights: • Catalytic co-pyrolysis of biomass and plastics (HDPE, PP & PET) blends in fixed-bed reactor. • Strong synergistic effect evident between biomass and plastics. • Solid residue diminished with application of catalysts. • Aromatics and olefins production increases with higher plastic content. • More hydrogen production with application of catalysts with higher cobalt content.

  8. Ski areas affect Pacific marten movement, habitat use, and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith M. Slauson; William J. Zielinski; Michael K. Schwartz

    2017-01-01

    Alpine ski recreation is one of the most popular outdoor winter sports globally but often involves habitat modification and dense human activity, both of which can harm wildlife. We investigated the effects of ski area development and winter recreation activities on movement, occupancy, and density of Pacific martens (Martes caurina) in the Lake...

  9. A comparison of selected parametric and non-parametric imputation methods for estimating forest biomass and basal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald Gagliasso; Susan Hummel; Hailemariam. Temesgen

    2014-01-01

    Various methods have been used to estimate the amount of above ground forest biomass across landscapes and to create biomass maps for specific stands or pixels across ownership or project areas. Without an accurate estimation method, land managers might end up with incorrect biomass estimate maps, which could lead them to make poorer decisions in their future...

  10. Potential growth and biomass productivity of Miscanthus x giganteus as affected by plant density and N-fertilization in central Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danalatos, Nicholas G. [Department of Envir. Studies, University of Aegean, University Hill, Mytilini 81100 (Greece); Department of Crop Production and Rural Environment, University of Thessaly, Fytoko 38446 Volos (Greece); Archontoulis, Sotiris V. [Department of Crop Production and Rural Environment, University of Thessaly, Fytoko 38446 Volos (Greece); Department of Plant Science, Crop and Weed Ecology Group, Wageningen University, Haarweg 235, 6709 RP Wageningen (Netherlands); Mitsios, Ioannis [Department of Crop Production and Rural Environment, University of Thessaly, Fytoko 38446 Volos (Greece)

    2007-02-15

    The potential growth and biomass productivity of Miscanthus x giganteus was investigated under constraint-free conditions during two years with appreciable different climatic conditions in central Greece, and under three different plant densities (0.66, 1, 2 pl m{sup -2}) and two different nitrogen dressings (N{sub 0}=50, N{sub 1}=100 kg N ha{sup -1}). The field experimental design was a 3 x 2 factorial split plot in four blocks. Plant height, tiller number, leaf area index and dry weight per plant component were measured in subsequent harvests throughout the growing periods of 2001 and 2002. It was found that fertilisation within the studied rates did not affect growth and biomass productivity of the crop, and no interaction between fertilization and plant density was observed in any of the samplings. Contrary to fertilization, a significant effect of plant density was found, with the denser populated plants (10,000-20,000 pl ha{sup -1}) performing growth rates of 250-350 kg ha{sup -1} d{sup -1} for large parts of the growing period, reaching maximum dry biomass yields in excess of 38 t ha{sup -1} in the more favorable year, 2002, and 28 t ha{sup -1} in the warmer and drier year 2001. Such high yield potentials were explained by the particularly great assimilation rates of this crop that were also measured under light saturation and optimum temperature and water regimes. With such biomass yields (11.2-15.2 t ha{sup -1} oil equivalent), obtainable particularly under modest fertilisation needs, Miscanthus sinensis should be considered as a very promising crop for biomass production in Greece in the near future. (author)

  11. Fishing-gear restrictions and biomass gains for coral reef fishes in marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart J; Edgar, Graham J; Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Soler, German; Bates, Amanda E

    2018-04-01

    Considerable empirical evidence supports recovery of reef fish populations with fishery closures. In countries where full exclusion of people from fishing may be perceived as inequitable, fishing-gear restrictions on nonselective and destructive gears may offer socially relevant management alternatives to build recovery of fish biomass. Even so, few researchers have statistically compared the responses of tropical reef fisheries to alternative management strategies. We tested for the effects of fishery closures and fishing gear restrictions on tropical reef fish biomass at the community and family level. We conducted 1,396 underwater surveys at 617 unique sites across a spatial hierarchy within 22 global marine ecoregions that represented 5 realms. We compared total biomass across local fish assemblages and among 20 families of reef fishes inside marine protected areas (MPAs) with different fishing restrictions: no-take, hook-and-line fishing only, several fishing gears allowed, and sites open to all fishing gears. We included a further category representing remote sites, where fishing pressure is low. As expected, full fishery closures, (i.e., no-take zones) most benefited community- and family-level fish biomass in comparison with restrictions on fishing gears and openly fished sites. Although biomass responses to fishery closures were highly variable across families, some fishery targets (e.g., Carcharhinidae and Lutjanidae) responded positively to multiple restrictions on fishing gears (i.e., where gears other than hook and line were not permitted). Remoteness also positively affected the response of community-level fish biomass and many fish families. Our findings provide strong support for the role of fishing restrictions in building recovery of fish biomass and indicate important interactions among fishing-gear types that affect biomass of a diverse set of reef fish families. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Predator biomass, prey density, and species composition effects on group size in recruit coral reef fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartini, Edward E.; Anderson, Todd W.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Beets, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Group incidence and size are described for recruit parrotfishes, wrasses, and damselfishes on Hawaiian reefs over 3 years (2006–2008) at sites spanning the archipelago (20–28°N, 155–177°W). Coral-poor and coral-rich areas were surveyed at sites with both low (Hawaii Island) and high (Midway Atoll) predator densities, facilitating examination of relations among predator and recruit densities, habitat, and group metrics. Predator and recruit densities varied spatially and temporally, with a sixfold range in total recruit densities among years. Group (≥2 recruits) metrics varied with time and tracked predator and recruit densities and the proportion of schooling species. Groups often included heterospecifics whose proportion increased with group size. A non-saturating relationship between group size and recruit density suggests that the anti-predator benefits of aggregation exceeded competitive costs. Grouping behavior may have overarching importance for recruit survival—even at high recruit densities—and merits further study on Hawaiian reefs and elsewhere.

  13. High Biomass Polar Forests During the Permian: Evidence from the Buckley Formation, Beardmore Glacier Area, Antarctica Supports Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.

    2006-12-01

    Newly discovered fossil forests in the Central Transantarctic Mountains (CTM) are composed of 74 in situ stumps. They are surrounded by impressions of leaves of the gymnosperm Glossopteris and record monospecific stands of glossopterids. The stumps allow reconstruction of the height, density, and basal area of trees growing at 75 degrees S and provide a unique glimpse of a high latitude forest flourishing less than a million years before the end-Permian extinction event. The forests occur in two closely spaced beds (LP1, LP2) of the upper Buckley Formation at Lamping Peak (LP); the wood has been replaced by magnetite. Roots extending outward from the stumps and leaf mats recorded by densely packed impressions of Glossopteris leaves indicate that the stumps are in growth position. Stumps exposed in cross section have radiating roots than penetrate shallowly beneath the stump-bearing horizons. Both LP1 and LP2 contain stumps of diverse sizes, ranging from a few to 75 cm in diameter, reflecting young to old trees. Mean diameters at ground line (dgl) are 20.9cm (LP1) and 39.2cm (LP2). These mean diameters correspond to maximum tree heights of 15.4m (LP1) and 24.6m and are comparable to or greater than other high latitude fossil forests. Tree densities (trees/hectare; t/ha) are 2505 t/ha (LP1 and 1185 (LP2), which are within the range of densities of stands of old growth in deepwater swamps of the southeastern US and of old growth in the Smokies and greater than densities of trees in forests in Costa Rica. Basal areas (m2/ha), a measure of tree abundance that is independent of forest maturity, are 65 m2/ha (LP1) and 85 m2/ha (LP2), which are within the range of some modern forests and greater than others. Although fossil forest biomasses are not known, trend of basal area vs biomass of modern forests suggest high biomass given the basal areas of the fossil forests. The forests support with geologic evidence climate models indicating high temperatures and high CO2 levels

  14. Contrasts in Areas of Rubber Tree Clones in Regard to Soil and Biomass Carbon Stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Ribeiro Diniz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis crop may accumulate significant amounts of carbon either in biomass or in the soil. However, a comprehensive understanding of the potential of the C stock among different rubber tree clones is still distant, since clones are typically developed to exhibit other traits, such as better yield and disease tolerance. Thus, the aim of this study was to address differences among different areas planted to rubber clones. We hypothesized that different rubber tree clones, developed to adapt to different environmental and biological constrains, diverge in terms of soil and plant biomass C stocks. Clones were compared in respect to soil C stocks at four soil depths and the total depth (0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20, 0.20-0.40, and 0.00-0.40 m, and in the different compartments of the tree biomass. Five different plantings of rubber clones (FX3864, FDR 5788, PMB 1, MDX 624, and CDC 312 of seven years of age were compared, which were established in a randomized block design in the experimental field in Rio de Janeiro State. No difference was observed among plantings of rubber tree clones in regard to soil C stocks, even considering the total stock from 0.00-0.40 m depth. However, the rubber tree clones were different from each other in terms of total plant C stocks, and this contrast was predominately due to only one component of the total C stock, tree biomass. For biomass C stock, the MDX 624 rubber tree clone was superior to other clones, and the stem was the biomass component which most accounted for total C biomass. The contrast among rubber clones in terms of C stock is mainly due to the biomass C stock; the aboveground (tree biomass and the belowground (soil compartments contributed differently to the total C stock, 36.2 and 63.8 %, respectively. Rubber trees did not differ in relation to C stocks in the soil, but the right choice of a rubber clone is a reliable approach for sequestering C from the air in the

  15. Effects of planting density on the Biomass partitioning of intensively managed loblolly pine stands on the Piedmont and upper Coastal plain of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney E. Will; Nikhil Narahari; Robert O. Teskey; Barry D. Shiver; Matthew Wosotowsky

    2006-01-01

    Increased planting density enhances overall stand growth by increasing resource capture and use. However, planting density also may affect the proportion of biomass partitioned to stem growth, a main factor controlling stand growth and yield. During the fourth growing season, we determined the biomass partitioned to leaf, branch, stem, and fine root (> 0.5mm) of...

  16. Spatial distribution of biomass consumption as energy in rural areas of the Indo-Gangetic plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saud, T.; Singh, D.P.; Gadi, Ranu; Mandal, T.K.; Saxena, M.; Sharma, S.K.; Gautam, R.; Mukherjee, A.; Bhatnagar, R.P.; Pathak, H.

    2011-01-01

    Biomass is widely used as energy source in rural households in India. Biomass samples and socio-economic data have been collected at district level in the rural areas of Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP), India to determine the emissions of trace gases and aerosols from domestic fuels. Dung cake, fuelwood and crop residue are main sources of energy in rural areas of the IGP. Dung cake is the major domestic fuel (80-90%) in the rural areas of Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, whereas, 99% of rural households in Uttarakhand use wood as the main energy source. Using crop production data and usage of crop residues as energy, new consumption values have been estimated (21.13 Mt). Present information on the domestic fuel usage would be helpful in determining budgets estimates of trace gases and aerosols for India. (author)

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic shock wave formation: Effect of area and density variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujith, R.I.

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear steepening of finite amplitude magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves propagating perpendicular to the magnetic field is investigated. The nonlinear evolution of a planar fast magnetosonic wave in a homentropic flow field is understood well through simple waves. However, in situations where the wave is moving through a variable area duct or when the flow field is nonhomentropic, the concept of simple waves cannot be used. In the present paper, the quasi-one-dimensional MHD equations that include the effect of area variation and density gradients are solved using the wave front expansion technique. The analysis is performed for a perfectly conducting fluid and also for a weakly conducting fluid. Closed form solutions are obtained for the nonlinear evolution of the slope of the wave front in the limits of infinitely large and small conductivity. A general criterion for a compression wave to steepen into a shock is obtained. An analytical expression for the location of shock formation is derived. The effect of area variation and density gradient on shock formation is studied and examples highlighting the same are presented

  18. Imaging Laser Altimetry in the Amazon: Mapping Large Areas of Topography, Vegetation Height and Structure, and Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, J. Bryan; Nelson, B.; dosSantos, J.; Valeriano, D.; Houghton, R.; Hofton, M.; Lutchke, S.; Sun, Q.

    2002-01-01

    A flight mission of NASA GSFC's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) is planned for June-August 2003 in the Amazon region of Brazil. The goal of this flight mission is to map the vegetation height and structure and ground topography of a large area of the Amazon. This data will be used to produce maps of true ground topography, vegetation height, and estimated above-ground biomass and for comparison with and potential calibration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. Approximately 15,000 sq. km covering various regions of the Amazon will be mapped. The LVIS sensor has the unique ability to accurately sense the ground topography beneath even the densest of forest canopies. This is achieved by using a high signal-to-noise laser altimeter to detect the very weak reflection from the ground that is available only through small gaps in between leaves and between tree canopies. Often the amount of ground signal is 1% or less of the total returned echo. Once the ground elevation is identified, that is used as the reference surface from which we measure the vertical height and structure of the vegetation. Test data over tropical forests have shown excellent correlation between LVIS measurements and biomass, basal area, stem density, ground topography, and canopy height. Examples of laser altimetry data over forests and the relationships to biophysical parameters will be shown. Also, recent advances in the LVIS instrument will be discussed.

  19. Validation of a MODIS direct broadcast burned area mapping algorithm for estimating biomass burning emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, Shawn P.; Nordgren, Bryce; Hao, Wei Min

    2008-08-01

    Biomass fires emit large amounts of trace gases and aerosols and these emissions are believed to significantly influence the chemical composition of the atmosphere and the earth's climate system. At the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory (FiSL), a MODIS direct broadcast (DB) receiving station is in place to demonstrate the potential for monitoring biomass burning in near-real-time and predicting the impact of fire emissions on air quality. A burn scar algorithm that combines active fire locations and burn scar detections for near 'real-time' measurement of fire burned areas has been developed at the Missoula FiSL. Daily wildfire burned areas in western US provide crucial input for a prototype fire emissions - smoke dispersion forecasting system.

  20. Multi-stage approach to estimate forest biomass in degraded area by fire and selective logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, E. G.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Arai, E.; Duarte, V.; Jorge, A.; Gasparini, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Amazon forest has been the target of several threats throughout the years. Anthropogenic disturbances in the region can significantly alter this environment, affecting directly the dynamics and structure of tropical forests. Monitoring these threats of forest degradation across the Amazon is of paramount to understand the impacts of disturbances in the tropics. With the advance of new technologies such as Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) the quantification and development of methodologies to monitor forest degradation in the Amazon is possible and may bring considerable contributions to this topic. The objective of this study was to use remote sensing data to assess and estimate the aboveground biomass (AGB) across different levels of degradation (fire and selective logging) using multi-stage approach between airborne LiDAR and orbital image. The study area is in the northern part of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. It is predominantly characterized by agricultural land and remnants of the Amazon Forest intact and degraded by either anthropic or natural reasons (selective logging and/or fire). More specifically, the study area corresponds to path/row 226/69 of OLI/Landsat 8 image. With a forest mask generated from the multi-resolution segmentation, agriculture and forest areas, forest biomass was calculated from LiDAR data and correlated with texture images, vegetation indices and fraction images by Linear Spectral Unmixing of OLI/Landsat 8 image and extrapolated to the entire scene 226/69 and validated with field inventories. The results showed that there is a moderate to strong correlation between forest biomass and texture data, vegetation indices and fraction images. With that, it is possible to extract biomass information and create maps using optical data, specifically by combining vegetation indices, which contain forest greening information with texture data that contains forest structure information. Then it was possible to extrapolate the biomass

  1. Biomass, stem basic density and expansion factor functions for five exotic conifers grown in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Nielsen, Anders Tærø

    2015-01-01

    Adequate allometric equations are needed for estimating carbon pools of fast growing tree species in relation to international reporting of CO2 emissions and for assessing their possible contribution to increasing forest biomass resources. We developed models for predicting biomass, stem basic de...... decreased from 1.8–2.0 in small trees (dbh 25 cm), but differed among species. The overall model explained 86% of the variation and included quadratic mean diameter and dbh....

  2. Sustainable and resource-conserving utilization of global land areas and biomass; Globale Landflaechen und Biomasse nachhaltig und ressourcenschonend nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jering, Almut; Klatt, Anne; Seven, Jan; Ehlers, Knut; Guenther, Jens; Ostermeier, Andreas; Moench, Lars

    2012-10-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the state of the art of biomass based land use as well as on existing and future global development trends. An ecologically compatible and socially equitable utilization of resources as well as priorities in the production and utilization of biomass are described in order to achieve their goals. Approaches to action, measures and policy recommendations are presented with respect to the development of a globally sustainable, resource-conserving utilization of land.

  3. Accuracy assessment of biomass and forested area classification from modis, landstat-tm satellite imagery and forest inventory plot data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru Salajanu; Dennis M. Jacobs

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how well forestfnon-forest and biomass classifications obtained from Landsat-TM and MODIS satellite data modeled with FIA plots, compare to each other and with forested area and biomass estimates from the national inventory data, as well as whether there is an increase in overall accuracy when pixel size (spatial resolution...

  4. Assessing the influence of return density on estimation of lidar-based aboveground biomass in tropical peat swamp forests of Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuri, Solichin; Andersen, Hans-Erik; McGaughey, Robert J.; Brack, Cris

    2017-04-01

    The airborne lidar system (ALS) provides a means to efficiently monitor the status of remote tropical forests and continues to be the subject of intense evaluation. However, the cost of ALS acquisition can vary significantly depending on the acquisition parameters, particularly the return density (i.e., spatial resolution) of the lidar point cloud. This study assessed the effect of lidar return density on the accuracy of lidar metrics and regression models for estimating aboveground biomass (AGB) and basal area (BA) in tropical peat swamp forests (PSF) in Kalimantan, Indonesia. A large dataset of ALS covering an area of 123,000 ha was used in this study. This study found that cumulative return proportion (CRP) variables represent a better accumulation of AGB over tree heights than height-related variables. The CRP variables in power models explained 80.9% and 90.9% of the BA and AGB variations, respectively. Further, it was found that low-density (and low-cost) lidar should be considered as a feasible option for assessing AGB and BA in vast areas of flat, lowland PSF. The performance of the models generated using reduced return densities as low as 1/9 returns per m2 also yielded strong agreement with the original high-density data. The use model-based statistical inferences enabled relatively precise estimates of the mean AGB at the landscape scale to be obtained with a fairly low-density of 1/4 returns per m2, with less than 10% standard error (SE). Further, even when very low-density lidar data was used (i.e., 1/49 returns per m2) the bias of the mean AGB estimates were still less than 10% with a SE of approximately 15%. This study also investigated the influence of different DTM resolutions for normalizing the elevation during the generation of forest-related lidar metrics using various return densities point cloud. We found that the high-resolution digital terrain model (DTM) had little effect on the accuracy of lidar metrics calculation in PSF. The accuracy of

  5. Influence of landscape heterogeneity on spatial patterns of wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Anderson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies using the RAINFOR network of forest plots have generated significant insights into the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest carbon cycling in Amazonia. In this work, we map and explore the landscape context of several major RAINFOR plot clusters using Landsat ETM+ satellite data. In particular, we explore how representative the plots are of their landscape context, and test whether bias in plot location within landscapes may be influencing the regional mean values obtained for important forest biophysical parameters. Specifically, we evaluate whether the regional variations in wood productivity, wood specific density and above ground biomass derived from the RAINFOR network could be driven by systematic and unintentional biases in plot location. Remote sensing data covering 45 field plots were aggregated to generate landscape maps to identify the specific physiognomy of the plots. In the Landsat ETM+ data, it was possible to spectrally differentiate three types of terra firme forest, three types of forests over Paleovarzea geomorphologycal formation, two types of bamboo-dominated forest, palm forest, Heliconia monodominant vegetation, swamp forest, disturbed forests and land use areas. Overall, the plots were generally representative of the forest physiognomies in the landscape in which they are located. Furthermore, the analysis supports the observed regional trends in those important forest parameters. This study demonstrates the utility of landscape scale analysis of forest physiognomies for validating and supporting the finds of plot based studies. Moreover, the more precise geolocation of many key RAINFOR plot clusters achieved during this research provides important contextual information for studies employing the RAINFOR database.

  6. New Geospatial Approaches for Efficiently Mapping Forest Biomass Logistics at High Resolution over Large Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hogland

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Adequate biomass feedstock supply is an important factor in evaluating the financial feasibility of alternative site locations for bioenergy facilities and for maintaining profitability once a facility is built. We used newly developed spatial analysis and logistics software to model the variables influencing feedstock supply and to estimate and map two components of the supply chain for a bioenergy facility: (1 the total biomass stocks available within an economically efficient transportation distance; (2 the cost of logistics to move the required stocks from the forest to the facility. Both biomass stocks and flows have important spatiotemporal dynamics that affect procurement costs and project viability. Though seemingly straightforward, these two components can be difficult to quantify and map accurately in a useful and spatially explicit manner. For an 8 million hectare study area, we used raster-based methods and tools to quantify and visualize these supply metrics at 10 m2 spatial resolution. The methodology and software leverage a novel raster-based least-cost path modeling algorithm that quantifies off-road and on-road transportation and other logistics costs. The results of the case study highlight the efficiency, flexibility, fine resolution, and spatial complexity of model outputs developed for facility siting and procurement planning.

  7. Five-minute grid of marine bird biomass density surveyed off central California - all seasons, 1980-2001 (CDAS data set AL0_MASS.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — AL0_MASS is a polygon shapefile representing 5 minute x 5 minute latitude x longitude cells that house the overall total biomass densities (kg/sq.km.) of 76 species...

  8. Five-minute grid of marine bird biomass density surveyed off central California - Upwelling season, 1980-2001 (CDAS data set Up0_mass.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Up0_mass is a polygon shapefile representing 5 minute x 5 minute latitude x longitude cells that house the overall total biomass densities (kg/sq km) of 76 species...

  9. Five-minute grid of marine bird biomass density off central California - Oceanic season, 1980-2001 (CDAS data set Oc0_mass.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oc0_MASS is a polygon shapefile representing 5 minute x 5 minute latitude x longitude cells that house the overall total biomass densities (kg/sq km) of 76 species...

  10. Five-minute grid of marine bird biomass density surveyed off central California - Davidson Current season, 1980-2001 (CDAS data set Da0_mass.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Da0_MASS is a polygon shapefile representing 5 minute x 5 minute latitude x longitude cells that house the overall total biomass densities (kg/sq.km.) of 76 species...

  11. Environmental influences on the species diversity, biomass and population density of soft bottom macrofauna in the estuarine system of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Rodrigues, N.R.

    difference among the sites. The best multiple linear regression model revealed that all the 13 parameters studied were significant influencing parameters on species diversity, biomass and population density with exception of temperature. Among these salinity...

  12. Effects of the distribution density of a biomass combined heat and power plant network on heat utilisation efficiency in village-town systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifei; Kang, Jian

    2017-11-01

    The building of biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants is an effective means of developing biomass energy because they can satisfy demands for winter heating and electricity consumption. The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of the distribution density of a biomass CHP plant network on heat utilisation efficiency in a village-town system. The distribution density is determined based on the heat transmission threshold, and the heat utilisation efficiency is determined based on the heat demand distribution, heat output efficiency, and heat transmission loss. The objective of this study was to ascertain the optimal value for the heat transmission threshold using a multi-scheme comparison based on an analysis of these factors. To this end, a model of a biomass CHP plant network was built using geographic information system tools to simulate and generate three planning schemes with different heat transmission thresholds (6, 8, and 10 km) according to the heat demand distribution. The heat utilisation efficiencies of these planning schemes were then compared by calculating the gross power, heat output efficiency, and heat transmission loss of the biomass CHP plant for each scenario. This multi-scheme comparison yielded the following results: when the heat transmission threshold was low, the distribution density of the biomass CHP plant network was high and the biomass CHP plants tended to be relatively small. In contrast, when the heat transmission threshold was high, the distribution density of the network was low and the biomass CHP plants tended to be relatively large. When the heat transmission threshold was 8 km, the distribution density of the biomass CHP plant network was optimised for efficient heat utilisation. To promote the development of renewable energy sources, a planning scheme for a biomass CHP plant network that maximises heat utilisation efficiency can be obtained using the optimal heat transmission threshold and the nonlinearity

  13. Landscape and forest structural controls on wood density and aboveground biomass along a tropical elevation gradient in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, C. M.; Saatchi, S. S.; Clark, D. B.; Gillespie, T. W.; Andelman, S.

    2014-12-01

    This research seeks to understand how tree wood density and taxonomic diversity relate to topography and three-dimensional vegetation structure in the tropical montane forest of Braulio Carrillo National Park in Costa Rica. The study utilized forest inventory and botanical data from twenty 1-ha plots ranging from 55 m to 2800 m above sea level and remote sensing data from an airborne lidar sensor (NASA's Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor [LVIS]) to quantify variations in forest structure. There is growing evidence that ecosystem structure plays an important role in defining patterns of species diversity and help to control the phenotypic and functional variations across landscapes. Elevation gradients along mountains provide landscape-size scales through which variations in topography, climate, and edaphic conditions as drivers of biodiversity can be tested. In this study we report on the effectiveness of relating patterns of tree wood density and alpha diversity to three-dimensional structure of a tropical montane forest using remote sensing observations of forest structure. Wood density is an important parameter for aboveground biomass and carbon estimations. Tree cores were analyzed for wood density and compared to existing database values for the same species. In this manner we were able to test the effect of the gradient on wood density and on the subsequent aboveground biomass estimations. Understanding these patterns has implications for conservation of both ecosystem services and biodiversity. Our results indicate that there is a strong relationship between LVIS-derived forest 3D-structure and alpha diversity, likely controlled controlled by variations in abiotic factors and topography along the elevation. Using spatial analysis with the aid of remote sensing data, we found distinct patterns along the environmental gradients defining species composition and forest structure. Wood density values were found to vary significantly from database values for the

  14. Bilateral symmetrical low density areas in the striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabe, Ichiro; Shimoizumi, Hideo; Miyao, Masutomo; Kamoshita, Shigehiko

    1986-01-01

    A 10-year-old boy, who showed low density areas at bilateral striatal portion on brain CT, was reported. Characteristic clinical features were summarized as follows: 1. Onset in childhood (3 years old), 2. gait disturbance, dysarthria, involuntaly movement such as choreoathetosis and dystonia, 3. mild mental retardation (IQ 70), and 4. slowly progressive course over several years. Family history was unremarkable. His parents were not consanguineous. He was well until 3 years old, when he developed gait disturbance. At the age of 4, CT showed hypodensity lesions in the bilateral putamens, and right caudate was involved at 7, followed by bilateral caudate involvements at 10. Laboratory findings including blood lactate, pyruvate, serum copper, ceruloplasmin, aminoacids, urine and CSF catecholamines were within normal limits. TRH and thiamine therapies were ineffective L-dopa was slightly effective in movements, but symptoms were slowly progressive. We reviewed fourteen reported cases which were similar to our case in their onset, symptoms, clinical course and CT findings. Although the etiology was unknown, this case is possibly a new disease entity. (author)

  15. Converting biomass waste into microporous carbon with simultaneously high surface area and carbon purity as advanced electrochemical energy storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Wang, Lijie; Peng, Yiting; Gao, Jihui; Pi, Xinxin; Qu, Zhibin; Zhao, Guangbo; Qin, Yukun

    2018-04-01

    Developing carbon materials featuring both high accessible surface area and high structure stability are desirable to boost the performance of constructed electrochemical electrodes and devices. Herein, we report a new type of microporous carbon (MPC) derived from biomass waste based on a simple high-temperature chemical activation procedure. The optimized MPC-900 possesses microporous structure, high surface area, partially graphitic structure, and particularly low impurity content, which are critical features for enhancing carbon-based electrochemical process. The constructed MPC-900 symmetric supercapacitor exhibits high performances in commercial organic electrolyte such as widened voltage window up to 3 V and thereby high energy/power densities (50.95 Wh kg-1 at 0.44 kW kg-1; 25.3 Wh kg-1 at 21.5 kW kg-1). Furthermore, a simple melt infiltration method has been employed to enclose SnO2 nanocrystals onto the carbon matrix of MPC-900 as a high-performance lithium storage material. The obtained SnO2-MPC composite with ultrafine SnO2 nanocrystals delivers high capacities (1115 mAh g-1 at 0.2 A g-1; 402 mAh g-1 at 10 A g-1) and high-rate cycling lifespan of over 2000 cycles. This work not only develops a microporous carbon with high carbon purity and high surface area, but also provides a general platform for combining electrochemically active materials.

  16. Functions for biomass and basic density of stem, crown and root system of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Jens Peter; Bald, Caroline; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Models for predicting the biomass of forest trees are becoming increasingly important for assessing forest resources and carbon sequestration in forests. We developed functions for predicting the biomass and basic density of above- and below-ground parts of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst...... and thinning practises of Norway spruce in Denmark. Because of inclusion of experimental plots, data reflected a wider range of thinning practices than commonly used in forestry practice. The data included measurements of biomass and basic density from 114 trees, two of which were regarded as outliers...

  17. Morphology, Mechanical Properties and Dimensional Stability of Biomass Particles/High Density Polyethylene Composites: Effect of Species and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binshan Mu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of four types of biomass particles, including hardwood (poplar, softwood (radiata pine, crop (wheat straw and bamboo (moso bamboo, as reinforcing fillers in preparing high density polyethylene (HDPE based composites was studied. To improve interfacial compatibility, maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (MAPE was applied as the coupling agent. The effects of the biomass species on the mechanical and water absorption properties of the resulting composites were evaluated based on chemical composition analysis. A creep-recovery test was conducted in single cantilever mode using a dynamic mechanical analyzer. Results show that the four types of biomass particles had similar chemical compositions but different composition contents. Poplar particles with high cellulose content loading in the HDPE matrix exhibited higher tensile and flexure properties and creep resistance. Fracture morphology analysis indicated a weak particle-matrix interface in wheat straw based composites. Given the high crystallinity and minimum hemicellulose content, the moso bamboo reinforced composite showed high impact strength and better water resistance.

  18. Seasonal and spatial variation of organic tracers for biomass burning in PM1 aerosols from highly insolated urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drooge, B L; Fontal, M; Bravo, N; Fernández, P; Fernández, M A; Muñoz-Arnanz, J; Jiménez, B; Grimalt, J O

    2014-10-01

    PM1 aerosol characterization on organic tracers for biomass burning (levoglucosan and its isomers and dehydroabietic acid) was conducted within the AERTRANS project. PM1 filters (N = 90) were sampled from 2010 to 2012 in busy streets in the urban centre of Madrid and Barcelona (Spain) at ground-level and at roof sites. In both urban areas, biomass burning was not expected to be an important local emission source, but regional emissions from wildfires, residential heating or biomass removal may influence the air quality in the cities. Although both areas are under influence of high solar radiation, Madrid is situated in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, while Barcelona is located at the Mediterranean Coast and under influence of marine atmospheres. Two extraction methods were applied, i.e. Soxhlet and ASE, which showed equivalent results after GC-MS analyses. The ambient air concentrations of the organic tracers for biomass burning increased by an order of magnitude at both sites during winter compared to summer. An exception was observed during a PM event in summer 2012, when the atmosphere in Barcelona was directly affected by regional wildfire smoke and levels were four times higher as those observed in winter. Overall, there was little variation between the street and roof sites in both cities, suggesting that regional biomass burning sources influence the urban areas after atmospheric transport. Despite the different atmospheric characteristics in terms of air relative humidity, Madrid and Barcelona exhibit very similar composition and concentrations of biomass burning organic tracers. Nevertheless, levoglucosan and its isomers seem to be more suitable for source apportionment purposes than dehydroabietic acid. In both urban areas, biomass burning contributions to PM were generally low (2 %) in summer, except on the day when wildfire smoke arrive to the urban area. In the colder periods the contribution increase to around 30 %, indicating that regional

  19. Experiences of the BIOMAS-CUBA Project. Energy alternatives from biomass in Cuban rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suárez, J.; Martín, G. J.; Cepero, L.; Funes-Monzote, F.; Blanco, D.; Machado, R.; Sotolongo, J. A.; Rodríguez, E.; Savran, Valentina; Rivero, J. L.; Martín, C.; García, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides experiences of the international project BIOMAS-CUBA in the implementation of energy supply alternatives from biomass in rural areas, which are compatible to food security and environmental sustainability. These experiences are comprised between 2009 and 2011, within the agroenergetic farm concept, and are related to research and technological innovation processes associated to: the morphological, productive and chemical evaluation of germplasm of non-edible oil plants with potential to produce biodiesel, ethanol and other products; the planting and agricultural management of associations of Jatropha curcas and 21 food crops; the cleaning and oil extraction of Jatropha seeds; the physical-chemical characterization of such oil; the production of biodiesel and its co-products; the biogas production from excreta and bioproducts and biofertilizers, with the effluents of biodigesters; the gasification of ligneous biomass to generate electricity; the characterization and classification of integrated food and energy production systems. Likewise, the socioeconomic and environmental studies allowed appreciating adequate economic-financial feasibility, remarkable increases in food production, the formation of human capital and the improvement of the people's quality of life, a positive environmental impact and a substitution of energy porters and conventional fertilizers. (author)

  20. Novel and lost forests in the Upper Midwestern United States, from new estimates of settlement-era composition, stem density, and biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goring, Simon; Mladenoff, David J.; Cogbill, Charles; Record, Sydne; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Dietze, Michael C.; Dawson, Andria; Matthes, Jaclyn; McLachlan, Jason S.; Williams, John W.

    2016-01-01

    EuroAmerican land-use and its legacies have transformed forest structure and composition across the United States (US). More accurate reconstructions of historical states are critical to understanding the processes governing past, current, and future forest dynamics. Here we present new gridded (8x8km) reconstructions of pre-settlement (1800s) forest composition and structure from the upper Midwestern US (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and most of Michigan), using 19th Century Public Land Survey System (PLSS), with estimates of relative composition, above-ground biomass, stem density, and basal area for 28 tree types. This mapping is more robust than past efforts, using spatially varying correction factors to accommodate sampling design, azimuthal censoring, and biases in tree selection.

  1. Demersal fish and megafaunal assemblages on the Cretan continental shelf and slope (NE Mediterranean): seasonal variation in species density, biomass and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallianiotis, A.; Sophronidis, K.; Vidoris, P.; Tselepides, A.

    2000-08-01

    The demersal fish and megafaunal assemblages in the area of Heraklion Bay, Crete, were sampled during four research cruises from September 1994 to September 1995 within the framework of the CINCS project, using a stratified trawl survey at depths ranging from 50 to 1000 m. The sampling at 1000 m depth was the deepest ever made in Greek waters, using a bottom otter trawl. Species density and biomass were found to vary between depths and seasons, with higher values occurring at the shallow stations. Species distribution and communities are also reported. A total of 127 species of osteichthyes, chondrichthyes, crustaceans, and cephalopods were recorded, four of which were found for the first time in Greek waters. Percent similarity index (PSI) was used to assess the differences in the relative abundance of species pairs between depth zones and seasons. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to examine station variability statistically.

  2. Metabolic engineering of biomass for high energy density: oilseed-like triacylglycerol yields from plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhercke, Thomas; El Tahchy, Anna; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Shrestha, Pushkar; Divi, Uday K; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Mansour, Maged P; Nichols, Peter D; James, Christopher N; Horn, Patrick J; Chapman, Kent D; Beaudoin, Frederic; Ruiz-López, Noemi; Larkin, Philip J; de Feyter, Robert C; Singh, Surinder P; Petrie, James R

    2014-02-01

    High biomass crops have recently attracted significant attention as an alternative platform for the renewable production of high energy storage lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). While TAG typically accumulates in seeds as storage compounds fuelling subsequent germination, levels in vegetative tissues are generally low. Here, we report the accumulation of more than 15% TAG (17.7% total lipids) by dry weight in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) leaves by the co-expression of three genes involved in different aspects of TAG production without severely impacting plant development. These yields far exceed the levels found in wild-type leaf tissue as well as previously reported engineered TAG yields in vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana and N. tabacum. When translated to a high biomass crop, the current levels would translate to an oil yield per hectare that exceeds those of most cultivated oilseed crops. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and mass spectrometry imaging confirmed the accumulation of TAG within leaf mesophyll cells. In addition, we explored the applicability of several existing oil-processing methods using fresh leaf tissue. Our results demonstrate the technical feasibility of a vegetative plant oil production platform and provide for a step change in the bioenergy landscape, opening new prospects for sustainable food, high energy forage, biofuel and biomaterial applications. © 2013 CSIRO. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Biomass, Leaf Area, and Resource Availability of Kudzu Dominated Plant Communities Following Herbicide Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Rader

    2001-10-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens the forests of the southern U.S. Five herbicides were tested with regard to their efficacy in controlling kudzu, community recover was monitored, and interactions with planted pines were studied. The sites selected were old farm sites dominated by kudzu.These were burned following herbicide treatment. The herbicides included triclopyr, clopyralid, metsulfuron, tebuthiuron, and picloram plus 2,4-D. Pine seedlings were planted the following year. Regression equations were developed for predicting biomass and leaf area. Four distinct plant communities resulted from the treatments. The untreated check continued to be kudzu dominated. Blackberry dominated the clopyradid treatment. Metsulfron, trychlopyr and picloram treated sites resulted in herbaceous dominated communities. The tebuthiuron treatment maintained all vegetation low.

  4. Leaf area index, biomass carbon and growth rate of radiata pine genetic types and relationships with LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter N. Beets; Stephen Reutebuch; Mark O. Kimberley; Graeme R. Oliver; Stephen H. Pearce; Robert J. McGaughey

    2011-01-01

    Relationships between discrete-return light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and radiata pine leaf area index (LAI), stem volume, above ground carbon, and carbon sequestration were developed using 10 plots with directly measured biomass and leaf area data, and 36 plots with modelled carbon data. The plots included a range of genetic types established on north- and...

  5. Family differences in equations for predicting biomass and leaf area in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. St. Clair

    1993-01-01

    Logarithmic regression equations were developed to predict component biomass and leaf area for an 18-yr-old genetic test of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco var. menziesii) based on stem diameter or cross-sectional sapwood area. Equations did not differ among open-pollinated families in slope, but intercepts...

  6. Abundance, biomass and caloric content of Chukchi Sea bivalves and association with Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) relative density and distribution in the northeastern Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jordann K.; Black, Bryan A.; Clarke, Janet T.; Schonberg, Susan V.; Dunton, Kenneth H.

    2017-10-01

    The northeastern Chukchi Sea is a shallow subarctic shelf ecosystem that supports a substantial benthic infaunal community of which bivalves are a major component. We assessed the patterns in population abundance, biomass, and caloric content of ten dominant bivalve taxa in relation to the distribution of the upper trophic level consumer Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens). Bivalves were collected over four cruises in the northeastern Chukchi Sea (2009, 2010, 2012, 2013). Our samples were largely dominated by calorie-dense, deposit-feeding species, including Macoma spp., Ennucula tenuis, Nuculana spp. and Yoldia spp. Weight-frequency distributions were strongly right-skewed for most taxa, though some showed evidence of a bimodal distribution. Caloric densities as measured through bomb calorimetry significantly differed among taxa (ANOVA F = 32.57, df = 9, p-valueanimal wet weight was found to be a reliable predictor of whole animal caloric content. Bivalve populations and peak caloric densities were centered on and to the southeast of Hanna Shoal, which coincided with peak Pacific walrus relative density (walruses per km surveyed) from July through October. Significant differences in mean caloric values were found between areas with and without walruses present (student's t-test, t=-2.9088, df = 252.24, p-value = 0.003952), as well as between areas with low and high walrus relative densities in the pooled annual dataset and in each individual month except October (ANOVA, p-value<0.05). The high-calorie deposit feeders that dominate these bivalve communities preferentially consume food sources, such as sea ice algae, that are likely to be affected by shifting sea ice dynamics. As such, continued warming has the potential to alter bivalve communities in the northeastern Chukchi Sea, which may have profound implications for upper trophic levels.

  7. Productivity of aboveground coarse wood biomass and stand age related to soil hydrology of Amazonian forests in the Purus-Madeira interfluvial area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintra, B. B. L.; Schietti, J.; Emillio, T.; Martins, D.; Moulatlet, G.; Souza, P.; Levis, C.; Quesada, C. A.; Schöngart, J.

    2013-04-01

    The ongoing demand for information on forest productivity has increased the number of permanent monitoring plots across the Amazon. Those plots, however, do not comprise the whole diversity of forest types in the Amazon. The complex effects of soil, climate and hydrology on the productivity of seasonally waterlogged interfluvial wetland forests are still poorly understood. The presented study is the first field-based estimate for tree ages and wood biomass productivity in the vast interfluvial region between the Purus and Madeira rivers. We estimate stand age and wood biomass productivity by a combination of tree-ring data and allometric equations for biomass stocks of eight plots distributed along 600 km in the Purus-Madeira interfluvial area that is crossed by the BR-319 highway. We relate stand age and wood biomass productivity to hydrological and edaphic conditions. Mean productivity and stand age were 5.6 ± 1.1 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and 102 ± 18 yr, respectively. There is a strong relationship between tree age and diameter, as well as between mean diameter increment and mean wood density within a plot. Regarding the soil hydromorphic properties we find a positive correlation with wood biomass productivity and a negative relationship with stand age. Productivity also shows a positive correlation with the superficial phosphorus concentration. In addition, superficial phosphorus concentration increases with enhanced soil hydromorphic condition. We raise three hypotheses to explain these results: (1) the reduction of iron molecules on the saturated soils with plinthite layers close to the surface releases available phosphorous for the plants; (2) the poor structure of the saturated soils creates an environmental filter selecting tree species of faster growth rates and shorter life spans and (3) plant growth on saturated soil is favored during the dry season, since there should be low restrictions for soil water availability.

  8. Impact of data model and point density on aboveground forest biomass estimation from airborne LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mariano; Saatchi, Sassan; Ferraz, Antonio; Silva, Carlos Alberto; Ustin, Susan; Koltunov, Alexander; Balzter, Heiko

    2017-12-01

    Accurate estimation of aboveground forest biomass (AGB) and its dynamics is of paramount importance in understanding the role of forest in the carbon cycle and the effective implementation of climate change mitigation policies. LiDAR is currently the most accurate technology for AGB estimation. LiDAR metrics can be derived from the 3D point cloud (echo-based) or from the canopy height model (CHM). Different sensors and survey configurations can affect the metrics derived from the LiDAR data. We evaluate the ability of the metrics derived from the echo-based and CHM data models to estimate AGB in three different biomes, as well as the impact of point density on the metrics derived from them. Our results show that differences among metrics derived at different point densities were significantly different from zero, with a larger impact on CHM-based than echo-based metrics, particularly when the point density was reduced to 1 point m -2 . Both data models-echo-based and CHM-performed similarly well in estimating AGB at the three study sites. For the temperate forest in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, USA, R 2 ranged from 0.79 to 0.8 and RMSE (relRMSE) from 69.69 (35.59%) to 70.71 (36.12%) Mg ha -1 for the echo-based model and from 0.76 to 0.78 and 73.84 (37.72%) to 128.20 (65.49%) Mg ha -1 for the CHM-based model. For the moist tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, the models gave R 2 ranging between 0.70 and 0.71 and RMSE between 30.08 (12.36%) and 30.32 (12.46) Mg ha -1 [between 0.69-0.70 and 30.42 (12.50%) and 61.30 (25.19%) Mg ha -1 ] for the echo-based [CHM-based] models. Finally, for the Atlantic forest in the Sierra do Mar, Brazil, R 2 was between 0.58-0.69 and RMSE between 37.73 (8.67%) and 39.77 (9.14%) Mg ha -1 for the echo-based model, whereas for the CHM R 2 was between 0.37-0.45 and RMSE between 45.43 (10.44%) and 67.23 (15.45%) Mg ha -1 . Metrics derived from the CHM show a higher dependence on point density than metrics

  9. Accounting for density reduction and structural loss in standing dead trees: Implications for forest biomass and carbon stock estimates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domke, Grant M; Woodall, Christopher W; Smith, James E

    2011-11-24

    Standing dead trees are one component of forest ecosystem dead wood carbon (C) pools, whose national stock is estimated by the U.S. as required by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Historically, standing dead tree C has been estimated as a function of live tree growing stock volume in the U.S.'s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory. Initiated in 1998, the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis program (responsible for compiling the Nation's forest C estimates) began consistent nationwide sampling of standing dead trees, which may now supplant previous purely model-based approaches to standing dead biomass and C stock estimation. A substantial hurdle to estimating standing dead tree biomass and C attributes is that traditional estimation procedures are based on merchantability paradigms that may not reflect density reductions or structural loss due to decomposition common in standing dead trees. The goal of this study was to incorporate standing dead tree adjustments into the current estimation procedures and assess how biomass and C stocks change at multiple spatial scales. Accounting for decay and structural loss in standing dead trees significantly decreased tree- and plot-level C stock estimates (and subsequent C stocks) by decay class and tree component. At a regional scale, incorporating adjustment factors decreased standing dead quaking aspen biomass estimates by almost 50 percent in the Lake States and Douglas-fir estimates by more than 36 percent in the Pacific Northwest. Substantial overestimates of standing dead tree biomass and C stocks occur when one does not account for density reductions or structural loss. Forest inventory estimation procedures that are descended from merchantability standards may need to be revised toward a more holistic approach to determining standing dead tree biomass and C attributes (i.e., attributes of tree biomass outside of sawlog portions). Incorporating density reductions and structural

  10. Aboveground biomass subdivisions in woody species of the savanna ecosystem project study area, Nylsvley

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rutherford, MC

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Aboveground peak season biomass is given for 11 woody species in each of five belt transects under study. Mean aerial biomass for all species was 16 273 kg ha, made up of 14 937 kg ha wood, 236 kg ha current season's twigs and 1 100 kg ha leaves...

  11. Effects of raw material texture and activation manner on surface area of porous carbons derived from biomass resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Li, Guo-Dong; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2008-11-01

    Porous carbons have been prepared from biomass resources, such as cornstalks, rice straws, pine needles and pinecone hulls, through a simple carbonization and KOH solution activation process. The pore sizes of the obtained porous carbons are mainly distributed in the range of 1-2 nm, whereas the surface areas of the materials vary from 1000 to more than 3000 m(2) g(-1) depending on the raw materials and preparation conditions. It is found that the biomass texture and the activation manner play key roles in determination of surface areas of the porous carbons. In addition, the amount of activation agent, the activation temperature and the activation time also affect the surface area of the porous carbons but to a less extent. The obtained porous carbons with high surface areas show good performance when used as Pt-catalyst supports for cinanamaldehyde hydrogenation.

  12. Relationships of biomass with environmental factors in the grassland area of Hulunbuir, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Liu

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on the relationship between vegetation biomass and environmental factors in grassland. However, several questions remain to be answered, especially with regards to the spatial pattern of vegetation biomass. Thus, the distributed mechanism will be explored in the present study. Here, plant biomass was measured at 23 sites along a transect survey during the peak growing season in 2006. The data were analyzed with a classification and regression tree (CART model. The structural equation modeling (SEM was conducted to explicitly evaluate the both direct and indirect effects of these critical environmental elements on vegetation biomass. The results demonstrated that mean annual temperature (MAT affected aboveground biomass (AGB scored at -0.811 (P<0.05. The direct effect of MAT on belowground biomass (BGB was -0.490 (P<0.05. The results were determined by SEM. Our results indicate that AGB and BGB in semi-arid ecosystems is strongly affected by precipitation and temperature. Future work shall attempt to take into account the integrated effects of precipitation and temperature. Meanwhile, partitioning the influences of environmental variations and vegetation types are helpful in illuminating the internal mechanism of biomass distribution.

  13. Effect of culture and density on aboveground biomass allocation of 12 years old loblolly pine trees in the upper coastal plain and piedmont of Georgia and Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosh Subedi; Dr. Michael Kane; Dr. Dehai Zhao; Dr. Bruce Borders; Dr. Dale Greene

    2012-01-01

    We destructively sampled a total of 192 12-year-old loblolly pine trees from four installations established by the Plantation Management Research Cooperative (PMRC) to analyze the effects of planting density and cultural intensity on tree level biomass allocation in the Piedmont and Upper Coastal Plain of Georgia and Alabama. Each installation had 12 plots, each plot...

  14. Distribution and biomass estimation of shell-boring algae in the intertidal area at Goa India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Sharma, S.; Lande, V.

    and particulate organic carbon (POC) values in cultures of the green alga Gomontia sp. and the blue-green alga Plectonema terebrans, in biomass and POC contribution of these two types of microalgae in shells were calculated....

  15. Relationships of biomass with environmental factors in the grassland area of Hulunbuir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; Liu, Guohua; Gong, Li; Wang, Dongbo; Sun, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have focused on the relationship between vegetation biomass and environmental factors in grassland. However, several questions remain to be answered, especially with regards to the spatial pattern of vegetation biomass. Thus, the distributed mechanism will be explored in the present study. Here, plant biomass was measured at 23 sites along a transect survey during the peak growing season in 2006. The data were analyzed with a classification and regression tree (CART) model. The structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to explicitly evaluate the both direct and indirect effects of these critical environmental elements on vegetation biomass. The results demonstrated that mean annual temperature (MAT) affected aboveground biomass (AGB) scored at -0.811 (PBGB) was -0.490 (PBGB in semi-arid ecosystems is strongly affected by precipitation and temperature. Future work shall attempt to take into account the integrated effects of precipitation and temperature. Meanwhile, partitioning the influences of environmental variations and vegetation types are helpful in illuminating the internal mechanism of biomass distribution.

  16. Social deprivation and population density are not associated with small area risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, James P K; Tobin, Katy; Crampsie, Arlene; Vajda, Alice; Heverin, Mark; McLaughlin, Russell; Staines, Anthony; Hardiman, Orla

    2015-10-01

    Evidence of an association between areal ALS risk and population density has been previously reported. We aim to examine ALS spatial incidence in Ireland using small areas, to compare this analysis with our previous analysis of larger areas and to examine the associations between population density, social deprivation and ALS incidence. Residential area social deprivation has not been previously investigated as a risk factor for ALS. Using the Irish ALS register, we included all cases of ALS diagnosed in Ireland from 1995-2013. 2006 census data was used to calculate age and sex standardised expected cases per small area. Social deprivation was assessed using the pobalHP deprivation index. Bayesian smoothing was used to calculate small area relative risk for ALS, whilst cluster analysis was performed using SaTScan. The effects of population density and social deprivation were tested in two ways: (1) as covariates in the Bayesian spatial model; (2) via post-Bayesian regression. 1701 cases were included. Bayesian smoothed maps of relative risk at small area resolution matched closely to our previous analysis at a larger area resolution. Cluster analysis identified two areas of significant low risk. These areas did not correlate with population density or social deprivation indices. Two areas showing low frequency of ALS have been identified in the Republic of Ireland. These areas do not correlate with population density or residential area social deprivation, indicating that other reasons, such as genetic admixture may account for the observed findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensors for Metering Heat Flux Area Density and Metrological Equipment for the Heat Flux Density Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronin, D. O.

    2018-04-01

    The demand in measuring and studies of heat conduction of various media is very urgent now. This article considers the problem of heat conduction monitoring and measurement in various media and materials in any industries and branches of science as well as metrological support of the heat flux measurement equipment. The main study objects are both the sensors manufactured and facilities onto which these sensors will be installed: different cladding structures of the buildings, awnings, rocket fairings, boiler units, internal combustion engines. The Company develops and manufactures different types of heat flux sensors: thermocouple, thin-film, heterogeneous gradient as well as metrological equipment for the gauging calibration of the heat flux density measurement. The calibration shall be performed using both referencing method in the unit and by fixed setting of the heat flux in the unit. To manufacture heterogeneous heat flux gradient sensors (HHFGS) the Company developed and designed a number of units: diffusion welding unit, HHFGS cutting unit. Rather good quality HHFGS prototypes were obtained. At this stage the factory tests on the equipment for the heat flux density measurement equipment are planned. A high-sensitivity heat flux sensor was produced, now it is tested at the Construction Physics Research Institute (Moscow). It became possible to create thin-film heat flux sensors with the sensitivity not worse than that of the sensors manufactured by Captec Company (France). The Company has sufficient premises to supply the market with a wide range of sensors, to master new sensor manufacture technologies which will enable their application range.

  18. LEAF AREA DYNAMICS AND ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS OF SPECIFIC VEGETATION TYPES OF A SEMI-ARID GRASSLAND IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosco Kidake Kisambo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf Area Index (LAI dynamics and aboveground biomass of a semi-arid grassland region in Southern Ethiopia were determined over a long rain season. The vegetation was categorized into four distinct vegetation types namely Grassland (G, Tree-Grassland (TG, Bushed-Grassland (BG and Bush-Tree grassland (BT. LAI was measured using a Plant Canopy Analyzer (LAI2000. Biomass dynamics of litter and herbaceous components were determined through clipping while the above ground biomass of trees and shrubs were estimated using species-specific allometric equations from literature. LAI showed a seasonal increase over the season with the maximum recorded in the BG vegetation (2.52. Total aboveground biomass for the different vegetation types ranged from 0.61 ton C/ha in areas where trees were non-existent to 8.80 ± 3.81ton C/ha in the Tree-Grassland vegetation in the study site. A correlation of LAI and AGB yielded a positive relationship with an R2 value of 0.55. The results demonstrate the importance of tropical semi-arid grasslands as carbon sinks hence their potential in mitigation of climate change.

  19. Seasonal variation and principle of cyanobacterial biomass and forms in the water source area of Chaohu City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangen; Ke, Fan; Li, Wenchao; Feng, Muhua; Shang, Lixia; Fan, Fan; He, Yanzhao

    2016-01-01

    We investigated seasonal variations in cyanobacterial biomass and the forms of its dominant population ( M. aeruginosa) and their correlation with environmental factors in the water source area of Chaohu City, China from December 2011 to October 2012. The results show that species belonging to the phylum Cyanophyta occupied the maximum proportion of phytoplankton biomass, and that the dominant population in the water source area of Chaohu City was M. aeruginosa. The variation in cyanobacterial biomass from March to August 2012 was well fitted to the logistic growth model. The growth rate of cyanobacteria was the highest in June, and the biomass of cyanobacteria reached a maximum in August. From February to March 2012, the main form of M. aeruginosa was the single-cell form; M. aeruginosa colonies began to appear from April, and blooms appeared on the water surface in May. The maximum diameter of the colonies was recorded in July, and then gradually decreased from August. The diameter range of M. aeruginosa colonies was 18.37-237.77 μm, and most of the colonies were distributed in the range 20-200 μm, comprising 95.5% of the total number of samples. Temperature and photosynthetically active radiation may be the most important factors that influenced the annual variation in M. aeruginosa biomass and forms. The suitable temperature for cyanobacterial growth was in the range of 15-30°C. In natural water bodies, photosynthetically active radiation had a significant positive influence on the colonial diameter of M. aeruginosa ( P <0.01).

  20. Characterization of biomass burning from olive grove areas: A major source of organic aerosol in PM10 of Southwest Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M.; Salvador, Pedro; Fernández-Camacho, Rocío; Artiñano, Begoña; Coz, Esther; Márquez, Gonzalo; Sánchez-Rodas, Daniel; de la Rosa, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    The inorganic and organic geochemistry of aerosol particulate matter (APM) was studied in a major olive grove area from Southwest Europe (Baena, Spain). The biomass consists of olive tree branches and the solid waste resulting of the olive oil production. Moreover, high PM10 levels were obtained (31.5 μg m- 3), with two days of exceedance of the daily limit of 50 μg m- 3 (2008/50/CE; EU, 2008) during the experimental period. A high mean levoglucosan concentration was obtained representing up 95% of the total mass of the isomers analysed (280 ng m- 3), while galactosan and mannosan mean concentrations were lower (8.64 ng m- 3 and 7.86 ng m- 3, respectively). The contribution of wood smoke in Baena was estimated, representing 19% of OC and 17% of OM total mass. Positive matrix factor (PMF) was applied to the organic and inorganic aerosols data, which has permitted the identification of five source categories: biomass burning, traffic, mineral dust, marine aerosol and SIC (secondary inorganic compounds). The biomass burning category reached the highest mean contribution to the PM10 mass (41%, 17.6 μg m- 3). In light of these results, the use of biomass resulting from the olive oil production for residential heating and industry must be considered the most important aerosol source during the winter months. The results of this paper can be extrapolated to other olive oil producing areas in the Mediterranean basin. Therefore, a fuller understanding of this type of biomass combustion is required in order to be able to establish appropriate polices and reduce the environmental impact on the population.

  1. Urban density, deprivation and road safety: A small area study in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following a general paucity of small area research on road traffic injuries (RTIs), this study examined small area variations in RTIs for the eThekwini Metropolitan Area (comprising predominantly the City of Durban) in South Africa. Population density was used as an organising framework to examine variations in RTI ...

  2. Establishment of a communal biomass conversion plant in the municipal area of Sydthy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The report should form the basis for an application to the Danish Energy Agency regarding potentials for a planned biomass conversion plant demonstration project, including effective storage of liquid manures. A survey of the needed resources in the form of organic wastes is given in addition to a description of immediate heat demand and heat production prices. The location of the plant and the supply of manures are discussed and the design of the plant is described in detail. The concentration of the biomass after conversion in order to facilitate storage and the organization and financing of the project are elucidated in addition to agricultural, environmental and administrational aspects. (AB)

  3. Topographic Correction of ZY-3 Satellite Images and Its Effects on Estimation of Shrub Leaf Biomass in Mountainous Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Liang Gao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The availability of ZY-3 satellite data provides additional potential for surveying, mapping, and quantitative studies. Topographic correction, which eliminates the terrain effect caused by the topographic relief, is one of the fundamental steps in data preprocessing for quantitative analysis of vegetation. In this paper, we rectified ZY-3 satellite data using five commonly used topographic correction models and investigate their impact on the regression estimation of shrub forest leaf biomass obtained from sample plots in the study area. All the corrections were assessed by means of: (1 visual inspection (2 reduction of the standard deviation (SD at different terrain slopes (3 correlation analysis of different correction results. Best results were obtained from the Minnaert+SCS correction, based on the non-Lambertian reflection assumption. Additional analysis showed that the coefficient correlation of the biomass fitting result was improved after the Minnaert+SCS correction, as well as the fitting precision. The R2 has increased by 0.113 to reach 0.869, while the SD (standard deviation of the biomass dropped by 21.2%. Therefore, based on the facts, we conclude that in the region with large topographic relief, the topographical correction is essential to the estimation of the biomass.

  4. SPUTUM CYTOLOGY CULTURE HAEMATOLOGICAL CHANGES AND AIR QUALITY IN CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO SMOKE FROM BIOMASS FUEL IN RURAL AREA OF SOUTH INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Razia Sultana; Raghu B. P; Shashidhar Buggi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Air pollution is generally perceived as an urban problem associated with automobiles and industries. However, half of the world’s population in rural areas of the developing countries is exposed to some of the highest levels of air pollution due to burning of traditional biomass fuels. In view of this, the health impact of biomass fuel use in rural India has been evaluated in this study. OBJECTIVES To analyse the mass concentration in biomass fuel user and LPG use...

  5. Morphological analysis of plant density effects on early leaf area growth in maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.J.; Vos, J.; Struik, P.C.

    2000-01-01

    The mechanisms of density-related reduced leaf area per plant in non-tillering maize (Zea mays) were investigated. Maize cv. Luna crops with a wide range of plant densities were grown in the field at Wageningen for two years. Half of the plots were shaded (50% transmittance). Detailed measurements

  6. Density-dependent changes in effective area occupied for sea-bottom-associated marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorson, James T.; Rindorf, Anna; Gao, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of marine fishes can change for many reasons, including density-dependent distributional shifts. Previous studies show mixed support for either the proportional-density model (PDM; no relationship between abundance and area occupied, supported by ideal-free distribution...... marine regions, to determine whether the BM or PDM provides a better description for sea-bottom-associated fishes. We fit a spatio-temporal model and estimate changes in effective area occupied and abundance, and combine results to estimate the average abundance–area relationship as well as variability......-third of combinations (34.6%) are predicted to increase in area more than 1% for every 10% increase in abundance. We therefore infer that population density generally changes faster than effective area occupied during abundance changes. Gadiformes have the strongest estimated relationship (average 1.0% area increase...

  7. Effects of livestock exclusion on density, survival and biomass of the perennial sagebrush grass Hymenachne pernambucense (Poaceae) from a temperate fluvial wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnano, Andrea L.; Nanni, Analía S.; Krug, Pamela; Astrada, Elizabeth; Vicari, Ricardo; Quintana, Rubén D.

    2018-01-01

    In Argentina, the intensification of soybean production has displaced a substantial proportion of cattle ranching to fluvial wetlands such as those in the Delta of the Paraná River. Cattle grazing affects structure and dynamics of native forage plants but there is little information on this impact in populations from fluvial wetlands. This study addresses the effect of cattle ranching on density, survival, mean life-span and aerial biomass of Hymenachne pernambucense (Poaceae), an important forage species in the region. The study was carried out monthly for one year in permanents plots subject to continuous grazing and plots excluded from grazing in the Middle Delta of the Paraná River. In plots excluded from grazing, tillers showed significantly higher population density and survival, and a two-fold increase in mean life-span, while continuous grazing decreased survival of cohorts. The largest contribution to tiller density in ungrazed and grazed populations was made by spring and summer cohorts, respectively. Total and green biomass were significantly higher in the ungrazed population, with highest differences in late spring-early summer. Cattle grazing affected the relationship between tiller density and green biomass suggesting that cattle prefer sprouts because they are more palatable and nutritious than older tissue.

  8. Accounting for density reduction and structural loss in standing dead trees: Implications for forest biomass and carbon stock estimates in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domke Grant M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standing dead trees are one component of forest ecosystem dead wood carbon (C pools, whose national stock is estimated by the U.S. as required by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Historically, standing dead tree C has been estimated as a function of live tree growing stock volume in the U.S.'s National Greenhouse Gas Inventory. Initiated in 1998, the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis program (responsible for compiling the Nation's forest C estimates began consistent nationwide sampling of standing dead trees, which may now supplant previous purely model-based approaches to standing dead biomass and C stock estimation. A substantial hurdle to estimating standing dead tree biomass and C attributes is that traditional estimation procedures are based on merchantability paradigms that may not reflect density reductions or structural loss due to decomposition common in standing dead trees. The goal of this study was to incorporate standing dead tree adjustments into the current estimation procedures and assess how biomass and C stocks change at multiple spatial scales. Results Accounting for decay and structural loss in standing dead trees significantly decreased tree- and plot-level C stock estimates (and subsequent C stocks by decay class and tree component. At a regional scale, incorporating adjustment factors decreased standing dead quaking aspen biomass estimates by almost 50 percent in the Lake States and Douglas-fir estimates by more than 36 percent in the Pacific Northwest. Conclusions Substantial overestimates of standing dead tree biomass and C stocks occur when one does not account for density reductions or structural loss. Forest inventory estimation procedures that are descended from merchantability standards may need to be revised toward a more holistic approach to determining standing dead tree biomass and C attributes (i.e., attributes of tree biomass outside of sawlog

  9. SPUTUM CYTOLOGY CULTURE HAEMATOLOGICAL CHANGES AND AIR QUALITY IN CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO SMOKE FROM BIOMASS FUEL IN RURAL AREA OF SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razia Sultana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Air pollution is generally perceived as an urban problem associated with automobiles and industries. However, half of the world’s population in rural areas of the developing countries is exposed to some of the highest levels of air pollution due to burning of traditional biomass fuels. In view of this, the health impact of biomass fuel use in rural India has been evaluated in this study. OBJECTIVES To analyse the mass concentration in biomass fuel user and LPG user household and to investigate the effects of biomass smoke exposure in a group of rural women who cook regularly with biomass fuels and compare the results obtained from control group women who cook relatively cleaner fuel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG. METHODS Respiratory health was evaluated from Questionnaire survey, Clinical examination, haematology, sputum cytology culture and serum C-reactive protein (CRP levels are investigated in biomass and control users. RESULTS A total of 150 women were approached, of which only 70 non-smoking women without any history of any major chronic illness in the past were selected for this study. CRP levels differ significantly in biomass exposure than control users. CONCLUSION From our study it is clear that with increasing duration of exposure to biomass fuel combustion. Women who used to cook with traditional biomass fuels had low haemoglobin & Red Blood Cells values, increased neutrophil and allergic manifestations. Sputum cytology of majority biomass users revealed bacterial infections & chronic inflammation.

  10. Individual-area relationship best explains goose species density in wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    Full Text Available Explaining and predicting animal distributions is one of the fundamental objectives in ecology and conservation biology. Animal habitat selection can be regulated by top-down and bottom-up processes, and is mediated by species interactions. Species varying in body size respond differently to top-down and bottom-up determinants, and hence understanding these allometric responses to those determinants is important for conservation. In this study, using two differently sized goose species wintering in the Yangtze floodplain, we tested the predictions derived from three different hypotheses (individual-area relationship, food resource and disturbance hypothesis to explain the spatial and temporal variation in densities of two goose species. Using Generalized Linear Mixed Models with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique, we demonstrated that goose density was positive correlated with patch area size, suggesting that the individual area-relationship best predicts differences in goose densities. Moreover, the other predictions, related to food availability and disturbance, were not significant. Buffalo grazing probably facilitated greater white-fronted geese, as the number of buffalos was positively correlated to the density of this species. We concluded that patch area size is the most important factor determining the density of goose species in our study area. Patch area size is directly determined by water levels in the Yangtze floodplain, and hence modifying the hydrological regimes can enlarge the capacity of these wetlands for migratory birds.

  11. Spatially Explicit Large Area Biomass Estimation: Three Approaches Using Forest Inventory and Remotely Sensed Imagery in a GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Magnussen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest inventory data often provide the required base data to enable the largearea mapping of biomass over a range of scales. However, spatially explicit estimates ofabove-ground biomass (AGB over large areas may be limited by the spatial extent of theforest inventory relative to the area of interest (i.e., inventories not spatially exhaustive, orby the omission of inventory attributes required for biomass estimation. These spatial andattributional gaps in the forest inventory may result in an underestimation of large areaAGB. The continuous nature and synoptic coverage of remotely sensed data have led totheir increased application for AGB estimation over large areas, although the use of thesedata remains challenging in complex forest environments. In this paper, we present anapproach to generating spatially explicit estimates of large area AGB by integrating AGBestimates from multiple data sources; 1. using a lookup table of conversion factors appliedto a non-spatially exhaustive forest inventory dataset (R2 = 0.64; RMSE = 16.95 t/ha, 2.applying a lookup table to unique combinations of land cover and vegetation densityoutputs derived from remotely sensed data (R2 = 0.52; RMSE = 19.97 t/ha, and 3. hybridmapping by augmenting forest inventory AGB estimates with remotely sensed AGB estimates where there are spatial or attributional gaps in the forest inventory data. Over our714,852 ha study area in central Saskatchewan, Canada, the AGB estimate generated fromthe forest inventory was approximately 40 Mega tonnes (Mt; however, the inventoryestimate represents only 51% of the total study area. The AGB estimate generated from theremotely sensed outputs that overlap those made from the forest inventory based approachdiffer by only 2 %; however in total, the remotely sensed estimate is 30 % greater (58 Mtthan the estimate generated from the forest inventory when the entire study area isaccounted for. Finally, using the hybrid approach, whereby the

  12. Spatially Explicit Large Area Biomass Estimation: Three Approaches Using Forest Inventory and Remotely Sensed Imagery in a GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulder, Michael A; White, Joanne C; Fournier, Richard A; Luther, Joan E; Magnussen, Steen

    2008-01-24

    Forest inventory data often provide the required base data to enable the largearea mapping of biomass over a range of scales. However, spatially explicit estimates ofabove-ground biomass (AGB) over large areas may be limited by the spatial extent of theforest inventory relative to the area of interest (i.e., inventories not spatially exhaustive), orby the omission of inventory attributes required for biomass estimation. These spatial andattributional gaps in the forest inventory may result in an underestimation of large areaAGB. The continuous nature and synoptic coverage of remotely sensed data have led totheir increased application for AGB estimation over large areas, although the use of thesedata remains challenging in complex forest environments. In this paper, we present anapproach to generating spatially explicit estimates of large area AGB by integrating AGBestimates from multiple data sources; 1. using a lookup table of conversion factors appliedto a non-spatially exhaustive forest inventory dataset (R² = 0.64; RMSE = 16.95 t/ha), 2.applying a lookup table to unique combinations of land cover and vegetation densityoutputs derived from remotely sensed data (R² = 0.52; RMSE = 19.97 t/ha), and 3. hybridmapping by augmenting forest inventory AGB estimates with remotely sensed AGB estimates where there are spatial or attributional gaps in the forest inventory data. Over our714,852 ha study area in central Saskatchewan, Canada, the AGB estimate generated fromthe forest inventory was approximately 40 Mega tonnes (Mt); however, the inventoryestimate represents only 51% of the total study area. The AGB estimate generated from theremotely sensed outputs that overlap those made from the forest inventory based approachdiffer by only 2 %; however in total, the remotely sensed estimate is 30 % greater (58 Mt)than the estimate generated from the forest inventory when the entire study area isaccounted for. Finally, using the hybrid approach, whereby the remotely sensed

  13. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Delgass, W. N. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Ribeiro, F. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2013-08-31

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H2Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H2) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H2 is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H2Bioilprocess for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on

  14. Durability of Biomass Briquettes

    OpenAIRE

    Kaķītis, A.; Nulle, I.

    2006-01-01

    The main resources for biomass agro-ecotechnologies are cereal straw residues, energy crops and emergent vegetation from wetlands. The herbaceous biomass is a material of low density (20 – 60kg/m3) therefore new mobile equipment and technologies for biomass comminution and densification have to be worked out. To guarantee the quality of biomass briquettes in the handling and usage process, sufficient durability of briquettes should be provided. National Standards of biomass briquettes should ...

  15. Automatic Classification of coarse density LiDAR data in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, H. M.; Moussa, A.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2014-06-01

    The classification of different objects in the urban area using airborne LIDAR point clouds is a challenging problem especially with low density data. This problem is even more complicated if RGB information is not available with the point clouds. The aim of this paper is to present a framework for the classification of the low density LIDAR data in urban area with the objective to identify buildings, vehicles, trees and roads, without the use of RGB information. The approach is based on several steps, from the extraction of above the ground objects, classification using PCA, computing the NDSM and intensity analysis, for which a correction strategy was developed. The airborne LIDAR data used to test the research framework are of low density (1.41 pts/m2) and were taken over an urban area in San Diego, California, USA. The results showed that the proposed framework is efficient and robust for the classification of objects.

  16. Automatic Classification of coarse density LiDAR data in urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Badawy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The classification of different objects in the urban area using airborne LIDAR point clouds is a challenging problem especially with low density data. This problem is even more complicated if RGB information is not available with the point clouds. The aim of this paper is to present a framework for the classification of the low density LIDAR data in urban area with the objective to identify buildings, vehicles, trees and roads, without the use of RGB information. The approach is based on several steps, from the extraction of above the ground objects, classification using PCA, computing the NDSM and intensity analysis, for which a correction strategy was developed. The airborne LIDAR data used to test the research framework are of low density (1.41 pts/m2 and were taken over an urban area in San Diego, California, USA. The results showed that the proposed framework is efficient and robust for the classification of objects.

  17. Bilateral symmetrical low density areas in the basal ganglia. A case with dysarthria and gait disturbance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Ihara, Yasuo (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1984-04-01

    We reported a case with dysarthria and gait disturbance, in which CT revealed symmetrical well-demarcated low density areas in the basal ganglia. The patient was a 43-year-old woman. Her family history and past history were not contributory. She had a little difficulty in speaking at the age of 17. Gait disturbance and micrographia appeared later. Although her expressionless face resembles to that seen in Parkinsonism, rigidity, akinesia and small-stepped gait were not present. The unclassified types of dysarthria and gait disturbance, which characterize the present case, were considered to be a kind of extrapyramidal symptoms, which were distinct from those of Parkinsonism. CT showed well demarcated low density areas predominantly in bilateral putamen. Metrizamide CT failed to show any communication between low density areas and subarachnoid spaces. To date, six cases, which presented similar clinical features and almost same CT findings as our case, were reported.

  18. Functions for biomass estimation of young Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies and Betula spp. from stands in northern Sweden with high stand densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claesson, Svante; Sahlen, Kenneth; Lundmark, Tomas [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Vindeln (Sweden). Dept. of Silviculture, Vindeln Experimental Forests

    2001-07-01

    New silvicultural regimes with high within-stand competition require new functions for estimation of standing stock and growth of biomass components, since the allometry of trees is changed by light competition. This paper presents functions for estimation of the above-ground biomass dry weights for stem wood, stem bark, branches and leaves of young (diameter at breast height < 10 cm) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and birch (Betula pendula Roth. and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) trees growing in dense mixed stands. The functions were derived from a sample consisting of 84 Scots pine, 43 Norway spruce and 66 birch trees from six stands in northern Sweden with high stand densities ( > 10 000 st ha{sup -1}). The logarithmically transformed power function displayed a good ability to stabilize the variance of dry weights and showed a good fit to the material (0.37 < R{sup 2} < 0.99). A comparison with the most commonly used biomass functions in Sweden today showed that they overestimated the weight of stem wood and branches, while the weight of foliage was underestimated. The nature of these discrepancies suggested that the precision of biomass estimations might also be improved for young trees at wider spacing.

  19. LTE Micro-cell Deployment for High-Density Railway Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Kassab, Mohamed; Soler, José

    2014-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a serious candidate for the future releases of the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS). LTE offers more capacity and supports new communication-based applications and services for railways. Nevertheless, even with this technology, the classical macro......-cell radio deployments reach overload, especially in high-density areas, such as major train stations. In this paper, an LTE micro-cell deployment is investigated in high-density railway areas. Copenhagen Main Station is considered as a realistic deployment study case, with a set of relevant railway...

  20. Spatial and temporal distribution in density and biomass of two Pseudodiaptomus species (Copepoda: Calanoida in the Caeté river estuary (Amazon region - North of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Magalhães

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal density and biomass distribution of the planktonic copepods Pseudodiaptomus richardi and P. acutus along a salinity gradient were investigated in the Caeté River Estuary (North-Brazil in June and December, 1998 (dry season and in February and May, 1999 (rainy season. Copepod biomass was estimated using regression parameters based on the relation of dry weight and body length (prosome of adult organisms. The Caeté River Estuary was characterized by high spatial and temporal variations in salinity (0.8-37.2‰. Exponential length-weight relationships were observed for both Pseudodiaptomus species. Density and biomass values oscillated between 0.28-46.18 ind. m-3 and 0.0022-0.3507 mg DW. m-3 for P. richardi; and between 0.01-17.02 ind. m-3 and 0.0005-0.7181 mg DW. m-3 for P. acutus. The results showed that the contribution of P. richardi for the secondary production in the Caeté River Estuary is more important in the limnetic zone than in other zones where euhaline-polyhaline regimes were predominant. However, it was not possible to observe a clear pattern of spatial and temporal distribution for P. acutus.

  1. Performance of sorghum cultivars for biomass quality and biomethane yield grown in semi-arid area of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Muhammad Umair; Chattha, Muhammad Umer; Mahmood, Athar; Sahi, Shahbaz Talib

    2018-02-23

    Biomass is a promising renewable energy source and its significance is escalating in the context of climate change and depletion of fossil foils. This study was conducted for two consecutive years 2016 and 2017, using five sorghum cultivars, i.e., JS-263, Jawar-2011, Hagari, JS-2002, and YS-2016, in order to determine the best cultivars in terms of dry matter yield, chemical composition, and biomethane yield grown under semi-arid conditions in Pakistan. The results revealed that sorghum cultivars responded differently in terms of growth, biomass yield, chemical composition, and methane yield. Cultivars Jawar-2011 produced maximum leaf area index, leaf area duration, crop growth rate, plant height, and leaves per plant, however, they were comparable with Sorghum-2016, whereas cultivar JS-2002 performed poorly among the tested cultivars. Similarly, cultivar Jawar-2011 produced maximum dry matter yield (16.37 t ha -1 ) similar to that of YS-2016, further cultivar JS-2002 performed poorly and gave lower dry matter yield (12.87 t ha -1 ). The maximum protein concentration (10.95), neutral detergent fibers (61.20), and lignin contents (5.55) found in Jawar-2011 were comparable with those in YS-2016, while the lowest neutral detergent fiber and lignin contents were found in JS-2002. Although JS-2002 produced the highest specific methane yield per kilogram of volatile solids, it was overcompensated by Jawar-2011 owing to higher dry matter yield per hectare. These results suggested that cultivar Jawar-2011 can be grown successfully in semi-arid conditions of Pakistan in order to get good biomass yield along with higher methane yield.

  2. Five-minute grid of total marine bird biomass densities surveyed off central California - selected warm water periods, 1980-2001 (CDAS data set AL1_MASS.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — AL0_MASS is a polygon shapefile representing 5 minute x 5 minute latitude x longitude cells that house the overall total biomass densities (kg/sq.km.) of 76 species...

  3. Short rotation woody biomass production as option for the restoration of post-mining areas in lower Lusatia, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, C.; Quinkenstein, A.; Freese, D. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Soil Protection and Recultivation; Huttl, R.R. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Soil Protection and Recultivation; GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Reclaimed mine sites in the Lusatian lignite-mining district in Germany are characterized by low annual precipitation and marginal soils. As such, crop yield is typically low and conventional land use systems fail in terms of reliable and efficient crop production. The production of woody biomass for bioenergy may be a promising alternative to improve soil fertility and also to enhance the economic value of these post-mining areas. Previous studies have shown that black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) may be a suitable tree species for this purpose. This paper evaluated the ecological and economic benefits of producing woody biomass in short rotation coppices (SRC) and alley cropping systems (ACS) with black locust. The results showed that compared to conventional agriculture, such land use is not very profitable due to high establishment and harvesting costs and the comparatively low prices for wood energy. However, because of the improved microclimate, the crop yield in ACS is higher than in conventional agriculture. The cultivation of black locust resulted in a higher humus accumulation and in a lower harvest-related nutrient export than the cultivation of alfalfa as a typical recultivation crop in this region. It was concluded SRC with black locust is more beneficial than conventional agriculture in terms of improving soil fertility in the degraded post-mining areas of Lower Lusatia.

  4. Relationship between Lineament Density Extraction from Satellite Image and Earthquake Distribution of Taungtonelone Area, Myanmar

    OpenAIRE

    MYINT, Soe; WON-IN, KRIT; TAKASHIMA, lsao; CHARUSIRI, Punya

    2007-01-01

    [ABSTRACT] We studied relationship between lineament density extraction from satellite image and earthquake distribution using remote sensing applications. The result of this study aim to set up a complete earthquake hazard Map. The selected area is located in the Taungtonelone area,northern Mynmar. Myanmar is an earth-quake-prone country. It lies in a major earthquake zone of the world called Mediterranean -Himalayan belt. As the major urban areas in Myanmar lie in earthquake prone zones, ea...

  5. Dynamic modelling of high biomass density cultivation and biohydrogen production in different scales of flat plate photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongda; Dechatiwongse, Pongsathorn; Del Rio-Chanona, Ehecatl Antonio; Maitland, Geoffrey C; Hellgardt, Klaus; Vassiliadis, Vassilios S

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the scaling-up of cyanobacterial biomass cultivation and biohydrogen production from laboratory to industrial scale. Two main aspects are investigated and presented, which to the best of our knowledge have never been addressed, namely the construction of an accurate dynamic model to simulate cyanobacterial photo-heterotrophic growth and biohydrogen production and the prediction of the maximum biomass and hydrogen production in different scales of photobioreactors. To achieve the current goals, experimental data obtained from a laboratory experimental setup are fitted by a dynamic model. Based on the current model, two key original findings are made in this work. First, it is found that selecting low-chlorophyll mutants is an efficient way to increase both biomass concentration and hydrogen production particularly in a large scale photobioreactor. Second, the current work proposes that the width of industrial scale photobioreactors should not exceed 0.20 m for biomass cultivation and 0.05 m for biohydrogen production, as severe light attenuation can be induced in the reactor beyond this threshold. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Using regional bird density distribution models to evaluate protected area networks and inform conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Alexander; Jaime L. Stephens; Sam Veloz; Leo Salas; Josée S. Rousseau; C. John Ralph; Daniel A. Sarr

    2017-01-01

    As data about populations of indicator species become available, proactive strategies that improve representation of biological diversity within protected area networks should consider finer-scaled evaluations, especially in regions identified as important through course-scale analyses. We use density distribution models derived from a robust regional bird...

  7. An empirical, integrated forest biomass monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Robert E.; Ohmann, Janet; Gregory, Matt; Roberts, Heather; Yang, Zhiqiang; Bell, David M.; Kane, Van; Hughes, M. Joseph; Cohen, Warren B.; Powell, Scott; Neeti, Neeti; Larrue, Tara; Hooper, Sam; Kane, Jonathan; Miller, David L.; Perkins, James; Braaten, Justin; Seidl, Rupert

    2018-02-01

    The fate of live forest biomass is largely controlled by growth and disturbance processes, both natural and anthropogenic. Thus, biomass monitoring strategies must characterize both the biomass of the forests at a given point in time and the dynamic processes that change it. Here, we describe and test an empirical monitoring system designed to meet those needs. Our system uses a mix of field data, statistical modeling, remotely-sensed time-series imagery, and small-footprint lidar data to build and evaluate maps of forest biomass. It ascribes biomass change to specific change agents, and attempts to capture the impact of uncertainty in methodology. We find that: • A common image framework for biomass estimation and for change detection allows for consistent comparison of both state and change processes controlling biomass dynamics. • Regional estimates of total biomass agree well with those from plot data alone. • The system tracks biomass densities up to 450–500 Mg ha‑1 with little bias, but begins underestimating true biomass as densities increase further. • Scale considerations are important. Estimates at the 30 m grain size are noisy, but agreement at broad scales is good. Further investigation to determine the appropriate scales is underway. • Uncertainty from methodological choices is evident, but much smaller than uncertainty based on choice of allometric equation used to estimate biomass from tree data. • In this forest-dominated study area, growth and loss processes largely balance in most years, with loss processes dominated by human removal through harvest. In years with substantial fire activity, however, overall biomass loss greatly outpaces growth. Taken together, our methods represent a unique combination of elements foundational to an operational landscape-scale forest biomass monitoring program.

  8. Changes in vegetation structure and aboveground biomass in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomass of both trees and shrubs was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in grazing enclosures than in other treatments, whereas herbaceous vegetation biomass was higher, but not significantly, in prescribed fire managed rangeland units. Importantly, fire-managed areas also contained the highest densities of some of the ...

  9. Does alcohol outlet density differ by area-level disadvantage in metropolitan Perth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Knuiman, Matthew; Trapp, Georgina; Wood, Lisa

    2017-09-01

    Research suggests that there are area-level disparities in alcohol outlets, with greater density in disadvantaged areas. In part, this might be explained by the inequitable distribution of retail, attracted by lower rents to disadvantaged neighbourhoods. This ecological study examines the distribution of liquor licences in Perth, Australia, and whether discrepancies in the distribution of retail land-uses could account for a socio-economic gradient. Area disadvantage was determined for each Statistical Area 1 (SA1) using the Australian Bureau of Statistics Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage, and licence locations were mapped in GIS. Negative binomial loglinear models examined whether licence densities within SA1s differed by area disadvantage, controlling for demographics and spatial correlation. Models included an offset term, so the estimated effects of area-level disadvantage were on licences per km 2 , or licences per retail destination. In the area-based analyses, for every unit increase in disadvantage decile (i.e. a reduction in relative disadvantage), general licences reduced by 15% (P = 0.000) and liquor stores reduced by 7% (P = 0.004). These gradients were not apparent when licences were examined as a function of retail; however, for every unit increase in disadvantage decile, the density of on-premise licences per retail destination increased by 14% (P = 0.000). The direction of the socio-economic gradient for general licences and liquor stores in Perth is concerning, as all licences selling packaged alcohol were more abundant in disadvantaged areas. However, the over-representation of packaged liquor in disadvantaged areas may relate to the increased provision of retail. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  10. Area density of localization-entropy I: the case of wedge-localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert

    2006-04-01

    Using an appropriately formulated holographic light front projection, we derive an area law for the localization-entropy caused by vacuum polarization on the horizon of a wedge region. Its area density has a simple kinematic relation to the heat bath entropy of the light front algebra. Apart from a change of parametrization the infinite light like length contribution to the light front volume factor corresponds to the short-distance divergence of the area density of the localization entropy. This correspondence is a consequence of the conformal invariance of the light front holography combined with the well-known fact that in conformality relates short to long distances. In the explicit calculation of the strength factor we use the temperature duality relation of rational chiral theories whose derivation will be briefly reviewed. We comment on the potential relevance for the understanding of Black hole entropy. (author)

  11. Lidar and Ground Assessment of Diversity, Wood Density, and Aboveground Biomass Along an Elevation Gradient in Tropical Montane Forest of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, C. M.; Saatchi, S. S.; Clark, D.; Andelman, S.; Gillespie, T.

    2013-12-01

    This research seeks to understand how tree diversity relates to three-dimensional vegetation structure along environmental gradients in the tropical montane forest of Braulio Carrillo National Park in Costa Rica. Elevation gradients along mountains provide landscape-size scales through which variations in topography and climatic conditions can be tested as drivers of biodiversity. In this study we report on the effectiveness of relating patterns of tree alpha diversity to three-dimensional structure of a tropical montane forest using remote sensing observations of forest structure. The study was utilized forest inventory and botanical data from nine 1-ha plots ranging from 100m-2800m above sea level and remote sensing data from an airborne lidar sensor (NASA's Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor [LVIS]) to quantify variations in forest structure. In addition to calculating alpha diversity, we report on the variations in wood density with elevation, important for biomass and carbon estimations. Tree cores were analyzed for wood density and compared to existing database values for the same species, often collected only in the lowlands. In this manner we were able to test the effect of the gradient on effective wood density. Through the comparison to the lidar, our results show that there is a strong relationship between forest 3D structure and alpha diversity controlled by variations in abiotic factors along the elevational gradient. Using spatial analysis with the aid of remote sensing data, we found distinct patterns along the environmental gradients defining species composition. Wood density values with elevation change were found to vary significantly from database values for the same species. These wood density values are directly tied to biomass estimates, and it is possible that carbon storage has been overestimated along this gradient using prior methods. This variation in individual tree growth has repercussions on overall forest structure, as well as

  12. The density and biomass of mesozooplankton and ichthyoplankton in the Negro and the Amazon Rivers during the rainy season: the ecological importance of the confluence boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Ryota; Rimachi, Elvis V; Santos-Silva, Edinaldo N; Calixto, Laura S F; Leite, Rosseval G; Khen, Adi; Yamane, Tetsuo; Mazeroll, Anthony I; Inuma, Jomber C; Utumi, Erika Y K; Tanaka, Akira

    2017-01-01

    The boundary zone between two different hydrological regimes is often a biologically enriched environment with distinct planktonic communities. In the center of the Amazon River basin, muddy white water of the Amazon River meets with black water of the Negro River, creating a conspicuous visible boundary spanning over 10 km along the Amazon River. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the confluence boundary between the white and black water rivers concentrates prey and is used as a feeding habitat for consumers by investigating the density, biomass and distribution of mesozooplankton and ichthyoplankton communities across the two rivers during the rainy season. Our results show that mean mesozooplankton density (2,730 inds. m -3 ) and biomass (4.8 mg m -3 ) were higher in the black-water river compared to the white-water river (959 inds. m -3 ; 2.4 mg m -3 ); however an exceptionally high mesozooplankton density was not observed in the confluence boundary. Nonetheless we found the highest density of ichthyoplankton in the confluence boundary (9.7 inds. m -3 ), being up to 9-fold higher than in adjacent rivers. The confluence between white and black waters is sandwiched by both environments with low (white water) and high (black water) zooplankton concentrations and by both environments with low (white water) and high (black water) predation pressures for fish larvae, and may function as a boundary layer that offers benefits of both high prey concentrations and low predation risk. This forms a plausible explanation for the high density of ichthyoplankton in the confluence zone of black and white water rivers.

  13. The density and biomass of mesozooplankton and ichthyoplankton in the Negro and the Amazon Rivers during the rainy season: the ecological importance of the confluence boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Nakajima

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The boundary zone between two different hydrological regimes is often a biologically enriched environment with distinct planktonic communities. In the center of the Amazon River basin, muddy white water of the Amazon River meets with black water of the Negro River, creating a conspicuous visible boundary spanning over 10 km along the Amazon River. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the confluence boundary between the white and black water rivers concentrates prey and is used as a feeding habitat for consumers by investigating the density, biomass and distribution of mesozooplankton and ichthyoplankton communities across the two rivers during the rainy season. Our results show that mean mesozooplankton density (2,730 inds. m−3 and biomass (4.8 mg m−3 were higher in the black-water river compared to the white-water river (959 inds. m−3; 2.4 mg m−3; however an exceptionally high mesozooplankton density was not observed in the confluence boundary. Nonetheless we found the highest density of ichthyoplankton in the confluence boundary (9.7 inds. m−3, being up to 9-fold higher than in adjacent rivers. The confluence between white and black waters is sandwiched by both environments with low (white water and high (black water zooplankton concentrations and by both environments with low (white water and high (black water predation pressures for fish larvae, and may function as a boundary layer that offers benefits of both high prey concentrations and low predation risk. This forms a plausible explanation for the high density of ichthyoplankton in the confluence zone of black and white water rivers.

  14. Spatial distribution and density of dolines in the southeastern Velebit area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Marković

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dolines are considered to be among the most prominent karst formations, which is why they can serve as diagnostic forms of karst. Their spatial distribution and density are important indicators of an area’s degree of karstification, as well as of an overall geomorphological development. The aim of this paper is to determine the spatial distribution and the density of dolines, and also to analyse the influence of geological structure and morphometric features of the terrain (hypsometry, slope inclination, relative relief on the spatial distribution of dolines in the area of southeastern Velebit. Moreover, for the first time with regards to the Croatian karst, the spatial distribution of dolines was compared with the spatial distribution of entrances into caves in the southeastern Velebit’s area of Crnopac. The data on the dolines’ position were adopted from 1:25,000 scaled topographic maps. All data were digitalised and analysed with ArcGIS 10.1 software in the GIS laboratory of the Geographic Department of the Faculty of Science in Zagreb. The research showed a strong influence of morphometric parameters of the relief on dolines’ density. The most prominent occurrence of dolines is linked with the areas ranging from 1000 to 1200 meters of altitude, slope inclination lower than 2° and the relative relief of 100 – 200 m per km2. Furthermore, the highest density of dolines was recorded in the Jurassic carbonate layers, while it was determined that the zones of main faults do not have a significant influence on the increase of dolines’ density. A high degree of correlation was determined by comparing spatial distributions and density of dolines and entrances into caves.

  15. Assessing the feasibility of high-density subsurface heat extraction in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abesser, Corinna; Busby, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    The subsurface is increasingly utilized as a heat source (sink) for use in heating (and cooling) applications. This is driven by the need to increase the amount of heat generated from renewable sources to meet the EU renewable energy target of 12% by 2020. This study explores the feasibility, performance and long-term sustainability of high density, closed-loop GSHP installations in urban areas. Specifically, it employs a 2D, finite element, heat transport model to assess the impact of high density heat extraction in a residential area in Reading. A block of semi-detached houses is modelled, assuming that separate GSHP systems are installed in every property. The model considers conductive and advective heat transport. Uncertainties are explored through varying thermal properties and groundwater gradients across the site. Different heat demand scenarios are evaluated and the impact on the subsurface temperature distribution and on heat pump efficiency is assessed. The scenarios are selected to represent variations in inter-annual weather pattern, heating pattern and building insulation standards. Results indicate that high density heat extraction for domestic heating can be sustainable over the lifespan expected for GSHP systems (of around 20 years), in particular where heat demand is reduced by home improvement measures. Based on the results, recommendations are being presented for the sustainable deployment of high density GSHP installation in urban areas.

  16. A study of low-density areas, clinical findings, and angiographic findings in patients with cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, Iwao; Sakai, Yoshiaki; Oikawa, Tadato; Koide, Kohji; Kanaya, Haruyuki.

    1978-01-01

    55 out of 62 patients with cerebral infarction were investigated in terms of CT scan findings, angiographic findings, and clinical symptoms. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The low-density areas of the CT scan findings were classified into the following four types: large hemispheric or lobular --Type I; wedge-shaped --Type II; small --Type III; and lacunar low-density area. --Type IV. 2) Almost all patients with angiographically occlusive findings showed low-density areas of Type I; however, one patient with ICA occlusion revealed only a lacunar low-density area. 3) The patients with lacunar low-density areas showed an angiographically delayed filling of the angular artery and posterior parietal artery of the middle cerebral artery. 4) The relationship between the types of low-density areas and the clinical conscious disorders was not clear. On the other hand, the patients with Type I low-density areas almost all had motor disturbances, while patients with other types of low-density areas showed only 60 - 70% motor disturbances. 5) In patients with speech disorders, total aphasia cases were found in patients with large hemispheric low-density areas on the left side. Although, motor aphasia cases were seen in patients with various low-density areas on the left inferior frontal and precentral gyri, dysarthria cases were found in the patients with several low-density areas on both sides. 6) The localization of lacunar low-density areas seemed to be near the caudate nucleus on the right side and in the putaminal regions on the left side. The mean and the standard deviation of CT numbers in the lacunar low-density areas showed higher values on the right side than on the left side. (author)

  17. Dependence of compressive strength of green compacts on pressure, density and contact area of powder particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.; Akram, M.; Shahid, K.A.; Javed, M.; Zaidi, S.M.

    1994-08-01

    The relationship between green compressive strength and compacting pressure as well as green density has been investigated for uniaxially pressed aluminium powder compacts in the range 0 - 520 MPa. Two linear relationships occurred between compacting pressure and green compressive strength which corresponded to powder compaction stages II and III respectively, increase in strength being large during stage II and quite small in stage III with increasing pressure. On the basis of both, the experimental results and a previous model on cold compaction of powder particles, relationships between green compressive strength and green density and interparticle contact area of the compacts has been established. (author) 9 figs

  18. Transformation of solar radiation in Norway spruce stands into produced biomass – the effect of stand density

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marková, I.; Pokorný, Radek; Marek, Michal V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 6 (2011), s. 233-241 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/70/08; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : biomass production * LAI * Norway Spruce * PAR absorption * solar energy conversion Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  19. On the use of fire radiative power, area, and temperature estimates to characterize biomass burning via moderate to coarse spatial resolution remote sensing data in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Wilfrid; Csiszar, Ivan; Giglio, Louis; Schmidt, Christopher C.

    2010-11-01

    Spaceborne instruments provide a unique view of global vegetation fire activity many times a day. In this study, we assessed the fire characterization information provided by two major products: the Terra and Aqua MODIS Thermal Anomalies product (MOD14 and MYD14, respectively) and the Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) product derived from GOES East Imager. Using higher spatial resolution imagery data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instruments, we analyzed the characterization of subpixel fires detected by MOD14, MYD14, and WF_ABBA over parts of Brazilian Amazonia. Our results suggest that MODIS and GOES fire radiative power (FRP) estimates derived for individual fire-pixel clusters are subject to errors due to the effects of the point spread function of those instruments (underestimation of up to 75%), improper fire background characterization (overestimation of up to 80% assuming a 10 K cold bias in background temperature), and omission of small fire lines. Detection limits were approximately 11 and 9 MW for MOD14 and MYD14, respectively, and were equivalent to 27 and 19 MW for WF_ABBA data acquired coincidently with MOD14 and MYD14, respectively. We found a positive correlation between FRP and percentage tree cover indicating that FRP is sensitive to biomass density. Fire area and temperature estimates derived from the application of Dozier's (1981) approach to GOES data did not agree with our reference data (i.e., ASTER and ETM+ active fire masks and in situ fire temperature data), suggesting that large and variable errors could affect the retrieval of those parameters.

  20. LBA-ECO LC-03 SAR Images, Land Cover, and Biomass, Four Areas across Brazilian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides three related land cover products for four study areas across the Brazilian Amazon: Manaus, Amazonas; Tapajos National Forest, Para...

  1. LBA-ECO LC-03 SAR Images, Land Cover, and Biomass, Four Areas across Brazilian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides three related land cover products for four study areas across the Brazilian Amazon: Manaus, Amazonas; Tapajos National Forest, Para Western...

  2. Willow Short Rotation Coppice Trial in a Former Mining Area in Northern Spain: Effects of Clone, Fertilization and Planting Density on Yield after Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Castaño-Díaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A willow short rotation coppice (SRC trial was conducted on former mining land in northern Spain over a period of five years, with the purpose of evaluating the effects on yield of two planting densities (9876 and 14,815 cuttings ha−1, three treatments (control, two levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer (NPK plus weed control and three willow clones (Björn, Inger, Olof. The area was subsoiled, ploughed, harrowed and fertilized with NPK before trial establishment. A randomized block design was applied, with three replications of each treatment in a total of 54 plots, each of an area of 400 m2. The effects of the interactions between the various factors on yield and other growth parameters were also studied. The clone factor significantly affected the number of shoots per stool (greatest for the Inger clone and the Olof clone, which showed the lowest mortality rate and produced the largest trees and largest quantity of biomass. The combined application of fertilizer and herbicide also significantly increased the values of all response variables considered, except the mortality rate. The planting density did not significantly affect the response variables. Clone × treatment interactions were significant for the shoots per stool, height, diameter and biomass variables, and the Olof clone displayed the highest height and diameter growth and yield. The results obtained in the first rotation indicate that the Olof clone adapted well to the trial conditions and therefore would be appropriate for producing biomass in abandoned mine land in Asturias. These findings will help in the development of strategies for the establishment and management of SRC on marginal land.

  3. Prognostic Value of Psoas Muscle Area and Density in Patients Who Undergo Cardiovascular Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masashi; Kamiya, Kentaro; Matsunaga, Atsuhiko; Kitamura, Tadashi; Hamazaki, Nobuaki; Matsuzawa, Ryota; Nozaki, Kohei; Tanaka, Shinya; Nakamura, Takeshi; Maekawa, Emi; Masuda, Takashi; Ako, Junya; Miyaji, Kagami

    2017-12-01

    Low skeletal muscle density, determined using computed tomography (CT), has yet to be examined in terms of muscle function and prognostic capability in patients who require open cardiovascular surgery. This study was performed to examine whether psoas muscle area and density, determined using CT, are associated with postoperative mortality in patients who undergo cardiovascular surgery. We reviewed the findings in 773 consecutive patients who underwent preoperative CT imaging, including the level of the third lumbar vertebra for clinical purposes. We measured grip strength, gait speed, and 6-minute walking distance to assess muscle function before hospital discharge. Skeletal muscle area was calculated from psoas muscle cross-sectional area (in squared centimeters) on preoperative CT images at the level of the third lumbar vertebra divided by the square of the patient's height in metres to give the skeletal muscle index (SMI). Skeletal muscle density determined by muscle attenuation (MA) was calculated by measuring the average Hounsfield units of the psoas muscle cross-sectional area. The mean age of the study population was 65.0 ± 13.1 years, and 64.7% of the patients were male. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that low MA, but not SMI, was significantly associated with muscle function, and all-cause mortality (P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that low MA, but not low SMI, predicted mortality (P = 0.014). Low skeletal muscle density, but not skeletal muscle area, predicted poorer muscle function and mortality in patients who undergo cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pretreated densified biomass products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  5. Rodent movements, densities and radionuclide concentrations at a liquid radioactive waste disposal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    Movements and densities of rodents at a liquid radioactive waste disposal area were studied from June to September 1981 using trap line and assessment line techniques. The average distance between points of successive capture was 42 +- 25 (SD) m for deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and 37 +- 21 m for kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii). Densities of deer mice averaged 10.2/ha with a population estimate of 57 within the area of rodent captures. The population estimate of 4 species of small mammals at the waste pond complex was 93. Radionuclide concentrations averaged 133 +- 97 pCi/g for rodents captured inside the disposal area boundary, 18 +- 22 pCi/g for those captured outside of the dispoal area fence and 0.50 +- 0.6 pCi/g for control animals. Species captured outside of the waste area boundary had significantly lower (P 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 60 Co and 65 Zn) in rodents at the liquid waste disposal area was estimated to be about 162 nCi

  6. Submerged macrophyte communities in the Forsmark area. Building of a GIS application as a tool for biomass estimations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksson, Ronny [Univ. of Kalmar (Sweden)

    2005-12-15

    The aim of this study was to compile the information from previous studies to produce a GIS application that both illustrates the distribution of different vegetation communities and also makes it possible to estimate the total biomass of the different vegetation communities and its associated fauna. The GIS application was created by means of the software Arc View 3.3 by Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. Distribution readings and quantitative data of submerged macrophyte communities and its associated fauna was obtained from studies by Kautsky et al. and by Borgiel. Information about the macrophyte distribution in Laangoersviken, located in the northern parts of Kallrigafjaerden, was obtained from a report by Upplandsstiftelsen. Information about water depth and bottom substrate was available as USGS DEM file, produced by Geological Survey of Sweden. Complementary data of the covering degree of submerged vegetation was obtained from a study using an under water video camera by Tobiasson. Quantitative data on macrophyte and faunal biomass were either obtained from the primary SKB data base SICADA or directly from reports. Samples were compiled and analysed according to dominating vegetation. The work was carried out as follows: Where information about the bottom substrate was available polygons were created by means of the substrate shape file and depth grid from Geological Survey of Sweden. The vegetation community and the covering degree on a certain depth and substrate combination were determined by compiled information from studies by Kautsky and by Borgiel. All observations from a certain bottom substrate were analysed to find the dominating vegetation within different depth ranges. After determining the dominating vegetation, the covering degrees of different macrophyte classes within each depth range were calculated as a mean of all readings. Areas without information about the bottom substrate, but still adjacent to areas included in the

  7. Submerged macrophyte communities in the Forsmark area. Building of a GIS application as a tool for biomass estimations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredriksson, Ronny

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compile the information from previous studies to produce a GIS application that both illustrates the distribution of different vegetation communities and also makes it possible to estimate the total biomass of the different vegetation communities and its associated fauna. The GIS application was created by means of the software Arc View 3.3 by Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. Distribution readings and quantitative data of submerged macrophyte communities and its associated fauna was obtained from studies by Kautsky et al. and by Borgiel. Information about the macrophyte distribution in Laangoersviken, located in the northern parts of Kallrigafjaerden, was obtained from a report by Upplandsstiftelsen. Information about water depth and bottom substrate was available as USGS DEM file, produced by Geological Survey of Sweden. Complementary data of the covering degree of submerged vegetation was obtained from a study using an under water video camera by Tobiasson. Quantitative data on macrophyte and faunal biomass were either obtained from the primary SKB data base SICADA or directly from reports. Samples were compiled and analysed according to dominating vegetation. The work was carried out as follows: Where information about the bottom substrate was available polygons were created by means of the substrate shape file and depth grid from Geological Survey of Sweden. The vegetation community and the covering degree on a certain depth and substrate combination were determined by compiled information from studies by Kautsky and by Borgiel. All observations from a certain bottom substrate were analysed to find the dominating vegetation within different depth ranges. After determining the dominating vegetation, the covering degrees of different macrophyte classes within each depth range were calculated as a mean of all readings. Areas without information about the bottom substrate, but still adjacent to areas included in the

  8. Using Tree Detection Algorithms to Predict Stand Sapwood Area, Basal Area and Stocking Density in Eucalyptus regnans Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Jaskierniak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Managers of forested water supply catchments require efficient and accurate methods to quantify changes in forest water use due to changes in forest structure and density after disturbance. Using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data with as few as 0.9 pulses m−2, we applied a local maximum filtering (LMF method and normalised cut (NCut algorithm to predict stocking density (SDen of a 69-year-old Eucalyptus regnans forest comprising 251 plots with resolution of the order of 0.04 ha. Using the NCut method we predicted basal area (BAHa per hectare and sapwood area (SAHa per hectare, a well-established proxy for transpiration. Sapwood area was also indirectly estimated with allometric relationships dependent on LiDAR derived SDen and BAHa using a computationally efficient procedure. The individual tree detection (ITD rates for the LMF and NCut methods respectively had 72% and 68% of stems correctly identified, 25% and 20% of stems missed, and 2% and 12% of stems over-segmented. The significantly higher computational requirement of the NCut algorithm makes the LMF method more suitable for predicting SDen across large forested areas. Using NCut derived ITD segments, observed versus predicted stand BAHa had R2 ranging from 0.70 to 0.98 across six catchments, whereas a generalised parsimonious model applied to all sites used the portion of hits greater than 37 m in height (PH37 to explain 68% of BAHa. For extrapolating one ha resolution SAHa estimates across large forested catchments, we found that directly relating SAHa to NCut derived LiDAR indices (R2 = 0.56 was slightly more accurate but computationally more demanding than indirect estimates of SAHa using allometric relationships consisting of BAHa (R2 = 0.50 or a sapwood perimeter index, defined as (BAHaSDen½ (R2 = 0.48.

  9. Estimating forest biomass and identifying low-intensity logging areas using airborne scanning lidar in Antimary State Forest, Acre State, Western Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus V.N. d' Oliveira; Stephen E. Reutebuch; Robert J. McGaughey; Hans-Erik. Andersen

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate above ground forest biomass and identify areas disturbed by selective logging in a 1000 ha Brazilian tropical forest in the Antimary State Forest using airborne lidar data. The study area consisted of three management units, two of which were unlogged, while the third unit was selectively logged at a low intensity. A...

  10. Area, depth and elevation of cryoconite holes in the Arctic do not influence Tardigrada densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawierucha Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Water bears (Tardigrada are known as one of the most extremophile animals in the world. They inhabit environments from the deepest parts of the oceans up to the highest mountains. One of the most extreme and still poorly studied habitats which tardigrades inhabit are cryoconite holes. We analysed the relation between area, depth, elevation and tardigrades densities in cryoconite holes on four glaciers on Spitsbergen. The mean (±SD of cryoconite area was 1287.21±2400.8 cm2, while the depth was on average 10.8±11.2 cm, the elevation 172.6±109.66 m a.s.l., and tardigrade density 24.9±33.0 individuals per gram of wet material (n = 38. The densities of tardigrades on Hans Glacier reached values of up to 168 ind. cm3, 104 ind. g−1 wet weight, and 275 ind. g−1 dry weight. The densities of tardigrades of the three glaciers in Billefjorden were up to 82 ind. cm2, 326 ind. g−1 wet weight and 624 ind. g−1 dry weight. Surprisingly, although the model included area, depth and elevation as independent variables, it cannot explain Tardigrada density in cryoconite holes. We propose that due to the rapid melting of the glacier surface in the Arctic, the constant flushing of cryoconite sediments, and inter-hole water-sediment mixing, the functioning of these ecosystems is disrupted. We conclude that cryoconite holes are dynamic ecosystems for microinvertebrates in the Arctic.

  11. Paths to bioenergy villages. A guideline for a independent supply of heat and electricity based on biomass in rural area. 3. ed.; Wege zum Bioenergiedorf. Leitfaden fuer eine eigenstaendige Waerme- und Stromversrogung auf Basis von Biomasse im laendlichen Raum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, Hans; Eigner-Thiel, Swantje; Girschner, Walter; Karpenstein-Machan, Marianne; Roland, Folker; Ruwisch, Volker; Sauer, Benedikt; Schmuck, Peter

    2010-12-15

    Bioenergy villages are one component for the sustainable energy supply in rural areas. The guideline under consideration is intended to encourage people in villages to switch their heat supply and electricity supply on the bases of biomass. The focus of this process-oriented guideline is on: (1) A presentation of the social feasibility, especially the involvement, motivation and encouragement of the population; (2) The presentation of concepts for a nature-friendly cultivation of the required biomass; (3) The treatment of economic and legal issues from the perspective of the people involved.

  12. Anopheles atroparvus density modeling using MODIS NDVI in a former malarious area in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Pedro M; Sousa, Carla A; Seixas, Júlia; Lopes, Pedro; Novo, Maria T; Almeida, A Paulo G

    2011-12-01

    Malaria is dependent on environmental factors and considered as potentially re-emerging in temperate regions. Remote sensing data have been used successfully for monitoring environmental conditions that influence the patterns of such arthropod vector-borne diseases. Anopheles atroparvus density data were collected from 2002 to 2005, on a bimonthly basis, at three sites in a former malarial area in Southern Portugal. The development of the Remote Vector Model (RVM) was based upon two main variables: temperature and the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra satellite. Temperature influences the mosquito life cycle and affects its intra-annual prevalence, and MODIS NDVI was used as a proxy for suitable habitat conditions. Mosquito data were used for calibration and validation of the model. For areas with high mosquito density, the model validation demonstrated a Pearson correlation of 0.68 (pNDVI. RVM is a satellite data-based assimilation algorithm that uses temperature fields to predict the intra- and inter-annual densities of this mosquito species using MODIS NDVI. RVM is a relevant tool for vector density estimation, contributing to the risk assessment of transmission of mosquito-borne diseases and can be part of the early warning system and contingency plans providing support to the decision making process of relevant authorities. © 2011 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  13. Leaf Area Index, Biomass Carbon and Growth Rate of Radiata Pine Genetic Types and Relationships with LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. McGaughey

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between discrete-return light detection and ranging (LiDAR data and radiata pine leaf area index (LAI, stem volume, above ground carbon, and carbon sequestration were developed using 10 plots with directly measured biomass and leaf area data, and 36 plots with modelled carbon data. The plots included a range of genetic types established on north- and south-facing aspects. Modelled carbon was highly correlated with directly measured crown, stem, and above ground biomass data, with r = 0.92, 0.97 and 0.98, respectively. LiDAR canopy percentile height (P30 and cover, based on all returns above 0.5 m, explained 81, 88, and 93% of the variation in directly measured crown, stem, and above ground live carbon and 75, 89 and 88% of the modelled carbon, respectively. LAI (all surfaces ranged between 8.8–19.1 in the 10 plots measured at age 9 years. The difference in canopy percentile heights (P95–P30 and cover based on first returns explained 80% of the variation in total LAI. Periodic mean annual increments in stem volume, above ground live carbon, and total carbon between ages 9 and 13 years were significantly related to (P95–P30, with regression models explaining 56, 58, and 55%, respectively, of the variation in growth rate per plot. When plot aspect and genetic type were included with (P95–P30, the R2 of the regression models for stem volume, above ground live carbon, and total carbon increment increased to 90, 88, and 88%, respectively, which indicates that LiDAR regression equations for estimating stock changes can be substantially improved by incorporating supplementary site and crop data.

  14. Allometric relationships predicting foliar biomass and leaf area:sapwood area ratio from tree height in five Costa Rican rain forest species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Alvarado, J C; McDowell, N G; Waring, R H

    2008-11-01

    We developed allometric equations to predict whole-tree leaf area (A(l)), leaf biomass (M(l)) and leaf area to sapwood area ratio (A(l):A(s)) in five rain forest tree species of Costa Rica: Pentaclethra macroloba (Willd.) Kuntze (Fabaceae/Mim), Carapa guianensis Aubl. (Meliaceae), Vochysia ferru-gi-nea Mart. (Vochysiaceae), Virola koshnii Warb. (Myristicaceae) and Tetragastris panamensis (Engl.) Kuntze (Burseraceae). By destructive analyses (n = 11-14 trees per species), we observed strong nonlinear allometric relationships (r(2) > or = 0.9) for predicting A(l) or M(l) from stem diameters or A(s) measured at breast height. Linear relationships were less accurate. In general, A(l):A(s) at breast height increased linearly with tree height except for Penta-clethra, which showed a negative trend. All species, however, showed increased total A(l) with height. The observation that four of the five species increased in A(l):A(s) with height is consistent with hypotheses about trade--offs between morphological and anatomical adaptations that favor efficient water flow through variation in the amount of leaf area supported by sapwood and those imposed by the need to respond quickly to light gaps in the canopy.

  15. Small mammal density and movement on the SL-1 disposal area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipovich, M.A.; Keller, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    This study was initiated to examine the population composition, density and food habits of small mammals on a radioactive waste disposal area. Population parameters of small mammals were studied at 3-month intervals on and adjacent to the SL-1 radioactive waste disposal area (1.4 ha) and a 0.3 ha control area between August 1981 and February 1982 with mark-release methods. Both areas have crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) stands surrounded by sagebrush steppe. Species composition on the SL-1 and control area was similar to that found on the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Considerable use by small mammals of the perimeter of the crested wheatgrass stands was found on both the SL-1 and control area. Additionally, deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) that frequent the crested wheatgrass stands of the SL-1 and control area were often captured over 100 m from the crested wheatgrass stands. Thus, future research efforts will focus on examining the intensity of perimeter use and food habits of rodents residing on and adjacent to the SL-1. Results of this study will be used to evaluate ecological conditions that affect small mammal use of radioactive waste disposal areas

  16. Population density, biomass, and age-class structure of the invasive clam Corbicula fluminea in rivers of the lower San Joaquin River watershed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L.R.; Thompson, J.K.; Higgins, K.; Lucas, L.V.

    2007-01-01

    Corbicula fluminea is well known as an invasive filter-feeding freshwater bivalve with a variety of effects on ecosystem processes. However. C. fluminea has been relatively unstudied in the rivers of the western United States. In June 2003, we sampled C. fluminea at 16 sites in the San Joaquin River watershed of California, which was invaded by C. fluminea in the 1940s. Corbicula fluminea was common in 2 tributaries to the San Joaquin River, reaching densities of 200 clams??m-2, but was rare in the San Joaquin River. Biomass followed a similar pattern. Clams of the same age were shorter in the San Joaquin River than in the tributaries. Distribution of clams was different in the 2 tributaries, but the causes of the difference are unknown. The low density and biomass of clams in the San Joaquin River was likely due to stressful habitat or to water quality, because food was abundant. The success of C. fluminea invasions and subsequent effects on trophic processes likely depends on multiple factors. As C. fluminea continues to expand its range around the world, questions regarding invasion success and effects on ecosystems will become important in a wide array of environmental settings.

  17. Species-specific gradients of juvenile fish density and size in pelagic areas of temperate reservoirs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jůza, Tomáš; Ricard, Daniel; Blabolil, Petr; Čech, Martin; Draštík, Vladislav; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Muška, Milan; Peterka, Jiří; Prchalová, Marie; Říha, Milan; Sajdlová, Zuzana; Šmejkal, Marek; Tušer, Michal; Vašek, Mojmír; Vejřík, Lukáš; Kubečka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 762, č. 1 (2015), s. 169-181 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0204; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14316 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : trawling * juvenile density * horizontal distribution * vertical distribution * tributary area Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.051, year: 2015

  18. Comparison of Bone Mineral Density between Urban and Rural Areas: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Matsuzaki

    Full Text Available Studies from high income countries (HIC have generally shown higher osteoporotic fracture rates in urban areas than rural areas. Low bone mineral density (BMD increases susceptibility to fractures. This review aimed to assess whether urbanicity is consistently associated with lower BMD globally.Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Global Health (-April 2013 were searched for articles investigating differences in bone mineral content (BMC or BMD between urban and rural areas. Ratio of means (RoM of BMD were used to estimate effect sizes in meta-analysis, with an exception for one study that only presented BMC data.Fifteen articles from eleven distinct populations were included in the review; seven populations from four high income countries and four from three low and middle income countries (LMIC. Meta-analysis showed conflicting evidence for urban-rural difference in BMD; studies from high income countries generally showed higher BMD in rural areas while the results were more mixed in studies from low and middle income countries (HIC RoM = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.06; LMIC RoM = -0.04: 95% CI: -0.1 to 0.01.Urban-rural differences of bone mineral density may be context-specific. BMD may be higher in urban areas in some lower income countries. More studies with robust designs and analytical techniques are needed to understand mechanisms underlying the effects of urbanization on bone mass accrual and loss.

  19. Classification of air density areas in CT-pathologic correlation of pulmonary adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Naoya; Akita, Shinichi; Sakai, Kunio; Oda, Junichi; Tsukada, Hiroshi; Usuda, Hiroyuki; Emura, Iwao; Naito, Makoto

    1995-01-01

    Air density areas (ADAs) such as air bronchogram, bubble-like area, and cavity on high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of pulmonary adenocarcinoma were examined to clarify their pathological implications. Forty-two resected specimens of pulmonary adenocarcinoma were histopathologically examined in correlation with the HRCT findings with particular emphasis on ADAs. Forty-one ADAs observed in 32 of 42 cases with pulmonary adenocarcinoma were classified into three types: air bronchogram type (n=22), bubble-like area type (n=12), and cavity type (n=8). Twenty of 22 air bronchogram ADAs corresponded to bronchi. Nine of 12 bubble-like area ADAs corresponded to bronchioles. Only one of eight cavity-ADAs consisted of necrosis. The classification of ADAs in pulmonary adenocarcinoma is considered to be useful in interpreting HRCT findings of pulmonary nodules. (author)

  20. Novel and Lost Forests in the Upper Midwestern United States, from New Estimates of Settlement-Era Composition, Stem Density, and Biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Goring

    Full Text Available EuroAmerican land-use and its legacies have transformed forest structure and composition across the United States (US. More accurate reconstructions of historical states are critical to understanding the processes governing past, current, and future forest dynamics. Here we present new gridded (8x8km reconstructions of pre-settlement (1800s forest composition and structure from the upper Midwestern US (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and most of Michigan, using 19th Century Public Land Survey System (PLSS, with estimates of relative composition, above-ground biomass, stem density, and basal area for 28 tree types. This mapping is more robust than past efforts, using spatially varying correction factors to accommodate sampling design, azimuthal censoring, and biases in tree selection.We compare pre-settlement to modern forests using US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA data to show the prevalence of lost forests (pre-settlement forests with no current analog, and novel forests (modern forests with no past analogs. Differences between pre-settlement and modern forests are spatially structured owing to differences in land-use impacts and accompanying ecological responses. Modern forests are more homogeneous, and ecotonal gradients are more diffuse today than in the past. Novel forest assemblages represent 28% of all FIA cells, and 28% of pre-settlement forests no longer exist in a modern context. Lost forests include tamarack forests in northeastern Minnesota, hemlock and cedar dominated forests in north-central Wisconsin and along the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and elm, oak, basswood and ironwood forests along the forest-prairie boundary in south central Minnesota and eastern Wisconsin. Novel FIA forest assemblages are distributed evenly across the region, but novelty shows a strong relationship to spatial distance from remnant forests in the upper Midwest, with novelty predicted at between 20 to 60km from remnants, depending on historical

  1. Novel and Lost Forests in the Upper Midwestern United States, from New Estimates of Settlement-Era Composition, Stem Density, and Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goring, Simon J; Mladenoff, David J; Cogbill, Charles V; Record, Sydne; Paciorek, Christopher J; Jackson, Stephen T; Dietze, Michael C; Dawson, Andria; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala; McLachlan, Jason S; Williams, John W

    2016-01-01

    EuroAmerican land-use and its legacies have transformed forest structure and composition across the United States (US). More accurate reconstructions of historical states are critical to understanding the processes governing past, current, and future forest dynamics. Here we present new gridded (8x8km) reconstructions of pre-settlement (1800s) forest composition and structure from the upper Midwestern US (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and most of Michigan), using 19th Century Public Land Survey System (PLSS), with estimates of relative composition, above-ground biomass, stem density, and basal area for 28 tree types. This mapping is more robust than past efforts, using spatially varying correction factors to accommodate sampling design, azimuthal censoring, and biases in tree selection. We compare pre-settlement to modern forests using US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data to show the prevalence of lost forests (pre-settlement forests with no current analog), and novel forests (modern forests with no past analogs). Differences between pre-settlement and modern forests are spatially structured owing to differences in land-use impacts and accompanying ecological responses. Modern forests are more homogeneous, and ecotonal gradients are more diffuse today than in the past. Novel forest assemblages represent 28% of all FIA cells, and 28% of pre-settlement forests no longer exist in a modern context. Lost forests include tamarack forests in northeastern Minnesota, hemlock and cedar dominated forests in north-central Wisconsin and along the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and elm, oak, basswood and ironwood forests along the forest-prairie boundary in south central Minnesota and eastern Wisconsin. Novel FIA forest assemblages are distributed evenly across the region, but novelty shows a strong relationship to spatial distance from remnant forests in the upper Midwest, with novelty predicted at between 20 to 60km from remnants, depending on historical forest

  2. Novel and Lost Forests in the Upper Midwestern United States, from New Estimates of Settlement-Era Composition, Stem Density, and Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenoff, David J.; Cogbill, Charles V.; Record, Sydne; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Dietze, Michael C.; Dawson, Andria; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala; McLachlan, Jason S.; Williams, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Background EuroAmerican land-use and its legacies have transformed forest structure and composition across the United States (US). More accurate reconstructions of historical states are critical to understanding the processes governing past, current, and future forest dynamics. Here we present new gridded (8x8km) reconstructions of pre-settlement (1800s) forest composition and structure from the upper Midwestern US (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and most of Michigan), using 19th Century Public Land Survey System (PLSS), with estimates of relative composition, above-ground biomass, stem density, and basal area for 28 tree types. This mapping is more robust than past efforts, using spatially varying correction factors to accommodate sampling design, azimuthal censoring, and biases in tree selection. Changes in Forest Structure We compare pre-settlement to modern forests using US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data to show the prevalence of lost forests (pre-settlement forests with no current analog), and novel forests (modern forests with no past analogs). Differences between pre-settlement and modern forests are spatially structured owing to differences in land-use impacts and accompanying ecological responses. Modern forests are more homogeneous, and ecotonal gradients are more diffuse today than in the past. Novel forest assemblages represent 28% of all FIA cells, and 28% of pre-settlement forests no longer exist in a modern context. Lost forests include tamarack forests in northeastern Minnesota, hemlock and cedar dominated forests in north-central Wisconsin and along the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and elm, oak, basswood and ironwood forests along the forest-prairie boundary in south central Minnesota and eastern Wisconsin. Novel FIA forest assemblages are distributed evenly across the region, but novelty shows a strong relationship to spatial distance from remnant forests in the upper Midwest, with novelty predicted at between 20 to 60km from

  3. Going beyond the green: senesced vegetation material predicts basal area and biomass in remote sensing of tree cover conditions in an African tropical dry forest (miombo woodland) landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Marc; Mustard, John; Melillo, Jerry; Neill, Christopher; Nyadzi, Gerson

    2017-08-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), tropical dry forests and savannas cover over 2.5 million km2 and support livelihoods for millions in fast-growing nations. Intensifying land use pressures have driven rapid changes in tree cover structure (basal area, biomass) that remain poorly characterized at regional scales. Here, we posed the hypothesis that tree cover structure related strongly to senesced and non-photosynthetic (NPV) vegetation features in a SSA tropical dry forest landscape, offering improved means for satellite remote sensing of tree cover structure compared to vegetation greenness-based methods. Across regrowth miombo woodland sites in Tanzania, we analyzed relationships among field data on tree structure, land cover, and satellite indices of green and NPV features based on spectral mixture analyses and normalized difference vegetation index calculated from Landsat 8 data. From satellite-field data relationships, we mapped regional basal area and biomass using NPV and greenness-based metrics, and compared map performances at landscape scales. Total canopy cover related significantly to stem basal area (r 2 = 0.815, p  60%) at all sites. From these two conditions emerged a key inverse relationship: skyward exposure of NPV ground cover was high at sites with low tree basal area and biomass, and decreased with increasing stem basal area and biomass. This pattern scaled to Landsat NPV metrics, which showed strong inverse correlations to basal area (Pearson r = -0.85, p forests.

  4. Radiocarbon Analysis to Calculate New End-Member Values for Biomass Burning Source Samples Specific to the Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S.; Kirchstetter, T.; Fairley, D.; Sheesley, R. J.; Tang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Elemental carbon (EC), also known as black carbon or soot, is an important particulate air pollutant that contributes to climate forcing through absorption of solar radiation and to adverse human health impacts through inhalation. Both fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, via residential firewood burning, agricultural burning, wild fires, and controlled burns, are significant sources of EC. Our ability to successfully control ambient EC concentrations requires understanding the contribution of these different emission sources. Radiocarbon (14C) analysis has been increasingly used as an apportionment tool to distinguish between EC from fossil fuel and biomass combustion sources. However, there are uncertainties associated with this method including: 1) uncertainty associated with the isolation of EC to be used for radiocarbon analysis (e.g., inclusion of organic carbon, blank contamination, recovery of EC, etc.) 2) uncertainty associated with the radiocarbon signature of the end member. The objective of this research project is to utilize laboratory experiments to evaluate some of these uncertainties, particularly for EC sources that significantly impact the San Francisco Bay Area. Source samples of EC only and a mix of EC and organic carbon (OC) were produced for this study to represent known emission sources and to approximate the mixing of EC and OC that would be present in the atmosphere. These samples include a combination of methane flame soot, various wood smoke samples (i.e. cedar, oak, sugar pine, pine at various ages, etc.), meat cooking, and smoldering cellulose smoke. EC fractions were isolated using a Sunset Laboratory's thermal optical transmittance carbon analyzer. For 14C analysis, samples were sent to Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for isotope analysis using an accelerated mass spectrometry. End member values and uncertainties for the EC isolation utilizing this method will be reported.

  5. Recreational Trails Reduce the Density of Ground-Dwelling Birds in Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bill

    2015-05-01

    Recreational disturbance associated with trails has been identified as one of the major factors causing a decline of native biodiversity within protected areas. However, despite the negative impacts that recreation can have on biodiversity, providing public access to nature is critical for the future of the conservation of biodiversity. As such, many protected area managers are looking for tools to help maintain a balance between public access and biodiversity conservation. The objectives of this study were to examine the impacts of recreational trails on forest-dwelling bird communities in eastern North America, identify functional guilds which are particularly sensitive to recreational trails, and derive guidelines for trail design to assist in managing the impacts of recreational trails on forest-dwelling birds. Trails within 24 publicly owned natural areas were mapped, and breeding bird communities were described with the use of point count surveys. The density of forest birds, particularly of those species which nest or forage on the ground, were significantly positively influenced by the amount of trail-free refuge habitat. Although management options to control trail use in non-staffed protected areas are limited, this study suggests that protected area managers could design and maintain a trail network that would minimize impacts on resident wildlife, while providing recreational opportunities for visitors, by designing their trail network to maximize the area of trail-free habitat.

  6. Effects of blend ratio between high density polyethylene and biomass on co-gasification behavior in a two-stage gasification system

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Jae Hyun

    2016-08-12

    The co-gasification of a high density polyethylene (HDPE) blended with a biomass has been carried out in a two-stage gasification system which comprises an oxidative pyrolysis reactor and a thermal plasma reactor. The equivalence ratio was changed from 0.38 to 0.85 according to the variation of blend ratio between HDPE and biomass. The highest production yield was achieved to be 71.4 mol/h, when the equivalence ratio was 0.47. A large amount of hydrocarbons was produced from the oxidative pyrolysis reactor as decreasing equivalence ratio below 0.41, while the CO2 concentration significantly increased with a high equivalence ratio over 0.65. The production yield was improved by the thermal plasma reactor due to the conversion of hydrocarbons into syngas in a high temperature region of thermal plasma. At the equivalence ratio of 0.47, conversion selectivities of CO and H2 from hydrocarbons were calculated to be 74% and 44%, respectively. © 2016 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC.

  7. Characterization and valorization of biomass char: a comparison with biomass ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Nikhilesh S; Mandavgane, Sachin A; Chaurasia, Ashish

    2018-02-01

    Organic matter derived from living, or recently living plant and animal, which can be used as fuel is called as biomass. It includes wood and agricultural waste such as dead plant etc. In India, majority of population depends largely upon agriculture as their primary source of income. Following every harvest, a huge amount of biomass is generated. It is mostly discarded as "agro waste"; however, recently, several uses of biomass and its derivatives have been reported. Thermochemical processing of biomass in absence of oxygen produces biomass char and flue gases which are of economic importance. However, it is necessary to characterize the physical and chemical properties of these components so as to utilize their potential benefit to the fullest. In this study, six different biomass remains that include mustard plant, groundnut plant, cotton plant, wheat plant, pigeon peas, and groundnut shell were pyrolyzed at 650 °C, in vertical downdraft fixed-bed biomass reactor. The flue gases were characterized in detail by gas chromatography. X-ray fluorescence, proximate, and ultimate analyses were performed on all BMC (biomass char) samples, and properties such as porosity, particle density, bulk density, point of zero charge, surface pH, surface charges, water-absorption capacity, and BET surface area were determined. SEM and FTIR were also carried out on all BMC samples. Our results showed that the surface area of biomass char varies from 38 to 138 m 2 /g. The solution pH for all BMC exceeds 8.6, thus confirmed the alkaline nature. Comparison between combustion products produced in the presence (biomass ash) and absence of oxygen (biomass char) is presented. BMC finds applications in agriculture, soil neutralizer, adsorbent, and soil additive. They have high amount of carbon and can act as a rich carbon source for the soil. Flue gases released contain methane and hydrogen which can also improve economic value for the char formation process.

  8. Biomass potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Biomass resources of the industrialised countries are enormous, if only a small fraction of set-aside fields were used for energy crops. Forest resources could also be utilised more efficiently than at present for large-scale energy production. The energy content of the annual net growth of the total wood biomass is estimated to be 180 million toe in Europe without the former USSR, and about 50 million toe of that in the EC area, in 1990. Presently, the harvesting methods of forest biomass for energy production are not yet generally competitive. Among the most promising methods are integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to the industry and wood fuel for energy production. Several new methods for separate harvesting of energy wood are being developed in many countries. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of Indirect Measurement Method of Seasonal Patterns of Leaf Area Index in a High-Density Short Rotation Coppice Culture of Poplar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek M. Tripathi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI is an important determinant of biomass production and yield of short rotation bio-energy plantation. An accurate measurement of LAI is critical for quantifying light interception and penetration within the canopy, and subsequently understanding its influence on the stand carbon and energy balance. The aim of the current study is validation of the Sunscan Plant Canopy Analyzer which serves as an indirect method for the evaluation of the seasonal patterns of LAI, relation between LAI and above ground woody dry biomass and to determine the specific leaf area in short-rotation poplar hybrid clone J-105 (Populus nigra × P. maximowiczii in uncoppiced (1st rotation and coppiced (2nd rotation, respectively. LAI was measured in uncoppiced and coppiced by two different methods using indirect (SunScan Plant Canopy Analyzer and direct (litterfall collection. Sunscan Plant Canopy Analyzer was compared against litterfall collection (only way to retrieve the actual LAI. Simple regression (R2 = 0.82 model was fitted to validate indirect measurement method and a very good agreement (82% was observed in LAI values estimated from SunScan Plant Canopy Analyzer and from litterfall collection. Seasonal variability of LAI in a short rotation coppice (SRC culture of poplar clone J-105 was evaluated over six years period (2008–2013, for uncoppiced (2008 and 2009 and coppiced (2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 culture. The maximum canopy LAI (LAImax reached 7.3 (uncoppiced and 9.5 (coppiced. The linear regression (R2 = 0.93 for average LAI and above ground woody dry biomass was determined, and it was found that LAI acts an indicator of biomass productivity. Specific leaf area (SLA was estimated in both uncoppiced and coppiced culture of poplar. The maximum SLA was found to be 138.9 cm2g−1 in uncoppiced and 126.9 cm2g−1 in coppiced. To conclude, the evaluated indirect LAI measurement method is portable, reliable and faster than direct LAI measurement

  10. Production and reuse of waste in rural area with high density of greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Russo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural activities cause the production of considerable amounts of waste sometimes dangerous that must be properly handled to avoid negative impacts on rural areas and on agroecosystems. The estimation of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of agricultural waste products and the capacity of rural land of transposing organic matter deriving from the processes of composting, is a key point for the planning and management of the waste integrated cycle. The aims of this study are the evaluation of the quantities of various types of agricultural waste on territorial scale, the amount of compost that can be used in rural areas affected by different cultures and the effectiveness of community composter in the treatment of vegetable agricultural waste for the production of green composted soil. These assessments were carried out in an area of study characterized by a high spatial density of greenhouses. The methodological procedure used is based on the use of agricultural waste production coefficients and maximum application rates of compost for cultivation. The results show the role and potential of the agricultural areas in the waste cycle from production to the potential reuse of recovered material.

  11. Remote estimation of crown size and tree density in snowy areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, R.; Ito, A.; Kamada, K.; Fukita, T.; Lahrita, L.; Kawase, Y.; Murahashi, K.; Kawamata, H.; Naruse, N.; Takahashi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Precise estimation of tree density in the forest leads us to understand the amount of carbon dioxide fixed by plants. Aerial photographs have been used to measure the number of trees. Campaign using aircraft, however, is expensive ( $50,000/1 campaign flight) and the research area is limited in drone. In addition, previous studies estimating the density of trees from aerial photographs have been performed in the summer, so there was a gap of 15% in the estimation due to the overlapping of the leaves. Here, we have proposed a method to accurately estimate the number of forest trees from the satellite images of snow-covered deciduous forest area, using the ratio of branches to snow. The advantages of our method are as follows; 1) snow area could be excluded easily due to the high reflectance, 2) tree branches are small overlapping compared to leaves. Although our method can use only in the snowfall region, the area covered with snow in the world becomes more than 12,800,000 km2. Our proposition should play an important role in discussing global warming. As a test area, we have chosen the forest near Mt. Amano in Iwate prefecture in Japan. First, we made a new index of (Band1-Band5)/(Band1+Band5), which will be suitable to distinguish between the snow and the tree trunk using the corresponding spectral reflection data. Next, the index values of changing the ratio in 1% increments were listed. From the satellite image analysis at 4 points, the ratio of snow to tree trunk showed the following values, I:61%, II:65%, III:66% and IV:65%. To confirm the estimation, we used the aerial photograph from Google earth; the rate was I:42.05%, II:48.89%, III:50.64%, IV:49.05%, respectively. There is a correlation between the numerical values of both, but there are differences. We will discuss in detail at this point, focusing on the effect of shadows.

  12. Definition of the problem of estimating fish abundance over an area from acoustic line-transect measurements of density

    OpenAIRE

    Foote, Kenneth G.; Stefánsson, Gunnar

    1990-01-01

    The problem of acoustic abundance estimation is briefly reviewed. Under proper conditions, fish density can be measured with high accuracy along line transects. Observed variations in fish density consequently reflect biological variations, or inhomogeneity in spatial distribution. The particular problem of estimating fish abundance over an area from line-transect measurements of fish density is defined. Related problems of estimating the variance of the abundance estimate and of ...

  13. Influence of diligent disintegration on anaerobic biomass and performance of microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divyalakshmi, Palanisamy; Murugan, Devaraj; Rai, Chockalingam Lajapathi

    2017-12-01

    To enhance the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFC) by increasing the surface area of cathode and diligent mechanical disintegration of anaerobic biomass. Tannery effluent and anaerobic biomass were used. The increase in surface area of the cathode resulted in 78% COD removal, with the potential, current density, power density and coulombic efficiency of 675 mV, 147 mA m -2 , 33 mW m -2 and 3.5%, respectively. The work coupled with increased surface area of the cathode with diligent mechanical disintegration of the biomass, led to a further increase in COD removal of 82% with the potential, current density, power density and coulombic efficiency of 748 mV, 229 mA m -2 , 78 mW m -2 and 6% respectively. Mechanical disintegration of the biomass along with increased surface area of cathode enhances power generation in vertical MFC reactors using tannery effluent as fuel.

  14. Crop growth analysis and yield of a lignocellulosic biomass crop (Arundo donax L. in three marginal areas of Campania region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Impagliazzo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of energy resources from fossil fuels and global warming have pushed to consider the agro-energy as one of the renewable energy sources for mitigation of climate change. In this context, agro-energy based on cultivation of energy crops in marginal lands allows to reduce competition with food crops and marginal lands abandonment, producing incomes for farmers. The aim of this work is to improve the knowledge on a promising crop (Arundo donax L. for the production of bio-energy in marginal lands. Therefore, the behaviour of this crop was evaluated in three study areas of Campania region, under different energy inputs: two levels of nitrogen fertilisation, N100 and N50 in Sant’Angelo dei Lombardi (SA and Bellizzi (BL. In Acerra (AC site compost fertilisation was made to verify its effect on pollutant phytoextraction. In the last year, also crop growth analysis was done in the three sites. The results showed that giant reed confirms its adaptability to low fertility soils, allowing interesting biomass yield also in marginal lands. In more fertile environments, effect of fertilisation is not significant at least in the short term. Nevertheless, nitrogen uptake (65-130 kg N ha–1, also if lower than other highyielding crops, needs to be compensated with fertilisation to avoid depletion of soil nutrient reserves and to guarantee sustainability of this cropping system. Giant reed had a positive environmental impact, due to the improvement in soil fertility (soil organic matter and nitrogen increase and to the mitigation of climate change (C storage in the soil. In marginal soils of Southern Italy this crop confirms an increasing trend of yield during the first 3-4 years. High productivity levels of this crop are related to the extremely high duration of the vegetative period and thus of the photosynthetic activity (from March to November in the Mediterranean area. These last are well expressed by the leaf area duration index, which is

  15. How the food supply harvestable by waders in the Wadden Sea depends on the variation in energy density, body weight, biomass, burying depth and behaviour of tidal-flat invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwarts, Leo; Wanink, Jan H.

    For several reasons, waders in the Wadden Sea face a large seasonal and annual variation in their food supply. Observations on a tidal flat in the Dutch Wadden Sea have shown that: - (1) The average energy density of ten invertebrate prey species varies between 21 and 23 kJ·g -1 AFDW. In Scrobicularia plana and Mya arenaria, but not in Macoma balthica, the energy density is 10% lower in winter than in summer. - (2) Depending on the species, body weights of prey of similar size are 30 to 60% lower in winter than in summer. - (3) The year-to-year fluctuation in standing-crop biomass is larger in some species than in others, the difference depending mainly on the frequency of successful recruitment. The overall biomass of the macrobenthos in winter is half of that in summer, but the timing of the peak biomass differs per species. - (4) The burying depth varies per species: Cerastoderma edule live just beneath the surface, while M. balthica, S. plana, M. arenaria, Arenicola marina and Nereis diversicolor bury more deeply and the majority of these prey live out of reach of the bird's bill. In all six species, burying depth increases with size. There is no seasonal variation in depth of C. edule and M. arenaria, but the four other species live at most shallow depth in early summer and most deeply in midwinter. Burying depths in winter vary from year to year, but are unrelated to temperature. Neither has temperature any effect on depth within months. For knot Calidris canutus feeding on M. balthica, the fluctuation in the accessible fraction was the main source of variation in the biomass of prey that is actually harvestable, i.e. the biomass of prey of suitable size that is accessible. Accordingly, the paper reviews the available data on the temporal variations in accessibility, detectability, ingestibility, digestibility and profitability of prey for waders. Only a small part of the prey is harvestable since many accessible prey are ignored because of their low

  16. Mammals in the areas adjacent to Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Population density, ecological data and carbon budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truve, Johan; Cederlund, Goeran [Svensk Naturfoervaltning AB, Ramsberg (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for the deep-level repository of radioactive waste. SKB has expressed the importance of monitoring mammal species that are of interest both in biodiversity issues and for local hunting and recreational purposes. Two of the major goals are to: 1) monitor dynamics of population density over several years; 2) obtain information that is essential for modelling of energy/carbon flows in the biosphere and ultimately calculations of the risks of exposure to radionuclides. This report contributes to the major goals by presenting: Results from surveys of mammal abundance in the study sites near Forsmark and Oskarshamn, and a comparison with data from other surveys. A summary of traits associated to demography, resource selection and spatial distribution. A model framework that can be used to model the future development of populations. A plausible future scenario for mammal species. Mammal contribution to fluxes of energy and material in the ecosystem. Estimated harvest rates of mammals in the study sites. General conclusions that can be drawn from the survey are that population densities of the most common species are in the same range as many other populations. Lynx, wild boar, red deer and fallow deer are expanding in the areas. Marine mammals have not been surveyed but at least grey seals are important top consumers in the coastal ecosystem. Red listed species resident in the areas are Lynx, Otter, Whiskered bat, Natterer's bat, Nathusius' pipistrelle and Harbour seal. Annual production of the mammal species that were surveyed was 40-50 mg carbon/m2 and year. Hunters harvest nearly half of the production each year. Future developments for the populations are briefly discussed and a model framework that can be used to make better quantitative predictions is presented.

  17. Not in wilderness: African vulture strongholds remain in areas with high human density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granadeiro, José Pedro; Monteiro, Hamilton; Nuno, Ana; Lecoq, Miguel; Cardoso, Paulo; Regalla, Aissa; Catry, Paulo

    2018-01-01

    Vultures constitute an important functional group in many ecosystems, providing crucial ecosystem services both in natural and humanized environments. These scavengers are facing massive declines worldwide, but in several African countries virtually nothing is known on populations’ status and threats, hampering the development of adequate conservation strategies. In Guinea-Bissau, globally important populations of Hooded Necrosyrtes monachus and African white-backed vultures Gyps africanus were recently reported. Using the country as a study area, we aim to characterize human-vulture interactions in West Africa applying a multidisciplinary approach. We assessed the status and distribution of vulture populations using data from 1711 km of roadside transects, examined predictors of their distribution, and produced a nationwide population estimate for the Hooded Vulture, using an innovative method based on the relationship between the size of human population in settlements and vulture numbers. We conducted 47 stakeholder interviews to assess perceived roles played by vultures, and to investigate potential anthropogenic threats. Hooded vultures were strongly associated with high human population densities, whereas no relation was found between African white-backed and Rüppell’s vultures and any of the tested predictors, which included cattle density, precipitation and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, among others. We estimate a national population of 43347 Hooded vultures, the largest population reported in the species range. Respondents were generally aware of the services provided by vultures, especially waste and carcass removal, including in urban areas. Hunting for witchcraft and traditional medicine was the most frequently recognised threat, while poisoning was ranked as having the highest impact. We hypothesise that poisoning-related mortality may be affecting African white-backed and Rüppell’s vultures’ distribution and explain their scarcity

  18. Mammals in the areas adjacent to Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Population density, ecological data and carbon budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truve, Johan; Cederlund, Goeran

    2005-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for the deep-level repository of radioactive waste. SKB has expressed the importance of monitoring mammal species that are of interest both in biodiversity issues and for local hunting and recreational purposes. Two of the major goals are to: 1) monitor dynamics of population density over several years; 2) obtain information that is essential for modelling of energy/carbon flows in the biosphere and ultimately calculations of the risks of exposure to radionuclides. This report contributes to the major goals by presenting: Results from surveys of mammal abundance in the study sites near Forsmark and Oskarshamn, and a comparison with data from other surveys. A summary of traits associated to demography, resource selection and spatial distribution. A model framework that can be used to model the future development of populations. A plausible future scenario for mammal species. Mammal contribution to fluxes of energy and material in the ecosystem. Estimated harvest rates of mammals in the study sites. General conclusions that can be drawn from the survey are that population densities of the most common species are in the same range as many other populations. Lynx, wild boar, red deer and fallow deer are expanding in the areas. Marine mammals have not been surveyed but at least grey seals are important top consumers in the coastal ecosystem. Red listed species resident in the areas are Lynx, Otter, Whiskered bat, Natterer's bat, Nathusius' pipistrelle and Harbour seal. Annual production of the mammal species that were surveyed was 40-50 mg carbon/m2 and year. Hunters harvest nearly half of the production each year. Future developments for the populations are briefly discussed and a model framework that can be used to make better quantitative predictions is presented

  19. Soil resistivity over root area ratio, soil humidity, and bulk density: laboratory tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastini, Enrico; Giambastiani, Yamuna; Preti, Federico

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge about root system distribution covers an important role in slope shallow stability stud-ies, as this factor grants an increase in soil geotechnical properties (soil cohesion and friction an-gle) and determines a different underground water circulation. Published studies (Amato et al., 2008 and 2011; Censini et al., 2014) about in situ application of ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomo-graphy) analysis show how the root presence affects the measurable soil resistivity values, confirm-ing the suitability to investigate the application of such technique, aiming to estimate root density in soil with an indirect and non-invasive method. This study, laboratory-based and led on reconstructed samples in controlled condition, aim to find a correlation between the resistivity variations and the various factors that can affect them (humid-ity, bulk density, presence of foreign bodies, temperature). The tests involved a clay-loam soil (USDA classification) taken from Quaracchi (Florence, Italy), in an experimental fir-wood (Picea abies) owned by the Department of Agricultural, Food and For-estry System, Florence University, a previously chosen site for field ERT applications. The row ma-terial has been dried out in a lab stove, grounded and sieved at 2 mm, and then placed in a lexan box (30 x 20 x 20 cm) without compaction. Inside the sample have been inserted 3 series of 4 iron electrodes, insulated along the shaft and with the conductive end placed at three different depth: 2 cm from surface, in the middle of the sample and in contact with the bottom of the box; resistivity measures are conducted on the three levels using a Syscal R2 with electrodes connected in a dipole-dipole configuration. Root presence is simulated inserting bamboo spits (simple geometry, replicable "R.A.R.") in varying number from 0 to 16 in every area between two contiguous electrodes. The tests are repeated in time, monitoring the natural variations in humidity (evapotranspiration) and bulk

  20. Five-minute grid of total marine bird biomass densities surveyed off central California - selected cool water temperature periods, 1980-2001 (CDAS data set AL3_MASS.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — AL3_MASS is a polygon shapefile representing 5 minute x 5 minute latitude x longitude cells that house the overall total biomass densities (kg/sq km) of up to 76...

  1. Five-minute grid of the total marine bird biomass densities surveyed off central California - selected neutral water temperature periods, 1980-2001 (CDAS data set AL2_MASS.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — AL2_MASS is a polygon shapefile representing 5 minute x 5 minute latitude x longitude cells that house the overall total biomass densities (kg/sq.km.) of up to 76...

  2. Post occupancy evaluation of energy-efficient behavior in informal housing of high density area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulia, D. N.; Marpaung, B. O. Y.

    2018-02-01

    The concept of energy-efficient building emphasizes the critical of efficiency in the use of water, electrical energy, and building materials, beginning with design, construction, to the maintenance of the building in the future. This study was conducted to observe the behavior of Energy Saving of the residents in performing everyday activities in the building. The observed variables are the consumption of natural resources (energy, material, water, and land) and the emissions of air, water, and land related to the environment and health. This research is a descriptive qualitative research with the method of data collection is the distribution of questionnaires and observation. The method of analyzing data is posted occupancy evaluation undertaken to obtain patterns of community-based behavior in urban areas. The informal high-density housing area is a typology of population settlements that found in many big cities in Indonesia. This community represents various community groups regarding occupation, education, income, and race. The results of the study concluded that there are five components of energy-saving behavioral formers in housing namely: residential building components, environmental components in occupancy, external occupancy components, components of social activities and elements of business

  3. Impact of population density on collision rates in a rapidly developing rural, exurban area of Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kelly; Sternfeld, Isabelle; Melnick, Douglas Sloan

    2013-04-01

    To determine if the commonly acknowledged relationships between population density and traffic collisions are found at the subcounty level and to describe how collision characteristics may vary substantially at a local level, with a particular emphasis on exurban areas. Los Angeles County collision data were obtained from the California Highway Patrol and the census tract and service planning area (SPA) for each collision were determined. The correlation between population density and collision rates by census tract was calculated within each SPA and for the entire county. Primary collision factors were compared for geographic areas of different population densities within one exurban SPA in Los Angeles County. An inverse relationship was found between collision rates and population density within Los Angeles County. Primary collisions factors were different in areas of the county with different population densities, with driving or biking under the influence particularly common in the most rural area. Subcounty analyses are very important to the study of traffic collisions. Traffic problems in rapidly developing exurban areas may be quite different from those in older, more established areas.

  4. A Remote Sensing Based Forage Biomass Yield Inversion Model of Alpine-cold Meadow during Grass-withering Period in Sanjiangyuan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Weize; Jia, Haifeng; Liang, Shidong; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Shujie; Hao, Lizhuang; Chai, Shatuo

    2014-01-01

    Estimating forage biomass yield remotely from space is still challenging nowadays. Field experiments were conducted and ground measurements correlated to remote sensing data to estimate the forage biomass yield of Alpine-cold meadow grassland during the grass and grass-withering period in Sanjiangyuan area in Yushu county. Both Shapiro-Wilk and Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-tailed tests showed that the field training samples are normally distributed, the Spearman coefficient indicated that the parametric correlation analysis had significant differences. The optimal regression models were developed based on the Landsat Thematic Mapper Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (TM-NDVI) and the forage biomass field data during the grass and the grass-withering periods, respectively. Then an integration model was used to predict forage biomass yield of alpine-cold meadow in the grass-withering period. The model showed good prediction accuracy and reliability. It was found that this approach can not only estimate forage yield in large scale efficiently but also overcome the seasonal limitation of remote sensing inversion. This technique can provides valuable guidance to animal husbandry to resource more efficiently in winter

  5. Survival After HIV Infection Stage 3 (AIDS) Diagnosis, by Population Density Areas, United States, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosh, Karin A; Shi, Jing; Chen, Mi

    We examined the survival rates after diagnosis of HIV infection stage 3 (AIDS) in the United States by population density area of residence at diagnosis. We used data from the National HIV Surveillance System to calculate survival rates among people aged ≥13 with HIV infection stage 3 (AIDS) diagnosed from 2005 through 2010. We determined survival rates for more than 12, 24, and 36 months after diagnosis; overall and by demographic characteristics; and across 3 population density area categories (large metropolitan statistical areas [MSAs, ≥500 000 people], small-to-medium MSAs [50 000 to 499 999 people], and nonmetropolitan areas [population density area categories (estimated annual percentage change: large MSAs [0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56-1.20]; small-to-medium MSAs [0.94; 95% CI, 0.06-1.83]; and nonmetropolitan areas [1.26; 95% CI, 0.07-2.46]). Although survival rates for those with HIV infection stage 3 (AIDS) improved in all 3 population density area categories, efforts to remove barriers to care and promote treatment adherence in nonmetropolitan areas will be necessary to eliminate survival disparities.

  6. The utilization of false color aerial photography for macrophyte biomass estimation in the Oosterschelde (the Netherlands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulstee, C.; Vanstokkom, H.

    1985-01-01

    The correlation between the biomass of sea grass and seaweed samples in a sidebranch of the Oosterschelde delta (Netherlands) and density ratios of this area on color infrared aerial photographs was investigated. As the Oosterschelde will become more divided from the North Sea after pier dam completion, an increase of macrophytes is expected. In an area where the weeds Ulva, Cheatomorpha, Entermorpha, Cladophora, Fucus vesuculosis, and the grasses Zostera noltii and Zostera marina are found, 53 biomass samples of a 0.054 sq m surface each were collected. The relation between covering degree and biomass was estimated. Using a transmission-densitometer adjusted to 3 to 1 mm, densities on 1:10,000 and 1:20,000 scale photographs were measured. A gage line was determined in a density-biomass diagram. The method is shown to be useful for an efficient, accurate biomass determination in the Oosterschelde.

  7. The inequitable distribution of tobacco outlet density: the role of income in two Black Mid-Atlantic geopolitical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakunle, D O; Milam, A J; Furr-Holden, C D; Butler, J; Thorpe, R J; LaVeist, T A

    2016-07-01

    Studies have shown that communities with higher concentrations of low-income racial and ethnic minorities correlate with a greater presence of tobacco outlets. Community-level income has consistently been among the strongest predictors of tobacco outlet density. This study analyzes two Maryland geopolitical areas with similar racial concentrations yet differing income levels in an attempt to disentangle the race-income relationship with tobacco outlet density. In this cross-sectional examination of tobacco outlet and census tract-level sociodemographic data, Baltimore City, Maryland, and Prince George's County, Maryland, were geocoded to determine tobacco outlet density. Tobacco outlet density was defined as the mean number of tobacco outlets per 1000 persons per census tract. Comparisons of tobacco outlet density and sociodemographic variables were analysed via two-sample t-tests, and the direct effect of sociodemographic variables on tobacco outlet density for each area was analysed via spatial lag regressions. Prince George's County, the area with the higher income level ($77,190 vs $43,571), has a significantly lower tobacco outlet density than Baltimore City (P outlets per 1000 persons per tract. By contrast, Baltimore City has a 65.3% Black population and an average of 7.95 tobacco outlets per 1000 persons per tract. Spatial lag regression model results indicate an inverse relationship between income and tobacco outlet density in Baltimore City and Prince George's County (β = -0.03, P outlet density in Baltimore City (β = -0.05, P outlet density. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel bacterial consortia isolated from plastic garbage processing areas demonstrated enhanced degradation for low density polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Manjunatha, Vishal; Sultana, Subiya; Jois, Chandana; Bai, Vidya; Vasist, Kiran S

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to formulate novel microbial consortia isolated from plastic garbage processing areas and thereby devise an eco-friendly approach for enhanced degradation of low-density polyethylene (LDPE). The LDPE degrading bacteria were screened and microbiologically characterized. The best isolates were formulated as bacterial consortia, and degradation efficiency was compared with the consortia formulated using known isolates obtained from the Microbial Culture Collection Centre (MTCC). The degradation products were analyzed by FTIR, GC-FID, tensile strength, and SEM. The bacterial consortia were characterized by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. The formulated bacterial consortia demonstrated 81 ± 4 and 38 ± 3 % of weight reduction for LDPE strips and LDPE pellets, respectively, over a period of 120 days. However, the consortia formulated by MTCC strains demonstrated 49 ± 4 and 20 ± 2 % of weight reduction for LDPE strips and pellets, respectively, for the same period. Furthermore, the three isolates in its individual application exhibited 70 ± 4, 68 ± 4, and 64 ± 4 % weight reduction for LDPE strips and 21 ± 2, 28 ± 2, 24 ± 2 % weight reduction for LDPE pellets over a period of 120 days (p waste management of LDPE and similar types of plastic garbage.

  9. Effect of landscape density in a residential area on thermal performance in a tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamarulzaman Noorazlina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-documented that the urban air temperature is gradually growing in all cities due to the rapid development of buildings, roads and other infrastructure, human activities and also decreasing in vegetated areas. In a tropical climate, outdoor environment is clearly warmer than indoor environment due to higher air temperatures, particularly in dry seasons. Since the indoor environment is influenced by its surroundings, this situation indirectly contributes to the discomfort indoor environment in the building. Thus, it generates to the dependence on mechanical ventilation and increase the energy consumption in buildings. Many research studies have proof that plants not only beauty a city, but also improve the urban environmental condition by reducing the transferring of heat flux on buildings and increasing the reflection of radiation and shading. Therefore strategically placed vegetation around a building could decrease the energy consumption in buildings by reducing the adverse impact of some climate elements. Overall, this paper focuses on the results of a preliminary pilot study of two Semi-Detached houses with different landscape density in Seri Iskandar, Perak. Three climatic parameters, building configuration, and landscape design measured and analyze in this paper.

  10. Lightfront holography and area density of entropy associated with quantum localization on wedge-horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, Bert [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: schroer@cbpf.br

    2002-08-01

    The lightfront quantization of the 70s is reviewed in the more rigorous setting of lightfront (LF) restriction of free fields in which the lightfront is considered to be linear extension of the upper causal horizon of a wedge region. Particular attention is given to the change of localization structure in passing from the wedge to its horizon which results in the emergence of a transverse quantum mechanical substructure of the QFT on the horizon and its lightfront extension. The vacuum fluctuations of QFT on the LF are compressed into the direction of the lightray (where they become associated with a chiral QFT) and lead to the notion of area density of a 'split localization' entropy. To overcome the limitation of this restriction approach and include interacting theories with non-canonical short distance behavior, we introduce a new concept of algebraic lightfront holography which uses ideas of algebraic QFT, in particular the modular structure of its associated local operator algebras. In this way the localization properties of LF degrees of freedom including the absence of transverse vacuum fluctuations are confirmed to be stable against interactions. The important universality aspect of lightfront holography is emphasized. Only in this way one is able to extract from the 'split-localization' entropy a split-independent additive entropy-like measure of the entanglement of the vacuum upon restriction to the horizon algebra. (author)

  11. Neutron area monitoring at storage bunkers of density/moisture gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Fuste, M.J.; Amgarou, K.; Garcia-Orellana, J.; Domingo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies remarked the need of performing neutron personal dosimetry, together with gamma dosimetry, when using portable density/moisture gauges that are normally equipped with gamma and neutron sources. The convenience of our Poly-Allyl-Diglycol-Carbonate (PADC) based neutron dosimeter to perform long-term routine survey of all workers involved in the transport, maintenance and usage of these gauges was also corroborated in the past. This complete dosimetric control offers the possibility to quantify simultaneously individual neutron and gamma doses of workers operating such devices, especially in the most frequent cleaning and maintenance (shutter lubrication) operations of the gauges or in emergency situations that may lead to radiological risk of the persons involved. Another aspect to be considered, from the radioprotection point of view, is the optimization of the occupational and public exposure in the storage bunkers of the gauges. In this work, three storage bunkers, located at three different factories of the PAYMA Cotas S.A.U company, have been monitored for three months using several units of our PADC based neutron dosimeter. Special care has been taken to study also offices near the bunkers with high occupancy rates and passage zones, such as toilets and access areas. Results for all monitored points inside and around the three storage bunkers are presented. Neutron doses inside the bunkers could be relatively high depending on the specific conditions (geometry configuration, localization and shielding composition) of the considered bunker and the number of portable gauges stored.

  12. A study of perifocal low-density area in metastatic brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Ryuta; Okada, Kodai; Hiratsuka, Hideo; Inaba, Yutaka; Tsuyumu, Matsutaira.

    1980-01-01

    It is well known that vasogenic brain edema often develops in brain tumors, head injuries, and inflammatory brain lesions. In order to investigate the development and resolution of vasogenic brain edema, some CT findings of metastatic brain tumors were studied in detail. 20 cases of metastatic brain tumors of the past three years were examined by means of a CT scan. In almost all the cases there was a perifocal low-density area (PFL) in the CT findings. In the tumors which were cystic and/or located in the infratentorial space, PFL was not present or, if present, only slightly so. On the contrary, in the tumors which were nodular and/or in the supratentorial space, PFL was present extensively. In the supratentorial metastasis, PFL seemed to be restricted within the white matter and not to involve the gray matter nor such midline structures as basal ganglia and corpus callosum. Besides, PFL was always in contact with the lateral ventricular wall. These results show that PFL in the metastatic tumors resembles in shape the experimental cold-induced brain edema in cats. PFL is presumed to represent vasogenic brain edema; these findings support the hypothesis that the main mechanism of the resolution of vasogenic brain edema is the drainage of the edema fluid into the ventricular CSF. (author)

  13. Biomass cogeneration. A business assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelton, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    This guide serves as an overview of the biomass cogeneration area and provides direction for more detailed analysis. The business assessment is based in part on discussions with key officials from firms that have adopted biomass cogeneration systems and from organizations such as utilities, state and federal agencies, and banks that would be directly involved in a biomass cogeneration project. The guide is organized into five chapters: biomass cogeneration systems, biomass cogeneration business considerations, biomass cogeneration economics, biomass cogeneration project planning, and case studies.

  14. Putting urban biomass on the map: contrasting case studies from three climactic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raciti, S. M.; Hutyra, L.; Rao, P.; McHale, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    There is evidence that urban vegetation can provide important ecosystem services, however, existing maps of vegetation biomass tend to exclude developed land uses or report them as having little or no biomass. We used field and remote sensing data from the Boston, MA, Seattle, WA, and Phoenix Arizona metropolitan areas to 1) assess the potential for predicting urban biomass from remote sensing data, 2) explore the influence of land use and climate on urban biomass, 3) generate new biomass maps that explicitly include urban land uses, and 4) compare these biomass maps to existing products. For each metropolitan area, vegetation biomass was estimated for field plots using tree/shrub species, diameter at breast height (DBH) or ground level (DGL), and allometric equations. These field data were paired with geospatial data to assess the potential for creating vegetation biomass maps for each metropolitan area. The geospatial data included land use, land cover, impervious surface fraction, population density, and two remotely-sensed vegetation indices (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index [NDVI] and Enhanced Vegetation Index [EVI]). Preliminary findings suggest that the ability to predict biomass from remote sensing data varies with land use, climate, and dominant vegetation type. Existing vegetation biomass maps may considerably underestimate biomass, particularly in regions with extensive urban land cover. Urban areas are rapidly expanding and future development patterns will have significant impacts on terrestrial carbon stocks, anthropogenic emissions, and the ecosystem services provided by remnant and regrowing vegetation.

  15. Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streichert Laura C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obtained from King County and from US Census data. Fast food restaurant addresses were obtained from Public Health-Seattle & King County and were geocoded. Fast food density was expressed per tract unit area and per capita. Arterial road density was a measure of vehicular and pedestrian access. Multivariate logistic regression models containing both socioeconomic status and road density were used in data analyses. Results Over one half (53.1% of King County census tracts had at least one fast food restaurant. Mean network distance from dwelling units to a fast food restaurant countywide was 1.40 km, and 1.07 km for census tracts containing at least one fast food restaurant. Fast food restaurant density was significantly associated in regression models with low median household income (p Conclusion No significant association was observed between census tract minority status and fast food density in King County. Although restaurant density was linked to low household incomes, that effect was attenuated by arterial road density. Fast food restaurants in King County are more likely to be located in lower income neighborhoods and higher traffic areas.

  16. Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA

    OpenAIRE

    Hurvitz, Philip M; Moudon, Anne V; Rehm, Colin D; Streichert, Laura C; Drewnowski, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obta...

  17. Modeling the density at Merapi volcano area, Indonesia, via the inverse gravimetric problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiede, C.; Camacho, A. G.; Gerstenecker, C.; FernáNdez, J.; Suyanto, I.

    2005-09-01

    Merapi is a high-risk andesitic volcano in Central Java, Indonesia. Very little information is known about the detailed regional density structure around Merapi and its neighbor volcano Merbabu. We compute a subsurface three-dimensional (3-D) model of anomalous density for the volcanoes Merapi and Merbabu in Central Java, Indonesia, by inversion of the gravity field. As input for the inversion methodology, gravity observations from 443 points, whose 3-D coordinates are determined by GPS, are used. The inversion algorithm is based on an explorative approach to fit a least squares condition, including a balancing factor between the minimization of the residuals and the anomalous mass. A mean density about 2242 kg/m3 for the region of Merapi and Merbabu has been computed by least squares adjustment. Results of the inversion show major low-density contrasts up to -242 kg/m3 and positive structures about +264 kg/m3, referred to the determined mean density. A density anomaly (relative high) with densities up to +264 kg/m3 is connecting the volcanoes in a 152° course from NW to SE and might be built of older basaltic lava. Low-density contrasts about -242 kg/m could be found in agreement with magnetotelluric and electromagnetic results. Generally, the identified high- and low-density bodies are in agreement with the results of other geophysical methods such as electromagnetic and magnetotelluric prospecting or geological formations and structures. A porosity about 21% is derived for the largest negative density bodies about -242 kg/m3. Furthermore, the density model gives some new information about the controversial origin of a hill formation near Merapi and is also used to discuss the possible existence of a shallow magma chamber, which is also a controversial subject. Generally, the density model serves as basic information for the interpretation of geodetic and geophysical observations and confirms existing results from magnetotellurics, electromagnetics, and seismic

  18. Microplankton biomass and diversity in the Vietnamese upwelling area during SW monsoon under normal conditions and after an ENSO event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loick-Wilde, Natalie; Bombar, Deniz; Doan, Hai Nhu

    2017-01-01

    Investigating microplankton biomass and diversity under different climatological conditions is key to the understanding of cascading effects of climate change on nutrient cycles and biological productivity. Here we have used data collected during two contrasting summers along the coast of Viet Nam...... to show how climatological-driven changes can have a significant influence on the distribution of microplankton communities and their biomass via its impact on nutrient concentrations in the water column. The first summer in July 2003 followed a weak El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event...... and was characterized by weak coastal upwelling, in the second summer during July 2004, upwelling was normal. Very low silicate (SiO4) concentrations and SiO4:DIN ratios characterized the source water mass for upwelling in July 2004, and dynamic SiO4 to dissolved inorganic nitrogen ratios (SiO4:DIN) mainly below...

  19. Methods for estimating population density in data-limited areas: evaluating regression and tree-based models in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Weston; Guikema, Seth; Zaitchik, Ben; Pan, William

    2014-01-01

    Obtaining accurate small area estimates of population is essential for policy and health planning but is often difficult in countries with limited data. In lieu of available population data, small area estimate models draw information from previous time periods or from similar areas. This study focuses on model-based methods for estimating population when no direct samples are available in the area of interest. To explore the efficacy of tree-based models for estimating population density, we compare six different model structures including Random Forest and Bayesian Additive Regression Trees. Results demonstrate that without information from prior time periods, non-parametric tree-based models produced more accurate predictions than did conventional regression methods. Improving estimates of population density in non-sampled areas is important for regions with incomplete census data and has implications for economic, health and development policies.

  20. The Oslo Health Study: Is bone mineral density higher in affluent areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, Kari; Søgaard, Anne J; Falch, Jan A; Meyer, Haakon E

    2007-11-23

    Based on previously reported differences in fracture incidence in the socioeconomic less affluent Oslo East compared to the more privileged West, our aim was to study bone mineral density (BMD) in the same socioeconomic areas in Oslo. We also wanted to study whether possible associations were explained by socio-demographic factors, level of education or lifestyle factors. Distal forearm BMD was measured in random samples of the participants in The Oslo Health Study by single energy x-ray absorptiometry (SXA). 578 men and 702 women born in Norway in the age-groups 40/45, 60 and 75 years were included in the analyses. Socioeconomic regions, based on a social index dividing Oslo in two regions - East and West, were used. Age-adjusted mean BMD in women living in the less affluent Eastern region was 0.405 g/cm2 and significantly lower than in West where BMD was 0.419 g/cm2. Similarly, the odds ratio of low BMD (Z-score Oslo East compared to West. The same tendency, although not statistically significant, was also present in men. Multivariate analysis adjusted for education, marital status, body mass index, physical inactivity, use of alcohol and smoking, and in women also use of post-menopausal hormone therapy and early onset of menopause, did hardly change the association. Additional adjustments for employment status, disability pension and physical activity at work for those below the age of retirement, gave similar results. We found differences in BMD in women between different socioeconomic regions in Oslo that correspond to previously found differences in fracture rates. The association in men was not statistically significant. The differences were not explained by socio-demographic factors, level of education or lifestyle factors.

  1. Indoor air pollution and health of children in biomass fuel-using households of Bangladesh: comparison between urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalequzzaman, Md; Kamijima, Michihiro; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Ebara, Takeshi; Hoque, Bilqis Amin; Nakajima, Tamie

    2011-11-01

    Indoor air pollutants from biomass combustion pose a risk for respiratory diseases in children. It is plausible that distinct differences in the indoor air quality (IAQ) exist between urban and rural areas in developing countries since the living environment between these two areas are quite different. We have investigated possible differences in IAQ in urban and rural Dhaka, Bangladesh and the association of such differences with the incidence of respiratory and some non-respiratory symptoms in children of families using biomass fuel. Indoor air concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO(2)), dust particles, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and nitrogen dioxide were measured once in the winter and once in the summer of 2008. Health data on 51 urban and 51 rural children under 5 years of age from 51 families in each area were collected once a week starting in the winter and continuing to the summer of 2008. Mean concentrations of CO, CO(2,), dust particles, and major VOCs were significantly higher in urban kitchens than in rural ones (p urban children, the children in the rural area suffered significantly more from respiratory symptoms [IRR 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.62-1.64], skin itchiness (IRR 3.3, 95% CI 1.9-5.7), and diarrhea (IRR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.4), while fewer experienced fever (IRR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.6). No difference was observed for other symptoms. We found lower IAQ in the homes of urban biomass fuel-users compared to rural ones in Bangladesh but could not attribute the occurrence of respiratory symptoms among children to the measured IAQ. Other factors may be involved.

  2. Parietal scalp is another affected area in female pattern hair loss: an analysis of hair density and hair diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojhirunsakool S

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinee Rojhirunsakool, Poonkiat Suchonwanit Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common hair disease. However, studies of the quantitative measurement of FPHL are still limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of hair density and hair diameter in normal women and FPHL patients, and further correlate the quantitative measurement with the clinical presentation of FPHL.Patients and methods: An evaluation of 471 FPHL patients and 236 normal women was carried out according to the Ludwig classification, and analysis was performed by using a computerized handheld USB camera with computer-assisted software. Various areas of the scalp, including frontal, parietal, midscalp, and occipital, were analyzed for hair density, non-vellus hair diameter, and percentage of miniaturized hair.Results: The hair density in normal women was the highest and the lowest in the midscalp and parietal areas, respectively. The FPHL group revealed the lowest hair density in the parietal area. Significant differences in hair density, non-vellus hair diameter, and percentage of miniaturized hair between the normal and FPHL groups were observed, especially in the midscalp and parietal areas.Conclusion: The parietal area is another important affected area in FPHL in addition to the midscalp area. This finding provides novel important information of FPHL and will be useful for hair transplant surgeons choosing the optimal donor sites for hair transplantation in women. Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, alopecia, phototrichogram, miniaturization

  3. Human and natural controls of the variation in aboveground tree biomass in African dry tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Johanne; Siampale, Abel; Legendre, Pierre; Jantz, Patrick; Laporte, Nadine T; Goetz, Scott J

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the anthropogenic and natural controls that affect the patterns, distribution, and dynamics of terrestrial carbon is crucial to meeting climate change mitigation objectives. We assessed the human and natural controls over aboveground tree biomass density in African dry tropical forests, using Zambia's first nationwide forest inventory. We identified predictors that best explain the variation in biomass density, contrasted anthropogenic and natural sites at different spatial scales, and compared sites with different stand structure characteristics and species composition. In addition, we evaluated the effects of different management and conservation practices on biomass density. Variation in biomass density was mostly determined by biotic processes, linked with both species richness and dominance (evenness), and to a lesser extent, by land use, environmental controls, and spatial structure. Biomass density was negatively associated with tree species evenness and positively associated with species richness for both natural and human-modified sites. Human influence variables (including distance to roads, distance to town, fire occurrence, and the population on site) did not explain substantial variation in biomass density in comparison to biodiversity variables. The relationship of human activities to biomass density in managed sites appears to be mediated by effects on species diversity and stand structure characteristics, with lower values in human-modified sites for all metrics tested. Small contrasts in carbon density between human-modified and natural forest sites signal the potential to maintain carbon in the landscape inside but also outside forestlands in this region. Biodiversity is positively related to biomass density in both human and natural sites, demonstrating potential synergies between biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation. This is the first evidence of positive outcomes of protected areas and participatory forest

  4. Production of hydrogen driven from biomass waste to power Remote areas away from the electric grid utilizing fuel cells and internal combustion engines vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, Hazem [Farmingdale State College, NY (United States)

    2017-03-10

    Recent concerns over the security and reliability of the world’s energy supply has caused a flux towards the research and development of renewable sources. A leading renewable source has been found in the biomass gasification of biological materials derived from organic matters such as wood chips, forest debris, and farm waste that are found in abundance in the USA. Accordingly, there is a very strong interest worldwide in the development of new technologies that provide an in-depth understanding of this economically viable energy source. This work aims to allow the coupling of biomass gasification and fuel cell systems as well as Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) to produce high-energy efficiency, clean environmental performance and near-zero greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass gasification is a process, which produces synthesis gas (syngas) that contains 19% hydrogen and 20% carbon monoxide from inexpensive organic matter waste. This project main goal is to provide cost effective energy to the public utilizing remote farms’ waste and landfill recycling area.

  5. Restoration of areas degraded by alluvial sand mining: use of soil microbiological activity and plant biomass growth to assess evolution of restored riparian vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venson, Graziela R; Marenzi, Rosemeri C; Almeida, Tito César M; Deschamps-Schmidt, Alexandre; Testolin, Renan C; Rörig, Leonardo R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2017-03-01

    River or alluvial sand mining is causing a variety of environmental problems in the Itajaí-açú river basin in Santa Catarina State (south of Brazil). When this type of commercial activity degrades areas around rivers, environmental restoration programs need to be executed. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the evolution of a restored riparian forest based on data on the soil microbial activity and plant biomass growth. A reference site and three sites with soil degradation were studied over a 3-year period. Five campaigns were performed to determine the hydrolysis of the soil enzyme fluorescein diacetate (FDA), and the biomass productivity was determined at the end of the studied period. The variation in the enzyme activity for the different campaigns at each site was low, but this parameter did differ significantly according to the site. Well-managed sites showed the highest biomass productivity, and this, in turn, showed a strong positive correlation with soil enzyme activity. In conclusion, soil enzyme activity could form the basis for monitoring and the early prediction of the success of vegetal restoration programs, since responses at the higher level of biological organization take longer, inhibiting the assessment of the project within an acceptable time frame.

  6. EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygarlicke, C J; Schmidt, D D; Olson, E S; Leroux, K M; Wocken, C A; Aulich, T A; WIlliams, K D

    2008-07-28

    Biomass utilization is one solution to our nation’s addiction to oil and fossil fuels. What is needed now is applied fundamental research that will cause economic technology development for the utilization of the diverse biomass resources in the United States. This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) applied fundamental research project contributes to the development of economical biomass utilization for energy, transportation fuels, and marketable chemicals using biorefinery methods that include thermochemical and fermentation processes. The fundamental and basic applied research supports the broad scientific objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program, especially in the area of developing alternative renewable biofuels, sustainable bioenergy, technologies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and environmental remediation. Its deliverables include 1) identifying and understanding environmental consequences of energy production from biomass, including the impacts on greenhouse gas production, carbon emission abatement, and utilization of waste biomass residues and 2) developing biology-based solutions that address DOE and national needs related to waste cleanup, hydrogen production from renewable biomass, biological and chemical processes for energy and fuel production, and environmental stewardship. This project serves the public purpose of encouraging good environmental stewardship by developing biomass-refining technologies that can dramatically increase domestic energy production to counter current trends of rising dependence upon petroleum imports. Decreasing the nation’s reliance on foreign oil and energy will enhance national security, the economy of rural communities, and future competitiveness. Although renewable energy has many forms, such as wind and solar, biomass is the only renewable energy source that can be governed through agricultural methods and that has an energy density that can realistically compete with

  7. Precision of pQCT-measured total, trabecular and cortical bone area, content, density and estimated bone strength in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, W R D; Björkman, K M; Kawalilak, C E; Kehrig, A M; Wiebe, S; Kontulainen, S

    2017-06-01

    To define pQCT precision errors, least-significant-changes, and identify associated factors for bone outcomes at the radius and tibia in children. We obtained duplicate radius and tibia pQCT scans from 35 children (8-14yrs). We report root-mean-squared coefficient of variation (CV% RMS ) and 95% limits-of-agreement to characterize repeatability across scan quality and least-significant-changes for bone outcomes at distal (total and trabecular area, content and density; and compressive bone strength) and shaft sites (total area and content; cortical area content, density and thickness; and torsional bone strength). We used Spearman's rho to identify associations between CV% and time between measurements, child's age or anthropometrics. After excluding unanalyzable scans (6-10% of scans per bone site), CV% RMS ranged from 4% (total density) to 19% (trabecular content) at the distal radius, 4% (cortical content) to 8% (cortical thickness) at the radius shaft, 2% (total density) to 14% (trabecular content) at the distal tibia and from 2% (cortical content) to 6% (bone strength) at the tibia shaft. Precision errors were within 95% limits-of-agreement across scan quality. Age was associated (rho -0.4 to -0.5, p⟨0.05) with CV% at the tibia. Bone density outcomes and cortical bone properties appeared most precise (CV% RMS ⟨5%) in children.

  8. Microplankton biomass and diversity in the Vietnamese upwelling area during SW monsoon under normal conditions and after an ENSO event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loick-Wilde, Natalie; Bombar, Deniz; Doan, Hai Nhu; Nguyen, Lam Ngoc; Nguyen-Thi, Anh Mai; Voss, Maren; Dippner, Joachim W.

    2017-04-01

    Investigating microplankton biomass and diversity under different climatological conditions is key to the understanding of cascading effects of climate change on nutrient cycles and biological productivity. Here we have used data collected during two contrasting summers along the coast of Viet Nam to show how climatological-driven changes can have a significant influence on the distribution of microplankton communities and their biomass via its impact on nutrient concentrations in the water column. The first summer in July 2003 followed a weak El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event and was characterized by weak coastal upwelling, in the second summer during July 2004, upwelling was normal. Very low silicate (SiO4) concentrations and SiO4:DIN ratios characterized the source water mass for upwelling in July 2004, and dynamic SiO4 to dissolved inorganic nitrogen ratios (SiO4:DIN) mainly below the Redfield-Brzezinski ratio and DIN to phosphate ratios (DIN:PO43-) below the Redfield ratio were a common feature off Viet Nam. Much higher particle concentrations and PSi/PC ratios during normal upwelling revealed major changes in the microplankton community structure among summers. Small dinoflagellates (10-20 μm) prevailed ubiquitously during reduced upwelling. During normal upwelling, the diatom Rhizosolenia sp. dominated the cell-carbon biomass in the silicate poor upwelling waters. Trichodesmium erythraeum dominated in the Mekong-influenced and nutrient depleted offshore waters, where it co-occurred with Rhizosolenia sp. Both species were directly associated with the much higher primary production (PP) and N2 fixation rates that were quantified in earlier studies, as well as with much higher diversities at these offshore sites. Along the coast, the correlation between Rhizosolenia sp. and PP rates was less clear and the factors regulating the biomass of Rhizosolenia sp. in the upwelling waters are discussed. The very low silicate concentrations in the source water

  9. Clinical significance of diminution of high-density areas in basal cisterns following acute aneurysmal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Takayuki; Takeda, Rihei; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Sato, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Hidetoshi

    1983-01-01

    We analyzed the sequential changes in the high density in basal cisterns in the acute stage of aneurysmal bleeding. We could recognize Group 3 (clot or thick layer), according to Fisher's classification, in 66.3% of the intracranial aneurysms at admission (83 cases). In the early stage of an intracranial aneurysm, a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was detected in all the patients on CT. We evaluated 40 cases of Group 3 sequentially on CT. This investigation showed that 55% of the Grade I--Ii group, 27.3% of the Grade III group, and 11.1% of the Grade IV--V group changed to Group 2(thin or diffuse pattern) in approximately 20 hours on the average. As for the correlation between the high density in basal cisterns and the neurological condition (Hunt and Hess), we found a neurological improvement in the decreased-high-density group. The unchanged- high-density group showed deterioration. Compared with the decreased-high-density group, the unchanged group showed a greater increase in the CVI (Cerebro Ventricular Index). RI ( 111 In) cisternography also showed a disturbance of the CSF circulation. To lower the vasospasm it is important to decrease the high density in an early stage by carrying out CSF. It was considered to be prognostic when a CT scan was performed within 24 hours after SAH. (author)

  10. Regression modeling and mapping of coniferous forest basal area and tree density from discrete-return lidar and multispectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Hudak; Nicholas L. Crookston; Jeffrey S. Evans; Michael K. Falkowski; Alistair M. S. Smith; Paul E. Gessler; Penelope Morgan

    2006-01-01

    We compared the utility of discrete-return light detection and ranging (lidar) data and multispectral satellite imagery, and their integration, for modeling and mapping basal area and tree density across two diverse coniferous forest landscapes in north-central Idaho. We applied multiple linear regression models subset from a suite of 26 predictor variables derived...

  11. Soil bulk density and biomass partitioning of Brachiaria decumbens in a silvopastoral system Densidade do solo e partição de biomassa de Brachiaria decumbens em um sistema silvopastoril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Sávio Campos Paciullo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Shade in silvopastoral systems improves the thermal comfort of animals, but it may also affect the pasture productivity and can contribute to soil compaction in the shaded areas due to the increase in the number of animals looking for comfort. The effect of grazing at various distances from tree rows (under the tree canopy, at 6 and at 12 m away from the trees on the soil bulk density and on the aerial and root biomass of Brachiaria decumbens was evaluated in both the dry and the rainy seasons. The study was carried out on an Orthic Ferralsol in a randomized block design with two replications. Tree rows were composed of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium species, and the paddocks were submitted to a rotational stocking management, using Holstein (Bos taurus × Zebu (Bos indicus heifers. The shade intensity in the pasture decreased with an increasing distance from the tree row. Soil bulk density did not vary with the distance from the tree row, but varied seasonally, being greater in the rainy season (1.47 g cm-3 than in the dry season (1.28 g cm-3. Green forage and root mass, expressed as dry matter, were lower under the tree canopy and were greater in the rainy season. There were decreases of 22.3 and 41.4% in the aerial and root biomasses, respectively, in the tree rows. The greatest shoot/root ratio for B. decumbens under moderate and intensive shading indicates a modification in the forage biomass allocation pattern that favours the aerial development in detriment of the root system.O sombreamento em sistemas silvipastoris concorre para o conforto térmico dos animais; no entanto pode afetar a produção do pasto e contribuir para a compactação do solo, pelo aumento da concentração de animais nas áreas sombreadas. Avaliou-se o efeito da distância do renque de árvores (sob a copa das árvores, 6 e 12 m de distancia das árvores na densidade do solo e na biomassa aérea e de raízes de Brachiaria decumbens, nas épocas seca e chuvosa

  12. Decoupling Substrate Stiffness, Spread Area, and Micropost Density: A Close Spatial Relationship between Traction Forces and Focal Adhesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sangyoon J.; Bielawski, Kevin S.; Ting, Lucas H.; Rodriguez, Marita L.; Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical cues can influence the manner in which cells generate traction forces and form focal adhesions. The stiffness of a cell’s substrate and the available area on which it can spread can influence its generation of traction forces, but to what extent these factors are intertwined is unclear. In this study, we used microcontact printing and micropost arrays to control cell spreading, substrate stiffness, and post density to assess their effect on traction forces and focal adhesions. We find that both the spread area and the substrate stiffness influence traction forces in an independent manner, but these factors have opposite effects: cells on stiffer substrates produce higher average forces, whereas cells with larger spread areas generate lower average forces. We show that post density influences the generation of traction forces in a manner that is more dominant than the effect of spread area. Additionally, we observe that focal adhesions respond to spread area, substrate stiffness, and post density in a manner that closely matches the trends seen for traction forces. This work supports the notion that traction forces and focal adhesions have a close relationship in their response to mechanical cues. PMID:22947925

  13. The land-use of Bandung, its density, overcrowded area and public facility toward a compact city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramita, B.

    2016-04-01

    The concept of a compact city has been introduced since 1973. It is a utopian vision largely driven by a desire to see more efficient uses of resources. In 1980s, the reconfiguration of the physical urban form of metropolitan areas was increasingly debated by both theorists and practitioners. Recently, the concept of a compact city has been more focused on developed countries in which the population tends to decrease. However, in Asia, except Japan which contains many dense cities, it has become a concept which promotes relatively high residential density with mixed land uses, though rather only in population and density. This paper addresses the land-use of Bandung that having the density over 14,000 people/km2, which has been so much potential toward a compact city. Somehow, unprepared ness of urban planning and regulation, the city seemed overwrought to serve its inhabitants. This condition is shown from the demographic condition, especially population density in Bandung based on its sub areas of the city (SWK). The stack of public facilities in a certain district has led the concentration of density and activity, which finally raising the slum and overcrowded settlement. Finally, this paper explores the implications of land use management and describes challenges faced and possible approaches, especially in land-use management strategies to be implemented in Bandung.

  14. Microbial biomass and basal respiration in Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic soils in the areas of some Russian polar stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakumov, E.; Mukhametova, N.

    2014-03-01

    Antarctica is the unique place for pedological investigations. Soils of Antarctica have been studied intensively during the last century. Antarctic logistic provides the possibility to scientists access the terrestrial landscapes mainly in the places of polar stations. That is why the main and most detailed pedological investigations were conducted in Mc Murdo Valleys, Transantarctic Mountains, South Shetland Islands, Larsemann hills and Schirmacher Oasis. Investigations were conducted during the 53rd and 55th Russian Antarctic expeditions on the base of soil pits and samples collected in Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic regions. Soils of diverse Antarctic landscapes were studied with aim to assess the microbial biomass level, basal respiration rates and metabolic activity of microbial communities. The investigation conducted shows that soils of Antarctic are quite different in profile organization and carbon content. In general, Sub-Antarctic soils are characterized by more developed humus (sod) organo-mineral horizons as well as the upper organic layer. The most developed organic layers were revealed in peat soils of King-George Island, where its thickness reach even 80 cm. These soils as well as soils under guano are characterized by the highest amount of total organic carbon (TOC) 7.22-33.70%. Coastal and continental soils of Antarctic are presented by less developed Leptosols, Gleysols, Regolith and rare Ornhitosol with TOC levels about 0.37-4.67%. The metabolic ratios and basal respiration were higher in Sub-Antarctic soils than in Antarctic ones which can be interpreted as result of higher amounts of fresh organic remnants in organic and organo-mineral horizons. Also the soils of King-George island have higher portion of microbial biomass (max 1.54 mg g-1) than coastal (max 0.26 mg g-1) and continental (max 0.22 mg g-1) Antarctic soils. Sub-Antarctic soils mainly differ from Antarctic ones in increased organic layers thickness and total organic carbon content

  15. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  16. The Quantitative Measurements of Vascular Density and Flow Areas of Macula Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Normal Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Fariba; Fadakar, Kaveh; Bazvand, Fatemeh; Mirshahi, Reza; Mohebbi, Masoumeh; Sabour, Siamak

    2017-06-01

    The quantification of the density of macular vascular networks and blood flow areas in the foveal and parafoveal area in healthy subjects using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Cross-sectional, prospective study in an institutional setting at the Retina Services of Farabi Eye Hospital. One hundred twelve normal volunteers with no known ocular or systemic disease were included, including patient numbers (one or both eyes), selection procedures, inclusion/exclusion criteria, randomization procedure, and masking. En face angiogram OCTA was performed on a 3 mm × 3 mm region centered on the macula. Automated thresholding and measuring algorithm method for foveal and parafoveal blood flow and vascular density (VD) were used. The density of macular vascular networks and blood flow area in the foveal and parafoveal area were measured. A total of 224 healthy eyes from 112 subjects with a mean age of 36.4 years ± 11.3 years were included. In the foveal region, the VD of the superficial capillary network (sCN) was significantly higher than that of the deep capillary network (dCN) (31.1% ± 5.5% vs. 28.3% ± 7.2%; P < .001), whereas in the parafoveal area, VD was higher in the dCN (62.24% ± 2.8% vs. 56.5% ± 2.5%; P < .001). Flow area in the 1-mm radius circle in the sCN was less than in the dCN. Superficial foveal avascular zone (sFAZ) size was negatively correlated with the VD of the foveal sCN, but in the deep FAZ (dFAZ) was not correlated with VD or blood flow area of the fovea. There was no difference between measured VD and blood flow surface area in both eyes of the subjects. OCTA could be used as a noninvasive, repeatable, layer-free method in quantitative evaluation of VD and blood flow of macular area. The normal quantities of the vascular plexus density and flow will help in better understanding the pathophysiological basis of the vascular disease of retina. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:478-486.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK

  17. Impact of soil salinity on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi biodiversity and microflora biomass associated with Tamarix articulata Vahll rhizosphere in arid and semi-arid Algerian areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencherif, Karima; Boutekrabt, Ammar; Fontaine, Joël; Laruelle, Fréderic; Dalpè, Yolande; Sahraoui, Anissa Lounès-Hadj

    2015-11-15

    Soil salinization is an increasingly important problem in many parts of the world, particularly under arid and semi-arid areas. Unfortunately, the knowledge about restoration of salt affected ecosystems using mycorrhizae is limited. The current study aims to investigate the impact of salinity on the microbial richness of the halophytic plant Tamarix articulata rhizosphere. Soil samples were collected from natural sites with increasing salinity (1.82-4.95 ds.m(-1)). Six arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species were isolated from the different saline soils and identified as Septoglomus constrictum, Funneliformis mosseae, Funneliformis geosporum, Funneliformis coronatum, Rhizophagus fasciculatus, and Gigaspora gigantea. The number of AMF spores increased with soil salinity. Total root colonization rate decreased from 65 to 16% but remained possible with soil salinity. Microbial biomass in T. articulata rhizosphere was affected by salinity. The phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) C16:1ω5 as well as i15:0, a15:0, i16:0, i17:0, a17:0, cy17:0, C18:1ω7 and cy19:0 increased in high saline soils suggesting that AMF and bacterial biomasses increased with salinity. In contrast, ergosterol amount was negatively correlated with soil salinity indicating that ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungal biomasses were reduced with salinity. Our findings highlight the adaptation of arbuscular and bacterial communities to natural soil salinity and thus the potential use of mycorrhizal T. articulata trees as an approach to restore moderately saline disturbed arid lands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleepwalking episodes are preceded by arousal-related activation in the cingulate motor area: EEG current density imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszko, Piotr; Niemcewicz, Szymon; Gajda, Tomasz; Wołyńczyk-Gmaj, Dorota; Piotrowska, Anna Justyna; Gmaj, Bartłomiej; Piotrowski, Tadeusz; Szelenberger, Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    To investigate local arousal fluctuations in adults who received ICSD-2 diagnosis of somnambulism. EEG neuroimaging (eLORETA) was utilized to compare current density distribution for 4s epochs immediately preceding sleepwalking episode (from -4.0 s to 0 s) to the distribution during earlier 4s epochs (from -8.0 s to -4.0 s) in 20 EEG segments from 15 patients. Comparisons between eLORETA images revealed significant (t>4.52; psleepwalking, with greater current density within beta 3 frequency range (24-30 Hz) in Brodmann areas 33 and 24. Sleepwalking motor events are associated with arousal-related activation of cingulate motor area. These results support the notion of blurred boundaries between wakefulness and NREM sleep in sleepwalking. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Differences in Fine-Root Biomass of Trees and Understory Vegetation among Stand Types in Subtropical Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Fu

    Full Text Available Variation of total fine-root biomass among types of tree stands has previously been attributed to the characteristics of the stand layers. The effects of the understory vegetation on total fine-root biomass are less well studied. We examined the variation of total fine-root biomass in subtropical tree stands at two sites of Datian and Huitong in China. The two sites have similar humid monsoon climate but different soil organic carbon. One examination compared two categories of basal areas (high vs. low basal area in stands of single species. A second examination compared single-species and mixed stands with comparable basal areas. Low basal area did not correlate with low total fine-root biomass in the single-species stands. The increase in seedling density but decrease in stem density for the low basal area stands at Datian and the quite similar stand structures for the basal-area contrast at Huitong helped in the lack of association between basal area and total fine-root biomass at the two sites, respectively. The mixed stands also did not yield higher total fine-root biomasses. In addition to the lack of niche complementarity between tree species, the differences in stem and seedling densities and the belowground competition between the tree and non-tree species also contributed to the similarity of the total fine-root biomasses in the mixed and single-species stands. Across stand types, the more fertile site Datian yielded higher tree, non-tree and total fine-root biomasses than Huitong. However, the contribution of non-tree fine-root biomass to the total fine-root biomass was higher at Huitong (29.4% than that at Datian (16.7%. This study suggests that the variation of total fine-root biomass across stand types not only was associated with the characteristics of trees, but also may be highly dependent on the understory layer.

  20. Differences in Fine-Root Biomass of Trees and Understory Vegetation among Stand Types in Subtropical Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoli; Wang, Jianlei; Di, Yuebao; Wang, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Variation of total fine-root biomass among types of tree stands has previously been attributed to the characteristics of the stand layers. The effects of the understory vegetation on total fine-root biomass are less well studied. We examined the variation of total fine-root biomass in subtropical tree stands at two sites of Datian and Huitong in China. The two sites have similar humid monsoon climate but different soil organic carbon. One examination compared two categories of basal areas (high vs. low basal area) in stands of single species. A second examination compared single-species and mixed stands with comparable basal areas. Low basal area did not correlate with low total fine-root biomass in the single-species stands. The increase in seedling density but decrease in stem density for the low basal area stands at Datian and the quite similar stand structures for the basal-area contrast at Huitong helped in the lack of association between basal area and total fine-root biomass at the two sites, respectively. The mixed stands also did not yield higher total fine-root biomasses. In addition to the lack of niche complementarity between tree species, the differences in stem and seedling densities and the belowground competition between the tree and non-tree species also contributed to the similarity of the total fine-root biomasses in the mixed and single-species stands. Across stand types, the more fertile site Datian yielded higher tree, non-tree and total fine-root biomasses than Huitong. However, the contribution of non-tree fine-root biomass to the total fine-root biomass was higher at Huitong (29.4%) than that at Datian (16.7%). This study suggests that the variation of total fine-root biomass across stand types not only was associated with the characteristics of trees, but also may be highly dependent on the understory layer.

  1. Spatial mobility and territoriality in low density rural areas: the injunction to spatial mobility faced with mode of dwelling

    OpenAIRE

    Couturier , Pierre

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The paper explores the connections between modes of dwelling and spatial mobility from the point of view of the meaning that they are given by inhabitants and actors of local development. We attempt to put attitudes, representations, practices and expectations as they are expressed by inhabitants in front of the stakes of mobility as they are formalized by local political actors in low density rural areas of French Massif central. The purpose of this article, by analys...

  2. Biomass torrefaction: A promising pretreatment technology for biomass utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, ZhiWen; Wang, Mingfeng; Ren, Yongzhi; Jiang, Enchen; Jiang, Yang; Li, Weizhen

    2018-02-01

    Torrefaction is an emerging technology also called mild pyrolysis, which has been explored for the pretreatment of biomass to make the biomass more favorable for further utilization. Dry torrefaction (DT) is a pretreatment of biomass in the absence of oxygen under atmospheric pressure and in a temperature range of 200-300 degrees C, while wet torrrefaction (WT) is a method in hydrothermal or hot and high pressure water at the tempertures within 180-260 degrees C. Torrrefied biomass is hydrophobic, with lower moisture contents, increased energy density and higher heating value, which are more comparable to the characteristics of coal. With the improvement in the properties, torrefied biomass mainly has three potential applications: combustion or co-firing, pelletization and gasification. Generally, the torrefaction technology can accelerate the development of biomass utilization technology and finally realize the maximum applications of biomass energy.

  3. Density and Distribution of Xylocopa Nests (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Caatinga Areas in the Surroundings of Passion Fruit Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C F; de Siqueira, K M M; Kiill, L H P; Sá, I I S; Aguiar, C M L

    2014-08-01

    Due to their importance as pollinators of many plant species, this study aimed to know the nest density, spatial distribution, and nesting substrates used by Xylocopa species in the Caatinga, a xerophilous vegetation of Northeastern Brazil. Three areas of Caatinga in the surroundings of passion fruit crops were sampled. The bee species found in these areas were Xylocopa grisescens Lepeletier and Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier). All nests were in Commiphora leptophloeos (Burseraceae) trees (n = 113). Phytosociological analysis showed that this tree species presented the highest absolute density (212.5 individuals/ha) and index of importance value (52.7). The distribution pattern of the C. leptophloeos was aggregated. The nests were located in dead and dried branches with an average diameter of 5.3 ± 2.0 cm (n = 43). The mean number of nests/tree was 3.1 ± 2.8 (n = 113). The less disturbed area showed 6.7 nests/ha and 4.2 nests/tree. In the disturbed areas, 0.9 nests/ha and 2.4 to 2.7 nests/tree were observed. The availability of substrate for nesting in the studied areas and its importance as a limiting factor for nesting are discussed.

  4. The effect of calcium supplementation and Tanner stage on bone density, content and area in teenage women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, T; Martel, J K; Rollings, N; Andon, M B; Kulin, H; Demers, L M; Eggli, D F; Kieselhorst, K; Chinchilli, V M

    1996-01-01

    One hundred and twelve Caucasian girls, 11.9 +/- 0.5 years of age at entry, were randomized into a 24-month, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mineral content, bone area and bone density. Supplementation was 500 mg calcium as calcium citrate malate (CCM) per day. Controls received placebo pills, and compliance of both groups averaged 72%. Bone mineral content, bone mineral area and bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and total body were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Calcium intake from dietary sources averaged 983 mg/day for the entire study group. The supplemented group received, on average, an additional 360 mg calcium/day from CCM. At baseline and after 24 months, the two groups did not differ with respect to anthropometric measurements, urinary reproductive hormone levels or any measurement of pubertal progression. The supplemented group had greater increases of total body bone measures: content 39.9% versus 35.7% (p = 0.01), area 24.2% versus 22.5% (p = 0.15) and density 12.2% versus 10.1% (p = 0.005). Region-of-interest analyses showed that the supplemented group had greater gains compared with the control group for bone mineral density, content and area. In particular, in the lumbar spine and pelvis, the gains made by the supplemented group were 12%-24% greater than the increases made by the control group. Bone acquisition rates in the two study groups were further compared by subdividing the groups into those with below- or above-median values for Tanner score and dietary calcium intake. In subjects with below-median Tanner scores, bone acquisition was not affected by calcium supplementation or dietary calcium level. However, the calcium supplemented subjects with above-median Tanner had higher bone acquisition rates than the placebo group with above-median Tanner scores. Relative to the placebo group, the supplemented group had increased yearly gains of bone content

  5. Ethnic density and deliberate self harm; a small area study in south east London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Wilson-Jones, C; Wessely, S

    Study objective-Relative risks are frequently used to convey how strongly outcomes like mental illness and suicidal behaviour are associated with personal characteristics Like ethnic background. This study examined whether RRs for deliberate self harm (DSH) in ethnic groups vary between small areas

  6. Infant Malnutrition in High Density Urban Areas: Some Social and Psychological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, L. M.; Griesel, R. D.

    The mothers of 135 hospitalized infants were interviewed regarding several social, familial, personal, and psychological conditions considered to be pertinent to the etiology of protein energy malnutrition in impoverished African urban areas. The information gathered was contrasted with similar data collected from the mothers of 296 adequately…

  7. [Effect of plastic film mulching on soil microbial biomass in spring wheat field in semi-arid loess area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiuhua; Li, Fengmin; Liu, Hongsheng; Wang, Jun; Li, Shiqing

    2003-09-01

    This paper studied the effect of different periods of plastic film mulching (M0-no mulching, M30-mulching for 30 days, M60-mulching for 60 days, and M-mulching for whole growth period) on soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) of spring wheat field in semi-arid loess plateau. The mean SMBC in 1999 and 2000 was 335.3 and 259.3 mg.kg-1 dry soil, respectively. It was 29.3% higher in 1999 than in 2000. The highest SMBC was recorded at the harvest stage in M treatment for the two years. In 1999, a wet year with more rainfall, the SMBC of M60 and M treatments was significantly higher than those of M0 and M30 in the mid-period of growth, reached its top at the end of the growth period. The highest grain yield was also achieved in M60. It was a dry year in 2000, but rainfall was rich in the latter growth period of spring wheat. SMBC increased at the beginning period of growth, and did not increase during the mid-growth period. It increased again during the latter period of growth, and showed a significant difference among the treatments. At the harvest stage of 2000, SMBC in M0 was the highest among all the treatments. It was similar between M and M60, and lower than that of M30. In the two years, the ratio of C/N ranged between 7.732-9.042, being lower than the threshold of 11.3, and the ratio of C/P was 300.8-719.6, being higher than the threshold of 300. The two parameters showed that the increase of SMBC was inhibited because of the competition of soil available nutrients between soil microbes and crops. These indicated that soil organic matter content was so shortage that it became the key factor to restrict crop productivity. Under this condition, increasing crop productivity through the input of chemical fertilizers would conceal the problem of soil degradation, and result in a further decrease of soil quality. A long term plastic film mulching would make the problem more serious.

  8. Use of GIS for estimating potential and actual forest biomass for continental South and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. R. Iverson; S. Brown; A. Prasad; H. Mitasova; A. J. R. Gillespie; A. E. Lugo

    1994-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) was used to estimate total biomass and biomass density of the tropical forest in south and southeast Asia because available data from forest inventories were insufficient to extrapolate biomass-density estimates across the region.

  9. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rispo, A.; Williams, I.D., E-mail: idw@soton.ac.uk; Shaw, P.J.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Study of waste management in economically and socially deprived high-density housing. • Food waste segregation, prevention and recycling activities investigated. • Study involved a waste audit and household survey of 1034 households. • Populations in such areas are “hard-to-reach”. • Exceptional efforts and additional resources are required to improve performance. - Abstract: A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste’s weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of “don’t know” were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no “quick and easy fix”, regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are “hard-to-reach” in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional

  10. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rispo, A.; Williams, I.D.; Shaw, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Study of waste management in economically and socially deprived high-density housing. • Food waste segregation, prevention and recycling activities investigated. • Study involved a waste audit and household survey of 1034 households. • Populations in such areas are “hard-to-reach”. • Exceptional efforts and additional resources are required to improve performance. - Abstract: A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste’s weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of “don’t know” were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no “quick and easy fix”, regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are “hard-to-reach” in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional

  11. Jaguar Densities across Human-Dominated Landscapes in Colombia: The Contribution of Unprotected Areas to Long Term Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Boron

    Full Text Available Large carnivores such as jaguars (Panthera onca are species of conservation concern because they are suffering population declines and are keystone species in their ecosystems. Their large area requirements imply that unprotected and ever-increasing agricultural regions can be important habitats as they allow connectivity and dispersal among core protected areas. Yet information on jaguar densities across unprotected landscapes it is still scarce and crucially needed to assist management and range-wide conservation strategies. Our study provides the first jaguar density estimates of Colombia in agricultural regions which included cattle ranching, the main land use in the country, and oil palm cultivation, an increasing land use across the Neotropics. We used camera trapping across two agricultural landscapes located in the Magdalena River valley and in the Colombian llanos (47-53 stations respectively; >2000 trap nights at both sites and classic and spatially explicit capture-recapture models with the sex of individuals as a covariate. Density estimates were 2.52±0.46-3.15±1.08 adults/100 km2 in the Magdalena valley, whereas 1.12±0.13-2.19±0.99 adults/100 km2 in the Colombian llanos, depending on analysis used. We suggest that jaguars are able to live across unprotected human-use areas and co-exist with agricultural landscapes including oil-palm plantations if natural areas and riparian habitats persist in the landscape and hunting of both jaguar and prey is limited. In the face of an expanding agriculture across the tropics we recommend land-use planning, adequate incentives, regulations, and good agricultural practices for range-wide jaguar connectivity and survival.

  12. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, M.; Easterly, J.L.; Mark, P.E.; Keller, A.

    1995-01-01

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  13. ON-LINE MONITORING OF BIOMASS CONCENTRATION BASED ON A CAPACITANCE SENSOR: ASSESSING THE METHODOLOGY FOR DIFFERENT BACTERIA AND YEAST HIGH CELL DENSITY FED-BATCH CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. L. Horta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The performance of an in-situ capacitance sensor for on-line monitoring of biomass concentration was evaluated for some of the most important microorganisms in the biotechnology industry: Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris and Bacillus megaterium. A total of 33 batch and fed-batch cultures were carried out in a bench-scale bioreactor and biomass formation trends were followed by dielectric measurements during the growth phase as well as the induction phase, for 5 recombinant E. coli strains. Permittivity measurements and viable cellular concentrations presented a linear correlation for all the studied conditions. In addition, the permittivity signal was further used for inference of the cellular growth rate. The estimated specific growth rates mirrored the main trends of the metabolic states of the different cells and they can be further used for setting-up control strategies in fed-batch cultures.

  14. Increase in Population Density and Aggravation of Social and Psychological Problems in Areas with High-Rise Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Elena

    2018-03-01

    High-rise apartment houses have technical and economic advantages in areas with dense population. Their placement in the central part of the city allows increasing the number of living space in the limited territory, to bring population to the place of employment and reduce pendular migration. But increase in population density leads to psychological problems: level of a stress, fatigue increases, the number of phobias grows, infectious diseases extend quicker. These problems can be solved at resettlement of inhabitants to the suburb. However such decision leads to aggravation of a transport problem and the pulsing increase in population density in the downtown and on its suburb. To solve a transport problem, it is necessary not to increase the square of the cities. Therefore in the suburbs is also used high-rise construction. But high-rise residential districts on the suburb of the city get own social problems which are capable to destroy all advantages of high-rise construction.

  15. An Evaluation of Population Density Mapping and Built up Area Estimates in Sri Lanka Using Multiple Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, R.; Soundararajan, V.; Newhouse, D.

    2017-12-01

    In this study we examine how well multiple population density and built up estimates that utilize satellite data compare in Sri Lanka. The population relationship is examined at the Gram Niladhari (GN) level, the lowest administrative unit in Sri Lanka from the 2011 census. For this study we have two spatial domains, the whole country and a 3,500km2 sub-sample, for which we have complete high spatial resolution imagery coverage. For both the entire country and the sub-sample we examine how consistent are the existing publicly available measures of population constructed from satellite imagery at predicting population density? For just the sub-sample we examine how well do a suite of values derived from high spatial resolution satellite imagery predict population density and how does our built up area estimate compare to other publicly available estimates. Population measures were obtained from the Sri Lankan census, and were downloaded from Facebook, WorldPoP, GPW, and Landscan. Percentage built-up area at the GN level was calculated from three sources: Facebook, Global Urban Footprint (GUF), and the Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL). For the sub-sample we have derived a variety of indicators from the high spatial resolution imagery. Using deep learning convolutional neural networks, an object oriented, and a non-overlapping block, spatial feature approach. Variables calculated include: cars, shadows (a proxy for building height), built up area, and buildings, roof types, roads, type of agriculture, NDVI, Pantex, and Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) and others. Results indicate that population estimates are accurate at the higher, DS Division level but not necessarily at the GN level. Estimates from Facebook correlated well with census population (GN correlation of 0.91) but measures from GPW and WorldPop are more weakly correlated (0.64 and 0.34). Estimates of built-up area appear to be reliable. In the 32 DSD-subsample, Facebook's built- up area measure

  16. House design modifications reduce indoor resting malaria vector densities in rice irrigation scheme area in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Githeko Andrew

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simple modifications of typical rural house design can be an effective and relatively inexpensive method of reducing indoor mosquito vector densities and consequently decreasing malaria transmission. Public health scientists have shown the potential for house design to protect people against malaria, yet this type of intervention remains virtually ignored. A randomized-controlled study was, therefore, undertaken to determine the effects of this method of vector control on the density of indoor resting malaria vectors in a rice irrigation scheme area in lowlands of western Kenya. Methods Ten treatment houses were modified with ceilings of papyrus mats and insecticide-treated netting (ITN and tested against ten control houses without papyrus ceilings. To determine densities of mosquitoes resting in homes, the pyrethrum spray method was used to simultaneously collect indoor resting malaria vectors in intervention and control houses. Each house was sampled a total of eight times over a period of four months, resulting in a total of 80 sampling efforts for each treatment. Community response to such intervention was investigated by discussions with residents. Results Papyrus mats ceiling modification reduced house entry by Anopheles gambiae s.l and Anopheles funestus densities by between 78–80% and 86% respectively compared to unmodified houses. Geometric mean density of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus in modified houses were significantly lower (t18 = 7.174, P 18 = 2.52, P = 0.02, respectively compared to controls. Unmodified houses were associated with relatively higher densities of malaria vectors. There was a 84% (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.07–0.39, P Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus presence in modified houses, respectively, compared with unmodified houses. Residents responded favourably to this mode of vector control. Conclusion House modifications involving insect screen ceilings made from locally

  17. The joint influence of area income, income inequality, and immigrant density on adverse birth outcomes: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraud Julie

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between area characteristics and birth outcomes is modified by race. Whether such associations vary according to social class indicators beyond race has not been assessed. Methods This study evaluated effect modification by maternal birthplace and education of the relationship between neighbourhood characteristics and birth outcomes of newborns from 1999–2003 in the province of Québec, Canada (N = 353,120 births. Areas (N = 143 were defined as administrative local health service delivery districts. Multi-level logistic regression was used to model the association between three area characteristics (median household income, immigrant density and income inequality and the two outcomes preterm birth (PTB and small-for-gestational age (SGA birth. Effect modification by social class indicators was evaluated in analyses stratified according to maternal birthplace and education. Results Relative to the lowest tertile, high median household income was associated with SGA birth among Canadian-born mothers (odds ratio (OR 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.06, 1.20 and mothers with high school education or less (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02, 1.24. Associations between median household income and PTB were weaker. Relative to the highest tertile, low immigrant density was associated with a lower odds of PTB among foreign-born mothers (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.63, 1.00 but a higher odds of PTB among Canadian-born mothers (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07, 1.21. Associations with income inequality were weak or absent. Conclusion The association between area factors and birth outcomes is modified by maternal birthplace and education. Studies have found that race interacts in a similar manner. Public health policies focussed on perinatal health must consider the interaction between individual and area characteristics.

  18. Low traffic density, small terminal network, and satellite antenna design for communications in the rural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardelli, L.; Martinino, F.; Rispoli, F.

    The applications of satellite communications techniques for improving the telecommunications scenario in developing countries and access to isolated and disperse users are discussed. The main issues determining the strategy for solving communications problems are summarized, and the main requirements for both the earth and space segments are outlined. System considerations for satellite-network design and the main criteria correlated to rural-area requirements are presented, and emphasis is placed on two proposed concepts for satellite multiple-access techniques: single channel per carrier/demand assignment multiple access (SCPC/DAMA) and code division multiple access/spread spectrum (CDMA/SS). A CDMA/SS network architecture design for 9600 b/s voice-communication and TV-program distribution in African countries and an onboard reconfigurable multispot antenna design for the coverage optimization of African regions are considered as examples.

  19. Characterization and valorization of biomass ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Nikhilesh S; Mandavgane, Sachin A; Mehetre, Sayaji; Kulkarni, Bhaskar D

    2016-10-01

    In India, farming is the primary source of income for many families. Following each harvest, a huge amount of biomass is generated. These are generally discarded as "agrowaste," but recent reports have indicated several beneficial uses for these biomasses and their ashes. However, before the utilization of biomass ashes (BMAs), their chemical and physical properties need to be investigated (characterized) so as to utilize their potential benefit to the fullest. In this paper, eight different biomass ashes (soybean plant ash, mustard plant ash, maize ash, groundnut plant ash, cotton plant ash, wheat plant ash, pigeon peas ash, and groundnut shell ash) were characterized, and their chemical properties are discussed. Surface chemical composition analysis, proximate analysis, and ultimate analysis were performed on all BMA samples, and properties such as porosity, particle density, bulk density, point of zero charge, BET surface area, water-absorption capacity, and bulk parameters such as surface pH and surface charges were determined. BMAs were characterized by SEM and FTIR. The surface areas of biomass ashes vary from 1.9 to 46 m 2 /g, and point of zero charge for all BMAs exceed 9.8, which confirmed the alkaline nature of these samples. Based on the chemical composition, BMAs are categorized into four types (S, C, K, and CK), and their utilization is proposed based on the type. BMAs find applications in agriculture and construction industries; glass, rubber, and zeolite manufacturing; and in adsorption (as a source of silica/zeolites). The paper also discusses the research challenges and opportunities in utilization of BMAs.

  20. Analysis on biomass and productivity of epilithic algae and their relations to environmental factors in the Gufu River basin, Three Gorges Reservoir area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jiwen; Wu, Shuyuan; Touré, Dado; Cheng, Lamei; Miao, Wenjie; Cao, Huafen; Pan, Xiaoying; Li, Jianfeng; Yao, Minmin; Feng, Liang

    2017-12-01

    The main purpose of this study conducted from August 2010 was to find biomass and productivity of epilithic algae and their relations to environmental factors and try to explore the restrictive factors affecting the growth of algae in the Gufu River, the one of the branches of Xiangxi River located in the Three Gorges Reservoir of the Yangtze River, Hubei Province, Central China. An improved method of in situ primary productivity measurement was utilized to estimate the primary production of the epilithic algae. It was shown that in rivers, lakes, and reservoirs, algae are the main primary producers and have a central role in the ecosystem. Chlorophyll a concentration and ash-free dry mass (AFDM) were estimated for epilithic algae of the Gufu River basin in Three Gorges Reservoir area. Environmental factors in the Gufu River ecosystem highlighted differences in periphyton chlorophyll a ranging from 1.49 mg m -2 (origin) to 69.58 mg m -2 (terminal point). The minimum and maximum gross primary productivity of epilithic algae were 96.12 and 1439.89 mg C m -2  day -1 , respectively. The mean net primary productivity was 290.24 mg C m -2  day -1 . The mean autotrophic index (AFDM:chlorophyll a) was 407.40. The net primary productivity, community respiration ratio (P/R ratio) ranged from 0.98 to 9.25 with a mean of 2.76, showed that autotrophic productivity was dominant in the river. Relationship between physicochemical characteristics and biomass was discussed through cluster and stepwise regression analysis which indicated that altitude, total nitrogen (TN), NO 3 - -N, and NH 4 + -N were significant environmental factors affecting the biomass of epilithic algae. However, a negative logarithmic relationship between altitude and the chlorophyll a of epilithic algae was high. The results also highlighted the importance of epilithic algae in maintaining the Gufu River basin ecosystems health.

  1. Regional-scale Predictions of Agricultural N Losses in an Area with a High Livestock Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Grignani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of the N losses in territories characterised by intensive animal stocking is of primary importance. The development of simulation models coupled to a GIS, or of simple environmental indicators, is strategic to suggest the best specific management practices. The aims of this work were: a to couple a GIS to a simulation model in order to predict N losses; b to estimate leaching and gaseous N losses from a territory with intensive livestock farming; c to derive a simplified empirical metamodel from the model output that could be used to rank the relative importance of the variables which influence N losses and to extend the results to homogeneous situations. The work was carried out in a 7773 ha area in the Western Po plain in Italy. This area was chosen because it is characterised by intensive animal husbandry and might soon be included in the nitrate vulnerable zones. The high N load, the shallow water table and the coarse type of sub-soil sediments contribute to the vulnerability to N leaching. A CropSyst simulation model was coupled to a GIS, to account for the soil surface N budget. A linear multiple regression approach was used to describe the influence of a series of independent variables on the N leaching, the N gaseous losses (including volatilisation and denitrification and on the sum of the two. Despite the fact that the available GIS was very detailed, a great deal of information necessary to run the model was lacking. Further soil measurements concerning soil hydrology, soil nitrate content and water table depth proved very valuable to integrate the data contained in the GIS in order to produce reliable input for the model. The results showed that the soils influence both the quantity and the pathways of the N losses to a great extent. The ratio between the N losses and the N supplied varied between 20 and 38%. The metamodel shows that manure input always played the most important role in determining the N losses

  2. Biomass feedstock analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The overall objectives of the project `Feasibility of electricity production from biomass by pressurized gasification systems` within the EC Research Programme JOULE II were to evaluate the potential of advanced power production systems based on biomass gasification and to study the technical and economic feasibility of these new processes with different type of biomass feed stocks. This report was prepared as part of this R and D project. The objectives of this task were to perform fuel analyses of potential woody and herbaceous biomasses with specific regard to the gasification properties of the selected feed stocks. The analyses of 15 Scandinavian and European biomass feed stock included density, proximate and ultimate analyses, trace compounds, ash composition and fusion behaviour in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The wood-derived fuels, such as whole-tree chips, forest residues, bark and to some extent willow, can be expected to have good gasification properties. Difficulties caused by ash fusion and sintering in straw combustion and gasification are generally known. The ash and alkali metal contents of the European biomasses harvested in Italy resembled those of the Nordic straws, and it is expected that they behave to a great extent as straw in gasification. Any direct relation between the ash fusion behavior (determined according to the standard method) and, for instance, the alkali metal content was not found in the laboratory determinations. A more profound characterisation of the fuels would require gasification experiments in a thermobalance and a PDU (Process development Unit) rig. (orig.) (10 refs.)

  3. Influence of population density on the concentration and speciation of metals in the soil and street dust from urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, J A; Gabarrón, M; Faz, A; Martínez-Martínez, S; Zornoza, R; Arocena, J M

    2015-09-01

    Street dust and soil from high, medium and low populated cities and natural area were analysed for selected physical-chemical properties, total and chemical speciation of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, Co, Ni to understand the influence of human activities on metal accumulation and mobility in the environment. The pH, salinity, carbonates and organic carbon contents were similar between soil and dust from the same city. Population density increases dust/soil salinity but has no influence on metals concentrations in soils. Increases in metal concentrations with population density were observed in dusts. Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr can be mobilized more easily from dust compared to the soil. In addition, population density increase the percentage of Pb and Zn associated to reducible and carbonate phase in the dust. The behaviour of metals except Cd in soil is mainly affected by physico-chemical properties, while total metal influenced the speciation except Cr and Ni in dusts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Ecology of Glossina palpalis VANDERPLANK, 1949 (Diptera: Glossinidae) in mangrove area of Guinea: influence of tides on tsetse densities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagbadouno, S M; Salou, E; Rayaisse, J B; Courtin, F; Sanon, A; Solano, P; Camara, M

    2016-05-01

    The mangrove area on the Guinea littoral constitutes a favourable habitat for transmission of Trypanosoma brucei gambiens, the parasite causing sleeping sickness also called Human African Trypanosmosis (HAT), due the simultaneous presence of the vector (tsetse flies) and the human hosts. In order to assess the influence of the sea tides on the densities of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Gpg), major vector of HAT in the mangrove, entomological surveys were performed using two transects, according to tides coefficient (great and small) and tide daily fluctuations (high and low). On each transect, 12 biconical traps were deployed through the mangrove to the continent. In total, up to 612 Gpg were caught, giving a density of 2.13 flies/trap/day (f/t/d). Highest captures were recorded during small tides and more tsetse were caught during the dry season than in the wet season. There were significant differences between captures when considering the different biotopes, and highest tsetse densities were recorded at the junction of the river and the channel of the mangrove (6.17±5.24); and in the channels of mangrove (3.50±3.76), during high tides of small coefficients. The results of this study may be used to improve vector control methods.

  5. Effect of quadrat shapes on measurement of tree density and basal area: a case study on Scots Pine (Pinus silvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyan Robiansyah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available While quadrat shape of 10 x 10m has been commonly used in tree studies, the efficiency of this shape compared to the other shapes of size 100 m2 has not been tested. In this study, effect of various shapes of 100 m2 quadrat on measurement of Scots Pine (Pinus silvestris L. density and basal area would be assessed. The aim was to assess the effect of quadrat shapes of 10 x 10m, 5 x 20m and 2 x 50m on the estimation of density and basal area of the pine in two woodlands in Norwich and to find the most efficient shape, statistically and with respect to sampling time. The results from all quadrat shapes similarly showed that the density and basal area of the Pines between two woodlands were significantly different. In site with lower pine density, the density and basal area measurement were not affected by variety of quadrat shapes. In site where the density of the Pine was higher, however, mean density and basal area measurement using 2x50m quadrat gave higher value than of the other two shapes. In term of efficiency, all shapes were not significantly different in statistical precision and sampling time. Shape of 5x20m, however, was more preferable as it required fewer samples before the mean of density and basal area always falls inside the 95% confidence interval of whole samples mean.

  6. Bioremediation potential, growth and biomass yield of the green seaweed, Ulva lactuca in an integrated marine aquaculture system at the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia at different stocking densities and effluent flow rates

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hafedh, Yousef S.

    2014-03-19

    Growth, production and biofiltration rates of seaweed, Ulva lactuca were investigated at two stocking densities (3 kg and 6 kg m-2) and two effluent flow rates (5.4 and 10.8 m3 day-1) to optimize an integrated mariculture system at Saudi Red Sea coast. effluents from fish-rearing tank, stocked with 200 kg fish (Oreochromis spilurus), fed to six seaweed tanks via sedimentation tank. Fish growth (weight gain 1.75 g fish day-1), net production (NP, 10.16 kg m-3) and survival (94.24%) were within acceptable limits. Ulva showed significantly higher (F = 62.62, d.f. 3, 35; P < 0.0001) specific growth rates at lower density compared with higher density and under high flow versus low flow (SGR = 5.78% vs. 2.55% at lower flow and 10.60% vs. 6.26% at higher flow). Biomass yield of Ulva at low- and high-stocking densities (111.11 and 83.2 g wet wt m-2 day-1, respectively) at low flow and (267.44 and 244.19 g wet wt m-2 day-1, respectively) at high flow show that high flow rate and lower density favoured growth. Removal rates of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) (0.26-0.31 g m-2 day-1) and phosphate phosphorus (0.32-0.41 g m-2 day-1) by U. lactuca were not significantly different (F = 1.9, d.f. 3, 59; P = 0.1394 for TAN and F = 0.29, d.f. 3, 59; P = 0.8324 for phosphates) at both the flow rates and stocking densities. Results show that the effluent flow rate has significant impact over the performance of the seaweed than stocking density.

  7. Marine protected areas increase temporal stability of community structure, but not density or diversity, of tropical seagrass fish communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Alonso Aller

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs have been shown to increase long-term temporal stability of fish communities and enhance ecosystem resilience to anthropogenic disturbance. Yet, the potential ability of MPAs to buffer effects of environmental variability at shorter time scales remains widely unknown. In the tropics, the yearly monsoon cycle is a major natural force affecting marine organisms in tropical regions, and its timing and severity are predicted to change over the coming century, with potentially severe effects on marine organisms, ecosystems and ecosystem services. Here, we assessed the ability of MPAs to buffer effects of monsoon seasonality on seagrass-associated fish communities, using a field survey in two MPAs (no-take zones and two unprotected (open-access sites around Zanzibar (Tanzania. We assessed the temporal stability of fish density and community structure within and outside MPAs during three monsoon seasons in 2014-2015, and investigated several possible mechanisms that could regulate temporal stability. Our results show that MPAs did not affect fish density and diversity, but that juvenile fish densities were temporally more stable within MPAs. Second, fish community structure was more stable within MPAs for juvenile and adult fish, but not for subadult fish or the total fish community. Third, the observed effects may be due to a combination of direct and indirect (seagrass-mediated effects of seasonality and, potentially, fluctuating fishing pressure outside MPAs. In summary, these MPAs may not have the ability to enhance fish density and diversity and to buffer effects of monsoon seasonality on the whole fish community. However, they may increase the temporal stability of certain groups, such as juvenile fish. Consequently, our results question whether MPAs play a general role in the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning under changing environmental conditions in tropical seagrass fish communities.

  8. Marine protected areas increase temporal stability of community structure, but not density or diversity, of tropical seagrass fish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Aller, Elisa; Jiddawi, Narriman S; Eklöf, Johan S

    2017-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been shown to increase long-term temporal stability of fish communities and enhance ecosystem resilience to anthropogenic disturbance. Yet, the potential ability of MPAs to buffer effects of environmental variability at shorter time scales remains widely unknown. In the tropics, the yearly monsoon cycle is a major natural force affecting marine organisms in tropical regions, and its timing and severity are predicted to change over the coming century, with potentially severe effects on marine organisms, ecosystems and ecosystem services. Here, we assessed the ability of MPAs to buffer effects of monsoon seasonality on seagrass-associated fish communities, using a field survey in two MPAs (no-take zones) and two unprotected (open-access) sites around Zanzibar (Tanzania). We assessed the temporal stability of fish density and community structure within and outside MPAs during three monsoon seasons in 2014-2015, and investigated several possible mechanisms that could regulate temporal stability. Our results show that MPAs did not affect fish density and diversity, but that juvenile fish densities were temporally more stable within MPAs. Second, fish community structure was more stable within MPAs for juvenile and adult fish, but not for subadult fish or the total fish community. Third, the observed effects may be due to a combination of direct and indirect (seagrass-mediated) effects of seasonality and, potentially, fluctuating fishing pressure outside MPAs. In summary, these MPAs may not have the ability to enhance fish density and diversity and to buffer effects of monsoon seasonality on the whole fish community. However, they may increase the temporal stability of certain groups, such as juvenile fish. Consequently, our results question whether MPAs play a general role in the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning under changing environmental conditions in tropical seagrass fish communities.

  9. Evaluation of Bernese periacetabular osteotomy: prospective studies examining projected load-bearing area, bone density, cartilage thickness and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechlenburg, Inger

    2008-06-01

    The typical dysplastic hip joint is characterised by maldirection of the acetabulum and femoral neck, insufficient coverage of the femoral head focally and globally and erosions of the limbus acetabuli (1). An unknown number of persons with hip dysplasia will suffer from pain in hip or groin, decreased hip function and development of osteoarthritis at a young age. The Bernese periacetabular osteotomy is performed to prevent osteoarthritis in patients with hip dysplasia and has been carried out at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark since 1996 with more than 500 osteotomies performed. Throughout the years, research and quality improvement of the treatment has taken place and this PhD thesis is part of that process. The aims of this PhD thesis were to evaluate outcome aspects after periacetabular osteotomy in terms of I) estimating the projected loadbearing surface before and after periacetabular osteotomy, II) estimating bone density changes in the acetabulum after periacetabular osteotomy, III) developing a technique to precisely and efficiently estimate the thickness of the articular cartilage in the hip joint and IV) examining the stability of the re-orientated acetabulum after periacetabular osteotomy. In study I, we applied a stereologic method based on 3D computed tomography (CT) to estimate the projected loadbearing surface in six normal hip joints and in six dysplastic hips. The dysplastic hips were CT scanned before and after periacetabular osteotomy. We found that the average area of the projected loadbearing surface of the femoral head preoperatively was 7.4 (range 6.5-8.4) cm2 and postoperatively 11 (9.8-14.3) cm2. The area of the projected loadbearing surface was increased significantly with a mean of 49% (34-70%) postoperatively and thus comparable with the load-bearing surface in the normal control group. Double measurements were performed and the error variance of the mean was estimated to be 1.6%. The effect of overprojection, on the projected

  10. A profile of biomass stove use in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, Myles F; Phillips, Michael J; Thornburg, Vanessa E; Everett, Kibri H; Nandasena, Sumal

    2012-04-01

    A large body of evidence has confirmed that the indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel use is a major cause of premature deaths, and acute and chronic diseases. Over 78% of Sri Lankans use biomass fuel for cooking, the major source of IAP in developing countries. We conducted a review of the available literature and data sources to profile biomass fuel use in Sri Lanka. We also produced two maps (population density and biomass use; and cooking fuel sources by district) to illustrate the problem in a geographical context. The biomass use in Sri Lanka is limited to wood while coal, charcoal, and cow dung are not used. Government data sources indicate poor residents in rural areas are more likely to use biomass fuel. Respiratory diseases, which may have been caused by cooking emissions, are one of the leading causes of hospitalizations and death. The World Health Organization estimated that the number of deaths attributable to IAP in Sri Lanka in 2004 was 4300. Small scale studies have been conducted in-country in an attempt to associate biomass fuel use with cataracts, low birth weight, respiratory diseases and lung cancer. However, the IAP issue has not been broadly researched and is not prominent in Sri Lankan public health policies and programs to date. Our profile of Sri Lanka calls for further analytical studies and new innovative initiatives to inform public health policy, advocacy and program interventions to address the IAP problem of Sri Lanka.

  11. A Profile of Biomass Stove Use in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, Myles F.; Phillips, Michael J.; Thornburg, Vanessa E.; Everett, Kibri H.; Nandasena, Sumal

    2012-01-01

    A large body of evidence has confirmed that the indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel use is a major cause of premature deaths, and acute and chronic diseases. Over 78% of Sri Lankans use biomass fuel for cooking, the major source of IAP in developing countries. We conducted a review of the available literature and data sources to profile biomass fuel use in Sri Lanka. We also produced two maps (population density and biomass use; and cooking fuel sources by district) to illustrate the problem in a geographical context. The biomass use in Sri Lanka is limited to wood while coal, charcoal, and cow dung are not used. Government data sources indicate poor residents in rural areas are more likely to use biomass fuel. Respiratory diseases, which may have been caused by cooking emissions, are one of the leading causes of hospitalizations and death. The World Health Organization estimated that the number of deaths attributable to IAP in Sri Lanka in 2004 was 4300. Small scale studies have been conducted in-country in an attempt to associate biomass fuel use with cataracts, low birth weight, respiratory diseases and lung cancer. However, the IAP issue has not been broadly researched and is not prominent in Sri Lankan public health policies and programs to date. Our profile of Sri Lanka calls for further analytical studies and new innovative initiatives to inform public health policy, advocacy and program interventions to address the IAP problem of Sri Lanka. PMID:22690185

  12. Statistical analysis of the ionospheric ion density recorded by DEMETER in the epicenter areas of earthquakes as well as in their magnetically conjugate point areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Parrot, Michel

    2018-02-01

    Results of a statistical variation of total ion density observed in the vicinity of epicenters as well as around magnetically conjugated points of earthquakes are presented in this paper. Two data sets are used: the ion density measured by DEMETER during about 6.5 years and the list of strong earthquakes (MW ≥ 4.8) occurring globally during this period (14,764 earthquakes in total). First of all, ionospheric perturbations with 23-120 s observation time corresponding to spatial scales of 160-840 km are automatically detected by a software (64,287 anomalies in total). Second, it is checked if a perturbation could be associated either with the epicenter of an earthquake or with its magnetically conjugated point (distance earthquake). The index Kp epicenter areas as well as above their conjugated points. About one third of the earthquakes are detected with ionospheric influence on both sides of the Earth. There is a trend showing that the perturbation length increases as the magnitude of the detected EQs but it is more obvious for large magnitude. The probability that a perturbation appears is higher on the day of the earthquake and then gradually decreases when the time before the earthquake increases. The spatial distribution of perturbations shows that the probability of perturbations appearing southeast of the epicenter before an earthquake is a little bit higher and that there is an obvious trend because perturbations appear west of the conjugated point of an earthquake.

  13. Patterns of biomass allocation between foliage and woody structure: the effects of tree size and specific functional traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvanus Mensah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomass allocation is closely related to species traits, resources availability and competitive abilities, and therefore it is often used to capture resource utilisation within plants. In this study, we searched for patterns in biomass allocation between foliage and wood (stem plus branch, and how they changed with tree size (diameter, species identity and functional traits (leaf area and specific wood density. Using data on the aboveground biomass of 89 trees from six species in a Mistbelt forest (South Africa, we evaluated the leaf to wood mass ratio (LWR. The effects of tree size, species identity and specific traits on LWR were tested using Generalised Linear Models. Tree size (diameter was the main driver of biomass allocation, with 44.43 % of variance explained. As expected, LWR declined significantly with increasing tree diameter. Leaf area (30.17% explained variance and wood density (12.61% explained variance also showed significant effects, after size effect was accounted for. Results also showed clear differences among species and between groups of species. Per unit of wood mass, more biomass is allocated to the foliage in the species with the larger leaf area. Inversely, less biomass is allocated to the foliage in species with higher wood density. Moreover, with increasing diameter, lower wood density species tended to allocate more biomass to foliage and less biomass to stems and branches. Overall, our results emphasise the influence of plant size and functional traits on biomass allocation, but showed that neither tree diameter and species identity nor leaf area and wood density are the only important variables.

  14. Complete knock down (CKD) house made of wood from waste biomass and plastic for disaster struck areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foong, Winson

    2010-01-01

    Despite global efforts and all good intentions to save our forests and eco systems, Mother Earth has witnessed the destruction of some 160,000 square kilometers of forest cover every year from the 1960s right up to the 1990s. The insatiable appetite and unrelenting demand for this fast diminishing commodity by both Mankind and Industry have created vast demand and supply imbalances and with pressures mounting even in the new millennium with global wood consumption reaching 3.8 billion cubic metres by 2010. Thus the quest for alternate materials continues. However, to be successful as a viable alternate to the traditional wood industry, the intending material must be able to build and expand on the current properties and advantages of wood. It should ideally be designed and engineered to yield performance properties superior to that of traditional wood. Fibersit is a high performance fiber composite derived from a revolutionary green technology. The proprietary Fibersit technology involves a method of refining, blending and compounding natural fibers from cellulose waste streams to form a high strength fibre composite material in a polymer matrix. The designated waste or base raw materials used in this instance are those of waste thermoplastics and various categories of cellulose waste including wood. Fibersit has all the structural qualities of wood, handles like wood but is yet stronger and more durable than wood. It can be nailed, screwed, drilled, sawn, milled, processed and finished just like wood. This extended product performance offers unbeatable value for money and broad, flexible on site options. In modern times, many natural disasters have occurred near or in urban areas destroying vast areas of houses and buildings. The need to rebuild society is essential and needs to be carried out in a sustainable manner. This cost often goes into billions and is needed very quickly in order to provide the bare minimum to the victims. In many instances, we have seen

  15. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOVEAL AVASCULAR ZONE AREA, VESSEL DENSITY, AND CYSTOID CHANGES IN DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, AN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarassoly, Kia; Miraftabi, Arezoo; Soltan Sanjari, Mostafa; Parvaresh, Mohammad Mehdi

    2017-06-29

    To measure the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) areas and vessel densities of patients with diabetic retinopathy and to study their relationship with diabetic cystoid changes and retinal thickness. Prospective case series of 51 eyes of 31 patients with diabetic retinopathy. The eyes were grouped based on the presence or absence of cystoid edema and evaluated using optical coherence tomography angiography. The FAZ areas and vessel density were compared. The FAZ area at the superficial capillary plexus level was equal between the eyes with and without cystoid edema. Vessel density did not differ as well. There was no correlation with retinal thickness. In eyes with cystoid changes, FAZ area changes at the deep capillary plexus level were difficult to interpret. The FAZ area and vessel density at the superficial capillary plexus level are reproducible and independent of the presence of cystoid edema.

  16. Hibernation does not reduce cortical bone density, area or second moments of inertia in woodchucks (Marmota monax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Alison H; Frampton, Jason D; Vinyard, Christopher J

    2012-06-01

    Long periods of inactivity in most mammals result in bone loss that may not be completely recoverable during an individual's lifetime regardless of future activity. Prolonged inactivity is normal during hibernation, but it remains uncertain whether hibernating mammals suffer decreased bone properties after hibernation that affects survival. We test the hypothesis that relative cortical area (C(A) ), apparent density, bone area fraction (B.Ar/T.Ar), and moments of inertia do not differ between museum samples of woodchucks (Marmota monax) collected before and after hibernation. We used peripheral quantitative computed tomography to examine bone geometry in the femur, tibia, humerus and mandible. We see little evidence for changes in bone measures with hibernation supporting our hypothesis. In fact, when including subadults to increase sample sizes and controlling age statistically, we observed a trend toward increased bone properties following hibernation. Diaphyses were significantly denser in the humerus, femur, and tibia after hibernation, and relative mandibular cortical area was significantly larger. Similarly, relative mechanical indices were significantly larger in the mandible after hibernation. Although tests of individual measures in many cases were not significantly different prehibernation versus posthibernation, the overall pattern of average increase posthibernation was significant for relative C(A) and densities as well as relative diaphyseal mechanical indices when examining outcomes collectively. The exception to this pattern was a reduction in metaphyseal trabecular bone following hibernation. Individually, only humeral B.Ar/T.Ar was significantly reduced, but the average reduction in trabecular measures post-hibernation was significant when examined collectively. Because the sample included subadults, we suggest that much of the increased bone relates to their continued growth during hibernation. Our results indicate that woodchucks are more

  17. Spatial density of Aedes distribution in urban areas: a case study of breteau index in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, S; Aidil, R M; Nisfariza, M N; Ngui, R; Lim, Y A L; Yusoff, W S Wan; Ruslan, R

    2014-06-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a major vector-borne disease in Malaysia. The incidences of DF in Malaysia are caused by viruses transmitted through the bites of infected female Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. This study aims to establish the spatial density of mosquito population or breteau index (BI) in the areas of Kuala Lumpur using geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing (RS) and spatial statistical tools. The 2010 weekly report data of BI obtained from the Ministry of Health (MoH) and the 2010 monthly rainfall data obtained from Malaysia Meteorological Services Department were analyzed using RS and spatial statistical tools to show the spatial correlation of dengue in each zone in Kuala Lumpur. The Kernel density was implemented to identify the better dengue hotspot localities. RESULTS indicated a strong significant positive relationship between the number of localities with high BI and monthly rainfall (r = 0.64; p = 0.024). In addition, types of landuse did not appear to influence the mosquito's population (Built-up: r = 0.16, p = 0.118; Cleared area: r = - 0.107, p = 0.304; Vegetation dense: r = - 0.206, p = 0.046; Vegetation sparse: r = 0.023, p = 0.823; and Water: r = 0.246, p = 0.016). In the present study, several hotspots identified will be beneficial to assist the local health authorities to reduce and eradicate mosquitoes in these areas. These results will provide valuable information through the application of advanced tools in combating Aedes mosquitoes.

  18. Biomass Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Steve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brunecky, Roman [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lin, Chien-Yuan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Amore, Antonella [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wei, Hui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chen, Xiaowen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tucker, Melvin P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Czernik, Stefan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sluiter, Amie D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Min [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Magrini, Kimberly A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Himmel, Michael E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, John [Formerly NREL; Dayton, David C. [Formerly NREL; Bozell, Joseph J. [Formerly NREL; Adney, William S. [Formerly NREL; Aden, Andy [Formerly NREL; Hames, Bonnie [Formerly NREL; Thomas, Steven R. [Formerly NREL; Bain, Richard L. [Formerly NREL

    2017-08-02

    Biomass constitutes all the plant matter found on our planet, and is produced directly by photosynthesis, the fundamental engine of life on earth. It is the photosynthetic capability of plants to utilize carbon dioxide from the atmosphere that leads to its designation as a 'carbon neutral' fuel, meaning that it does not introduce new carbon into the atmosphere. This article discusses the life cycle assessments of biomass use and the magnitude of energy captured by photosynthesis in the form of biomass on the planet to appraise approaches to tap this energy to meet the ever-growing demand for energy.

  19. Biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, J.; Kristoferson, L.

    1992-01-01

    Bioenergy systems can provide an energy supply that is environmentally sound and sustainable, although, like all energy systems, they have an environmental impact. The impact often depends more on the way the whole system is managed than on the fuel or on the conversion technology. The authors first describe traditional biomass systems: combustion and deforestation; health impact; charcoal conversion; and agricultural residues. A discussion of modern biomass systems follows: biogas; producer gas; alcohol fuels; modern wood fuel resources; and modern biomass combustion. The issue of bioenergy and the environment (land use; air pollution; water; socioeconomic impacts) and a discussion of sustainable bioenergy use complete the paper. 53 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs

  20. Defining optimal DEM resolutions and point densities for modelling hydrologically sensitive areas in agricultural catchments dominated by microtopography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, I. A.; Jordan, P.; Shine, O.; Fenton, O.; Mellander, P.-E.; Dunlop, P.; Murphy, P. N. C.

    2017-02-01

    Defining critical source areas (CSAs) of diffuse pollution in agricultural catchments depends upon the accurate delineation of hydrologically sensitive areas (HSAs) at highest risk of generating surface runoff pathways. In topographically complex landscapes, this delineation is constrained by digital elevation model (DEM) resolution and the influence of microtopographic features. To address this, optimal DEM resolutions and point densities for spatially modelling HSAs were investigated, for onward use in delineating CSAs. The surface runoff framework was modelled using the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) and maps were derived from 0.25 m LiDAR DEMs (40 bare-earth points m-2), resampled 1 m and 2 m LiDAR DEMs, and a radar generated 5 m DEM. Furthermore, the resampled 1 m and 2 m LiDAR DEMs were regenerated with reduced bare-earth point densities (5, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 points m-2) to analyse effects on elevation accuracy and important microtopographic features. Results were compared to surface runoff field observations in two 10 km2 agricultural catchments for evaluation. Analysis showed that the accuracy of modelled HSAs using different thresholds (5%, 10% and 15% of the catchment area with the highest TWI values) was much higher using LiDAR data compared to the 5 m DEM (70-100% and 10-84%, respectively). This was attributed to the DEM capturing microtopographic features such as hedgerow banks, roads, tramlines and open agricultural drains, which acted as topographic barriers or channels that diverted runoff away from the hillslope scale flow direction. Furthermore, the identification of 'breakthrough' and 'delivery' points along runoff pathways where runoff and mobilised pollutants could be potentially transported between fields or delivered to the drainage channel network was much higher using LiDAR data compared to the 5 m DEM (75-100% and 0-100%, respectively). Optimal DEM resolutions of 1-2 m were identified for modelling HSAs, which balanced the need

  1. Excess density compensation of island herpetofaunal assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, G.H.; Dean-Bradley, K.

    2002-01-01

    density was more strongly associated with the degree of species impoverishment on islands than it was on island area or insularity per se. High aggregate biomass density was not strongly associated with latitude, precipitation, canopy height or a variety of other physical characteristics of the study sites. The association between high aggregate biomass density and species-poor islands is consistent with the effects of a reduced suite of predators on depauperate islands, but other features may also contribute to excess density compensation.

  2. Biomass [updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Biomass resources and conversion technologies are diverse. Substantial biomass resources exist including woody crops, herbaceous perennials and annuals, forest resources, agricultural residues, and algae. Conversion processes available include fermentation, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, combustion, and transesterification. Bioderived products include liquid fuels (e.g. ethanol, biodiesel, and gasoline and diesel substitutes), gases, electricity, biochemical, and wood pellets. At present the major sources of biomass-derived liquid fuels are from first generation biofuels; ethanol from maize and sugar cane (89 billion L in 2013) and biodiesel from vegetable oils and fats (24 billion liters in 2011). For other than traditional uses, policy in the forms of mandates, targets, subsidies, and greenhouse gas emission targets has largely been driving biomass utilization. Second generation biofuels have been slow to take off.

  3. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes - this co...

  4. Data analysis of a high-density polyethylene geomembrane located in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martino, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    The Environmental Restoration Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is monitoring the material properties of the High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) cap at Waste Area Grouping 6 for degradation due to exposure to the environment. The material properties of tear resistance, uniaxial yield and break stress, density and carbon black content were within an acceptable range of the minimum average values recommended. The latter three properties did not deteriorate over time when compared to the manufacturer's certificate of analysis. The results of the bent strip test showed failure of all specimens within 170 hours, compared to the recommended time of 1,500 hours without brittle failure recommended by NSF. The Notched Constant Tensile Load test reported transition times of 7 and 8 hours for a passive and active sample of the exposed HDPE liner. The percent crystallinity was found to be within the typical range of 40--60% for 80-mil HDPE; however, samples with high crystallinity, greater than 50%, tend to have poor stress crack performance. This was reinforced by the geomembrane's poor performance in the stress crack resistance tests. As a result of these data, the continued monitoring of the HDPE cap is recommended. Quality control measures must be enacted immediately if a definitive, scientific study is to be conducted that will be beneficial to manufacturers, installers, and users

  5. Increase in Population Density and Aggravation of Social and Psychological Problems in Areas with High-Rise Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova Elena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High-rise apartment houses have technical and economic advantages in areas with dense population. Their placement in the central part of the city allows increasing the number of living space in the limited territory, to bring population to the place of employment and reduce pendular migration. But increase in population density leads to psychological problems: level of a stress, fatigue increases, the number of phobias grows, infectious diseases extend quicker. These problems can be solved at resettlement of inhabitants to the suburb. However such decision leads to aggravation of a transport problem and the pulsing increase in population density in the downtown and on its suburb. To solve a transport problem, it is necessary not to increase the square of the cities. Therefore in the suburbs is also used high-rise construction. But high-rise residential districts on the suburb of the city get own social problems which are capable to destroy all advantages of high-rise construction.

  6. Quality of Shallow Ground Water in Three Areas of Unsewered Low-Density Development in Wyoming and Montana, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Quinn, Thomas L.; Hallberg, Laura L.; Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    The quality of shallow ground water underlying unsewered low-density development outside of Sheridan and Lander, Wyo., and Red Lodge, Mont., was evaluated. In 2001, 29 wells (10 each in Sheridan and Lander and 9 in Red Lodge) were installed at or near the water table and sampled for a wide variety of constituents to identify potential effects of human activities on shallow ground-water quality resulting from development on the land surface. All wells were completed in unconfined aquifers in unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age with shallow water tables (less than 50 feet below land surface). Land use and land cover was mapped in detail within a 500-meter radius surrounding each well, and potential contaminant sources were inventoried within the radii to identify human activities that may affect shallow ground-water quality. This U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment ground-water study was conducted to examine the effects of unsewered low-density development that often surrounds cities and towns of many different sizes in the western United States?a type of development that often is informally referred to as ?exurban? or ?rural ranchette? development. This type of development has both urban and rural characteristics. Residents in these developments typically rely on a private ground-water well for domestic water supply and a private septic system for sanitary waste disposal. Although the quality of shallow ground water generally was suitable for domestic or other uses without treatment, some inorganic constituents were detected infrequently in ground water in the three study areas at concentrations larger than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards or proposed standards. Natural factors such as geology, aquifer properties, and ground-water recharge rates likely influence most concentrations of these constituents. These inorganic constituents generally occur naturally in the study areas and were more likely to limit

  7. Physiological aspects of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) in the Colombian Caribbean: I. Effects of attendant radiation on leaf area and biomass distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarma, A.; Rengifo, T.; Araméndiz-Tatis, H.

    2005-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is one of the Stevia genus' 154 members. The sweetening component of its leaves is due to dipterpene glycosides. The major steviol glycosides are: stevioside, rebaudioside A, rebaudioside C and dulcoside A. This research was carried out at Montería (Colombia); it evaluated the effect of four levels of attendant radiation in the climatic conditions found in the Sinú river valley on the physiological behaviour of S. rebaudiana. A completely random design was used, employing percentage of attendant radiation (19%, 24%, 56% and 100%) and Stevia genotypes ('Morita 1' and 'Morita 2') as factors. The results indicated that the leaf area of 'Morita 2' was always bigger than that of 'Morita 1' and radiation level did not influence this variable. The biggest accumulation of dry mass on leaves returned the highest levels of attendant radiation (100% and 56%). 'Morita 2' was better able to accumulate dry mass than 'Morita 1'. The fact that leaves accumulated more biomass than the stems during the first 60 d after being transplanted showed that plants were working to strengthen their photosynthetic ability during this period. This was followed by a greater migration of substances produced by photosynthesis towards the stems. The tendency stabilised toward both demands at the end of the period being studied [es

  8. EnviroAtlas - Frequency and Density of Candidate Areas for Ecological Restoration by 12-digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the number and density of candidate areas for ecological restoration in each 12-digit HUC. Ecological restoration may become a more...

  9. Assessing the influence of return density on estimation of lidar-based aboveground biomass in tropical peat swamp forests of Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solichin Manuri; Hans-Erik Andersen; Robert J. McGaughey; Cris Brack

    2017-01-01

    The airborne lidar system (ALS) provides a means to efficiently monitor the status of remote tropical forests and continues to be the subject of intense evaluation. However, the cost of ALS acquisition canvary significantly depending on the acquisition parameters, particularly the return density (i.e., spatial resolution) of the lidar point cloud. This study assessed...

  10. 3-D image-based numerical computations of snow permeability: links to specific surface area, density, and microstructural anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Calonne

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We used three-dimensional (3-D images of snow microstructure to carry out numerical estimations of the full tensor of the intrinsic permeability of snow (K. This study was performed on 35 snow samples, spanning a wide range of seasonal snow types. For several snow samples, a significant anisotropy of permeability was detected and is consistent with that observed for the effective thermal conductivity obtained from the same samples. The anisotropy coefficient, defined as the ratio of the vertical over the horizontal components of K, ranges from 0.74 for a sample of decomposing precipitation particles collected in the field to 1.66 for a depth hoar specimen. Because the permeability is related to a characteristic length, we introduced a dimensionless tensor K*=K/res2, where the equivalent sphere radius of ice grains (res is computed from the specific surface area of snow (SSA and the ice densityi as follows: res=3/(SSA×ρi. We define K and K* as the average of the diagonal components of K and K*, respectively. The 35 values of K* were fitted to snow densitys and provide the following regression: K = (3.0 ± 0.3 res2 exp((−0.0130 ± 0.0003ρs. We noted that the anisotropy of permeability does not affect significantly the proposed equation. This regression curve was applied to several independent datasets from the literature and compared to other existing regression curves or analytical models. The results show that it is probably the best currently available simple relationship linking the average value of permeability, K, to snow density and specific surface area.

  11. VT Potential Woody Biomass Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  12. VT Potential Cropland Biomass Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  13. Seasonal and spatial distribution of Bacterioplankton in a fluvial-lagunar system of a tropical region: density, biomass, cellular volume and morphologic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnólia Fernandes Florêncio de Araújo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The temporal and spatial fluctuations of Bacterioplankton in a fluvial-lagunar system of a tropical region (Pitimbu River and Jiqui Lake, RN were studied during the dry and the rainy periods. The bacterial abundance varied from 2.67 to 5.1 Cells10(7mL-1 and did not show a typical temporal variation, presenting only small oscillations between the rainy and the dry periods. The bacterial biomass varied from 123 µgC L-1 to 269 µgC L-1 in the sampling sites and the average cellular volume varied from 0.12 to 0.54µm³, showing a predominance of the rods. The temperature showed a positive correlation with the cellular volume of the rods (R=0.55; p=0.02 and vibrio (R=0.53; p=0.03. Significant spatial differences of biomass (Mann Whitney: p=0.01 and cellular volume of the morphotypes (Mann Whitney: p=0.003 were found between the sampling sites. The strong positive correlations of the water temperature and oxygen with bacterioplankton showed a probable high bacterial activity in this system.A variação temporal e espacial do bacterioplâncton em um sistema fluvial-lagunar de região tropical foi estudada em períodos seco e chuvoso. As médias da abundância bacteriana variaram de 2,67 a 5,1 x 10(7 e não exibiram uma variação temporal marcante, tendo apresentado apenas pequenas oscilações entre os períodos chuvoso e seco. A biomassa bacteriana variou de 123 µg C L-1 a 269 µg C L-1 entre os locais de coleta e o volume celular médio de 0,12µm³ a 0,54µm³, ocorrendo predominância de bacilos. A temperatura mostrou correlação positiva com o volume celular de bacilos (R=0,55; p=0,02 e de vibriões (R=0,53; p=0,03. Foram encontradas diferenças espaciais significativas de biomassa (Mann Whitney: p=0,01 e volume celular dos morfotipos (Mann Whitney: p= 0,003, entre os locais de coleta. As fortes correlações positivas da temperatura da água e do oxigênio, com o bacterioplâncton, são sugestivas de uma provavelmente elevada atividade

  14. Tree mortality across biomes is promoted by drought intensity, lower wood density and higher specific leaf area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Sarah; Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Martinez-Vilalta, Jordi; Lloret, Francisco; Kitzberger, Thomas; Allen, Craig D.; Fensham, Rod; Laughlin, Daniel C.; Kattge, Jens; Bönisch, Gerhard; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Jump, Alistair S.

    2017-01-01

    Drought events are increasing globally, and reports of consequent forest mortality are widespread. However, due to a lack of a quantitative global synthesis, it is still not clear whether drought-induced mortality rates differ among global biomes and whether functional traits influence the risk of drought-induced mortality. To address these uncertainties, we performed a global meta-analysis of 58 studies of drought-induced forest mortality. Mortality rates were modelled as a function of drought, temperature, biomes, phylogenetic and functional groups and functional traits. We identified a consistent global-scale response, where mortality increased with drought severity [log mortality (trees trees−1 year−1) increased 0.46 (95% CI = 0.2–0.7) with one SPEI unit drought intensity]. We found no significant differences in the magnitude of the response depending on forest biomes or between angiosperms and gymnosperms or evergreen and deciduous tree species. Functional traits explained some of the variation in drought responses between species (i.e. increased from 30 to 37% when wood density and specific leaf area were included). Tree species with denser wood and lower specific leaf area showed lower mortality responses. Our results illustrate the value of functional traits for understanding patterns of drought-induced tree mortality and suggest that mortality could become increasingly widespread in the future.

  15. Tree mortality across biomes is promoted by drought intensity, lower wood density and higher specific leaf area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Sarah; Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Lloret, Francisco; Kitzberger, Thomas; Allen, Craig D; Fensham, Rod; Laughlin, Daniel C; Kattge, Jens; Bönisch, Gerhard; Kraft, Nathan J B; Jump, Alistair S

    2017-04-01

    Drought events are increasing globally, and reports of consequent forest mortality are widespread. However, due to a lack of a quantitative global synthesis, it is still not clear whether drought-induced mortality rates differ among global biomes and whether functional traits influence the risk of drought-induced mortality. To address these uncertainties, we performed a global meta-analysis of 58 studies of drought-induced forest mortality. Mortality rates were modelled as a function of drought, temperature, biomes, phylogenetic and functional groups and functional traits. We identified a consistent global-scale response, where mortality increased with drought severity [log mortality (trees trees -1  year -1 ) increased 0.46 (95% CI = 0.2-0.7) with one SPEI unit drought intensity]. We found no significant differences in the magnitude of the response depending on forest biomes or between angiosperms and gymnosperms or evergreen and deciduous tree species. Functional traits explained some of the variation in drought responses between species (i.e. increased from 30 to 37% when wood density and specific leaf area were included). Tree species with denser wood and lower specific leaf area showed lower mortality responses. Our results illustrate the value of functional traits for understanding patterns of drought-induced tree mortality and suggest that mortality could become increasingly widespread in the future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  16. Nanoparticle manipulation in the near-substrate areas of low-temperature, high-density rf plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkevych, P.P.; Ostrikov, K.; Xu, S.

    2005-01-01

    Manipulation of a single nanoparticle in the near-substrate areas of high-density plasmas of low-temperature glow discharges is studied. It is shown that the nanoparticles can be efficiently manipulated by the thermophoretic force controlled by external heating of the substrate stage. Particle deposition onto or repulsion from nanostructured carbon surfaces critically depends on the values of the neutral gas temperature gradient in the near-substrate areas, which is directly measured in situ in different heating regimes by originally developed temperature gradient probe. The measured values of the near-surface temperature gradient are used in the numerical model of nanoparticle dynamics in a variable-length presheath. Specific conditions enabling the nanoparticle to overcome the repulsive potential and deposit on the substrate during the discharge operation are investigated. The results are relevant to fabrication of various nanostructured films employing structural incorporation of the plasma-grown nanoparticles, in particular, to nanoparticle deposition in the plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition of carbon nanostructures in hydrocarbon-based plasmas

  17. Seasonal dynamics in the relative density of aquatic flora along some coastal areas of the Red Sea, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Ali Ansari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants are the producers of all autotrophic ecosystems’ and are the base of the food chain taking energy from the sun and converting it into food for all other organisms through photosynthesis. Plants grow in certain places and seasons when the environmental factors are suitable for their germination, growth and developments that influence their diversity. Environmental factors can include abiotic factors such as temperature, light, moisture, soil nutrients; or biotic factors like competition from other plants or grazing by animals. Anthropogenic perturbations can also influence distribution patterns. Monitoring of ecological habitats and diversity of some aquatic flora along some coastal areas of Red Sea has been done to understand the dynamics of aquatic plants influenced by prevailing environmental and anthropogenic perturbations The results of this research showed that the summer season is the most suitable period for the study of aquatic plant diversity along the coastal sites of Red Sea. The aquatic flora had high relative density and diversity in April, May, June and July and these four months of the summer season are best for collection of aquatic plants from the selected coastal areas of Red Sea for medicinal purposes and ecological studies.

  18. Residue distribution and biomass recovery following biomass harvest of plantation pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnny Grace III; John Klepac; S. Taylor; Dana Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Forest biomass is anticipated to play a significant role in addressing an alternative energy supply. However, the efficiencies of current state-of-the-art recovery systems operating in forest biomass harvests are still relatively unknown. Forest biomass harvest stands typically have higher stand densities and smaller diameter trees than conventional stands which may...

  19. Role of disc area and trabecular bone density on lumbar spinal column fracture risk curves under vertical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Moore, Jason; Pintar, Frank A; Banerjee, Anjishnu; DeVogel, Nicholas; Zhang, JiangYue

    2018-04-27

    While studies have been conducted using human cadaver lumbar spines to understand injury biomechanics in terms of stability/energy to fracture, and physiological responses under pure-moment/follower loads, data are sparse for inferior-to-superior impacts. Injuries occur under this mode from underbody blasts. determine role of age, disc area, and trabecular bone density on tolerances/risk curves under vertical loading from a controlled group of specimens. T12-S1 columns were obtained, pretest X-rays and CTs taken, load cells attached to both ends, impacts applied at S1-end using custom vertical accelerator device, and posttest X-ray, CT, and dissections done. BMD of L2-L4 vertebrae were obtained from QCT. Survival analysis-based Human Injury Probability Curves (HIPCs) were derived using proximal and distal forces. Age, area, and BMD were covariates. Forces were considered uncensored, representing the load carrying capacity. The Akaike Information Criterion was used to determine optimal distributions. The mean forces, ±95% confidence intervals, and Normalized Confidence Interval Size (NCIS) were computed. The Lognormal distribution was the optimal function for both forces. Age, area, and BMD were not significant (p > 0.05) covariates for distal forces, while only BMD was significant for proximal forces. The NCIS was the lowest for force-BMD covariate HIPC. The HIPCs for both genders at 35 and 45 years were based on population BMDs. These HIPCs serve as human tolerance criteria for automotive, military, and other applications. In this controlled group of samples, BMD is a better predictor-covariate that characterizes lumbar column injury under inferior-to-superior impacts. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Voxel-based morphometry reveals increased gray matter density in Broca's area in male symphony orchestra musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluming, Vanessa; Barrick, Thomas; Howard, Matthew; Cezayirli, Enis; Mayes, Andrew; Roberts, Neil

    2002-11-01

    Broca's area is a major neuroanatomical substrate for spoken language and various musically relevant abilities, including visuospatial and audiospatial localization. Sight reading is a musician-specific visuospatial analysis task, and spatial ability is known to be amenable to training effects. Musicians have been reported to perform significantly better than nonmusicians on spatial ability tests, which is supported by our findings with the Benton judgement of line orientation (JOL) test (P musicians. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and stereological analyses were applied to high-resolution 3D MR images in male orchestral musicians (n = 26) and sex, handedness, and IQ-matched nonmusicians (n = 26). The wide age range (26 to 66 years) of volunteers permitted a secondary analysis of age-related effects. VBM with small volume correction (SVC) revealed a significant (P = 0.002) region of increased gray matter in Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus in musicians. We observed significant age-related volume reductions in cerebral hemispheres, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex subfields bilaterally and gray matter density in the left inferior frontal gyrus in controls but not musicians; a positive correlation between JOL test score and age in musicians but not controls; a positive correlation between years of playing and the volume of gray matter in a significant region identified by VBM in under-50-year-old musicians. We suggest that orchestral musical performance promotes use-dependent retention, and possibly expansion, of gray matter involving Broca's area and that this provides further support for shared neural substrates underpinning expressive output in music and language.

  1. Seasonal and spatial variability of appendicularian density and taxonomic composition in the Caravelas Estuary (Northeastern Brazil and adjacent coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Freitas de Carvalho

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify and assess the seasonal and spatial variations of the appendicularians in the Caravelas River estuary and the adjacent coastal area. Samples were taken during 12 campaigns over five years (2001 and 2003-2006. Ten species were identified; the most abundant were Oikopleura dioica, Oikopleura rufescens, and Oikopleura longicauda. These species represented more than 95% of the total numbers of appendicularians. The remaining species were less frequent and occurred in low densities. The mean density of appendicularians found at the coastal stations (804 ind.m-3. was higher than in the estuary (66 ind.m-3. However, the differences observed between the estuary and coastal stations were not significant (p=0.54. The samples taken during the dry season showed a higher mean density (587 ind.m-3 than in the rainy season (376 ind.m-3, and the differences between the seasons were statistically significant (p=0.004.Esse trabalho teve como objetivo identificar e avaliar as variações espaciais e sazonais das apendiculárias no estuário do rio Caravelas e área costeira adjacente (17º35' - 18º22' S e 39º8' - 39º55'W. As coletas foram realizadas em 12 campanhas durante cinco anos (2001 e 2003 - 2006. Foram identificadas dez espécies, sendo que Oikopleura dioica, O. rufescens e O. longicauda foram as mais abundantes. Estas três espécies representaram mais de 95% do total de apendiculárias coletadas. As outras espécies foram menos freqüentes e ocorreram em baixas densidades. A densidade média de apendiculárias encontrada nas estações e costeiras (804 ind.m-3 foi maior que na de estuário (158 ind.m-3. As diferenças encontradas entre as estações de estuário e costeiras não foram significativas (p=0,73. As campanhas realizadas durante o período seco apresentaram densidade média (587 ind.m-3 maior que do período chuvoso (376 ind.m-3. As diferenças entre os períodos chuvoso e seco foram estatisticamente

  2. Biomass energy resource enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    The demand for energy in developing countries is expected to increase to at least three times its present level within the next 25 years. If this demand is to be met by fossil fuels, an additional 2 billion tonnes of crude oil or 3 billion tonnes of coal would be needed every year. This consumption pattern, if allowed to proceed, would add 10 billion tonnes of CO 2 , to the global atmosphere each year, with its attendant risk of global warming. Therefore, just for our survival, it is imperative to progressively replace fossil fuels by biomass energy resources and to enhance the efficiency of use of the latter. Biomass is not only environmentally benign but is also abundant. It is being photosynthesised at the rate of 200 billion tonnes of carbon every year, which is equivalent to 10 times the world's present demand for energy. Presently, biomass energy resources are highly under-utilised in developing countries; when they are used it is through combustion, which is inefficient and causes widespread environmental pollution with its associated health hazards. Owing to the low bulk density and high moisture content of biomass, which make it difficult to collect, transport and store, as well as its ash-related thermochemical properties, its biodegradability and seasonal availability, the industrial use of biomass is limited to small and (some) medium-scale industries, most of which are unable to afford efficient but often costly energy conversion systems. Considering these constraints and the need to enhance the use base, biomass energy technologies appropriate to developing countries have been identified. Technologies such as briquetting and densification to upgrade biomass fuels are being adopted as conventional measures in some developing countries. The biomass energy base can be enhanced only once these technologies have been shown to be viable under local conditions and with local raw materials, after which they will multiply on their own, as has been the case

  3. Towards ground-truthing of spaceborne estimates of above-ground life biomass and leaf area index in tropical rain forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Köhler

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The canopy height h of forests is a key variable which can be obtained using air- or spaceborne remote sensing techniques such as radar interferometry or LIDAR. If new allometric relationships between canopy height and the biomass stored in the vegetation can be established this would offer the possibility for a global monitoring of the above-ground carbon content on land. In the absence of adequate field data we use simulation results of a tropical rain forest growth model to propose what degree of information might be generated from canopy height and thus to enable ground-truthing of potential future satellite observations. We here analyse the correlation between canopy height in a tropical rain forest with other structural characteristics, such as above-ground life biomass (AGB (and thus carbon content of vegetation and leaf area index (LAI and identify how correlation and uncertainty vary for two different spatial scales. The process-based forest growth model FORMIND2.0 was applied to simulate (a undisturbed forest growth and (b a wide range of possible disturbance regimes typically for local tree logging conditions for a tropical rain forest site on Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia in South-East Asia. In both undisturbed and disturbed forests AGB can be expressed as a power-law function of canopy height h (AGB = a · hb with an r2 ~ 60% if data are analysed in a spatial resolution of 20 m × 20 m (0.04 ha, also called plot size. The correlation coefficient of the regression is becoming significant better in the disturbed forest sites (r2 = 91% if data are analysed hectare wide. There seems to exist no functional dependency between LAI and canopy height, but there is also a linear correlation (r2 ~ 60% between AGB and the area fraction of gaps in which the canopy is highly disturbed. A reasonable agreement of our results with observations is obtained from a

  4. Biomass IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, K.; Keraenen, H. [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Enviropower Inc. is developing a modern power plant concept based on pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC). The process is capable of maximising the electricity production with a variety of solid fuels - different biomass and coal types - mixed or separately. The development work is conducted on many levels. These and demonstration efforts are highlighted in this article. The feasibility of a pressurised gasification based processes compared to competing technologies in different applications is discussed. The potential of power production from biomass is also reviewed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  5. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project ''Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory

  6. Axial Length Variation Impacts on Superficial Retinal Vessel Density and Foveal Avascular Zone Area Measurements Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Danuta M; Gong, Peijun; An, Di; Menghini, Moreno; Hansen, Alex; Mackey, David A; Sampson, David D; Chen, Fred K

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of image magnification correction on superficial retinal vessel density (SRVD) and foveal avascular zone area (FAZA) measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Participants with healthy retinas were recruited for ocular biometry, refraction, and RTVue XR Avanti OCTA imaging with the 3 × 3-mm protocol. The foveal and parafoveal SRVD and FAZA were quantified with custom software before and after correction for magnification error using the Littman and the modified Bennett formulae. Relative changes between corrected and uncorrected SRVD and FAZA were calculated. Forty subjects were enrolled and the median (range) age of the participants was 30 (18-74) years. The mean (range) spherical equivalent refractive error was -1.65 (-8.00 to +4.88) diopters and mean (range) axial length was 24.42 mm (21.27-28.85). Images from 13 eyes were excluded due to poor image quality leaving 67 for analysis. Relative changes in foveal and parafoveal SRVD and FAZA after correction ranged from -20% to +10%, -3% to +2%, and -20% to +51%, respectively. Image size correction in measurements of foveal SRVD and FAZA was greater than 5% in 51% and 74% of eyes, respectively. In contrast, 100% of eyes had less than 5% correction in measurements of parafoveal SRVD. Ocular biometry should be performed with OCTA to correct image magnification error induced by axial length variation. We advise caution when interpreting interocular and interindividual comparisons of SRVD and FAZA derived from OCTA without image size correction.

  7. High differentiation among eight villages in a secluded area of Sardinia revealed by genome-wide high density SNPs analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Pistis

    Full Text Available To better design association studies for complex traits in isolated populations it's important to understand how history and isolation moulded the genetic features of different communities. Population isolates should not "a priori" be considered homogeneous, even if the communities are not distant and part of a small region. We studied a particular area of Sardinia called Ogliastra, characterized by the presence of several distinct villages that display different history, immigration events and population size. Cultural and geographic isolation characterized the history of these communities. We determined LD parameters in 8 villages and defined population structure through high density SNPs (about 360 K on 360 unrelated people (45 selected samples from each village. These isolates showed differences in LD values and LD map length. Five of these villages show high LD values probably due to their reduced population size and extreme isolation. High genetic differentiation among villages was detected. Moreover population structure analysis revealed a high correlation between genetic and geographic distances. Our study indicates that history, geography and biodemography have influenced the genetic features of Ogliastra communities producing differences in LD and population structure. All these data demonstrate that we can consider each village an isolate with specific characteristics. We suggest that, in order to optimize the study design of complex traits, a thorough characterization of genetic features is useful to identify the presence of sub-populations and stratification within genetic isolates.

  8. Voxel tree modeling for estimating leaf area density and woody material volume using 3-D LIDAR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hosoi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the main focus is on voxel tree modeling using 3-D lidar data for accurate leaf area density (LAD and woody material volume estimation. For more accurate LAD estimation, the voxel model was constructed by combining airborne and portable ground-based lidar data. The profiles obtained by the two types of lidar complemented each other, thus eliminating blind regions and yielding more accurate LAD profiles than could be obtained by using each type of lidar alone. Parts of the LAD profiles that were underestimated even when data from both lidars were combined were interpolated by using a Gaussian function, yielding improved results. A laser beam coverage index, Ω, incorporating the lidar's laser beam settings and a laser beam attenuation factor, was proposed. This index showed general applicability to explain the LAD estimation error for LAD measurements using different types of lidars. In addition, we proposed a method for accurate woody material volume estimation based on a 3-D voxel-based solid modeling of the tree from portable scanning lidar data. The solid model was composed of consecutive voxels that filled the outer surface and the interior of the stem and large branches. By using the model, the woody material volume of not only the whole target tree but also of any part of the target tree can be directly calculated easily and accurately by counting the number of corresponding voxels and multiplying the result by the per-voxel volume.

  9. Evaluating the Impact of Spatial Resolution of Landsat Predictors on the Accuracy of Biomass Models for Large-area Estimation Across the Eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, R. K.; Domke, G. M.; Russell, M.; Woodall, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    Landsat data have been widely used to support strategic forest inventory and management decisions despite the limited success of passive optical remote sensing for accurate estimation of aboveground biomass (AGB). The archive of publicly available Landsat data, available at 30-m spatial resolutions since 1984, has been a valuable resource for cost-effective large-area estimation of AGB to inform national requirements such as for the US national greenhouse gas inventory (NGHGI). In addition, other optical satellite data such as MODIS imagery of wider spatial coverage and higher temporal resolution are enriching the domain of spatial predictors for regional scale mapping of AGB. Because NGHGIs require national scale AGB information and there are tradeoffs in the prediction accuracy versus operational efficiency of Landsat, this study evaluated the impact of various resolutions of Landsat predictors on the accuracy of regional AGB models across three different sites in the eastern USA: Maine, Pennsylvania-New Jersey, and South Carolina. We used recent national forest inventory (NFI) data with numerous Landsat-derived predictors at ten different spatial resolutions ranging from 30 to 1000 m to understand the optimal spatial resolution of the optical data for enhanced spatial inventory of AGB for NGHGI reporting. Ten generic spatial models at different spatial resolutions were developed for all sites and large-area estimates were evaluated (i) at the county-level against the independent designed-based estimates via the US NFI Evalidator tool and (ii) within a large number of strips ( 1 km wide) predicted via LiDAR metrics at a high spatial resolution. The county-level estimates by the Evalidator and Landsat models were statistically equivalent and produced coefficients of determination (R2) above 0.85 that varied with sites and resolution of predictors. The mean and standard deviation of county-level estimates followed increasing and decreasing trends, respectively

  10. [Seasonal fluctuation of soil microbial biomass carbon in secondary oak forest and Pinus taeda plantation in north subtropical area of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-bing; Ruan, Hong-hua; Tang, Yan-fei; Luan, Yi-ling; Chen, Yue-qin; Tao, Zhong-fang

    2008-01-01

    With random block experimental design, the soil microbial biomass carbon, soil temperature, soil moisture, and litterfall input in secondary oak forest and Pinus taeda plantation were measured in successive two years at the Xiashu Experimental Forest of Nanjing Forestry University. The results showed that in the two stands, soil microbial biomass carbon had an obvious seasonal fluctuation, being lower in plant vigorous growth season but higher during plant dormancy. The microbial biomass carbon in 0-10 cm soil layer ranged from 267.8 mg x kg(-1) to 459.8 mg x kg(-1) in P. taeda plantation and from 278.6 mg x kg(-1) to 467.8 mg x kg(-1) in secondary oak forest. Soil microbial biomass carbon had a significant negative correlation with soil temperature, but no significant correlations with soil moisture and litterfall input. It was suggested that the seasonal fluctuation of soil microbial biomass carbon in test stands could be more related to the availability of soil carbon and other nutrients, competition of plant roots for soil nutrients, and plant growth rhythm.

  11. Estimating population density for disease risk assessment: The importance of understanding the area of influence of traps using wild pigs as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Amy J; Leland, Bruce; Bodenchuk, Michael; VerCauteren, Kurt C; Pepin, Kim M

    2017-06-01

    Population density is a key driver of disease dynamics in wildlife populations. Accurate disease risk assessment and determination of management impacts on wildlife populations requires an ability to estimate population density alongside management actions. A common management technique for controlling wildlife populations to monitor and mitigate disease transmission risk is trapping (e.g., box traps, corral traps, drop nets). Although abundance can be estimated from trapping actions using a variety of analytical approaches, inference is limited by the spatial extent to which a trap attracts animals on the landscape. If the "area of influence" were known, abundance estimates could be converted to densities. In addition to being an important predictor of contact rate and thus disease spread, density is more informative because it is comparable across sites of different sizes. The goal of our study is to demonstrate the importance of determining the area sampled by traps (area of influence) so that density can be estimated from management-based trapping designs which do not employ a trapping grid. To provide one example of how area of influence could be calculated alongside management, we conducted a small pilot study on wild pigs (Sus scrofa) using two removal methods 1) trapping followed by 2) aerial gunning, at three sites in northeast Texas in 2015. We estimated abundance from trapping data with a removal model. We calculated empirical densities as aerial counts divided by the area searched by air (based on aerial flight tracks). We inferred the area of influence of traps by assuming consistent densities across the larger spatial scale and then solving for area impacted by the traps. Based on our pilot study we estimated the area of influence for corral traps in late summer in Texas to be ∼8.6km 2 . Future work showing the effects of behavioral and environmental factors on area of influence will help mangers obtain estimates of density from management data, and

  12. Forest biomass and tree planting for fossil fuel offsets in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike A. Battaglia; Kellen Nelson; Dan Kashian; Michael G. Ryan

    2010-01-01

    This study estimates the amount of carbon available for removal in fuel reduction and reforestation treatments in montane forests of the Colorado Front Range based on site productivity, pre-treatment basal area, and planting density. Thinning dense stands will yield the greatest offsets for biomass fuel. However, this will also yield the greatest carbon losses, if the...

  13. The relative contributions of forest growth and areal expansion to forest biomass carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Li; J. Zhu; H. Hu; Z. Guo; Y. Pan; R. Birdsey; J. Fang

    2016-01-01

    Forests play a leading role in regional and global terrestrial carbon (C) cycles. Changes in C sequestration within forests can be attributed to areal expansion (increase in forest area) and forest growth (increase in biomass density). Detailed assessment of the relative contributions of areal expansion and forest growth to C sinks is crucial to reveal the mechanisms...

  14. Root biomass along subtropical to alpine gradients: global implication from Tibetan transect studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianxiang Luo; Sandra Brown; Yude Pan; Peili Shi; Hua Ouyang; Zhenliang Yu; Huazhong Zhu

    2005-01-01

    Much uncertainty in estimating root biomass density (RBD, root mass per unit area) of all roots regionally exists because of methodological difficulties and little knowledge about the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on the magnitude and distribution pattern of RBD. In this study, we collected field data of RBD from 22 sites along the Tibetan Alpine Vegetation...

  15. Do shorebirds graze down zoobenthic biomass at the Banc d'Arguin tidal flats in Mauritania?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, Wim J.; Michaelis, Hermann

    2008-01-01

    The 500 km(2) of tidal flats at the Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania, are a wintering site for over 2 million shorebirds, making this one of the areas with the highest density of shorebirds in the world. In earlier studies, it was found that these huge numbers of birds are dependent on a rather low biomass

  16. Quantification of elemental area densities in multiple metal layers (Au/Ni/Cu) on a Cr-coated quartz glass substrate for certification of NMIJ CRM 5208-a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariga, Tomoko; Zhu, Yanbei; Ito, Mika; Takatsuka, Toshiko; Terauchi, Shinya; Kurokawa, Akira; Inagaki, Kazumi

    2018-04-01

    Area densities of Au/Ni/Cu layers on a Cr-coated quartz substrate were characterized to certify a multiple-metal-layer certified reference material (NMIJ CRM5208-a) that is intended for use in the analysis of the layer area density and the thickness by an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The area densities of Au/Ni/Cu layers were calculated from layer mass amounts and area. The layer mass amounts were determined by using wet chemical analyses, namely inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), isotope-dilution (ID-) ICP-MS, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after dissolving the layers with diluted mixture of HCl and HNO 3 (1:1, v/v). Analytical results of the layer mass amounts obtained by the methods agreed well with each another within their uncertainty ranges. The area of the layer was determined by using a high-resolution optical scanner calibrated by Japan Calibration Service System (JCSS) standard scales. The property values of area density were 1.84 ± 0.05 μg/mm 2 for Au, 8.69 ± 0.17 μg/mm 2 for Ni, and 8.80 ± 0.14 μg/mm 2 for Cu (mean ± expanded uncertainty, coverage factor k = 2). In order to assess the reliability of these values, the density of each metal layer calculated from the property values of the area density and layer thickness measured by using a scanning electron microscope were compared with available literature values and good agreement between the observed values and values obtained in previous studies.

  17. Uncertainties in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Advanced Biomass Feedstock Logistics Supply Chains in Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Nguyen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To meet Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA cellulosic biofuel mandates, the United States will require an annual domestic supply of about 242 million Mg of biomass by 2022. To improve the feedstock logistics of lignocellulosic biofuels in order to access available biomass resources from areas with varying yields, commodity systems have been proposed and designed to deliver quality-controlled biomass feedstocks at preprocessing “depots”. Preprocessing depots densify and stabilize the biomass prior to long-distance transport and delivery to centralized biorefineries. The logistics of biomass commodity supply chains could introduce spatially variable environmental impacts into the biofuel life cycle due to needing to harvest, move, and preprocess biomass from multiple distances that have variable spatial density. This study examines the uncertainty in greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of corn stover logistics within a bio-ethanol supply chain in the state of Kansas, where sustainable biomass supply varies spatially. Two scenarios were evaluated each having a different number of depots of varying capacity and location within Kansas relative to a central commodity-receiving biorefinery to test GHG emissions uncertainty. The first scenario sited four preprocessing depots evenly across the state of Kansas but within the vicinity of counties having high biomass supply density. The second scenario located five depots based on the shortest depot-to-biorefinery rail distance and biomass availability. The logistics supply chain consists of corn stover harvest, collection and storage, feedstock transport from field to biomass preprocessing depot, preprocessing depot operations, and commodity transport from the biomass preprocessing depot to the biorefinery. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the spatial uncertainty in the feedstock logistics gate-to-gate sequence. Within the logistics supply chain GHG emissions are most sensitive to the

  18. Welfare of organic laying hens kept at different indoor stocking densities in a multi-tier aviary system. I: egg laying, and use of veranda and outdoor area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte L.

    2015-01-01

    on egg production, laying behaviour and use of veranda and outdoor area are reported for organic laying hens housed in a multi-tier system with permanent access to a veranda and kept at stocking densities (D) of 6, 9 and 12 hens/m2 available floor area, with concomitant increases in the number of hens......Multi-tier aviary systems are becoming more common in organic egg production. The area on the tiers can be included in the net area available to the hens (also referred to as usable area) when calculating maximum indoor stocking densities in organic systems within the EU. In this article, results...... of organic laying hens. Laying percentage was significantly lower (Playing...

  19. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  20. Infant who had chorea-athetotic movement and psychomotor deterioration associated with the low density area in the bilateral cerebral basal ganglia on CT. Comparison with analogous diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tojo, Megumu; Matsui, Akira; Sakuragawa, Norio; Hirayama, Yoshito; Arima, Masataka

    1984-10-01

    A 6-year-old girl with convulsive tetraplegia and chorea-athetotic movement was reported. Since the age of one year, psychomotor retardation had begun to occur and CT showed a low density area in the putamen. At the age of 3 years and 6 months, psychomotor deterioration occurred subsequently to varicella. An abnormality in carbohydrate metabolism was suspected because of a slightly increased lactic acid and pyruvic acid. Because CT showed a low density area in the cerebral basal ganglia, juvenile Lee's encephalopathy and striatal necrosis remained to be ruled out. (Namekawa, K.).

  1. An infant who had chorea-athetotic movement and psychomotor deterioration associated with the low density area in the bilateral cerebral basal ganglia on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tojo, Megumu; Matsui, Akira; Sakuragawa, Norio; Hirayama, Yoshito; Arima, Masataka

    1984-01-01

    A 6-year-old girl with convulsive tetraplegia and chorea-athetotic movement was reported. Since the age of one year, psychomotor retardation had begun to occur and CT showed a low density area in the putamen. At the age of 3 years and 6 months, psychomotor deterioration occurred subsequently to varicella. An abnormality in carbohydrate metabolism was suspected because of a slightly increased lactic acid and pyruvic acid. Because CT showed a low density area in the cerebral basal ganglia, juvenile Lee's encephalopathy and striatal necrosis remained to be ruled out. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Biomass Supply Chain and Conversion Economics of Cellulosic Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ronalds W.

    2011-12-01

    Cellulosic biomass is a potential and competitive source for bioenergy production, reasons for such acclamation include: biomass is one the few energy sources that can actually be utilized to produce several types of energy (motor fuel, electricity, heat) and cellulosic biomass is renewable and relatively found everywhere. Despite these positive advantages, issues regarding cellulosic biomass availability, supply chain, conversion process and economics need a more comprehensive understanding in order to identify the near short term routes in biomass to bioenergy production. Cellulosic biomass accounts for around 35% to 45% of cost share in cellulosic ethanol production, in addition, different feedstock have very different production rate, (dry ton/acre/year), availability across the year, and chemical composition that affect process yield and conversion costs as well. In the other hand, existing and brand new conversion technologies for cellulosic ethanol production offer different advantages, risks and financial returns. Ethanol yield, financial returns, delivered cost and supply chain logistic for combinations of feedstock and conversion technology are investigated in six studies. In the first study, biomass productivity, supply chain and delivered cost of fast growing Eucalyptus is simulated in economic and supply chain models to supply a hypothetic ethanol biorefinery. Finding suggests that Eucalyptus can be a potential hardwood grown specifically for energy. Delivered cost is highly sensitive to biomass productivity, percentage of covered area. Evaluated at different financial expectations, delivered cost can be competitive compared to current forest feedstock supply. In the second study, Eucalyptus biomass conversion into cellulosic ethanol is simulated in the dilute acid pretreatment, analysis of conversion costs, cost share, CAPEX and ethanol yield are examined. In the third study, biomass supply and delivered cost of loblolly pine is simulated in economic

  3. Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi biomass distribution, fire regime and post-fire recovery in northeastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Mack

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and land-use activities are increasing fire activity across much of the Siberian boreal forest, yet the climate feedbacks from forest disturbances remain difficult to quantify due to limited information on forest biomass distribution, disturbance regimes and post-disturbance ecosystem recovery. Our primary objective here was to analyse post-fire accumulation of Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr. aboveground biomass for a 100 000 km2 area of open forest in far northeastern Siberia. In addition to examining effects of fire size and topography on post-fire larch aboveground biomass, we assessed regional fire rotation and density, as well as performance of burned area maps generated from MODIS satellite imagery. Using Landsat imagery, we mapped 116 fire scar perimeters that dated c. 1966–2007. We then mapped larch aboveground biomass by linking field biomass measurements to tree shadows mapped synergistically from WorldView-1 and Landsat 5 satellite imagery. Larch aboveground biomass tended to be low during early succession (≤ 25 yr, 271 ± 26 g m−2, n = 66 [mean ± SE] and decreased with increasing elevation and northwardly aspect. Larch aboveground biomass tended to be higher during mid-succession (33–38 yr, 746 ± 100 g m−2, n = 32, though was highly variable. The high variability was not associated with topography and potentially reflected differences in post-fire density of tree regrowth. Neither fire size nor latitude were significant predictors of post-fire larch aboveground biomass. Fire activity was considerably higher in the Kolyma Mountains (fire rotation = 110 yr, fire density = 1.0 ± 1.0 fires yr−1 × 104 km−2 than along the forest-tundra border (fire rotation = 792 yr, fire density = 0.3 ± 0.3 fires yr−1 × 104 km−2. The MODIS burned area maps underestimated the total area burned in this region from 2000–2007 by 40%. Tree shadows mapped jointly using high and medium resolution satellite imagery

  4. Fusion characterization of biomass ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Teng; Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang

    2016-01-01

    The ash fusion characteristics are important parameters for thermochemical utilization of biomass. In this research, a method for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash by Thermo-mechanical Analyzer, TMA, is described. The typical TMA shrinking ratio curve can be divided into two...... stages, which are closely related to ash melting behaviors. Several characteristics temperatures based on the TMA curves are used to assess the ash fusion characteristics. A new characteristics temperature, Tm, is proposed to represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. The fusion...... characteristics of six types of biomass ash have been measured by TMA. Compared with standard ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) test, TMA is more suitable for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. The glassy molten areas of the ash samples are sticky and mainly consist of K-Ca-silicates....

  5. Biomassa radicular, densidade do solo e análise química do solo de um povoamento de Pinus sp. / Root biomass, soil density and soil chemical analysis in a Pinus sp. plantition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Luiz Selle

    2010-04-01

    species. The fine roots (minor 2 mm are main responsible ones for absorption of the nutrients necessary for the development and growth of the plant. The Pinus species has become more important in recent years dueto its adaptability to the local different conditions as well as the great versatility of its wood and other products for commercialization. The present study aimed at quantifying the biomass of fine roots and analyzing some parameters of the soil in a settlement of Pinus sp. Planted in the Federal University of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. The biomass of roots and soil density had been evaluated in 6 layers of ground (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-50 and 50-60 cm and three position: in the plantation line, in the between line of plantation and between four trees, in a Pinus sp. plantation located in Santa Maria. The density of soil did not present significant difference throughout the profile of the ground; therefore there was no influence on the results of biomass in the different depths. The biomass of roots found in plantation was of 1606.3 Kg/ha, being 40.6% in the first 10 cm of ground, reducing as the depth increased. This same trend was registered for organic matter, base saturation and amount of nutrients. This factors presented narrow correlation with the amount of biomass. The Al content and sum of bases had inverse tendency, increasing as the increase of the depth, but they had also presented a narrow correlation with the biomass. The different places of collection had not differed between each other.

  6. Productivity assessment of three leguminous species under high-density plantations on degraded soil sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, V.L.; Behl, H.M. [National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (India). Biomass Biology Div.

    2004-11-01

    Performance of three leguminous species, (Acacia farnesiana, A. nilotica subspecies cupressiformis and Cassia siamea), was investigated at three planting densities (10,000, 20,000 and 30,000 plants ha{sup -1}) on a highly alkaline soil site (pH 8.6-10.5) in order to identify promising species and suitable plant spacing for optimum biomass harvest per unit area under shorter rotation harvests (3 year). The study revealed the differential behaviour of various species with respect to plant growth, survival and stand productivity in different population densities. Performance of A. farnesiana and C. siamea in terms of plant height, stem diameter and plant establishment was marginally affected by population density. Stand basal area (2.4-6.4 m{sup 2} ha{sup -1}) and biomass (4.45-13.5 t ha{sup -1}) in A. farnesiana increased markedly with increasing population density. Similar gains in biomass were observed in C. siamea when planted at higher densities. Individual tree biomass also was not affected by increasing plant densities, suggesting that these two species respond well to high-density plantation. A. nilotica subspecies cupressiformis, on the other hand, showed a negative response when planted in high density. Its biomass and basal area decreased beyond 20,000 plants ha{sup -1} planting density, suggesting that planting density of 20,000 plants ha{sup -1} and above were supra-optimal. Plants spaced at 10,000 plants ha{sup -1} showed faster growth rate and higher productivity as compared to the same at 20,000 and 30,000 planting density. Competition for space also effected individual tree growth in higher densities. The concept of high-density plantation is not applicable in A. nilotica subspecies cupressiformis. However, this species has significantly greater potential since it has relatively high biomass production even at a low population density of 10,000 plants ha{sup -1}. The study is useful in identifying productive species and optimum plantation density per

  7. Distribution of biomass and diversity of Stipa bungeana community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -humid areas of the Loess Plateau of Northwestern China, we studied species diversity and above ground biomass of S. bungeana community, analyzed the responses of above ground biomass to climate in different areas, and built a model of ...

  8. Estimation of the mass density contrasts and the 3D geometrical shape of the source bodies, in the Yilgarn area, Eastern Goldfields, Western Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strykowski, Gabriel; Boschetti, F.; Papp, G.

    2005-01-01

    with as few assumptions as possible. Furthermore, for a single-body inversion we uncouple the determination of the shape of the causative sources from the determination of their mass density contrast to the surroundings. The inversion for the geometrical shape of the source body is done in steps. Firstly...... step, the overall change of the shape of the source body is followed by an update of the mass density contrast to the surroundings. The technique was applied to a set of gravity data from the Eastern Goldfield area in Western Australia. The area has been widely studied in the past. In 1999, two seismic......) and only weakly constrained by the seismic information. The result was the reconstruction of the 'rough' 3D geometry of the source bodies and the estimation of a constant mass density contrast to the surroundings. A possible extension of this technique for detailed studies of the geological model...

  9. Quantifying mold biomass on gypsum board: Comparison of ergosterol and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase as mold biomass parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeslev, M.; Miller, M.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2003-01-01

    Two mold species, Stachybotrys chartarum and Aspergillus versicolor, were inoculated onto agar overlaid with cellophane, allowing determination of a direct measurement of biomass density by weighing. Biomass density, ergosterol content, and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase (3.2.1.52) activity were...... monitored from inoculation to stationary phase. Regression analysis showed a good linear correlation to biomass density for both ergosterol content and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase activity. The same two mold species were inoculated onto wallpapered gypsum board, from which a direct biomass measurement...... density from ergosterol content and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase activity were determined. The CFs were used to estimate the biomass density of the molds grown on gypsum board. The biomass densities estimated from ergosterol content and beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase activity data gave similar results...

  10. Longitudinal analysis of tick densities and Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia infections of Ixodes ricinus ticks in different habitat areas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielinga, P.R.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.; Fonville, M.; Boer, de A.G.; Vries, de A.; Dimmers, W.J.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.; Schouls, L.M.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2006-01-01

    From 2000 to 2004, ticks were collected by dragging a blanket in four habitat areas in The Netherlands: dunes, heather, forest, and a city park. Tick densities were calculated, and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species was investigated by reverse line blot analysis.

  11. Low density parasitaemia, red blood cell polymorphisms and Plasmodium falciparum specific immune responses in a low endemic area in northern Tanzania.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shekalaghe, S.; Alifrangis, M.; Mwanziva, C.; Enevold, A.; Mwakalinga, S.; Mkali, H.; Kavishe, R.A.; Manjurano, A.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Drakeley, C.; Bousema, T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low density Plasmodium falciparum infections, below the microscopic detection limit, may play an important role in maintaining malaria transmission in low endemic areas as well as contribute to the maintenance of acquired immunity. Little is known about factors influencing the occurrence

  12. BIOMASS newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Carlos

    1999-06-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency Programme on Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS) Newsletter has been launched with general objectives of providing an international focal point in the area of biosphere assessment modelling, developing methods for analysis of radionuclide transfer in the biosphere for use in radiological assessment, improving modelling methods, and developing international consensus on biosphere modelling philosophies, approaches and parameter values. The main themes included in the Newsletter include radioactive waste disposal (reference biosphere), environmental releases and biosphere processes

  13. BIOMASS newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Carlos

    1996-12-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency Programme on Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS) Newsletter has been launched with general objectives of providing an international focal point in the area of biosphere assessment modelling, developing methods for analysis of radionuclide transfer in the biosphere for use in radiological assessment, improving modelling methods, and developing international consensus on biosphere modelling philosophies, approaches and parameter values. The main themes included in the Newsletter include radioactive waste disposal (reference biosphere), environmental releases and biosphere processes

  14. BIOMASS newsletter. No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Carlos

    1999-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency Programme on Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS) Newsletter has been launched with general objectives of providing an international focal point in the area of biosphere assessment modelling, developing methods for analysis of radionuclide transfer in the biosphere for use in radiological assessment, improving modelling methods, and developing international consensus on biosphere modelling philosophies, approaches and parameter values. The main themes included in the Newsletter include radioactive waste disposal (reference biosphere), environmental releases and biosphere processes

  15. BIOMASS newsletter. No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency Programme on Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS) Newsletter has been launched with general objectives of providing an international focal point in the area of biosphere assessment modelling, developing methods for analysis of radionuclide transfer in the biosphere for use in radiological assessment, improving modelling methods, and developing international consensus on biosphere modelling philosophies, approaches and parameter values. The main themes included in the Newsletter include radioactive waste disposal (reference biosphere), environmental releases and biosphere processes

  16. A Review on Biomass Torrefaction Process and Product Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-08-01

    Biomass Torrefaction is gaining attention as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties and chemical composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of approximately 300 C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200-280 C. Thus, the process can be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, which produces a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. The present review work looks into (a) torrefaction process and different products produced during the process and (b) solid torrefied material properties which include: (i) physical properties like moisture content, density, grindability, particle size distribution and particle surface area and pelletability; (ii) chemical properties like proximate and ultimate composition; and (iii) storage properties like off-gassing and spontaneous combustion.

  17. Regional cerebral blood flow levels as measured by xenon-CT in vascular territorial low-density areas after subarachnoid hemorrhage are not always ischemic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainardi, E.; Tagliaferri, M.F.; Compagnone, C.; Tanfani, A.; Cocciolo, F.; Targa, L.; Chieregato, A.; Battaglia, R.; Frattarelli, M.; Pascarella, R.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess regional cerebral blood flow (rCBV) in areas of CT hypoattenuation appearing in the postoperative period in patients treated for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) using xenon-enhanced CT scanning (Xe-CT). We analyzed 15 patients (5 male and 10 female; mean age 49.7±12.1 years) with SAH on CT performed on admission to hospital and who showed a low-density area within a well-defined vascular territory on CT scans after clipping or coiling of a saccular aneurysm. All zones of hypoattenuation were larger than 1 cm 2 and showed signs of a mass effect suggesting a subacute phase of evolution. Two aneurysms were detected in two patients. Aneurysms were located in the middle cerebral artery (n=7), in the anterior communicating artery (n=6), in the internal carotid artery (n=3), and in the posterior communicating artery (n=1). Treatments were surgical (n=8), endovascular (n=2) or both (n=1). A total of 36 Xe-CT studies were performed and rCBF values were measured in two different regions of interest (ROI): the low-density area, and an area of normal-appearing brain tissue located symmetrically in the contralateral hemisphere. rCBF levels were significantly lower in the low-density area than in the contralateral normal-appearing area (P 55 ml/100 g per minute) in 2/36 lesions (5.6%). Our study confirmed that rCBF is reduced in new low-density lesions related to specific vascular territories. However, only about one-third of the lesions showed rCBF levels consistent with irreversible ischemia and in a relatively high proportion of lesions, rCBF levels indicated penumbral, oligemic and hyperemic areas. (orig.)

  18. Assessment of potential areas to biomass cultivation for energy production and a contribution of remote sensing and geographic information systems; Avaliacao de areas potenciais ao cultivo de biomassa para producao de energia e uma contribuicao de sensoriamento remoto e sistemas de informacoes geograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Adalberto K.; Anjos, Sergio D. dos [EMBRAPA Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: adalberto.miura@cpact.embrapa.br; Formaggio, Antonio R.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Luiz, Alfredo J.B. [EMBRAPA Meio Ambiente, Jaguariuna, SP (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    Since early times, the human kind has been using the biomass for energy purposes. However, the current increasing energy demand can endanger the energy security of the nations and, as well, could put in risk the planet's environmental quality and human health. Thus, by the issues concern about the fossil fuels utilization, the importance of renewable energy sources is being rescued. In this scenario, the biomass energy planning becomes very important to tropical countries, like Brazil, because it would allow stimulating the production of biomass for energy where it is required, but in a sustainable way, considering the social and environmental aspects. Thus, this study aims to present important aspects related with regional energy planning as a contribution for proposing better solutions to energy demands and to think about better public policies related to energy production from biomass. Besides, a contribution of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System in order to assess areas for biomass energy production and a conceptual model are presented as framework which demonstrates how these techniques can constitute support tools to strategic decision making process in bioenergy issues. Some difficult and constraints to territorial and agro-energy planning in Brazil was also presented. (author)

  19. Integration of biomass into urban energy systems for heat and power. Part I: An MILP based spatial optimization methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantaleo, Antonio M.; Giarola, Sara; Bauen, Ausilio; Shah, Nilay

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MILP tool for optimal sizing and location of heating and CHP plants to serve residential energy demand. • Trade-offs between local vs centralized heat generation, district heating vs natural gas distribution systems. • Assessment of multi-biomass supply chains and biomass to biofuel processing technologies. • Assessment of the key factors influencing the use of biomass and district heating in residential areas. - Abstract: The paper presents a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) approach to optimize multi-biomass and natural gas supply chain strategic design for heat and power generation in urban areas. The focus is on spatial and temporal allocation of biomass supply, storage, processing, transport and energy conversion (heat and CHP) to match the heat demand of residential end users. The main aim lies on the representation of the relationships between the biomass processing and biofuel energy conversion steps, and on the trade-offs between centralized district heating plants and local heat generation systems. After a description of state of the art and research trends in urban energy systems and bioenergy modelling, an application of the methodology to a generic case study is proposed. With the assumed techno-economic parameters, biomass based thermal energy generation results competitive with natural gas, while district heating network results the main option for urban areas with high thermal energy demand density. Potential further applications of this model are also described, together with main barriers for development of bioenergy routes for urban areas

  20. Urban renewal based wind environment at pedestrian level in high-density and high-rise urban areas in Sai Ying Pun, Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, J. W.; Zheng, J. Y.; Zhao, Y.; Shao, Y. H.; Yuan, F.

    2017-11-01

    In high-density and high-rise urban areas, pedestrian level winds contribute to improve comfort, safety and diffusion of heat in urban areas. Outdoor wind study is extremely vital and a prerequisite in high-density cities considering that the immediate pedestrian level wind environment is fundamentally impacted by the presence of a series of high-rise buildings. In this paper, the research site of Sai Ying Pun in Hong Kong will be analysed in terms of geography, climate and urban morphology, while the surrounding natural ventilation has also been simulated by the wind tunnel experiment Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). It has found that, the existing problems in this district are the contradiction between planning control and commercial interests, which means some areas around tall buildings are not benefit to the residents because of the unhealthy wind environment. Therefore, some recommendation of urban renewal strategy has been provided.

  1. Mapping and estimating the total living biomass and carbon in low-biomass woodlands using Landsat 8 CDR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belachew Gizachew

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A functional forest carbon measuring, reporting and verification (MRV system to support climate change mitigation policies, such as REDD+, requires estimates of forest biomass carbon, as an input to estimate emissions. A combination of field inventory and remote sensing is expected to provide those data. By linking Landsat 8 and forest inventory data, we (1 developed linear mixed effects models for total living biomass (TLB estimation as a function of spectral variables, (2 developed a 30 m resolution map of the total living carbon (TLC, and (3 estimated the total TLB stock of the study area. Inventory data consisted of tree measurements from 500 plots in 63 clusters in a 15,700 km2 study area, in miombo woodlands of Tanzania. The Landsat 8 data comprised two climate data record images covering the inventory area. Results We found a linear relationship between TLB and Landsat 8 derived spectral variables, and there was no clear evidence of spectral data saturation at higher biomass values. The root-mean-square error of the values predicted by the linear model linking the TLB and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI is equal to 44 t/ha (49 % of the mean value. The estimated TLB for the study area was 140 Mt, with a mean TLB density of 81 t/ha, and a 95 % confidence interval of 74–88 t/ha. We mapped the distribution of TLC of the study area using the TLB model, where TLC was estimated at 47 % of TLB. Conclusion The low biomass in the miombo woodlands, and the absence of a spectral data saturation problem suggested that Landsat 8 derived NDVI is suitable auxiliary information for carbon monitoring in the context of REDD+, for low-biomass, open-canopy woodlands.

  2. Density/area power-law models for separating multi-scale anomalies of ore and toxic elements in stream sediments in Gejiu mineral district, Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Cheng

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution introduces a fractal filtering technique newly developed on the basis of a spectral energy density vs. area power-law model in the context of multifractal theory. It can be used to map anisotropic singularities of geochemical landscapes created from geochemical concentration values in various surface media such as soils, stream sediments, tills and water. A geochemical landscape can be converted into a Fourier domain in which the spectral energy density is plotted against the area (in wave number units, and the relationship between the spectrum energy density (S and the area (A enclosed by the above-threshold spectrum energy density can be fitted by power-law models. Mixed geochemical landscape patterns can be fitted with different S-A power-law models in the frequency domain. Fractal filters can be defined according to these different S-A models and used to decompose the geochemical patterns into components with different self-similarities. The fractal filtering method was applied to a geochemical dataset from 7,349 stream sediment samples collected from Gejiu mineral district, which is famous for its word-class tin and copper production. Anomalies in three different scales were decomposed from total values of the trace elements As, Sn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd. These anomalies generally correspond to various geological features and geological processes such as sedimentary rocks, intrusions, fault intersections and mineralization.

  3. Foraminiferal area density as a proxy for ocean acidification over the last 200 years in the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, E.; Thunell, R.

    2013-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities have resulted in an increase in atmospheric CO2 from 280 ppm to 400 ppm over the last 250 years. It is estimated that approximately one-third of this anthropogenically produced CO2 is sequestered in the global ocean, increasing the inventory of bicarbonate (HCO3-) and hydrogen ions (H+) and consuming carbonate (CO32-) as a result of carbonate buffering reactions. This increase in [H+] lowers seawater pH, the phenomenon known as ocean acidification (OA). Estimates indicate that mean seawater pH has already decreased by 0.1 pH units since 1750 and IPCC reports indicate it is likely that CO2 concentrations will reach 790 ppm by 2100 further reducing pH by 0.3 units. Marine calcifiers, such as foraminifera, utilize CO32- dissolved in seawater during calcification, a process that is highly sensitive to changes in pH due to the chemical reactions described above. The reduction in surface ocean carbonate ion concentration ([CO32-]) caused by OA has impaired calcification of planktonic foraminifera and other marine calcifiers. It has been proposed that planktonic foraminiferal shell weight or shell thickness is positively correlated with ambient [CO32-] and has been used as proxy to reconstruct past changes in the surface ocean carbonate system. An ideal location for the application of this proxy is the California Current System (CSS), an Eastern Boundary Upwelling System (EBUS), which is characterized as having naturally lower pH. Upwelling introduces CO2-enriched bottom waters to the surface ocean, intensifying the effects of increasing dissolved CO2 as a result of anthropogenic activities. Upwelling produces a wide range of surface water [CO32-] making the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) an ideal site to carry out a foraminiferal shell weight calibration study. Area density (ρA) is a new method for collecting size-normalized shell weights that will be used in this study. Species-specific calibrations have been derived for two symbiont

  4. Gravity data inversion to determine 3D topographycal density contrast of Banten area, Indonesia based on fast Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windhari, Ayuty; Handayani, Gunawan

    2015-04-01

    The 3D inversion gravity anomaly to estimate topographical density using a matlab source code from gridded data provided by Parker Oldenburg algorithm based on fast Fourier transform was computed. We extend and improved the source code of 3DINVERT.M invented by Gomez Ortiz and Agarwal (2005) using the relationship between Fourier transform of the gravity anomaly and the sum of the Fourier transform from the topography density. We gave density contrast between the two media to apply the inversion. FFT routine was implemented to construct amplitude spectrum to the given mean depth. The results were presented as new graphics of inverted topography density, the gravity anomaly due to the inverted topography and the difference between the input gravity data and the computed ones. It terminates when the RMS error is lower than pre-assigned value used as convergence criterion or until maximum of iterations is reached. As an example, we used the matlab program on gravity data of Banten region, Indonesia.

  5. Energy densification of animal waste lignocellulose biomass and raw biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pahla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to reduce carbon emissions has encouraged more research into use of biomass energy in place of coal. Biomass is carbon neutral; its use can therefore lower net emissions. Biomass can be upgraded to a fuel similar to coal by torrefaction. Different biomass have been torrefied but there is limited research in possible use of lignocellulose biomass from animal waste. This study aims to compare extent of energy densification of torrefied cow dung, corn cob and pine wood. They were dried, ground and sieved. Proximate and ultimate analysis was conducted. The samples were then torrefied at 200, 250 and 300 °C at 10 °C/min for 40 min. The resulting biochar were characterized using mass yield, higher heating value, energy yield and density. Biochar obtained at 250 °C were analyzed for elemental composition. Results were compared to Anglo bituminous coal and other torrefied biomass in literature. Corn cob and pine wood reached a maximum of 25.98 MJ/kg and 20.90 MJ/kg in heating value respectively whilst cow dung only increased to a maximum of 18.60 MJ/kg. Increase in heating value for corn cob was attributed to reduction in oxygen due to release of volatiles as well as water. This lowered the O/C ratio thereby densifying the fuel. The O/C and H/C ratio for corncob and wood moved towards that of bituminous coal unlike that of cow dung. Cow dung had a high inorganic composition so its heating value could not be upgraded as much as the other 2 biomass. Its use as a torrefaction raw material was therefore discouraged. Keywords: Torrefaction, Biomass, Temperature, Cow dung, Corn cobs, Pine wood

  6. Ecological studies in a Scanian woodland and meadow area, southern Sweden. Ti. Plant biomass, primary production and turnover of organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, F.

    1970-01-01

    As a part of an IBP project the productivity of the south Swedish deciduous woodland ecosystems and their secondary successional stages a comparison between the distribution of organic matter in a mixed deciduous woodland dominated by Quercus robur, Tilia cordata, Corylus avellana and Anemone nemorosa and a tall herb meadow with Filipendula ulmaria within the nemoral zone in the southernmost part of Sweden has been made. Estimations of the plant biomass and production in the woodland was made by a dimension analysis applying allometric equations. A total plant biomass of 240 t/ha was found with 201 t/ha and 39 t/ha as above-and below-ground figures respectively. The corresponding figures of the net primary production are 15.6, 13.3 and 2.3 t/ha. A production of 0.77 t/ha is included for the above-ground production of the field layer. The litter fall, fractions less than 50 cm long, during a three year period amounted to 5.28 t/ha with considerable variation between years. Including coarser litter fractions an yearly input to the ground of 6.5 t/ha was found. After estimation of the remaining litter before the leaf fall, 6.1 t/ha, the yearly turnover of the litter layer is calculated to 52%. As the humus fraction amounts to 218 t/ha, the total content of organic matter in the woodland ecosystem thus is 463 t/ha with an almost equal distribution between above-and below-ground portions. In the meadow the distribution of above-and below-ground portions of the organic matter is 1/49, calculated from the following figures: Above-ground biomass 4.7 t/ha, below-ground biomass 13.2 t/ha, surface litter 2.4 t/ha and humus 304 t/ha making the total organic matter of the meadow ecosystem 324 t/ha. The yearly above-ground production is estimated to be 7.2 t/ha and taking this as the yearly litter input to the ground and taking the remaining litter into account a turnover of the litter layer 75% is calculated.

  7. Characterization of cellulose biomass for use as an excipient in pharmaceutical field; Caracterizacao de biomassa de celulose para utilizacao como excipiente na area farmaceutica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Keth R.; Turella, Tais C.; Santos, Venina dos; Brandalise, Rosmary N. [Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS), Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e da Tecnologia; Angeli, Valeria W., E-mail: rnbranda@ucs.br [Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS), Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude

    2015-07-01

    Every day the industry of paper and cellulose discards large amounts of waste. An alternative to reuse this kind of biomass is to transform part of it in cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibrils to be used as excipients in pharmaceutical field. Thus, cellulose fibrils were obtained in nanoscale using mill and fibrils' characterization study were performed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared Fourier transform and X-rays diffraction. Hence, the methodology used to obtain and characterize nanocellulose was effective and the fibers/fibrils lengths are in nanometer dimension with high potential to apply in the pharmaceutical field. (author)

  8. EnerGEO biomass pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tum, M.; Guenther, K.P.; McCallum, I.; Balkovic, J.; Khabarov, N.; Kindermann, G.; Leduc, S.; Biberacher, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the EU FP7 project EnerGEO (Earth Observations for Monitoring and Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Energy Use) sustainable energy potentials for forest and agricultural areas were estimated by applying three different model approaches. Firstly, the Biosphere Energy Transfer Hydrology (BETHY/DLR) model was applied to assess agricultural and forest biomass increases on a regional scale with the extension to grassland. Secondly, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) - a cropping systems simulation model - was used to estimate grain yields on a global scale and thirdly the Global Forest Model (G4M) was used to estimate global woody biomass harvests and stock. The general objective of the biomass pilot is to implement the observational capacity for using biomass as an important current and future energy resource. The scope of this work was to generate biomass energy potentials for locations on the globe and to validate these data. Therefore, the biomass pilot was focused to use historical and actual remote sensing data as input data for the models. For validation purposes, forest biomass maps for 1987 and 2002 for Germany (Bundeswaldinventur (BWI-2)) and 2001 and 2008 for Austria (Austrian Forest Inventory (AFI)) were prepared as reference. (orig.)

  9. Potential for post-closure radionuclide redistribution due to biotic intrusion: aboveground biomass, litter production rates, and the distribution of root mass with depth at material disposal area G, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Sean B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Christensen, Candace [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jennings, Terry L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jaros, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wykoff, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crowell, Kelly J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shuman, Rob [URS

    2008-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated at the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) is disposed of at LANL's Technical Area (T A) 54, Material Disposal Area (MDA) G. The ability of MDA G to safely contain radioactive waste during current and post-closure operations is evaluated as part of the facility's ongoing performance assessment (PA) and composite analysis (CA). Due to the potential for uptake and incorporation of radio nuclides into aboveground plant material, the PA and CA project that plant roots penetrating into buried waste may lead to releases of radionuclides into the accessible environment. The potential amount ofcontamination deposited on the ground surface due to plant intrusion into buried waste is a function of the quantity of litter generated by plants, as well as radionuclide concentrations within the litter. Radionuclide concentrations in plant litter is dependent on the distribution of root mass with depth and the efficiency with which radionuclides are extracted from contaminated soils by the plant's roots. In order to reduce uncertainties associated with the PA and CA for MDA G, surveys are being conducted to assess aboveground biomass, plant litter production rates, and root mass with depth for the four prominent vegetation types (grasses, forbs, shrubs and trees). The collection of aboveground biomass for grasses and forbs began in 2007. Additional sampling was conducted in October 2008 to measure root mass with depth and to collect additional aboveground biomass data for the types of grasses, forbs, shrubs, and trees that may become established at MDA G after the facility undergoes final closure, Biomass data will be used to estimate the future potential mass of contaminated plant litter fall, which could act as a latent conduit for radionuclide transport from the closed disposal area. Data collected are expected to reduce uncertainties associated with the PA and CA for MDA G and ultimately aid in the assessment and

  10. Anthropogenic plumes from metropolitan areas and biomass burning emissions in West Africa during DACCIWA - airborne measurements on board the DLR Falcon 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratmann, Greta; Schlager, Hans; Sauer, Daniel; Brocchi, Vanessa; Catoire, Valery; Baumann, Robert

    2017-04-01

    The DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions over West Africa) airborne field campaign was conducted in Southern West Africa in June/July 2016. Three European research aircraft (DLR - Falcon 20, SAFIRE - ATR 42 and BAS - Twin Otter) were deployed from Lomé/Togo and conducted research flights across Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo and Benin. On board the DLR Falcon O3, SO2, CO, NO2 and aerosol fine mode particle number concentration and size distribution were measured during a total of 12 scientific flights. Until now only few airborne trace gas measurements were conducted in Southern West Africa. Therefore, this field experiment contributes to the knowledge of the chemical composition of the lower troposphere between 0 - 4 km. During several flights pollution plumes from major population centers - Lomé/Togo, Accra/Ghana, Kumasi/Ghana, and Abidjan/Ivory Coast - were probed below, inside and above clouds. Here, enhanced trace gas and particle concentrations were observed. In addition, plumes from biomass burning emissions were detected which were transported to West Africa. The composition of the pollution plumes are presented as well as transport pathways using HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectories) trajectory calculations. Ozone enhancements in the biomass burning pollution plumes of up to 70 ppb were observed compared to background concentrations of 30-40 ppb. Furthermore, HYSPLIT atmospheric dispersion simulations are used to estimate anthropogenic SO2 city emissions.

  11. Detection of Single Tree Stems in Forested Areas from High Density ALS Point Clouds Using 3d Shape Descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, N.; Polewski, P.; Yao, W.; Krzystek, P.; Skidmore, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is a widespread method for forest mapping and management purposes. While common ALS techniques provide valuable information about the forest canopy and intermediate layers, the point density near the ground may be poor due to dense overstory conditions. The current study highlights a new method for detecting stems of single trees in 3D point clouds obtained from high density ALS with a density of 300 points/m2. Compared to standard ALS data, due to lower flight height (150-200 m) this elevated point density leads to more laser reflections from tree stems. In this work, we propose a three-tiered method which works on the point, segment and object levels. First, for each point we calculate the likelihood that it belongs to a tree stem, derived from the radiometric and geometric features of its neighboring points. In the next step, we construct short stem segments based on high-probability stem points, and classify the segments by considering the distribution of points around them as well as their spatial orientation, which encodes the prior knowledge that trees are mainly vertically aligned due to gravity. Finally, we apply hierarchical clustering on the positively classified segments to obtain point sets corresponding to single stems, and perform ℓ1-based orthogonal distance regression to robustly fit lines through each stem point set. The ℓ1-based method is less sensitive to outliers compared to the least square approaches. From the fitted lines, the planimetric tree positions can then be derived. Experiments were performed on two plots from the Hochficht forest in Oberösterreich region located in Austria.We marked a total of 196 reference stems in the point clouds of both plots by visual interpretation. The evaluation of the automatically detected stems showed a classification precision of 0.86 and 0.85, respectively for Plot 1 and 2, with recall values of 0.7 and 0.67.

  12. Standing crop and aboveground biomass partitioning of a dwarf mangrove forest in Taylor River Slough, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado-Molina, C.; Day, J.W.; Reyes, E.; Perez, B.C.

    2004-01-01

    The structure and standing crop biomass of a dwarf mangrove forest, located in the salinity transition zone ofTaylor River Slough in the Everglades National Park, were studied. Although the four mangrove species reported for Florida occurred at the study site, dwarf Rhizophora mangle trees dominated the forest. The structural characteristics of the mangrove forest were relatively simple: tree height varied from 0.9 to 1.2 meters, and tree density ranged from 7062 to 23 778 stems haa??1. An allometric relationship was developed to estimate leaf, branch, prop root, and total aboveground biomass of dwarf Rhizophora mangle trees. Total aboveground biomass and their components were best estimated as a power function of the crown area times number of prop roots as an independent variable (Y = B ?? Xa??0.5083). The allometric equation for each tree component was highly significant (pRhizophora mangle contributed 85% of total standing crop biomass. Conocarpus erectus, Laguncularia racemosa, and Avicennia germinans contributed the remaining biomass. Average aboveground biomass allocation was 69% for prop roots, 25% for stem and branches, and 6% for leaves. This aboveground biomass partitioning pattern, which gives a major role to prop roots that have the potential to produce an extensive root system, may be an important biological strategy in response to low phosphorus availability and relatively reduced soils that characterize mangrove forests in South Florida.

  13. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  14. Estimating vertical plant area density profile and growth parameters of a wheat canopy at different growth stages using three-dimensional portable lidar imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Fumiki; Omasa, Kenji

    Vertical plant area density profiles of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) canopy at different growth stages (tillering, stem elongation, flowering, and ripening stages) were estimated using high-resolution portable scanning lidar based on the voxel-based canopy profiling method. The canopy was scanned three-dimensionally by laser beams emitted from several measuring points surrounding the canopy. At the ripening stage, the central azimuth angle was inclined about 23 ∘ to the row direction to avoid obstruction of the beam into the lower canopy by the upper part. Plant area density profiles were estimated, with root mean square errors of 0.28-0.79 m 2 m -3 at each growth stage and of 0.45 m 2 m -3 across all growth stages. Plant area index was also estimated, with absolute errors of 4.7%-7.7% at each growth stage and of 6.1% across all growth stages. Based on lidar-derived plant area density, the area of each type of organ (stem, leaves, ears) per unit ground area was related to the actual dry weight of each organ type, and regression equations were obtained. The standard errors of the equations were 4.1 g m -2 for ears and 26.6 g m -2 for stems and leaves. Based on these equations, the estimated total dry weight was from 63.3 to 279.4 g m -2 for ears and from 35.8 to 375.3 g m -2 for stems and leaves across the growth stages. Based on the estimated dry weight at ripening and the ratio of carbon to dry weight in wheat plants, the carbon stocks were 76.3 g C m -2 for grain, 225.0 g C m -2 for aboveground residue, and 301.3 g C m -2 for all aboveground organs.

  15. Microbial biomass and basal respiration of selected Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic soils in the areas of some Russian polar stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakumov, E.; Mukhametova, N.

    2014-07-01

    Antarctica is a unique place for soil, biological, and ecological investigations. Soils of Antarctica have been studied intensively during the last century, when different national Antarctic expeditions visited the sixth continent with the aim of investigating nature and the environment. Antarctic investigations are comprised of field surveys mainly in the terrestrial landscapes, where the polar stations of different countries are situated. That is why the main and most detailed soil surveys were conducted in the McMurdo Valleys, Transantarctic Mountains, South Shetland Islands, Larsemann Hills and the Schirmacher Oasis. Our investigations were conducted during the 53rd and 55th Russian Antarctic expeditions in the base of soil pits, and samples were collected in Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic regions. Sub-Antarctic or maritime landscapes are considered to be very different from Antarctic landscapes due to differing climatic and geogenic conditions. Soils of diverse zonal landscapes were studied with the aim of assessing the microbial biomass level, basal respiration rates and metabolic activity of microbial communities. This investigation shows that Antarctic soils are quite diverse in profile organization and carbon content. In general, Sub-Antarctic soils are characterized by more developed humus (sod) organo-mineral horizons as well as by an upper organic layer. The most developed organic layers were revealed in peat soils of King George Island, where its thickness reach, in some cases, was 80 cm. These soils as well as soils formed under guano are characterized by the highest amount of total organic carbon (TOC), between 7.22 and 33.70%. Coastal and continental Antarctic soils exhibit less developed Leptosols, Gleysols, Regolith and rare Ornhitosol, with TOC levels between 0.37 and 4.67%. The metabolic ratios and basal respiration were higher in Sub-Antarctic soils than in Antarctic ones, which can be interpreted as a result of higher amounts of fresh organic

  16. Estimation of the mass density contrasts and the 3D geometrical shape of the source bodies, in the Yilgarn area, Eastern Goldfields, Western Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strykowski, Gabriel; Boschetti, F.; Papp, G.

    2005-01-01

    We invert 2D surface gravity data constrained both by geological and seismic information. We use a number of pre-processing tools in order to reduce the general multi-body inversion into several single-body inversions, whereby we can reduce the overall complexity of the inversion task. This is done...... step, the overall change of the shape of the source body is followed by an update of the mass density contrast to the surroundings. The technique was applied to a set of gravity data from the Eastern Goldfield area in Western Australia. The area has been widely studied in the past. In 1999, two seismic...... profiles that cross-sect the area were measured. Furthermore, an extensive geological modelling for the area has been conducted. The practical goal of this work was to verify the geological interpretation using the potential field data (mainly the gravity data although magnetic data were also available...

  17. Q fever and pneumonia in an area with a high livestock density: a large population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidwien A M Smit

    Full Text Available Concerns about public health risks of intensive animal production in The Netherlands continue to rise, in particular related to outbreaks of infectious diseases. The aim was to investigate associations between the presence of farm animals around the home address and Q fever and pneumonia.Electronic medical record data for the year 2009 of all patients of 27 general practitioners (GPs in a region with a high density of animal farms were used. Density of farm animals around the home address was calculated using a Geographic Information System. During the study period, a large Q fever outbreak occurred in this region. Associations between farm exposure variables and pneumonia or 'other infectious disease', the diagnosis code used by GPs for registration of Q fever, were analyzed in 22,406 children (0-17 y and 70,142 adults (18-70 y, and adjusted for age and sex. In adults, clear exposure-response relationships between the number of goats within 5 km of the home address and pneumonia and 'other infectious disease' were observed. The association with 'other infectious disease' was particularly strong, with an OR [95%CI] of 12.03 [8.79-16.46] for the fourth quartile (>17,190 goats compared with the first quartile (<2,251 goats. The presence of poultry within 1 km was associated with an increased incidence of pneumonia among adults (OR [95%CI] 1.25 [1.06-1.47].A high density of goats in a densely populated region was associated with human Q fever. The use of GP records combined with individual exposure estimates using a Geographic Information System is a powerful approach to assess environmental health risks.

  18. A REVIEW ON BIOMASS DENSIFICATION TECHNOLOGIE FOR ENERGY APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JAYA SHANKAR TUMULURU; CHRISTOPHER T. WRIGHT

    2010-08-01

    The world is currently facing challenges to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and to achieve a sustainable renewable supply. Renewable energies represent a diversity of energy sources that can help to maintain the equilibrium of different ecosystems. Among the various sources of renewable energy, biomass is finding more uses as it is considered carbon neutral since the carbondioxide released during its use is already part of the carbon cycle (Arias et al., 2008). Increasing the utilization of biomass for energy can help to reduce the negative CO2 impact on the environment and help to meet the targets established in the Kyoto Protocol (UN, 1998). Energy from biomass can be produced from different processes like thermochemical (combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis), biological (anaerobic digestion, fermentation) or chemical (esterification) where direct combustion can provide a direct near-term energy solution (Arias et al., 2008). Some of the inherent problems with raw biomass materials, like low bulk density, high moisture content, hydrophilic nature and low calorific value, limit the ease of use of biomass for energy purposes (Arias et al., 2008). In fact, due to its low energy density compared to fossil fuels, high volumes of biomass will be needed; adding to problems associated with storage, transportation and feed handling at a cogeneration plant. Furthermore, grinding biomass pulverizes, can be very costly and in some cases impractical. All of these drawbacks have given rise to the development of new technologies in order to increase the quality of biomass fuels. The purpose of the work is mainly in four areas 1) Overview of the torrefaction process and to do a literature review on i) Physical properties of torrefied raw material and torrefaction gas composition. 2) Basic principles in design of packed bed i) Equations governing the flow of material in packed bed ii) Equations governing the flow of the gases in packed bed iii) Effect of physical

  19. Correlation between bone mineral density and serum trace element contents of elderly males in Beijing urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Yu, Haotian; Yang, Guohua; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Wenjiao; Su, Tianjiao; Ma, Weifeng; Yang, Fan; Chen, Liying; He, Li; Ma, Yuanzheng; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Trace element levels are associated with the incidence of osteoporotic fractures, but related mechanisms remain unknown. Trace elements may interfere with growth, development and maintenance of bones. Therefore, we investigated whether plasma trace element levels are associated with bone mineral density in elderly males in Beijing. After epidemiologically investigating 91 elderly males with age ranging from 50 years to 80 years, we obtained a total of 30 healthy (group 1), 31 osteopoenic (group 2) and 30 osteoporotic (group 3) subjects. Blood was collected, and serum concentrations of trace elements were detected. Elderly males in the three groups were carefully matched in terms of body mass index. Iron, manganese, zinc, copper, selenium, cadmium and lead were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by QDR-2000 dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Correlation between BMD and serum element contents was analysed using SPSS16.0. The plasma levels of manganese, zinc, copper, selenium and lead were similar in all of the groups (P>0.05). Cadmium was significantly and negatively correlated with BMD of the lumbar vertebrae (Pbone levels of these trace elements to determine the relationship of these trace elements with osteoporosis.

  20. Biomass burning fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, T.T.; van der Werf, G.R.; Hoffmann, A.A.; Detmers, R.G.; Ruecker, G.; French, N.H.F.; Archibald, S.; Carvalho Jr., J.A.; Cook, G.D.; de Groot, J.W.; Hely, C.; Kasischke, E.S.; Kloster, S.; McCarty, J.L.; Pettinari, M.L.; Savadogo, P.

    2014-01-01

    Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit area burned. Fuel consumption (FC) depends on the biomass available to burn and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can be combined with estimates of area burned to assess emissions.

  1. High-density macroseismic survey in urban areas. Part 1: proposal for a methodology and its application to the city of Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tertulliani

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to provide an original contribution to the investigation of local macroseismic variations in urban areas by means of questionnaire surveys. In this paper, we propose a methodology to investigate earthquake effects in large cities. This procedure for a high-density macroseismic survey is here applied to the city of Rome (Italy during the September 1997-April 1998 Umbria-Marche (Central Italy seismic sequence. A sort of macroseismic network in the urban area was arranged, thanks to the co-operation of public high schools, where ad hoc macroseismic questionnaires were delivered to students. This method provided us with a large amount of macroseismic information related to the October 14, 1997 (Mw =-5.6; I0 VIII MCS; h ?10 km and March 26, 1998 (Mw = 5.3; I0 = VII MCS;h ?50 km earthquakes. In the first survey, 949 useful questionnaires were collected in 10 high schools and related to 669 observation points. For the second event, 1083 useful questionnaires were collected in 27 high schools and related to 928 (+39% observation points. The mean data density in the urbanized sector reached 3.4 data/km2 in the first survey and rose to 4.7 (+38% data/km2 in the second one. Such a high density was hardly achieved in previous macroseismic surveys in large cities. The sample reliability was checked considering the data distribution versus urban setting inhomogeneity and the percentage distribution of the main lithological units outcropping in the investigated area. Such reliability was also confirmed by the check of the data density distribution. All results confirm that the data sample is largely representative. Both the applications here shown proved that this method can be successfully performed in a large city.

  2. The importance of crown dimensions to improve tropical tree biomass estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Rosa C; Phillips, Oliver L; Baker, Timothy R

    2014-06-01

    Tropical forests play a vital role in the global carbon cycle, but the amount of carbon they contain and its spatial distribution remain uncertain. Recent studies suggest that once tree height is accounted for in biomass calculations, in addition to diameter and wood density, carbon stock estimates are reduced in many areas. However, it is possible that larger crown sizes might offset the reduction in biomass estimates in some forests where tree heights are lower because even comparatively short trees develop large, well-lit crowns in or above the forest canopy. While current allometric models and theory focus on diameter, wood density, and height, the influence of crown size and structure has not been well studied. To test the extent to which accounting for crown parameters can improve biomass estimates, we harvested and weighed 51 trees (11-169 cm diameter) in southwestern Amazonia where no direct biomass measurements have been made. The trees in our study had nearly half of total aboveground biomass in the branches (44% +/- 2% [mean +/- SE]), demonstrating the importance of accounting for tree crowns. Consistent with our predictions, key pantropical equations that include height, but do not account for crown dimensions, underestimated the sum total biomass of all 51 trees by 11% to 14%, primarily due to substantial underestimates of many of the largest trees. In our models, including crown radius greatly improves performance and reduces error, especially for the largest trees. In addition, over the full data set, crown radius explained more variation in aboveground biomass (10.5%) than height (6.0%). Crown form is also important: Trees with a monopodial architectural type are estimated to have 21-44% less mass than trees with other growth patterns. Our analysis suggests that accounting for crown allometry would substantially improve the accuracy of tropical estimates of tree biomass and its distribution in primary and degraded forests.

  3. Differentiating Countryside: Social Representations and Governance Patterns in Rural Areas with High Social Density--The Case of Chianti, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunori, Gianluca; Rossi, Adanella

    2007-01-01

    One of the key factors for the success of development strategies in rural areas is the setting up of appropriate governance patterns, whose main outcome is a fluid communication between public and private organisations and an effective integration of objectives and policies. Through a "post-rural" approach, this paper aims to analyse an…

  4. Evolution of the vorticity-area density during the formation of coherent structures in two-dimensional flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capel, H.W.; Pasmanter, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    It is shown: (1) that in two-dimensional, incompressible, viscous flows the vorticity-area distribution evolves according to an advection-diffusion equation with a negative, time dependent diffusion coefficient and (2) how to use the vorticity-stream function relations, i.e., the so-called

  5. IMPROVING BIOMASS LOGISTICS COST WITHIN AGRONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY CONSTRAINTS AND BIOMASS QUALITY TARGETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Richard Hess; Kevin L. Kenney; Christopher T. Wright; David J. Muth; William Smith

    2012-10-01

    Equipment manufacturers have made rapid improvements in biomass harvesting and handling equipment. These improvements have increased transportation and handling efficiencies due to higher biomass densities and reduced losses. Improvements in grinder efficiencies and capacity have reduced biomass grinding costs. Biomass collection efficiencies (the ratio of biomass collected to the amount available in the field) as high as 75% for crop residues and greater than 90% for perennial energy crops have also been demonstrated. However, as collection rates increase, the fraction of entrained soil in the biomass increases, and high biomass residue removal rates can violate agronomic sustainability limits. Advancements in quantifying multi-factor sustainability limits to increase removal rate as guided by sustainable residue removal plans, and mitigating soil contamination through targeted removal rates based on soil type and residue type/fraction is allowing the use of new high efficiency harvesting equipment and methods. As another consideration, single pass harvesting and other technologies that improve harvesting costs cause biomass storage moisture management challenges, which challenges are further perturbed by annual variability in biomass moisture content. Monitoring, sampling, simulation, and analysis provide basis for moisture, time, and quality relationships in storage, which has allowed the development of moisture tolerant storage systems and best management processes that combine moisture content and time to accommodate baled storage of wet material based upon “shelf-life.” The key to improving biomass supply logistics costs has been developing the associated agronomic sustainability and biomass quality technologies and processes that allow the implementation of equipment engineering solutions.

  6. Rheology of concentrated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Samaniuk; J. Wang; T.W. Root; C.T. Scott; D.J. Klingenberg

    2011-01-01

    Economic processing of lignocellulosic biomass requires handling the biomass at high solids concentration. This creates challenges because concentrated biomass behaves as a Bingham-like material with large yield stresses. Here we employ torque rheometry to measure the rheological properties of concentrated lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover). Yield stresses obtained...

  7. Biomass treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.

    2010-10-26

    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  8. Scrub typhus islands in the Taiwan area and the association between scrub typhus disease and forest land use and farmer population density: geographically weighted regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pui-Jen; Yeh, Hsi-Chyi

    2013-04-29

    The Taiwan area comprises the main island of Taiwan and several small islands located off the coast of the Southern China. The eastern two-thirds of Taiwan are characterized by rugged mountains covered with tropical and subtropical vegetation. The western region of Taiwan is characterized by flat or gently rolling plains. Geographically, the Taiwan area is diverse in ecology and environment, although scrub typhus threatens local human populations. In this study, we investigate the effects of seasonal and meteorological factors on the incidence of scrub typhus infection among 10 local climate regions. The correlation between the spatial distribution of scrub typhus and cultivated forests in Taiwan, as well as the relationship between scrub typhus incidence and the population density of farm workers is examined. We applied Pearson's product moment correlation to calculate the correlation between the incidence of scrub typhus and meteorological factors among 10 local climate regions. We used the geographically weighted regression (GWR) method, a type of spatial regression that generates parameters disaggregated by the spatial units of analysis, to detail and map each regression point for the response variables of the standardized incidence ratio (SIR)-district scrub typhus. We also applied the GWR to examine the explanatory variables of types of forest-land use and farm worker density in Taiwan in 2005. In the Taiwan Area, scrub typhus endemic areas are located in the southeastern regions and mountainous townships of Taiwan, as well as the Pescadore, Kinmen, and Matou Islands. Among these islands and low-incidence areas in the central western and southwestern regions of Taiwan, we observed a significant correlation between scrub typhus incidence and surface temperature. No similar significant correlation was found in the endemic areas (e.g., the southeastern region and the mountainous area of Taiwan). Precipitation correlates positively with scrub typhus incidence in

  9. Methods for pretreating biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo

    2017-05-09

    A method for pretreating biomass is provided, which includes, in a reactor, allowing gaseous ammonia to condense on the biomass and react with water present in the biomass to produce pretreated biomass, wherein reactivity of polysaccharides in the biomass is increased during subsequent biological conversion as compared to the reactivity of polysaccharides in biomass which has not been pretreated. A method for pretreating biomass with a liquid ammonia and recovering the liquid ammonia is also provided. Related systems which include a biochemical or biofuel production facility are also disclosed.

  10. Feasibility study for an on-line inventory of the Dutch activities in the area of energy production from biomass and waste streams. Bio-MASSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersma, W.H.

    1996-10-01

    Based on the results of questionnaires and interviews with experts in the field it appears that there is an interest in an up-to-date overview of the activities in the Netherlands with respect to the subject of energy production from biomass and waste streams. Three applications of the information system were considered to be important: (a) the system can contribute to the marketing of Dutch activities, knowledge and technology. Potential customers are found within and outside the Netherlands; (b) the system can be used in the networking process, since it aims for establishing direct contacts between different parties, which can result into new co-operations; (c) the system, as a source of knowledge, can be used for knowledge management. Governments and groups of organisations can easily get an overview of skills, expertise and experience. This overview can be used for supporting joint projects. Implementation of the system on the World Wide Web (WWW) is appreciated for the possibility to keep it up-to-date and user-friendly. 10 figs., 3 appendices

  11. Aboveground and belowground biomass allocation in native Prosopis caldenia Burkart secondaries woodlands in the semi-arid Argentinean pampas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risio, Lucia; Herrero, Celia; Bogino, Stella M.; Bravo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    The woodlands in the south-west of the Argentinean pampas are dominated by Prosopis Caldenia Burkart (calden). The current deforestation rate of this woodlands is 0.82% per year. Different compensation initiatives have begun that recognize the role of forests as environmental service providers. The financial incentives they offer make it necessary to quantify the amount of carbon stored in the forest biomass. A model for estimating calden biomass was developed. Thirty-eight trees were selected, felled and divided into sections. An equation system was fitted using joint generalized regression to ensure the additivity property. A weighted regression was used to avoid heteroscedasticity. In these woodlands fire is the main disturbance and it can modify tree allometry, due this all models included the area of the base of the stem and tree height as independent variables since it indirectly collects this variability. Total biomass and the stem fraction had the highest R2 A dj. values (0.75), while branches with a diameter less than 7 cm had the lowest (0.58). Tree biomass was also analyzed by partitioning into the basic fractions of stem, crown, roots, and the root/shoot ratio. Biomass allocation was greatest in the crown fraction and the mean root/shoot ratio was 0.58. The carbon stock of the caldenales considering only calden tree biomass is 20.2 Mg ha −1 . While the overall carbon balance of the region is negative (deforestation and biomass burning, the remnant forested area has increased their calden density and in an indirect way his carbon sequestration capacity could also be increased. - Highlights: • A model for estimating aboveground and belowground Prosopis caldenia biomass was developed. • Biomass allocation into the tree and the root/shoot ratio were analyzed. • The equation systems presented had made it possible to more accurately estimate the biomass stored in calden woodlands

  12. Association of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) population density with climate variables in Montes Claros, an area of American visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsky, Erika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; França-Silva, João Carlos; Rocha, Marilia Fonseca; Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2009-12-01

    In the present paper, we evaluate the relationship between climate variables and population density of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Montes Claros, an area of active transmission of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in Brazil. Entomological captures were performed in 10 selected districts of the city, between September 2002-August 2003. A total of 773 specimens of L. longipalpiswere captured in the period and the population density could be associated with local climate variables (cumulative rainfall, average temperature and relative humidity) through a mathematical linear model with a determination coefficient (Rsqr) of 0.752. Although based on an oversimplified statistical analysis, as far as the vector is concerned, this approach showed to be potentially useful as a starting point to guide control measures for AVL in Montes Claros.

  13. Association of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae population density with climate variables in Montes Claros, an area of American visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Monteiro Michalsky

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we evaluate the relationship between climate variables and population density of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Montes Claros, an area of active transmission of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL in Brazil. Entomological captures were performed in 10 selected districts of the city, between September 2002-August 2003. A total of 773 specimens of L. longipalpiswere captured in the period and the population density could be associated with local climate variables (cumulative rainfall, average temperature and relative humidity through a mathematical linear model with a determination coefficient (Rsqr of 0.752. Although based on an oversimplified statistical analysis, as far as the vector is concerned, this approach showed to be potentially useful as a starting point to guide control measures for AVL in Montes Claros.

  14. Effects of urban density on carbon dioxide exchanges: Observations of dense urban, suburban and woodland areas of southern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, H C; Kotthaus, S; Grimmond, C S B; Bjorkegren, A; Wilkinson, M; Morrison, W T J; Evans, J G; Morison, J I L; Iamarino, M

    2015-03-01

    Anthropogenic and biogenic controls on the surface-atmosphere exchange of CO2 are explored for three different environments. Similarities are seen between suburban and woodland sites during summer, when photosynthesis and respiration determine the diurnal pattern of the CO2 flux. In winter, emissions from human activities dominate urban and suburban fluxes; building emissions increase during cold weather, while traffic is a major component of CO2 emissions all year round. Observed CO2 fluxes reflect diurnal traffic patterns (busy throughout the day (urban); rush-hour peaks (suburban)) and vary between working days and non-working days, except at the woodland site. Suburban vegetation offsets some anthropogenic emissions, but 24-h CO2 fluxes are usually positive even during summer. Observations are compared to estimated emissions from simple models and inventories. Annual CO2 exchanges are significantly different between sites, demonstrating the impacts of increasing urban density (and decreasing vegetation fraction) on the CO2 flux to the atmosphere. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of urban density on carbon dioxide exchanges: Observations of dense urban, suburban and woodland areas of southern England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, H.C.; Kotthaus, S.; Grimmond, C.S.B.; Bjorkegren, A.; Wilkinson, M.; Morrison, W.T.J.; Evans, J.G.; Morison, J.I.L.; Iamarino, M.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic and biogenic controls on the surface–atmosphere exchange of CO 2 are explored for three different environments. Similarities are seen between suburban and woodland sites during summer, when photosynthesis and respiration determine the diurnal pattern of the CO 2 flux. In winter, emissions from human activities dominate urban and suburban fluxes; building emissions increase during cold weather, while traffic is a major component of CO 2 emissions all year round. Observed CO 2 fluxes reflect diurnal traffic patterns (busy throughout the day (urban); rush-hour peaks (suburban)) and vary between working days and non-working days, except at the woodland site. Suburban vegetation offsets some anthropogenic emissions, but 24-h CO 2 fluxes are usually positive even during summer. Observations are compared to estimated emissions from simple models and inventories. Annual CO 2 exchanges are significantly different between sites, demonstrating the impacts of increasing urban density (and decreasing vegetation fraction) on the CO 2 flux to the atmosphere. - Highlights: • Multi-seasonal comparison of contemporaneous CO 2 fluxes over contrasting land cover. • Signatures of anthropogenic and biogenic processes explored at various timescales. • Observations reveal relative magnitude of anthropogenic emissions. • CO 2 fluxes related to surface controls, strongly dependent on land cover. - Direct measurements of CO 2 fluxes reveal the impact of urbanisation and human behavioural patterns on the atmosphere at sub-daily to inter-annual time scales

  16. Biomass energy in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end

  17. Biomass carbon accumulation in aging Japanese cedar plantations in Xitou, central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Hung, Chih-Yu; Chen, Chiou-Peng; Pei, Chuang-Wun

    2013-12-01

    Japanese cedar (Chrytomeria japonica D. Don) is an important plantation species in Taiwan and represents 10% of total plantation area. It was first introduced in 1910 and widely planted in the northern and central mountainous areas of Taiwan. However, a change in forest management from exotic species to native species in 1980 had resulted in few new Japanese cedar plantations being established. Most Japanese cedar plantations are now between 30 and 50 years old and reaching their rotation period. It is of interest to know whether these plantations could be viable for future carbon sequestration through the accumulations of stand carbon stocks. Twelve even-aged Japanese cedar stands along a stand age gradient from 37 to 93 years were selected in Xitou of central Taiwan. The study aims were to investigate the basic stand characteristics and biomass carbon stock in current Japanese cedar stands, and determine the relationships among stand characteristics, tree biomass carbon, and stand age. Our results indicate that existing Japanese cedar plantations are still developing and their live tree biomass carbon continues to accumulate. At stands with a stand age of 90 years, tree density, canopy height, mean diameter at breast height, basal area, and live tree biomass carbon stocks reach to nearly 430 tree ha -1 , 27 m, 48 cm, 82 m 2 ha -1 and 300 Mg C ha -1 , respectively. Therefore, with no harvesting, current Japanese cedar plantations provide a carbon sink by storing carbon in tree biomass.

  18. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Badger, Philip C [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the second edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, assumptions for selected tables and figures, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  19. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2011-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the fourth edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also two appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  20. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2010-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the third edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  1. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL

    2006-09-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of the Biomass Program and the Office of Planning, Budget and Analysis in the Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use. This is the first edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book and is currently only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and BioOil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is about the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include measures of conversions, biomass characteristics and assumptions for selected tables and figures. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  2. Pilot plant straw biomass power plant; Demonstrationsanlage Strohkraftwerk Gronau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodegel, Stefan [Claustahler Umwelttechnik-Institut GmbH (CUTEC), Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Lach, Friedrich-Wilhelm [Ueberlandwerk Leinetal GmbH, Gronau (Leine) (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Drastically increasing prices for oil and gas promote the change to renewable energies. Biomass has the advantage of the storability. However, it has the disadvantage of a small stocking density. This suggests decentralized power plants. Also the proven technology of water vapour cycles with use of turbine is questioned. In the rural district Hildesheim there are efforts of thermal utilisation straw from wheat cropping. For this, a feasibility study of the Claustahler Umwelttechnik-Technik GmbH (Clausthal Zellerfeld, Federal Republic of Germany) presents technical and economic possibilities exemplary for the industrial area West in Gronau (Federal Republic of Germany). Technical and economic chances and risks are pointed out.

  3. Effects of future rainfall patterns on density and diversity of predatory mites (Gamasida) in characteristic agricultural soils of the Pannonian area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissuwa, Janet; Berthold, Helene; Bruckner, Alexander; Zaller, Johann; Hösch, Johannes; Baumgarten, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Regional climate change scenarios for the end of this century predict fewer but heavier rainfalls and longer lasting droughts during the vegetation period without substantial changes in the total annual amount of rainfall for Eastern Austria (Pannonian region). In a multidisciplinary study, the consequences of future precipitation patterns on agroecosystem processes and functions in one of the most productive agricultural areas of Austria are tested at the AGES Lysimeter station. The lysimeter station comprises the three main soil types of the pannonian agricultural area (calcaric phaeozem, gleyic phaeozem, calcic chernozem) together covering about 80% of the agricultural area. Lysimeters are a valuable tool to study the effects of climate change on the complete soil ecosystem interacting with plants. Precipitation rates are modified according to the predicted 2050 scenario in comparison to the current precipitation patterns. The abundance and diversity of soil arthropods (Collembola, Gamasida, Oribatida) is monitored for three years. Five randomly taken soil samples per lysimeter (ø 5 cm, 10 cm depth) are pooled for arthropod extraction. Here we will present first year results for Gamasida. As one of the dominant acarine predators Gamasida play a crucial role in soil food webs contributing to nutrient cycling. Preliminary results indicate a stronger influence of soil type than rainfall patterns on mite density. Gamasida density decreased in the order calcaric phaeozem > calcic chernozem > gleyic phaeozem for every sampling date. No difference between current and predicted rainfall was found in May, where the different irrigation measures were launched, and July. Mite density tended to be higher for current rainfall in September.

  4. A case of congenital progressive muscular dystrophy (Fukuyama type) showing improvement of CT scan findings in a low density area of the white matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Akashi; Murayama, Takashi; Sakuma, Nobuko; Saito, Yoko; Shinoda, Minoru.

    1982-01-01

    The follow-up CT scans of congenital progressive muscular dystrophy (Fukuyama type) were reported. The extensive low-density area around the lateral ventricle and observed at 6 months after birth improved to some extent at the age of 2 years and disappeared almost completely at the age of 3 years and 8 months. When CT improved, high values of serum CPK and aldolase and abnormal EEG at sleep (prominent spindle waves) were still present. This improvement of CT scans resembled that of congenital rubella syndrome, suggesting the possible involvement of intrauterine infection of some virus in onset of this disease. (Chiba, N.)

  5. Case of congenital progressive muscular dystrophy (Fukuyama type) showing improvement of CT scan findings in a low density area of the white matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, A.; Murayama, T.; Sakuma, N.; Saito, Y. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)); Shinoda, M.

    1982-01-01

    The follow-up CT scans of congenital progressive muscular dystrophy (Fukuyama type) were reported. The extensive low-density area around the lateral ventricle and observed at 6 months after birth improved to some extent at the age of 2 years and disappeared almost completely at the age of 3 years and 8 months. When CT improved, high values of serum CPK and aldolase and abnormal EEG at sleep (prominent spindle waves) were still present. This improvement of CT scans resembled that of congenital rubella syndrome, suggesting the possible involvement of intrauterine infection of some virus in onset of this disease.

  6. Torrefaction of biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    occurring even at biomass torrefied at 300 deg. C. Thus it cannot be concluded if pellets of torrefied materials can be stored outside or not. Due to the fact that the densification process will also have big influence on this property and full scale testing with more materials is required before this can be concluded. Densification of torrefied material was tested in both bench scale as well as lab scale pellet presses and revealed larger challenges than expected. Torrefied material reveals a much higher friction, internal between particles as well as external with the die surface, than untreated biomass does and requires thus higher amounts of energy to compress and push through the dies. Moreover, due to that the chemistry of the binding agents in the biomass is altered by the heat treatment, it is also more challenging to produce pellets with high quality. Elevated die temperatures of above {approx}190 deg. C and usage of lubricating additives such as rape seed oil was shown to clearly improve the pelletisation properties, but more research and optimisation is necessary in the future. While grindability and moisture uptake are important for the usage and storage at the power plants, the densification of torrefied is important for the transport to the plant as it is necessary for increasing the energy density. Due to that devolatilization creates cavities in the material the energy density on a volume bases (GJ/m{sup 3}) is actually lowered during torrefaction. But the remaining torrefied biomass material does have a higher energy density on a mass basis (GJ/kg), and therefore subsequent densification by pelletisation will significantly increase it energy density above that of not treated biomass also on a volume bases. Due to the fact that transport of solid fuels on ships is limited by volume rather that mass, this property is important for the economics of the supply chain. (LN)

  7. Biomass a fast growing energy resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Ulf

    2003-01-01

    Biomass as an energy resource is as versatile as the biodiversity suggests. The global net primary production, NPP, describes the annual growth of biomass on land and in the seas. This paper focuses on biomass grown on land. A recent estimate for the NPP on land is 120 billion tons of dry matter. How much of this biomass are available for energy purposes? The potential contribution of wood fuel and energy plants from sustainable production is limited to some 5% of NPP, i.e. 6 Bt. One third of the potential is energy forests and energy plantations which at present are not economic. One third is used in rural areas as traditional fuel. The remaining third would be available for modern biomass energy conversion. Biomass is assigned an expanding role as a new resource in the world's energy balance. The EU has set a target of doubling the share of renewable energy sources by 2010. For biomass the target is even more ambitious. The challenge for biomass utilization lies in improving the technology for traditional usage and expanding the role into other areas like power production and transportation fuel. Various technologies for biomass utilization are available among those are combustion, gasification, and liquefaction. Researchers have a grand vision in which the chemical elements in the hydrocarbon molecules of biomass are separated and reformed to yield new tailored fuels and form the basis for a new world economy. The vision of a new energy system based on fresh and fossilized biomass to be engineered into an environmentally friendly and sustainable fuel is a conceivable technical reality. One reason for replacing exhaustible fossil fuels with biomass is to reduce carbon emissions. The most efficient carbon dioxide emission reduction comes from replacing brown coal in a steam-electric unit, due to the efficiency of the thermal cycle and the high carbon intensity of the coal. The smallest emission reduction comes from substituting natural gas. (BA)

  8. Do shorebirds graze down zoobenthic biomass at the Banc d'Arguin tidal flats in Mauritania?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Wim J.; Michaelis, Hermann

    2008-09-01

    The 500 km 2 of tidal flats at the Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania, are a wintering site for over 2 million shorebirds, making this one of the areas with the highest density of shorebirds in the world. In earlier studies, it was found that these huge numbers of birds are dependent on a rather low biomass of benthic animals. To explain this paradoxical situation, we hypothesized that the earlier assessments of biomass in late winter and early spring do not reflect a year-round situation. Benthic biomass may be high when the birds arrive in autumn to be subsequently grazed down in the course of winter. To test this hypothesis, we have determined benthic biomass in September 1988. The result has been compared with a biomass value obtained in February-April 1986 with the same methods and at the same stations. These two biomass values do not differ significantly; so our hypothesis has to be rejected. It has to be admitted, however, that our experimental design cannot discern between differences due to the year of sampling and those due to the season.

  9. Ecosystems and biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trossero, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Biomass, particularly fuelwood and charcoal, is one of the main sources of fuel to meet the energy needs of traditional, commercial and industrial activities in developing countries. While it satisfies only about 14% of the world's primary energy needs, in some countries it satisfies up to 80% of those needs. As a result of population growth, urbanization, economic reforms, restructuring and new development targets in most of these countries, new forms of energy and a more intensive use of energy are expected for the years ahead. This additional demand for energy will be met mainly by hydroelectricity, coal and fossil fuels. However, where biomass is available or can be planted, bio fuels can be converted into new forms of energy (electricity and power) and energy carriers (liquid and gaseous fuels) to meet not only the energy needs of the modem sectors but also to maintain a sustainable supply to traditional users. In fact, FAO estimates that biomass could provide nearly three times more energy than it does without affecting the current supply of other commodities and goods such as food, fodder, fuel, timber and non-wood fuel products. The benefits derived from the utilization of biomass as a source of energy are twofold: (a) the task of supplying bio fuels can help to attract new investment, create new employment and income opportunities in rural areas, raise the value of natural resources and preserve the environment and (b) new forms of energy and energy carriers could foster increased production and productivity at the rural and community level, particularly in remote areas where conventional fuels are not easily available at affordable prices. Bioenergy can be easily developed in modular and decentralized schemes and offers many advantages. It could be an inexpensive source of energy, even at present energy prices, and it requires less capital investment for its implementation than alternative solutions. However, there are many disadvantages, too. For

  10. Biomass energy utilization in rural areas may contribute to alleviating energy crisis and global warming: A case study in a typical agro-village of Shandong, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y.H. [State Key Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology, Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093 (China); Li, Z.F. [State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Agronomy, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018 (China); Taishan Academy of Science and Technology, Tai' an, Shandong 271000 (China); Feng, S.F.; Wu, G.L.; Li, Y.; Li, C.H. [State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Agronomy, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018 (China); Lucas, M. [Rheinisch-Westfalisch Technische Hochschule, Aachen University, Aachen 52070 (Germany); Jiang, G.M. [State Key Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology, Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Agronomy, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018 (China)

    2010-12-15

    A biomass energy exploration experiment was conducted in Jiangjiazhuang, a typical agro-village in Shandong, China from 2005 to 2009. The route of this study was designed as an agricultural circulation as: crops {yields} crop residues {yields} ''Bread'' forage {yields} cattle {yields} cattle dung {yields} biogas digester {yields} biogas/digester residues {yields} green fertilizers {yields} crops. About 738.8 tons of crop residues are produced in this village each year. In 2005, only two cattle were fed in this village and 1.1% of the crop residues were used as forage. About 38.5% crop residues were used for livelihood energy, 24.5% were discarded and 29.7% were directly burned in the field. Not more than three biogas digesters were built and merely 2250 m{sup 3} biogas was produced a year relative to saving 1.6 tons standard coal and equivalent to reducing 4.3 tons CO{sub 2} emission. A total of US$ 4491 profits were obtained from cattle benefit, reducing fossil energies/chemical fertilizer application and increasing crop yield. After 5 years experiment, cattle capita had raised gradually up to 146 and some 62.3% crop residues were used as forage. The percentages used as livelihood energy, discarded and burned in the field decreased to 16.3%, 9.2% and 9.8%, respectively. Biogas digesters increased to 123 and 92,250 m{sup 3} biogas was fermented equal to saving 65.9 tons standard coal and reducing 177.9 tons CO{sub 2} emission. In total US$ 60,710 profits were obtained in 2009. In addition, about 989.9 tons green fertilizers were produced from biogas digesters and applied in croplands. The results suggested that livestock and biogas projects were promising strategies to consume the redundant agricultural residues, offer livelihood energy and increase the villagers' incomes. Biogas production and utilization could effectively alleviate energy crisis and CO{sub 2} emission, which might be a great contribution to reach the affirmatory carbon

  11. Biomass energy utilization in rural areas may contribute to alleviating energy crisis and global warming: A case study in a typical agro-village of Shandong, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Y.H.; Li, Z.F.; Feng, S.F.; Wu, G.L.; Li, Y.; Li, C.H.; Lucas, M.; Jiang, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    A biomass energy exploration experiment was conducted in Jiangjiazhuang, a typical agro-village in Shandong, China from 2005 to 2009. The route of this study was designed as an agricultural circulation as: crops → crop residues → ''Bread'' forage → cattle → cattle dung → biogas digester → biogas/digester residues → green fertilizers → crops. About 738.8 tons of crop residues are produced in this village each year. In 2005, only two cattle were fed in this village and 1.1% of the crop residues were used as forage. About 38.5% crop residues were used for livelihood energy, 24.5% were discarded and 29.7% were directly burned in the field. Not more than three biogas digesters were built and merely 2250 m 3 biogas was produced a year relative to saving 1.6 tons standard coal and equivalent to reducing 4.3 tons CO 2 emission. A total of US$ 4491 profits were obtained from cattle benefit, reducing fossil energies/chemical fertilizer application and increasing crop yield. After 5 years experiment, cattle capita had raised gradually up to 146 and some 62.3% crop residues were used as forage. The percentages used as livelihood energy, discarded and burned in the field decreased to 16.3%, 9.2% and 9.8%, respectively. Biogas digesters increased to 123 and 92,250 m 3 biogas was fermented equal to saving 65.9 tons standard coal and reducing 177.9 tons CO 2 emission. In total US$ 60,710 profits were obtained in 2009. In addition, about 989.9 tons green fertilizers were produced from biogas digesters and applied in croplands. The results suggested that livestock and biogas projects were promising strategies to consume the redundant agricultural residues, offer livelihood energy and increase the villagers' incomes. Biogas production and utilization could effectively alleviate energy crisis and CO 2 emission, which might be a great contribution to reach the affirmatory carbon emission goal of the Chinese government on Climate Conference in Copenhagen in 2009. (author)

  12. Deriving airborne laser scanning based computational canopy volume for forest biomass and allometry studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauhkonen, Jari; Næsset, Erik; Gobakken, Terje

    2014-10-01

    A computational canopy volume (CCV) based on airborne laser scanning (ALS) data is proposed to improve predictions of forest biomass and other related attributes like stem volume and basal area. An approach to derive the CCV based on computational geometry, topological connectivity and numerical optimization was tested with sparse-density, plot-level ALS data acquired from 40 field sample plots of 500-1000 m2 located in a boreal forest in Norway. The CCV had a high correspondence with the biomass attributes considered when derived from optimized filtrations, i.e. ordered sets of simplices belonging to the triangulations based on the point data. Coefficients of determination (R2) between the CCV and total above-ground biomass, canopy biomass, stem volume, and basal area were 0.88-0.89, 0.89, 0.83-0.97, and 0.88-0.92, respectively, depending on the applied filtration. The magnitude of the required filtration was found to increase according to an increasing basal area, which indicated a possibility to predict this magnitude by means of ALS-based height and density metrics. A simple prediction model provided CCVs which had R2 of 0.77-0.90 with the aforementioned forest attributes. The derived CCVs always produced complementary information and were mainly able to improve the predictions of forest biomass relative to models based on the height and density metrics, yet only by 0-1.9 percentage points in terms of relative root mean squared error. Possibilities to improve the CCVs by a further analysis of topological persistence are discussed.

  13. Effects of controlled-release fertilizer on leaf area index and fruit yield in high-density soilless tomato culture using low node-order pinching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Takafumi; Yano, Takayoshi; Sugiura, Makoto; Nagasaki, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    To further development of a simplified fertigation system using controlled-release fertilizers (CRF), we investigated the effects of differing levels of fertilizers and plant density on leaf area index (LAI), fruit yields, and nutrient use in soilless tomato cultures with low node-order pinching and high plant density during spring-summer (SS), summer-fall (SF), and fall-winter (FW) seasons. Plants were treated with 1 of 3 levels of CRF in a closed system, or with liquid fertilizer (LF) with constant electrical conductivity (EC) in a drip-draining system. Two plant densities were examined for each fertilizer treatment. In CRF treatments, LAI at pinching increased linearly with increasing nutrient supply for all cropping seasons. In SS, both light interception by plant canopy at pinching and total marketable fruit yield increased linearly with increasing LAI up to 6 m(2) · m(-2); the maximization point was not reached for any of the treatments. In FW, both light interception and yield were maximized at an LAI of approximately 4. These results suggest that maximizing the LAI in SS and FW to the saturation point for light interception is important for increasing yield. In SF, however, the yield maximized at an LAI of approximately 3, although the light interception linearly increased with increasing LAI, up to 4.5. According to our results, the optimal LAI at pinching may be 6 in SS, 3 in SF, and 4 in FW. In comparing LAI values with similar fruit yield, we found that nutrient supply was 32-46% lower with the CRF method than with LF. In conclusion, CRF application in a closed system enables growers to achieve a desirable LAI to maximize fruit yield with a regulated amount of nutrient supply per unit area. Further, the CRF method greatly reduced nutrient use without decreasing fruit yield at similar LAIs, as compared to the LF method.

  14. Effects of controlled-release fertilizer on leaf area index and fruit yield in high-density soilless tomato culture using low node-order pinching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi Kinoshita

    Full Text Available To further development of a simplified fertigation system using controlled-release fertilizers (CRF, we investigated the effects of differing levels of fertilizers and plant density on leaf area index (LAI, fruit yields, and nutrient use in soilless tomato cultures with low node-order pinching and high plant density during spring-summer (SS, summer-fall (SF, and fall-winter (FW seasons. Plants were treated with 1 of 3 levels of CRF in a closed system, or with liquid fertilizer (LF with constant electrical conductivity (EC in a drip-draining system. Two plant densities were examined for each fertilizer treatment. In CRF treatments, LAI at pinching increased linearly with increasing nutrient supply for all cropping seasons. In SS, both light interception by plant canopy at pinching and total marketable fruit yield increased linearly with increasing LAI up to 6 m(2 · m(-2; the maximization point was not reached for any of the treatments. In FW, both light interception and yield were maximized at an LAI of approximately 4. These results suggest that maximizing the LAI in SS and FW to the saturation point for light interception is important for increasing yield. In SF, however, the yield maximized at an LAI of approximately 3, although the light interception linearly increased with increasing LAI, up to 4.5. According to our results, the optimal LAI at pinching may be 6 in SS, 3 in SF, and 4 in FW. In comparing LAI values with similar fruit yield, we found that nutrient supply was 32-46% lower with the CRF method than with LF. In conclusion, CRF application in a closed system enables growers to achieve a desirable LAI to maximize fruit yield with a regulated amount of nutrient supply per unit area. Further, the CRF method greatly reduced nutrient use without decreasing fruit yield at similar LAIs, as compared to the LF method.

  15. Effect evaluation on a medical device for drinking water filtration designed for reduction of microbial density in areas at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Bonadonna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In areas at risk (hospitals, nursing homes but in also in community such as schools, swimming pools, gyms, drinking water plumbing system can harbor also pathogenic microrganisms, potential vehicles of diseases because of structural factors and phenomena of microbial regrowth. In a setting of prevention, for limiting the exposure to pathogens in the environment and for minimizing the risk, at the point of use, specific disposable filter units could be installed. Aims. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness in retaining microrganisms of a medical devices installed at drinking water faucets. Materials and methods. One hundred and eighty samples of water were microbiologically analyzed. Natural heterotrophic microbial flora present in drinking water were analytically determined before and after the passage through the system. Contemporaneously, twenty four suspensions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli at known concentration were determined for the calculation of the limit of retention calculated taking into examination the worst cases associated with the highest microbial concentrations. Results. The investigation showed that the devices were both efficient at reducing the natural microbial load and at guaranteeing the removal of high concentration of microrganisms (till 5 log. Fifty-seven out of 90 samples analyzed for the heterotrophs did not show any growth after the drainage through the system. In the positive samples, 86% showed a microbial concentration ranging between 1 e 3 CFU/L. Progressive growing concentrations of P. aeruginosa and E. coli proved a high limit of retention: none growth was obtained till the concentrations of 1.3x1012 CFU/mL and 5.0x1013 CFU/mL, respectively. Conclusions. The data show that the filter units installed directly at the point of use can be helpful at guaranteeing reliable retention of microbes. Still, in order to obtain an appropriate operation of the device, in spite of both

  16. Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Reginald [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    2014-09-01

    pores and energy exchange between the particle and its environment. This char-particle gasification model is capable of predicting the average mass loss rates, sizes, apparent densities, specific surface areas, and temperatures of the char particles produced when co-firing coal and biomass to the type environments established in entrained flow gasifiers operating at high temperatures and elevated pressures.

  17. Overview of biomass conversion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor, S.; Latif, A.; Jan, M.

    2011-01-01

    A large part of the biomass is used for non-commercial purposes and mostly for cooking and heating, but the use is not sustainable, because it destroys soil-nutrients, causes indoor and outdoor pollution, adds to greenhouse gases, and results in health problems. Commercial use of biomass includes household fuelwood in industrialized countries and bio-char (charcoal) and firewood in urban and industrial areas in developing countries. The most efficient way of biomass utilization is through gasification, in which the gas produced by biomass gasification can either be used to generate power in an ordinary steam-cycle or be converted into motor fuel. In the latter case, there are two alternatives, namely, the synthesis of methanol and methanol-based motor fuels, or Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis. This paper deals with the technological overview of the state-of-the-art key biomass-conversion technologies that can play an important role in the future. The conversion routes for production of Heat, power and transportation fuel have been summarized in this paper, viz. combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, digestion, fermentation and extraction. (author)

  18. Biomass of Sacrificed Spruce/Aspen (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dimension analysis (diameter at breast high, tree height, depth of crown), estimated leaf area, and total aboveground biomass for sacrificed spruce and aspens in...

  19. Biomass of Sacrificed Spruce/Aspen (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Dimension analysis (diameter at breast high, tree height, depth of crown), estimated leaf area, and total aboveground biomass for sacrificed spruce and...

  20. Materials Problems and Solutions in Biomass Fired Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Hede; Montgomery, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    Due to Denmark’s pledge to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, biomass is utilised increasingly as a fuel for generating energy. Extensive research and demonstration projects especially in the area of material performance for biomass fired boilers have been undertaken to make biomass a viable fuel r...

  1. Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans; Aide, T. Mitchell; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M.; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M.; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H. S.; Broadbent, Eben N.; Chazdon, Robin L.; Craven, Dylan; de Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S.; Cabral, George A. L.; de Jong, Ben H. J.; Denslow, Julie S.; Dent, Daisy H.; Dewalt, Saara J.; Dupuy, Juan M.; Durán, Sandra M.; Espírito-Santo, Mario M.; Fandino, María C.; César, Ricardo G.; Hall, Jefferson S.; Hernandez-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C.; Junqueira, André B.; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G.; Licona, Juan-Carlos; Lohbeck, Madelon; Marín-Spiotta, Erika; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A.; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R. F.; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; de Oliveira, Alexandre A.; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A.; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S.; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, I. Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B.; Steininger, Marc K.; Swenson, Nathan G.; Toledo, Marisol; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D. M.; Vester, Hans F. M.; Vicentini, Alberto; Vieira, Ima C. G.; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G. Bruce; Rozendaal, Danaë M. A.

    2016-02-01

    Land-use change occurs nowhere more rapidly than in the tropics, where the imbalance between deforestation and forest regrowth has large consequences for the global carbon cycle. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the rate of biomass recovery in secondary forests, and how these rates are influenced by climate, landscape, and prior land use. Here we analyse aboveground biomass recovery during secondary succession in 45 forest sites and about 1,500 forest plots covering the major environmental gradients in the Neotropics. The studied secondary forests are highly productive and resilient. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years was on average 122 megagrams per hectare (Mg ha-1), corresponding to a net carbon uptake of 3.05 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, 11 times the uptake rate of old-growth forests. Aboveground biomass stocks took a median time of 66 years to recover to 90% of old-growth values. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years varied 11.3-fold (from 20 to 225 Mg ha-1) across sites, and this recovery increased with water availability (higher local rainfall and lower climatic water deficit). We present a biomass recovery map of Latin America, which illustrates geographical and climatic variation in carbon sequestration potential during forest regrowth. The map will support policies to minimize forest loss in areas where biomass resilience is naturally low (such as seasonally dry forest regions) and promote forest regeneration and restoration in humid tropical lowland areas with high biomass resilience.

  2. Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans; Aide, T Mitchell; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H S; Broadbent, Eben N; Chazdon, Robin L; Craven, Dylan; de Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S; Cabral, George A L; de Jong, Ben H J; Denslow, Julie S; Dent, Daisy H; DeWalt, Saara J; Dupuy, Juan M; Durán, Sandra M; Espírito-Santo, Mario M; Fandino, María C; César, Ricardo G; Hall, Jefferson S; Hernandez-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C; Junqueira, André B; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G; Licona, Juan-Carlos; Lohbeck, Madelon; Marín-Spiotta, Erika; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R F; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; de Oliveira, Alexandre A; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, I Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B; Steininger, Marc K; Swenson, Nathan G; Toledo, Marisol; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D M; Vester, Hans F M; Vicentini, Alberto; Vieira, Ima C G; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G Bruce; Rozendaal, Danaë M A

    2016-02-11

    Land-use change occurs nowhere more rapidly than in the tropics, where the imbalance between deforestation and forest regrowth has large consequences for the global carbon cycle. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the rate of biomass recovery in secondary forests, and how these rates are influenced by climate, landscape, and prior land use. Here we analyse aboveground biomass recovery during secondary succession in 45 forest sites and about 1,500 forest plots covering the major environmental gradients in the Neotropics. The studied secondary forests are highly productive and resilient. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years was on average 122 megagrams per hectare (Mg ha(-1)), corresponding to a net carbon uptake of 3.05 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), 11 times the uptake rate of old-growth forests. Aboveground biomass stocks took a median time of 66 years to recover to 90% of old-growth values. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years varied 11.3-fold (from 20 to 225 Mg ha(-1)) across sites, and this recovery increased with water availability (higher local rainfall and lower climatic water deficit). We present a biomass recovery map of Latin America, which illustrates geographical and climatic variation in carbon sequestration potential during forest regrowth. The map will support policies to minimize forest loss in areas where biomass resilience is naturally low (such as seasonally dry forest regions) and promote forest regeneration and restoration in humid tropical lowland areas with high biomass resilience.

  3. Management and Area-wide Evaluation of Water Conservation Zones in Agricultural Catchments for Biomass Production, Water Quality and Food Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Global land and water resources are under threat from both the agricultural and urban development to meet increased demand for food and from the resulting degradation of the environment. Poor crop yields due to water stress is one of the main reasons for the prevailing hunger and rural poverty in parts of the world. The Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s particularly in Latin America and Asia resulted in increased agricultural production and depended partly on water management. In the future, most food will still need to come from rain-fed agriculture. Water conservation zones in agricultural catchments, particularly in rainfed areas, play an important role in the capture and storage of water and nutrients from farmlands and wider catchments, and help improve crop production in times of need in these areas. Water conservation zones are considered to be an important part of water resource management strategies that have been developed to prevent reservoir siltation, reduce water quality degradation, mitigate flooding, enhance groundwater recharge and provide water for farming. In addition to making crop production possible in dry areas, water conservation zones minimize soil erosion, improve soil moisture status through capillary rise and enhance soil fertility and quality. These water conservation zones include natural and constructed wetlands (including riparian wetlands), farm ponds and riparian buffer zones. The management of water conservation zones has been a challenge due to the poor understanding of the relationship between upstream land use and the functions of these zones and their internal dynamics. Knowledge of sources and sinks of water and redefining water and nutrient budgets for water conservation zones are important for optimizing the capture, storage and use of water and nutrients in agricultural landscapes. The overall objective of this coordinated research project (CRP) was to assess and enhance ecosystem services provided by wetlands, ponds

  4. Opioid receptor and β-arrestin2 densities and distribution change after sexual experience in the ventral tegmental area of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garduño-Gutiérrez, René; León-Olea, Martha; Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela

    2018-05-15

    Sexual experience modifies brain functioning and copulatory efficiency. Sexual activity, ejaculation in particular, is a rewarding behavior associated with the release of endogenous opioids, which modulate the activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system (MLS). In sexually exhausted rats, repeated ejaculation produces μ (MOR) and δ opioid receptor (DOR) internalization in ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons, as well as long-lasting behavioral changes suggestive of brain plasticity processes. We hypothesized that in sexually naïve rats the endogenous opioids released during sexual experience acquisition, might contribute to brain plasticity processes involved in the generation of the behavioral changes induced by sexual experience. To this aim, using double immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy, we compared in vivo MOR, DOR and β-arrestin2 densities and activation in the VTA of sexually naïve males, sexually experienced rats not executing sexual activity prior to sacrifice and sexually experienced animals that ejaculated once before sacrifice. Results showed that sexual experience acquisition improved male's copulatory ability and induced persistent changes in the density, cellular distribution and activation of MOR and β-arrestin2 in VTA neurons. DOR density was not modified, but its cellular location changed after sexual experience, revealing that these two opioid receptors were differentially activated during sexual experience acquisition. It is concluded that the endogenous opioids released during sexual activity produce adjustments in VTA neurons of sexually naïve male rats that might contribute to the behavioral plasticity expressed as an improvement in male copulatory parameters, promoted by the acquisition of sexual experience. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation into calculating tree biomass and carbon in the FIADB using a biomass expansion factor approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda S. Heath; Mark Hansen; James E. Smith; Patrick D. Miles

    2009-01-01

    The official U.S. forest carbon inventories (U.S. EPA 2008) have relied on tree biomass estimates that utilize diameter based prediction equations from Jenkins and others (2003), coupled with U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) sample tree measurements and forest area estimates. However, these biomass prediction equations are not the equations used...

  6. Zoobenthic biomass limited by phytoplankton abundance: evidence from parallel changes in two long-term data series in the Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukema, J. J.; Cadée, G. C.; Dekker, R.

    2002-10-01

    We address the question of whether year-to-year variability in pelagic algal food supply can explain long-term variability in macrozoobenthic biomass in an estuarine area. Starting in the early 1970s, quantitative data were frequently collected in standardized ways in the western part of the Dutch Wadden Sea on (1) concentrations of phytoplankton species and chlorophyll (and rates of primary production) in the main tidal inlet (Marsdiep) and (2) numerical densities and biomass of macrozoobenthic animals (and growth rates in a few species) in a nearby extensive tidal-flat area (Balgzand). In both data series, the most distinctive feature was a sudden change that took place around 1980, viz. a rather sudden and persisting doubling of concentrations of chlorophyll and algal cells and of primary production rates, as well as of numerical densities and biomass of zoobenthos. From these parallel changes we hypothesise that algal food largely determines the abundance of zoobenthos in the Wadden Sea. The following observations substantiate this hypothesis: (1) the significant correlation between annual mean values of chlorophyll concentration and overall mean numerical density and biomass of zoobenthos (as estimated after an appropriate time lag), (2) the observed limitation of zoobenthic biomass doubling (after the doubling of food supply) to areas with already high biomass values (where food demand was high and food could therefore be in short supply), (3) the limitation of a strong response to changes in food supply to functional groups that are directly dependent on algal food, i.e. suspension and deposit feeders, as opposed to carnivores, (4) the significant correlation between annual growth rates in Macoma balthica and food supply in the growing season, particularly in areas close to the tidal inlet where food concentrations were monitored. Some other factors were identified that could decisively influence zoobenthic abundance locally and/or temporarily. Harsh

  7. Potential of Tropical Fruit Waste Biomass for Production of Bio-Briquette Fuel: Using Indonesia as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Brunerová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Within developing countries, there is an appeal to use waste biomass for energy generation in the form of bio-briquettes. This study investigated the potential use of bio-briquettes that are produced from the waste biomass of the following tropical fruits: durian (Durio zibethinus, coconut (Cocos nucifera, coffee (Coffea arabica, cacao (Theobroma cacao, banana (Musa acuminata and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum. All fruit waste biomass samples exhibited an extremely high level of initial moisture content (78.22% in average. Fruit samples with the highest proportion of fruit waste biomass (of total unprocessed fruit mass were represented by cacao (83.82%, durian (62.56% and coconut (56.83%. Highest energy potentials (calorific value of fruit waste biomass were observed in case of coconut (18.22 MJ∙kg−1, banana (17.79 MJ∙kg−1 and durian (17.60 MJ∙kg−1 fruit samples, whereas fruit waste biomass with the lowest level of ash content originated from the rambutan (3.67%, coconut (4.52%, and durian (5.05% fruit samples. When investigating the energy demands to produce bio-briquettes from such feedstock materials, the best results (lowest amount of required deformation energy in combination with highest level of bio-briquette bulk density were achieved by the rambutan, durian and banana fruit waste biomass samples. Finally, all investigated bio-briquette samples presented satisfactory levels of bulk density (>1050 kg∙m−3. In conclusion, our results indicated the practicability and viability of such bio-briquette fuel production, as well as supporting the fact that bio-briquettes from tropical fruit waste biomass can offer a potentially attractive energy source with many benefits, especially in rural areas.

  8. Biofilms in an urban water distribution system: measurement of biofilm biomass, pathogens and pathogen persistence within the Greater Stockholm Area, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Långmark, J; Storey, M V; Ashbolt, N J; Stenström, T A

    2005-01-01

    Distribution pipe biofilms can provide sites for the concentration of a wide range of microbial pathogens, thereby acting as a potential source of continual microbial exposure and furthermore can affect the aesthetic quality of water. In a joint project between Stockholm Water, the MISTRA "Sustainable Urban Water" program, the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control and the Royal Technical University, Stockholm, the aim of the current study was to investigate biofilms formed in an urban water distribution system, and quantify the impact of such biofilms on potential pathogen accumulation and persistence within the Greater Stockholm Area, Sweden. When used for primary disinfection, ultra-violet (UV) treatment had no measurable influence on biofilm formation within the distribution system when compared to conventional chlorination. Biofilms produced within a model pilot-plant were found to be representative to those that had formed within the larger municipal water distribution system, demonstrating the applicability of the novel pilot-plant for future studies. Polystyrene microspheres (1.0 microm) and Salmonella bacteriophages demonstrated their ability to accumulate and persist within the model pilot-plant system, where the means of primary disinfection (UV-treatment, chlorination) had no influence on such phenomena. With the exception of aeromonads, potential pathogens and faecal indicators could not be detected within biofilms from the Stockholm water distribution system. Results from this investigation may provide information for water treatment and distribution management strategies, and fill key data gaps that presently hinder the refinement of microbial risk models.

  9. Assessment of Biomass Resources in Liberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.

    2009-04-01

    Biomass resources meet about 99.5% of the Liberian population?s energy needs so they are vital to basic welfare and economic activity. Already, traditional biomass products like firewood and charcoal are the primary energy source used for domestic cooking and heating. However, other more efficient biomass technologies are available that could open opportunities for agriculture and rural development, and provide other socio-economic and environmental benefits.The main objective of this study is to estimate the biomass resources currently and potentially available in the country and evaluate their contribution for power generation and the production of transportation fuels. It intends to inform policy makers and industry developers of the biomass resource availability in Liberia, identify areas with high potential, and serve as a base for further, more detailed site-specific assessments.

  10. Electricity and heat production by biomass cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marčič, Simon; Marčič, Milan

    2017-07-01

    In Slovenia, approximately 2 % of electricity is generated using cogeneration systems. Industrial and district heating networks ensure the growth of such technology. Today, many existing systems are outdated, providing myriad opportunities for reconstruction. One concept for the development of households and industry envisages the construction of several small biomass units and the application of natural gas as a fuel with a relatively extensive distribution network. This concept has good development potential in Slovenia. Forests cover 56 % of the surface area in Slovenia, which has, as a result, a lot of waste wood to be turned into biomass. Biomass is an important fuel in Slovenia. Biomass is gasified in a gasifier, and the wood gas obtained is used to power the gas engine. This paper describes a biomass cogeneration system as the first of this type in Slovenia, located in Ruše.

  11. Biomass valorization; La valorisation de la biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, M. [Groupe d' Analyse Thematique (France)

    2006-09-15

    Biomass is the photosynthesis product of carbon dioxide and water, made by the solar energy capture by plants (CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + solar energy hydrocarbons). It is this carbon which, at the end of the cycle, after fossilization, gives petroleum, gas and coal. But before being in this state, the biomass deposits are diversified and available all over the world. (O.M.)

  12. Pyrolysis of biomass for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, Marius; David, Elena; Bucura, Felicia; Sisu, Claudia; Niculescu, Violeta

    2006-01-01

    Biomass processing is a new technology within the area of renewable energies. Current energy supplies in the world are dominated by fossil fuels (some 80% of the total use of over 400 EJ per year). Nevertheless, about 10-15% of this demand is covered by biomass resources, making biomass by far the most important renewable energy source used to date. On average, in the industrialized countries biomass contributes some 9-13% to the total energy supplies, but in developing countries the proportion is as high as a fifth to one third. In quite a number of countries biomass covers even over 50 to 90% of the total energy demand. Classic application of biomass combustion is heat production for domestic applications. A key issue for bio-energy is that its use should be modernized to fit into a sustainable development path. Especially promising are the production of electricity via advanced conversion concepts (i.e. gasification and state-of-the-art combustion and co-firing) and modern biomass derived fuels like methanol, hydrogen and ethanol from ligno-cellulosic biomass, which can reach competitive cost levels within 1-2 decades (partly depending on price developments with petroleum). (authors)

  13. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. (Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  14. Correlating the Horizontal and Vertical Distribution of LiDAR Point Clouds with Components of Biomass in a Picea crassifolia Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Light detection and ranging (LiDAR has been widely used to estimate forest biomass. In this study, we aim to further explore this capability by correlating horizontal and vertical distribution of LiDAR data with components of biomass in a Picea crassifolia forest. Airborne small footprint full-waveform data were decomposed to acquire higher density point clouds. We calculated LiDAR metrics at the tree level and subplot level and correlated them to biomass components, including branch biomass (BB, leaf biomass (LB and above-ground biomass (AGB, respectively. A new metric (Horizcv describing the horizontal distribution of point clouds was proposed. This metric was found to be highly correlated with canopy biomass (BB and LB at the tree level and subplot level. Correlation between AGB and Horizcv at the subplot level is much lower than that at tree level. AGB for subplot is highly correlated with the mean height metric (Hmean, canopy cover index (CCI and the product of them. On the other hand, the relationship between the vertical distribution of LiDAR point and biomass was explored by developing two types of vertical profiles, including LiDAR distribution profiles and a biomass profile. Good relationships were found between these two types of vertical profiles and assessed by Pearson’s correlation coefficient (R and the area of overlap index (AOI. These good correlations possess potential in predicting the vertical distribution of canopy biomass. Overall, it is concluded that not only the vertical, but also the horizontal distribution of LiDAR points should be taken into account in estimating components of biomass by LiDAR.

  15. Fuel Pellets from Biomass. Processing, Bonding, Raw Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang

    The depletion of fossil fuels and the need to reduce green house gas emissions has resulted in a strong growth of biomass utilization for heat and power production. Attempts to overcome the poor handling properties of biomass, i.e. its low bulk density and inhomogeneous structure, have resulted...

  16. Seasonal changes in biomass concentration in three coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The density of forage available to wild ungulates was measured in terms of biomass concentration. Data were collected in three grassland communities for several months. In two of the communities burning and grazing treatments were also applied. The biomass concentration was greatest in the shortest sward. Results ...

  17. Volume and biomass for curlleaf cercocarpus in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Chojnacky

    1984-01-01

    Volume and biomass equations were developed for curlleaf cercocarpus (Cercocarpus ledifolius Nutt.) in the Egan and Schell Mountains near Ely, NV. The equations predict cubic foot volume of wood and bark for variable minimum branch diameters. Wood density factors are given to convert volume predictions to pounds of fiber biomass. The reliability of...

  18. Application of remote sensing technique in biomass change detection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of remote sensing technique in biomass change detection: a case study of Bromley and Chihota, Zimbabwe. ... There are various field methods used worldwide to determine density of forest resources but have several limitations because of the nature of factors influencing biomass change. These include ...

  19. Swiss Biomass Programme - Overview report on the 2007 research programme; Programm Biomasse: Ueberblicksbericht zum Forschungsprogramm 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2008-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of the results obtained in 2007 within the framework of the Swiss Biomass research programme. The potential for biomass use in Switzerland is reviewed and the emphases of the national programme are discussed. The results obtained are noted for the following areas: process optimisation, including - amongst others - particle emissions and control aspects as well as combined wood-pellets and solar heating systems. Projects involving non-wood biomass are reported on, including biomass digesters and various biogas systems. Further reports deal with the analysis and optimisation of material flows, organic pollutants and methane losses. New conversion technologies are reported on. Further reports deal with basic strategies and concepts in the area of biomass usage. National and international co-operation is also discussed. A selection of innovative pilot and demonstration projects is also presented and research and development projects are listed.

  20. Challenges and models in supporting logistics system design for dedicated-biomass-based bioenergy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Li, Xueping; Yao, Qingzhu; Chen, Yuerong

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzed the uniqueness and challenges in designing the logistics system for dedicated biomass-to-bioenergy industry, which differs from the other industries, due to the unique features of dedicated biomass (e.g., switchgrass) including its low bulk density, restrictions on harvesting season and frequency, content variation with time and circumambient conditions, weather effects, scattered distribution over a wide geographical area, and so on. To design it, this paper proposed a mixed integer linear programming model. It covered from planting and harvesting switchgrass to delivering to a biorefinery and included the residue handling, concentrating on integrating strategic decisions on the supply chain design and tactical decisions on the annual operation schedules. The present numerical examples verified the model and demonstrated its use in practice. This paper showed that the operations of the logistics system were significantly different for harvesting and non-harvesting seasons, and that under the well-designed biomass logistics system, the mass production with a steady and sufficient supply of biomass can increase the unit profit of bioenergy. The analytical model and practical methodology proposed in this paper will help realize the commercial production in biomass-to-bioenergy industry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Opportunities and Challenges in the Design and Analysis of Biomass Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautala, Pasi T.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Webb, Erin; Busch, Ingrid; Richard Hess, J.; Roni, Mohammad S.; Hilbert, Jorge; Handler, Robert M.; Bittencourt, Roger; Valente, Amir; Laitinen, Tuuli

    2015-12-01

    The biomass supply chain is one of the most critical elements of large-scale bioenergy production and in many cases a key barrier for procuring initial funding for new developments on specific energy crops. Most productions rely on complex transforming chains linked to feed and food markets. The term `supply chain' covers various aspects from cultivation and harvesting of the biomass, to treatment, transportation, and storage. After energy conversion, the product must be delivered to final consumption, whether it is in the form of electricity, heat, or more tangible products, such as pellets and biofuels. Effective supply chains are of utmost importance for bioenergy production, as biomass tends to possess challenging seasonal production cycles and low mass, energy and bulk densities. Additionally, the demand for final products is often also dispersed, further complicating the supply chain. The goal of this paper is to introduce key components of biomass supply chains, examples of related modeling applications, and if/how they address aspects related to environmental metrics and management. The paper will introduce a concept of integrated supply systems for sustainable biomass trade and the factors influencing the bioenergy supply chain landscape, including models that can be used to investigate the factors. The paper will also cover various aspects of transportation logistics, ranging from alternative modal and multi-modal alternatives to introduction of support tools for transportation analysis. Finally gaps and challenges in supply chain research are identified and used to outline research recommendations for the future direction in this area of study.

  2. Estimating biomass and macronutrient content of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ratios may underestimate on fertile sites where luxury consumption of nutrients may occur and not accurately predict where stand management practices have altered wood density, allometry or canopy architecture. Although genus and species impacted on the quantity of nutrients held in the plantation biomass, ...

  3. Indian Farmers’ Perceptions and Willingness to Supply Surplus Biomass to an Envisioned Biomass-Based Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Zyadin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this socio-technical study are to investigate the Indian farmers’ biomass production capacities and their perceptions and willingness to supply their surplus biomass to fuel an envisioned biomass-based power plant in three selected Indian states: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. For doing so, 471 farmers (about one-third from each state have been interviewed in the field with info-sheet filled in by the field investigators. The farmers from all of the states appeared very much willing to sell their surplus biomass directly to a power plant. The farmers seem to depreciate the involvement of a middleman in the biomass procurement process. The farmers, however, appeared to highly appreciate a community-based association to regulate the biomass prices, with varying perceptions regarding government intervention. The majority of the farmers perceived the establishment of a biomass-based power plant in their region with positive economic outcomes. The farmers identified several barriers to supply biomass to a power plant where transportation logistics appeared to be the main barrier. The study recommends considering biomass collection, storage and transportation logistics as a fundamental segment of any envisioned investment in a biomass-based power plant. Biomass processing, such as pelletization or briquetting is recommended for efficient transportation of biomass at longer distances to reduce the transportation costs. The study further encourages the establishment of a farmers’ association aimed at collecting and selling biomass in agriculture areas predominant for small land holdings.

  4. Theme E: Forest Biomass and Bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Stupak, Inge; Smith, C

    2014-01-01

    , especially in the EU and its biomass importing countries. As countries and companies search worldwide for new biomass sourcing areas, there is a need to review and compare the biomass potentials in different regions and the associated forest sustainability challenges. We reviewed the literature to assess...... reductions, ecosystem carbon, biodiversity, soil and water) and how well they are governed. We also addressed other issues of significant concern in a specific region, such as competition with food production. We propose and compare the most urgent short- and long-term forest sustainability and governance...

  5. Gasification of Woody Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jianjun; Saayman, Jean; Grace, John R; Ellis, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Interest in biomass to produce heat, power, liquid fuels, hydrogen, and value-added chemicals with reduced greenhouse gas emissions is increasing worldwide. Gasification is becoming a promising technology for biomass utilization with a positive environmental impact. This review focuses specifically on woody biomass gasification and recent advances in the field. The physical properties, chemical structure, and composition of biomass greatly affect gasification performance, pretreatment, and handling. Primary and secondary catalysts are of key importance to improve the conversion and cracking of tars, and lime-enhanced gasification advantageously combines CO2 capture with gasification. These topics are covered here, including the reaction mechanisms and biomass characterization. Experimental research and industrial experience are investigated to elucidate concepts, processes, and characteristics of woody biomass gasification and to identify challenges.

  6. Biomass to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the biomass to energy. It explains the biomass principle, the possibility of biomass to energy conversion, the first generation of biofuels (bio ethanol, ETBE, bio diesel, flex fuel) and their advantages and limitations, the european regulatory framework and policy with the evolutions and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  7. Evaluation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome stabilization protocols in 23 French Farrow-to-finish farms located in a high-density swine area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Pauline; Normand, Valérie; Martineau, Guy-Pierre; Bouchet, Franck; Lebret, Arnaud; Waret-Szkuta, Agnès

    2017-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is responsible for reproductive disorders in sows and respiratory problems in pigs, and has a major economic impact. Controlling PRRSV is therefore a priority for the swine industry. Stabilization of a herd, defined as the production of PRRSV-negative pigs at weaning from seropositive sows, is a common method of control, and different protocols have been described in the literature to achieve this stabilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate wether the combination of mass vaccination of sows and their piglets with a Genotype I modified live virus (MLV) vaccine, with temporal closure to the introduction of replacement animals and unidirectional pig and human flow can result in the production of PRRSV-negative pigs at weaning. The study took place in French farrow-to-finish farms located in a high-density swine area where the disease concerns over 60% of farms and only closely related strains of genotype I have been reported. Twenty-three 100-to-700 sow farrow-to-finish farms were selected prospectively between 2005 and 2014, regardless of their biosecurity level. Those farms adopted a stabilization protocol characterized by the following standardized measures: vaccination of sows, gilts, and piglets with the Genotype I MLV vaccine PORCILIS®PRRS, temporary herd closure, and strict internal biosecurity measures. Monitoring of herd status was then performed using a combination of 3 diagnostic tools: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Open reading frame (ORF) 5 and ORF7 sequencing. The status of finishing units (either active or inactive, meaning PRRSV-positive or PRRSV-negative, respectively) was not considered in this study. At the end of the monitoring period, considering the results of all the analyses, clinical signs, and epidemiology, 19 farms were considered stable and 1 remained unstable. In 3 farms it was commonly agreed to extend

  8. Estimates of Forest Biomass Carbon Storage in Liaoning Province of Northeast China: A Review and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dapao; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yin, You; Zhan, Jinyu; Lewis, Bernard J.; Tian, Jie; Bao, Ye; Zhou, Wangming; Zhou, Li; Dai, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of forest carbon storage and changes in storage capacity are critical for scientific assessment of the effects of forest management on the role of forests as carbon sinks. Up to now, several studies reported forest biomass carbon (FBC) in Liaoning Province based on data from China's Continuous Forest Inventory, however, their accuracy were still not known. This study compared estimates of FBC in Liaoning Province derived from different methods. We found substantial variation in estimates of FBC storage for young and middle-age forests. For provincial forests with high proportions in these age classes, the continuous biomass expansion factor method (CBM) by forest type with age class is more accurate and therefore more appropriate for estimating forest biomass. Based on the above approach designed for this study, forests in Liaoning Province were found to be a carbon sink, with carbon stocks increasing from 63.0 TgC in 1980 to 120.9 TgC in 2010, reflecting an annual increase of 1.9 TgC. The average carbon density of forest biomass in the province has increased from 26.2 Mg ha−1 in 1980 to 31.0 Mg ha−1 in 2010. While the largest FBC occurred in middle-age forests, the average carbon density decreased in this age class during these three decades. The increase in forest carbon density resulted primarily from the increased area and carbon storage of mature forests. The relatively long age interval in each age class for slow-growing forest types increased the uncertainty of FBC estimates by CBM-forest type with age class, and further studies should devote more attention to the time span of age classes in establishing biomass expansion factors for use in CBM calculations. PMID:24586881

  9. A proposal for pellet production from residual woody biomass in the island of Majorca (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of residual biomass for energy purposes is of great interest in isolated areas like Majorca for waste reduction, energy sufficiency and renewable energies development. In addition, densification processes lead to easy-to-automate solid biofuels which additionally have higher energy density. The present study aims at (i the estimation of the potential of residual biomass from woody crops as well as from agri-food and wood industries in Majorca, and (ii the analysis of the optimal location of potential pellet plants by means of a GIS approach (location-allocation analysis and a cost evaluation of the pellets production chain. The residual biomass potential from woody crops in Majorca Island was estimated at 35,874 metric tons dry matter (t DM per year, while the wood and agri-food industries produced annually 21,494 t DM and 2717 t DM, respectively. Thus, there would be enough resource available for the installation of 10 pellet plants of 6400 t·year−1 capacity. These plants were optimally located throughout the island of Mallorca with a maximum threshold distance of 28 km for biomass transport from the production points. Values found for the biomass cost at the pellet plant ranged between 57.1 €·t−1 and 63.4 €·t−1 for biomass transport distance of 10 and 28 km. The cost of pelleting amounted to 56.7 €·t−1; adding the concepts of business fee, pellet transport and profit margin (15%, the total cost of pelleting was estimated at 116.6 €·t−1. The present study provides a proposal for pellet production from residual woody biomass that would supply up to 2.8% of the primary energy consumed by the domestic and services sector in the Balearic Islands.

  10. Process for treating biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Timothy J.; Teymouri, Farzaneh

    2018-04-10

    This invention is directed to a process for treating biomass. The biomass is treated with a biomass swelling agent within the vessel to swell or rupture at least a portion of the biomass. A portion of the swelling agent is removed from a first end of the vessel following the treatment. Then steam is introduced into a second end of the vessel different from the first end to further remove swelling agent from the vessel in such a manner that the swelling agent exits the vessel at a relatively low water content.

  11. Process for treating biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Timothy J.; Teymouri, Farzaneh

    2015-08-11

    This invention is directed to a process for treating biomass. The biomass is treated with a biomass swelling agent within the vessel to swell or rupture at least a portion of the biomass. A portion of the swelling agent is removed from a first end of the vessel following the treatment. Then steam is introduced into a second end of the vessel different from the first end to further remove swelling agent from the vessel in such a manner that the swelling agent exits the vessel at a relatively low water content.

  12. Energy production from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestebroer, S.I.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the task group 'Energy Production from Biomass', initiated by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, was to identify bottlenecks in the development of biomass for energy production. The bottlenecks were identified by means of a process analysis of clean biomass fuels to the production of electricity and/or heat. The subjects in the process analysis are the potential availability of biomass, logistics, processing techniques, energy use, environmental effects, economic impact, and stimulation measures. Three categories of biomass are distinguished: organic residual matter, imported biomass, and energy crops, cultivated in the Netherlands. With regard to the processing techniques attention is paid to co-firing of clean biomass in existing electric power plants (co-firing in a coal-fired power plant or co-firing of fuel gas from biomass in a coal-fired or natural gas-fired power plant), and the combustion or gasification of clean biomass in special stand-alone installations. 5 figs., 13 tabs., 28 refs

  13. Biomass resources in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiangco, V.M.; Sethi, P.S. [California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The biomass resources in California which have potential for energy conversion were assessed and characterized through the project funded by the California Energy Commission and the US Department of Energy`s Western Regional Biomass Energy Program (WRBEP). The results indicate that there is an abundance of biomass resources as yet untouched by the industry due to technical, economic, and environmental problems, and other barriers. These biomass resources include residues from field and seed crops, fruit and nut crops, vegetable crops, and nursery crops; food processing wastes; forest slash; energy crops; lumber mill waste; urban wood waste; urban yard waste; livestock manure; and chaparral. The estimated total potential of these biomass resource is approximately 47 million bone dry tons (BDT), which is equivalent to 780 billion MJ (740 trillion Btu). About 7 million BDT (132 billion MJ or 124 trillion Btu) of biomass residue was used for generating electricity by 66 direct combustion facilities with gross capacity of about 800 MW. This tonnage accounts for only about 15% of the total biomass resource potential identified in this study. The barriers interfering with the biomass utilization both in the on-site harvesting, collection, storage, handling, transportation, and conversion to energy are identified. The question whether these barriers present significant impact to biomass {open_quotes}availability{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}sustainability{close_quotes} remains to be answered.

  14. Relationship between biomass and parasite density of Mediorhynchus emberizae (Acanthocephala: Gigantorhynchidae parasites of Paroaria dominicana (Passeriformes: Emberizidae of the State of Bahia, Brazil Relação entre biomassa e densidade parasitária de Mediorhynchus emberizae (acanthocephala: gigantorhynchidae parasito de Paroaria dominicana (passeriformes: emberizidae do estado da Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano R. Carvalho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available During the study of the metazoan parasites of Paroaria dominicana (Linnaeus, 1758, eight infrapopulations of Mediorhynchus emberizae (Rudolphi, 1819, were collected in the medium third of the small intestine, with parasite intensities ranging from one to ten specimens. Differences among the average values of the biomass, volume of the eggs, volume of the testicles and the parasite density of the infrapopulations were statistically tested in order to detect variations of these parameters in function of parasite density. Was observed that the acanthocephalans biomass increased with the volume of the intestine and also that the parasite density increased with the parasite intensity in the infrapopulations. It was verified that the increase of the parasite intensity was accompanied by the decrease of the mean biomass of the parasites. Decrease of the volume of the eggs was verified with the increase of the density and of the parasite intensity. The results of the present work could suggested the occurrence of density-dependent factors and the decrease of testicles volume and the biomass of the males with the increase of the parasite density in the infrapopulations of M. emberizae in the intestine of P dominicana.Durante o estudo dos metazoários parasitos de Paroaria dominicana (Linnaeus, 1758, oito infrapopulações de Mediorhynchus emberizae (Rudolphi, 1819, foram coletadas no terço médio do intestino delgado, com intensidades parasitárias variando de um a dez espécimes. Diferenças entre os valores médios da biomassa, volume dos ovos, volume dos testículos e da densidade parasitária das diferentes infrapopulações foram estatisticamente testadas com o objetivo de detectar variações desses parâmetros em função da densidade parasitária. Foi observado que a biomassa de acantocéfalos aumentou com o volume do intestino e também que a densidade dos parasitos aumentou com a intensidade parasitária nas infrapopulações. Verificou-se que

  15. Operation Control of a Biomass Gas Engine with Real-Time Analysis of In-Cylinder Gas Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Yudai; Tomatsu, Go; Nagata, Yuki; Kaneko, Shigehiko

    Biomass resources are drawing more and more attention as alternative fuel for combating the energy crisis and for atmospheric environment protection. The small gas engine in a distributed power generation system is an efficient system to use, because the biomass resource is stored in large area and its energy density is low. The heat quantity of gas fuel converted from biomass is low, and the gas composition is affected by the source type, the gasification method, and the gasifying condition. Therefore, the gas engine must be modified and operated stably with high thermal efficiency in view of these fuel fluctuations. In this study, we aim to develop a small gas engine system for biomass gas by modifying the control system of a conventional spark ignition engine. The engine control system for the biomass gas that was developed analyzed the fuel type in real time by measuring the in-cylinder gas pressure. With this control system, stable automatic engine operation was successfully achieved under different fuel composition percentages of methane and the mock biomass gas.

  16. Ecology of sand flies in a low-density residential rural area, with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation, in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida

    2015-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis is endemic in Brazil, where Lutzomyia whitmani is the most important vector involved in the transmission to humans, particularly in the peridomestic environment. Herein, we assessed the ecology of sand flies, including Lu. whitmani, in a low-density residential rural area with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation in north-eastern Brazil, where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic. Particularly, we hypothesized that sand fly abundance was correlated with climatic variables. Sand fly collections were carried out monthly from August 2013 to August 2014, using seven CDC light traps, for three consecutive nights, in three kinds of environments: indoor, peridomicile and forest. Collected sand flies were identified based on morphology and females of Lu. whitmani (n=169), Lu. amazonensis (n=134) and Lu. complexa (n=21) were selected and tested by PCR for Leishmania (Viannia) spp. In total, 5167 sand flies belonging to 19 species were identified, being that Lu. choti (43.2%) was the most frequent species, followed by Lu. amazonensis (16.6%), Lu. whitmani (15.8%), Lu. sordellii (10.7%) and Lu. quinquefer (5.8%), which together represented over 90% of the collected sand flies. All females tested by PCR were negative. The number of sand flies collected daily was positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between daily number of sand flies and daily average saturation deficit. This study points out that the number of sand flies captured daily is correlated to climatic variables, including saturation deficit, which may represent a useful parameter for monitoring sand fly populations in leishmaniasis-endemic areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Spatial and topographic trends in forest expansion and biomass change, from regional to local scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buma, Brian; Barrett, Tara M

    2015-09-01

    Natural forest growth and expansion are important carbon sequestration processes globally. Climate change is likely to increase forest growth in some regions via CO2 fertilization, increased temperatures, and altered precipitation; however, altered disturbance regimes and climate stress (e.g. drought) will act to reduce carbon stocks in forests as well. Observations of asynchrony in forest change is useful in determining current trends in forest carbon stocks, both in terms of forest density (e.g. Mg ha(-1) ) and spatially (extent and location). Monitoring change in natural (unmanaged) areas is particularly useful, as while afforestation and recovery from historic land use are currently large carbon sinks, the long-term viability of those sinks depends on climate change and disturbance dynamics at their particular location. We utilize a large, unmanaged biome (>135 000 km(2) ) which spans a broad latitudinal gradient to explore how variation in location affects forest density and spatial patterning: the forests of the North American temperate rainforests in Alaska, which store >2.8 Pg C in biomass and soil, equivalent to >8% of the C in contiguous US forests. We demonstrate that the regional biome is shifting; gains exceed losses and are located in different spatio-topographic contexts. Forest gains are concentrated on northerly aspects, lower elevations, and higher latitudes, especially in sheltered areas, whereas loss is skewed toward southerly aspects and lower latitudes. Repeat plot-scale biomass data (n = 759) indicate that within-forest biomass gains outpace losses (live trees >12.7 cm diameter, 986 Gg yr(-1) ) on gentler slopes and in higher latitudes. This work demonstrates that while temperate rainforest dynamics occur at fine spatial scales (<1000 m(2) ), the net result of thousands of individual events is regionally patterned change. Correlations between the disturbance/establishment imbalance and biomass accumulation suggest the potential for relatively

  18. Sunflower biomass distribution and seed yield in saline soil of Mexico highlands

    OpenAIRE

    Escalante-Estrada J.A.; Rodríguez-González M.T.

    2010-01-01

    Soil salinity is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate biomass production and partition in the organs of sunflower under a gradient of salinity in the soil. The Victoria sunflower was sown on 15 June 2007 at a density of 100,000 plants ha-1 in Montecillo Mex. (19°N, 48°W and 2,400 m). The area has an arid climate (less dry), an annual rainfall of 558.5 mm, and an average temperature of 14.6°C. Based on soil analysis, three areas were used as the treatments, each having 4 ...

  19. Vertical profiles of specific surface area, thermal conductivity and density of mid-latitude, Arctic and Antarctic snow: relationships between snow physics and climat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domine, F.; Arnaud, L.; Bock, J.; Carmagnola, C.; Champollion, N.; Gallet, J.; Lesaffre, B.; Morin, S.; Picard, G.

    2011-12-01

    We have measured vertical profiles of specific surface area (SSA), thermal conductivity (TC) and density in snow from 12 different climatic regions featuring seasonal snowpacks of maritime, Alpine, taiga and tundra types, on Arctic sea ice, and from ice caps in Greenland and Antarctica. We attempt to relate snow physical properties to climatic variables including precipitation, temperature and its yearly variation, wind speed and its short scale temporal variations. As expected, temperature is a key variable that determines snow properties, mostly by determining the metamorphic regime (temperature gradient or equi-temperature) in conjunction with precipitation. However, wind speed and wind speed distribution also seem to have an at least as important role. For example high wind speeds determine the formation of windpacks of high SSA and high TC instead of depth hoar with lower values of these variables. The distribution of wind speed also strongly affects properties, as for example frequent moderate winds result in frequent snow remobilization, producing snow with higher SSA and lower TC than regions with the same average wind speeds, but with less frequent and more intense wind episodes. These strong effects of climate on snow properties imply that climate change will greatly modify snow properties, which in turn will affect climate, as for example changes in snow SSA modify albedo and changes in TC affect permafrost and the release of greenhouse gases from thawing permafrost. Some of these climate-snow feedbacks will be discussed.

  20. Evaluation of Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia Caused by Zoonotic Pathogens in an Area with a High Density of Animal Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijskens, E G W; Smit, L A M; Rossen, J W A; Heederik, D; Koopmans, M

    2016-03-01

    Intensive animal farming could potentially lead to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Clinicians are at the forefront of detecting unusual diseases, but the lack of specificity of zoonotic disease symptoms makes this a challenging task. We evaluated patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with known and unknown aetiology in an area with a high livestock density and a potential association with animal farms in the proximity. Between 2008 and 2009, a period coinciding with a large Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands, patients with CAP were tested for the presence of possible respiratory pathogens. The presence and number of farm animals within 1 km of the patients' home address were assessed using geographic information system (GIS) and were compared between cases and age-matched control subjects. Of 408 patients with CAP, pathogens were detected in 275 (67.4%) patients. The presence of sheep and the number of goats were associated with CAP caused by Coxiella burnetii in a multiple logistic regression model (P 0.10). The use of GIS in combination with aetiology of CAP could be potentially used to target diagnostics and to identify outbreaks of rare zoonotic disease. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Biomass and Abundance of Herbivorous Fishes on Coral Reefs off ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benthic cover and fishing intensity appear to influence the biomass of herbivorous fish communities more on the reefs of Andavadoaka, highlighting the importance of Marine Protected Areas to protect both corals and fish. Keywords: Herbivorous fish, biomass, coral cover, algal turf, fishing, Marine Protected Areas.

  2. Sampling strategies for efficient estimation of tree foliage biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam Temesgen; Vicente Monleon; Aaron Weiskittel; Duncan Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Conifer crowns can be highly variable both within and between trees, particularly with respect to foliage biomass and leaf area. A variety of sampling schemes have been used to estimate biomass and leaf area at the individual tree and stand scales. Rarely has the effectiveness of these sampling schemes been compared across stands or even across species. In addition,...

  3. Macrobenthic standing stock in the nodule areas of Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pavithran, S.; Ingole, B.S.

    Diversity, distribution and standing stock of macrofauna in the nodule areas of Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) were studied during April 2003. The density ranged between 22 to 132 no.m super(-2) (mean: 55 + or - 37 SD, n=25) and biomass ranged...

  4. Health effects of biomass exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, S.K.; Husain, Tanveer

    1993-01-01

    Biomass fuels such as coal, wood, crop residues, kerosene oil and dung-cakes meet the energy needs in the household sector in India and other developing countries. Crop residues and dung-cakes are largely used in rural areas, whereas wood forms the major source of fuel in urban as well as rural areas. Combustion of these fuels produces various kinds of poisonous gases such as CO, smoke, nitrogen dioxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and respirable particulates. These gases are released in the domestic environment and they pollute the indoor air. The women and children are the one who suffer most from this air pollution. This results into a variety of health problems principally pertaining to respiratory system among the women and children. Studies on this aspect are reviewed. They point towards the positive relationship between biomass smoke and various health effects, particularly respiratory diseases. Need for research on the ways to prevent pollution due to biomass and resultant health hazards is emphasised. (M.G.B.). 25 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Inventory-based estimates of forest biomass carbon stocks in China: A comparison of three methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaodi Guo; Jingyun Fang; Yude Pan; Richard. Birdsey

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have reported different estimates for forest biomass carbon (C) stocks in China. The discrepancy among these estimates may be largely attributed to the methods used. In this study, we used three methods [mean biomass density method (MBM), mean ratio method (MRM), and continuous biomass expansion factor (BEF) method (abbreviated as CBM)] applied to...

  6. Estimating Volume, Biomass, and Carbon in Hedmark County, Norway Using a Profiling LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ross; Naesset, Erik; Gobakken, T.; Gregoire, T.; Stahl, G.

    2009-01-01

    A profiling airborne LiDAR is used to estimate the forest resources of Hedmark County, Norway, a 27390 square kilometer area in southeastern Norway on the Swedish border. One hundred five profiling flight lines totaling 9166 km were flown over the entire county; east-west. The lines, spaced 3 km apart north-south, duplicate the systematic pattern of the Norwegian Forest Inventory (NFI) ground plot arrangement, enabling the profiler to transit 1290 circular, 250 square meter fixed-area NFI ground plots while collecting the systematic LiDAR sample. Seven hundred sixty-three plots of the 1290 plots were overflown within 17.8 m of plot center. Laser measurements of canopy height and crown density are extracted along fixed-length, 17.8 m segments closest to the center of the ground plot and related to basal area, timber volume and above- and belowground dry biomass. Linear, nonstratified equations that estimate ground-measured total aboveground dry biomass report an R(sup 2) = 0.63, with an regression RMSE = 35.2 t/ha. Nonstratified model results for the other biomass components, volume, and basal area are similar, with R(sup 2) values for all models ranging from 0.58 (belowground biomass, RMSE = 8.6 t/ha) to 0.63. Consistently, the most useful single profiling LiDAR variable is quadratic mean canopy height, h (sup bar)(sub qa). Two-variable models typically include h (sup bar)(sub qa) or mean canopy height, h(sup bar)(sub a), with a canopy density or a canopy height standard deviation measure. Stratification by productivity class did not improve the nonstratified models, nor did stratification by pine/spruce/hardwood. County-wide profiling LiDAR estimates are reported, by land cover type, and compared to NFI estimates.

  7. Variable-density groundwater flow simulations and particle tracking. Numerical modelling using DarcyTools. Preliminary site description of the Simpevarp area, version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Stigsson, Martin; Berglund, Sten [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Svensson, Urban [Computer-aided Fluid Engineering AB, Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    SKB is conducting site investigations for a high-level nuclear waste repository in fractured crystalline rocks at two coastal areas in Sweden, Forsmark and Simpevarp. The investigations started in 2002 and have been planned since the late 1990s. The work presented here investigates the possibility of using hydrogeochemical measurements in deep boreholes to reduce parameter uncertainty in a regional modelling of groundwater flow in fractured rock. The work was conducted with the aim of improving the palaeohydrogeological understanding of the Simpevarp area and to give recommendations to the preparations of the next version of the Preliminary Site Description (1.2). The study is based on a large number of numerical simulations of transient variable density groundwater flow through a strongly heterogeneous and anisotropic medium. The simulations were conducted with the computer code DarcyTools, the development of which has been funded by SKB. DarcyTools is a flexible porous media code specifically designed to treat groundwater flow and salt transport in sparsely fractured crystalline rock and it is noted that some of the features presented in this report are still under development or subjected to testing and verification. The simulations reveal the sensitivity of the results to different hydrogeological modelling assumptions, e.g. the sensitivity to the initial groundwater conditions at 10,000 BC, the size of the model domain and boundary conditions, and the hydraulic properties of deterministically and stochastically modelled deformation zones. The outcome of these simulations was compared with measured salinities and calculated relative proportions of different water types (mixing proportions) from measurements in two deep core drilled boreholes in the Laxemar subarea. In addition to the flow simulations, the statistics of flow related transport parameters were calculated for particle flowpaths from repository depth to ground surface for two subareas within the

  8. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of

  9. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased

  10. Energetische Verwertung von Biomasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoransky, Richard; Allelein, Hans-Josef; Bollin, Elmar; Oehler, Helmut; Schelling, Udo

    Etwa 0,1% der Solarenergie wandeln sich durch Photosynthese aus dem Kohlendioxid der Luft in Biomasse um. Die Biomassen sind als Festbrennstoff nutzbar oder zu gasförmigen Brennstoffen weiterverarbeitbar. Zwei Arten von Biomassen sind zu unterscheiden: Anfallende Biomasse

  11. Biomass for rural vitality report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, S.; DiPaolo, J.; Bryan, J.

    2009-06-01

    This report was completed by the Eastern Lake Ontario Regional Innovation Network (ELORIN) in order to identify opportunities for producing pellets from agricultural biomass in Lennox and Addington County. An agricultural profile of the county was presented. Potential feedstocks for biomass production included industrial hemp; switchgrass; short rotation crop willow; hybrid poplars; and miscanthus. Available soil survey data was combined with soil class data in order to generate maps of the total area of land available for energy crop production. The pelletizing process was described. A cost projection for 3 to 7 ton per hour pellet production facility was also presented. Potential markets for using the pellets include greenhouses, residential home heating suppliers and large industrial users. The study showed that heating just 1 per cent of Ontario's greenhouse space with switchgrass will create a demand for 15,000 tonnes of pellets. The average home requires 3 to 4 tonnes of pellets per year for heating. 3 tabs., 54 figs.

  12. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Rudolf, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass with the aim of describing the current status of the technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a medium-temperature, high-pressure thermochemical process, which produces a liquid product, often called bio-oil or bi-crude. During...... the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the macromolecules of the biomass are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive and can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed...... by dehydration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of bio-oil are highly dependent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass constitutes of various components such as protein; carbohydrates, lignin and fat, and each of them produce distinct spectra of compounds during hydrothermal liquefaction...

  13. Biomass burning in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, V.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the direct biomass burning practices in India. The review pertains to fire practices in forest, agricultural fields, grasslands, households, and industry. In forest land, extent of controlled burning for regeneration and fire prevention is estimated based on the forest statistics. The biomass burned annually due to accidental fires and for shifting cultivation is quantified based on a few earlier studies. In the case of household and small-scale industries, the biomass burned is quantified by extrapolating past data on energy consumption. In addition to wood and crop residues, the use of dungcakes and charcoal is also accounted for in calculating the total amount of biofuels burned annually. Wherever possible, regional and seasonal variations in the biomass burning practices are highlighted. This exercise has led to improve the current estimates of biomass burned annually in India. The factors influencing the impact of National Programme on Improved Cookstoves (NPIC) in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions are discussed

  14. Rheology of concentrated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniuk, J. R.; Wang, J.; Root, T. W.; Scott, C. T.; Klingenberg, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Economic processing of lignocellulosic biomass requires handling the biomass at high solids concentration. This creates challenges because concentrated biomass behaves as a Bingham-like material with large yield stresses. Here we employ torque rheometry to measure the rheological properties of concentrated lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover). Yield stresses obtained using torque rheometry agree with those obtained using other rheometric methods, but torque rheometry can be used at much larger solids concentration (weight fractions of insoluble solids greater than 0.2). Yield stresses decrease with severity of hydrolysis, decrease when water-soluble polymers are added (for nonhydrolyzed biomass), and increase with particle length. Experimental results are qualitatively consistent with those obtained from particle-level simulations.

  15. Remarks on energetic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, Paul; Pelletier, Georges

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a study of energy biomass by considering its three main sources (forest, agriculture and wastes) and three energy needs (heat, fuel for transports, electricity) in the French national context. After having recalled the various uses of biomass (animal feeding, energy production, materials, chemical products), the authors discuss the characteristics of biomass with respect to other energy sources. Then, they analyse and discuss the various energy needs which biomass could satisfy: heat production (in industry, in the residential and office building sector), fuel for transports, electricity production. They assess and discuss the possible biomass production of its three main sources: forest, agriculture, and wastes (household, agricultural and industrial wastes). They also discuss the opportunities for biogas production and for second generation bio-fuel production

  16. Density-dependent growth of the polychaete Diopatra aciculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milada Safarik

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of intraspecific density on growth of the tube-building polychaete Diopatra aciculata (Onuphidae were examined over a three-month period within a marine worm aquaculture facility. Three polychaete densities (500, 1000 and 2000 worms/m2 were represented within triplicate 0.30 m2 boxes containing late juvenile D. aciculata, sandy sediment and recirculating seawater. Daily food ration per worm was held constant across all density levels. Total length, weight and number of segments were recorded for 20 polychaetes randomly removed from each of nine treatment boxes at weeks 1, 7 and 14. Mean daily growth was higher during weeks 1-7 than during weeks 7-14 for all growth variables at each density level. Polychaetes at the highest density level exhibited lower rates of growth and more broken and/or regenerating posterior segments than those at low density. High D. aciculata density was also associated with reduced dissolved oxygen concentrations and high polychaete mortality (20%. At medium polychaete density (1000/m2, D. aciculata exhibited low levels of apparent stress and high biomass return per unit area, both of which are important considerations in the aquaculture rearing of this species. We suggest that further studies focus on age- and size-related factors contributing to density effects on polychaete growth.

  17. New market potential: Torrefaction of woody biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hess, J. Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-02

    Biomass was the primary source of energy worldwide until a few generations ago, when the energy-density, storability and transportability of fossil fuels enabled one of the most rapid cultural transformations in the history of humankind: the industrial revolution. In just a few hundred years, coal, oil and natural gas have prompted the development of highly efficient, high-volume manufacturing and transportation systems that have become the foundation of the world economy. But over-reliance on fossil resources has also led to environmental and energy security concerns. In addition, one of the greatest advantages of using biomass to replace fossil fuels is reduced greenhouse gas emissions and carbon footprint.

  18. Economic analysis of biomass crop production in Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, M.; Hodges, A.W.; Stricker, J.A.; Kiker, C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Favorable soil and climate conditions for production of biomass crops in Florida, and a market for their use, provide the essentials for developing a biomass energy system in the State. Recent surveys showed that there is low opportunity cost land available and several high yield herbaceous and woody crops have potential as biomass crops. Comparison of biomass crop yields, farmgate costs, and costs of final products in Florida and other states show that Florida can be considered as one of the best areas for development of biomass energy systems in the United States. This paper presents facts and figures on biomass production and conversion in Florida and addresses issues of concern to the economics of biomass energy in the State. (author)

  19. HOW THE FOOD-SUPPLY HARVESTABLE BY WADERS IN THE WADDEN SEA DEPENDS ON THE VARIATION IN ENERGY DENSITY, BODY-WEIGHT, BIOMASS, BURYING DEPTH AND BEHAVIOR OF TIDAL-FLAT INVERTEBRATES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZWARTS, L; WANINK, JH

    1993-01-01

    For several reasons, waders in the Wadden Sea face a large seasonal and annual variation in their food supply. Observations on a tidal flat in the Dutch Wadden Sea have shown that: (1) The average energy density of ten invertebrate prey species varies between 21 and 23 kJ.g-1 AFDW. In Scrobicularia

  20. Power from biomass: the power utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafimova, K.; Angele, H.-C.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at possible strategies that electricity utilities in Switzerland could follow in order to be able to make use of biomass as a source of energy. Increasing interest in damp biomass as a relatively cheap, renewable and climate-friendly source of energy is commented on. Strategic choices that energy utilities have to make when they decide to enter into the biomass market are examined. The potentials involved are examined, including biogenic materials from domestic wastes and from agriculture. Figures on potential waste tonnage are quoted. Questions on subsidies and the free market are examined. The setting up of 'virtual power stations' - networks of installations using photovoltaic, wind and biomass - is discussed, as are various strategies that utilities can follow in this area. Examples of such 'virtual power stations' are listed.

  1. Proximity effect correction using multilevel area density maps for character projection based electron beam direct writing toward 14 nm node and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Kozo; Hoshino, Hiromi; Maruyama, Takashi; Machida, Yasuhide; Sugatani, Shinji

    2012-03-01

    We propose an advanced proximity effect correction method, in which all patterns of various sizes are written by character projection (CP) method, and the dose modulation and the auxiliary shot generation are performed using multiple area density maps with different mesh sizes according to the range of electron scatterings. We investigated the possibility that all patterns of various sizes could be written by using small number of CP characters of a single line with fixed width, which is called the "master-CP". We then estimated the range of the designed line width that can be supported by a master-CP and the number of master-CPs which are needed in order to support all patterns of various sizes. We found that only 5-7 master-CPs are required in terms of the dose margin, the rate of increase in the correction dose caused by using the master-CP of different width from the design pattern and the shot positioning error, and they have a low impact on the CP mask. Moreover, we estimated the effect of auxiliary shots on the throughput for 14 nm node technology. The percentage of auxiliary shots in the exposure time was less than 12.1%, even though a test pattern data was made by shrinking a 65 nm node logic LSI where the layout did not repeat very regularly. Therefore, as the layout becomes regularly-repeated to 14 nm node, the effect of the auxiliary shots would not be a dominant factor for the throughput.

  2. Biomass CHP Catalog of Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report reviews the technical and economic characterization of biomass resources, biomass preparation, energy conversion technologies, power production systems, and complete integrated CHP systems.

  3. STIR Proposal For Research Area 2.1.2 Surface Energy Balance: Transient Soil Density Impacts Land Surface Characteristics and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-22

    and K.J. Coughlam. 1976. The nature of changes in bulk density with water content in a cracking clay . Aust. J. Soil Res. 15:27-37. Brooks, R. H... density . Parameter Bulk density Mg m -3 1.1 1.25 1.4 Clay loam r 0.091 0.088 0.084 s 0.522 0.480 0.441 Ks (cm d -1 ) 53.2 22.5 9.6 Silt... density = 1.25 Mg m-3 were estimated with ROSETTA (Schaap et al., 2001). Parameter Bulk density Mg m -3 1.1 1.25 1.4 Clay loam r 0.080 0.088

  4. The biomass file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    As biomass represents the main source of renewable energy to reach the 23 per cent objective in terms of energy consumption by 2020, a first article gives a synthetic overview of its definition, its origins, its possible uses, its share in the French energy mix, its role by 2020, strengths and weaknesses for its development, the growth potential of its market, and its implications in terms of employment. A second article outlines the assets of biomass, indicates the share of some crops in biomass energy production, and discusses the development of new resources and the possible energy valorisation of various by-products. Interviews about biomass market and development perspectives are proposed with representatives of institutions, energy industries and professional bodies concerned with biomass development and production. Other articles comments the slow development of biomass-based cogeneration, the coming into operation of a demonstration biomass roasting installation in Pau (France), the development potential of biogas in France, the project of bio natural gas vehicles in Lille, and the large development of biogas in Germany

  5. Modeling of biomass pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samo, S.R.; Memon, A.S.; Akhund, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The fuels used in industry and power sector for the last two decades have become expensive. As a result renewable energy source have been emerging increasingly important, of these, biomass appears to be the most applicable in the near future. The pyrolysis of biomass plays a key role amongst the three major and important process generally encountered in a gas producer, namely, pyrolysis, combustion and reduction of combustion products. Each biomass has its own pyrolysis characteristics and this important parameters must be known for the proper design and efficient operation of a gasification system. Thermogravimetric analysis has been widely used to study the devolatilization of solid fuels, such as biomass. It provides the weight loss history of a sample heated at a predetermined rate as a function of time and temperature. This paper presents the experimental results of modelling the weight loss curves of the main biomass components i.e. cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Thermogravimetric analysis of main components of biomass showed that pyrolysis is first order reaction. Furthermore pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicelluloe can be regarded as taking place in two stages, for while lignin pyrolysis is a single stage process. This paper also describes the Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) technique to predict the weight retained during pyrolysis at any temperature, for number of biomass species, such as cotton stalk, bagasse ad graoundnut shell. (author)

  6. Biomass expansion factors for Eucalyptus globulus stands in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, P.; Tome, M.

    2012-11-01

    One of several procedures for estimating carbon stocks in forests is the estimation of tree or stand biomass based on forest inventory data. The two approaches normally used to convert field measurements of trees to stand biomass values are allometric biomass equations and biomass expansion factors (BEFs). BEFs are used in published National Forest Inventory results in which biomass is not estimated or as a complement of growth models that do not include biomass predictions. In this paper, the effectiveness of BEFs for estimating total stand biomass in Portuguese Eucalyptus globulus plantations was analyzed. Here, BEF is defined as the ratio of total stand biomass (aboveground biomass plus root biomass) to stand volume with bark. To calculate total biomass, an equation was developed to estimate root biomass as a function of aboveground biomass. Changes of BEF with stand variables were analyzed. Strong relationships were observed between BEF and stand age, stand basal area, stand volume and dominant height. Consequently, an equation to predict BEF as a function of stand variables was fitted, and dominant height was selected as the predictor stand variable. Estimates of total stand biomass based on individual tree allometric equations were compared with estimates obtained with a constant BEF (0.77), used in the Portuguese National Inventory Report on Greenhouse Gases, and with estimates obtained using the dominant height-dependent BEF equation developed in this work. The BEF prediction model proposed in this work may be used to improve E. globulus Portuguese biomass estimates when tree allometric equations cannot be used. (Author) 40 refs.

  7. A new approach to macroalgal bloom control in eutrophic, shallow-water, coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Mauro; Salvaterra, Giulia; Gennaro, Paola; Mercatali, Isabel; Persia, Emma; Porrello, Salvatore; Sorce, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    In summer 2012, an experiment was conducted in a shallow eutrophic lagoon with poor water exchange to determine the consequences of harvesting algae on the algal mat itself, which was traversed and repeatedly disturbed by large harvester boats. Four areas with high macroalgal density, measuring half a hectare each, were selected. Two were subjected to frequent disturbance of the algal mat and sediment (12 two-hour operations over a 38-day period) and the other two were left undisturbed as control. The following variables were determined: 1) water column physical chemistry and nutrients; 2) redox potential, nutrients and organic load in sediments; 3) C, N and P content of algal thalli; 4) macroalgal biomass. In 2013, a further experiment was conducted on a larger scale. Biomass was estimated in a high-density mat measuring 235 ha, where macroalgae were harvested and stirred up by four harvesting boats, and in two high-density mats measuring 150 and 120 ha, left undisturbed as control (9.15, 9.92 and 3.68 kg/m(2), respectively). In the first experiment, no significant changes were observed in the water column. In sediment the main variation was a significant reduction in labile organic matter in the disturbed areas and a significant increase mainly in refractory organic matter in the undisturbed areas. Biomass showed a significant drastic reduction in disturbed areas and substantial stability in undisturbed areas. In the large-scale experiment, the biomass of the disturbed mat declined by about 63%, only 6.5% of which was due to harvesting. On the other hand, the undisturbed mat with higher density underwent a natural decline in biomass of about 23% and the other increased by about 50%. These results demonstrate that disturbance of high-density mat in shallow water by boats can cause decay of the mat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electricity from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, B.

    1998-11-01

    Electricity from biomass assesses the potential of biomass electricity for displacing other more polluting power sources and providing a relatively clean and ecologically friendly source of energy; discusses its environmental and economic effects, while analysing political and institutional initiatives and constraints; evaluates key factors, such as energy efficiency, economics, decentralisation and political repurcussions; considers the processes and technologies employed to produce electricity from biomass; and discusses the full range of incentives offered to producers and potential producers and the far-reaching implications it could have for industry, society and the environment. (author)

  9. Biomass in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapron, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    This document provides, first, an overview of biomass industry in Germany: energy consumption and renewable energy production, the French and German electricity mix, the 2003-2013 evolution of renewable electricity production and the 2020 forecasts, the biomass power plants, plantations, biofuels production and consumption in Germany. Then, the legal framework of biofuels development in Germany is addressed (financial incentives, tariffs, direct electricity selling). Next, a focus is made on biogas production both in France and in Germany (facilities, resources). Finally, the French-German cooperation in the biomass industry and the research actors are presented

  10. High-Resolution Mapping of Aboveground Biomass for Forest Carbon Monitoring - A Case Study in Three Mid-Atlantic States, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W.; Dolan, K. A.; Johnson, K. D.; ONeil-Dunne, J.; Dubayah, R.; Hurtt, G. C.

    2016-12-01

    Accurate mapping of forest aboveground biomass is critical for reducing uncertainties in carbon monitoring and accounting systems. As part of NASA's Carbon Monitoring System program, we have developed a robust, replicable and scalable framework that quantifies forest structure and aboveground biomass over large areas at high resolution. Discrete return LiDAR data were collected over 150,000 square km area in three Mid-Atlantic States (Maryland, Delaware and Pennsylvania). A set of 30-m LiDAR metrics derived from LiDAR point clouds were extracted as co-variables for mapping forest aboveground biomass density. Machine learning Random Forest models for four Eco-Regions (i.e., Eastern Broadleaf, Northeastern Mixed, Outer Coastal Plain, and Central Appalachian) were calibrated by linking LiDAR metrics to estimates of biomass from FIA plot measurements that most closely matched the year of LiDAR acquisition. Independent field plot measurements over four eco-regions were used for validation, and spatial errors were estimated at the pixel level using Quantile Random Forests. Additionally, we conducted detailed map comparisons to national products at pixel-, county-, and state-level. Results show that the proposed framework can produce accurate estimates of biomass at fine spatial resolution. High-resolution LiDAR-derived biomass maps such as these, provide a valuable bottom-up reference to improve the analysis and interpretation of large-scale mapping efforts, and future development of a national carbon monitoring system.

  11. Forest Structure, Composition and Above Ground Biomass of Tree Community in Tropical Dry Forests of Eastern Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudam Charan SAHU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of biomass, structure and composition of tropical forests implies also the investigation of forest productivity, protection of biodiversity and removal of CO2 from the atmosphere via C-stocks. The hereby study aimed at understanding the forest structure, composition and above ground biomass (AGB of tropical dry deciduous forests of Eastern Ghats, India, where as a total of 128 sample plots (20 x 20 meters were laid. The study showed the presence of 71 tree species belonging to 57 genera and 30 families. Dominant tree species was Shorea robusta with an importance value index (IVI of 40.72, while Combretaceae had the highest family importance value (FIV of 39.01. Mean stand density was 479 trees ha-1 and a basal area of 15.20 m2 ha-1. Shannon’s diversity index was 2.01 ± 0.22 and Simpson’s index was 0.85 ± 0.03. About 54% individuals were in the size between 10 and 20 cm DBH, indicating growing forests. Mean above ground biomass value was 98.87 ± 68.8 Mg ha-1. Some of the dominant species that contributed to above ground biomass were Shorea robusta (17.2%, Madhuca indica (7.9%, Mangifera indica (6.9%, Terminalia alata (6.9% and Diospyros melanoxylon (4.4%, warranting extra efforts for their conservation. The results suggested that C-stocks of tropical dry forests can be enhanced by in-situ conserving the high C-density species and also by selecting these species for afforestation and stand improvement programs. Correlations were computed to understand the relationship between above ground biomass, diversity indices, density and basal area, which may be helpful for implementation of REDD+ (reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and foster conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks scheme.

  12. Improving Accuracy Estimation of Forest Aboveground Biomass Based on Incorporation of ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 and Sentinel-2A Imagery and Machine Learning: A Case Study of the Hyrcanian Forest Area (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Vafaei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to investigate the potential combination of Sentinel-2A and ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 (Advanced Land Observing Satellite -2 Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 imagery for improving the accuracy of the Aboveground Biomass (AGB measurement. According to the current literature, this kind of investigation has rarely been conducted. The Hyrcanian forest area (Iran is selected as the case study. For this purpose, a total of 149 sample plots for the study area were documented through fieldwork. Using the imagery, three datasets were generated including the Sentinel-2A dataset, the ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 dataset, and the combination of the Sentinel-2A dataset and the ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 dataset (Sentinel-ALOS. Because the accuracy of the AGB estimation is dependent on the method used, in this research, four machine learning techniques were selected and compared, namely Random Forests (RF, Support Vector Regression (SVR, Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Networks (MPL Neural Nets, and Gaussian Processes (GP. The performance of these AGB models was assessed using the coefficient of determination (R2, the root-mean-square error (RMSE, and the mean absolute error (MAE. The results showed that the AGB models derived from the combination of the Sentinel-2A and the ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 data had the highest accuracy, followed by models using the Sentinel-2A dataset and the ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 dataset. Among the four machine learning models, the SVR model (R2 = 0.73, RMSE = 38.68, and MAE = 32.28 had the highest prediction accuracy, followed by the GP model (R2 = 0.69, RMSE = 40.11, and MAE = 33.69, the RF model (R2 = 0.62, RMSE = 43.13, and MAE = 35.83, and the MPL Neural Nets model (R2 = 0.44, RMSE = 64.33, and MAE = 53.74. Overall, the Sentinel-2A imagery provides a reasonable result while the ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 imagery provides a poor result of the forest AGB estimation. The combination of the Sentinel-2A imagery and the ALOS-2 PALSAR-2

  13. Biomass Resources Distribution in the Terrestrial Ecosystem of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data and the multiple linear regression model were used to estimate distribution of biomass resources in 2010. The establishment of models, developed using different vegetation biomass sample data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, leaf area index (LAI, meteorological data, coordinates, terrain data, and statistical data. Results based on a cross-validation approach show that the model can explain 95.6% of the variance in biomass, with a relative estimation error of 67 g·m−2 for a range of biomass between 0–73,875 g·m−2. Spatial statistic results were consistent with the practical condition in most cases. The above- and below-ground biomass (ABGB of China was estimated to be 31.1 Pg (1 Pg = 1015 g in 2010. The forest ecosystem has the largest total biomass, which represents about 70% of the whole terrestrial ecosystem. The desert ecosystem has minimum biomass value. The Belowground Endowment (BRE varied differently in spatial distribution, with the high values occurring in the southeast and northeast. The low values were primarily distributed in north and northwest regions, where it is mostly desert and few plants. Biomass per capita indicates the availability of natural resources per capita. Tibet had the maximum biomass per capita (807 tone in 2010. Shanghai and Tianjin had the minimum biomass per capita, less than 500 kg. Shanghai, Tianjin, Guangzhou, Beijing, and Hainan had negative growth of