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Sample records for biomarkers 0f bacterial

  1. Host Biomarkers for Distinguishing Bacterial from Non-Bacterial Causes of Acute Febrile Illness: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapasi, Anokhi J.; Dittrich, Sabine; González, Iveth J.; Rodwell, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Background In resource limited settings acute febrile illnesses are often treated empirically due to a lack of reliable, rapid point-of-care diagnostics. This contributes to the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs and poor treatment outcomes. The aim of this comprehensive review was to summarize the diagnostic performance of host biomarkers capable of differentiating bacterial from non-bacterial infections to guide the use of antibiotics. Methods Online databases of published literature were searched from January 2010 through April 2015. English language studies that evaluated the performance of one or more host biomarker in differentiating bacterial from non-bacterial infection in patients were included. Key information extracted included author information, study methods, population, pathogens, clinical information, and biomarker performance data. Study quality was assessed using a combination of validated criteria from the QUADAS and Lijmer checklists. Biomarkers were categorized as hematologic factors, inflammatory molecules, cytokines, cell surface or metabolic markers, other host biomarkers, host transcripts, clinical biometrics, and combinations of markers. Findings Of the 193 citations identified, 59 studies that evaluated over 112 host biomarkers were selected. Most studies involved patient populations from high-income countries, while 19% involved populations from low- and middle-income countries. The most frequently evaluated host biomarkers were C-reactive protein (61%), white blood cell count (44%) and procalcitonin (34%). Study quality scores ranged from 23.1% to 92.3%. There were 9 high performance host biomarkers or combinations, with sensitivity and specificity of ≥85% or either sensitivity or specificity was reported to be 100%. Five host biomarkers were considered weak markers as they lacked statistically significant performance in discriminating between bacterial and non-bacterial infections. Discussion This manuscript provides a summary

  2. Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1: a biomarker for bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. Determann; M. Weisfelt; J. de Gans; A. van der Ende; M.J. Schultz; D. van de Beek

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (sTREM-1) in CSF can serve as a biomarker for the presence of bacterial meningitis and outcome in patients with this disease. Design: Retrospective study of diagnostic accuracy. Setting and patients: CSF was coll

  3. Cytokines and Chemokines as Biomarkers of Community-Acquired Bacterial Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Holub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Routinely used biomarkers of bacterial etiology of infection, such as C-reactive protein and procalcitonin, have limited usefulness for evaluation of infections since their expression is enhanced by a number of different conditions. Therefore, several inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were analyzed with sera from patients hospitalized for moderate bacterial and viral infectious diseases. In total, 57 subjects were enrolled: 21 patients with community-acquired bacterial infections, 26 patients with viral infections, and 10 healthy subjects (control cohorts. The laboratory analyses were performed using Luminex technology, and the following molecules were examined: IL-1Ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, INF-γ, MIP-1β, and MCP-1. Bacterial etiology of infection was associated with significantly (P<0.001 elevated serum concentrations of IL-1Ra, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α in comparison to levels observed in the sera of patients with viral infections. In the patients with bacterial infections, IL-1Ra and IL-8 demonstrated positive correlation with C-reactive protein, whereas, IL-1Ra, TNF-α, and MCP-1 correlated with procalcitonin. Furthermore, elevated levels of IL-1Ra, IL-6, and TNF-α decreased within 3 days of antibiotic therapy to levels observed in control subjects. The results show IL-1Ra as a potential useful biomarker of community-acquired bacterial infection.

  4. Procalcitonin as a biomarker of bacterial infection in pediatric patients after congenital heart surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Chakravarti, Sujata B; Diane A Reformina; Lee, Timothy M; Malhotra, Sunil P; Mosca, Ralph S; Puneet Bhatla

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bacterial infection (BI) after congenital heart surgery (CHS) is associated with increased morbidity and is difficult to differentiate from systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Procalcitonin (PCT) has emerged as a reliable biomarker of BI in various populations. Aim: To determine the optimal PCT threshold to identify BI among children suspected of having infection following CPB. Setting and Design: Single-center retrospective observationa...

  5. Biomarkers for Tuberculosis Based on Secreted, Species-Specific, Bacterial Small Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shih-Jung; Tapley, Asa; Adamson, John; Little, Tessa; Urbanowski, Michael; Cohen, Keira; Pym, Alexander; Almeida, Deepak; Dorasamy, Afton; Layre, Emilie; Young, David C; Singh, Ravesh; Patel, Vinod B; Wallengren, Kristina; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Wilson, Douglas; Moody, D Branch; Bishai, William

    2015-12-01

    Improved biomarkers are needed for tuberculosis. To develop tests based on products secreted by tubercle bacilli that are strictly associated with viability, we evaluated 3 bacterial-derived, species-specific, small molecules as biomarkers: 2 mycobactin siderophores and tuberculosinyladenosine. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we demonstrated the presence of 1 or both mycobactins and/or tuberculosinyladenosine in serum and whole lung tissues from infected mice and sputum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or lymph nodes from infected patients but not uninfected controls. Detection of the target molecules distinguished host infection status in 100% of mice with both serum and lung as the target sample. In human subjects, we evaluated detection of the bacterial small molecules (BSMs) in multiple body compartments in 3 patient cohorts corresponding to different forms of tuberculosis. We detected at least 1 of the 3 molecules in 90%, 71%, and 40% of tuberculosis patients' sputum, CSF, and lymph node samples, respectively. In paucibacillary forms of human tuberculosis, which are difficult to diagnose even with culture, detection of 1 or more BSM was rapid and compared favorably to polymerase chain reaction-based detection. Secreted BSMs, detectable in serum, warrant further investigation as a means for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring in patients with tuberculosis.

  6. PROCALCITONIN AS A BIOMARKER OF BACTERIAL INFECTION IN SICKLE CELL VASO-OCCLUSIVE CRISIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar Patel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infection is an important trigger of vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC in sickle cell anaemia (SCA. SCA Patients with VOC have signs of inflammation and it is difficult to diagnose bacterial infection in them. This study was undertaken to evaluate serum procalcitonin (PCT as a biomarker of bacterial infection in acute sickle cell vaso-occlusive crisis. Hundred SCA patients were studied at Sickle Cell Clinic and Molecular Biology Laboratory, V.S.S. Medical College, Burla, Odisha, India. SCA was diagnosed by haemoglobin electrophoresis, HPLC and molecular analysis. Patients were divided into 3categories namely Category-A (VOC/ACS with fever but without evidence of bacterial infection-66 patients; Category-B (VOC with fever and documentedbacterial infection-24 patients; and Category-C (Patients in steady statewithout VOC/ACS or fever-10 patients. Investigations like complete blood count, C-reactive protein estimation and PCT measurement was done in all the cases. There was no significant difference in total leucocytes count and C-reactiveprotein values between category A and B. In category A the PCT level was 0.5ng/mL with 87.5% of cases having >2ng/mL. In category C, PCT value was 2ng/mL is indicative of bacterial infection necessitating antimicrobial therapy. Patients with indeterminate PCT value of0.5-2ng/mL, need a repeat PCT estimation or an empirical antibiotic therapyawaiting the availability of microbiological report as deemed necessary.

  7. Rapid bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test based on simple surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Ying; Han, Yin-Yi; Shih, Po-Han; Lian, Wei-Nan; Wang, Huai-Hsien; Lin, Chi-Hung; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Wang, Juen-Kai; Wang, Yuh-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Rapid bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurement are important to help reduce the widespread misuse of antibiotics and alleviate the growing drug-resistance problem. We discovered that, when a susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli is exposed to an antibiotic, the intensity of specific biomarkers in its surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra drops evidently in two hours. The discovery has been exploited for rapid AST and MIC determination of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and wild-type E. coli as well as clinical isolates. The results obtained by this SERS-AST method were consistent with that by the standard incubation-based method, indicating its high potential to supplement or replace existing time-consuming methods and help mitigate the challenge of drug resistance in clinical microbiology. PMID:26997474

  8. Vaginal Biogenic Amines: Biomarkers of Bacterial Vaginosis or Precursors to Vaginal Dysbiosis?

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    Tiffanie Maree Nelson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the most common vaginal disorder among reproductive age women. One clinical indicator of BV is a ‘fishy’ odor. This odor has been associated with increases in several biogenic amines (BAs that may serve as important biomarkers. Within the vagina, BA production has been linked to various vaginal taxa, yet their genetic capability to synthesize BAs is unknown. Using a bioinformatics approach, we show that relatively few vaginal taxa are predicted to be capable of producing BAs. Many of these taxa (Dialister, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Megasphaera, Peptostreptococcus, and Veillonella spp. are more abundant in the vaginal microbial community state type (CST IV, which is depleted in lactobacilli. Several of the major Lactobacillus species (L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. gasseri were identified as possessing gene sequences for proteins predicted to be capable of putrescine production. Finally, we show in a small cross sectional study of 37 women that the BAs putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine are significantly higher in CST IV over CSTs I and III. These data support the hypothesis that BA production is conducted by few vaginal taxa and may be important to the outgrowth of BV-associated (vaginal dysbiosis vaginal bacteria.

  9. Biomarker-based classification of bacterial and fungal whole-blood infections in a genome-wide expression study

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    Andreas eDix

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a clinical syndrome that can be caused by bacteria or fungi. Early knowledge on the nature of the causative agent is a prerequisite for targeted anti-microbial therapy. Besides currently used detection methods like blood culture and PCR-based assays, the analysis of the transcriptional response of the host to infecting organisms holds great promise. In this study, we aim to examine the transcriptional footprint of infections caused by the bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and the fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus in a human whole-blood model. Moreover, we use the expression information to build a random forest classifier to classify if a sample contains a bacterial, fungal, or mock-infection. After normalizing the transcription intensities using stably expressed reference genes, we filtered the gene set for biomarkers of bacterial or fungal blood infections. This selection is based on differential expression and an additional gene relevance measure. In this way, we identified 38 biomarker genes, including IL6, SOCS3, and IRG1 which were already associated to sepsis by other studies. Using these genes, we trained the classifier and assessed its performance. It yielded a 96% accuracy (sensitivities >93%, specificities >97% for a 10-fold stratified cross-validation and a 92% accuracy (sensitivities and specificities >83% for an additional test dataset comprising Cryptococcus neoformans infections. Furthermore, the classifier is robust to Gaussian noise, indicating correct class predictions on datasets of new species. In conclusion, this genome-wide approach demonstrates an effective feature selection process in combination with the construction of a well-performing classification model. Further analyses of genes with pathogen-dependent expression patterns can provide insights into the systemic host responses, which may lead to new anti-microbial therapeutic advances.

  10. Prodigiosin inhibits motility and activates bacterial cell death revealing molecular biomarkers of programmed cell death.

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    Darshan, N; Manonmani, H K

    2016-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of prodigiosin from Serratia nematodiphila darsh1, a bacterial pigment was tested against few food borne bacterial pathogens Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The mode of action of prodigiosin was studied. Prodigiosin induced bactericidal activity indicating a stereotypical set of biochemical and morphological feature of Programmed cell death (PCD). PCD involves DNA fragmentation, generation of ROS, and expression of a protein with caspase-like substrate specificity in bacterial cells. Prodigiosin was observed to be internalized into bacterial cells and was localized predominantly in the membrane and the nuclear fraction, thus, facilitating intracellular trafficking and then binding of prodigiosin to the bacterial DNA. Corresponding to an increasing concentration of prodigiosin, the level of certain proteases were observed to increase in bacteria studied, thus initiating the onset of PCD. Prodigiosin at a sub-inhibitory concentration inhibits motility of pathogens. Our observations indicated that prodigiosin could be a promising antibacterial agent and could be used in the prevention of bacterial infections. PMID:27460563

  11. Using bacterial biomarkers to identify early indicators of cystic fibrosis pulmonary exacerbation onset

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Geraint B.; Hoffman, Lucas R.; Johnson, Matt W; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Schwarze, Jürgen; Carroll, Mary P; Bruce, Kenneth D.

    2011-01-01

    Acute periods of pulmonary exacerbation are the single most important cause of morbidity in cystic fibrosis patients, and may be associated with a loss of lung function. Intervening prior to the onset of a substantially increased inflammatory response may limit the associated damage to the airways. While a number of biomarker assays based on inflammatory markers have been developed, providing useful and important measures of disease during these periods, such factors are typically only elevat...

  12. Using bacterial biomarkers to identify early indicators of cystic fibrosis pulmonary exacerbation onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Geraint B; Hoffman, Lucas R; Johnson, Matt W; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Schwarze, Jürgen; Carroll, Mary P; Bruce, Kenneth D

    2011-03-01

    Acute periods of pulmonary exacerbation are the single most important cause of morbidity in cystic fibrosis patients, and may be associated with a loss of lung function. Intervening prior to the onset of a substantially increased inflammatory response may limit the associated damage to the airways. While a number of biomarker assays based on inflammatory markers have been developed, providing useful and important measures of disease during these periods, such factors are typically only elevated once the process of exacerbation has been initiated. Identifying biomarkers that can predict the onset of pulmonary exacerbation at an early stage would provide an opportunity to intervene before the establishment of a substantial immune response, with major implications for the advancement of cystic fibrosis care. The precise triggers of pulmonary exacerbation remain to be determined; however, the majority of models relate to the activity of microbes present in the patient's lower airways of cystic fibrosis. Advances in diagnostic microbiology now allow for the examination of these complex systems at a level likely to identify factors on which biomarker assays can be based. In this article, we discuss key considerations in the design and testing of assays that could predict pulmonary exacerbations. PMID:21405970

  13. Towards an understanding of a0-f0 mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Hanhart, Christoph; Pelaez, Jose R

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the isospin-violating mixing of the light scalar mesons a0(980) and f0(980) within the unitarized chiral approach. Isospin-violating effects are considered to leading order in the quark mass differences and electromagnetism. In this approach both mesons are generated through meson-meson dynamics. Thus our results might be considered as benchmark results for the mixing phenomenon within a framework consistent with chiral symmetry and unitarity, where these resonances are not predominantly q q-bar states. Amongst the possible experimental signals, we discuss observable consequences for the reaction J/Psi -> phi pi0 eta in detail. In particular we demonstrate that the effect of a0-f0 mixing is by far the most important isospin-breaking effect in the resonance region and can indeed be extracted from experiment.

  14. Short- and long-term biomarkers for bacterial robustness: a framework for quantifying correlations between cellular indicators and adaptive behavior.

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    Heidy M W den Besten

    Full Text Available The ability of microorganisms to adapt to changing environments challenges the prediction of their history-dependent behavior. Cellular biomarkers that are quantitatively correlated to stress adaptive behavior will facilitate our ability to predict the impact of these adaptive traits. Here, we present a framework for identifying cellular biomarkers for mild stress induced enhanced microbial robustness towards lethal stresses. Several candidate-biomarkers were selected by comparing the genome-wide transcriptome profiles of our model-organism Bacillus cereus upon exposure to four mild stress conditions (mild heat, acid, salt and oxidative stress. These candidate-biomarkers--a transcriptional regulator (activating general stress responses, enzymes (removing reactive oxygen species, and chaperones and proteases (maintaining protein quality--were quantitatively determined at transcript, protein and/or activity level upon exposure to mild heat, acid, salt and oxidative stress for various time intervals. Both unstressed and mild stress treated cells were also exposed to lethal stress conditions (severe heat, acid and oxidative stress to quantify the robustness advantage provided by mild stress pretreatment. To evaluate whether the candidate-biomarkers could predict the robustness enhancement towards lethal stress elicited by mild stress pretreatment, the biomarker responses upon mild stress treatment were correlated to mild stress induced robustness towards lethal stress. Both short- and long-term biomarkers could be identified of which their induction levels were correlated to mild stress induced enhanced robustness towards lethal heat, acid and/or oxidative stress, respectively, and are therefore predictive cellular indicators for mild stress induced enhanced robustness. The identified biomarkers are among the most consistently induced cellular components in stress responses and ubiquitous in biology, supporting extrapolation to other microorganisms

  15. Pleural effusion adenosine deaminase: a candidate biomarker to discriminate between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections of the pleural space

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    Ruolin Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Delay in the treatment of pleural infection may contribute to its high mortality. In this retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of pleural adenosine deaminase in discrimination between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections of the pleural space prior to selecting antibiotics. METHODS: A total of 76 patients were enrolled and grouped into subgroups according to Gram staining: 1 patients with Gram-negative bacterial infections, aged 53.2±18.6 years old, of whom 44.7% had empyemas and 2 patients with Gram-positive bacterial infections, aged 53.5±21.5 years old, of whom 63.1% had empyemas. The pleural effusion was sampled by thoracocentesis and then sent for adenosine deaminase testing, biochemical testing and microbiological culture. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to examine the differences in adenosine deaminase levels between the groups. Correlations between adenosine deaminase and specified variables were also quantified using Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Moreover, receiver operator characteristic analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of pleural effusion adenosine deaminase. RESULTS: Mean pleural adenosine deaminase levels differed significantly between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections of the pleural space (191.8±32.1 U/L vs 81.0±16.9 U/L, p<0.01. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.689 (95% confidence interval: 0.570, 0.792, p<0.01 at the cutoff value of 86 U/L. Additionally, pleural adenosine deaminase had a sensitivity of 63.2% (46.0-78.2%; a specificity of 73.7% (56.9-86.6%; positive and negative likelihood ratios of 2.18 and 0.50, respectively; and positive and negative predictive values of 70.6% and 66.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Pleural effusion adenosine deaminase is a helpful alternative biomarker for early and quick discrimination of Gram-negative from Gram-positive bacterial infections of the

  16. Biofilms as "Connectors" for Oral and Systems Medicine: A New Opportunity for Biomarkers, Molecular Targets, and Bacterial Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintim, Herman O; Gürsoy, Ulvi Kahraman

    2016-01-01

    Oral health and systems medicine are intimately related but have remained, sadly, as isolated knowledge communities for decades. Are there veritable connector knowledge domains that can usefully link them together on the critical path to biomarker research and "one health"? In this context, it is noteworthy that bacteria form surface-attached communities on most biological surfaces, including the oral cavity. Biofilm-forming bacteria contribute to periodontal diseases and recent evidences point to roles of these bacteria in systemic diseases as well, with cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and cancer as notable examples. Interestingly, the combined mass of microorganisms such as bacteria are so large that when we combine all plants and animals on earth, the total biomass of bacteria is still bigger. They literally do colonize everywhere, not only soil and water but our skin, digestive tract, and even oral cavity are colonized by bacteria. Hence efforts to delineate biofilm formation mechanisms of oral bacteria and microorganisms and the development of small molecules to inhibit biofilm formation in the oral cavity is very timely for both diagnostics and therapeutics. Research on biofilms can benefit both oral and systems medicine. Here, we examine, review, and synthesize new knowledge on the current understanding of oral biofilm formation, the small molecule targets that can inhibit biofilm formation in the mouth. We suggest new directions for both oral and systems medicine, using various omics technologies such as SILAC and RNAseq, that could yield deeper insights, biomarkers, and molecular targets to design small molecules that selectively aim at eradication of pathogenic oral bacteria. Ultimately, devising new ways to control and eradicate bacteria in biofilms will open up novel diagnostic and therapeutic avenues for oral and systemic diseases alike.

  17. A buffer-regulated HF acid for sandstone acidizing to 550/sup 0/F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheuerman, R.F.

    1988-02-01

    Two earlier papers discussed the suitability of bugger-regulated HF acid (BRHFA) for high-temperature sandstone matrix stimulation treatments. Acetic-acid/acetate buffering (pH = 4.5 to 5.0) limited corrosion to acceptable levels at temperatures up to about 350/sup 0/F (177/sup 0/C). Subsequent development of reservoirs with temperatures approaching 450/sup 0/F (232/sup 0/C) demonstrated a need for even higher-temperature acidizing systems. This paper discusses a new, less corrosive BRHFA formulation that has clay-dissolving capacity comparable to 7 1/2% HCl/1 1/2% HF acid. The corrosion rate of carbon steel at 550/sup 0/F (288/sup 0/C) is only 330 mils/yr (8.4 mm/a). The BRHFA systems are also compatible with a variety of corrosion-resistant alloys. This paper presents clay slurry, core flow, and corrosion data and discusses use guidelines.

  18. Search for the decay $B^0_s\\to\\overline{D}^0f_0(980)$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casanova Mohr, Raimon; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gastaldi, Ugo; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Geraci, Angelo; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Matthieu, Kecke; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Ninci, Daniele; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Sterpka, Christopher Francis; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    A search for $B_s^0 \\to \\overline{D}^{0} f_{0}(980)$ decays is performed using $3.0\\, {\\rm fb}^{-1}$ of $pp$ collision data recorded by the LHCb experiment during 2011 and 2012. The $f_{0}(980)$ meson is reconstructed through its decay to the $\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ final state in the mass window $900\\, {\\rm MeV}/c^{2} < m(\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}) < 1080\\, {\\rm MeV}/c^{2}$. No significant signal is observed. The first upper limits on the branching fraction of $\\mathcal{B}(B_s^0 \\to \\overline{D}^{0} f_{0}(980)) < 3.1\\,(3.4) \\times 10^{-6}$ are set at $90\\%$ ($95\\%$) confidence level.

  19. Asymmetry of rotational catalysis of single membrane-bound F0F1-ATP synthase

    CERN Document Server

    Zarrabi, Nawid; Diez, Manuel; Graeber, Peter; Wrachtrup, Joerg; Boersch, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Synthesis of the cellular 'energy currency' ATP is catalyzed by membrane-bound F0F1-ATP synthases. The chemical reaction at three binding sites in the F1 part is coupled to proton translocation through the membrane-integrated F0 part by an internal rotation of subunits. We examined the rotary movements of the epsilon-subunit of the 'rotor' with respect to the b-subunits of the 'stator' by single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Rotation of epsilon during ATP hydrolysis is divided into three major steps with constant FRET level corresponding to three binding sites. Different catalytic activities of the individual binding sites were observed depending on the relative orientation of the 'rotor'. Computer simulations of the FRET signals and non-equally distributed orientations of epsilon strongly corroborate asymmetry of catalysis in F0F1-ATP synthase.

  20. Statistical properties of the deviations of f 0 F 2 from monthly medians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tulunay

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The deviations of hourly f 0 F 2 from monthly medians for 20 stations in Europe during the period 1958-1998 are studied. Spectral analysis is used to show that, both for original data (for each hour and for the deviations from monthly medians, the deterministic components are the harmonics of 11 years (solar cycle, 1 year and its harmonics, 27 days and 12 h 50.49 m (2nd harmonic of lunar rotation period L 2 periodicities. Using histograms for one year samples, it is shown that the deviations from monthly medians are nearly zero mean (mean < 0.5 and approximately Gaussian (relative difference range between %10 to %20 and their standard deviations are larger for daylight hours (in the range 5-7. It is shown that the amplitude distribution of the positive and negative deviations is nearly symmetrical at night hours, but asymmetrical for day hours. The positive and negative deviations are then studied separately and it is observed that the positive deviations are nearly independent of R12 except for high latitudes, but negative deviations are modulated by R12 . The 90% confidence interval for negative deviations for each station and each hour is computed as a linear model in terms of R12. After correction for local time, it is shown that for all hours the confidence intervals increase with latitude but decrease above 60N. Long-term trend analysis showed that there is an increase in the amplitude of positive deviations from monthly means irrespective of the solar conditions. Using spectral analysis it is also shown that the seasonal dependency of negative deviations is more accentuated than the seasonal dependency of positive deviations especially at low latitudes. In certain stations, it is also observed that the 4th harmonic of 1 year corresponding to a periodicity of 3 months, which is missing in f 0 F 2 data, appears in the spectra of negative variations.

  1. A method for f0F2 monitoring over Spain using the El Arenosillo digisonde current observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Miro

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Ionosphere monitoring implies: observations, prediction and mapping of ionospheric parameters. A case with one available (El Arenosillo ionosonde is considered. Some statistical methods for f0F2 short-term (1-24 h in advance prediction are compared. The analysis of multi-dimensional regression for Df0F2 (relative deviation from running median with Ap, F10.7 and previous Df0F2 observations has shown that inclusion of additional terms with Ap and F10.7 improves the prediction accuracy for lead time more than 15 h. For lead time 1-6 h a linear regression with earlier observed Df0F2 provides the f0F2 forecast with Relative Mean Deviation (RMD 6-11%. This is acceptable from a practical point of view. A 24-h forecast can be done with RMD 10-11%. Multi-regressional methods provide better prediction accuracy than the usual 10-day running median or quasi-inertial method based on such median. Hourly f0F2 values may be used to calculate the effective index R12eff used as input to the ITU-R monthly median model. This allows the ITU-R model to "breathe" following hour-to-hour f0F2 variations. Then standard surfering methods may be applied for f0F2 mapping over the whole area. The f0F2 mapping accuracy based on the hourly R12eff index is shown to be 9-11% depending on solar activity level.

  2. An L0(F,R)-valued Function's Intermediate Value Theorem and Its Applications to Random Uniform Convexity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tie Xin GUO; Xiao Lin ZENG

    2012-01-01

    Let (Ω,F,P) be a probability space and L0(F,R) the algebra of equivalence classes of realvalued random variables on (Ω,F,P).When L0(F,R) is endowed with the topology of convergence in probability,we prove an intermediate value theorem for a continuous local function from L0(F,R) to L0(F,R).As applications of this theorem,we first give several useful expressions for modulus of random convexity,then we prove that a complete random normed module (S,‖· ‖) is random uniformly convex itf LF(S) is uniformly convex for each fixed positive number p such that 1 < p < +oo.

  3. The F0F1 ATP Synthase Complex Localizes to Membrane Rafts in Gonadotrope Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Worthington, Krystal; Xie, Jianjun; Brown, Jessica L; Edmunson, Alexa M; Dowling, Abigail; Navratil, Amy M; Scavelli, Kurt; Yoon, Hojean; Kim, Do-Geun; Bynoe, Margaret S; Clarke, Iain; Roberson, Mark S

    2016-09-01

    Fertility in mammals requires appropriate communication within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the GnRH receptor (GnRHR) is a central conduit for this communication. The GnRHR resides in discrete membrane rafts and raft occupancy is required for signaling by GnRH. The present studies use immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to define peptides present within the raft associated with the GnRHR and flotillin-1, a key raft marker. These studies revealed peptides from the F0F1 ATP synthase complex. The catalytic subunits of the F1 domain were validated by immunoprecipitation, flow cytometry, and cell surface biotinylation studies demonstrating that this complex was present at the plasma membrane associated with the GnRHR. The F1 catalytic domain faces the extracellular space and catalyzes ATP synthesis when presented with ADP in normal mouse pituitary explants and a gonadotrope cell line. Steady-state extracellular ATP accumulation was blunted by coadministration of inhibitory factor 1, limiting inorganic phosphate in the media, and by chronic stimulation of the GnRHR. Steady-state extracellular ATP accumulation was enhanced by pharmacological inhibition of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases. Kisspeptin administration induced coincident GnRH and ATP release from the median eminence into the hypophyseal-portal vasculature in ovariectomized sheep. Elevated levels of extracellular ATP augmented GnRH-induced secretion of LH from pituitary cells in primary culture, which was blocked in media containing low inorganic phosphate supporting the importance of extracellular ATP levels to gonadotrope cell function. These studies indicate that gonadotropes have intrinsic ability to metabolize ATP in the extracellular space and extracellular ATP may serve as a modulator of GnRH-induced LH secretion. PMID:27482602

  4. Evolution of the F0F1 ATP synthase complex in light of the patchy distribution of different bioenergetic pathways across prokaryotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliki Lila Koumandou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria and archaea are characterized by an amazing metabolic diversity, which allows them to persist in diverse and often extreme habitats. Apart from oxygenic photosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation, well-studied processes from chloroplasts and mitochondria of plants and animals, prokaryotes utilize various chemo- or lithotrophic modes, such as anoxygenic photosynthesis, iron oxidation and reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis. Most bioenergetic pathways have a similar general structure, with an electron transport chain composed of protein complexes acting as electron donors and acceptors, as well as a central cytochrome complex, mobile electron carriers, and an ATP synthase. While each pathway has been studied in considerable detail in isolation, not much is known about their relative evolutionary relationships. Wanting to address how this metabolic diversity evolved, we mapped the distribution of nine bioenergetic modes on a phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA sequences from 272 species representing the full diversity of prokaryotic lineages. This highlights the patchy distribution of many pathways across different lineages, and suggests either up to 26 independent origins or 17 horizontal gene transfer events. Next, we used comparative genomics and phylogenetic analysis of all subunits of the F0F1 ATP synthase, common to most bacterial lineages regardless of their bioenergetic mode. Our results indicate an ancient origin of this protein complex, and no clustering based on bioenergetic mode, which suggests that no special modifications are needed for the ATP synthase to work with different electron transport chains. Moreover, examination of the ATP synthase genetic locus indicates various gene rearrangements in the different bacterial lineages, ancient duplications of atpI and of the beta subunit of the F0 subcomplex, as well as more recent stochastic lineage-specific and species-specific duplications of all subunits. We

  5. Structure of even- and odd-A 1p0f-shell nuclei in the collective pair approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of A = 59-62 nuclei has been studied in the framework of the collective pair approximation. The collective pairs, determined by diagonalizing the shell-model Hamiltonian in the space of two valence nucleons occupying the 1p1/2, 1p3/2 and 0f5/2 subshells above the closed subshell 0f7/2 of the 1p0f shell, have been considered as building blocks to describe nuclei with 2n or 2n + 1 valence nucleons in terms of n pairs or n pairs coupled with one nucleon, respectively. It is shown that the low-lying spectra of A = 59-62 nuclei can be described quite well by considering only a selected subset of all possible collective pairs

  6. Procalcitonin as a Serum Biomarker for Differentiation of Bacterial Meningitis From Viral Meningitis in Children: Evidence From a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Brandon Michael; Roy, Joyeeta; Ramakrishnan, Piravin Kumar; Vikse, Jens; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Walocha, Jerzy A

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have explored the use of serum procalcitonin (PCT) in differentiating between bacterial and viral etiologies in children with suspected meningitis. We pooled these studies into a meta-analysis to determine the PCT diagnostic accuracy. All major databases were searched through March 2015. No date or language restrictions were applied. Eight studies (n = 616 pediatric patients) were included. Serum PCT assay was found to be very accurate for differentiating the etiology of pediatric meningitis with pooled sensitivity and specificity of 0.96 (95% CI = 0.92-0.98) and 0.89 (95% CI = 0.86-0.92), respectively. The pooled positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and area under the curve (AUC) for PCT were 7.5 (95% CI = 5.6-10.1), 0.08(95% CI = 0.04-0.14), 142.3 (95% CI = 59.5-340.4), and 0.97 (SE = 0.01), respectively. In 6 studies, PCT was found to be superior than CRP, whose DOR was only 16.7 (95%CI = 8.8-31.7). Our meta-analysis demonstrates that serum PCT assay is a highly accurate and powerful test for rapidly differentiating between bacterial and viral meningitis in children.

  7. Procalcitonin as a Serum Biomarker for Differentiation of Bacterial Meningitis From Viral Meningitis in Children: Evidence From a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Brandon Michael; Roy, Joyeeta; Ramakrishnan, Piravin Kumar; Vikse, Jens; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Walocha, Jerzy A

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have explored the use of serum procalcitonin (PCT) in differentiating between bacterial and viral etiologies in children with suspected meningitis. We pooled these studies into a meta-analysis to determine the PCT diagnostic accuracy. All major databases were searched through March 2015. No date or language restrictions were applied. Eight studies (n = 616 pediatric patients) were included. Serum PCT assay was found to be very accurate for differentiating the etiology of pediatric meningitis with pooled sensitivity and specificity of 0.96 (95% CI = 0.92-0.98) and 0.89 (95% CI = 0.86-0.92), respectively. The pooled positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and area under the curve (AUC) for PCT were 7.5 (95% CI = 5.6-10.1), 0.08(95% CI = 0.04-0.14), 142.3 (95% CI = 59.5-340.4), and 0.97 (SE = 0.01), respectively. In 6 studies, PCT was found to be superior than CRP, whose DOR was only 16.7 (95%CI = 8.8-31.7). Our meta-analysis demonstrates that serum PCT assay is a highly accurate and powerful test for rapidly differentiating between bacterial and viral meningitis in children. PMID:26378091

  8. Absolute frequency measurement of 1S0 (F = 1/2) - 3P0 (F = 1/2) transition of 171Yb atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice at KRISS

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Chang Yong; Lee, Won-Kyu; Park, Sang Eon; Kim, Eok Bong; Lee, Sun Kyung; Cho, Jun Woo; Yoon, Tai Hyun; Mun, Jongchul; Park, Sung Jong; Kwon, Taeg Yong; Lee, Sang-Bum

    2011-01-01

    We measured the absolute frequency of the optical clock transition 1S0 (F = 1/2) - 3P0 (F = 1/2) of 171Yb atoms confined in a one-dimensional optical lattice and it was determined to be 518 295 836 590 865.7 (9.2) Hz. The measured frequency was calibrated to the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) by using an optical frequency comb of which frequency was phase-locked to a hydrogen maser as a flywheel oscillator traceable to the UTC. The magic wavelength was also measured as 394 798.48 (79) GHz. The results are in good agreement with two previous measurements of other institutes within the specified uncertainty of this work.

  9. Observation of the isospin-violating decay $J/\\psi \\to \\phi\\pi^{0}f_{0}(980)$

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ai, X C; Albayrak, O; Albrecht, M; Ambrose, D J; Amoroso, A; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Ferroli, R Baldini; Ban, Y; Bennett, D W; Bennett, J V; Bertani, M; Bettoni, D; Bian, J M; Bianchi, F; Boger, E; Bondarenko, O; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, H Y; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, X K; Cibinetto, G; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dbeyssi, A; De dovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; De Mori, F; Ding, Y; Dong, C; Dong, J; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Du, S X; Duan, P F; Fan, J Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fang, X; Fang, Y; Fava, L; Feldbauer, F; Felici, G; Feng, C Q; Fioravanti, E; Fritsch, M; Fu, C D; Gao, Q; Gao, X Y; Gao, Y; Gao, Z; Garzia, I; Geng, C; Goetzen, K; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, Y; Guo, Y P; Haddadi, Z; ner, A Haf; Han, S; Han, Y L; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, Z Y; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Hu, Y; Huang, G M; Huang, G S; Huang, H P; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y; Hussain, T; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L L; Jiang, L W; Jiang, X S; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; ansson, T Joh; Julin, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kang, X L; Kang, X S; Kavatsyuk, M; Ke, B C; Kliemt, R; Kloss, B; Kolcu, O B; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kuehn, W; Kupsc, A; Lange, J S; Lara, M; Larin, P; Leng, C; Li, C H; Li, Cheng; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, Jin; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, P R; Li, T; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X M; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Lin, D X; Liu, B J; iu, C X L; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J P; Liu, J Y; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, L D; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, X X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqiang; u, Zhiqing Li; Loehner, H; Lou, X C; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, R Q; Lu, Y; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lv, M; Lyu, X R; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, Q M; Ma, T; Ma, X N; Ma, X Y; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; ik, Q A Mal; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Marcello, S; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Min, T J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Mo, Y J; Morales, C Morales; Moriya, K; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Nefedov, Y; Nerling, F; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Nisar, S; Niu, S L; Niu, X Y; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; son, J Petters; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prasad, V; Pu, Y N; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, N; Qin, X S; Qin, Y; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Redmer, C F; Ren, H L; Ripka, M; Rong, G; Rosner, Ch; Ruan, X D; Santoro, V; Sarantsev, A; Savrié, M; Schoenning, K; Schumann, S; Shan, W; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, P X; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Song, W M; Song, X Y; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Tiemens, M; Toth, D; Ullrich, M; Uman, I; arner, G S V; Wang, B; Wang, B L; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S G; Wang, W; Wang, X F; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z H; Wang, Z Y; r, T Webe; Wei, D H; Wei, J B; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, S P; Wiedner, U; Wolke, M; Wu, L H; Wu, Z; Xia, L G; Xia, Y; Xiao, D; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, L; Xu, Q J; Xu, Q N; Xu, X P; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, W C; Yan, Y H; Yang, H X; Yang, L; Yang, Y; Yang, Y X; Ye, H; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yin, J H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, H W; Yu, J S; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Yuncu, A; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J J; Zhang, J L; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, K; Zhang, L; Zhang, S H; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y T; Zhang, Z H; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, J W; Zhao, J Y; Zhao, J Z; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, W J; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, Li; Zhou, X; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhou, X Y; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zotti, L; Zou, B S; Zou, J H

    2015-01-01

    Using a sample of 1.31 billion $J/\\psi$ events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider, the decays $J/\\psi \\to \\phi \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}$ and $J/\\psi \\to \\phi \\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}$ are investigated. The isospin violating decay $J/\\psi \\to \\phi \\pi^{0} f_{0}(980)$ with $f_{0}(980) \\to \\pi\\pi$, is observed for the first time. The width of the $f_{0}(980)$ obtained from the dipion mass spectrum is found to be much smaller than the world average value. In the $\\pi^{0} f_{0}(980)$ mass spectrum, there is evidence of $f_1(1285)$ production. By studying the decay $J/\\psi \\to \\phi\\eta'$, the branching fractions of $\\eta' \\to \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}$ and $\\eta' \\to \\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}$, as well as their ratio, are also measured.

  10. Geomagnetic modification of the mid-latitude ionosphere - Toward a strategy for the improved forecasting of f0F2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrenn, G. L.; Rodger, A. S.

    1989-02-01

    An approach for modeling and forecasting the interspatial critical frequency (f0F2) at quiet and disturbed times is outlined. Statistical analyses of ionosonde data from the Argentine Islands (65 deg S) are used to define patterns for the main phase effects of midlatitude ionospheric storms. Extended to a number of stations, these could be incorporated into algorithms to permit the forecasting of maximum usable frequency for a few hours ahead and enhance the frequency management of shortwave radio communication, especially during a geomagnetic storm. Data from a complete solar cycle, 1971-1981, are used to determine the errors in the forecasts and to demonstrate that a useful advantage can be attained by this method. The rms error in f0F2 for 90,175 samples is 15.6 percent, which compares favorably with those obtained using forecasts based on quiet time values (20.4 percent) or the previous day's measurements (18 percent).

  11. Visible Thrombolysis Acceleration of a Nanomachine Powered by Light-Driving F0F1-ATPase Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoxia; Liu, Lifeng; Jiang, Weijian; Yue, Jiachang

    2015-05-01

    We report on thrombolysis acceleration of a nanomachine powered by light-driving δ-subunit-free F0F1-ATPase motor. It is composed of a mechanical device, locating device, energy storage device, and propeller. The rotory δ-subunit-free F0F1-ATPase motor acts as a mechanical device, which was obtained by reconstructing an original chromatophore extracted from Rhodospirillum rubrum. We found that the bioactivity of the F0F1-ATPase motor improved greatly after reconstruction. The zeta potential of the nanomachine is about -23.4 mV. Cytotoxicity induced by the nanomachine was measured using cell counting kit (CCK)-8 assay. The A549 cells incubated with different fractional concentrations of the nanomachine within 48 h did not show obvious cytotoxicity. The locating device helps the nanomachine bind to the thrombi. Energy was easily stored by exposing the nanomachine to 600-nm-wavelength irradiation, which promoted activity of the motor. The rotation of the long propeller accelerated thrombolysis of a blood clot in vitro in the presence of urokinase (UK). This result was based on visual inspection and confirmed by a series of tests.

  12. CHINESE 0F HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    How to Improve Your Oral English by "Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing" Abstract:the learning of oral Englisn becomes and more important in the 21st century. The essay probes in to the relationship between oral English and listening, reading and writing, and put forward the method to improve oral English by listening, speaking, reading and writing.

  13. Tn5401 disruption of the spo0F gene, identified by direct chromosomal sequencing, results in CryIIIA overproduction in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    OpenAIRE

    Malvar, T.; Baum, J A

    1994-01-01

    The Bacillus thuringiensis spo0F gene was identified by chromosomal DNA sequencing of sporulation mutants derived from a B. thuringiensis transposon insertion library. A spo0F defect in B. thuringiensis, which was suppressed by multicopy hknA or kinA, resulted in the overproduction of the CryIIIA insecticidal crystal protein.

  14. Analysis of LOFT pressurizer spray and surge nozzles to include a 450/sup 0/F step transient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitzel, M.E.

    1978-01-18

    This report presents the analysis of the LOFT pressurizer spray and surge nozzles to include a 450/sup 0/F step thermal transient. Previous analysis performed under subcontract by Basic Technology Incorporated was utilized where applicable. The SAASIII finite element computer program was used to determine stress distributions in the nozzles due to the step transient. Computer results were then incorporated in the necessary additional calculations to ascertain that stress limitations were not exceeded. The results of the analysis indicate that both the spray and surge nozzles will be within stress allowables prescribed by subsubarticle NB-3220 of the 1974 edition of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code when subjected to currently known design, normal operating, upset, emergency, and faulted condition loads.

  15. Design, construction, operation, and evaluation of solar systems for industrial process-heat applications in the intermediate-temperature range (212/sup 0/F to 550/sup 0/F). Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The environmental impacts are assessed for a proposed 50,000 square foot field of single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors along the Ohio River in southern Ohio. The facility is planned to produce process steam for use in the production of polystyrene. Absorbed solar energy would heat an aliphatic hydrocarbon synthetic heat transfer fluid to a maximum temperature of 500/sup 0/F. The existing environment is briefly described, particularly regarding air quality. The potential environmental impacts of the solar process heat system on the air, water, soil, endangered species and archaeological and historical resources are examined, including risks due to flood and glare and a comparison of alternatives. Also included are a Consent Judgment relating to two coal-fired boilers in violation of EPA regulations, property data of Gulf Synfluid 4CS (a candidate heat transfer fluid), piping and instrumentation diagrams and schematics, site grade and drainage plan, geological survey map, subsurface soil investigation, Ohio endangered species list, Ohio Archaeological Counsel certification list, and a study of heat transfer fluids and their properties. (LEW)

  16. Biomarkers and infection in the emergency unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausfater, P

    2014-04-01

    The emergency unit is one of the main places for acute medical care and therefore, has a pivotal role in determining a diagnosis of bacterial infection and initiating antibiotic therapy. There is an unquestionable and growing interest for infection biomarkers because of the polymorphism of septic state presentations in the emergency unit and the lack of accuracy of available biological tools. The C Reactive protein (CRP) is a biomarker of inflammation, not of infection. CRP is highly sensitive but lacks specificity. Moreover, there are few interventional studies evaluating its true added diagnostic value in the emergency unit, therefore preventing using CRP as a biomarker of infection. Serum procalcitonin (PCT) dosage is more specific for the diagnosis of bacterial infection. PCT levels do not increase or only slightly in non-bacterial inflammatory syndromes. PCT also provides prognostic information and risk stratification assessment in the emergency unit. Moreover, many authors of interventional studies have validated the contribution of PCT in decision taking for antibiotic therapy when suspecting low respiratory tract infection. It is currently the first-line biomarker of infection in the emergency unit. Other biomarkers such as presepsin (sCD14) may be contributive for the diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:24556451

  17. L- and D-lactate as biomarkers of arterial-induced intestinal ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Casper; Mortensen, Frank V; Erlandsen, Erland J;

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia is difficult to diagnose, and search for new biomarkers has led to interest in D-lactate, which arises from bacterial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract.......Intestinal ischemia is difficult to diagnose, and search for new biomarkers has led to interest in D-lactate, which arises from bacterial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract....

  18. A method for f{sub 0}F{sub 2} monitoring over Spain using the El Arenosillo digisonde current observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailov, A. [Institute of Terrestial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); La Morena de, B.A.; Miro, G.; Marin, D. [National Institute of Aerospace Technology, Mazagon, Huelva (Spain)

    1999-08-01

    Ionosphere monitoring implies: observations, prediction and mapping of ionospheric parameter. A case with one available (El Arenosillo) ionosonde is considered. Some statistical methods for f{sub 0}F{sub 2} short-term (1-24 h in advance) prediction are compared. The analysis of multi-dimensional regression for {delta}f{sub 0}F{sub 2} (relative deviation for running median) with A{sub p}, F{sub 10}.{sub 7} and previous {delta}f{sub 0}F{sub 2} observations has shown that inclusion of additional terms with A{sub p} and F{sub 10}.{sub 7} improves the prediction accuracy for lead time more than 15 h. For lead time 1-6 h a linear regression with earlier observed {delta}f{sub 0}F{sub 2} provides the f{sub 0}F{sub 2} forecast with Relative Mean Deviation (RMD) 6-11%. This is acceptable from a practical point of view. A 24-h forecast can be done with RMD 10-11%. Multi-regressional methods provide better prediction accuracy than the usual 10-day running median or quasi-inertial method based on such median. Hourly f{sub 0}F{sub 2} values may be used to calculate the effective index R{sub 12e}ff used as input to the ITU-R monthly median model. This allows the ITU-R model to 'breathe' following hour-to-hour f{sub 0}F{sub 2} variations. Mapping accuracy based on the hourly R{sub 12e}ff index is shown to be 9-11% depending on solar activity level.

  19. Self-welding evaluation of type 304 and A286 stainless steel in the temperature range 800/sup 0/-1140/sup 0/F in flowing sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, J.Y.; Flagella, P.N.; Schrock, S.L.

    1976-01-01

    This paper covers two material combinations, Type 304 SS vs Type 304 SS and Type 304 SS vs A286, tested at temperatures from 800 to 1140/sup 0/F for time periods up to six months in flowing sodium. Contact stresses ranged from 2 to 30 ksi on contact areas for 0.63 to 1.00 in./sup 2/. Tests were performed in either tensile or shear modes on the flat-on-flat samples. Surface morphologies of the sample before and after the test were presented. Self-welding of Type 304 SS was significant at temperatures above 1080/sup 0/F while no self-welding was detected at 800/sup 0/F. Sliding friction coefficient (..mu..) data for a Type 304 SS couple at 800/sup 0/F under compressive stresses from 2000 to 30,000 psi in sodium could be correlated quite accurately by W/sigma = 0.08e/sup 9..mu../, where W is the waviness height in microinches and sigma is the compressive stress in kilo-pound per square inch. One self-weld couple of Type 304 SS/Type 304 SS exposed at 1080/sup 0/F for 3 months was not separated but rather removed intact from the test apparatus and examined in cross-section. Scanning electron micrographs of the contacted area revealed that portions of the original interface were no longer discernible. (auth)

  20. A Prediction Method for△f0F2min of a Single Station From Interplanetary Parameters Based on Statistical Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zheng; WEI Fengsi; FENG Xueshang; GUO Jianpeng; XU Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    Using 86 CME-interplanetary shock events,the correlation between the peak values of (a) the solar wind parameters(Bz,Ey,Pdyn) and the geomagnetic indices(SYM-H,ASY-H,Kp), (b) the coupling functions(Borovsky,Akasofu,Newell) and the geomagnetic indices,(c) the solar wind parameters/coupling functions/geomagnetic indices and the ionospheric parameter(△f0F2min), are investigated.The statistical results show that in group(a),Bz min and SYM-Hmin have the best correlation,that in group(b),the best correlation is between the peak values of Akasofu function (Amin) and SYM-Hmin,and that in group(c),the best correlation is between (pmax and △f0F2min). Based on the statistical results,a method for predicting f0F2 of a single station is attempted to be set up.The input is modified B_(z min) and the outputs are SYM-Hmin and △f0F2min.Then 25 CME-IPS events that caused geomagnetic storms in 1998 and 2009 are used to check the prediction method. The results show that our method can be used to predict SYM-Hmin and △f0F2min

  1. Variation of the feedback coefficient with R12 and the geographic latitude in 1-h ahead forecast of f0 F2

    OpenAIRE

    Tulunay, Y.; E. Mizrahi; Bilge, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    The «prediction» and «forecast» of the critical frequency of the F 2 layer (f0 F2 ) is an important issue for frequency planning in short wave radio communications. In this context, «prediction» is used for the determination of monthly median values of f0 F2 for each hour, while «forecast» denotes the determination of hourly values. In a previous paper we proposed a «sliding window» technique for prediction combined with «feedback» for forecast (Bilge and Tulunay, 2000). In the present paper ...

  2. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Heat Transfer and Thermal Bowing Calculations of the D0 F-Diskl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratzmann, Paul M.; /Fermilab

    1996-08-26

    Shown in Figure 1 is a side view of the D0 F-disk assembly. SVX II chips are mounted to a flex copper/kapton Circuit, which is glued to a beryllium substrate. Figure 1 shows the top and bottom disk assemblies mounted on the cooling channel. However the disks are not mounted directly opposite one another as shown, but alternately rotate through 30{sup o} wedges mounted on either side of the cooling channel. The assumed channel temperature for these calculations is 0 C, as in the cases of the ladder cooling calculations, ref. [1] and [2]. The assumed SVX II chip power is 0.400 W. The finite difference method is used to calculate the temperature profiles of the various components. It is described in Ref. [1]. Each disk is read out using SVX II chips on both sides of the silicon. The silicon is 59.2 mm wide at its widest location. The SVX II chip location opposite the cooling channel has 8 chips mounted on the hybrid. and there are 6 SVX II chips mounted outboard of the cooling channel on the same side as the cooling channel. The SVX II chips mounted on the same side as the cooling channel read out the silicon via a jumper which passes between the beryllium substrate and the cooling channel. Currently there are two substrate materials under consideration for the jumper; kapton/copper and silicon/aluminum. The two materials have different thermal properties. so both will be considered in this note in order to compare their performance in the two different assemblies. The silicon jumper is assumed to be 0.3 mm thick with a thermal conductivity of 0.15 W/mm-K. The kapton/copper flex circuit is assumed to be 0.075 mm in thickness, with 1/2 oz copper traces (a thickness of 0.017 mm copper with 0.4 W/m-K thermal conductivity) along the length. The thermal conductivity of kapton is 0.12E-3 W/mm-K [3]. The F-Disk region is occupied by cables which extend from the barrel ladders. The cables dissipate power [4] and will contribute to warming the gas. The SVX IT chips on both the

  3. Biomarkers in Computational Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomarkers are a means to evaluate chemical exposure and/or the subsequent impacts on toxicity pathways that lead to adverse health outcomes. Computational toxicology can integrate biomarker data with knowledge of exposure, chemistry, biology, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, and e...

  4. Combination of biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurfjell, Lennart; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Lundqvist, Roger;

    2012-01-01

    The New National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease (AD) incorporate biomarkers in the diagnostic criteria and suggest division of biomarkers into two categories: Aβ accumulation and neuronal degeneration or injury.......The New National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease (AD) incorporate biomarkers in the diagnostic criteria and suggest division of biomarkers into two categories: Aβ accumulation and neuronal degeneration or injury....

  5. Genetic evidence for the involvement of the S-layer protein gene sap and the sporulation genes spo0A, spo0B, and spo0F in Phage AP50c infection of Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, Roger D; Beaber, John W; Zemansky, Jason; Kaur, Ajinder P; George, Matroner; Biswas, Biswajit; Henry, Matthew; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A; Mokashi, Vishwesh; Hannah, Ryan M; Pope, Robert K; Read, Timothy D; Stibitz, Scott; Calendar, Richard; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga

    2014-03-01

    In order to better characterize the Bacillus anthracis typing phage AP50c, we designed a genetic screen to identify its bacterial receptor. Insertions of the transposon mariner or targeted deletions of the structural gene for the S-layer protein Sap and the sporulation genes spo0A, spo0B, and spo0F in B. anthracis Sterne resulted in phage resistance with concomitant defects in phage adsorption and infectivity. Electron microscopy of bacteria incubated with AP50c revealed phage particles associated with the surface of bacilli of the Sterne strain but not with the surfaces of Δsap, Δspo0A, Δspo0B, or Δspo0F mutants. The amount of Sap in the S layer of each of the spo0 mutant strains was substantially reduced compared to that of the parent strain, and incubation of AP50c with purified recombinant Sap led to a substantial reduction in phage activity. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole-genome sequences of B. cereus sensu lato strains revealed several closely related B. cereus and B. thuringiensis strains that carry sap genes with very high similarities to the sap gene of B. anthracis. Complementation of the Δsap mutant in trans with the wild-type B. anthracis sap or the sap gene from either of two different B. cereus strains that are sensitive to AP50c infection restored phage sensitivity, and electron microscopy confirmed attachment of phage particles to the surface of each of the complemented strains. Based on these data, we postulate that Sap is involved in AP50c infectivity, most likely acting as the phage receptor, and that the spo0 genes may regulate synthesis of Sap and/or formation of the S layer.

  6. New sepsis biomarkers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dolores Limongi; Cartesio DAgostini; Marco Ciotti

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis remains a leading cause of death in the intensive care units and in all age groups worldwide. Early recognition and diagnosis are key to achieving improved outcomes. Therefore, novel biomarkers that might better inform clinicians treating such patients are surely needed. The main attributes of successful biomarkers would be high sensitivity, specificity, possibility of bedside monitoring and financial accessibility. A panel of sepsis biomarkers along with currently used laboratory tests will facilitate earlier diagnosis, timely treatment and improved outcome may be more effective than single biomarkers. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances on sepsis biomarkers evaluated in clinical and experimental studies.

  7. Irradiation of three T-111 clad uranium nitride fuel pins for 8070 hours at 990/sup 0/C (1815/sup 0/F)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaby, J.G.; Siegel, B.L.; Gedeon, L.; Galbo, R.J.

    1973-10-01

    The design and successful operation of three tantalum alloy (Ta-8W-2Hf) clad uranium mononitride (UN) fuel pins irradiated for 8070 h at 990/sup 0/C (1815/sup 0/F) is described. Two pin diameters having measured burnups of 0.47 and 0.90 uranium atom percent were tested. No clad failures or swelling was detected; however, postirradiation clad samples tested failed with 1 percent strain. The fuel density decrease was 2 percent, and the fission gas release was less than 0.05 percent. Isotropic fuel swelling, which averaged about 0.5 percent, was less than fuel pin assembly clearances. Thus the clad was not strained. Thermocouples with a modified hot zone operated at average temperatures to 1100/sup 0/C (2012/sup 0/F) without failure. Factors that influence the ability to maintain uniform clad temperature as well as the results of the heat transfer calculations are discussed.

  8. Variation of the feedback coefficient with R12 and the geographic latitude in 1-h ahead forecast of f0 F2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tulunay

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The «prediction» and «forecast» of the critical frequency of the F 2 layer (f0 F2 is an important issue for frequency planning in short wave radio communications. In this context, «prediction» is used for the determination of monthly median values of f0 F2 for each hour, while «forecast» denotes the determination of hourly values. In a previous paper we proposed a «sliding window» technique for prediction combined with «feedback» for forecast (Bilge and Tulunay, 2000. In the present paper we obtain the variation of the feedback coefficient with R 12 and geographic latitude.

  9. Cytokines as diagnostic biomarkers in canine pyometra and sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Iulia

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a syndrome with high morbidity, mortality and astronomical health care costs and it is challenging to diagnose both in humans and animals due to the lack of suitable diagnostic biomarkers. Although several types of proteins have been suggested as diagnostic biomarkers of sepsis, none of them were shown to be reliable for routine use in the clinical practice. Dogs with uterine bacterial infection called pyometra often develop sepsis and have been suggested as a natural model of sepsi...

  10. Respiratory Toxicity Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The advancement in high throughput genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques have accelerated pace of lung biomarker discovery. A recent growth in the discovery of new lung toxicity/disease biomarkers have led to significant advances in our understanding of pathological proce...

  11. Biomarkers in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eHendren

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are complex, heterogeneous disorders caused by an interaction between genetic vulnerability and environmental factors. In an effort to better target the underlying roots of ASD for diagnosis and treatment, efforts to identify reliable biomarkers in genetics, neuroimaging, gene expression and measures of the body’s metabolism are growing. For this article, we review the published studies of potential biomarkers in autism and conclude that while there is increasing promise of finding biomarkers that can help us target treatment, there are none with enough evidence to support routine clinical use unless medical illness is suspected. Promising biomarkers include those for mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and immune function. Genetic clusters are also suggesting the potential for useful biomarkers.

  12. Measurement of Inclusive $\\rho^{0}, f_{0}(980), f_{2}(1270), K^{*0}_{2}(1430)$ and $f'_{2}(1525)$ Production in $Z^0$ Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Ajinenko, I; Albrecht, Z; Alderweireld, T; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Anassontzis, E G; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbiellini, Guido; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blom, H M; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crépé, S; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Damgaard, G; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gamblin, S; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerdyukov, L N; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grimm, H J; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hansen, J; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hughes, G J; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kersevan, Borut P; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B J; Kinvig, A; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kriznic, E; Krstic, J; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kurowska, J; Kurvinen, K L; Lamsa, J; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Masik, J; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mulet-Marquis, C; Muresan, R; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neufeld, N; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nikolenko, M; Nomokonov, V P; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rakoczy, D; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Royon, C; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schwemling, P; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Sheridan, A; Siebel, M; Simard, L C; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stampfer, D; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Chikilev, O G; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Timmermans, J; Tinti, N; Tkatchev, L G; Todorova, S; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Vulpen, I B; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vollmer, C F; Voulgaris, G; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G R; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1999-01-01

    DELPHI results are presented on the inclusive production of the neutral mesons$\\rho^0$, $f_0(980)$, $f_2(1270)$, K$^{*0}_2(1430)$ and $f^{'}_2(1525)$ in hadronic Z$^0$ decays. They are based on about 2 million multihadronic events collected in 1994 and 1995, using the particle identification capabilities of the DELPHI Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors and measured ionization losses in the Time Projection Chamber. The total production rates per hadronic Z$^0$ decay have been determined to be: $1.19 \\pm 0.10$ for $\\rho^0$; $0.164 \\pm 0.021$ for $f_0(980)$;$0.214 \\pm 0.038$ for $f_2(1270)$; 0:073 \\pm 0:023 for $K^{*0}_2 (1430)$; and 0:012 \\pm 0:006 for $f_{2}$(1525). The total production rates for all mesons and differential cross-sections for the $\\rho^{0}$, $f_{0}$(980) and $f_{2}$(1270) are compared with the results of other LEP experiments and with models.

  13. [Biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ribas, G; López-Sendón Moreno, J L; García-Caldentey, J

    2014-04-01

    The new diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD) include brain imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, with the aim of increasing the certainty of whether a patient has an ongoing AD neuropathologic process or not. Three CSF biomarkers, Aß42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau, reflect the core pathological features of AD. It is already known that these pathological processes of AD starts decades before the first symptoms, so these biomarkers may provide means of early disease detection. At least three stages of AD could be identified: preclinical AD, mild cognitive impairment due to AD, and dementia due to AD. In this review, we aim to summarize the CSF biomarker data available for each of these stages. We also review the actual research on blood-based biomarkers. Recent studies on healthy elderly subjects and on carriers of dominantly inherited AD mutations have also found biomarker changes that allow separate groups in these preclinical stages. These studies may aid for segregate populations in clinical trials and objectively evaluate if there are changes over the pathological processes of AD. Limits to widespread use of CSF biomarkers, apart from the invasive nature of the process itself, is the higher coefficient of variation for the analyses between centres. It requires strict pre-analytical and analytical procedures that may make feasible multi-centre studies and global cut-off points for the different stages of AD.

  14. Metabolic products as biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, M.J.; Alscher, R.; Benson, W.; Kruzynski, G.; Lee, R.F.; Sikka, H.C.; Spies, R.B.; Huggett, Robert J.; Kimerle, Richard A.; Mehrle, Paul M.=; Bergman, Harold L.

    1992-01-01

    Ideally, endogenous biomarkers would indicate both exposure and environmental effects of toxic chemicals; however, such comprehensive biochemical and physiological indices are currently being developed and, at the present time, are unavailable for use in environmental monitoring programs. Continued work is required to validate the use of biochemical and physiological stress indices as useful components of monitoring programs. Of the compounds discussed only phytochelatins and porphyrins are currently in biomarkers in a useful state; however, glutathione,metallothioneins, stress ethylene, and polyamines are promising as biomarkers in environmental monitoring.

  15. Biomarkers in Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiao Chloe; Woodruff, Prescott G

    2016-08-01

    Biomarkers have been critical for studies of disease pathogenesis and the development of new therapies in severe asthma. In particular, biomarkers of type 2 inflammation have proven valuable for endotyping and targeting new biological agents. Because of these successes in understanding and marking type 2 inflammation, lack of knowledge regarding non-type 2 inflammatory mechanisms in asthma will soon be the major obstacle to the development of new treatments and management strategies in severe asthma. Biomarkers can play a role in these investigations as well by providing insight into the underlying biology in human studies of patients with severe asthma. PMID:27401625

  16. Microbial ecology of the stratified water column of the Black Sea as revealed by a comprehensive biomarker study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakeham, Stuart G.; Amann, Rudi; Freemann, Katherine H.;

    2007-01-01

    ) and sulfate reducing bacteria. We also measured a wide range of bacterial and archaeal lipid biomarkers. Depth distributions of diagnostic biomarkers are matched with zonation of microbial processes, including aerobic bacterial oxidation of methane, oxidation of ammonium by bacteria and archaea, metal...... reduction, and sulfide oxidation at the chemocline, and bacterial sulfate reduction and anaerobic oxidation of methane by archaea in the anoxic zone. Cell densities for archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria are estimated based on water column biomarker concentrations and compared with CARD-FISH results....

  17. Validation of New Cancer Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, Michael J; Sturgeon, Catherine M; Söletormos, Georg;

    2015-01-01

    in advancing a newly discovered cancer candidate biomarker from pilot studies to clinical application. Four main steps are necessary for a biomarker to reach the clinic: analytical validation of the biomarker assay, clinical validation of the biomarker test, demonstration of clinical value from performance...... of the biomarker test, and regulatory approval. In addition to these 4 steps, all biomarker studies should be reported in a detailed and transparent manner, using previously published checklists and guidelines. Finally, all biomarker studies relating to demonstration of clinical value should be registered before...

  18. Changes in the F0F1-ATPase activity of irradiated Lactobacillus acidophilus in the presence of ceftazidime at low pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was the investigation of the effects of low intensity electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) at the frequencies of 51.8 and 53 GHz and of antibiotic ceftazidime on the N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) inhibited ATPase activity of membrane vesicles of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus grown at low pH (pH 4.0 or 6.5) and assayed at the same pH. It was shown that both frequencies EMI stimulated ATPase activity of L. acidophilus grown at pH 4.0, but EMI combined with ceftazidime and DCCD decreased ATPase activity at pH 4.0 and pH 6.5. It was suggested that the F0F1-ATPase might be a target for EMI even at low pH

  19. Nilai Diagnostik Dan Korelasi Rasio Neutrofil-Limfosit Dengan Serum Procalcitonin Sebagai Biomarker Infeksi Bakteri Pasien Sepsis Di Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Adam Malik

    OpenAIRE

    Raja, David Marintua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prevention for bacterial sepsis complications include early identification, source control and antibiotic treatment. Identification through an ideal biomarker; inexpensive, easy to do and interpret, available in any healthcare facility. Neutrophyl Lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) is a new promising clinical biomarker being studied, beside of serum procalcitonin as gold standard of bacterial infection diagnostic biomarker. Method: This research is a diagnostic test, cross-sectional...

  20. Biomarker time out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Axel; Bowser, Robert; Calabresi, Paolo; Zetterberg, Henrik; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J

    2014-10-01

    The advancement of knowledge relies on scientific investigations. The timing between asking a question and data collection defines if a study is prospective or retrospective. Prospective studies look forward from a point in time, are less prone to bias and are considered superior to retrospective studies. This conceptual framework conflicts with the nature of biomarker research. New candidate biomarkers are discovered in a retrospective manner. There are neither resources nor time for prospective testing in all cases. Relevant sources for bias are not covered. Ethical questions arise through the time penalty of an overly dogmatic concept. The timing of sample collection can be separated from testing biomarkers. Therefore the moment of formulating a hypothesis may be after sample collection was completed. A conceptual framework permissive to asking research questions without the obligation to bow to the human concept of calendar time would simplify biomarker research, but will require new safeguards against bias.

  1. Biomarkers in Airway Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice M Leung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The inherent limitations of spirometry and clinical history have prompted clinicians and scientists to search for surrogate markers of airway diseases. Although few biomarkers have been widely accepted into the clinical armamentarium, the authors explore three sources of biomarkers that have shown promise as indicators of disease severity and treatment response. In asthma, exhaled nitric oxide measurements can predict steroid responsiveness and sputum eosinophil counts have been used to titrate anti-inflammatory therapies. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory plasma biomarkers, such as fibrinogen, club cell secretory protein-16 and surfactant protein D, can denote greater severity and predict the risk of exacerbations. While the multitude of disease phenotypes in respiratory medicine make biomarker development especially challenging, these three may soon play key roles in the diagnosis and management of airway diseases.

  2. Biomarkers for immune thrombocytopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Lingjia; Zhang, Chunmei; Zhang, Liping; Shi, Yongyu; Ji, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia is an autoimmune disease with abnormal biomarkers. Immune thrombocytopenia pathogenesis is a complicated process in which the patient’s immune system is activated by platelet autoantigens resulting in immune mediated platelet destruction or suppression of platelet production. The autoantibodies produced by autoreactive B cells against self antigens are considered to play a crucial role. In addition, biomarkers such as transforming growth factor-beta1,Toll-like receptor...

  3. Biomarkers for neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuo-Hsuan; Ro, Long-Sun; Lyu, Rong-Kuo; Chen, Chiung-Mei

    2015-02-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an acquired, heterogeneous inflammatory disorder, which is characterized by recurrent optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions. The discovery of the serum autoantibody marker, anti-aquaporin 4 (anti-AQP4) antibody, revolutionizes our understanding of pathogenesis of NMO. In addition to anti-AQP4 antibody, other biomarkers for NMO are also reported. These candidate biomarkers are particularly involved in T helper (Th)17 and astrocytic damages, which play a critical role in the development of NMO lesions. Among them, IL-6 in the peripheral blood is associated with anti-AQP4 antibody production. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in CSF demonstrates good correlations with clinical severity of NMO relapses. Detecting these useful biomarkers may be useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of disease activity of NMO. Development of compounds targeting these biomarkers may provide novel therapeutic strategies for NMO. This article will review the related biomarker studies in NMO and discuss the potential therapeutics targeting these biomarkers.

  4. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 586. Related Content STDs during Pregnancy Fact Sheet Pregnancy and HIV, Viral Hepatitis, and STD Prevention Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ( ... Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ... STDs See Also Pregnancy Reproductive ...

  5. Bacterial Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Bacterial Meningitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... serious disease. Laboratory Methods for the Diagnosis of Meningitis This manual summarizes laboratory methods used to isolate, ...

  6. Bacterial carbonatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several series of experiments in the laboratory as well as in natural conditions teach that the production of carbonate particles by heterotrophic bacteria follows different ways. The 'passive' carbonatogenesis is generated by modifications of the medium that lead to the accumulation of carbonate and bicarbonate ions and to the precipitation of solid particles. The 'active' carbonatogenesis is independent of the metabolic pathways. The carbonate particles are produced by ionic exchanges through the cell membrane following still poorly known mechanisms. Carbonatogenesis appears to be the response of heterotrophic bacterial communities to an enrichment of the milieu in organic matter. The active carbonatogenesis seems to start first. It is followed by the passive one which induces the growth of initially produced particles. The yield of heterotrophic bacterial carbonatogenesis and the amounts of solid carbonates production by bacteria are potentially very high as compared to autotrophic or chemical sedimentation from marine, paralic or continental waters. Furthermore, the bacterial processes are environmentally very ubiquitous; they just require organic matter enrichment. Thus, apart from purely evaporite and autotrophic ones, all Ca and/or Mg carbonates must be considered as from heterotrophic bacterial origin. By the way, the carbon of carbonates comes from primary organic matter. Such considerations ask questions about some interpretations from isotopic data on carbonates. Finally, bacterial heterotrophic carbonatogenesis appears as a fundamental phase in the relationships between atmosphere and lithosphere and in the geo-biological evolution of Earth. (author)

  7. Mass spectrometry for biomarker development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chaochao; Liu, Tao; Baker, Erin Shammel; Rodland, Karin D.; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-06-19

    Biomarkers potentially play a crucial role in early disease diagnosis, prognosis and targeted therapy. In the past decade, mass spectrometry based proteomics has become increasingly important in biomarker development due to large advances in technology and associated methods. This chapter mainly focuses on the application of broad (e.g. shotgun) proteomics in biomarker discovery and the utility of targeted proteomics in biomarker verification and validation. A range of mass spectrometry methodologies are discussed emphasizing their efficacy in the different stages in biomarker development, with a particular emphasis on blood biomarker development.

  8. Biomarkers of the Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikio Shoji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in biomarker studies on dementia are summarized here. CSF Aβ40, Aβ42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau are the most sensitive biomarkers for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD and prediction of onset of AD from mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Based on this progress, new diagnostic criteria for AD, MCI, and preclinical AD were proposed by National Institute of Aging (NIA and Alzheimer's Association in August 2010. In these new criteria, progress in biomarker identification and amyloid imaging studies in the past 10 years have added critical information. Huge contributions of basic and clinical studies have established clinical evidence supporting these markers. Based on this progress, essential therapy for cure of AD is urgently expected.

  9. Biomarkers for systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, Joseph M; Liu, Chau-Ching; Kao, Amy H; Manzi, Susan

    2012-04-01

    The urgent need for lupus biomarkers was demonstrated in September 2011 during a Workshop sponsored by the Food and Drug Administration: Potential Biomarkers Predictive of Disease Flare. After 2 days of discussion and more than 2 dozen presentations from thought leaders in both industry and academia, it became apparent that highly sought biomarkers to predict lupus flare have not yet been identified. Even short of the elusive biomarker of flare, few biomarkers for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) diagnosis, monitoring, and stratification have been validated and employed for making clinical decisions. This lack of reliable, specific biomarkers for SLE hampers proper clinical management of patients with SLE and impedes development of new lupus therapeutics. As such, the intensity of investigation to identify lupus biomarkers is climbing a steep trajectory, lending cautious optimism that a validated panel of biomarkers for lupus diagnosis, monitoring, stratification, and prediction of flare may soon be in hand.

  10. Biomarkers in Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Brian J; Blount, Patricia L; Rabinovitch, Peter S

    2003-04-01

    This article provides a framework for clinicians who are attempting the difficult task of interpreting the Barrett's biomarker literature with the goal of improving care for their patients. Although many articles. including more that 60 proposed biomarkers, have been published on this subject, only a few describe phase 3 and 4 studies that are of interest to the clinical gastroenterologist (Table 1). For year, dysplasia grade has been the sole means of risk stratification for patients with BE, and it likely will continue to be used in the foreseeable future. The current authors believe that dysplasia classification can be valuable using the team management approach and quality controls described previously. Significant problems, however, have emerged in phase 2 through 4 studies of dysplasia that make it imperative for the Barrett's field to incorporate additional biomarkers as they are validated. These problems include poor reproducibility of dysplasia interpretations, poor predictive value for negative, indefinite, and low-grade dysplasia, and inconsistent results for HGD in different centers, all of which makes it virtually impossible to develop national guidelines for surveillance. Some studies have even suggested that endoscopic biopsy surveillance using dysplasia may not be worthwhile. Currently, flow cytometric tetraploidy and aneuploidy have progressed furthest in biomarker validation (see Table 1). With proper handling, endoscopic biopsy specimens can be shipped to reference laboratories that have the instruments, computer analytic methods, and expertise to reproducibly detect tetraploidy and aneuploidy. The results of phase 4 studies indicate that flow cytometry appears to be useful in detecting a subset of patients who do not have HGD and yet have an increased risk of progression to cancer that cannot be identified by dysplasia grade. For many reasons, the authors anticipate that the number of validated biomarkers will increase substantially in the

  11. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion...... is the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental parameters......, which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to significantly...

  12. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    1994-01-01

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation, mea

  13. Proteomic Biomarkers of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Diaz-Prieto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers provide a powerful approach to understanding the spectrum of cardiovascular diseases. They have application in screening, diagnostic, prognostication, prediction of recurrences and monitoring of therapy. The “omics” tool are becoming very useful in the development of new biomarkers in cardiovascular diseases. Among them, proteomics is especially fitted to look for new proteins in health and disease and is playing a significant role in the development of new diagnostic tools in cardiovascular diagnosis and prognosis. This review provides an overview of progress in applying proteomics to atherosclerosis. First, we describe novel proteins identified analysing atherosclerotic plaques directly. Careful analysis of proteins within the atherosclerotic vascular tissue can provide a repertoire of proteins involved in vascular remodelling and atherogenesis. Second, we discuss recent data concerning proteins secreted by atherosclerotic plaques. The definition of the atheroma plaque secretome resides in that proteins secreted by arteries can be very good candidates of novel biomarkers. Finally we describe proteins that have been differentially expressed (versus controls by individual cells which constitute atheroma plaques (endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, macrophages and foam cells as well as by circulating cells (monocytes, platelets or novel biomarkers present in plasma.

  14. Proteomic Biomarkers of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanco, F; Padial, L R; Darde, V M; de la Cuesta, F; Alvarez-Llamas, G; Diaz-Prieto, Natacha; Barderas, M G

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY: Biomarkers provide a powerful approach to understanding the spectrum of cardiovascular diseases. They have application in screening, diagnostic, prognostication, prediction of recurrences and monitoring of therapy. The "omics" tool are becoming very useful in the development of new biomarkers in cardiovascular diseases. Among them, proteomics is especially fitted to look for new proteins in health and disease and is playing a significant role in the development of new diagnostic tools in cardiovascular diagnosis and prognosis. This review provides an overview of progress in applying proteomics to atherosclerosis. First, we describe novel proteins identified analysing atherosclerotic plaques directly. Careful analysis of proteins within the atherosclerotic vascular tissue can provide a repertoire of proteins involved in vascular remodelling and atherogenesis. Second, we discuss recent data concerning proteins secreted by atherosclerotic plaques. The definition of the atheroma plaque secretome resides in that proteins secreted by arteries can be very good candidates of novel biomarkers. Finally we describe proteins that have been differentially expressed (versus controls) by individual cells which constitute atheroma plaques (endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, macrophages and foam cells) as well as by circulating cells (monocytes, platelets) or novel biomarkers present in plasma. PMID:19578499

  15. Emerging Biomarkers in Glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Mairéad G.; Sahebjam, Solmaz; Mason, Warren P., E-mail: warren.mason@uhn.ca [Pencer Brain Tumor Centre, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2013-08-22

    Glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor, has few available therapies providing significant improvement in survival. Molecular signatures associated with tumor aggressiveness as well as with disease progression and their relation to differences in signaling pathways implicated in gliomagenesis have recently been described. A number of biomarkers which have potential in diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of response to therapy have been identified and along with imaging modalities could contribute to the clinical management of GBM. Molecular biomarkers including O(6)-methlyguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosomes 1p and 19q, loss of heterozygosity 10q, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), epidermal growth factor, latrophilin, and 7 transmembrane domain-containing protein 1 on chromosome 1 (ELTD1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor suppressor protein p53, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), p16INK4a gene, cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), phospholipid metabolites, telomerase messenger expression (hTERT messenger ribonucleic acid [mRNA]), microRNAs (miRNAs), cancer stem cell markers and imaging modalities as potential biomarkers are discussed. Inclusion of emerging biomarkers in prospective clinical trials is warranted in an effort for more effective personalized therapy in the future.

  16. Distribution, origin and transformation of amino sugars sand bacterial contribution to estuarine particulate organic matter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khodse, V.B.; Bhosle, N.B.

    Amino sugars including bacterial biomarker muramic acid(Mur) were investigated in suspended particulate matter(SPM) to understand their distribution, origin, and biogeochemical cycling and the contribution of bacteria to particulate organic matter...

  17. Neuroimaging Biomarkers for Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Brandon M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Biomarkers provide clinicians with a predictable model for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of medical ailments. Psychiatry has lagged behind other areas of medicine in the identification of biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we investigated the current state of neuroimaging as it pertains to biomarkers for psychosis. Methods We reviewed systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the structural (sMRI), functional (fMRI), diffusion-tensor (DTI), Positron emission tomography (PET) and spectroscopy (MRS) studies of subjects at-risk or those with an established schizophrenic illness. Only articles reporting effect-sizes and confidence intervals were included in an assessment of robustness. Results Out of the identified meta-analyses and systematic reviews, 21 studies met the inclusion criteria for assessment. There were 13 sMRI, 4 PET, 3 MRS, and 1 DTI studies. The search terms included in the current review encompassed familial high risk (FHR), clinical high risk (CHR), First episode (FES), Chronic (CSZ), schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), and healthy controls (HC). Conclusions Currently, few neuroimaging biomarkers can be considered ready for diagnostic use in patients with psychosis. At least in part, this may be related to the challenges inherent in the current symptom-based approach to classifying these disorders. While available studies suggest a possible value of imaging biomarkers for monitoring disease progression, more systematic research is needed. To date, the best value of imaging data in psychoses has been to shed light on questions of disease pathophysiology, especially through the characterization of endophenotypes. PMID:25883891

  18. Biomarkers as Proxies for Life and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summons, R. E.

    2006-05-01

    Biomarkers are organic molecules that can be used to trace specific types of organisms or biological processes in contemporary ecosystems, ancient sediments and, potentially, beyond the Earth. Biomarkers offer a means to evaluate Earth's biosphere from its earliest development to the modern day. Hydrocarbons, which are the remains of lipids that once resided in the membranes of ancestral organisms, carry chemical and isotopic clues about the nature of early ecosystems. The hydrocarbon remains of fatty acids, sterols, bacterial triterpenoids and pigments are very recalcitrant substances and can be found in rocks as old as 2.8 billion years. These molecules tell us that the three domains, archaea, bacteria and eukarya that comprise all extant life appeared quite early in Earth's history as did the oxygen-producing photosynthesis that oxidized our atmosphere and made it possible for animal life to evolve and increase in complexity. Pigment-derived biomarkers are especially useful for evaluating paleo-environmental conditions. They occur in rocks from the Archean to the present day and can be especially diagnostic for euxinic conditions. The greatest known mass extinction event occurred at the end of the Permian period and extinguished about 70% of the animals and plants that existed at that time. Much controversy surrounds its cause with many different scenarios having been proposed. An international collaboration has enabled biomarker profiles to be obtained from Permian- Triassic boundary sections in China, Australia, Canada, Tibet and Greenland. These data suggest that euxinic conditions prevailed widely in the oceans for an extended period from the Late Permian and that sulfide toxicity may have been a major factor in the demise of both plant and animal life.

  19. Procalcitonin in sepsis and bacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Chaudhury

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The differentiation of sepsis and systemic bacterial infections from other causes of systemic inflammatory response is crucial from the therapeutic point of view. The clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific and traditional biomarkers like white cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein are not sufficiently sensitive or specific to guide therapeutic decisions. Procalcitonin (PCT is considered a reliable marker for the diagnosis and prognosis of moderate to severe bacterial infections, and it has also been evaluated to guide the clinicians in the rational usage of antibiotics. This review describes the diagnostic and prognostic role of PCT as a biomarker in various clinical settings along with the laboratory aspects and its usefulness in risk stratification and antibiotic stewardship.

  20. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...... biogeochemical processes are carried exclusively by bacteria. * Bacteria play an important role in all types of habitats including some that cannot support eukaryotic life....

  1. [Bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Herrero, Daniel; Andreu Domingo, Antonia

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the main cause of vaginal dysbacteriosis in the women during the reproductive age. It is an entity in which many studies have focused for years and which is still open for discussion topics. This is due to the diversity of microorganisms that cause it and therefore, its difficult treatment. Bacterial vaginosis is probably the result of vaginal colonization by complex bacterial communities, many of them non-cultivable and with interdependent metabolism where anaerobic populations most likely play an important role in its pathogenesis. The main symptoms are an increase of vaginal discharge and the unpleasant smell of it. It can lead to serious consequences for women, such as an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus and upper genital tract and pregnancy complications. Gram stain is the gold standard for microbiological diagnosis of BV, but can also be diagnosed using the Amsel clinical criteria. It should not be considered a sexually transmitted disease but it is highly related to sex. Recurrence is the main problem of medical treatment. Apart from BV, there are other dysbacteriosis less characterized like aerobic vaginitis of which further studies are coming slowly but are achieving more attention and consensus among specialists. PMID:27474242

  2. Role of serum procalcitonin level in early diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia in children, a hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Mohd Saleem

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Serum PCT is an important biomarker for prompt diagnosis of bacterial infection and a sensitive indicator to distinguish bacterial from non-bacterial pneumonia. Evaluating serum PCT levels helps in early use of antibiotic therapy and prognosis of underlying disease. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1518-1521

  3. Proteomic Biomarkers Associated with Streptococcus agalactiae Invasive Genogroups

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Lanotte; Marylise Perivier; Eve Haguenoer; Laurent Mereghetti; Christophe Burucoa; Stéphane Claverol; Christo Atanassov

    2013-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae) is a leading cause of meningitis and sepsis in newborns and an etiological agent of meningitis, endocarditis, osteoarticular and soft tissue infections in adults. GBS isolates are routinely clustered in serotypes and in genotypes. At present one GBS sequence type (i.e. ST17) is considered to be closely associated with bacterial invasiveness and novel proteomic biomarkers could make a valuable contribution to currently available GBS typing ...

  4. Biomarkers for pancreatic carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hustinx, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease. Most pancreatic cancers (approximately 85%) are diagnosed at a late, incurable stage. The poor prognosis and late presentation of pancreatic cancer patients underscore the importance of early detection, which is the sine qua non for the fight against pancreatic cancer. It is hoped for the future that the understanding of genetic alterations will lead to the rapid discovery of an effective biomarker of pancreatic carcinogenesis. In this thesis we vis...

  5. Biomarkers of Ovarian Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Roudebush

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary function of the female ovary is the production of a mature and viable oocyte capable of fertilization and subsequent embryo development and implantation. At birth, the ovary contains a finite number of oocytes available for folliculogenesis. This finite number of available oocytes is termed “the ovarian reserve”. The determination of ovarian reserve is important in the assessment and treatment of infertility. As the ovary ages, the ovarian reserve will decline. Infertility affects approximately 15-20% of reproductive aged couples. The most commonly used biomarker assay to assess ovarian reserve is the measurement of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH on day 3 of the menstrual cycle. However, antimüllerian hormone and inhibin-B are other biomarkers of ovarian reserve that are gaining in popularity since they provide direct determination of ovarian status, whereas day 3 FSH is an indirect measurement. This review examines the physical tools and the hormone biomarkers used to evaluate ovarian reserve.

  6. Biomarker Identification Using Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying molecular biomarkers has become one of the important tasks for scientists to assess the different phenotypic states of cells or organisms correlated to the genotypes of diseases from large-scale biological data. In this paper, we proposed a text-mining-based method to discover biomarkers from PubMed. First, we construct a database based on a dictionary, and then we used a finite state machine to identify the biomarkers. Our method of text mining provides a highly reliable approach to discover the biomarkers in the PubMed database.

  7. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudit Verma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person’s genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed.

  8. Bacterial Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauga, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells, yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micrometer scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, I review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  9. Bacterial hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lauga, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass, and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micron scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically-complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, we review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.

  10. Emerging biomarkers in psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, So Yeon; Han, Ling; Weiland, Matthew; Lu, Chuan-Jian; McKinnon, Kathleen; Zhou, Li; Lim, Henry W; Elder, James T; Mi, Qing-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Psoriasis is an immune-mediated skin disease which affects 2-4% of the worldwide population. Approximately 20-30% of patients with psoriasis develop psoriatic arthritis (PsA), a frequently destructive and disabling condition. As skin manifestations precede joint symptoms in nearly all patients with PsA, identification of biomarkers for early prediction of joint damage is an important clinical need. Because not all patients with PsA respond to treatment in the same fashion, identification of biomarkers capable of predicting therapeutic response is also imperative. Here, we review existing literature and discuss current investigations to identify potential biomarkers for PsA disease activity, with particular emphasis on microRNAs as novel markers of interest. Serum (soluble) biomarkers, peripheral osteoclast precursor as cellular biomarkers, and genetic loci associated with skin and joint disease are also reviewed. PMID:26602058

  11. Epigenetic biomarkers in liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaudha, Krishna K; Verma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma or HCC) is a major cancer worldwide. Research in this field is needed to identify biomarkers that can be used for early detection of the disease as well as new approaches to its treatment. Epigenetic biomarkers provide an opportunity to understand liver cancer etiology and evaluate novel epigenetic inhibitors for treatment. Traditionally, liver cirrhosis, proteomic biomarkers, and the presence of hepatitis viruses have been used for the detection and diagnosis of liver cancer. Promising results from microRNA (miRNA) profiling and hypermethylation of selected genes have raised hopes of identifying new biomarkers. Some of these epigenetic biomarkers may be useful in risk assessment and for screening populations to identify who is likely to develop cancer. Challenges and opportunities in the field are discussed in this chapter.

  12. Biomarkers for lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangar, Richard C.; Varnum, Susan M.

    2014-09-02

    A biomarker, method, test kit, and diagnostic system for detecting the presence of lymphoma in a person are disclosed. The lymphoma may be Hodgkin's lymphoma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The person may be a high-risk subject. In one embodiment, a plasma sample from a person is obtained. The level of at least one protein listed in Table S3 in the plasma sample is measured. The level of at least one protein in the plasma sample is compared with the level in a normal or healthy subject. The lymphoma is diagnosed based upon the level of the at least one protein in the plasma sample in comparison to the normal or healthy level.

  13. Biomarkers of manganese intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Fu, Sherleen X; Dydak, Ulrike; Cowan, Dallas M

    2011-01-01

    Manganese (Mn), upon absorption, is primarily sequestered in tissue and intracellular compartments. For this reason, blood Mn concentration does not always accurately reflect Mn concentration in the targeted tissue, particularly in the brain. The discrepancy between Mn concentrations in tissue or intracellular components means that blood Mn is a poor biomarker of Mn exposure or toxicity under many conditions and that other biomarkers must be established. For group comparisons of active workers, blood Mn has some utility for distinguishing exposed from unexposed subjects, although the large variability in mean values renders it insensitive for discriminating one individual from the rest of the study population. Mn exposure is known to alter iron (Fe) homeostasis. The Mn/Fe ratio (MIR) in plasma or erythrocytes reflects not only steady-state concentrations of Mn or Fe in tested individuals, but also a biological response (altered Fe homeostasis) to Mn exposure. Recent human studies support the potential value for using MIR to distinguish individuals with Mn exposure. Additionally, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in combination with noninvasive assessment of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), provides convincing evidence of Mn exposure, even without clinical symptoms of Mn intoxication. For subjects with long-term, low-dose Mn exposure or for those exposed in the past but not the present, neither blood Mn nor MRI provides a confident distinction for Mn exposure or intoxication. While plasma or erythrocyte MIR is more likely a sensitive measure, the cut-off values for MIR among the general population need to be further tested and established. Considering the large accumulation of Mn in bone, developing an X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy or neutron-based spectroscopy method may create yet another novel non-invasive tool for assessing Mn exposure and toxicity. PMID:20946915

  14. Biomarkers and Microbial Fossils In Antarctic Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchos, J.; Ascaso, C.

    Lithobiontic microbial communities living within Antarctic rocks are an example of survival in an extremely cold and dry environment. Any unfavourable change in ex- ternal conditions can result in the death and disappearance of microscopic organisms, and this may be followed by the appearance of trace biomarkers and microbial fossils. The extinction of these microorganisms in some zones of the Ross Desert, probably provoked by the hostile environment, might be considered a good terrestrial analogue of the first stage of the disappearance of possible life on early Mars. Granite samples from maritime Antarctica (Granite Harbour) and sandstone rocks from the continental Ross Desert were collected with the aim of searching for biomarkers and microbial fossils at the microscopic level of observation. To this end, a novel in situ applica- tion of scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron imaging was com- bined with the simultaneous use of X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy techniques. Our findings confirm the existence of inorganic biomarkers in the form of physico- chemically bioweathered minerals within the granitic rocks. The presence of Fe-rich diagenetic minerals, such as iron hydroxide nanocrystals and biogenic clays around chasmoendolithic hyphae and bacterial cells was also observed. Others biomarkers, including inorganic deposits such as calcium oxalates and silica accumulations, are clear signs of endolithic microorganism activity. The interior of the sandstone rocks (Ross Desert, Mt. Fleming) reveal the presence of microbial fossils of algae and other endolithic microorganisms. These microbial fossils, detected for the first time within Antarctic rocks, contain well preserved and morphologically distinguishable relics of ultrastructural cytoplasm elements, such as cell walls, chloroplast membranes, and oc- casionally, pyrenoids and traces of organic matter. These structures are similar to those observed in live cells also found in Antarctic

  15. [Novel biomarkers for diabetic nephropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Shin-ichi

    2014-02-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. An early clinical sign of this complication is an increase of urinary albumin excretion, called microalbuminuria, which is not only a predictor of the progression of nephropathy, but also an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although microalbuminuria is clinically important to assess the prognosis of diabetic patients, it may be insufficient as an early and specific biomarker of diabetic nephropathy because of a large day-to-day variation and lack of a good correlation of microalbuminuria with renal dysfunction and pathohistological changes. Thus, more sensitive and specific biomarkers are needed to improve the diagnostic capability of identifying patients at high risk. The factors involved in renal tubulo-interstitial damage, the production and degradation of extracellular matrix, microinflammation, etc., are investigated as candidate molecules. Despite numerous efforts so far, the assessment of these biomarkers is still a subject of ongoing investigations. Recently, a variety of omics and quantitative techniques in systems biology are rapidly emerging in the field of biomarker discovery, including proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics, and they have been applied to search for novel putative biomarkers of diabetic nephropathy. Novel biomarkers or their combination with microalbuminuria provide a better diagnostic accuracy than microalbuminuria alone, and may be useful for establishing personal medicine. Furthermore, the identification of novel biomarkers may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying diabetic nephropathy.

  16. Value of inflammatory biomarkers in early diagnosis of bacteriemia patients infected with gramnegative bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炜

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of inflammatory biomarkers such as procalcitonin(PCT),C-reactive protein(CRP),and endotoxin in early diagnosis of bacterie-mia patients infected with gram-negative bacteria.Methods A cohort of 79 bacteriemia patients infected with gram-negative bacteria admitted from February 2011 to May 2013 were enrolled for retrospective study.Collect-

  17. Proteomic biomarkers associated with Streptococcus agalactiae invasive genogroups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lanotte

    Full Text Available Group B streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae is a leading cause of meningitis and sepsis in newborns and an etiological agent of meningitis, endocarditis, osteoarticular and soft tissue infections in adults. GBS isolates are routinely clustered in serotypes and in genotypes. At present one GBS sequence type (i.e. ST17 is considered to be closely associated with bacterial invasiveness and novel proteomic biomarkers could make a valuable contribution to currently available GBS typing data. For that purpose we analyzed the protein profiles of 170 genotyped GBS isolates by Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI. Univariate statistical analysis of the SELDI profiles identified four protein biomarkers significantly discriminating ST17 isolates from those of the other sequence types. Two of these biomarkers (MW of 7878 Da and 12200 Da were overexpressed and the other two (MW of 6258 Da and 10463 Da were underexpressed in ST17. The four proteins were isolated by mass spectrometry-assisted purification and their tryptic peptides analyzed by LC-MS/MS. They were thereby identified as the small subunit of exodeoxyribonuclease VII, the 50S ribosomal protein L7/L12, a CsbD-like protein and thioredoxin, respectively. In conclusion, we identified four candidate biomarkers of ST17 by SELDI for high-throughput screening. These markers may serve as a basis for further studies on the pathophysiology of GBS infection, and for the development of novel vaccines.

  18. Biomarker in archaeological soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedner, Katja; Glaser, Bruno; Schneeweiß, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The use of biomarkers in an archaeological context allow deeper insights into the understanding of anthropogenic (dark) earth formation and from an archaeological point of view, a completely new perspective on cultivation practices in the historic past. During an archaeological excavation of a Slavic settlement (10th/11th C. A.D.) in Brünkendorf (Wendland region in Northern Germany), a thick black soil (Nordic Dark Earth) was discovered that resembled the famous terra preta phenomenon. For the humid tropics, terra preta could act as model for sustainable agricultural practices and as example for long-term CO2-sequestration into terrestrial ecosystems. The question was whether this Nordic Dark Earth had similar properties and genesis as the famous Amazonian Dark Earth in order to find a model for sustainable agricultural practices and long term CO2-sequestration in temperate zones. For this purpose, a multi-analytical approach was used to characterize the sandy-textured Nordic Dark Earth in comparison to less anthropogenically influenced soils in the adjacent area in respect of ecological conditions (e.g. amino sugar), input materials (faeces) and the presence of stable soil organic matter (black carbon). Amino sugar analyses showed that Nordic Dark Earth contained higher amounts of microbial residues being dominated by soil fungi. Faecal biomarkers such as stanols and bile acids indicated animal manure from omnivores and herbivores but also human excrements. Black carbon content of about 30 Mg ha-1 in the Nordic Dark Earth was about four times higher compared to the adjacent soil and in the same order of magnitude compared to terra preta. Our data strongly suggest parallels to anthropogenic soil formation in Amazonia and in Europe by input of organic wastes, faecal material and charred organic matter. An obvious difference was that in terra preta input of human-derived faecal material dominated while in NDE human-derived faecal material played only a minor role

  19. Integrated Detection of Pathogens and Host Biomarkers for Wounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaing, C

    2012-03-19

    The increasing incidence and complications arising from combat wounds has necessitated a reassessment of methods for effective treatment. Infection, excessive inflammation, and incidence of drug-resistant organisms all contribute toward negative outcomes for afflicted individuals. The organisms and host processes involved in wound progression, however, are incompletely understood. We therefore set out, using our unique technical resources, to construct a profile of combat wounds which did or did not successfully resolve. We employed the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array and identified a number of nosocomial pathogens present in wound samples. Some of these identities corresponded with bacterial isolates previously cultured, while others were not obtained via standard microbiology. Further, we optimized proteomics protocols for the identification of host biomarkers indicative of various stages in wound progression. In combination with our pathogen data, our biomarker discovery efforts will provide a profile corresponding to wound complications, and will assist significantly in treatment of these complex cases.

  20. 2-Methylhopanoids: Biomarkers for Cyanobacteria and for Oxygenic Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summons, R. E.; Jahnke, L. L.; Hope, J. M.; Logan, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports new biomarker and carbon isotopic data for cultured cyanobacteria, cyano-bacterially- dominated ecosystems and ancient sedi-ments and petroleum. We found that cyanobacteria are the predominant source of a distinctive membrane lipid biomarker, namely 2- methylbacteriohopanepolyol (2-Me-BHP). We then sought evidence for a geochemical record of the fossil hydrocarbon analogues of these compounds (2- methylhopanes) and found a trend toward their in-creased relative abundance in marine sediments going back through geological time to 2500 Ma. We conclude that cyanobacteria were the dominant form of phytoplankton and source of molecular oxygen in the Proterozoic ocean. Extending the geological record of cyanobacteria further to Archean times is now a matter of finding a suitably preserved rock record. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Urinary Biomarkers of Brain Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manxia An

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are the measurable changes associated with a physiological or pathophysiological process. Unlike blood, urine is not subject to homeostatic mechanisms. Therefore, greater fluctuations could occur in urine than in blood, better reflecting the changes in human body. The roadmap of urine biomarker era was proposed. Although urine analysis has been attempted for clinical diagnosis, and urine has been monitored during the progression of many diseases, particularly urinary system diseases, whether urine can reflect brain disease status remains uncertain. As some biomarkers of brain diseases can be detected in the body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and blood, there is a possibility that urine also contain biomarkers of brain diseases. This review summarizes the clues of brain diseases reflected in the urine proteome and metabolome.

  2. Biomarkers of latent TB infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, Morten; Ravn, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    For the last 100 years, the tuberculin skin test (TST) has been the only diagnostic tool available for latent TB infection (LTBI) and no biomarker per se is available to diagnose the presence of LTBI. With the introduction of M. tuberculosis-specific IFN-gamma release assays (IGRAs), a new area of...... in vitro immunodiagnostic tests for LTBI based on biomarker readout has become a reality. In this review, we discuss existing evidence on the clinical usefulness of IGRAs and the indefinite number of potential new biomarkers that can be used to improve diagnosis of latent TB infection. We also...... present early data suggesting that the monocyte-derived chemokine inducible protein-10 may be useful as a novel biomarker for the immunodiagnosis of latent TB infection....

  3. Cardiac Biomarkers and Cycling Race

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Le Goff, Jean-François Kaux, Sébastien Goffaux, Etienne Cavalier

    2015-01-01

    In cycling as in other types of strenuous exercise, there exists a risk of sudden death. It is important both to understand its causes and to see if the behavior of certain biomarkers might highlight athletes at risk. Many reports describe changes in biomarkers after strenuous exercise (Nie et al., 2011), but interpreting these changes, and notably distinguishing normal physiological responses from pathological changes, is not easy. Here we have focused on the kinetics of different cardiac bi...

  4. Biomarkers in Acute Lung Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargava, Maneesh; Wendt, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and Acute Lung Injury (ALI) result in high permeability pulmonary edema causing hypoxic respiratory failure with high morbidity and mortality. As the population ages, the incidence of ALI is expected to rise. Over the last decade, several studies have identified biomarkers in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid providing important insights into the mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of ALI. Several biomarkers have been validated in subjec...

  5. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Mudit Verma; Mukesh Verma; Payal Patel

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high ris...

  6. Analysis of biomarker data a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Looney, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    A "how to" guide for applying statistical methods to biomarker data analysis Presenting a solid foundation for the statistical methods that are used to analyze biomarker data, Analysis of Biomarker Data: A Practical Guide features preferred techniques for biomarker validation. The authors provide descriptions of select elementary statistical methods that are traditionally used to analyze biomarker data with a focus on the proper application of each method, including necessary assumptions, software recommendations, and proper interpretation of computer output. In addition, the book discusses

  7. Neuroimmune biomarkers in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Jakub; Rahmoune, Hassan; Guest, Paul C; Bahn, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder with a broad spectrum of clinical and biological manifestations. Due to the lack of objective tests, the accurate diagnosis and selection of effective treatments for schizophrenia remains challenging. Numerous technologies have been employed in search of schizophrenia biomarkers. These studies have suggested that neuroinflammatory processes may play a role in schizophrenia pathogenesis, at least in a subgroup of patients. The evidence indicates alterations in both pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules in the central nervous system, which have also been found in peripheral tissues and may correlate with schizophrenia symptoms. In line with these findings, certain immunomodulatory interventions have shown beneficial effects on psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia patients, in particular those with distinct immune signatures. In this review, we evaluate these findings and their potential for more targeted drug interventions and the development of companion diagnostics. Although currently no validated markers exist for schizophrenia patient stratification or the prediction of treatment efficacy, we propose that utilisation of inflammatory markers for diagnostic and theranostic purposes may lead to novel therapeutic approaches and deliver more effective care for schizophrenia patients. PMID:25124519

  8. Exploring Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neeti; Singh, Anshika Nikita

    2016-07-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is one of the most common form of dementia occurring in elderly population worldwide. Currently Aβ42, tau and p-tau in the cerebrospinal fluid is estimated for confirmation of AD. CSF which is being used as the potent source for biomarker screening is obtained by invasive lumbar punctures. Thus, there is an urgent need of minimal invasive methods for identification of diagnostic markers for early detection of AD. Blood serum and plasma serves as an appropriate source, due to minimal discomfort to the patients, promoting frequent testing, better follow-up and better consent to clinical trials. Hence, the need of the hour demands discovery of diagnostic and prognostic patient specific signature biomarkers by using emerging technologies of mass spectrometry, microarrays and peptidomics. In this review we summarize the present scenario of AD biomarkers such as circulatory biomarkers, blood based amyloid markers, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress markers being investigated and also some of the potent biomarkers which might be able to predict early onset of Alzheimer's and delay cognitive impairment. PMID:27630867

  9. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach that ...

  10. Biomarkers of silicosis: Potential candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwari R

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica dust is widely prevalent in the atmosphere and more common than the other types of dust, thus making silicosis the most frequently occurring pneumoconiosis. In India also, studies carried out by National Institute of Occupational Health have shown high prevalence of silicosis in small factories and even in nonoccupational exposed subjects. The postero-anterior chest radiographs remain the key tool in diagnosing and assessing the extent and severity of interstitial lung disease. Although Computed Tomography detects finer anatomical structure than radiography it could not get popularity because of its cost. On the basis of histological features of silicosis many potential biomarkers such as Cytokines, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Interleukin 1, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme, Serum Copper, Fas ligand (FasL, etc. have been tried. However, further studies are needed to establish these potential biomarkers as true biomarker of silicosis.

  11. Biomarkers in fibromyalgia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomelli C

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Camillo Giacomelli,* Francesca Sernissi,* Alessandra Rossi, Stefano Bombardieri, Laura BazzichiRheumatology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy *These authors contributed equally to the manuscript Abstract: Fibromyalgia is a common syndrome diagnosed by clinical criteria. The main symptom of fibromyalgia is pain, but patients frequently also complain about other nonspecific symptoms, such as headache, sleep disturbance, mood disorder, and cognitive impairment. In the light of the multifactorial origin of the disease and of the lack of objective diagnostic findings, several attempts have been made to find a reliable biomarker. For this reason, over the years, a number of patients and various biological samples have been studied, using many different approaches and techniques. Despite this, none of these studies has been able to find the proper biomarker. The aim of this review is to provide a critical overview of the current environment characterizing the search for fibromyalgia biomarkers. Keywords: genetics, proteomics, oxidative stress, fibromyalgia

  12. Bias in Peripheral Depression Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, André F; Köhler, Cristiano A; Brunoni, André R;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To aid in the differentiation of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) from healthy controls, numerous peripheral biomarkers have been proposed. To date, no comprehensive evaluation of the existence of bias favoring the publication of significant results or inflating effect...... sizes has been conducted. METHODS: Here, we performed a comprehensive review of meta-analyses of peripheral nongenetic biomarkers that could discriminate individuals with MDD from nondepressed controls. PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched through April 10, 2015. RESULTS: From 15......-analyses, while 11 meta-analyses had evidence of small-study effects. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that there is an excess of studies with statistically significant results in the literature of peripheral biomarkers for MDD. The selective publication of 'positive studies' and the selective reporting...

  13. Biomarkers in inflammatory bowel diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Tue; Birkelund, Svend; Stensballe, Allan;

    2014-01-01

    Unambiguous diagnosis of the two main forms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD): Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), represents a challenge in the early stages of the diseases. The diagnosis may be established several years after the debut of symptoms. Hence, protein biomarkers...... for early and accurate diagnostic could help clinicians improve treatment of the individual patients. Moreover, the biomarkers could aid physicians to predict disease courses and in this way, identify patients in need of intensive treatment. Patients with low risk of disease flares may avoid treatment...... with medications with the concomitant risk of adverse events. In addition, identification of disease and course specific biomarker profiles can be used to identify biological pathways involved in the disease development and treatment. Knowledge of disease mechanisms in general can lead to improved future...

  14. f{sub 1}(1285) decays into a{sub 0}(980)π{sup 0}, f{sub 0}(980)π{sup 0} and isospin breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceti, F.; Oset, E. [Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Valencia y IFIC, Valencia (Spain); Dias, J.M. [Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Valencia y IFIC, Valencia (Spain); Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-04-01

    We evaluate the decay width for the processes f{sub 1}(1285) → π{sup 0} a{sub 0}(980) and f{sub 1}(1285) → π{sup 0} f{sub 1}(980)taking into account that all three resonances are dynamically generated from the meson-meson interaction, the f{sub 1}(1285) from K{sup *} anti K - c.c. and the a{sub 0}(980), f{sub 0}(980) from πη, K anti K and ππ, K anti K, respectively. We use a triangular mechanism similar to that of η(1405) → ππη, which provides a decay width for f{sub 1}(1285) → π{sup 0} a{sub 0}(980) with a branching fraction of the order of 30%, in agreement with experiment. At the same time we evaluate the decay width for the isospin-forbidden f{sub 1}(1285) → π{sup 0} f{sub 0}(980), which appears when we consider different masses for the charged and neutral kaons, and show that it is much more suppressed than in the η(1405) → ππη case, but gives rise to a narrow shape of the π{sup +}π{sup -} distribution similar to the one found in the η(1405) → ππη decay. (orig.)

  15. Potential blood biomarkers for stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde, Carlos M; Mourino-Alvarez, Laura; Akerstrom, Finn; Padial, Luis R; Vivanco, Fernando; Gil-Dones, Felix; Barderas, Maria G

    2012-08-01

    Stroke is one of the most common causes of death worldwide and a major cause of acquired disability in adults. Despite advances in research during the last decade, prevention and treatment strategies still suffer from significant limitations, and therefore new theoretical and technical approaches are required. Technological advances in the proteomic and metabolomic areas, during recent years, have permitted a more effective search for novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets that may allow for effective risk stratification and early diagnosis with subsequent rapid treatment. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the latest candidate proteins and metabolites proposed as new potential biomarkers in stroke. PMID:22967080

  16. Utility of immune response-derived biomarkers in the differential diagnosis of inflammatory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Oever, Jaap; Netea, Mihai G; Kullberg, Bart-Jan

    2016-01-01

    Differentiating between inflammatory disorders is difficult, but important for a rational use of antimicrobial agents. Biomarkers reflecting the host immune response may offer an attractive strategy to predict the etiology of an inflammatory process and can thus be of help in decision making. We performed a review of the literature to evaluate the diagnostic value of inflammatory biomarkers in adult patients admitted to the hospital with suspected systemic acute infections. Elevated procalcitonin (PCT) concentrations indicate a bacterial infection in febrile patients with an auto-immune disease, rather than a disease flare. CD64 expression on neutrophils can discriminate between non-infectious systemic inflammation and sepsis, and limited evidence suggests the same for decoy receptor 3. PCT is useful for both diagnosing bacterial infection complicating influenza and guiding antibiotic treatment in lower respiratory tract infections in general. In undifferentiated illnesses, increased CD35 expression on neutrophils distinguishes bacterial from viral infections. Compared to bacterial infections, invasive fungal infections are characterized by low concentrations of PCT. No biomarker predicting a specific infecting agent could be identified. PMID:26429736

  17. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    that imposes selection pressure for resistant bacteria. New approaches are urgently needed. Targeting bacterial virulence functions directly is an attractive alternative. An obvious target is bacterial adhesion. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces is the first step in colonization, invasion, and biofilm formation....... As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will become...

  18. Biomarker Detection using PS2-Thioaptamers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AM Biotechnologies (AM) will develop a system to detect and quantify bone demineralization biomarkers as outlined in SBIR Topic "Technologies to Detect Biomarkers"....

  19. Proteomics in Discovery of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Biomarkers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To discover new proteomic biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: Surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry was used to discover biomarkers for differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma and chronic liver disease. A population of 50 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and 33 patients with chronic liver disease was studied. Results: Twelve proteomic biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma were detected in this study. Three proteomic biomarkers were highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and nine proteomic biomarkers were highly expressed in chronic liver disease. The most valuable proteomic biomarker with m/z=11498 had no similar diagnostic value as α-fetoprotein. Conclusion:Some of the twelve proteomic biomarkers may become new biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  20. Personalized medicine using DNA biomarkers: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, Andreas; Koch, Armin; Krockenberger, Katja; Großhennig, Anika

    2012-01-01

    Biomarkers are of increasing importance for personalized medicine, with applications including diagnosis, prognosis, and selection of targeted therapies. Their use is extremely diverse, ranging from pharmacodynamics to treatment monitoring. Following a concise review of terminology, we provide examples and current applications of three broad categories of biomarkers—DNA biomarkers, DNA tumor biomarkers, and other general biomarkers. We outline clinical trial phases for identifying and validat...

  1. Biomarkers in sarcoidosis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadzai H

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hasib Ahmadzai,1,2 Wei Sheng Joshua Loke,1 Shuying Huang,1 Cristan Herbert,1 Denis Wakefield,3 Paul S Thomas2 1Inflammation and Infection Research Centre (IIRC, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Immunology of the Eye Clinic, St Vincent's Clinic, Darlinghurst, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of undetermined etiology invariably affecting the lungs and thoracic lymph nodes. It has been termed an “immune paradox”, as there is peripheral anergy despite exaggerated inflammation at disease sites. The disease is usually self-limiting, although some individuals experience unremitting inflammation that may progress into pulmonary fibrosis and death. The inflammatory process is largely a T helper-1-driven immune response. Given its heterogeneous clinical manifestations, diagnosis is usually a clinical conundrum. Clinical and radiological findings alone are often inadequate to confirm the diagnosis. At present, sarcoidosis is usually a diagnosis of exclusion, confirmed by histological evidence of noncaseating granulomas in the absence of known granulomagenic agents. This has compelled researchers to look for disease-specific biomarkers that can help diagnose sarcoidosis and delineate its disease course, severity, and prognosis. In this review we highlight various investigations used to diagnose sarcoidosis, outline proposed biomarkers, and discuss novel methods of sampling biomarkers. Keywords: sarcoidosis, biomarkers, inflammatory markers, exhaled breath condensate, proteomics, granuloma

  2. Biomarkers of satiation and satiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, C. de; Blom, W.A.M.; Smeets, P.A.M.; Stafleu, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    This review's objective is to give a critical summary of studies that focused on physiologic measures relating to subjectively rated appetite, actual food intake, or both. Biomarkers of satiation and satiety may be used as a tool for assessing the satiating efficiency of foods and for understanding

  3. Biomarkers of replicative senescence revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehlin, Jan

    2016-01-01

    of telomere length and associated damage, and the accompanying changes that take place elicit signals that have an impact on a number of molecules and downstream events. Precise measurements of replicative senescence biomarkers in biological samples from individuals could be clinically associated...

  4. Plasma Bacterial and Mitochondrial DNA Distinguish Bacterial Sepsis from Sterile SIRS and Quantify Inflammatory Tissue Injury in Nonhuman Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Sursal, Tolga; Stearns-Kurosawa, Deborah J.; Itagaki, Kiyoshi; Oh, Sun-Young; Sun, Shiqin; Kurosawa, Shinichiro; Hauser, Carl J

    2013-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a fundamental host response common to bacterial infection and sterile tissue injury. SIRS can cause organ dysfunction and death but its mechanisms are incompletely understood. Moreover, SIRS can progress to organ failure or death despite being sterile or after control of the inciting infection. Biomarkers discriminating between sepsis, sterile SIRS and post-infective SIRS would therefore help direct care. Circulating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) ...

  5. Relationship of proton motive force and the F(0)F (1)-ATPase with bio-hydrogen production activity of Rhodobacter sphaeroides: effects of diphenylene iodonium, hydrogenase inhibitor, and its solvent dimethylsulphoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, Lilit; Gabrielyan, Lilit; Trchounian, Armen

    2012-08-01

    Rhodobacter sphaeroides MDC 6521 was able to produce bio-hydrogen (H(2)) in anaerobic conditions under illumination. In this study the effects of the hydrogenase inhibitor-diphenylene iodonium (Ph(2)I) and its solvent dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) on growth characteristics and H(2) production by R. sphaeroides were investigated. The results point out the concentration dependent DMSO effect: in the presence of 10 mM DMSO H(2) yield was ~6 fold lower than that of the control. The bacterium was unable to produce H(2) in the presence of Ph(2)I. In order to examine the mediatory role of proton motive force (∆p) or the F(0)F(1)-ATPase in H(2) production by R. sphaeroides, the effects of Ph(2)I and DMSO on ∆p and its components (membrane potential (∆ψ) and transmembrane pH gradient), and ATPase activity were determined. In these conditions ∆ψ was of -98 mV and the reversed ∆pH was +30 mV, resulting in ∆p of -68 mV. Ph(2)I decreased ∆ψ in concentrations of 20 μM and higher; lower concentrations of Ph(2)I as DMSO had no valuable effect on ∆ψ. The R. sphaeroides membrane vesicles demonstrated significant ATPase activity sensitive to N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. The 10-20 μM Ph(2)I did not affect the ATPase activity, whereas 40 μM Ph(2)I caused a marked inhibition (~2 fold) in ATPase activity. The obtained results provide novel evidence on the involvement of hydrogenase and the F(0)F(1)-ATPase in H(2) production by R. sphaeroides. Moreover, these data indicate the role of hydrogenase and the F(0)F(1)-ATPase in ∆p generation. In addition, DMSO might increase an interaction of nitrogenase with CO(2), decreasing nitrogenase activity and affecting H(2) production.

  6. Measurements of time-dependent CP violation in $B^0 \\to \\omega K_S^0$, $f_0(980) K_S^0$, $K_S^0 \\pi^0$ and $K^+ K^- K_S^0$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Aihara, H; Anipko, D; Aoki, K; Arakawa, T; Arinstein, K; Asano, Y; Aso, T; Aulchenko, V M; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bahinipati, S; Bakich, A M; Balagura, V; Ban, Y; Banerjee, S; Barberio, E; Barbero, M; Bay, A; Bedny, I; Belous, K S; Bitenc, U; Bizjak, I; Blyth, S; Bondar, A; Bozek, A; Bracko, M; Brodzicka, J; Browder, T E; Chang, M C; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, A; Chen, K F; Chen, W T; Cheon, B G; Chistov, R; Choi, J H; Choi, S K; Choi, Y; Choi, Y K; Chuvikov, A; Cole, S; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Dash, M; Dowd, R; Dragic, J; Drutskoy, A; Eidelman, S; Enari, Y; Epifanov, D A; Fratina, S; Fujii, H; Fujikawa, M; Gabyshev, N; Garmash, A; Gershon, T; Go, A; Gokhroo, G; Goldenzweig, P; Golob, B; Gorisek, A; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Guler, H; Ha, H; Haba, J; Hara, K; Hara, T; Hasegawa, Y; Hastings, N C; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; Hazumi, M; Heffernan, D; Higuchi, T; Hinz, L; Hokuue, T; Hoshi, Y; Hoshina, K; Hou, S; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y B; Igarashi, Y; Iijima, T; Ikado, K; Imoto, A; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, H; Itoh, K; Itoh, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, Y; Jacoby, C; Jones, M; Kakuno, H; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapusta, P; Kataoka, S U; Katayama, N; Kawai, H; Kawasaki, T; Khan, H R; Kibayashi, A; Kichimi, H; Kikuchi, N; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, J H; Kim, S K; Kim, T H; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Kishimoto, N; Korpar, S; Kozakai, Y; Krizan, P; Krokovnyi, P P; Kubota, T; Kulasiri, R; Kumar, R; Kuo, C C; Kurihara, E; Kusaka, A; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y J; Lange, J S; Leder, G; Lee, J; Lee, S E; Lee, Y J; Lesiak, T; Li, J; Limosani, A; Lin, C Y; Lin, S W; Liu, Y; Liventsev, D; MacNaughton, J; Majumder, G; Mandl, F; Marlow, D; Matsumoto, T; Matyja, A; McOnie, S; Medvedeva, T; Mikami, Y; Mitaroff, W A; Miyabayashi, K; Miyake, H; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Mizuk, R; Mohapatra, D; Moloney, G R; Mori, T; Müller, J; Murakami, A; Nagamine, T; Nagasaka, Y; Nakagawa, T; Nakahama, Y; Nakamura, I; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Nakazawa, H; Natkaniec, Z; Neichi, K; Nishida, S; Nishimura, K; Nitoh, O; Noguchi, S; Nozaki, T; Ogawa, A; Ogawa, S; Ohshima, T; Okabe, T; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Ono, S; Ostrowicz, W; Ozaki, H; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Palka, H; Park, C W; Park, H; Park, K S; Parslow, N; Peak, L S; Pernicka, M; Pestotnik, R; Peters, M; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Ronga, F J; Root, N; Rorie, J; Rózanska, M; Sahoo, H; Saitoh, S; Sakai, Y; Sakamoto, H; Sakaue, H; Sarangi, T R; Sato, N; Satoyama, N; Sayeed, K; Schietinger, T; Schneider, O; Schonmeier, P; Schümann, J; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Seidl, R; Seki, T; Senyo, K; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shen, Y T; Shibuya, H; Shwartz, B; Sidorov, V; Singh, J B; Sokolov, A; Somov, A; Soni, N; Stamen, R; Stanic, S; Staric, M; Stöck, H; Sugiyama, A; Sumisawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, S Y; Tajima, O; Takada, N; Takasaki, F; Tamai, K; Tamura, N; Tanabe, K; Tanaka, M; Taylor, G N; Teramoto, Y; Tian, X C; Tikhomirov, I; Trabelsi, K; Tsai, Y T; Tse, Y F; Tsuboyama, T; Tsukamoto, T; Uchida, K; Uchida, Y; Uehara, S; Uglov, T; Ueno, K; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Yu; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Villa, S; Wang, C C; Wang, C H; Wang, M Z; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Wicht, J; Widhalm, L; Wiechczynski, J; Won, E; Wu, C H; Xie, Q L; Yabsley, B D; Yamaguchi, A; Yamamoto, H; Yamamoto, S; Yamashita, Y; Yamauchi, M; Heyoung Yang; Yoshino, S; Yuan, Y; Yusa, Y; Zang, S L; Zhang, C C; Zhang, J; Zhang, L M; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Ziegler, T; Zupanc, A; Zürcher, D

    2006-01-01

    We present measurements of time-dependent CP asymmetries in $B^0 \\to \\omega K_S^0$, $f_0 (980) K_S^0$, $K_S^0 \\pi^0$ and $K^+ K^- K_S^0$ based on a sample of 535 $\\times 10^6$ $B\\bar{B}$ pairs collected at the $\\Upsilon(4S)$ resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB energy-asymmetric $e^+ e^-$ collider. One neutral $B$ meson is fully reconstructed in one of the specified decay channels, and the flavor of the accompanying $B$ meson is identified from its decay products. CP-violation parameters for each of the decay modes are obtained from the asymmetries in the distributions of the proper-time intervals between the two B decays.

  7. Meeting Report--NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straume, Tore; Amundson, Sally A,; Blakely, William F.; Burns, Frederic J.; Chen, Allen; Dainiak, Nicholas; Franklin, Stephen; Leary, Julie A.; Loftus, David J.; Morgan, William F.; Pellmar, Terry C.; Stolc, Viktor; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Vaughan, Andrew T.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2008-05-01

    A summary is provided of presentations and discussions from the NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop held September 27-28, 2007, at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California. Invited speakers were distinguished scientists representing key sectors of the radiation research community. Speakers addressed recent developments in the biomarker and biotechnology fields that may provide new opportunities for health-related assessment of radiation-exposed individuals, including for long-duration space travel. Topics discussed include the space radiation environment, biomarkers of radiation sensitivity and individual susceptibility, molecular signatures of low-dose responses, multivariate analysis of gene expression, biomarkers in biodefense, biomarkers in radiation oncology, biomarkers and triage following large-scale radiological incidents, integrated and multiple biomarker approaches, advances in whole-genome tiling arrays, advances in mass-spectrometry proteomics, radiation biodosimetry for estimation of cancer risk in a rat skin model, and confounding factors. Summary conclusions are provided at the end of the report.

  8. Oral Fluids that Detect Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Joseph D.; Sneed, J. Darrell; Steinhubl, Steven R; Kolasa, Justin; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Lin, Yushun; Kryscio, Richard J.; McDevitt, John T.; Campbell, Charles L.; Miller, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the utility of oral fluids for assessment of coronary and cardiovascular (CVD) health. Study Design Twenty-nine patients with pre-existing CVD disease underwent an invasive cardiac procedure (alcohol septal ablation or percutaneous coronary intervention) and provided unstimulated whole saliva (UWS), sublingual swabs (LS), gingival swabs (GS) and serum at 0, 8, 16, 24, 48 hr. Concentrations of 13 relevant biomarkers were determined and correlated with levels in serum and the oral fluids. Results Concentrations of the majority of biomarkers were higher in UWS than LS and GS. Coronary and CVD disease biomarkers in UWS correlated better with serum than LS and GS based on group status and measures of time effect. Seven biomarkers demonstrated time effect changes consistent with serum biomarkers, including C-reactive protein and troponin I. Conclusions Changes in serum biomarker profiles are reflected in oral fluids suggesting that oral fluid biomarkers could aid in the assessment of cardiac ischemia/necrosis. PMID:22769406

  9. Biomarkers in acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokra, Daniela; Kosutova, Petra

    2015-04-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and its milder form acute lung injury (ALI) may result from various diseases and situations including sepsis, pneumonia, trauma, acute pancreatitis, aspiration of gastric contents, near-drowning etc. ALI/ARDS is characterized by diffuse alveolar injury, lung edema formation, neutrophil-derived inflammation, and surfactant dysfunction. Clinically, ALI/ARDS is manifested by decreased lung compliance, severe hypoxemia, and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Severity and further characteristics of ALI/ARDS may be detected by biomarkers in the plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (or tracheal aspirate) of patients. Changed concentrations of individual markers may suggest injury or activation of the specific types of lung cells-epithelial or endothelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages, etc.), and thereby help in diagnostics and in evaluation of the patient's clinical status and the treatment efficacy. This chapter reviews various biomarkers of acute lung injury and evaluates their usefulness in diagnostics and prognostication of ALI/ARDS.

  10. Genetic biomarkers in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Caroline J; Elliott, Perry M

    2013-08-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a common inherited heart muscle disorder associated with sudden cardiac death, arrhythmias and heart failure. Genetic mutations can be identified in approximately 60% of patients; these are commonest in genes that encode proteins of the cardiac sarcomere. Similar to other Mendelian diseases these mutations are characterized by incomplete penetrance and variable clinical expression. Our knowledge of this genetic diversity is rapidly evolving as high-throughput DNA sequencing technology is now used to characterize an individual patient's disease. In addition, the genomic basis of several multisystem diseases associated with a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy phenotype has been elucidated. Genetic biomarkers can be helpful in making an accurate diagnosis and in identifying relatives at risk of developing the condition. In the clinical setting, genetic testing and genetic screening should be used pragmatically with appropriate counseling. Here we review the current role of genetic biomarkers in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, highlight recent progress in the field and discuss future challenges.

  11. Glycoscience aids in biomarker discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serenus Hua1,2 & Hyun Joo An1,2,*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The glycome consists of all glycans (or carbohydrates within abiological system, and modulates a wide range of important biologicalactivities, from protein folding to cellular communications.The mining of the glycome for disease markers representsa new paradigm for biomarker discovery; however, this effortis severely complicated by the vast complexity and structuraldiversity of glycans. This review summarizes recent developmentsin analytical technology and methodology as applied tothe fields of glycomics and glycoproteomics. Mass spectrometricstrategies for glycan compositional profiling are described, as arepotential refinements which allow structure-specific profiling.Analytical methods that can discern protein glycosylation at aspecific site of modification are also discussed in detail.Biomarker discovery applications are shown at each level ofanalysis, highlighting the key role that glycoscience can play inhelping scientists understand disease biology.

  12. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsiana Beiko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant decreases in morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases (CVD and cancers, morbidity and cost associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD continue to be increasing. Failure to improve disease outcomes has been related to the paucity of interventions improving survival. Insidious onset and slow progression halter research successes in developing disease-modifying therapies. In part, the difficulty in finding new therapies is because of the extreme heterogeneity within recognized COPD phenotypes. Novel biomarkers are necessary to help understand the natural history and pathogenesis of the different COPD subtypes. A more accurate phenotyping and the ability to assess the therapeutic response to new interventions and pharmaceutical agents may improve the statistical power of longitudinal clinical studies. In this study, we will review known candidate biomarkers for COPD, proposed pathways of pathogenesis, and future directions in the field.

  13. Identification of methanotrophic lipid biomarkers in cold-seep mussel gills: chemical and isotopic analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Jahnke, L L; Summons, R E; Dowling, L M; Zahiralis, K D

    1995-01-01

    A lipid analysis of the tissues of a cold-seep mytilid mussel collected from the Louisiana slope of the Gulf of Mexico was used in conjunction with a compound-specific isotope analysis to demonstrate the presence of methanotrophic symbionts in the mussel gill tissue and to demonstrate the host's dependence on bacterially synthesized metabolic intermediates. The gill tissue contained large amounts of group-specific methanotrophic biomarkers, bacteriohopanoids, 4-methylsterols, lipopolysacchar...

  14. Metabolomics Analysis Identifies Intestinal Microbiota-Derived Biomarkers of Colonization Resistance in Clindamycin-Treated Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jump, Robin L. P.; Polinkovsky, Alex; Hurless, Kelly; Sitzlar, Brett; Eckart, Kevin; Tomas, Myreen; Deshpande, Abhishek; Nerandzic, Michelle M.; Donskey, Curtis J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The intestinal microbiota protect the host against enteric pathogens through a defense mechanism termed colonization resistance. Antibiotics excreted into the intestinal tract may disrupt colonization resistance and alter normal metabolic functions of the microbiota. We used a mouse model to test the hypothesis that alterations in levels of bacterial metabolites in fecal specimens could provide useful biomarkers indicating disrupted or intact colonization resistance after antibioti...

  15. Finding good biomarkers for sarcopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Scharf, Gesine; Heineke, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    The term sarcopenia describes the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. While this process, in principal, occurs in every adult person and already starts around the age of 40, it is associated with disability, morbidity, and increased mortality in some individuals. In the absence of clear clinical manifestation, we today lack the ability to differentiate between physiological and pathological sarcopenia. In this regard, we need good biomarkers that can be quantified in a reli...

  16. Cardiac Biomarkers in Hyperthyroid Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Sangster, Jodi Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hyperthyroidism has substantial effects on the circulatory system. The cardiac biomarkers NT-proBNP and troponin I (cTNI) have proven useful in identifying cats with myocardial disease but have not been as extensively investigated in hyperthyroidism.Hypothesis: Plasma NT-proBNP and cTNI concentrations are higher in cats with primary cardiac disease than in cats with hyperthyroidism and higher in cats with hyperthyroidism than in healthy control cats.Animals: Twenty-three hyperthyr...

  17. Cardiac Biomarkers in Hyperthyroid Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Sangster, J.K.; Panciera, D L; Abbott, J.A.; Zimmerman, K.C.; Lantis, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hyperthyroidism has substantial effects on the circulatory system. The cardiac biomarkers NT‐proBNP and troponin I (cTNI) have proven useful in identifying cats with myocardial disease but have not been extensively investigated in hyperthyroidism. Hypothesis Plasma NT‐proBNP and cTNI concentrations are higher in cats with primary myocardial disease than in cats with hyperthyroidism and higher in cats with hyperthyroidism than in healthy control cats. Animals Twenty‐three hyperthyro...

  18. Proteomics Discovery of Disease Biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Mamoun Ahram; Petricoin, Emanuel F.

    2008-01-01

    Recent technological developments in proteomics have shown promising initiatives in identifying novel biomarkers of various diseases. Such technologies are capable of investigating multiple samples and generating large amount of data end-points. Examples of two promising proteomics technologies are mass spectrometry, including an instrument based on surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization, and protein microarrays. Proteomics data must, however, undergo analytical processing using bioinfo...

  19. Salivary biomarkers in psychobiological medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Chiappelli, Francesco; Iribarren, Francisco Javier; Prolo, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The value of salivary biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic assessments has become increasingly well established in medicine, pharmacology, and dentistry. Certain salivary components mirror the neuro-endocrine status of the organism. Other saliva products are protein in nature, and can serve to reflect immune surveillance processes. The autonomic nervous system regulates the process of salivation, and the concentration of yet other salivary components, such as α-amylase, which provide a re...

  20. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedrick Valisa E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status.

  1. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim N. Mak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate filaments (IFs. IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria-vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial virulence factors that target vimentin to subvert its function in order to change the host cell fate in the course of a bacterial infection.

  2. Molecular biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Florin-Dan

    2014-03-26

    Grass pollen allergy represents a significant cause of allergic morbidity worldwide. Component-resolved diagnosis biomarkers are increasingly used in allergy practice in order to evaluate the sensitization to grass pollen allergens, allowing the clinician to confirm genuine sensitization to the corresponding allergen plant sources and supporting an accurate prescription of allergy immunotherapy (AIT), an important approach in many regions of the world with great plant biodiversity and/or where pollen seasons may overlap. The search for candidate predictive biomarkers for grass pollen immunotherapy (tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells biomarkers, serum blocking antibodies biomarkers, especially functional ones, immune activation and immune tolerance soluble biomarkers and apoptosis biomarkers) opens new opportunities for the early detection of clinical responders for AIT, for the follow-up of these patients and for the development of new allergy vaccines.

  3. Advances in Biomarker Research in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shyamal H; Adler, Charles H

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and the numbers are projected to double in the next two decades with the increase in the aging population. An important focus of current research is to develop interventions to slow the progression of the disease. However, prerequisites to it include the development of reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis which would identify at-risk groups and disease progression. In this review, we present updated evidence of already known clinical biomarkers (such as hyposmia and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD)) and neuroimaging biomarkers, as well as newer possible markers in the blood, CSF, and other tissues. While several promising candidates and methods to assess these biomarkers are on the horizon, it is becoming increasingly clear that no one candidate will clearly fulfill all the roles as a single biomarker. A multimodal and combinatorial approach to develop a battery of biomarkers will likely be necessary in the future. PMID:26711276

  4. Swiftly Decreasing Cerebrospinal Fluid Cathelicidin Concentration Predicts Improved Outcome in Childhood Bacterial Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savonius, Okko; Helve, Otto; Roine, Irmeli; Andersson, Sture; Fernández, Josefina; Peltola, Heikki; Pelkonen, Tuula

    2016-06-01

    We investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cathelicidin concentrations in childhood bacterial meningitis on admission and during antimicrobial treatment. CSF cathelicidin concentrations on admission correlated with CSF white cell counts and protein levels but not with bacterial etiology. A greater decrease in the concentration in response to treatment was associated with a better outcome. Since the CSF cathelicidin concentration reflects the degree of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, it may be used as a novel biomarker in childhood bacterial meningitis. An early decrease during treatment likely signals more rapid mitigation of the disease process and thus a better outcome. PMID:27008883

  5. Peripheral Blood Biomarkers in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vij, Rekha; Noth, Imre

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we review the evidence for peripheral blood biomarkers in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a life-threatening fibrotic lung disease of unknown etiology. We focus on selected biomarkers present in peripheral blood, as they are easy to obtain, can be measured longitudinally, and have the greatest likelihood of achieving clinical utility. This article concentrates on biomarkers with mechanistic plausibility that may be directly involved in the development of IPF, including K...

  6. Biomarkers of HIV-associated Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Thabile Flepisi; Patrick Bouic; Gerhard Sissolak; Bernd Rosenkranz

    2014-01-01

    Cancer biomarkers have provided great opportunities for improving the management of cancer patients by enhancing the efficiency of early detection, diagnosis, and efficacy of treatment. Every cell type has a unique molecular signature, referred to as biomarkers, which are identifiable characteristics such as levels or activities of a myriad of genes, proteins, or other molecular features. Biomarkers can facilitate the molecular definition of cancer, provide information about the course of can...

  7. New serum biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Chadha, Kailash C.; Austin Miller; Nair, Bindukumar B.; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Trump, Donald L.; Willie Underwood

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker for diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (CaP). However, PSA typically lacks the sensitivity and specificity desired of a diagnostic marker. Objective: The goal of this study was to identify an additional biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that is more sensitive and specific than PSA in differentiating benign versus malignant prostate disease and/or localized CaP versus metastatic CaP. Methods: Concurrent meas...

  8. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Hedrick Valisa E; Dietrich Andrea M; Estabrooks Paul A; Savla Jyoti; Serrano Elena; Davy Brenda M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a ...

  9. Biological Networks for Cancer Candidate Biomarkers Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenying; Xue, Wenjin; Chen, Jiajia; Hu, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Due to its extraordinary heterogeneity and complexity, cancer is often proposed as a model case of a systems biology disease or network disease. There is a critical need of effective biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and/or outcome prediction from system level analyses. Methods based on integrating omics data into networks have the potential to revolutionize the identification of cancer biomarkers. Deciphering the biological networks underlying cancer is undoubtedly important for understanding the molecular mechanisms of the disease and identifying effective biomarkers. In this review, the networks constructed for cancer biomarker discovery based on different omics level data are described and illustrated from recent advances in the field.

  10. Biological Networks for Cancer Candidate Biomarkers Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenying; Xue, Wenjin; Chen, Jiajia; Hu, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Due to its extraordinary heterogeneity and complexity, cancer is often proposed as a model case of a systems biology disease or network disease. There is a critical need of effective biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and/or outcome prediction from system level analyses. Methods based on integrating omics data into networks have the potential to revolutionize the identification of cancer biomarkers. Deciphering the biological networks underlying cancer is undoubtedly important for understanding the molecular mechanisms of the disease and identifying effective biomarkers. In this review, the networks constructed for cancer biomarker discovery based on different omics level data are described and illustrated from recent advances in the field. PMID:27625573

  11. Interfering with bacterial gossip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    defense. Antibiotics exhibit a rather limited effect on biofilms. Furthermore, antibiotics have an ‘inherent obsolescence’ because they select for development of resistance. Bacterial infections with origin in bacterial biofilms have become a serious threat in developed countries. Pseudomonas aeruginosa...... that appropriately target bacteria in their relevant habitat with the aim of mitigating their destructive impact on patients. In this review we describe molecular mechanisms involved in “bacterial gossip” (more scientifically referred to as quorum sensing (QS) and c-di-GMP signaling), virulence, biofilm formation...

  12. Epikardiales Fett als Biomarker? // Epicardial Adipose Tissue as a Biomarker?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tscharre M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epicardial adipose tissue as the “visceral” adipose tissue of the heart is arousing more and more scientific interest, as it has numerous local and systemic effects. There is no fascia separating the epicardial adipose tissue and the myocardium and they both share its blood supply via the coronary arteries, thus allowing a possible interaction. Under normal physiological conditions, epicardial adipose tissue has mainly anti-atherogenic, thermogenic and mechanical characteristics. Under pathological conditions it becomes harmful to the myocardium and the coronary arteries. Important features in the clinical setting are correlations with coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation and visceral adipose tissue, thus acting as a possible biomarker of cardiovascular risk. p bKurzfassung:/b Das epikardiale Fettgewebe erweckt als „viszerales“ Fettdepot des Herzens mit zahlreichen lokalen und systemischen Effekten immer mehr wissenschaftliches Interesse. Das Fehlen einer trennenden Faszie zwischen epikardialem Fettgewebe und Myokard und die gemeinsame Blutversorgung durch die Koronararterien erlauben eine potenzielle Interaktion. Unter normalen physiologischen Verhältnissen hat das epikardiale Fettgewebe hauptsächlich anti-atherogene, thermogenetische und mechanische Funktionen. Unter pathologischen Verhältnissen schädigt es das Myokard und die Koronararterien. Einen klinischen Stellenwert hat es aufgrund von Korrelationen mit koronarer Herzerkrankung, Herzinsuffizienz, Vorhofflimmern und viszeralem Fettgewebe. Dadurch könnte es als neuer Biomarker für das kardiovaskuläre Risiko dienen.

  13. [Biomarkers in inflammatory bowel diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roblin, Xavier; Cavaille, Alaric; Clavel, Léa; Paul, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Fecal calprotectine is of interest for diagnosis of IBD at the beginning. CRP and fecal calprotectine are predictive of long-term response in patients treated by anti-TNF therapy. Trough levels of anti-TNF are associated to clinical remission and mucosal healing. Detectable antibodies to anti-TNF are associated with lower response to treatment. Interventional studies are waiting before optimization of treatment in function of biomarkers. Trough levels of anti-TNF help to modify our treatment (optimization or de-escalation). PMID:24373717

  14. Bacterial Wound Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Bacterial Wound Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Aerobic Wound Culture; Anaerobic Wound Culture Formal name: Culture, wound Related ...

  15. Bacterial surface adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Biofilms are structured multi-cellular communities that are fundamental to the biology and ecology of bacteria. Parasitic bacterial biofilms can cause lethal infections and biofouling, but commensal bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the gut, can break down otherwise indigestible plant polysaccharides and allow us to enjoy vegetables. The first step in biofilm formation, adaptation to life on a surface, requires a working knowledge of low Reynolds number fluid physics, and the coordination of biochemical signaling, polysaccharide production, and molecular motility motors. These crucial early stages of biofilm formation are at present poorly understood. By adapting methods from soft matter physics, we dissect bacterial social behavior at the single cell level for several prototypical bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

  16. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...

  17. Bacterial Meningitis in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of 80 infantile patients (ages 30-365 days; 47 male, 33 female with culture-proven bacterial meningitis seen over a 16 year period (1986-2001 is reported from Taiwan.

  18. Biomarkers of chronic alcohol misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo P

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Philippe Gonzalo,1 Sylvie Radenne,2 Sylvie Gonzalo31Laboratoire de Biochimie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne, France; 2Service d'Hépatologie-Gastroentérologie, Hôpital de la Croix Rousse, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France; 3Laboratoire Biomnis, Lyon, FranceAbstract: Biological markers of chronic alcoholism can be divided into two groups: direct and indirect markers. Direct markers (mainly blood or serum and urine ethanol, ethylglucuronide, ethyl sulfate, and phosphatidylethanol directly track the intake of alcohol and vary in their sensitivity and kinetics of appearance and clearance. Indirect markers (mean corpuscular volume,γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin are biological parameters that are influenced by a steady and significant alcohol intake. We discuss the values of these tests and the relevance of their prescriptions for the clinical evaluation of heavy drinking. We indicate, when known, the pathophysiological mechanism of their elevations. We also discuss the amount and time of alcohol consumption required to give a positive result and the duration of abstinence required for the return to normal values. The forensic use of these biomarkers will not be considered in this review.Keywords: alcoholism, biomarker, CDT, relapse, alcohol-induced liver disease

  19. Biomarkers in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Serafeim Theochari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of biomarkers is to identify patients most likely to benefit from a therapeutic strategy. Pancreatic neuroendocrinetumors are rare neoplasms that arise in the endocrine tissues of the pancreas. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors represent3% of primary pancreatic neoplasms and their incidence has risen. The SMAD4 gene is located on chromosome 18q andsomeday the SMAD4 gene status may be useful for prognostic stratification and therapeutic decision. The cells respond toenvironmental signals by modulating the expressions of genes contained within the nucleus, when genes are activated aretranscribed to generate messenger RNA (mRNA. The examination of multiple expressed genes and proteins provides moreuseful information for prognostication of individual tumors. Here we summarize and discuss findings presented at the 2014ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium. Anna Karpathakis et al. (Abstract #212 reported data about the role of DNAmethylation in gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors. Christina Lynn Roland et al. (Abstract #250 looked the impact OfSMAD4 on oncologic outcomes. Bong Kynn Kang et al. (Abstract #251 investigated prognostic biomarker using microRNAarray technology.

  20. Biomarkers of aggression in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotovac, Kristina; Nikolac Perković, Matea; Pivac, Nela; Borovečki, Fran

    2016-08-01

    Dementia is a clinical syndrome defined by progressive global impairment of acquired cognitive abilities. It can be caused by a number of underlying conditions. The most common types of dementia are Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Despite the fact that cognitive impairment is central to the dementia, noncognitive symptoms, most commonly described nowadays as neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) exist almost always at certain point of the illness. Aggression as one of the NPS represents danger both for patients and caregivers and the rate of aggression correlates with the loss of independence, cognitive decline and poor outcome. Therefore, biomarkers of aggression in dementia patients would be of a great importance. Studies have shown that different genetic factors, including monoamine signaling and processing, can be associated with various NPS including aggression. There have been significant and multiple neurotransmitter changes identified in the brains of patients with dementia and some of these changes have been involved in the etiology of NPS. Aggression specific changes have also been observed in neuropathological studies. The current consensus is that the best approach for development of such biomarkers may be incorporation of genetics (polymorphisms), neurobiology (neurotransmitters and neuropathology) and neuroimaging techniques. PMID:26952705

  1. Exploration of new HCC biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina M. Santella

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Analysis of plasma/serum for levels of viral antigens or antibodies to viral proteins has been used extensively as an early biomarker of potential risk of HCC. In addition, detection of elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein is commonly used for early identification of HCC. Unfortunately, both of these approaches are not highly sensitive or specific. As a result, there is continuing investigation to identify additional biomarkers that may help in the early identification of cases. The use of DNA isolated from plasma or serum for detection of gene specific methylation has been discussed previously. In addition, tumor DNA isolated from blood has been analyzed for the presence of p53 mutations and found in a subset of cases to be present years prior to diagnosis as for methylated DNA. The general level of DNA present in blood has also been suggested as a potential biomarker of cancer.

    Among the newer methods being tested are the detection of specific mutations in HBV. In many cases of HCC in China and Africa a double mutation, an A to T transversion at nucleotide 1762 and a G to A transition at nucleotide 1764 (1762T/1764A have been found. These mutations have been associated with increased severity of HBV infection and cirrhosis suggesting that they might be a useful biomarker for high risk subjects.

    The field of proteomics also holds promise for the development of new biomarkers. A number of groups are developing mass spectrometry methods for the identification of serum/plasma proteomic patterns that will distinguish bloods of HCC cases from those of controls. While some interesting preliminary data have been developed for several cancers, much additional work needs to be done in this area

  2. Bias in emerging biomarkers for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, A F; Köhler, C A; Fernandes, B S;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To date no comprehensive evaluation has appraised the likelihood of bias or the strength of the evidence of peripheral biomarkers for bipolar disorder (BD). Here we performed an umbrella review of meta-analyses of peripheral non-genetic biomarkers for BD. METHOD: The Pubmed...

  3. Current and emerging biomarkers of hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang X

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Xi Yang, William F Salminen, Laura K SchnackenbergDivision of Systems Biology, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR, USAAbstract: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI is of great concern to human health. Generally, liver function and injury is evaluated based upon clinical signs, a select group of serum clinical biomarkers, and occasionally liver biopsies. While alanine aminotransferase, the most commonly used biomarker of hepatocellular injury, is a sensitive marker of liver injury, it is not necessarily specific for liver injury. Furthermore, alanine aminotransferase levels may not always correlate with the extent of injury. Therefore, new hepatotoxicity biomarkers are needed that are more predictive and specific indicators of liver injury and altered function. In addition, no current biomarker provides prognostic information about ultimate outcome once injury occurs, and any new biomarker filling this need is desperately needed. The omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, are being used in preclinical animal studies as well as clinical studies to evaluate markers of hepatotoxicity in easily obtained biofluids, such as urine and serum. Recently, the evaluation of circulating microRNAs in urine and blood has also shown promise for the identification of novel, sensitive markers of liver injury. This review evaluates the current status of proposed biomarkers of hepatotoxicity from the omics platforms, as well as from analysis of microRNAs. A brief description of the qualification of proposed biomarkers is also given.Keywords: biomarkers, hepatotoxicity, metabolomics, microRNA, proteomics, transcriptomics

  4. DNA Methylation Biomarkers: Cancer and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mikeska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are naturally-occurring characteristics by which a particular pathological process or disease can be identified or monitored. They can reflect past environmental exposures, predict disease onset or course, or determine a patient’s response to therapy. Epigenetic changes are such characteristics, with most epigenetic biomarkers discovered to date based on the epigenetic mark of DNA methylation. Many tissue types are suitable for the discovery of DNA methylation biomarkers including cell-based samples such as blood and tumor material and cell-free DNA samples such as plasma. DNA methylation biomarkers with diagnostic, prognostic and predictive power are already in clinical trials or in a clinical setting for cancer. Outside cancer, strong evidence that complex disease originates in early life is opening up exciting new avenues for the detection of DNA methylation biomarkers for adverse early life environment and for estimation of future disease risk. However, there are a number of limitations to overcome before such biomarkers reach the clinic. Nevertheless, DNA methylation biomarkers have great potential to contribute to personalized medicine throughout life. We review the current state of play for DNA methylation biomarkers, discuss the barriers that must be crossed on the way to implementation in a clinical setting, and predict their future use for human disease.

  5. Fluid biomarkers in multiple system atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurens, Brice; Constantinescu, Radu; Freeman, Roy;

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing research efforts, no reliable biomarker currently exists for the diagnosis and prognosis of multiple system atrophy (MSA). Such biomarkers are urgently needed to improve diagnostic accuracy, prognostic guidance and also to serve as efficacy measures or surrogates of target...

  6. Proteomic Biomarkers for Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacerovsky, Marian; Lenco, Juraj; Musilova, Ivana;

    2014-01-01

    This review aimed to identify, synthesize, and analyze the findings of studies on proteomic biomarkers for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Three electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of proteomic biomarkers for PTB published...

  7. Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajka M Liscic; Yuanhan Yang

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) so far did not have promising treatment. The accurate and early diagnosis is still the important issue. For these purpose, biomarkers related to diagnosis, clinical course, and other aims have been proposed and reported. Meanwhile, along with the ongoing researches for AD, biomarkers with their own aims are also on the way.

  8. Cytokines as Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Burska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available RA is a complex disease that develops as a series of events often referred to as disease continuum. RA would benefit from novel biomarker development for diagnosis where new biomarkers are still needed (even if progresses have been made with the inclusion of ACPA into the ACR/EULAR 2010 diagnostic criteria and for prognostic notably in at risk of evolution patients with autoantibody-positive arthralgia. Risk biomarkers for rapid evolution or cardiovascular complications are also highly desirable. Monitoring biomarkers would be useful in predicting relapse. Finally, predictive biomarkers for therapy outcome would allow tailoring therapy to the individual. Increasing numbers of cytokines have been involved in RA pathology. Many have the potential as biomarkers in RA especially as their clinical utility is already established in other diseases and could be easily transferable to rheumatology. We will review the current knowledge’s relation to cytokine used as biomarker in RA. However, given the complexity and heterogeneous nature of RA, it is unlikely that a single cytokine may provide sufficient discrimination; therefore multiple biomarker signatures may represent more realistic approach for the future of personalised medicine in RA.

  9. Stable isotopes and biomarkers in microbial ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, H.T.S.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of biomarkers in combination with stable isotope analysis is a new approach in microbial ecology and a number of papers on a variety of subjects have appeared. We will first discuss the techniques for analysing stable isotopes in biomarkers, primarily gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ra

  10. Changes in rhizosphere bacterial gene expression following glyphosate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Molli M; Lorenz, Nicola; Hoilett, Nigel; Lee, Nathan R; Dick, Richard P; Liles, Mark R; Ramsier, Cliff; Kloepper, Joseph W

    2016-05-15

    In commercial agriculture, populations and interactions of rhizosphere microflora are potentially affected by the use of specific agrichemicals, possibly by affecting gene expression in these organisms. To investigate this, we examined changes in bacterial gene expression within the rhizosphere of glyphosate-tolerant corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) in response to long-term glyphosate (PowerMAX™, Monsanto Company, MO, USA) treatment. A long-term glyphosate application study was carried out using rhizoboxes under greenhouse conditions with soil previously having no history of glyphosate exposure. Rhizosphere soil was collected from the rhizoboxes after four growing periods. Soil microbial community composition was analyzed using microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Total RNA was extracted from rhizosphere soil, and samples were analyzed using RNA-Seq analysis. A total of 20-28 million bacterial sequences were obtained for each sample. Transcript abundance was compared between control and glyphosate-treated samples using edgeR. Overall rhizosphere bacterial metatranscriptomes were dominated by transcripts related to RNA and carbohydrate metabolism. We identified 67 differentially expressed bacterial transcripts from the rhizosphere. Transcripts downregulated following glyphosate treatment involved carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and upregulated transcripts involved protein metabolism and respiration. Additionally, bacterial transcripts involving nutrients, including iron, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, were also affected by long-term glyphosate application. Overall, most bacterial and all fungal PLFA biomarkers decreased after glyphosate treatment compared to the control. These results demonstrate that long-term glyphosate use can affect rhizosphere bacterial activities and potentially shift bacterial community composition favoring more glyphosate-tolerant bacteria. PMID:26901800

  11. Changes in rhizosphere bacterial gene expression following glyphosate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Molli M; Lorenz, Nicola; Hoilett, Nigel; Lee, Nathan R; Dick, Richard P; Liles, Mark R; Ramsier, Cliff; Kloepper, Joseph W

    2016-05-15

    In commercial agriculture, populations and interactions of rhizosphere microflora are potentially affected by the use of specific agrichemicals, possibly by affecting gene expression in these organisms. To investigate this, we examined changes in bacterial gene expression within the rhizosphere of glyphosate-tolerant corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) in response to long-term glyphosate (PowerMAX™, Monsanto Company, MO, USA) treatment. A long-term glyphosate application study was carried out using rhizoboxes under greenhouse conditions with soil previously having no history of glyphosate exposure. Rhizosphere soil was collected from the rhizoboxes after four growing periods. Soil microbial community composition was analyzed using microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Total RNA was extracted from rhizosphere soil, and samples were analyzed using RNA-Seq analysis. A total of 20-28 million bacterial sequences were obtained for each sample. Transcript abundance was compared between control and glyphosate-treated samples using edgeR. Overall rhizosphere bacterial metatranscriptomes were dominated by transcripts related to RNA and carbohydrate metabolism. We identified 67 differentially expressed bacterial transcripts from the rhizosphere. Transcripts downregulated following glyphosate treatment involved carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and upregulated transcripts involved protein metabolism and respiration. Additionally, bacterial transcripts involving nutrients, including iron, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, were also affected by long-term glyphosate application. Overall, most bacterial and all fungal PLFA biomarkers decreased after glyphosate treatment compared to the control. These results demonstrate that long-term glyphosate use can affect rhizosphere bacterial activities and potentially shift bacterial community composition favoring more glyphosate-tolerant bacteria.

  12. Novel diagnostic biomarkers for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikezie O. Madu, Yi Lu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in American men, and a more aggressive form of the disease is particularly prevalent among African Americans. The therapeutic success rate for prostate cancer can be tremendously improved if the disease is diagnosed early. Thus, a successful therapy for this disease depends heavily on the clinical indicators (biomarkers for early detection of the presence and progression of the disease, as well as the prediction after the clinical intervention. However, the current clinical biomarkers for prostate cancer are not ideal as there remains a lack of reliable biomarkers that can specifically distinguish between those patients who should be treated adequately to stop the aggressive form of the disease and those who should avoid overtreatment of the indolent form.A biomarker is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. A biomarker reveals further information to presently existing clinical and pathological analysis. It facilitates screening and detecting the cancer, monitoring the progression of the disease, and predicting the prognosis and survival after clinical intervention. A biomarker can also be used to evaluate the process of drug development, and, optimally, to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer treatment by enabling physicians to tailor treatment for individual patients. The form of the prostate cancer biomarkers can vary from metabolites and chemical products present in body fluid to genes and proteins in the prostate tissues.Current advances in molecular techniques have provided new tools facilitating the discovery of new biomarkers for prostate cancer. These emerging biomarkers will be beneficial and critical in developing new and clinically reliable indicators that will have a high specificity for the diagnosis and prognosis of

  13. Novel diagnostic biomarkers for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Chikezie O; Lu, Yi

    2010-10-06

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in American men, and a more aggressive form of the disease is particularly prevalent among African Americans. The therapeutic success rate for prostate cancer can be tremendously improved if the disease is diagnosed early. Thus, a successful therapy for this disease depends heavily on the clinical indicators (biomarkers) for early detection of the presence and progression of the disease, as well as the prediction after the clinical intervention. However, the current clinical biomarkers for prostate cancer are not ideal as there remains a lack of reliable biomarkers that can specifically distinguish between those patients who should be treated adequately to stop the aggressive form of the disease and those who should avoid overtreatment of the indolent form.A biomarker is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. A biomarker reveals further information to presently existing clinical and pathological analysis. It facilitates screening and detecting the cancer, monitoring the progression of the disease, and predicting the prognosis and survival after clinical intervention. A biomarker can also be used to evaluate the process of drug development, and, optimally, to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer treatment by enabling physicians to tailor treatment for individual patients. The form of the prostate cancer biomarkers can vary from metabolites and chemical products present in body fluid to genes and proteins in the prostate tissues.Current advances in molecular techniques have provided new tools facilitating the discovery of new biomarkers for prostate cancer. These emerging biomarkers will be beneficial and critical in developing new and clinically reliable indicators that will have a high specificity for the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer. The

  14. Melanoma biomarkers: Vox clamantis in deserto (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaer, Mays; Gollapudi, Divya; Papageorgio, Chris

    2010-05-01

    Detecting malignant melanoma at an early stage, monitoring therapy, predicting recurrence and identifying patients at risk for metastasis continue to be a challenging and demanding objective. The last two decades have witnessed innovations in the field of melanoma biomarkers. However, global agreement concerning monitoring and early detection has yet to be reached. This is a review of the current literature regarding melanoma biomarkers including demographic, clinical, pathological and molecular biomarkers that are produced by melanoma or non-melanoma cells. A number of these biomarkers demonstrate promising results as possible methods for early detection, predicting recurrence and monitoring therapy. Other biomarkers appear to be promising for identifying patients at risk for metastasis. We reviewed the most pertinent information in the field thus far and how this knowledge can impact, or not, the management of melanoma patients prognostically and therapeutically. PMID:22966315

  15. Diagnostic and prognostic epigenetic biomarkers in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Pinheiro, Pedro; Montezuma, Diana; Henrique, Rui; Jerónimo, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Growing cancer incidence and mortality worldwide demands development of accurate biomarkers to perfect detection, diagnosis, prognostication and monitoring. Urologic (prostate, bladder, kidney), lung, breast and colorectal cancers are the most common and despite major advances in their characterization, this has seldom translated into biomarkers amenable for clinical practice. Epigenetic alterations are innovative cancer biomarkers owing to stability, frequency, reversibility and accessibility in body fluids, entailing great potential of assay development to assist in patient management. Several studies identified putative epigenetic cancer biomarkers, some of which have been commercialized. However, large multicenter validation studies are required to foster translation to the clinics. Herein we review the most promising epigenetic detection, diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers for the most common cancers.

  16. Biomarkers in Parkinson's disease (recent update).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sushil; Moon, Carolyn Seungyoun; Khogali, Azza; Haidous, Ali; Chabenne, Anthony; Ojo, Comfort; Jelebinkov, Miriana; Kurdi, Yousef; Ebadi, Manuchair

    2013-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder mostly affecting the aging population over sixty. Cardinal symptoms including, tremors, muscle rigidity, drooping posture, drooling, walking difficulty, and autonomic symptoms appear when a significant number of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons are already destroyed. Hence we need early, sensitive, specific, and economical peripheral and/or central biomarker(s) for the differential diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of PD. These can be classified as clinical, biochemical, genetic, proteomic, and neuroimaging biomarkers. Novel discoveries of genetic as well as nongenetic biomarkers may be utilized for the personalized treatment of PD during preclinical (premotor) and clinical (motor) stages. Premotor biomarkers including hyper-echogenicity of substantia nigra, olfactory and autonomic dysfunction, depression, hyposmia, deafness, REM sleep disorder, and impulsive behavior may be noticed during preclinical stage. Neuroimaging biomarkers (PET, SPECT, MRI), and neuropsychological deficits can facilitate differential diagnosis. Single-cell profiling of dopaminergic neurons has identified pyridoxal kinase and lysosomal ATPase as biomarker genes for PD prognosis. Promising biomarkers include: fluid biomarkers, neuromelanin antibodies, pathological forms of α-Syn, DJ-1, amyloid β and tau in the CSF, patterns of gene expression, metabolomics, urate, as well as protein profiling in the blood and CSF samples. Reduced brain regional N-acetyl-aspartate is a biomarker for the in vivo assessment of neuronal loss using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and T2 relaxation time with MRI. To confirm PD diagnosis, the PET biomarkers include [(18)F]-DOPA for estimating dopaminergic neurotransmission, [(18)F]dG for mitochondrial bioenergetics, [(18)F]BMS for mitochondrial complex-1, [(11)C](R)-PK11195 for microglial activation, SPECT imaging with (123)Iflupane and βCIT for dopamine transporter, and urinary

  17. PET Metabolic Biomarkers for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Etienne; Renaud, Jennifer M.; Richard, Marie Anne; Ruddy, Terrence D.; Bénard, François; deKemp, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    The body’s main fuel sources are fats, carbohydrates (glucose), proteins, and ketone bodies. It is well known that an important hallmark of cancer cells is the overconsumption of glucose. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using the glucose analog 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) has been a powerful cancer diagnostic tool for many decades. Apart from surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy represent the two main domains for cancer therapy, targeting tumor proliferation, cell division, and DNA replication—all processes that require a large amount of energy. Currently, in vivo clinical imaging of metabolism is performed almost exclusively using PET radiotracers that assess oxygen consumption and mechanisms of energy substrate consumption. This paper reviews the utility of PET imaging biomarkers for the detection of cancer proliferation, vascularization, metabolism, treatment response, and follow-up after radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and chemotherapy-related side effects.

  18. Biomarkers in canine parvovirus enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, J P; Goddard, A; Leisewitz, A L

    2013-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis has, since its emergence in 1978, remained a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality in young dogs. The continued incidence of parvoviral enteritis is partly due to the virus' capability to evolve into more virulent and resistant variants with significant local gastrointestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae. This paper reviews current knowledge on historical-, signalment-, and clinical factors as well as several haematological-, biochemical- and endocrine parameters that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CPV enteritis. These factors include season of presentation, purebred nature, bodyweight, vomiting, leukopaenia, lymphopaenia, thrombocytopaenia, hypercoagulability, hypercortisolaemia, hypothyroxinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, elevated C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor, hypocholesterolaemia and hypocitrullinaemia. Factors contributing to the manifestations of CPV infection are multiple with elements of host, pathogen, secondary infections, underlying stressors and environment affecting severity and outcome. The availability of several prognosticators has made identification of patients at high risk of death and their subsequent targeted management more rewarding.

  19. The bacterial lipocalins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, R E

    2000-10-18

    The lipocalins were once regarded as a eukaryotic protein family, but new members have been recently discovered in bacteria. The first bacterial lipocalin (Blc) was identified in Escherichia coli as an outer membrane lipoprotein expressed under conditions of environmental stress. Blc is distinguished from most lipocalins by the absence of intramolecular disulfide bonds, but the presence of a membrane anchor is shared with two of its closest homologues, apolipoprotein D and lazarillo. Several common features of the membrane-anchored lipocalins suggest that each may play an important role in membrane biogenesis and repair. Additionally, Blc proteins are implicated in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and in the activation of immunity. Recent genome sequencing efforts reveal the existence of at least 20 bacterial lipocalins. The lipocalins appear to have originated in Gram-negative bacteria and were probably transferred horizontally to eukaryotes from the endosymbiotic alpha-proteobacterial ancestor of the mitochondrion. The genome sequences also reveal that some bacterial lipocalins exhibit disulfide bonds and alternative modes of subcellular localization, which include targeting to the periplasmic space, the cytoplasmic membrane, and the cytosol. The relationships between bacterial lipocalin structure and function further illuminate the common biochemistry of bacterial and eukaryotic cells.

  20. Dissecting the Syndrome of Schizophrenia: Progress toward Clinically Useful Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Dean

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for clinically useful biomarkers has been one of the holy grails of schizophrenia research. This paper will outline the evolving notion of biomarkers and then outline outcomes from a variety of biomarkers discovery strategies. In particular, the impact of high-throughput screening technologies on biomarker discovery will be highlighted and how new or improved technologies may allow the discovery of either diagnostic biomarkers for schizophrenia or biomarkers that will be useful in determining appropriate treatments for people with the disorder. History tells those involved in biomarker research that the discovery and validation of useful biomarkers is a long process and current progress must always be viewed in that light. However, the approval of the first biomarker screen with some value in predicting responsiveness to antipsychotic drugs suggests that biomarkers can be identified and that these biomarkers that will be useful in diagnosing and treating people with schizophrenia.

  1. Dissecting the Syndrome of Schizophrenia: Progress toward Clinically Useful Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The search for clinically useful biomarkers has been one of the holy grails of schizophrenia research. This paper will outline the evolving notion of biomarkers and then outline outcomes from a variety of biomarkers discovery strategies. In particular, the impact of high-throughput screening technologies on biomarker discovery will be highlighted and how new or improved technologies may allow the discovery of either diagnostic biomarkers for schizophrenia or biomarkers that will be useful in determining appropriate treatments for people with the disorder. History tells those involved in biomarker research that the discovery and validation of useful biomarkers is a long process and current progress must always be viewed in that light. However, the approval of the first biomarker screen with some value in predicting responsiveness to antipsychotic drugs suggests that biomarkers can be identified and that these biomarkers that will be useful in diagnosing and treating people with schizophrenia.

  2. Biomarkers in chronic adult hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitchen Neil D

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Awareness of the importance of chronic adult hydrocephalus has been raised again with the recent emergence of epidemiological studies. It is estimated that between 5 and 10% of patients suffering from dementia might, in fact, have chronic hydrocephalus. Although, surgical diversion of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF represents the only known procedure able to treat the symptoms of this condition, the selection of surgical patients has always been problematic. In the last 40 years, we have become wiser in using appropriate diagnostic tests for the selection of these patients; however, the area of biological markers has so far been overlooked in this condition, in contrast to that for other neurodegenerative disorders and dementias. Biomarkers are biological substances that may be used to indicate either the onset or the presence, and the progression of a clinical condition, being closely linked to its pathophysiology. In such a setting they might assist in the more appropriate selection of patients for shunt surgery. In this article, we have reviewed research carried out in the last 25 years regarding the identification of serum and CSF biomarkers for chronic hydrocephalus, discussed the potential for each one, and finally discussed the limitations for use, as well as future directions and possibilities in this field. It is concluded that tumour-necrosis factor, tau protein, lactate, sulfatide and neurofilament triple protein are the most promising CSF markers for chronic hydrocephalus. At present however, none of these meet the criteria required to justify a change clinical practice. In the future, collaborative multi-centre projects will be needed to obtain more substantial data that overcome the problems that arise from small individual and uncoordinated studies.

  3. The human oral metaproteome reveals potential biomarkers for caries disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda-Ferre, Pedro; Williamson, James; Simón-Soro, Áurea; Artacho, Alejandro; Jensen, Ole N; Mira, Alex

    2015-10-01

    Tooth decay is considered the most prevalent human disease worldwide. We present the first metaproteomic study of the oral biofilm, using different mass spectrometry approaches that have allowed us to quantify individual peptides in healthy and caries-bearing individuals. A total of 7771 bacterial and 853 human proteins were identified in 17 individuals, which provide the first available protein repertoire of human dental plaque. Actinomyces and Coryneybacterium represent a large proportion of the protein activity followed by Rothia and Streptococcus. Those four genera account for 60-90% of total diversity. Healthy individuals appeared to have significantly higher amounts of L-lactate dehydrogenase and the arginine deiminase system, both implicated in pH buffering. Other proteins found to be at significantly higher levels in healthy individuals were involved in exopolysaccharide synthesis, iron metabolism and immune response. We applied multivariate analysis in order to find the minimum set of proteins that better allows discrimination of healthy and caries-affected dental plaque samples, detecting seven bacterial and five human protein functions that allow determining the health status of the studied individuals with an estimated specificity and sensitivity over 96%. We propose that future validation of these potential biomarkers in larger sample size studies may serve to develop diagnostic tests of caries risk that could be used in tooth decay prevention. PMID:26272225

  4. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Slobodanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis is a common, complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora. When symptomatic, it is associated with a malodorous vaginal discharge and on occasion vaginal burning or itching. Under normal conditions, lactobacilli constitute 95% of the bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with severe reduction or absence of the normal H2O2­producing lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus species. Most types of infectious disease are diagnosed by culture, by isolating an antigen or RNA/DNA from the microbe, or by serodiagnosis to determine the presence of antibodies to the microbe. Therefore, demonstration of the presence of an infectious agent is often a necessary criterion for the diagnosis of the disease. This is not the case for bacterial vaginosis, since the ultimate cause of the disease is not yet known. There are a variety of methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis but no method can at present be regarded as the best. Diagnosing bacterial vaginosis has long been based on the clinical criteria of Amsel, whereby three of four defined criteria must be satisfied. Nugent’s scoring system has been further developed and includes validation of the categories of observable bacteria structures. Up­to­date molecular tests are introduced, and better understanding of vaginal microbiome, a clear definition for bacterial vaginosis, and short­term and long­term fluctuations in vaginal microflora will help to better define molecular tests within the broader clinical context.

  5. Bacterial glycosyltransferase toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jank, Thomas; Belyi, Yury; Aktories, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    Mono-glycosylation of host proteins is a common mechanism by which bacterial protein toxins manipulate cellular functions of eukaryotic target host cells. Prototypic for this group of glycosyltransferase toxins are Clostridium difficile toxins A and B, which modify guanine nucleotide-binding proteins of the Rho family. However, toxin-induced glycosylation is not restricted to the Clostridia. Various types of bacterial pathogens including Escherichia coli, Yersinia, Photorhabdus and Legionella species produce glycosyltransferase toxins. Recent studies discovered novel unexpected variations in host protein targets and amino acid acceptors of toxin-catalysed glycosylation. These findings open new perspectives in toxin as well as in carbohydrate research.

  6. Cardiac Biomarkers and Cycling Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Le Goff, Jean-François Kaux, Sébastien Goffaux, Etienne Cavalier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In cycling as in other types of strenuous exercise, there exists a risk of sudden death. It is important both to understand its causes and to see if the behavior of certain biomarkers might highlight athletes at risk. Many reports describe changes in biomarkers after strenuous exercise (Nie et al., 2011, but interpreting these changes, and notably distinguishing normal physiological responses from pathological changes, is not easy. Here we have focused on the kinetics of different cardiac biomarkers: creatin kinase (CK, creating kinase midbrain (CK-MB, myoglobin (MYO, highly sensitive troponin T (hs-TnT and N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP. The population studied was a group of young trained cyclists participating in a 177-km cycling race. The group of individuals was selected for maximal homogeneity. Their annual training volume was between 10,000 and 16,000 kilometers. The rhythm of races is comparable and averages 35 km/h, depending on the race’s difficulty. The cardiac frequency was recorded via a heart rate monitor. Three blood tests were taken. The first blood test, T0, was taken approximately 2 hours before the start of the race and was intended to gather values which would act as references for the following tests. The second blood test, T1, was realized within 5 minutes of their arrival. The third and final blood test, T3, was taken 3 hours following their arrival. The CK, CK-MB, MYO, hs-TnT and NT-proBNP were measured on the Roche Diagnostic modular E (Manhein, Germany. For the statistical analysis, an ANOVA and post hoc test of Scheffé were calculated with the Statistica Software version 9.1. We noticed an important significant variation in the cardiac frequency between T0 and T1 (p < 0.0001, T0 and T3 (p < 0.0001, and T1 and T3 (p < 0.01. Table 1 shows the results obtained for the different biomarkers. CK and CK-MB showed significant variation between T0-T1 and T0-T3 (p < 0.0001. Myoglobin increased significantly

  7. Biomarkers of oxidative stress in antioxidant therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Mañon Rossi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are used regularly in medical practice to provide objective markers of health status of a person, as well as the physiological response of the body to a pharmacological therapeutic intervention. In the specific case of the use of antioxidant products (antioxidant therapy, it is necessary to measure both biomarkers of oxidative stress level of the person as those that are specific to a physiological or pathological progression of a disease disorder. This paper describes the main biomarkers of oxidative general and specific stress as well as laboratory techniques, which should be taken into account when measuring the effectiveness of antioxidant therapies.

  8. Molecular Imaging of Biomarkers in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaner, Gary A.; Riedl, Chris C.; Dickler, Maura N.; Jhaveri, Komal; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Weber, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The success of breast cancer therapy is ultimately defined by clinical endpoints such as survival. It is valuable to have biomarkers that can predict the most efficacious therapies or measure response to therapy early in the course of treatment. Molecular imaging has a promising role in complementing and overcoming some of the limitations of traditional biomarkers by providing the ability to perform noninvasive, repeatable whole-body assessments. The potential advantages of imaging biomarkers are obvious and initial clinical studies have been promising, but proof of clinical utility still requires prospective multicenter clinical trials. PMID:26834103

  9. Methane seepage intensities traced by biomarker patterns in authigenic carbonates from the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, H.; Feng, D.

    2015-12-01

    Authigenic carbonate rocks from an active seep (Site F) at 1120 m water depth of the South China Sea (SCS) were studied using mineralogical and lipid biomarker analyses. Carbonate mineral compositions, in specific samples, were predominantly aragonite, high-Mg calcite (HMC), or a mixture of both. Abundant 13C-depleted lipid biomarkers (various isoprenoids) diagnostic for archaea provide evidence that anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) mediated by anaerobic methane oxidizing archaea (ANME) and their bacterial partners is the major process leading to formation of the carbonates. Nearly a pure suite of AOM biomarkers was preserved in aragonitic carbonate in which predominant consortia were most likely ANME-2/Desulfosarcina & Desulfococcus (DSS) assemblages and a mixture of ANME-2/DSS and ANME-1/DSS consortia in the mixed mineral sample, the predominant consortia are in good accordance with the point that the relative higher methane seepage intensity favors the precipitation of aragonite over HMC. In contrast, the completely different biomarker patterns in HMC sample were mainly composed terrestrial organic matter and marine Thaumarchaea, which most likely originally within sediments accompanied with high organic matter input and low methane supply. This environment is known to be favored for archaea of ANME-1 and precipitation of HMC. High concentrations of 13C-depleted hopanoids, including diplopterol, hopanoic acids and hopanols were observed in the aragonite sample that may be sourced by the intermittent presence of oxic conditions in an overall anoxic condition, which was possibly induced by changing seepage intensities.

  10. Seizures Complicating Bacterial Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The clinical data of 116 patients, 1 month to <5 years of age, admitted for bacterial meningitis, and grouped according to those with and without seizures during hospitalization, were compared in a study at Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and other centers in Taiwan.

  11. Bacterial extracellular lignin peroxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Donald L.; Ramachandra, Muralidhara

    1993-01-01

    A newly discovered lignin peroxidase enzyme is provided. The enzyme is obtained from a bacterial source and is capable of degrading the lignin portion of lignocellulose in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is extracellular, oxidative, inducible by lignin, larch wood xylan, or related substrates and capable of attacking certain lignin substructure chemical bonds that are not degradable by fungal lignin peroxidases.

  12. Bacterial Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or scraped, the injury should be washed with soap and water and covered with a sterile bandage. Petrolatum may be applied to open areas to keep the tissue moist and to try to prevent bacterial invasion. Doctors recommend that people do not use ...

  13. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge...

  14. Bacterial microflora of nectarines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microflora of fruit surfaces has been the best source of antagonists against fungi causing postharvest decays of fruit. However, there is little information on microflora colonizing surfaces of fruits other than grapes, apples, and citrus fruit. We characterized bacterial microflora on nectarine f...

  15. Modeling intraocular bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, Roger A; Coburn, Phillip S; Parkunan, Salai Madhumathi; Callegan, Michelle C

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial endophthalmitis is an infection and inflammation of the posterior segment of the eye which can result in significant loss of visual acuity. Even with prompt antibiotic, anti-inflammatory and surgical intervention, vision and even the eye itself may be lost. For the past century, experimental animal models have been used to examine various aspects of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of bacterial endophthalmitis, to further the development of anti-inflammatory treatment strategies, and to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and efficacies of antibiotics. Experimental models allow independent control of many parameters of infection and facilitate systematic examination of infection outcomes. While no single animal model perfectly reproduces the human pathology of bacterial endophthalmitis, investigators have successfully used these models to understand the infectious process and the host response, and have provided new information regarding therapeutic options for the treatment of bacterial endophthalmitis. This review highlights experimental animal models of endophthalmitis and correlates this information with the clinical setting. The goal is to identify knowledge gaps that may be addressed in future experimental and clinical studies focused on improvements in the therapeutic preservation of vision during and after this disease. PMID:27154427

  16. Toward Multiplexing Detection of Wound Healing Biomarkers on Porous Silicon Resonant Microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krismastuti, Fransiska Sri Herwahyu; Cavallaro, Alex; Prieto‐Simon, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial wound infections can cause septicemia and lead to limb amputation or death. Therefore, early detection of bacteria is important in chronic wound management. Here, an optical biosensor based on porous silicon resonant microcavity (pSiRM) structure modified with fluorogenic peptide substrate is demonstrated to detect the presence of Sortase A (SrtA), a bacterial enzyme found in the cell membrane protein of Staphylococcus aureus. The combination of fluorescence enhancement effects of the pSiRM architecture with the incorporation of SrtA fluorogenic peptide substrate within the pSi matrix enables the sensing of SrtA with an outstanding limit of detection of 8 × 10−14 m. Modification of the pSiRM structure with microscale spots of two fluorogenic peptide substrates, one specific for SrtA and the other for matrix metalloproteinases, effectively demonstrates the feasibility to perform multiplexed biomarker analysis. The results in this study highlight the potential of the pSiRM sensing platform as a point‐of‐care diagnostic tool for biomarkers of bacterial wound infection.

  17. CSF Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anoop

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common form of dementia that affects several million people worldwide. The major neuropathological hallmarks of AD are the presence of extracellular amyloid plaques that are composed of Aβ40 and Aβ42 and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT, which is composed of hyperphosphorylated protein Tau. While the amyloid plaques and NFT could define the disease progression involving neuronal loss and dysfunction, significant cognitive decline occurs before their appearance. Although significant advances in neuroimaging techniques provide the structure and physiology of brain of AD cases, the biomarker studies based on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma represent the most direct and convenient means to study the disease progression. Biomarkers are useful in detecting the preclinical as well as symptomatic stages of AD. In this paper, we discuss the recent advancements of various biomarkers with particular emphasis on CSF biomarkers for monitoring the early development of AD before significant cognitive dysfunction.

  18. Early Detection Biomarkers for Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeja Sarojini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread use of conventional and contemporary methods to detect ovarian cancer development, ovarian cancer remains a common and commonly fatal gynecological malignancy. The identification and validation of early detection biomarkers highly specific to ovarian cancer, which would permit development of minimally invasive screening methods for detecting early onset of the disease, are urgently needed. Current practices for early detection of ovarian cancer include transvaginal ultrasonography, biomarker analysis, or a combination of both. In this paper we review recent research on novel and robust biomarkers for early detection of ovarian cancer and provide specific details on their contributions to tumorigenesis. Promising biomarkers for early detection of ovarian cancer include KLK6/7, GSTT1, PRSS8, FOLR1, ALDH1, and miRNAs.

  19. Cancer Biomarkers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This group promotes research to identify, develop, and validate biological markers for early cancer detection and cancer risk assessment. | Research to identify, develop and validate biomarkers for early cancer detection and risk assessment.

  20. The development and applications of biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normandy, J.; Peeters, J. [eds.

    1994-04-15

    This report is a compilation of submitted abstracts of scientific papers presented at the second Department of Energy-supported workshop on the use and applications of biomarkers held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, from April 26--29, 1994. The abstracts present a synopsis of the latest scientific developments in biomarker research and how these developments meet with the practical needs of the occupational physician as well as the industrial hygienist and the health physicist. In addition to considering the practical applications and potential benefits of this promising technology, the potential ethical and legal ramifications of using biomarkers to monitor workers are discussed. The abstracts further present insights on the present benefits that can be derived from using biomarkers as well as a perspective on what further research is required to fully meet the needs of the medical community.

  1. Statistical design and evaluation of biomarker studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbin, Kevin K

    2014-01-01

    We review biostatistical aspects of biomarker studies, including design and analysis issues, covering the range of settings required for translational research-from early exploratory studies through clinical trials.

  2. CSF biomarkers in neurodegenerative and vascular dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Franc; Schmitz, Matthias; Ferrer, Isidro; Zerr, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases with abnormal protein aggregates such as Alzheimer's disease, tauopathies, synucleinopathies, and prionopathies, together with vascular encephalopathies, are cause of cognitive impairment and dementia. Identification of reliable biomarkers in biological fluids, particularly in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is of extreme importance in optimizing the precise early clinical diagnosis of distinct entities and predicting the outcome in particular settings. In addition, the study of CSF biomarkers is useful to identify and monitor the underlying pathological processes developing in the central nervous system of affected individuals. Evidence suggests that levels of key CSF molecules correlate, in some circumstances, with prediction, disease progression, and severity of cognitive decline. Correlation of CSF markers and underlying pathological molecular substrates in brain is an exciting field for further study. However, while some dementias such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have accurate CSF biomarkers, other disease types such as dementia with Lewy bodies, vascular dementia, and frontotemporal dementia lack reliable biomarkers for their specific clinical diagnosis. PMID:27016008

  3. Cardiorenal biomarkers in acute heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajiv Choudhary; Dipika Gopal; Ben A. Kipper; Alejandro De La Parra Landa; Hermineh Aramin

    2012-01-01

    Managing patients with heart failure (HF) is a challenging task within itself, but the presence of associated worsening renal function can greatly increase mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to prevent re-hospitalizations and reduce healthcare costs. Biomarkers have long been established as highly sensitive and specific tools in diagnosing and prognosticating patients with HF. Reflecting distinct pathophysiological events and ongoing cellular insult, biomarkers have been proven superior to conventional laboratory tests. Availability of better assays and rapid analysis has allowed the use of biomarkers as point-of-care tests in the emergency department and at the patient's bed-side. Acute HF patients often go on to develop worsening renal function, termed as acute cardiorenal syndrome. The growing breadth of studies has shown the implications of combining multiple biomarkers to better chart outcomes and produce desirable results in such patients.

  4. The development and applications of biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of submitted abstracts of scientific papers presented at the second Department of Energy-supported workshop on the use and applications of biomarkers held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, from April 26--29, 1994. The abstracts present a synopsis of the latest scientific developments in biomarker research and how these developments meet with the practical needs of the occupational physician as well as the industrial hygienist and the health physicist. In addition to considering the practical applications and potential benefits of this promising technology, the potential ethical and legal ramifications of using biomarkers to monitor workers are discussed. The abstracts further present insights on the present benefits that can be derived from using biomarkers as well as a perspective on what further research is required to fully meet the needs of the medical community

  5. Source characterisation of Sedimentary organic matter in mangrove ecosystems of northern Kerala, India: Inferences from bulk characterisation and hydrocarbon biomarkers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Resmi, P.; Manju, M.N.; Gireeshkumar, T.R.; RatheeshKumar, C.S.; Chandramohanakumar, N.

    these changes in coastal ecosystems (Jeng and Huh, 2008; Ranjan et al., 2015). Aliphatic hydrocarbons such as n-alkanes and n-alkenes have been successfully used to dis- tinguish the organic matter sources (viz. algal, bacterial, and ter- restrial sources...., 2011). In this study,weprovide the spatial and seasonal distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbon biomarkers andMarine Science 7 (2016) 43–54 bulk geochemical proxies of mangrove ecosystems along northern Kerala coast. We hypothesise that seasons...

  6. Melanoma biomarkers: Vox clamantis in deserto (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    AL-SHAER, MAYS; GOLLAPUDI, DIVYA; PAPAGEORGIO, CHRIS

    2010-01-01

    Detecting malignant melanoma at an early stage, monitoring therapy, predicting recurrence and identifying patients at risk for metastasis continue to be a challenging and demanding objective. The last two decades have witnessed innovations in the field of melanoma biomarkers. However, global agreement concerning monitoring and early detection has yet to be reached. This is a review of the current literature regarding melanoma biomarkers including demographic, clinical, pathological and molecu...

  7. Current status of biomarker research in neurology

    OpenAIRE

    Polivka, Jiri; Krakorova, Kristyna; Peterka, Marek; Topolcan, Ondrej

    2016-01-01

    Neurology is one of the typical disciplines where personalized medicine has been recently becoming an important part of clinical practice. In this article, the brief overview and a number of examples of the use of biomarkers and personalized medicine in neurology are described. The various issues in neurology are described in relation to the personalized medicine and diagnostic, prognostic as well as predictive blood and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. Such neurological domains discussed in t...

  8. Biomarkers in precision therapy in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Reimers, Marlies S.; Zeestraten, Eliane C.M.; Kuppen, Peter J.K.; Liefers, Gerrit Jan; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in Europe. Because CRC is also a major cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, a lot of research has been focused on the discovery and development of biomarkers to improve the diagnostic process and to predict treatment outcomes. Up till now only a few biomarkers are recommended by expert panels. Current TNM criteria, however, cause substantial under- and overtreatment of CRC patients. Consequently, there is a growing need for ne...

  9. Biomarkers of peripheral muscle fatigue during exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Finsterer Josef

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Biomarkers of peripheral muscle fatigue (BPMFs) are used to offer insights into mechanisms of exhaustion during exercise in order to detect abnormal fatigue or to detect defective metabolic pathways. This review aims at describing recent advances and future perspectives concerning the most important biomarkers of muscle fatigue during exercise. Results BPMFs are classified according to the mechanism of fatigue related to adenosine-triphosphate-metabolism, acidosis, or oxid...

  10. Renal biomarkers in domestic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokamp, Jessica A; Nabity, Mary B

    2016-03-01

    Current conventional tests of kidney damage and function in blood (serum creatinine and urea nitrogen) and urine (urine protein creatinine ratio and urine specific gravity) are widely used for diagnosis and monitoring of kidney disease. However, they all have important limitations, and additional markers of glomerular filtration rate and glomerular and tubular damage are desirable, particularly for earlier detection of renal disease when therapy is most effective. Additionally, urinary markers of kidney damage and function may help localize damage to the affected portion of the kidney. In general, the presence of high- and intermediate-molecular weight proteins in the urine are indicative of glomerular damage, while low-molecular weight proteins and enzymes in the urine suggest tubular damage due to decreased reabsorption of proteins, direct tubular damage, or both. This review aims to discuss many of these new blood and urinary biomarkers in domestic veterinary species, focusing primarily on dogs and cats, how they may be used for diagnosis of renal disease, and their limitations. Additionally, a brief discussion of serum creatinine is presented, highlighting its limitations and important considerations for its improved interpretation in domestic species based on past literature and recent studies. PMID:26918420

  11. Proteomic Approaches for Biomarker Panels in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanase, Cristiana; Albulescu, Radu; Neagu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Proteomic technologies remain the main backbone of biomarkers discovery in cancer. The continuous development of proteomic technologies also enlarges the bioinformatics domain, thus founding the main pillars of cancer therapy. The main source for diagnostic/prognostic/therapy monitoring biomarker panels are molecules that have a dual role, being both indicators of disease development and therapy targets. Proteomic technologies, such as mass-spectrometry approaches and protein array technologies, represent the main technologies that can depict these biomarkers. Herein, we will illustrate some of the most recent strategies for biomarker discovery in cancer, including the development of immune-markers and the use of cancer stem cells as target therapy. The challenges of proteomic biomarker discovery need new forms of cross-disciplinary conglomerates that will result in increased and tailored access to treatments for patients; diagnostic companies would benefit from the enhanced co-development of companion diagnostics and pharmaceutical companies. In the technology optimization in biomarkers, immune assays are the leaders of discovery machinery. PMID:26565430

  12. Potential Blood-based Biomarkers for Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Linda

    2016-09-01

    Mounting research in the field of sports concussion biomarkers has led to a greater understanding of the effects of brain injury from sports. A recent systematic review of clinical studies examining biomarkers of brain injury following sports-related concussion established that almost all studies have been published either in or after the year 2000. In an effort to prevent chronic traumatic encephalopathy and long-term consequences of concussion, early diagnostic and prognostic tools are becoming increasingly important; particularly in sports and in military personnel, where concussions are common occurrences. Early and tailored management of athletes following a concussion with biomarkers could provide them with the best opportunity to avoid further injury. Should blood-based biomarkers for concussion be validated and become widely available, they could have many roles. For instance, a point-of-care test could be used on the field by trained sport medicine professionals to help detect a concussion. In the clinic or hospital setting, it could be used by clinicians to determine the severity of concussion and be used to screen players for neuroimaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging) and further neuropsychological testing. Furthermore, biomarkers could have a role in monitoring progression of injury and recovery and in managing patients at high risk of repeated injury by being incorporated into guidelines for return to duty, work, or sports activities. There may even be a role for biomarkers as surrogate measures of efficacy in the assessment of new treatments and therapies for concussion. PMID:27482776

  13. Biomarkers in T cell therapy clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalos Michael

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract T cell therapy represents an emerging and promising modality for the treatment of both infectious disease and cancer. Data from recent clinical trials have highlighted the potential for this therapeutic modality to effect potent anti-tumor activity. Biomarkers, operationally defined as biological parameters measured from patients that provide information about treatment impact, play a central role in the development of novel therapeutic agents. In the absence of information about primary clinical endpoints, biomarkers can provide critical insights that allow investigators to guide the clinical development of the candidate product. In the context of cell therapy trials, the definition of biomarkers can be extended to include a description of parameters of the cell product that are important for product bioactivity. This review will focus on biomarker studies as they relate to T cell therapy trials, and more specifically: i. An overview and description of categories and classes of biomarkers that are specifically relevant to T cell therapy trials, and ii. Insights into future directions and challenges for the appropriate development of biomarkers to evaluate both product bioactivity and treatment efficacy of T cell therapy trials.

  14. Blood biomarker for Parkinson disease: peptoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Umar; Zaman, Sayed; Hynan, Linda S; Brown, L Steven; Dewey, Richard B; Karp, David; German, Dwight C

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Because dopaminergic neuronal loss begins years before motor symptoms appear, a biomarker for the early identification of the disease is critical for the study of putative neuroprotective therapies. Brain imaging of the nigrostriatal dopamine system has been used as a biomarker for early disease along with cerebrospinal fluid analysis of α-synuclein, but a less costly and relatively non-invasive biomarker would be optimal. We sought to identify an antibody biomarker in the blood of PD patients using a combinatorial peptoid library approach. We examined serum samples from 75 PD patients, 25 de novo PD patients, and 104 normal control subjects in the NINDS Parkinson’s Disease Biomarker Program. We identified a peptoid, PD2, which binds significantly higher levels of IgG3 antibody in PD versus control subjects (P<0.0001) and is 68% accurate in identifying PD. The PD2 peptoid is 84% accurate in identifying de novo PD. Also, IgG3 levels are significantly higher in PD versus control serum (P<0.001). Finally, PD2 levels are positively correlated with the United Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale score (r = 0.457, P<0001), a marker of disease severity. The PD2 peptoid may be useful for the early-stage identification of PD, and serve as an indicator of disease severity. Additional studies are needed to validate this PD biomarker. PMID:27812535

  15. Biomarker-based dissection of neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Bob; Zetterberg, Henrik; Hampel, Harald; Blennow, Kaj

    2011-12-01

    The diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases within neurology and psychiatry are hampered by the difficulty in getting biopsies and thereby validating the diagnosis by pathological findings. Biomarkers for other types of disease have been readily adopted into the clinical practice where for instance troponins are standard tests when myocardial infarction is suspected. However, the use of biomarkers for neurodegeneration has not been fully incorporated into the clinical routine. With the development of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers that reflect pathological events within the central nervous system (CNS), important clinical diagnostic tools are becoming available. This review summarizes the most promising biomarker candidates that may be used to monitor different types of neurodegeneration and protein inclusions, as well as different types of metabolic changes, in living patients in relation to the clinical phenotype and disease progression over time. Our aim is to provide the reader with an updated lexicon on currently available biomarker candidates, how far they have come in development and how well they reflect pathogenic processes in different neurodegenerative diseases. Biomarkers for specific pathogenetic processes would also be valuable tools both to study disease pathogenesis directly in patients and to identify and monitor the effect of novel treatment strategies.

  16. The use of biomarkers in clinical osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Hebert Wilson Santos; Andolphi, Bruna Ferreira Galone; Ferreira, Brunna Vila Coutinho; Alves, Danielle Cristina Filgueira; Morelato, Renato Lírio; Chambo, Antônio; Borges, Lizânia Spinassé

    2016-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease of ascending character in the world population; in this context, bone biomarkers are being increasingly studied in order to aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of these patients. The main objective of this study was a literature review of articles whose main theme was the use of biomarkers for bone formation and degradation, and to evaluate their possible applicability in clinical practice. Literature review was performed through articles indexed and published in the last five years in the PubMed database. The findings of this study showed that most of the previously selected articles were published in the last two years, and the most cited markers were bone resorption, C-terminal collagen telopeptide (CTX), showing the highest correlation with the dynamics of bone, and the biomarker of bone formation, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), which is increased in the event of fracture or may suggest another bone disease. There was an increase in published articles, associating different bone biomarkers and their clinical applicability, especially for treatment control. Our findings suggest that in recent years there has been significant increase in publications evaluating the use of bone turnover biomarkers for bone formation and resorption and their possible clinical applicability, especially in the monitoring of treatment. Still, we believe that further studies need to be conducted to confirm these findings, given the advantages that bone biomarkers can deliver in the clinical management of the disease.

  17. Paleo-reconstruction: Using multiple biomarker parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhengzheng

    Advanced technologies have played essential roles in the development of molecular organic geochemistry. In this thesis, we have developed several new techniques and explored their applications, alone and with previous techniques, to paleo-reconstruction. First, we developed a protocol to separate biomarker fractions for accurate measurement of compound-specific isotope analysis. This protocol involves combination of zeolite adduction and HPLC separation. Second, an integrated study of traditional biomarker parameters, diamondoids and compound-specific biomarker isotopes, differentiated oil groups from Saudi Arabia. Specifically, Cretaceous reservoired oils were divided into three groups and the Jurassic reservoired oils were divided into two groups. Third, biomarker acids provide an alternative way to characterize biodegradation. Oils from San Joaquin Valley, U.S.A. and oils from Mediterranean display drastically different acid profiles. These differences in biomarker acids probably reflect different processes of biodegradation. Fourth, by analyzing biomarker distributions in the organic-rich rocks recording the onset of Late Ordovician extinction, we propose that changes in salinity associated with eustatic sea-level fall, contributed at least locally to the extinction of graptolite species.

  18. Heme uptake in bacterial pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, Heidi; Chim, Nicholas; Credali, Alfredo; Goulding, Celia W.

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for the survival of organisms. Bacterial pathogens possess specialized pathways to acquire heme from their human hosts. In this review, we present recent structural and biochemical data that provide mechanistic insights into several bacterial heme uptake pathways, encompassing the sequestration of heme from human hemoproteins to secreted or membrane-associated bacterial proteins, the transport of heme across bacterial membranes, and the degradation of heme within...

  19. Lactobacillus species as biomarkers and agents that can promote various aspects of vaginal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Ivanova Petrova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The human body is colonized by a vast number of microorganisms collectively referred to as the human microbiota. One of the main microbiota body sites is the female genital tract, commonly dominated by Lactobacillus spp., in approximately 70% of women. Each individual species can constitute approximately 99% of the ribotypes observed in any individual woman. The most frequently isolated species are Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus jensenii and Lactobacillus iners. Residing at the port of entry of bacterial and viral pathogens, the vaginal Lactobacillus species can create a barrier against pathogen invasion since mainly products of their metabolism secreted in the cervicovaginal fluid can play an important role in the inhibition of bacterial and viral infections. Therefore, a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota appears to be a good biomarker for a healthy vaginal ecosystem. This balance can be rapidly altered during processes such as menstruation, sexual activity, pregnancy and various infections. An abnormal vaginal microbiota is characterized by an increased diversity of microbial species, leading to a condition known as bacterial vaginosis. Information on the vaginal microbiota can be gathered from the analysis of cervicovaginal fluid, by using the Nugent scoring or the Amsel’s criteria, or at the molecular level by investigating the number and type of Lactobacillus species. However, when translating this to the clinical setting, it should be noted that the absence of a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota does not appear to directly imply a diseased condition or dysbiosis. Nevertheless, the widely documented beneficial role of vaginal Lactobacillus species demonstrates the potential of data on the composition and activity of lactobacilli as biomarkers for vaginal health. The substantiation and further validation of such biomarkers will allow the design of better targeted probiotic strategies.

  20. New serological biomarkers of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuhang; Conklin, Laurie; Alex, Philip

    2008-09-01

    Serological biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are a rapidly expanding list of non-invasive tests for objective assessments of disease activity, early diagnosis, prognosis evaluation and surveillance. This review summarizes both old and new biomarkers in IBD, but focuses on the development and characterization of new serological biomarkers (identified since 2007). These include five new anti-glycan antibodies, anti-chitobioside IgA (ACCA), anti-laminaribioside IgG (ALCA), anti-manobioside IgG (AMCA), and antibodies against chemically synthesized (Sigma) two major oligomannose epitopes, Man alpha-1,3 Man alpha-1,2 Man (SigmaMan3) and Man alpha-1,3 Man alpha-1,2 Man alpha-1,2 Man (SigmaMan4). These new biomarkers serve as valuable complementary tools to existing biomarkers not only in differentiating Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), normal and other non-IBD gut diseases, but also in predicting disease involvement (ileum vs colon), IBD risk (as subclinical biomarkers), and disease course (risk of complication and surgery). Interestingly, the prevalence of the antiglycan antibodies, including anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA), ALCA and AMCA, was found to be associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IBD susceptible genes such as NOD2/CARD15, NOD1/CARD4, toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4, and beta-defensin-1. Furthermore, a gene dosage effect was observed: anti-glycan positivity became more frequent as the number of NOD2/CARD15 SNPS increased. Other new serum/plasma IBD biomarkers reviewed include ubiquitination factor E4A (UBE4A), CXCL16 (a chemokine), resistin, and apolipoprotein A-IV. This review also discusses the most recent studies in IBD biomarker discovery by the application of new technologies such as proteomics, fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy, and multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)'s (with an emphasis on cytokine/chemokine profiling). Finally, the prospects of developing more

  1. Markers of bacterial translocation in end-stage liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ioannis; Koutsounas; Garyfallia; Kaltsa; Spyros; I; Siakavellas; Giorgos; Bamias

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial translocation(BT) refers to the passage of viable bacteria or bacterial products from the intestinal lumen, through the intestinal epithelium, into the systemic circulation and extraintestinal locations. The three principal mechanisms that are thought to be involved in BT include bacterial overgrowth, disruption of the gut mucosal barrier and an impaired host defence.BT is commonly observed in liver cirrhosis and has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the complications of end stage liver disease, including infections as well as hepatic encephalopathy and hepatorenal syndrome. Due to the importance of BT in the natural history of cirrhosis, there is intense interest for the discovery of biomarkers of BT. To date, several such candidates have been proposed, which include bacterial DNA, soluble CD14, lipopolysaccharides endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, calprotectin and procalcitonin. Studies on the association of these markers with BT have demonstrated not only promising data but, oftentimes, contradictory results. As a consequence, currently, there is no optimal marker that may be used in clinical practice as a surrogate for the presence of BT.

  2. Bacterial chemoreceptors and chemoeffectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Shuangyu; Lai, Luhua

    2015-02-01

    Bacteria use chemotaxis signaling pathways to sense environmental changes. Escherichia coli chemotaxis system represents an ideal model that illustrates fundamental principles of biological signaling processes. Chemoreceptors are crucial signaling proteins that mediate taxis toward a wide range of chemoeffectors. Recently, in deep study of the biochemical and structural features of chemoreceptors, the organization of higher-order clusters in native cells, and the signal transduction mechanisms related to the on-off signal output provides us with general insights to understand how chemotaxis performs high sensitivity, precise adaptation, signal amplification, and wide dynamic range. Along with the increasing knowledge, bacterial chemoreceptors can be engineered to sense novel chemoeffectors, which has extensive applications in therapeutics and industry. Here we mainly review recent advances in the E. coli chemotaxis system involving structure and organization of chemoreceptors, discovery, design, and characterization of chemoeffectors, and signal recognition and transduction mechanisms. Possible strategies for changing the specificity of bacterial chemoreceptors to sense novel chemoeffectors are also discussed.

  3. Bacterial Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Niu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behaviors at different developmental stages in Escherichia coli (E. coli lifecycle and developing a new biologically inspired optimization algorithm named bacterial colony optimization (BCO. BCO is based on a lifecycle model that simulates some typical behaviors of E. coli bacteria during their whole lifecycle, including chemotaxis, communication, elimination, reproduction, and migration. A newly created chemotaxis strategy combined with communication mechanism is developed to simplify the bacterial optimization, which is spread over the whole optimization process. However, the other behaviors such as elimination, reproduction, and migration are implemented only when the given conditions are satisfied. Two types of interactive communication schemas: individuals exchange schema and group exchange schema are designed to improve the optimization efficiency. In the simulation studies, a set of 12 benchmark functions belonging to three classes (unimodal, multimodal, and rotated problems are performed, and the performances of the proposed algorithms are compared with five recent evolutionary algorithms to demonstrate the superiority of BCO.

  4. [Bacterial diseases of rape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, O M; Mel'nychuk, M D; Dankevych, L A; Patyka, V P

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial destruction of the culture was described and its agents identified in the spring and winter rape crops. Typical symptoms are the following: browning of stem tissue and its mucilagization, chlorosis of leaves, yellowing and beginning of soft rot in the place of leaf stalks affixion to stems, loss of pigmentation (violet). Pathogenic properties of the collection strains and morphological, cultural, physiological, and biochemical properties of the agents of rape's bacterial diseases isolated by the authors have been investigated. It was found that all the isolates selected by the authors are highly or moderately aggressive towards different varieties of rape. According to the complex of phenotypic properties 44% of the total number of isolates selected by the authors are related to representatives of the genus Pseudomonas, 37% - to Xanthomonas and 19% - to Pectobacterium. PMID:23293826

  5. Biomarkers in the Molar Tooth (MT)-Bearing Limestones in the Jilin-Liaoning Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    旷红伟; 李艳霞; 曾艳涛; 孟祥化; 葛铭

    2004-01-01

    The origin of Molar Tooth(MT)carbonates has been argued for more than 100 years, which are a kind of Proterozoic carbonates especially composed of microsparite with ptygmatically folded and sheet-like structures. Biomarkers detected in the microcalcsparite from the Wanlong and Xingmincun formations in the Jilin-Liaoning area showed there are abundant normal alkanes, isoprenoids, hopanes, steranes, alkylmethylcyclohexanes, and alkylcyclohexanes, indicating a diversity of biological source: long-chain isoprenoids, the major components of chlorophyll, such as C-19, C-20, a kind of major biomarkers synthesized early by isoprenoid monomers; hopanes a type of characteristic biomarkers from prokaryote, such as archaebacteria and cyanobacteria; sterane a biomarker for eukaryote; and two kinds of alkanes with C-17, C-18 as the main peaks representing aquatic bacteria and with C-23, C-24 as the main peaks representing fungi, respectively. Biomarker analysis showed that MT is the result of bacterial and algal activities, which is a kind of organisms between aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, reproducing well in normal or slightly saline sea water under weak oxidation-reduction conditions, resulting in rapid deposition of calcite as microsparite due to some mechanisms.

  6. Population-Sequencing as a Biomarker of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei Evolution through Microbial Forensic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Jakupciak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale genomics projects are identifying biomarkers to detect human disease. B. pseudomallei and B. mallei are two closely related select agents that cause melioidosis and glanders. Accurate characterization of metagenomic samples is dependent on accurate measurements of genetic variation between isolates with resolution down to strain level. Often single biomarker sensitivity is augmented by use of multiple or panels of biomarkers. In parallel with single biomarker validation, advances in DNA sequencing enable analysis of entire genomes in a single run: population-sequencing. Potentially, direct sequencing could be used to analyze an entire genome to serve as the biomarker for genome identification. However, genome variation and population diversity complicate use of direct sequencing, as well as differences caused by sample preparation protocols including sequencing artifacts and mistakes. As part of a Department of Homeland Security program in bacterial forensics, we examined how to implement whole genome sequencing (WGS analysis as a judicially defensible forensic method for attributing microbial sample relatedness; and also to determine the strengths and limitations of whole genome sequence analysis in a forensics context. Herein, we demonstrate use of sequencing to provide genetic characterization of populations: direct sequencing of populations.

  7. Bacterial transformation of terpenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the bacterial transformation of terpenoids published in the literature in the past decade are analyzed. Possible pathways for chemo-, regio- and stereoselective modifications of terpenoids are discussed. Considerable attention is given to new technological approaches to the synthesis of terpenoid derivatives suitable for the use in the perfume and food industry and promising as drugs and chiral intermediates for fine organic synthesis. The bibliography includes 246 references

  8. Supramolecular bacterial systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaran, Shrikrishnan

    2015-01-01

    For nearly over a decade, a wide variety of dynamic and responsive supramolecular architectures have been investigated and developed to address biological systems. Since the non-covalent interactions between individual molecular components in such architectures are similar to the interactions found in living systems, it was possible to integrate chemically-synthesized and naturally-occurring components to create platforms with interesting bioactive properties. Bacterial cells and recombinant ...

  9. Bacterial Colony Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Niu; Hong Wang

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the behaviors at different developmental stages in Escherichia coli (E. coli) lifecycle and developing a new biologically inspired optimization algorithm named bacterial colony optimization (BCO). BCO is based on a lifecycle model that simulates some typical behaviors of E. coli bacteria during their whole lifecycle, including chemotaxis, communication, elimination, reproduction, and migration. A newly created chemotaxis strategy combined with communication mechanism i...

  10. Mechanisms of the Hepatic Acute-Phase Response during Bacterial Pneumonia▿

    OpenAIRE

    Quinton, Lee J.; Jones, Matthew R.; Robson, Bryanne E.; Mizgerd, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    The acute-phase response is characterized by increased circulating levels of acute-phase proteins (APPs) generated by the liver. During bacterial pneumonia, APPs correlate with the severity of disease, serve as biomarkers, and are functionally significant. The kinetics and regulatory mechanisms of APP induction in the liver during lung infection have yet to be defined. Here we show that APP mRNA transcription is induced in the livers of mice whose lungs are infected with either Escherichia co...

  11. New serological biomarkers of inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuhang Li; Laurie Conldin; Philip Alex

    2008-01-01

    Serological biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease(IBD)are a rapidty expanding list of non-invasive tests for objective assessments of disease activity,early diagnosis,prognosis evaluation and surveillance.This review summarizes both old and new biomarkers in IBD,but focuses on the development and characterization of new serological iomarkers(identified since 2007).These include five new anti-glycan antibodies,anti-chitobioside IgA(ACCA),anti-laminaribioside IgG(ALCA),anti-manobioside IgG(AMCA),and antibodies against chemically synthesized(∑)two major oligomannose epitopes,Man α-1,3 Man α-1,2 Man(∑Man3)and Man α-1,3 Man α-1,2 Man α-1,2 Man(∑Man4).These new biomarkers erve as valuable complementary tools to existing biomarkers not only in differentiating Crohn's disease(CD),ulcerative colitis(UC),normal and other non-IBD gut diseases,but also in predicting disease involvement(ileum vs colon),IBD risk(as subclinical biomarkers),and disease course(risk of complication and surgery).Interestingly,the prevalence of he antiglycan antibodies,including anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies(ASCA),ALCA and AMCA,was found to be associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs)of IBD susceptible genes such as NOD2/CARDl5,NOD1/CARD4,toll-like receptors(TLR)2 and 4,and β-defensin-1.Further more,a gene dosage effect was observed:anti-glycan positivity became more requent as the number of NOD2/CARDl5 SNPS increased.Other new serum/plasma IBD biomarkers reviewed include ubiquitination factor E4A(UBE4A),CXCL16(a chemokine),resistin,and apolipoprotein A-Ⅳ.This review also discusses the most recent studies in IBD biomarker discovery by the application of new technologies such as proteomics,fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy,and multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA)'s(with an emphasis on cytokine/chemokine profiling).Finally,the prospects of developing more clinically useful novel diagnostic algorithms by incorporating new technologies in

  12. Proteome-based biomarkers in pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Sun; Ann H Rosendahl; Daniel Ansari; Roland Andersson

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer, as a highly malignant cancer and the fourth cause of cancer-related death in world, is characterized by dismal prognosis, due to rapid disease progression, highly invasive tumour phenotype, and resistance to chemotherapy. Despite significant advances in treatment of the disease during the past decade,the survival rate is little improved. A contributory factor to the poor outcome is the lack of appropriate sensitive and specific biomarkers for early diagnosis. Furthermore, biomarkers for targeting, directing and assessing therapeutic intervention, as well as for detection of residual or recurrent cancer are also needed. Thus, the identification of adequate biomarkers in pancreatic cancer is of extreme importance. Recently, accompanying the development of proteomic technology and devices, more and more potential biomarkers have appeared and are being reported. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of proteome-based biomarkers in pancreatic cancer, including tissue, serum, juice, urine and cell lines. We also discuss the possible mechanism and prospects in the future. That information hopefully might be helpful for further research in the field.

  13. Exploring Biomarkers for Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anshika Nikita

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is one of the most common form of dementia occurring in elderly population worldwide. Currently Aβ42, tau and p-tau in the cerebrospinal fluid is estimated for confirmation of AD. CSF which is being used as the potent source for biomarker screening is obtained by invasive lumbar punctures. Thus, there is an urgent need of minimal invasive methods for identification of diagnostic markers for early detection of AD. Blood serum and plasma serves as an appropriate source, due to minimal discomfort to the patients, promoting frequent testing, better follow-up and better consent to clinical trials. Hence, the need of the hour demands discovery of diagnostic and prognostic patient specific signature biomarkers by using emerging technologies of mass spectrometry, microarrays and peptidomics. In this review we summarize the present scenario of AD biomarkers such as circulatory biomarkers, blood based amyloid markers, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress markers being investigated and also some of the potent biomarkers which might be able to predict early onset of Alzheimer’s and delay cognitive impairment. PMID:27630867

  14. Use of Obesity Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Pischon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, yet, the underlying mechanisms are only poorly understood. The adipose tissue produces a variety of hormones and cytokines and thereby actively participates in a network of biomarkers that may be relevant for the development of CVD. Such obesity biomarkers have a great potential to better characterize the obesity phenotype that may be relevant for the risk of CVD beyond anthropometric parameters. They may be used to support mechanistic studies, to help identify individuals at risk for CVD, and to evaluate the effect of preventive measures. The present article discusses the role of some of the most promising obesity biomarkers in cardiovascular epidemiology, including inflammatory markers, adiponectin, resistin, and fetuin-A. Importantly, some of these markers have been related to cardiovascular risk even after accounting for anthropometric parameters. Further, the potential ability to manipulate blood levels of some of these biomarkers through medication, diet and lifestyle make them attractive markers for cardiovascular risk. However, many open questions remain – especially with regard to the causal role of the factors as well as with regard to the extent of improvement in CVD prediction by these markers – before measurement of these biomarkers may be recommended on a public health level.

  15. Biomarkers for wound healing and their evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S; Maheshwari, A; Chandra, A

    2016-01-01

    A biological marker (biomarker) is a substance used as an indicator of biological state. Advances in genomics, proteomics and molecular pathology have generated many candidate biomarkers with potential clinical value. Research has identified several cellular events and mediators associated with wound healing that can serve as biomarkers. Macrophages, neutrophils, fibroblasts and platelets release cytokines molecules including TNF-α, interleukins (ILs) and growth factors, of which platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) holds the greatest importance. As a result, various white cells and connective tissue cells release both matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Studies have demonstrated that IL-1, IL-6, and MMPs, levels above normal, and an abnormally high MMP/TIMP ratio are often present in non-healing wounds. Clinical examination of wounds for these mediators could predict which wounds will heal and which will not, suggesting use of these chemicals as biomarkers of wound healing. There is also evidence that the application of growth factors like PDGF will alleviate the recuperating process of chronic, non-healing wounds. Finding a specific biomarker for wound healing status would be a breakthrough in this field and helping treat impaired wound healing.

  16. Biomarkers in the Management of Difficult Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleich, Florence; Sophie, Demarche; Renaud, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Difficult asthma is a heterogeneous disease of the airways including various types of bronchial inflammation and various degrees of airway remodeling. Therapeutic response of severe asthmatics can be predicted by the use of biomarkers of Type2-high or Type2-low inflammation. Based on sputum cell analysis, four inflammatory phenotypes have been described. As induced sputum is timeconsuming and expensive technique, surrogate biomarkers are useful in clinical practice. Eosinophilic phenotype is likely to reflect ongoing adaptive immunity in response to allergen. Several biomarkers of eosinophilic asthma are easily available in clinical practice (blood eosinophils, serum IgE, exhaled nitric oxyde, serum periostin). Neutrophilic asthma is thought to reflect innate immune system activation in response to pollutants or infectious agents while paucigranulocytic asthma is thought to be not inflammatory and characterized by smooth muscle dysfunction. We currently lack of user-friendly biomarkers of neutrophilic asthma and airway remodeling. In this review, we summarize the biomarkers available for the management of difficult asthma. PMID:26467509

  17. Fish metalloproteins as biomarkers of environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; de Campos, Reinaldo Calixto; Ziolli, Roberta Lourenço

    2012-01-01

    Fish are well-recognized bioindicators of environmental contamination. Several recent proteomic studies have demonstrated the validity and value of using fish in the search and discovery of new biomarkers. Certain analytical tools, such as comparative protein expression analyses, both in field and lab exposure studies, have been used to improve the understanding of the potential for chemical pollutants to cause harmful effects. The metallomic approach is in its early stages of development, but has already shown great potential for use in ecological and environmental monitoring contexts. Besides discovering new metalloproteins that may be used as biomarkers for environmental contamination, metallomics can be used to more comprehensively elucidate existing biomarkers, which may enhance their effectiveness. Unfortunately, metallomic profiling for fish has not been explored, because only a few fish metalloproteins have thus far been discovered and studied. Of those that have, some have shown ecological importance, and are now successfully used as biomarkers of environmental contamination. These biomarkers have been shown to respond to several types of environmental contamination, such as cyanotoxins, metals, and sewage effluents, although many do not yet possess any known function. Examples of successes include MMPs, superoxide dismutases, selenoproteins, and iron-bound proteins. Unfortunately, none of these have, as yet, been extensively studied. As data are developed for them, valuable new information on their roles in fish physiology and in inducing environmental effects should become available.

  18. Incorporating Biomarkers in Studies of Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Carol J; Kimler, Bruce F

    2016-01-01

    Despite Food and Drug Administration approval of tamoxifen and raloxifene for breast cancer risk reduction and endorsement by multiple agencies, uptake of these drugs for primary prevention in the United States is only 4% for risk eligible women likely to benefit from their use. Side effects coupled with incomplete efficacy and lack of a survival advantage are the likely reasons. This disappointing uptake, after the considerable effort and expense of large Phase III cancer incidence trials required for approval, suggests that a new paradigm is required. Current prevention research is focused on (1) refining risk prediction, (2) exploring behavioral and natural product interventions, and (3) utilizing novel translational trial designs for efficacy. Risk biomarkers will play a central role in refining risk estimates from traditional models and selecting cohorts for prevention trials. Modifiable risk markers called surrogate endpoint or response biomarkers will continue to be used in Phase I and II prevention trials to determine optimal dose or exposure and likely effectiveness from an intervention. The majority of Phase II trials will continue to assess benign breast tissue for response and mechanism of action biomarkers. Co-trials are those in which human and animal cohorts receive the same effective dose and the same tissue biomarkers are assessed for modulation due to the intervention, but then additional animals are allowed to progress to cancer development. These collaborations linking biomarker modulation and cancer prevention may obviate the need for cancer incidence trials for non-prescription interventions. PMID:26987531

  19. Nanomaterials based biosensors for cancer biomarker detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Bansi D.; Kumar, Saurabh; Mouli Pandey, Chandra

    2016-04-01

    Biosensors have enormous potential to contribute to the evolution of new molecular diagnostic techniques for patients suffering with cancerous diseases. A major obstacle preventing faster development of biosensors pertains to the fact that cancer is a highly complex set of diseases. The oncologists currently rely on a few biomarkers and histological characterization of tumors. Some of the signatures include epigenetic and genetic markers, protein profiles, changes in gene expression, and post-translational modifications of proteins. These molecular signatures offer new opportunities for development of biosensors for cancer detection. In this context, conducting paper has recently been found to play an important role towards the fabrication of a biosensor for cancer biomarker detection. In this paper we will focus on results of some of the recent studies obtained in our laboratories relating to fabrication and application of nanomaterial modified paper based biosensors for cancer biomarker detection.

  20. Using Aptamers for Cancer Biomarker Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Min Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are single-stranded synthetic DNA- or RNA-based oligonucleotides that fold into various shapes to bind to a specific target, which includes proteins, metals, and molecules. Aptamers have high affinity and high specificity that are comparable to that of antibodies. They are obtained using iterative method, called (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment SELEX and cell-based SELEX (cell-SELEX. Aptamers can be paired with recent advances in nanotechnology, microarray, microfluidics, and other technologies for applications in clinical medicine. One particular area that aptamers can shed a light on is biomarker discovery. Biomarkers are important in diagnosis and treatment of cancer. In this paper, we will describe ways in which aptamers can be used to discover biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and therapeutics.

  1. DETECTION OF CANCER BIOMARKERS WITH NANOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of cancer biomarkers with high precision is critically important for cancer therapy. A variety of sensors based on different nanostructured materials have attracted intensive research interest due to their potential for highly sensitive and selective detection of cancer biomarkers. This review covers the use of a variety of nanostructured materials, including carbon nanotubes, silicon nanowires, gold nanoparticles and quantum dots, in the fabrication of sensors. Emphases are placed on how the detection systems work and what detection limits can be achieved. Some assays described in this review outperform established methods for cancer biomarker detection. It is highly promising that these sensors would soon move into commercial-scale production and find routine use in hospitals.

  2. Clinical Relevance of Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frijhoff, Jeroen; Winyard, Paul G; Zarkovic, Neven;

    2015-01-01

    acids. RECENT ADVANCES: An increased understanding of the biology behind diseases and redox biology has led to more specific and sensitive tools to measure oxidative stress markers, which are very diverse and sometimes very low in abundance. CRITICAL ISSUES: The literature is very heterogeneous...... using nonspecific methods, while specific methodologies are often too sophisticated or laborious for routine clinical use. FUTURE DIRECTIONS: Several markers of oxidative stress still represent a viable biomarker opportunity for clinical use. However, positive findings with currently used biomarkers...... still need to be validated in larger sample sizes and compared with current clinical standards to establish them as clinical diagnostics. It is important to realize that oxidative stress is a nuanced phenomenon that is difficult to characterize, and one biomarker is not necessarily better than others...

  3. Do We Need Biomarkers for Disc Degeneration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen E. Gruber

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Disc degeneration plays a major role in this country's medical, social and economic structure. The life-time prevalence of low back pain, which has disc degeneration as its cause, is about 80% in the general population. It is a primary cause of disability and estimated costs related to low back disorders exceed $100 billion per year in the U.S. alone. Biomarkers are becoming increasingly important as indicators of the presence of disease, and in evaluating outcomes during clinical treatment. Cell-based biologic therapies which are currently being developed to treat disc degeneration are going to be most efficacious when applied to the early stages of disc disease. In this article we ask: 1 Whether there are existing biomarkers which could play a role in detecting early stages of disc degeneration, and 2 Highlight exciting potentials in future biomarker screening for disc degeneration.

  4. Biomarkers for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Sanam; Mohan, Chandra

    2016-06-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is a rare but fatal type of spongiform encephalopathy with unknown cause. Unfortunately, definitive diagnosis of this disease can only be done by examination of postmortem brain tissue. Presumptive diagnosis is done through a combination of clinical manifestations, radiology results, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing for CSF 14-3-3. Even with these guidelines, premortem diagnosis of sCJD can be unreliable with high rates of misdiagnosis. This calls for more reliable biomarkers of the disease, allowing for better diagnosis as well as understanding the pathogenesis of sCJD. This review compiles potential genetic, protein, biomolecular, and imaging biomarker studies for sCJD since 2010, highlighting the promise of proteins, cytokines, and composite biomarkers for improving the diagnosis as well as understanding the pathogenesis of this mysterious ailment. PMID:27547775

  5. MicroRNA biomarkers in glioblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Simon Kjær; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in initiation and progression of many cancers, including gliomas and that miRNAs hold great potential as future diagnostic and therapeutic tools in cancer. MiRNAs are a class of short non-coding RNA sequences (18...... tissues. Understanding these alterations is key to developing new biomarkers and intelligent treatment strategies. This review presents an overview of current knowledge about miRNA alterations in glioblastoma while focusing on the clinical future of miRNAs as biomarkers and discussing the strengths...

  6. Next-Generation Biomarkers of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ommen, Ben; Wopereis, Suzan

    2016-01-01

    Current biomarkers used in health care and in nutrition and health research are based on quantifying disease onset and its progress. Yet, both health care and nutrition should focus on maintaining optimal health, where the related biology is essentially differing from biomedical science. Health is characterized by the ability to continuously adapt in varying circumstances where multiple mechanisms of systems flexibility are involved. A new generation of biomarkers is needed that quantifies all aspects of systems flexibility, opening the door to real lifestyle-related health optimization, self-empowerment, and related products and services.

  7. Stable Feature Selection for Biomarker Discovery

    CERN Document Server

    He, Zengyou

    2010-01-01

    Feature selection techniques have been used as the workhorse in biomarker discovery applications for a long time. Surprisingly, the stability of feature selection with respect to sampling variations has long been under-considered. It is only until recently that this issue has received more and more attention. In this article, we review existing stable feature selection methods for biomarker discovery using a generic hierarchal framework. We have two objectives: (1) providing an overview on this new yet fast growing topic for a convenient reference; (2) categorizing existing methods under an expandable framework for future research and development.

  8. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anastasios Koulaouzidis; Shivaram Bhat; Athar A Saeed

    2009-01-01

    Since its initial description in 1964, research has transformed spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) from a feared disease (with reported mortality of 90%) to a treatable complication of decompensated cirrhosis,albeit with steady prevalence and a high recurrence rate. Bacterial translocation, the key mechanism in the pathogenesis of SBP, is only possible because of the concurrent failure of defensive mechanisms in cirrhosis.Variants of SBP should be treated. Leucocyte esterase reagent strips have managed to shorten the 'tap-toshot' time, while future studies should look into their combined use with ascitic fluid pH. Third generation cephalosporins are the antibiotic of choice because they have a number of advantages. Renal dysfunction has been shown to be an independent predictor of mortality in patients with SBP. Albumin is felt to reduce the risk of renal impairment by improving effective intravascular volume, and by helping to bind proinflammatory molecules. Following a single episode of SBP, patients should have long-term antibiotic prophylaxis and be considered for liver transplantation.

  9. Recent Advances on Lipid Biomarkers in Marine Sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-lin

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent advances of marine biomarker. Biomarkers of marine microorganisms are also included. It is important to the origin of marine biological and the monitor and evaluation of marine environment.

  10. ARSENITE INDUCTION OF HEME OXYGENASE AS A BIOMARKER

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARSENITE INDUCTION OF HEME OXYGENASE AS A BIOMARKER Useful biomarkers of arsenic effects in both experimental animals and humans are needed. Arsenate and arsenite are good inducers of rat hepatic and renal heme oxygenase (HO); monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsi...

  11. Association between Pulmonary Function and Sputum Biomarkers in Cystic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Aitken, Moira L.; Accurso, Frank J.; Kronmal, Richard A.; Konstan, Michael W.; Burns, Jane L.; Sagel, Scott D.; Ramsey, Bonnie W.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Sputum biomarkers of infection and inflammation are noninvasive measures that enable quantification of the complex pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Validation of these biomarkers as correlates of disease severity is a key step for their application.

  12. Antimicrobials for bacterial bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Atkins, Helen S

    2011-06-01

    The limitations of current antimicrobials for highly virulent pathogens considered as potential bioterrorism agents drives the requirement for new antimicrobials that are suitable for use in populations in the event of a deliberate release. Strategies targeting bacterial virulence offer the potential for new countermeasures to combat bacterial bioterrorism agents, including those active against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Although early in the development of antivirulence approaches, inhibitors of bacterial type III secretion systems and cell division mechanisms show promise for the future.

  13. Utility of propidium monoazide viability assay as a biomarker for a tuberculosis disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Miotto, Paolo; Pimkina, Edita; Balabanova, Yanina; Kontsevaya, Irina; Ignatyeva, Olga; Ambrosi, Alessandro; Skenders, Girts; Ambrozaitis, Arvydas; Kovalyov, Alexander; Sadykhova, Anna; Simak, Tatiana; Kritsky, Andrey; Mironova, Svetlana; Tikhonova, Olesya; Dubrovskaya, Yulia; Rodionova, Yulia; Cirillo, Daniela; Drobniewski, Francis

    2015-03-01

    Reliable laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), including laboratory biomarkers of cure, remains a challenge. In our study we evaluated the performance of a Propidium Monoazide (PMA) assay for the detection of viable TB bacilli in sputum specimens during anti-TB chemotherapy and its potential use as a TB biomarker. The study was conducted at three centres on 1937 sputum specimens from 310 adult bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB patients obtained before commencing anti-TB treatment and at regular intervals afterwards. Performance of the PMA assay was assessed using various readout assays with bacteriology culture results and time to positivity on liquid media used as reference standards. Treatment of sputum with N-acetyl-cysteine was found to be fully compatible with the PMA assay. Good sensitivity and specificity (97.5% and 70.7-80.0%) for detection of live TB bacilli was achieved using the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF test as a readout assay. Tentative Ct and ΔCt thresholds for the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF system were proposed. Good correlation (r = 0.61) between Ct values and time to positivity of TB cultures on liquid media was demonstrated. The PMA method has potential in monitoring bacterial load in sputum specimens and so may have a role as a biomarker of cure in TB treatment. PMID:25534168

  14. Non-traditional electrode materials for detection of biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Barek, Jiří; Moreira, Josino C.; Wang, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, new electrochemical methods suitable for detection of various types of biomarkers (biomarkers of exposition, tumor biomarkers, and biomarkers of medical treatment) are briefly reviewed. Attention is paid to the use of non-traditional electrode materials (various forms of amalgam electrodes, boron doped diamond film electrodes, carbon paste and carbon film electrodes, etc.) for voltammetric (batch analysis) and amperometric (flowing systems) detection of above mentio...

  15. Could Biomarkers Direct Therapy for the Septic Patient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Clark R; Nguyen, Trung C; Mayeux, Philip R

    2016-05-01

    Sepsis is a serious medical condition caused by a severe systemic inflammatory response to a bacterial, fungal, or viral infection that most commonly affects neonates and the elderly. Advances in understanding the pathophysiology of sepsis have resulted in guidelines for care that have helped reduce the risk of dying from sepsis for both children and older adults. Still, over the past three decades, a large number of clinical trials have been undertaken to evaluate pharmacological agents for sepsis. Unfortunately, all of these trials have failed, with the use of some agents even shown to be harmful. One key issue in these trials was the heterogeneity of the patient population that participated. What has emerged is the need to target therapeutic interventions to the specific patient's underlying pathophysiological processes, rather than looking for a universal therapy that would be effective in a "typical" septic patient, who does not exist. This review supports the concept that identification of the right biomarkers that can direct therapy and provide timely feedback on its effectiveness will enable critical care physicians to decrease mortality of patients with sepsis and improve the quality of life of survivors. PMID:26857961

  16. Genome Wide Search for Biomarkers to Diagnose Yersinia Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Vipin Chandra; Kumar, Prasun

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial identification on the basis of the highly conserved 16S rRNA (rrs) gene is limited by its presence in multiple copies and a very high level of similarity among them. The need is to look for other genes with unique characteristics to be used as biomarkers. Fifty-one sequenced genomes belonging to 10 different Yersinia species were used for searching genes common to all the genomes. Out of 304 common genes, 34 genes of sizes varying from 0.11 to 4.42 kb, were selected and subjected to in silico digestion with 10 different Restriction endonucleases (RE) (4-6 base cutters). Yersinia species have 6-7 copies of rrs per genome, which are difficult to distinguish by multiple sequence alignments or their RE digestion patterns. However, certain unique combinations of other common gene sequences-carB, fadJ, gluM, gltX, ileS, malE, nusA, ribD, and rlmL and their RE digestion patterns can be used as markers for identifying 21 strains belonging to 10 Yersinia species: Y. aldovae, Y. enterocolitica, Y. frederiksenii, Y. intermedia, Y. kristensenii, Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. rohdei, Y. ruckeri, and Y. similis. This approach can be applied for rapid diagnostic applications. PMID:26543261

  17. A systematic review of biomarkers in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipsøyr, Magnus G; Ludvigsen, Maja; Petersen, Eskild; Wiggers, Henrik; Honoré, Bent

    2016-01-01

    Timely diagnosis of bacterial infective endocarditis (IE) is crucial, as mortality remains high in this severe bacterial infection, currently without any distinct biological markers. Our goal was to evaluate potential diagnostic biomarkers by reviewing current literature. The MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus databases were searched for articles published from 1980 through June 2015 restricted to English, Norwegian, Danish and Swedish. Eighteen studies qualified, providing a review of the most promising candidates for future studies. Several studies are inconclusive, since they are characterized by using improper control groups. Patients with IE have bacteremia, and control groups should therefore be patients with bacteremia without IE. Based on current research, N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) alone or in combination with Cystatin C (Cys C), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), troponins, aquaporin-9 (AQP9), S100 calcium binding protein A11 (S100A11), E-selectin (CD62E) and VCAM-1 (CD54) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are potential biomarkers for future studies.

  18. Urinary Biomarkers in the Assessment of Early Diabetic Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluhovschi, Gheorghe; Petrica, Ligia; Timar, Romulus; Velciov, Silvia; Ionita, Ioana; Kaycsa, Adriana; Timar, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a frequent and severe complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Its diagnosis in incipient stages may allow prompt interventions and an improved prognosis. Towards this aim, biomarkers for detecting early DN can be used. Microalbuminuria has been proven a remarkably useful biomarker, being used for diagnosis of DN, for assessing its associated condition—mainly cardiovascular ones—and for monitoring its progression. New researches are pointing that some of these biomarkers (i.e., glomerular, tubular, inflammation markers, and biomarkers of oxidative stress) precede albuminuria in some patients. However, their usefulness is widely debated in the literature and has not yet led to the validation of a new “gold standard” biomarker for the early diagnosis of DN. Currently, microalbuminuria is an important biomarker for both glomerular and tubular injury. Other glomerular biomarkers (transferrin and ceruloplasmin) are under evaluation. Tubular biomarkers in DN seem to be of a paramount importance in the early diagnosis of DN since tubular lesions occur early. Additionally, biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress, podocyte biomarkers, and vascular biomarkers have been employed for assessing early DN. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current biomarkers used for the diagnosis of early DN.

  19. SERUM BIOMARKERS OF AGING IN THE BROWN NORWAY RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum biomarkers to identify susceptibility to disease in aged humans are well researched. On the other hand, our understanding of biomarkers in animal models of aging is limited. Hence, we applied a commercially available panel of 58 serum analytes to screen for possible biomark...

  20. Protein biomarker enrichment by biomarker antibody complex elution for immunoassay biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatte, Gwenola; Feitsma, Harma; Evers, Toon H; Prins, Menno W J

    2011-11-15

    It is very challenging to perform sample enrichment for protein biomarkers because proteins can easily change conformation and denature. In this paper we demonstrate protein enrichment suited for high-sensitivity integrated immuno-biosensing. The method enhances the concentration of the biomarkers and simultaneously removes matrix components that could interfere with the immunoassay. Biomarkers are captured using antibody coated magnetic particles and the biomarker antibody complexes are released by enzymatic elution. The eluted complexes are subsequently detected in a sandwich immunoassay biosensor. A scaling study of the enrichment process demonstrates an enrichment factor of 15 in buffer and plasma. We analyze the enrichment factor in terms of the three basic steps of the assay (capture, concentration, elution) and we quantify their respective efficiencies. The process is suited for integration into bio-analytical tools.

  1. Identification of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa was the second most common type of cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death in men. The great challenge for physicians is being able to accurately predict PCa prognosis and treatment response in order to reduce PCa-speciic mortality while avoiding overtreatment by identifying of when to intervene, and in which patients. CONTENT: Currently, PCa prognosis and treatment decision of PCa involved digital rectal examination, Prostate-Speciic Antigens (PSA, and subsequent biopsies for histopathological staging, known as Gleason score. However, each procedure has its shortcomings. Efforts to find a better clinically meaningful and non-invasive biomarkers still developed involving proteins, circulating tumor cells, nucleic acids, and the ‘omics' approaches. SUMMARY: Biomarkers for PCa will most likely be an assay employing multiple biomarkers in combination using protein and gene microarrays, containing markers that are differentially expressed in PCa. KEYWORDS: prostate cancer, PSA, biomarkers, nomograms, miRNA, proteomic, genomic, metabolomic.

  2. Potential Serological Biomarkers of Cerebral Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi W. Lucchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers have been used to diagnose and prognosticate the progress and outcome of many chronic diseases such as neoplastic and non communicable diseases. However, only recently did the field of malaria research move in the direction of actively identifying biomarkers that can accurately discriminate the severe forms of malaria. Malaria continues to be a deadly disease, killing close to a million people (mostly children every year. One life-threatening complication of malaria is cerebral malaria (CM. Studies carried out in Africa have demonstrated that even with the best treatment, as high as 15–30% of CM patients die and about 10–24% of CM survivors suffer short-or long-term neurological impairment. The transition from mild malaria to CM can be sudden and requires immediate intervention. Currently, there is no biological test available to confirm the diagnosis of CM and its complications. It is hoped that development of biomarkers to identify CM patients and potential risk for adverse outcomes would greatly enhance better intervention and clinical management to improve the outcomes. We review here what is currently known regarding biomarkers for CM outcomes.

  3. Functional MRI and CT biomarkers in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winfield, J.M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK Imaging Centre at the Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom); Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Hospital, MRI Unit, Sutton (United Kingdom); Payne, G.S.; DeSouza, N.M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK Imaging Centre at the Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Imaging biomarkers derived from MRI or CT describe functional properties of tumours and normal tissues. They are finding increasing numbers of applications in diagnosis, monitoring of response to treatment and assessment of progression or recurrence. Imaging biomarkers also provide scope for assessment of heterogeneity within and between lesions. A wide variety of functional parameters have been investigated for use as biomarkers in oncology. Some imaging techniques are used routinely in clinical applications while others are currently restricted to clinical trials or preclinical studies. Apparent diffusion coefficient, magnetization transfer ratio and native T{sub 1} relaxation time provide information about structure and organization of tissues. Vascular properties may be described using parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced CT, transverse relaxation rate (R{sub 2}*), vessel size index and relative blood volume, while magnetic resonance spectroscopy may be used to probe the metabolic profile of tumours. This review describes the mechanisms of contrast underpinning each technique and the technical requirements for robust and reproducible imaging. The current status of each biomarker is described in terms of its validation, qualification and clinical applications, followed by a discussion of the current limitations and future perspectives. (orig.)

  4. BLOOD BIOMARKERS FOR EVALUATION OF PERINATAL ENCEPHALOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Marshall Graham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in identification of brain injury after trauma shows many possible blood biomarkers that may help identify the fetus and neonate with encephalopathy. Traumatic brain injury shares many common features with perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Trauma has a hypoxic component, and one of the 1st physiologic consequences of moderate-severe traumatic brain injury is apnea. Trauma and hypoxia-ischemia initiate an excitotoxic cascade and free radical injury followed by the inflammatory cascade, producing injury in neurons, glial cells and white matter. Increased excitatory amino acids, lipid peroxidation products and alteration in microRNAs and inflammatory markers are common to both traumatic brain injury and perinatal encephalopathy. The blood-brain barrier is disrupted in both leading to egress of substances normally only found in the central nervous system. Brain exosomes may represent ideal biomarker containers, as RNA and protein transported within the vesicles are protected from enzymatic degradation. Evaluation of fetal or neonatal brain derived exosomes that cross the blood-brain barrier and circulate peripherally has been referred to as the liquid brain biopsy. A multiplex of serum biomarkers could improve upon the current imprecise methods of identifying fetal and neonatal brain injury such as fetal heart rate abnormalities, meconium, cord gases at delivery, and Apgar scores. Quantitative biomarker measurements of perinatal brain injury and recovery could lead to operative delivery only in the presence of significant fetal risk, triage to appropriate therapy after birth and measure the effectiveness of treatment.

  5. Biomarkers in kidney and heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maisel, Alan S.; Katz, Nevin; Hillege, Hans L.; Shaw, Andrew; Zanco, Pierluigi; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Anand, Inder; Anker, Stefan D.; Aspromonte, Nadia; Bagshaw, Sean M.; Berl, Tomas; Bobek, Ilona; Cruz, Dinna N.; Daliento, Luciano; Davenport, Andrew; Haapio, Mikko; House, Andrew A.; Mankad, Sunil; McCullough, Peter; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Palazzuoli, Alberto; Ponikowski, Piotr; Ronco, Federico; Sheinfeld, Geoff; Soni, Sachin; Vescovo, Giorgio; Zamperetti, Nereo; Ronco, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    There is much symptomatic similarity between acute kidney disease and acute heart disease. Both may present with shortness of breath and chest discomfort, and thus it is not surprising that biomarkers of acute myocardial and renal disease often coexist in many physicians' diagnostic work-up schedule

  6. Quantitative multiplex detection of pathogen biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Harshini; Xie, Hongzhi; Swanson, Basil I.; Martinez, Jennifer; Grace, Wynne K.

    2016-02-09

    The present invention addresses the simultaneous detection and quantitative measurement of multiple biomolecules, e.g., pathogen biomarkers through either a sandwich assay approach or a lipid insertion approach. The invention can further employ a multichannel, structure with multi-sensor elements per channel.

  7. Preeclampsia, biomarkers, syncytiotrophoblast stress, and placental capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Christopher W G; Staff, Anne Cathrine

    2015-10-01

    The maternal syndrome of preeclampsia is mediated by dysfunctional syncytiotrophoblast (STB). When this is stressed by uteroplacental malperfusion, its signaling to the mother changes, as part of a highly coordinated stress response. The STB signals are both proinflammatory and dysangiogenic such that the preeclamptic mother has a stronger vascular inflammatory response than normal, with an antiangiogenic bias. Angiogenic factors have limitations as preeclampsia biomarkers, especially for prediction and diagnosis of preeclampsia at term. However, if they are recognized as markers of STB stress, their physiological changes at term demonstrate that STB stress develops in all pregnancies. The biomarkers reveal that the duration of pregnancies is restricted by placental capacity, such that there is increasing placental dysfunction, at and beyond term. This capacity includes limitations imposed by the size of the uterus, the capacity of the uteroplacental circulation and, possibly, the supply of villous progenitor trophoblast cells. Limited placental capacity explains the increasing risks of postmaturity, including preeclampsia. Early-onset preeclampsia is predictable because STB stress and changes in its biomarkers are intrinsic to poor placentation, an early pregnancy pathology. Prediction of preeclampsia at term is not good because there is no early STB pathology. Moreover, biomarkers cannot accurately diagnose term preeclampsia against a background of universal STB dysfunction, which may or may not be clinically revealed before spontaneous or induced delivery. In this sense, postterm pregnancy is, at best, a pseudonormal state. However, the markers may prove useful in screening for women with more severe problems of postmaturity.

  8. Dissociable brain biomarkers of fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Erick J; Larsen, Ryan J; Nikolaidis, Aki; Ward, Nathan; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J; Kramer, Arthur F; Barbey, Aron K

    2016-08-15

    Cognitive neuroscience has long sought to understand the biological foundations of human intelligence. Decades of research have revealed that general intelligence is correlated with two brain-based biomarkers: the concentration of the brain biochemical N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and total brain volume measured using structural MR imaging (MRI). However, the relative contribution of these biomarkers in predicting performance on core facets of human intelligence remains to be well characterized. In the present study, we sought to elucidate the role of NAA and brain volume in predicting fluid intelligence (Gf). Three canonical tests of Gf (BOMAT, Number Series, and Letter Sets) and three working memory tasks (Reading, Rotation, and Symmetry span tasks) were administered to a large sample of healthy adults (n=211). We conducted exploratory factor analysis to investigate the factor structure underlying Gf independent from working memory and observed two Gf components (verbal/spatial and quantitative reasoning) and one working memory component. Our findings revealed a dissociation between two brain biomarkers of Gf (controlling for age and sex): NAA concentration correlated with verbal/spatial reasoning, whereas brain volume correlated with quantitative reasoning and working memory. A follow-up analysis revealed that this pattern of findings is observed for males and females when analyzed separately. Our results provide novel evidence that distinct brain biomarkers are associated with specific facets of human intelligence, demonstrating that NAA and brain volume are independent predictors of verbal/spatial and quantitative facets of Gf. PMID:27184204

  9. Biomarkers in Pediatric ARDS: Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E Orwoll

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is common among mechanically ventilated children, and accompanies up to 30% of all PICU deaths. Though ARDS diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, biological markers of acute lung damage have been extensively studied in adults and children. Biomarkers of inflammation, alveolar epithelial and capillary endothelial disruption, disordered coagulation, and associated derangements measured in the circulation and other body fluids such as brochoalveolar lavage have improved our understanding of pathobiology of ARDS. The biochemical signature of ARDS has been increasingly well described in adult populations, and this has led to the identification of molecular phenotypes to augment clinical classifications. However, there is a paucity of data from pediatric ARDS patients. Biomarkers and molecular phenotypes have the potential to identify patients at high risk of poor outcomes, and perhaps inform the development of targeted therapies for specific groups of patients. Additionally, because of the lower incidence of and mortality from ARDS in pediatric patients relative to adults and lack of robust clinical predictors of outcome, there is an ongoing interest in biological markers as surrogate outcome measures. The recent definition of pediatric ARDS (pARDS provides additional impetus for measurement of established and novel biomarkers in future pediatric studies in order to further characterize this disease process. This chapter will review the currently available literature and discuss potential future directions for investigation into biomarkers in ARDS among children.

  10. Biomarkers of Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy in Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha V. Douglas-Escobar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As neonatal intensive care has evolved, the focus has shifted from improving mortality alone to an effort to improve both mortality and morbidity. The most frequent source of neonatal brain injury occurs as a result of hypoxic-ischemic injury. Hypoxic-ischemic injury occurs in about 2 of 1,000 full-term infants and severe injured infants will have lifetime disabilities and neurodevelopmental delays. Most recently, remarkable efforts toward neuroprotection have been started with the advent of therapeutic hypothermia and a key step in the evolution of neonatal neuroprotection is the discovery of biomarkers that enable the clinician-scientist to screen infants for brain injury, monitor progression of disease, identify injured brain regions, and assess efficacy of neuroprotective clinical trials. Lastly, biomarkers offer great hope identifying when an injury occurred shedding light on the potential pathophysiology and the most effective therapy. In this article, we will review biomarkers of HIE including S100b, neuron specific enolase, umbilical cord IL-6, CK-BB, GFAP, myelin basic protein, UCHL-1, and pNF-H. We hope to contribute to the awareness, validation and clinical use of established as well as novel neonatal brain injury biomarkers.

  11. Biomarkers of necrotising soft tissue infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marco Bo; Simonsen, Ulf; Garred, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The mortality and amputation rates are still high in patients with necrotising soft tissue infections (NSTIs). It would be ideal to have a set of biomarkers that enables the clinician to identify high-risk patients with NSTI on admission. The objectives of this study are to evaluate...

  12. Novel biomarkers for cancer detection and prognostication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehra, N.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis we used a variety of approaches for biomarker discovery; in Part I we assessed whether we could identify a non-invasive surrogate markers of angiogenesis, as new vessel formation plays critical roles in the growth and metastatic spread of tumors. Moreover, many agents targeting the va

  13. Imaging biomarkers in primary brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopci, Egesta; Chiti, Arturo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Franzese, Ciro; Navarria, Pierina; Scorsetti, Marta [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Grimaldi, Marco [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Radiology, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Zucali, Paolo Andrea; Simonelli, Matteo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Medical Oncology, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Bello, Lorenzo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Neurosurgery, Rozzano, MI (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    We are getting used to referring to instrumentally detectable biological features in medical language as ''imaging biomarkers''. These two terms combined reflect the evolution of medical imaging during recent decades, and conceptually comprise the principle of noninvasive detection of internal processes that can become targets for supplementary therapeutic strategies. These targets in oncology include those biological pathways that are associated with several tumour features including independence from growth and growth-inhibitory signals, avoidance of apoptosis and immune system control, unlimited potential for replication, self-sufficiency in vascular supply and neoangiogenesis, acquired tissue invasiveness and metastatic diffusion. Concerning brain tumours, there have been major improvements in neurosurgical techniques and radiotherapy planning, and developments of novel target drugs, thus increasing the need for reproducible, noninvasive, quantitative imaging biomarkers. However, in this context, conventional radiological criteria may be inappropriate to determine the best therapeutic option and subsequently to assess response to therapy. Integration of molecular imaging for the evaluation of brain tumours has for this reason become necessary, and an important role in this setting is played by imaging biomarkers in PET and MRI. In the current review, we describe most relevant techniques and biomarkers used for imaging primary brain tumours in clinical practice, and discuss potential future developments from the experimental context. (orig.)

  14. Coagulation Biomarkers in Critically Ill Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Levi; M. Schultz; T. van der Poll

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses coagulation biomarkers in critically ill patients where coagulation abnormalities occur frequently and may have a major impact on the outcome. An adequate explanation for the cause is important, since many underlying disorders may require specific treatment and supportive ther

  15. Imaging biomarkers in primary brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are getting used to referring to instrumentally detectable biological features in medical language as ''imaging biomarkers''. These two terms combined reflect the evolution of medical imaging during recent decades, and conceptually comprise the principle of noninvasive detection of internal processes that can become targets for supplementary therapeutic strategies. These targets in oncology include those biological pathways that are associated with several tumour features including independence from growth and growth-inhibitory signals, avoidance of apoptosis and immune system control, unlimited potential for replication, self-sufficiency in vascular supply and neoangiogenesis, acquired tissue invasiveness and metastatic diffusion. Concerning brain tumours, there have been major improvements in neurosurgical techniques and radiotherapy planning, and developments of novel target drugs, thus increasing the need for reproducible, noninvasive, quantitative imaging biomarkers. However, in this context, conventional radiological criteria may be inappropriate to determine the best therapeutic option and subsequently to assess response to therapy. Integration of molecular imaging for the evaluation of brain tumours has for this reason become necessary, and an important role in this setting is played by imaging biomarkers in PET and MRI. In the current review, we describe most relevant techniques and biomarkers used for imaging primary brain tumours in clinical practice, and discuss potential future developments from the experimental context. (orig.)

  16. Blood Biomarkers for Evaluation of Perinatal Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ernest M.; Burd, Irina; Everett, Allen D.; Northington, Frances J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research in identification of brain injury after trauma shows many possible blood biomarkers that may help identify the fetus and neonate with encephalopathy. Traumatic brain injury shares many common features with perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Trauma has a hypoxic component, and one of the 1st physiologic consequences of moderate-severe traumatic brain injury is apnea. Trauma and hypoxia-ischemia initiate an excitotoxic cascade and free radical injury followed by the inflammatory cascade, producing injury in neurons, glial cells and white matter. Increased excitatory amino acids, lipid peroxidation products, and alteration in microRNAs and inflammatory markers are common to both traumatic brain injury and perinatal encephalopathy. The blood-brain barrier is disrupted in both leading to egress of substances normally only found in the central nervous system. Brain exosomes may represent ideal biomarker containers, as RNA and protein transported within the vesicles are protected from enzymatic degradation. Evaluation of fetal or neonatal brain derived exosomes that cross the blood-brain barrier and circulate peripherally has been referred to as the “liquid brain biopsy.” A multiplex of serum biomarkers could improve upon the current imprecise methods of identifying fetal and neonatal brain injury such as fetal heart rate abnormalities, meconium, cord gases at delivery, and Apgar scores. Quantitative biomarker measurements of perinatal brain injury and recovery could lead to operative delivery only in the presence of significant fetal risk, triage to appropriate therapy after birth and measure the effectiveness of treatment. PMID:27468268

  17. Biomarkers: A potential prognostic tool for silicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Krishna Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term exposure to respirable dust containing silica leads to pneumoconiosis/silicosis. The disease is irreversible and incurable, and only preventive steps such as job rotation, use of personal protective equipment, etc., remain solutions to the problem. Under such a situation, early diagnosis or prediction may become very useful to control the disease. Biomarkers are biological parameters in blood serum that change their values with deposition of dust in the lung and onset of lung fibrosis. Since these biomarkers can help us to diagnose and in the prognosis of the disease before it is actually diagnosed by the conventional X-ray technique and lung function test used for diagnosis of silicosis. The present paper describes the various types of available biomarkers, their application and usefulness. The paper also suggests that further study of the behavior/level of these biomarkers on a specific subject with time may provide more useful information of a confirmatory nature for prevention of dust-linked diseases.

  18. [Key laboratory diagnostic biomarkers of coronary atherosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragino, Iu I; Cherniavskiĭ, A M; Eremenko, N V; Shakhtshneĭder, E V; Polonskaia, Ia V; Tsymbal, S Iu; Ivanova, M V; Voevoda, M I

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory lipid and lipoprotein biomarkers (total cholesterol - CH, triglycerides - TG, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol- LDL-CH, HDL-CH, apolipoproteins B and A1 - apoB, apoA1), carbohydrate biomarkers (plasma glucose, basal insulin), high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and oxidative biomarkers (basal level of lipid peroxidation [LPO] products in LDL, LDL resistance to oxidation in vitro, oxidative modification of apoLDL and level of LDL lipophilic antioxidants) were studied in 388 men aged 42-70 years: 96 citizens of Western Siberia with angiographically documented coronary atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD); 292 men of population sample of citizens of Novosibirsk, including 44 men with CHD confirmed by standardized criteria and methods. Significant associations were found of coronary atherosclerosis and CHD with laboratory diagnostic biomarkers like blood levels of HDL-CH, TG, apoB, apoA1, basal insulin, hsCRP and basal level of LPO products in LDL and LDL resistance to oxidation. PMID:21627612

  19. Novel biomarkers for pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Anjum; Ruffenach, Gregoire; Mahajan, Aman; Eghbali, Mansoureh; Umar, Soban

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a deadly disease characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressures leading to right ventricular hypertrophy and failure. The confirmatory gold standard test is the invasive right heart catheterization. The disease course is monitored by pulmonary artery systolic pressure measurement via transthoracic echocardiography. A simple non-invasive test to frequently monitor the patients is much needed. Search for a novel biomarker that can be detected by a simple test is ongoing and many different options are being studied. Here we review some of the new and unique pre-clinical options for potential pulmonary hypertension biomarkers. These biomarkers can be broadly categorized based on their association with endothelial cell dysfunction, inflammation, epigenetics, cardiac function, oxidative stress, metabolism,extracellular matrix, and volatile compounds in exhaled breath condensate. A biomarker that can be detected in blood, urine or breath condensate and correlates with disease severity, progression and response to therapy may result in significant cost reduction and improved patient outcomes. PMID:27439993

  20. Cocktail effects on biomarker responses in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of today's greatest challenges in environmental toxicology is to understand effects of mixture toxicity, commonly referred to as cocktail effects, in humans and in wildlife. Biomarker responses in fish are routinely used to assess exposure of anthropogenic chemicals in the aquatic environment. However, little is known about how cocktail effects affect these biomarker responses. For this reason, there is an obvious risk for misinterpretation of biomarker-data and this can have profound negative effects on stakeholder's decisions and actions, as well as on legislations and remediation-plans initiated in order to reduce exposure to certain chemicals. Besides, chemical safety-levels are traditionally based on experiences from lab-studies with single chemicals, which is unfortunate as a chemical can be more toxic when it is mixed with other chemicals, because of the cocktail effect. This review focuses on pharmacokinetic interactions between different classes of pollutants on detoxification mechanisms and how that affects two commonly used biomarkers in the aquatic environment: (1) induction of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) that is mediated via activation of the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR), used to assess exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons; (2) induction of vitellogenin (VTG) that is mediated via activation of the estrogen receptor (ER), used to assess exposure to estrogenic chemicals. These responses can be either directly or indirectly affected by the presence of other classes of pollutants as a result of cocktail effects. For example, chemicals that inhibit the function of key metabolic enzymes and transporter pumps that are involved in elimination of AhR- and ER agonists, can result in bioaccumulation of aromatic hydrocarbons and estrogenic chemicals resulting in increased biomarker responses. This cocktail effect can lead to overestimation of the actual exposure pressure. On the contrary, induction of expression of key metabolic enzymes and transporter

  1. Host Factors and Biomarkers Associated with Poor Outcomes in Adults with Invasive Pneumococcal Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeo Hanada

    Full Text Available Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD causes considerable morbidity and mortality. We aimed to identify host factors and biomarkers associated with poor outcomes in adult patients with IPD in Japan, which has a rapidly-aging population.In a large-scale surveillance study of 506 Japanese adults with IPD, we investigated the role of host factors, disease severity, biomarkers based on clinical laboratory data, treatment regimens, and bacterial factors on 28-day mortality.Overall mortality was 24.1%, and the mortality rate increased from 10.0% in patients aged ˂50 years to 33.1% in patients aged ≥80 years. Disease severity also increased 28-day mortality, from 12.5% among patients with bacteraemia without sepsis to 35.0% in patients with severe sepsis and 56.9% with septic shock. The death rate within 48 hours after admission was high at 54.9%. Risk factors for mortality identified by multivariate analysis were as follows: white blood cell (WBC count <4000 cells/μL (odds ratio [OR], 6.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7-12.8, p < .001; age ≥80 years (OR, 6.5; 95% CI, 2.0-21.6, p = .002; serum creatinine ≥2.0 mg/dL (OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 2.5-8.1, p < .001; underlying liver disease (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.6-7.8, p = .002; mechanical ventilation (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.7-5.6, p < .001; and lactate dehydrogenase ≥300 IU/L (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4-4.0, p = .001. Pneumococcal serotype and drug resistance were not associated with poor outcomes.Host factors, disease severity, and biomarkers, especially WBC counts and serum creatinine, were more important determinants of mortality than bacterial factors.

  2. Metabolomics analysis identifies intestinal microbiota-derived biomarkers of colonization resistance in clindamycin-treated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L P Jump

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiota protect the host against enteric pathogens through a defense mechanism termed colonization resistance. Antibiotics excreted into the intestinal tract may disrupt colonization resistance and alter normal metabolic functions of the microbiota. We used a mouse model to test the hypothesis that alterations in levels of bacterial metabolites in fecal specimens could provide useful biomarkers indicating disrupted or intact colonization resistance after antibiotic treatment. METHODS: To assess in vivo colonization resistance, mice were challenged with oral vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus or Clostridium difficile spores at varying time points after treatment with the lincosamide antibiotic clindamycin. For concurrent groups of antibiotic-treated mice, stool samples were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to assess changes in the microbiota and using non-targeted metabolic profiling. To assess whether the findings were applicable to another antibiotic class that suppresses intestinal anaerobes, similar experiments were conducted with piperacillin/tazobactam. RESULTS: Colonization resistance began to recover within 5 days and was intact by 12 days after clindamycin treatment, coinciding with the recovery bacteria from the families Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, both part of the phylum Firmicutes. Clindamycin treatment caused marked changes in metabolites present in fecal specimens. Of 484 compounds analyzed, 146 (30% exhibited a significant increase or decrease in concentration during clindamycin treatment followed by recovery to baseline that coincided with restoration of in vivo colonization resistance. Identified as potential biomarkers of colonization resistance, these compounds included intermediates in carbohydrate or protein metabolism that increased (pentitols, gamma-glutamyl amino acids and inositol metabolites or decreased (pentoses, dipeptides with clindamycin treatment

  3. Variation of Geochemical Signatures and Correlation of Biomarkers in Icelandic Mars Analogue Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, D.; Amador, E. S.; Cable, M. L.; Cantrell, T.; Chaudry, N.; Cullen, T.; Duca, Z. A.; Jacobsen, M. B.; McCaig, H. C.; Murukesan, G.; Rennie, V.; Schwieterman, E. W.; Stevens, A. H.; Tan, G.; Yin, C.; Stockton, A.; Cullen, D.; Geppert, W.

    2015-12-01

    Exploration missions to Mars rely on rovers to perform deep analyses over small sampling areas; however, landing site selection is done using large-scale but low-resolution remote sensing data. Using Earth analogue environments to estimate the small-scale spatial and temporal distributions of key geochemical signatures and (for habitability studies) biomarkers helps ensure that the chosen sampling strategies meet mission science goals. We conducted two rounds of analogue expeditions to recent Icelandic lava fields. In July 2013, we tested correlation between three common biomarker assays: cell quantification via fluorescence microscopy, ATP quantification via bioluminescence, and quantitative PCR with universal primer sets. Sample sites were nested at four spatial scales (1 m, 10 m, 100 m, and > 1 km) and homogeneous at 'remote imaging' resolution (overall temperature, apparent moisture content, and regolith grain size). All spatial scales were highly diverse in ATP, bacterial 16S, and archaeal 16S DNA content; nearly half of sites were statistically different in ATP content at α = 0.05. Cell counts showed significant variation at the 10 m and 100 m scale; at the > 1 km scale, the mean counts were not distinguishable, but the median counts were, indicating differences in underlying distribution. Fungal 18S DNA content similarly varied at 1 m, 10 m, and 100 m scales only. Cell counts were not correlated with ATP or DNA content at any scale. ATP concentration and DNA content for all three primer sets were positively correlated. Bacterial DNA content was positively correlated with archaeal and fungal DNA content, though archaeal correlation was weak. Fungal and archaeal correlation was borderline. In July 2015, we repeated the sampling strategy, with the addition of a smaller-scale sampling grid of 10 cm and a third > 1 km location. This expedition also measured reflectance of the tephra cover and preserved mineral samples for future Raman spectroscopy in order to

  4. What bacteria leave behind: bacterial organic matter quality and biomarker signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, Kristoffer; Schramm, Andreas; Niggemann, Jutta;

    composition of prokaryotic cells was studied by re-growing a mixed community of native sediment bacteria in anoxic sediment pore water. Cellular concentrations of L- and D-amino acids and amino sugars were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The proportion of Archaea, Gram positive...... and Gram negative Bacteria in the prokaryotic community were determined using catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescent in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH). The results showed that the L-amino acid composition of native sediment prokaryotes was similar to that of other organic matter sources. It is generally...... assumed that benthic prokaryotic communities are dominated by Gram negatives, although there is a lack of data supporting this assumption. This study provides insight into the biogeochemical makeup of mixed communities of sediment prokaryotes and evaluates the significance of Gram positives, Gram...

  5. [Small intestine bacterial overgrowth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung Ki, E L; Roduit, J; Delarive, J; Guyot, J; Michetti, P; Dorta, G

    2010-01-27

    Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition characterised by nutrient malabsorption and excessive bacteria in the small intestine. It typically presents with diarrhea, flatulence and a syndrome of malabsorption (steatorrhea, macrocytic anemia). However, it may be asymptomatic in the eldery. A high index of suspicion is necessary in order to differentiate SIBO from other similar presenting disorders such as coeliac disease, lactose intolerance or the irritable bowel syndrome. A search for predisposing factor is thus necessary. These factors may be anatomical (stenosis, blind loop), or functional (intestinal hypomotility, achlorydria). The hydrogen breath test is the most frequently used diagnostic test although it lacks standardisation. The treatment of SIBO consists of eliminating predisposing factors and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. PMID:20214190

  6. Studying bacterial multispecies biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Burmølle, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The high prevalence and significance of multispecies biofilms have now been demonstrated in various bacterial habitats with medical, industrial, and ecological relevance. It is highly evident that several species of bacteria coexist and interact in biofilms, which highlights the need for evaluating...... the approaches used to study these complex communities. This review focuses on the establishment of multispecies biofilms in vitro, interspecies interactions in microhabitats, and how to select communities for evaluation. Studies have used different experimental approaches; here we evaluate the benefits...... and drawbacks of varying the degree of complexity. This review aims to facilitate multispecies biofilm research in order to expand the current limited knowledge on interspecies interactions. Recent technological advances have enabled total diversity analysis of highly complex and diverse microbial communities...

  7. Bacterial proteases and virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frees, Dorte; Brøndsted, Lone; Ingmer, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens rely on proteolysis for variety of purposes during the infection process. In the cytosol, the main proteolytic players are the conserved Clp and Lon proteases that directly contribute to virulence through the timely degradation of virulence regulators and indirectly by providing...... tolerance to adverse conditions such as those experienced in the host. In the membrane, HtrA performs similar functions whereas the extracellular proteases, in close contact with host components, pave the way for spreading infections by degrading host matrix components or interfering with host cell...... signalling to short-circuit host cell processes. Common to both intra- and extracellular proteases is the tight control of their proteolytic activities. In general, substrate recognition by the intracellular proteases is highly selective which is, in part, attributed to the chaperone activity associated...

  8. Circulating Biomarker Panels in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafari, Sachli; Backes, Christina; Meese, Eckart; Keller, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The early diagnosis of diseases frequently represents an important unmet clinical need supporting in-time treatment of pathologies. This also applies to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, estimated to affect millions of individuals worldwide. The respective diagnostic and prognostic markers, especially for the preclinical stages of AD, are expected to improve patients' outcome significantly. In the last decades, many approaches to detecting AD have been developed, including markers to discover changes in amyloid-β levels [from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or using positron emission tomography] or other brain imaging technologies such as structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional-connectivity MRI or task-related functional MRI. A major challenge is the detection of AD using minimally or even noninvasive biomarkers from body fluids such as plasma or serum. Circulating biomarker candidates based on mRNAs or proteins measured from blood cells, plasma or serum have been proposed for various pathologies including AD. As for other diseases, there is a tendency to use marker signatures obtained by high-throughput approaches, which allow the generation of profiles of hundreds to thousands of biomarkers simultaneously [microarrays, mass spectrometry or next-generation sequencing (NGS)]. Beyond mRNAs and proteins, recent approaches have measured small noncoding RNA (so-called microRNA) profiles in AD patients' blood samples using NGS or array-based technologies. Generally, the development of marker panels is in its early stages and requires further, substantial clinical validation. In this review, we provide an overview of different circulating AD biomarkers, starting with a brief summary of CSF markers and focusing on novel biomarker signatures such as small noncoding RNA profiles.

  9. An update on biomarkers in axial spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajzlerová, Klára; Grobelná, Kristýna; Pavelka, Karel; Šenolt, Ladislav; Filková, Mária

    2016-06-01

    Axial spondyloarthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease with the onset at a young age, and, if undiagnosed and untreated, it may result in permanent damage and lifelong disability. Rates of early diagnosis have improved, due in particular to the addition of magnetic resonance imaging into the diagnostic armamentaria; however, it is costly, not widely available, and requires experienced readers to interpret the findings. In addition to clinical measures and imaging techniques, biomarkers that will be described in this review may represent useful tools for diagnosis, monitoring disease activity and outcomes as well as therapeutic responses. Currently, HLA-B27 remains the best genetic biomarker for making a diagnosis, while CRP currently appears to be the best circulating measure for assessing disease activity, predicting structural progression and therapeutic response. Interestingly, key molecules in the pathogenesis of the disease and essential therapeutic targets, such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α, interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-23, show only limited association with disease characteristics or disease progression. Some genetic biomarkers and particularly anti-CD74 antibodies, may become a promising tool for the early diagnosis of axSpA. Further biomarkers, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-3, calprotectin (S100A8/9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) or dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), are not sufficient to reflect disease activity, but may predict spinal structural progression. In addition, recent data have shown that monitoring calprotectin might represent a valuable biomarker of therapeutic response. However, all of these results need to be confirmed in large cohort studies prior to use in daily clinical practice. PMID:26851549

  10. Chiral biomarkers and microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2010-09-01

    Homochirality of the biomolecules (D-sugars of DNA and RNA and L-amino acids of proteins) is a fundamental property of all life on Earth. Abiotic mechanisms yield racemic mixtures (D/L=1) of chiral molecules and after the death of an organism, the enantiopure chiral biomolecules slowly racemize. Several independent investigators have now established that the amino acids present in CI1 and CM2 carbonaceous meteorites have a moderate to strong excess of the L-enantiomer. Stable isotope data have established that these amino acids are both indigenous and extraterrestrial. Carbonaceous meteorites also contain many other strong chemical biomarkers including purines and pyrimidines (nitrogen heterocycles of nucleic acids); pristine and phytane (components of the chlorophyll pigment) and morphological biomarkers (microfossils of filamentous cyanobacteria). Energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis reveals that nitrogen is below the detectability level in most of the meteorite filaments as well as in Cambrian Trilobites and filaments of 2.7 Gya Archaean cyanobacteria from Karelia. The deficiency of nitrogen in the filaments and the total absence of sugars, of twelve of the life-critical protein amino acids, and two of the nucleobases of DNA and RNA provide clear and convincing evidence that these filaments are not modern biological contaminants. This paper reviews the chiral, chemical biomarkers morphological biomarkers and microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites. This paper reviews chiral and morphological biomarkers and discusses the missing nitrogen, sugars, protein amino acids, and nucleobases as "bio-discriminators" that exclude modern biological contaminants as a possible explanation for the permineralized cyanobacterial filaments found in the meteorites.

  11. Rapid culture-independent microbial analysis aboard the international space station (ISS) stage two: quantifying three microbial biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Heather C; Damon, Michael; Maule, Jake; Monaco, Lisa A; Wainwright, Norm

    2012-09-01

    Abstract A portable, rapid, microbial detection unit, the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS), was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) as a technology demonstration unit in December 2006. Results from the first series of experiments designed to detect Gram-negative bacteria on ISS surfaces by quantifying a single microbial biomarker lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were reported in a previous article. Herein, we report additional technology demonstration experiments expanding the on-orbit capabilities of the LOCAD-PTS to detecting three different microbial biomarkers on ISS surfaces. Six different astronauts on more than 20 occasions participated in these experiments, which were designed to test the new beta-glucan (fungal cell wall molecule) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA; Gram-positive bacterial cell wall component) cartridges individually and in tandem with the existing Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL; Gram-negative bacterial LPS detection) cartridges. Additionally, we conducted the sampling side by side with the standard culture-based detection method currently used on the ISS. Therefore, we present data on the distribution of three microbial biomarkers collected from various surfaces in every module present on the ISS at the time of sampling. In accordance with our previous experiments, we determined that spacecraft surfaces known to be frequently in contact with crew members demonstrated higher values of all three microbial molecules. Key Words: Planetary protection-Spaceflight-Microbiology-Biosensor. Astrobiology 12, 830-840.

  12. Lipid Biomarkers and Stable Isotope Signatures of Microbial Mats in Hot Springs of Kamchatka, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanek, C. S.; Mills, G. L.; Jones, M. E.; Paddock, L.; Li, Y.; Zhang, C. L.; Wiegel, J.

    2004-12-01

    Various hot springs of the Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka, were analyzed for their chemical and stable isotope composition to better understand the relationship(s) between thermophilic microorganisms and the environments in which they live. The springs had water temperatures ranging from 40-90\\deg C and pH ranging from 5.6-5.9. Gases that emanated from the springs were composed predominantly of CO2 (20 to 90%), with lesser amounts of CH4, (CO2 fixation pathways, or other unknown mechanisms. Microbial mats were freeze-dried and extracted for lipid biomarker analysis. The lipids were separated into hydrocarbon, sterol, ether lipid, free fatty acid, and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) fractions. Among these fractions, PLFA indicated the community structure and abundance for Bacteria while the ether lipid fraction provided analogous information for Archaea. Results of PLFA showed 16:0 as the most abundant fatty acid (33-44%), which is universal in all living organisms. Other significant biomarkers included 18:1ω (19 to 24%), 18:2ω (5 to 13%), 16:1ω (3 to 12%), and 18:0 (2 to 7%). These biomarkers are characteristic of cyanobacteria, green-sulfur bacteria, and green non-sulfur bacteria, respectively, which are common autotrophic organisms in terrestrial hot springs. On the other hand, biomarkers of heterotrophic bacteria, such as iso- and anteiso-15:0 were low (2-8%), indicating that the bacterial carbon cycle was dominated by autotrophic organisms. Analogous archaeal constituents were present in significant abundance in the ether lipids fraction.

  13. Biomarkers for Primary Sjo¨ gren’s Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiqian Chen; Heng Cao; Jin Lin; Nancy Olsen; Song Guo Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Primary Sjogren’s syndrome (pSS) is a systemic autoimmune disease with exocrine gland dysfunction and multi-organ involvement. Recent progress in understanding the pathogenesis of pSS offers an opportunity to find new biomarkers for the diagnosis and assessment of disease activity. Screening noninvasive biomarkers from the saliva and tears has significant potential. The need for specific and sensitive biomarker candidates in pSS is significant. This review aims to summarize recent advances in the identification of biomarkers of Sjogren syndrome, trying to identify reliable, sensitive, and specific biomarkers that can be used to guide treatment decisions.

  14. Bacterial Protein-Tyrosine Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Lei; Kobir, Ahasanul; Jers, Carsten;

    2010-01-01

    in exopolysaccharide production, virulence, DNA metabolism, stress response and other key functions of the bacterial cell. BY-kinases act through autophosphorylation (mainly in exopolysaccharide production) and phosphorylation of other proteins, which have in most cases been shown to be activated by tyrosine......Bacteria and Eukarya share essentially the same family of protein-serine/threonine kinases, also known as the Hanks-type kinases. However, when it comes to protein-tyrosine phosphorylation, bacteria seem to have gone their own way. Bacterial protein-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases) are bacterial...... and highlighted their importance in bacterial physiology. Having no orthologues in Eukarya, BY-kinases are receiving a growing attention from the biomedical field, since they represent a particularly promising target for anti-bacterial drug design....

  15. Molecular approaches for bacterial azoreductases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montira Leelakriangsak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Azo dyes are the dominant types of synthetic dyes, widely used in textiles, foods, leather, printing, tattooing, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. Many microorganisms are able to decolorize azo dyes, and there is increasing interest in biological waste treatment methods. Bacterial azoreductases can cleave azo linkages (-N=N- in azo dyes, forming aromatic amines. This review mainly focuses on employing molecular approaches, including gene manipulation and recombinant strains, to study bacterial azoreductases. The construction of the recombinant protein by cloning and the overexpression of azoreductase is described. The mechanisms and function of bacterial azoreductases can be studied by other molecular techniques discussed in this review, such as RT-PCR, southern blot analysis, western blot analysis, zymography, and muta-genesis in order to understand bacterial azoreductase properties, function and application. In addition, understanding the regulation of azoreductase gene expression will lead to the systematic use of gene manipulation in bacterial strains for new strategies in future waste remediation technologies.

  16. Influences of floral composition and environment on plant biomarkers across a Cretaceous landscape (Big Cedar Ridge)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, R. T.; Diefendorf, A. F.; Wing, S. L.; McInerney, F. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Late Cretaceous fossil site at Big Cedar Ridge (BCR; late Campanian, 72.7 Ma), located in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA, contains a flora preserved in situ in a volcanic ash tuff over an organic-rich paleosol. The BCR flora is irregularly but extensively exposed along a ~4 km north-south transect and records a lowland flora that grew on a coastal delta on the western shore of the Cretaceous Interior Seaway (Meeteetse Formation). The transect spans a diverse landscape and a range of environmental gradients from very carbon-rich, swampy soils in the southern portion to less carbon-rich in the north; the landscape is also intersected by multiple inactive channel cuts that were filling with sediment and organic matter at the time of ash deposition. Recently Wing and others (2012, Ecological Monographs) described the composition of the local plant community at high resolution across the entire landscape, including identification and quantification of cover and richness for >122 taxonomic morphotypes, for each of 100 sites along the transect. Big Cedar Ridge captures an important time in the ecological development of plant communities: the site preserves ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms in 'fern thicket' floral assemblages, which are rare today, as well as disturbed habitats with abundant herbaceous 'dicot' angiosperms. During the Late Cretaceous angiosperms were globally increasing in abundance, displacing other plant groups as vegetational dominants. This setting allows for a novel analysis of plant biomarkers in the context of floral diversity, abundance, and landscape heterogeneity. We quantified leaf waxes (n-alkyl lipids), plant-derived terpenoids, bacterial hopanes, carbon isotope values (including bulk and compound-specific), and percent total organic carbon of the underlying paleosol for 36 sites along the transect in order to assess the influence of floral composition and soil environment on biomarker distributions and preservation. We compare lipid

  17. Developing Outcomes Assessments as Endpoints for Registrational Clinical Trials of Antibacterial Drugs: 2015 Update From the Biomarkers Consortium of the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, George H; Powers, John H; Hoffmann, Steven C

    2016-03-01

    One important component in determining the benefits and harms of medical interventions is the use of well-defined and reliable outcome assessments as endpoints in clinical trials. Improving endpoints can better define patient benefits, allowing more accurate assessment of drug efficacy and more informed benefit-vs-risk decisions; another potential plus is facilitating efficient trial design. Since our first report in 2012, 2 Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Biomarkers Consortium Project Teams have continued to develop outcome assessments for potential uses as endpoints in registrational clinical trials of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. In addition, the teams have initiated similar work in the indications of hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia. This report provides an update on progress to date in these 4 diseases. PMID:26668337

  18. Bacterial diversity in sediments of core MD05-2902 from the Xisha Trough, the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tao; WANG Peng

    2014-01-01

    A sediment core MD05-2902 was collected from the deep-sea basin of the Xisha Trough. The vertical dis-tribution and diversity of bacteria in the core was investigated through ten sub-sampling with an interval of 1 m using bacterial 16S rRNA gene as a phylogenetic bio-marker. Eighteen phylogenetic groups were identified from 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. The dominant bacterial groups were JS1, Planctomycetes and Chloroflexi, which accounted for 30.6%, 16.6%, and 15.6%of bacterial clones in the libraries, respectively. In order to reveal the relationship between biotic and abiotic data, a nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis was performed. The result revealed that theδ15N,δ13C, total organic carbon and total organic ni-trogen possibly influenced the bacterial community structure. This study expanded our knowledge of the biogeochemical cycling in the Xisha Trough sediment.

  19. Positioning of bacterial chemoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher W; Armitage, Judith P

    2015-05-01

    For optimum growth, bacteria must adapt to their environment, and one way that many species do this is by moving towards favourable conditions. To do so requires mechanisms to both physically drive movement and provide directionality to this movement. The pathways that control this directionality comprise chemoreceptors, which, along with an adaptor protein (CheW) and kinase (CheA), form large hexagonal arrays. These arrays can be formed around transmembrane receptors, resulting in arrays embedded in the inner membrane, or they can comprise soluble receptors, forming arrays in the cytoplasm. Across bacterial species, chemoreceptor arrays (both transmembrane and soluble) are localised to a variety of positions within the cell; some species with multiple arrays demonstrate this variety within individual cells. In many cases, the positioning pattern of the arrays is linked to the need for segregation of arrays between daughter cells on division, ensuring the production of chemotactically competent progeny. Multiple mechanisms have evolved to drive this segregation, including stochastic self-assembly, cellular landmarks, and the utilisation of ParA homologues. The variety of mechanisms highlights the importance of chemotaxis to motile species.

  20. Evolution of Bacterial Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernookov, Martin; Nemenman, Ilya

    2013-03-01

    While active, controlled cellular suicide (autolysis) in bacteria is commonly observed, it has been hard to argue that autolysis can be beneficial to an individual who commits it. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that bacterial autolysis is evolutionarily advantageous to an individualand would fixate in physically structured environments for stationary phase colonies. We perform spatially resolved agent-based simulations of the model, which predict that lower mixing in the environment results in fixation of a higher autolysis rate from a single mutated cell, regardless of the colony's genetic diversity. We argue that quorum sensing will fixate as well, even if initially rare, if it is coupled to controlling the autolysis rate. The model does not predict a strong additional competitive advantage for cells where autolysis is controlled by quorum sensing systems that distinguish self from nonself. These predictions are broadly supported by recent experimental results in B. subtilisand S. pneumoniae. Research partially supported by the James S McDonnell Foundation grant No. 220020321 and by HFSP grant No. RGY0084/2011.

  1. Electromagnetism of Bacterial Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainiwaer, Ailiyasi

    2011-10-01

    There has been increasing concern from the public about personal health due to the significant rise in the daily use of electrical devices such as cell phones, radios, computers, GPS, video games and television. All of these devices create electromagnetic (EM) fields, which are simply magnetic and electric fields surrounding the appliances that simultaneously affect the human bio-system. Although these can affect the human system, obstacles can easily shield or weaken the electrical fields; however, magnetic fields cannot be weakened and can pass through walls, human bodies and most other objects. The present study was conducted to examine the possible effects of bacteria when exposed to magnetic fields. The results indicate that a strong causal relationship is not clear, since different magnetic fields affect the bacteria differently, with some causing an increase in bacterial cells, and others causing a decrease in the same cells. This phenomenon has yet to be explained, but the current study attempts to offer a mathematical explanation for this occurrence. The researchers added cultures to the magnetic fields to examine any effects to ion transportation. Researchers discovered ions such as potassium and sodium are affected by the magnetic field. A formula is presented in the analysis section to explain this effect.

  2. Microparticles as Potential Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    França, Carolina Nunes, E-mail: carolufscar24@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Santo Amaro - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira; Amaral, Jônatas Bussador do; Tegani, Daniela Melo; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein [Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is a choice of great relevance because of its impact on health. Some biomarkers, such as microparticles derived from different cell populations, have been considered useful in the assessment of cardiovascular disease. Microparticles are released by the membrane structures of different cell types upon activation or apoptosis, and are present in the plasma of healthy individuals (in levels considered physiological) and in patients with different pathologies. Many studies have suggested an association between microparticles and different pathological conditions, mainly the relationship with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, the effects of different lipid-lowering therapies have been described in regard to measurement of microparticles. The studies are still controversial regarding the levels of microparticles that can be considered pathological. In addition, the methodologies used still vary, suggesting the need for standardization of the different protocols applied, aiming at using microparticles as biomarkers in clinical practice.

  3. Models of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Biomarker Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagi, Cedo M., E-mail: cedo.bagi@pfizer.com; Andresen, Catharine J. [Global Science & Technology, PGRD, Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT 06340 (United States)

    2010-07-07

    The overwhelming need to improve preclinical models in oncology has stimulated research efforts to refine and validate robust orthotopic models that closely mimic the disease population and therefore have the potential to better predict clinical outcome with novel therapies. Sophisticated technologies including bioluminescence, contrast enhanced ultrasound imaging, positron emission tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been added to existing serum- and histology-based biomarkers to assist with patient selection and the design of clinical trials. The rationale for the use of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, implementation of xenograft and orthotopic animal models and utilization of available biomarkers have been discussed, providing guidelines to facilitate preclinical research for the development of treatments for HCC patients.

  4. Biomarkers for Lupus Nephritis: A Critical Appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Chiu Mok

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney disease is one of the most serious manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Despite the improvement in the medical care of SLE in the past two decades, the prognosis of lupus nephritis remains unsatisfactory. Besides exploring more effective but less toxic treatment modalities that will further improve the remission rate, early detection and treatment of renal activity may spare patients from intensive immunosuppressive therapies and reduce renal damage. Conventional clinical parameters such as creatinine clearance, proteinuria, urine sediments, anti-dsDNA, and complement levels are not sensitive or specific enough for detecting ongoing disease activity in the lupus kidneys and early relapse of nephritis. Thus, novel biomarkers are necessary to enhance the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity of lupus renal disease, prognostic stratification, monitoring of treatment response, and detection of early renal flares. This paper reviews promising biomarkers that have recently been evaluated in longitudinal studies of lupus nephritis.

  5. HCC Biomarkers in China and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina M. Santella

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    A number of different types of biomarkers have been used to understand the etiology and progression of hepatocellular cancer (HCC. Perhaps the most well known are the serum/ plasma markers of HBV or HCV infection. These markers include analysis of viral DNA or proteins or antibodies produced against the viral proteins. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg is most frequently used to determine chronic infection with high or low viral replication, while HBeAg is a measure of chronic infection with high viral replication. Analysis of antibodies includes measurement of anti-HBV core antigen, anti-HBV e antigen and anti-HBsAg. The response to immunization can be monitored by analysis of anti-HBsAg. The other major classes of biomarkers used in studies of HCC are biomarkers of exposure to environmental, lifestyle or dietary carcinogens, biomarkers of oxidative stress and early biologic response. In addition, studies of genetic susceptibility have studied polymorphisms in a number of pathways and their role in HCC risk. The biomarkers of exposure include the measurement of carcinogens in urine and carcinogen-DNA and protein adducts. Examples are measurement of aflatoxin and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites, and DNA and protein adducts.

    Biomarkers of oxidative stress include urinary isoprostanes and 8-oxodeoxyguanosine and oxidized plasma proteins. Most of these assays are immunologic although the use of high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC as well as gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS have been utilized. In nested case-control studies, many of these markers are associated with elevated risk. For example, elevated aflatoxin and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-albumin adducts, aflatoxin metabolites in urine and urinary isoprostanes were observed in baseline samples from

  6. Biomarkers for rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheul, M K; Fearon, U; Trouw, L A; Veale, D J

    2015-11-01

    Rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis are systemic inflammatory conditions characterized by a chronic form of arthritis, often leading to irreversible joint damage. Early treatment for patients with rheumatic diseases is required to reduce or prevent joint injury. However, early diagnosis can be difficult and currently it is not possible to predict which individual patient will develop progressive erosive disease or who may benefit from a specific treatment according to their clinical features at presentation. Biomarkers are therefore required to enable earlier diagnosis and predict prognosis in both rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. In this review we will examine the evidence and current status of established and experimental biomarkers in rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis for three important purposes; disease diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of response to therapy.

  7. Models of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Biomarker Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overwhelming need to improve preclinical models in oncology has stimulated research efforts to refine and validate robust orthotopic models that closely mimic the disease population and therefore have the potential to better predict clinical outcome with novel therapies. Sophisticated technologies including bioluminescence, contrast enhanced ultrasound imaging, positron emission tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been added to existing serum- and histology-based biomarkers to assist with patient selection and the design of clinical trials. The rationale for the use of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, implementation of xenograft and orthotopic animal models and utilization of available biomarkers have been discussed, providing guidelines to facilitate preclinical research for the development of treatments for HCC patients

  8. Methylated genes as new cancer biomarkers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, M J

    2012-02-01

    Aberrant hypermethylation of promoter regions in specific genes is a key event in the formation and progression of cancer. In at least some situations, these aberrant alterations occur early in the formation of malignancy and appear to be tumour specific. Multiple reports have suggested that measurement of the methylation status of the promoter regions of specific genes can aid early detection of cancer, determine prognosis and predict therapy responses. Promising DNA methylation biomarkers include the use of methylated GSTP1 for aiding the early diagnosis of prostate cancer, methylated PITX2 for predicting outcome in lymph node-negative breast cancer patients and methylated MGMT in predicting benefit from alkylating agents in patients with glioblastomas. However, prior to clinical utilisation, these findings require validation in prospective clinical studies. Furthermore, assays for measuring gene methylation need to be standardised, simplified and evaluated in external quality assurance programmes. It is concluded that methylated genes have the potential to provide a new generation of cancer biomarkers.

  9. Biomarker Records Associated with Mass Extinction Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Jessica H.; Grice, Kliti

    2016-06-01

    The history of life on Earth is punctuated by a series of mass extinction episodes that vary widely in their magnitude, duration, and cause. Biomarkers are a powerful tool for the reconstruction of historical environmental conditions and can therefore provide insights into the cause and responses to ancient extinction events. In examining the five largest mass extinctions in the geological record, investigators have used biomarkers to elucidate key processes such as eutrophy, euxinia, ocean acidification, changes in hydrological balance, and changes in atmospheric CO2. By using these molecular fossils to understand how Earth and its ecosystems have responded to unusual environmental activity during these extinctions, models can be made to predict how Earth will respond to future changes in its climate.

  10. Biomarkers of Barrett’s esophagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasser; Mahrous; Fouad; Ibrahim; Mostafa; Reem; Yehia; Hisham; El-Khayat

    2014-01-01

    Barrett’s esophagus is the strongest risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma(EAC). Metaplasia in patients with BE may progress to dysplasia and then invasive carcinoma. Well-defined diagnostic, progressive, predictive, and prognostic biomarkers are needed to identify the presence of the disease, estimate the risk of malignant transformation, and predict the therapeutic outcome and survival of EAC patients. There are many predictive and prognostic markers that lack substantial validation, and do not allow stratification of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease in clinical practice for outcome and effectiveness of therapy. In this short review we summarize the current knowledge regarding possible biomarkers, focusing on the pathophysiologic mechanisms to improve prognostic and therapeutic approaches.

  11. Current and emerging breast cancer biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer treatment has experienced several advancements in the past few decades with the discovery of specific predictive and prognostic biomarkers that make possible the application of individualized therapies. In addition to traditional prognostic factors of breast carcinoma, molecular biomarkers have played a significant role in tumor prediction and treatment. The most frequent genetic alterations of breast cancer are gained along chromosome 1q, 8q, 17q, 20q, and 11q and losses along 8p, 13q, 16q, 18q, and 11q. Interestingly, many of these chromosomal fragments harbor known proto oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes such as BRCA1, BRCA2, p53, HER2-neu, cyclin D1, and cyclin E, which are briefly described in this review.

  12. Fibrosis biomarkers in workers exposed to MWCNTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatkhutdinova, Liliya M; Khaliullin, Timur O; Vasil'yeva, Olga L; Zalyalov, Ramil R; Mustafin, Ilshat G; Kisin, Elena R; Birch, M Eileen; Yanamala, Naveena; Shvedova, Anna A

    2016-05-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with their unique physico-chemical properties offer numerous technological advantages and are projected to drive the next generation of manufacturing growth. As MWCNT have already found utility in different industries including construction, engineering, energy production, space exploration and biomedicine, large quantities of MWCNT may reach the environment and inadvertently lead to human exposure. This necessitates the urgent assessment of their potential health effects in humans. The current study was carried out at NanotechCenter Ltd. Enterprise (Tambov, Russia) where large-scale manufacturing of MWCNT along with relatively high occupational exposure levels was reported. The goal of this small cross-sectional study was to evaluate potential biomarkers during occupational exposure to MWCNT. All air samples were collected at the workplaces from both specific areas and personal breathing zones using filter-based devices to quantitate elemental carbon and perform particle analysis by TEM. Biological fluids of nasal lavage, induced sputum and blood serum were obtained from MWCNT-exposed and non-exposed workers for assessment of inflammatory and fibrotic markers. It was found that exposure to MWCNTs caused significant increase in IL-1β, IL6, TNF-α, inflammatory cytokines and KL-6, a serological biomarker for interstitial lung disease in collected sputum samples. Moreover, the level of TGF-β1 was increased in serum obtained from young exposed workers. Overall, the results from this study revealed accumulation of inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers in biofluids of workers manufacturing MWCNTs. Therefore, the biomarkers analyzed should be considered for the assessment of health effects of occupational exposure to MWCNT in cross-sectional epidemiological studies. PMID:26902652

  13. Biomarkers of Mercury Exposure in the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Nathália Santos Serrão de Castro; Marcelo de Oliveira Lima

    2014-01-01

    Mercury exposure in the Amazon has been studied since the 1980s decade and the assessment of human mercury exposure in the Amazon is difficult given that the natural occurrence of this metal is high and the concentration of mercury in biological samples of this population exceeds the standardized value of normality established by WHO. Few studies have focused on the discovery of mercury biomarkers in the region's population. In this way, some studies have used genetics as well as immunologica...

  14. Biomarkers for early detection of sickle nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Sundaram, Nambirajan; Bennett, Michael; Wilhelm, Jamie; Kim, Mi-Ok; Atweh, George; Devarajan, Prasad; Malik, Punam

    2011-01-01

    Renal complications affect nearly 30–50% of adults with sickle cell anemia (SCA), causing significant morbidity and mortality. Standard renal function tests like serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate become abnormal in this disease only when renal damage has become extensive and largely irreversible. Moreover, not all patients develop sickle nephropathy (SN). Therefore, noninvasive biomarkers that predict early onset of SN are necessary. We performed a cross-sectional analysis for n...

  15. Network-based drugs and biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erler, Janine Terra; Linding, Rune

    2010-01-01

    The structure and dynamics of protein signalling networks governs cell decision processes and the formation of tissue boundaries. Complex diseases such as cancer and diabetes are diseases of such networks. Therefore approaches that can give insight into how these networks change during disease...... associated technologies. We then focus on the multivariate nature of cellular networks and how this has implications for biomarker and drug discovery using cancer metastasis as an example....

  16. Evidence from Biomarkers and Surrogate Endpoints

    OpenAIRE

    Feigin, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The use of physiological, anatomical, and other biological tests is commonplace in the practice of medicine. In neurology, objectively measured tests termed biomarkers (BMs) are playing an increasing role in diagnosis and management of disease, both in clinical practice and in experimental therapeutics. This article will discuss the various applications of BMs to the assessment of therapies for neurological diseases and will use examples from neurological diseases to elucidate the st...

  17. Bayesian methods for proteomic biomarker development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Hernández

    2015-12-01

    In this review we provide an introduction to Bayesian inference and demonstrate some of the advantages of using a Bayesian framework. We summarize how Bayesian methods have been used previously in proteomics and other areas of bioinformatics. Finally, we describe some popular and emerging Bayesian models from the statistical literature and provide a worked tutorial including code snippets to show how these methods may be applied for the evaluation of proteomic biomarkers.

  18. Do We Need Biomarkers for Disc Degeneration?

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Helen E.; Edward N. Hanley, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Disc degeneration plays a major role in this country's medical, social and economic structure. The life-time prevalence of low back pain, which has disc degeneration as its cause, is about 80% in the general population. It is a primary cause of disability and estimated costs related to low back disorders exceed $100 billion per year in the U.S. alone. Biomarkers are becoming increasingly important as indicators of the presence of disease, and in evaluating outcomes during clinical treatment. ...

  19. New serum biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash C Chadha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA is currently used as a biomarker for diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (CaP. However, PSA typically lacks the sensitivity and specificity desired of a diagnostic marker. Objective: The goal of this study was to identify an additional biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that is more sensitive and specific than PSA in differentiating benign versus malignant prostate disease and/or localized CaP versus metastatic CaP. Methods: Concurrent measurements of circulating interleukin-8 (IL-8, Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 (sTNFR1 were obtained from four groups of men: (1 Controls (2 with elevated prostate-specific antigen with a negative prostate biopsy (elPSA_negBx (3 with clinically localized CaP and (4 with castration resistant prostate cancer. Results: TNF-α Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.93 and sTNFR1 (AUC = 0.97 were strong predictors of elPSA_negBx (vs. CaP. The best predictor of elPSA_negBx vs CaP was sTNFR1 and IL-8 combined (AUC = 0.997. The strongest single predictors of localized versus metastatic CaP were TNF-α (AUC = 0.992 and PSA (AUC = 0.963 levels. Conclusions: The specificity and sensitivity of a PSA-based CaP diagnosis can be significantly enhanced by concurrent serum measurements of IL-8, TNF-α and sTNFR1. In view of the concerns about the ability of PSA to distinguish clinically relevant CaP from indolent disease, assessment of these biomarkers in the larger cohort is warranted.

  20. New serum biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Kailash C.; Miller, Austin; Nair, Bindukumar B.; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Trump, Donald L.; Underwood, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker for diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (CaP). However, PSA typically lacks the sensitivity and specificity desired of a diagnostic marker. Objective The goal of this study was to identify an additional biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that is more sensitive and specific than PSA in differentiating benign versus malignant prostate disease and/or localized CaP versus metastatic CaP. Methods Concurrent measurements of circulating interleukin-8 (IL-8), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 (sTNFR1) were obtained from four groups of men: (1) Controls (2) with elevated prostate-specific antigen with a negative prostate biopsy (elPSA_negBx) (3) with clinically localized CaP and (4) with castration resistant prostate cancer. Results TNF-α Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.93) and sTNFR1 (AUC = 0.97) were strong predictors of elPSA_negBx (vs. CaP). The best predictor of elPSA_negBx vs CaP was sTNFR1 and IL-8 combined (AUC = 0.997). The strongest single predictors of localized versus metastatic CaP were TNF-α (AUC = 0.992) and PSA (AUC = 0.963) levels. Conclusions The specificity and sensitivity of a PSA-based CaP diagnosis can be significantly enhanced by concurrent serum measurements of IL-8, TNF-α and sTNFR1. In view of the concerns about the ability of PSA to distinguish clinically relevant CaP from indolent disease, assessment of these biomarkers in the larger cohort is warranted. PMID:25593898

  1. Sleep electroencephalography as a biomarker in depression

    OpenAIRE

    Steiger, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Axel Steiger, Marcel Pawlowski, Mayumi Kimura Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany Abstract: The sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) provides biomarkers of depression, which may help with diagnosis, prediction of therapy response, and prognosis in the treatment of depression. In patients with depression, characteristic sleep EEG changes include impaired sleep continuity, disinhibition of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and impaired non-REM sleep. Most antidepressants suppress REM...

  2. Biomarker in der Osteologie: Aktueller Stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieglmayer C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboruntersuchungen helfen Ursachen von Osteopathien aufzudecken und Geschwindigkeit und Bilanz des Knochenumbaus zu beurteilen. Diese Faktoren können durch Resorptions- und Anbaumarker erfaßt werden. Für einige Marker haben wir geschlechtsspezifische Referenzbereiche evaluiert. Die Konzentrationsveränderungen zirkulierender Biomarker zeigen Erfolg oder Mißerfolg von osteoprotektiven Therapien erheblich rascher an als densitometrische Messungen. Die zur Interpretation von Verlaufsbeobachtungen wichtigen kleinsten signifikanten Änderungen der Markerspiegel liegen zwischen 15 % und 60%.

  3. Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eRiverol

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common form of dementia in the elderly, and it is characterized by progressive impairment in multiple cognitive domains of sufficient severity to interfere with individuals’ daily living activities. Historically, the diagnosis of AD has been based on the identification of a clinical syndrome, and accuracy studies of the current clinical criteria conducted in referral clinics have shown high sensitivity for AD. However, the identification of the disease is still not perfect, and there is growing evidence that the use of biomarkers will increase our ability to better indentify the underlying biology of AD, especially in its early stages. These biomarkers will improve the detection of the patients suitable for research studies and drug trials, and they will contribute to a better management of the disease in the clinical practice. In this review, we discuss the most studied biomarkers in AD: cerebrospinal fluid proteins, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, functional neuroimaging techniques, and amyloid imaging.

  4. Nanostructured optical microchips for cancer biomarker detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianhua; He, Yuan; Wei, Jianjun; Que, Long

    2012-01-01

    Herein we report the label-free detection of a cancer biomarker using newly developed arrayed nanostructured Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) microchips. Specifically, the prostate cancer biomarker free prostate-specific antigen (f-PSA) has been detected with a mouse anti-human PSA monoclonal antibody (mAb) as the receptor. Experiments found that the limit-of-detection of current nanostructured FPI microchip for f-PSA is about 10 pg/mL and the upper detection range for f-PSA can be dynamically changed by varying the amount of the PSA mAb immobilized on the sensing surface. The control experiments have also demonstrated that the immunoassay protocol used in the experiments shows excellent specificity and selectivity, suggesting the great potential to detect the cancer biomarkers at trace levels in complex biofluids. In addition, given its nature of low cost, simple-to-operation and batch fabrication capability, the arrayed nanostructured FPI microchip-based platform could provide an ideal technical tool for point-of-care diagnostics application and anticancer drug screen and discovery.

  5. Biomarkers for early detection of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Robert C

    2010-09-01

    The existence of an effective biomarker for early detection of Alzheimer disease would facilitate improved diagnosis and stimulate therapeutic trials. Multidisciplinary clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease is time consuming and expensive and relies on experts who are rarely available outside of specialty clinics. Thus, many patients do not receive proper diagnosis until the disease has progressed beyond stages in which treatments are maximally effective. In the clinical trial setting, rapid, cost-effective screening of patients for Alzheimer disease is of paramount importance for the development of new treatments. Neuroimaging of cortical amyloid burden and volumetric changes in the brain and assessment of protein concentrations (eg, β-amyloid 1-42, total tau, phosphorylated tau) in cerebrospinal fluid are diagnostic tools that are not widely available. Known genetic markers do not provide sufficient discriminatory power between different forms of dementia to be useful in isolation. Recent studies using panels of biomarkers for diagnosis of Alzheimer disease or mild cognitive impairment have been promising, though no such studies have been cross-validated in independent samples of subjects. The ideal biomarker enabling early detection of Alzheimer disease has not yet been identified.

  6. Copeptin as a biomarker in cardiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Georgios; Deftereos, Spyridon; Panagopoulou, Vasiliki; Kossyvakis, Charalambos; Kaoukis, Andreas; Bouras, Georgios; Pyrgakis, Vlassios; Cleman, Michael W

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of biochemical biomarkers in the evaluation of patients with cardiovascular disease has led to practice-changing advancements in the way these patients are diagnosed and managed. Measurements of cardiac troponins or brain-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its precursor, N-terminal brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), have become indispensable in the evaluation of patients with acute coronary syndromes and heart failure, respectively, constituting an integral part of the diagnostic algorithm and risk stratification of these conditions. Copeptin, a glycopeptide, part of the prehormone molecule of the antidiuretic hormone - or arginine-vasopressin - has shown considerable promise in this field. There is evidence that copeptin might be useful as a diagnostic or prognostic biomarker and risk-stratifier in a range of cardiovascular disease conditions. The main clinical scenarios where copeptin has been studied as a biomarker are: early rule-out of myocardial infarction in patients with acute chest pain, diagnosis of heart failure in patients with acute dyspnea and determining the prognosis of destabilized or chronic stable heart failure. The present review is aimed at providing concise information about the molecular structure and biosynthesis of copeptin, the available medical chemistry methods of quantification, and the potential clinical uses of this molecule in patients with heart disease.

  7. The importance of biomarkers in neonatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussap, M; Noto, A; Cibecchini, F; Fanos, V

    2013-02-01

    Despite a 35% decline in the mortality rate for infants aged years over the past two decades, every year nearly 40% of all deaths in this age group occur in the neonatal period, defined as the first 28 days of life. New knowledge on molecular and biochemical pathways in neonatal diseases will lead to the discovery of new candidate biomarkers potentially useful in clinical practice. In the era of personalized medicine, biomarkers may play a strategic role in accelerating the decline in neonatal mortality by assessing the risk of developing neonatal diseases, by implementing tailored therapeutic treatment, and by predicting the clinical outcome. However, there is an urgent need to reduce the gap in translating newly acquired knowledge from bench to bedside. Traditional and candidate biomarkers for neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis will be discussed in this review, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), serum amyloid A (SAA), soluble form of CD14 subtype presepsin (sCD14-ST), lipolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), angiopoietins (Ang)-1 and -2, soluble form of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (sTREM-1), soluble form of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), platelet-activating factor (PAF) and calprotectin. New frontiers in managing critically ill newborns may be opened by metabolomics, a diagnostic tool based on the recognition of metabolites contained in biological fluids. Metabolomics represents the passage from a descriptive science to a predictive science, having the potential to translate benchtop research to real clinical benefits. PMID:23164809

  8. Biomarkers and Pharmacogenetics in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunhai Xu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate identification and validation of biomarkers as well as pharmacogenetics are important in formulating patient-oriented, individualized chemotherapy or biological therapy in cancer patients. These markers can be especially valuable in pancreatic cancer, where high mortality and complex disease biology are frequently encountered. Recently, several advances have been made to further our knowledge in this specific area of pancreatic cancer. In the 2011 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO Annual Meeting, researchers have presented several interesting results in biomarkers development: the identifications of 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that is associated with positive efficacy of gemcitabine (Abstract #4022; the introduction of circulating tumor cells as a prognostic markers in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (Abstract #e14657; the re-affirmation of plasma cytidine deaminase (CDA as a positive predictive markers for gemcitabine efficacy, as well as the postulations that CDA*3 as a potential genotype marker to predict gemcitabine responses (Abstract #e14645; and finally the retrospective tumor tissues analysis in the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internistische Onkologie (AIO trial in an attempt for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR pathway biomarker identifications (Abstract #4047

  9. Biomarkers for cardiac cachexia: reality or utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Telma; Vitorino, Rui; Amado, Francisco; Duarte, José Alberto; Ferreira, Rita

    2014-09-25

    Cardiac cachexia is a serious complication of chronic heart failure, characterized by significant weight loss and body wasting. Chronic heart failure-related muscle wasting results from a chronic imbalance in the activation of anabolic or catabolic pathways, caused by a series of immunological, metabolic, and neurohormonal processes. In spite of the high morbidity and mortality associated to this condition, there is no universally accepted definition or specific biomarkers for cardiac cachexia, which makes its diagnosis and treatment difficult. Several hormonal, inflammatory and oxidative stress molecules have been proposed as serological markers of prognosis in cardiac cachexia but with doubtful success. As individual biomarkers may have limited sensitivity and specificity, multimarker strategies involving mediators of the biological processes modulated by cardiac cachexia will strongly contribute for the diagnosis and management of the disease, as well as for the establishment of new therapeutic targets. An integrated analysis of the biomarkers proposed so far for cardiac cachexia is made in the present review, highlighting the biological processes to which they are related. PMID:24978823

  10. Biological features and biomarkers in hepatocellularcarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Similar to other cancers, a multistep process of carcinogenesisis observed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Although the mechanisms underlying the developmentof HCC have been investigated in terms of oncology,virology, and stem cell biology, the whole picture ofhepatocarcinogenesis remains to be elucidated. Recentprogress in molecular biology has provided clues tothe underlying cause of various diseases. In particular,sequencing technologies, such as whole genome andexome sequencing analyses, have made an impacton genomic research on a variety of cancers includingHCC. Comprehensive genomic analyses have detectednumerous abnormal genetic alterations, such asmutations and copy number alterations. Based on thesefindings, signaling pathways and cancer-related genesinvolved in hepatocarcinogenesis could be analyzed indetail. Simultaneously, a number of novel biomarkers,both from tissue and blood samples, have been recentlyreported. These biomarkers have been successfullyapplied to early diagnosis and prognostic prediction ofpatients with HCC. In this review, we focus on the recentdevelopments in molecular cancer research on HCC andexplain the biological features and novel biomarkers.

  11. Saliva: A diagnostic biomarker of periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Priti Basgauda; Patil, Basgauda Ramesh

    2011-10-01

    Early detection of disease plays a crucial role in successful therapy. Early diagnosis and management reduces the severity and possible complications of the disease process. To overcome this challenge, medical researchers are devoted to finding molecular disease biomarkers that reveal a hidden lethal threat before the disease becomes complicated. Saliva, an important physiologic fluid, containing a highly complex mixture of substances, is rapidly gaining popularity as a diagnostic tool. Periodontal disease is a chronic disease of the oral cavity comprising a group of inflammatory conditions affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. In the field of periodontology, traditional clinical criteria are often insufficient for determining sites of active disease, for monitoring the response to therapy, or for measuring the degree of susceptibility to future disease progression. Saliva, as a mirror of oral and systemic health, is a valuable source for clinically relevant information because it contains biomarkers specific for the unique physiologic aspects of periodontal diseases. This review highlights the various potentials of saliva as a diagnostic biomarker for periodontal diseases.

  12. A photoacoustic immunoassay for biomarker detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunfei; Cao, Mingfeng; McClelland, John F; Shao, Zengyi; Lu, Meng

    2016-11-15

    Challenges in protein biomarker analysis include insufficient sensitivity for detecting low-abundance biomarkers, poor measurement reproducibility, and the high costs and large footprints of detection systems. To address these issues, a new detection modality was developed for analyzing protein biomarkers based on the plasmon-enhanced photoacoustic (PA) effect. The detection modality employed a heterogeneous immunoassay scheme and used gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as the signal reporter. Due to their localized plasmon resonance, AuNPs can strongly interact with intensity-modulated laser excitation and generate strong PA signals, which are subsequently sensed and quantified using a microphone. As an example, the performance of the PA immunoassay was evaluated by detecting the human interleukin 8 chemokine. The PA immunoassay provided approximately 143× lower limit of detection (LOD) than observed with the gold standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay - a decrease from 23pg/mL to 0.16pg/mL. In addition to the significant performance improvement in terms of the LOD, the PA immunoassay also offers advantages in terms of compatibility with low-cost instruments and the long-term stability of assay results. PMID:27183276

  13. Feeding ecology of mesopelagic zooplankton of the subtropical and subarctic North Pacific Ocean determined with fatty acid biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. E.; Steinberg, D. K.; Chu, F.-L. E.; Bishop, J. K. B.

    2010-10-01

    Mesopelagic zooplankton may meet their nutritional and metabolic requirements in a number of ways including consumption of sinking particles, carnivory, and vertical migration. How these feeding modes change with depth or location, however, is poorly known. We analyzed fatty acid (FA) profiles to characterize zooplankton diet and large particle (>51 μm) composition in the mesopelagic zone (base of euphotic zone -1000 m) at two contrasting time-series sites in the subarctic (station K2) and subtropical (station ALOHA) Pacific Ocean. Total FA concentration was 15.5 times higher in zooplankton tissue at K2, largely due to FA storage by seasonal vertical migrators such as Neocalanus and Eucalanus. FA biomarkers specific to herbivory implied a higher plant-derived food source at mesotrophic K2 than at oligotrophic ALOHA. Zooplankton FA biomarkers specific to dinoflagellates and diatoms indicated that diatoms, and to a lesser extent, dinoflagellates were important food sources at K2. At ALOHA, dinoflagellate FAs were more prominent. Bacteria-specific FA biomarkers in zooplankton tissue were used as an indicator of particle feeding, and peaks were recorded at depths where known particle feeders were present at ALOHA (e.g., ostracods at 100-300 m). In contrast, depth profiles of bacterial FA were relatively constant with depth at K2. Diatom, dinoflagellate, and bacterial biomarkers were found in similar proportions in both zooplankton and particles with depth at both locations, providing additional evidence that mesopelagic zooplankton consume sinking particles. Carnivory indices were higher and increased significantly with depth at ALOHA, and exhibited distinct peaks at K2, representing an increase in dependence on other zooplankton for food in deep waters. Our results indicate that feeding ecology changes with depth as well as by location. These changes in zooplankton feeding ecology from the surface through the mesopelagic zone, and between contrasting environments

  14. Vegetation differences and diagenetic changes between two Bulgarian lignite deposits - Insights from coal petrology and biomarker composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdravkov, A.; Bechtel, A.; Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Kortenski, J.; Gratzer, R. [University of Mining & Geology St Ivan Rilski, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-03-15

    In this study, we review the petrographic composition and biomarker assemblage of two adjacent basins in western Bulgaria, i.e. Beli Breg and Staniantsi basins. Both contain lignite formed during late Miocene (c. 6 Ma). Despite similar tectonic settings and depositional environments, the lignite seams possess different petrographic and organic geochemical characteristics, reflecting differences in the peat forming palaeo-communities and fades variations. The peat-forming vegetation in Bell Breg Basin was dominated by decay resistant coniferous plants, as indicated by abundant fossil wood remains, very good tissue preservation and a biomarker assemblage dominated by diterpenoids. In contrast, Staniantsi lignite is poor in fossil wood and contains a significant amount of triterpenoid biomarkers, suggesting the predominance of angiosperm plants in the swamp. The results of the biomarker analyses are consistent with palaeobotanical and palynological data from the literature. The lignite seams in both basins formed under frequently changing Eh conditions, as indicated by the severe degradation of the non-gymnosperm tissues, the low gelification index values and the variations in pristane/phytane ratio, probably as a result of seasonal drying of the swamps and changes of the ground water table. Hopanoid contents in Bell Breg lignite are very low and are consistent with the abundance of decay-resistant vegetation. In contrast, bacterial activity was obviously higher in the Staniantsi swamp, however, resulting only in slightly enhanced gelification of plant tissues. The geochemical data suggest that the diagenetic changes of the organic matter were mainly governed by thermal degradation, rather than bacterial activity.

  15. Translation of neurological biomarkers to clinically relevant platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ronald L; Robinson, Gillian; Muller, Uwe; Wang, Kevin K W

    2009-01-01

    Like proteomics more generally, neuroproteomics has recently been linked to the discovery of biochemical markers of central nervous system (CNS) injury and disease. Although neuroproteomics has enjoyed considerable success in discovery of candidate biomarkers, there are a number of challenges facing investigators interested in developing clinically useful platforms to assess biomarkers for damage to the CNS. These challenges include intrinsic physiological complications such as the blood-brain barrier. Effective translation of biomarkers to clinical practice also requires development of entirely novel pathways and product development strategies. Drawing from lessons learned from applications of biomarkers to traumatic brain injury, this study outlines major elements of such a pathway. As with other indications, biomarkers can have three major areas of application: (1) drug development; (2) diagnosis and prognosis; (3) patient management. Translation of CNS biomarkers to practical clinical platforms raises a number of integrated elements. Biomarker discovery and initial selection needs to be integrated at the earliest stages with components that will allow systematic prioritization and triage of biomarker candidates. A number of important criteria need to be considered in selecting clinical biomarker candidates. Development of proof of concept assays and their optimization and validation represent an often overlooked feature of biomarker translational research. Initial assay optimization should confirm that assays can detect biomarkers in relevant clinical samples. Since access to human clinical samples is critical to identification of biomarkers relevant to injury and disease as well as for assay development, design of human clinical validation studies is an important component of translational biomarker research platforms. Although these clinical studies share much in common with clinical trials for assessment of drug therapeutic efficacy, there are a number of

  16. Lipids and Molecular Tools as Biomarkers in Monitoring Air Sparging Bioremediation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heipieper, Hermann J.; Fischer, Janett

    2010-05-01

    The fluctuation of membrane lipids offers a promising tool as biomarkers for the analysis of microbial population changes as well as for the physiological status of micro-organisms. The investigation of changes in lipid composition is of common use for the assessment of physiological conditions in pure cultures. However, as lipid composition does not show drastic diversity among living organisms the use of lipids as biomarkers in mixed cultures and environmental samples has certain limitations. Therefore, special marker phospholipid fatty acids as well as modern statistical analysis of the results are necessary to receive certain information about the qualitative and quantitative changes of e.g. a soil microflora due to a contamination with organic compounds and its bioremediation. The use of lipids as biomarker in monitoring bioremediation are shown at the Hradčany site, a former Russian air force base in the Czech Republic that operated until 1990. In this time in an area of 32 ha soil and groundwater were contaminated with kerosene and BTEX compounds in an amount of 7,150 tons. This highly contaminated site is treated with the so-called air sparging method to clean-up the contamination by aerobic biodegradation. The results of PLFA analysis demonstrated a community shift to a gram-negative bacterial biomass with time. The results, including a principal component analysis (PCA) of the obtained fatty acid profiles, showed that the air sparging leads to substantial differences in microbial communities depending on the contamination levels and length of treatment, respectively. Obviously, the length of air sparging treatment controlling the BTEX concentration in soils causes temporal changes of bacterial community and adaptations of its respective members. This work was supported by the project BIOTOOL (Contract No. 003998) of the European Commission within its Sixth Framework Programme. Kabelitz N., Machackova J., Imfeld G., Brennerova M., Pieper D.H., Heipieper H

  17. Carbon sources in the Beaufort Sea revealed by molecular lipid biomarkers and compound specific isotope analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Tolosa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular lipid biomarkers (hydrocarbons, alcohols, sterols and fatty acids and compound specific isotope analysis of suspended particulate organic matter (SPM and surface sediments of the Mackenzie Shelf and slope (Southeast Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean, were studied in summer 2009. The concentrations of the molecular lipid markers, characteristic of known organic matter sources, were grouped and used as proxies to evaluate the relative importance of fresh algal, detrital algal, fossil, C3 terrestrial plants, bacterial and zooplankton material in the sedimentary organic matter (OM.

    Fossil and detrital algal contributions were the major fractions of the freshwater SPM from the Mackenzie River with ~34% each of the total molecular biomarkers. Fresh algal, C3 terrestrial, bacterial and zooplanktonic components represented much lower percentages, 17, 10, 4 and < 1%, respectively. In marine SPM from the Mackenzie slope, the major contributions were fresh and detrital algal components (> 80% with a minor contribution of fossil and C3 terrestrial biomarkers. Characterization of the sediments revealed a major sink of refractory algal material mixed with some fresh algal material, fossil hydrocarbons and a small input of C3 terrestrial sources. In particular, the sediments from the shelf and at the mouth of the Amundsen Gulf presented the highest contribution of detrital algal material (60–75% whereas those from the slope contained the highest proportion of fossil (40% and C3 terrestrial plant material (10%. Overall, considering that the detrital algal material is marine derived, autochthonous sources contributed more than allochthonous sources to the OM lipid pool. Using the ratio of an allochthonous biomarker (normalized to total organic carbon, TOC found in the sediments to those measured at the river mouth water, we estimated that the fraction of terrestrial material preserved in the

  18. Bacterial Communities: Interactions to Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbendieck, Reed M.; Vargas-Bautista, Carol; Straight, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    In the environment, bacteria live in complex multispecies communities. These communities span in scale from small, multicellular aggregates to billions or trillions of cells within the gastrointestinal tract of animals. The dynamics of bacterial communities are determined by pairwise interactions that occur between different species in the community. Though interactions occur between a few cells at a time, the outcomes of these interchanges have ramifications that ripple through many orders of magnitude, and ultimately affect the macroscopic world including the health of host organisms. In this review we cover how bacterial competition influences the structures of bacterial communities. We also emphasize methods and insights garnered from culture-dependent pairwise interaction studies, metagenomic analyses, and modeling experiments. Finally, we argue that the integration of multiple approaches will be instrumental to future understanding of the underlying dynamics of bacterial communities. PMID:27551280

  19. Bacterial Communities: Interactions to Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed M. Stubbendieck

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the environment, bacteria live in complex multispecies communities. These communities span in scale from small, multicellular aggregates to billions or trillions of cells within the gastrointestinal tract of animals. The dynamics of bacterial communities are determined by pairwise interactions that occur between different species in the community. Though interactions occur between a few cells at a time, the outcomes of these interchanges have ramifications that ripple through many orders of magnitude, and ultimately affect the macroscopic world including the health of host organisms. In this review we cover how bacterial competition influences the structures of bacterial communities. We also emphasize methods and insights garnered from culture-dependent pairwise interaction studies, metagenomic analyses, and modeling experiments. Finally, we argue that the integration of multiple approaches will be instrumental to future understanding of the underlying dynamics of bacterial communities.

  20. Biomarker evidence for Archean oxygen fluxes (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmann, C.; Waldbauer, J.; Sherman, L. S.; Summons, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    Knowledge of deep-time organismic diversity may be gained from the study of preserved sedimentary lipids with taxonomic specificity, i.e. biomarker hydrocarbons (e.g. Brocks and Summons, 2003; Waldbauer et al., 2009). As a consequence of long residence times and high thermal maturities however, biomarker concentrations are extremely low in most ancient (Precambrian) sediment samples, making them exceptionally prone to contamination during drilling, sampling and laboratory workup (e.g. Brocks et al., 2008). Outcrop samples most always carry a modern overprint and deep-time biogeochemistry thus relies on drilling operations to retrieve ‘clean’ sediment cores. One such effort was initiated by NASA’s Astrobiology Institute (NAI): the Archean biosphere drilling project (ABDP). We here report on the lipids retrieved from sediment samples in drill hole ABDP-9. Strong heterogeneities of extractable organic matter - both on a spatial scale and in free- vs. mineral-occluded bitumen - provide us with an opportunity to distinguish indigenous lipids from contaminants introduced during drilling. Stratigraphic trends in biomarker data for mineral-occluded bitumens are complementary to previously reported data (e.g. S- and N-isotopes, molybdenum enrichments) from ABDP-9 sediments (Anbar et al., 2007; Kaufman et al., 2007; Garvin et al., 2009) and suggest periodic fluxes of oxygen before the great oxidation event. Anbar et al. A whiff of oxygen before the great oxidation event. Science 317 (2007), 1903-1906. Brocks & Summons. Sedimentary hydrocarbons, biomarkers for early life. In: Schlesinger (Ed.) Treatise on Geochemistry, Vol. 8 (2003), 63-115. Brocks et al. Assessing biomarker syngeneity using branched alkanes with quaternary carbon (BAQCs) and other plastic contaminants. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72 (2008), 871-888. Garvin et al. Isotopic evidence for a aerobic nitrogen cycle in the latest Archean. Science 323 (2009), 1045-1048. Kaufman et al. Late Archean

  1. Meningitis bacteriana Bacterial meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Alvarado Guevara

    2006-03-01

    causales son virales lo cual conlleva a las diferentes sub-clasificaciones. También en ciertos casos puede ser ocasionada por hongos, bacterias atípicas, micobacterias y parásitos.In Costa Rica the bacterial meningitis had turn into a high-priority subject in which to monitoring epidemiologist. It had been talked about in the last months, to dice an increase in the attention is published of this subject, due to this phenomenon it becomes necessary to make a revision of topic. Meningitis is an inflammation of leptomeninges and colonization of the subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid (LCR due to different agents, which produces meningeal symptoms (ex. migraine, neck rigidity, and photophobia and pleocytosis in LCR. De pending on the variables to take into account is possible to group it in different classifications, taking into account the time of evolution are possible to be divided in acute or chronic, to first with few hours or days of beginning of the symptoms, whereas the chronicle also presents a silence course but of the disease of approximately 4 weeks of instauration. There is a difference according to its etiologic agent; they can be infectious and non-infectious. Examples of common non-infectious causes include medications (ex, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and antibiotics and carcinomatosis. A classification exists as well according to the causal agent. The acute bacterial meningitis remarks a bacterial origin of the syndrome, which characterizes by the by an acute onset of meningeal symptoms and neutrophilic pleocytosis. Each one of the bacteriological agents, parasitic or fungus finishes by characterizing the different presentations of the clinical features (ex, meningocóccica meningitis, Cryptococcus meningitis. Finally, there is also the aseptic meningitis, denominated in this form because it’s nonpyogenic cellular response caused by many types of agents. The patients show an acute beginning of symptoms, fever and lymphocytic pleocytosis. After

  2. Stable-Carbon-Isotope Composition of Fatty Acids in Hydrothermal Vent Mussels Containing Methanotrophic and Thiotrophic Bacterial Endosymbionts

    OpenAIRE

    Pond, David W; Bell, Michael V; Dixon, David R.; Fallick, Anthony E.; Segonzac, Michel; Sargent, John R.

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acid biomarker analysis coupled with gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of methanotrophic and thiotrophic bacterial endosymbionts in the tissues of a hydrothermal vent mussel (Bathymodiolus sp.), collected from the Menez Gwen vent field on the mid-Atlantic ridge. Monounsaturated (n-8) fatty acids, which are diagnostic of methanotrophic bacteria, were detected in all three types of tissues examined (gill, posterior adductor, and mantle), a...

  3. Bacterial Culture of Neonatal Sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    AH Movahedian; R Moniri; Z Mosayebi

    2006-01-01

    Neonatal bacterial sepsis is one of the major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. This retrospective study was performed to determine the incidence of bacterial sepsis with focus on Gram negative organisms in neonates admitted at Beheshti Hospital in Kashan, during a 3-yr period, from September 2002 to September 2005. Blood culture was performed on all neonates with risk factors or signs of suggestive sepsis. Blood samples were cultured using brain heart infusion (BHI) broth accordi...

  4. Mast cells in bacterial infections

    OpenAIRE

    Rönnberg, Elin

    2014-01-01

    Mast cells are implicated in immunity towards bacterial infection, but the molecular mechanisms by which mast cells contribute to the host response are only partially understood. Previous studies have examined how mast cells react to purified bacterial cell wall components, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide. To investigate how mast cells react to live bacteria we co-cultured mast cells and the gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus equi (S. equi) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)...

  5. Bacterial Alkaloids Prevent Amoebal Predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapper, Martin; Götze, Sebastian; Barnett, Robert; Willing, Karsten; Stallforth, Pierre

    2016-07-25

    Bacterial defense mechanisms have evolved to protect bacteria against predation by nematodes, predatory bacteria, or amoebae. We identified novel bacterial alkaloids (pyreudiones A-D) that protect the producer, Pseudomonas fluorescens HKI0770, against amoebal predation. Isolation, structure elucidation, total synthesis, and a proposed biosynthetic pathway for these structures are presented. The generation of P. fluorescens gene-deletion mutants unable to produce pyreudiones rendered the bacterium edible to a variety of soil-dwelling amoebae. PMID:27294402

  6. Bacterial cellulose/boehmite composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composites based on bacterial cellulose membranes and boehmite were obtained. SEM results indicate that the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes are totally covered by boehmite and obtained XRD patterns suggest structural changes due to this boehmite addition. Thermal stability is accessed through TG curves and is dependent on boehmite content. Transparency is high comparing to pure BC as can be seen through UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. (author)

  7. A dual-readout chemiluminescent-gold lateral flow test for multiplex and ultrasensitive detection of disease biomarkers in real samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiping; Sun, Jiashu; Xianyu, Yunlei; Yin, Binfeng; Niu, Yajing; Wang, Songbai; Cao, Fengjing; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-08-18

    Even though the gold lateral flow test (GLFT) is low-cost and allows for point-of-care testing (POCT), its intrinsic limitations including low sensitivity and incapability of quantification significantly hinder the clinical application of GLFT for assaying disease biomarkers. To improve the performance of the GLFT without sacrificing its simplicity, we develop a chemiluminescent-gold lateral flow test (C-mode GLFT) for quantitative and multiplex detection of disease biomarkers with an ultrahigh sensitivity at a picomolar level. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and antibody (Ab) are simultaneously labeled onto the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to achieve a dual-readout (chemiluminescent and visual, C&V-mode GLFT). A red color appears at the test line caused by the accumulation of captured AuNPs in the presence of targets, while HRP on the surface of AuNPs catalyzes the chemiluminescence reaction of luminol to amplify the signal. C-mode GLFT is successfully used for detecting tumor biomarkers (alpha fetoprotein, AFP, and carcino embryonic antigen, CEA) and bacterial infection biomarkers (procalcitonin, PCT) in serum samples as well as whole blood. The excellent features of C-mode GLFT such as straightforward operation, ultrahigh sensitivity and quantitative detection, make it a promising platform for POCT of a variety of disease biomarkers in real samples. PMID:27375054

  8. Comparative Genomics Reveals Biomarkers to Identify Lactobacillus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Shikha; Kalia, Vipin Chandra

    2016-09-01

    Bacteria possessing multiple copies of 16S rRNA (rrs) gene demonstrate high intragenomic heterogeneity. It hinders clear distinction at species level and even leads to overestimation of the bacterial diversity. Fifty completely sequenced genomes belonging to 19 species of Lactobacillus species were found to possess 4-9 copies of rrs each. Multiple sequence alignment of 268 rrs genes from all the 19 species could be classified into 20 groups. Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis TMW 1.1304 was the only species where all the 7 copies of rrs were exactly similar and thus formed a distinct group. In order to circumvent the problem of high heterogeneity arising due to multiple copies of rrs, 19 additional genes (732-3645 nucleotides in size) common to Lactobacillus genomes, were selected and digested with 10 Type II restriction endonucleases (RE), under in silico conditions. The following unique gene-RE combinations: recA (1098 nts)-HpyCH4 V, CviAII, BfuCI and RsaI were found to be useful in identifying 29 strains representing 17 species. Digestion patterns of genes-ruvB (1020 nts), dnaA (1368 nts), purA (1290 nts), dnaJ (1140 nts), and gyrB (1944 nts) in combination with REs-AluI, BfuCI, CviAI, Taq1, and Tru9I allowed clear identification of an additional 14 strains belonging to 8 species. Digestion pattern of genes recA, ruvB, dnaA, purA, dnaJ and gyrB can be used as biomarkers for identifying different species of Lactobacillus. PMID:27407290

  9. A REVIEW OF 3200 CASES 0F HERNIATED LUMBAR DISC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ALIMOHAMMADI

    1987-05-01

    Full Text Available I t 1S a t t emted t o reV1ew 3200 c a s e s of herniat ed lumbar d isc t o point out the i ndic a tions for ope ra t i o n , the value o f myelog raphy . t he r esult o f ope rat ion and the caus e s o f comp l i cat i ons . We believe tha t myelography s houl d be performed i n a l most a ll patients. I n ne a rl y"n96 .8 pe rcent of cases my e l o grams co r r e s pond to clinical f i ndings. In general when there is clear s igns and s ympt oms of dis c disease , con fi rmed r adiolo gically, i n the hand of an e xpo r t surgeon. in 93 percent the result will be excel e nt .

  10. Seroprevalence 0f Dengue Virus Infection in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, B P; S.K. Mishra; K. D. Manandhar; R. Malla; C S Tamarakar; P P Raut; S.K. Sah; Pokhrel, S; R Rauniyar; A. Bajaracharya

    2013-01-01

    Dengue Virus infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease. It is a global health problem and its expanding endemicity towards new territories is a serious concern. Relatively a new disease in Nepalese context, dengue abruptly appeared as massive outbreak in 2010, merely four years after its first introduction. It is a nagging public health problem in the low lands of Terai, expanding to new areas of Nepal in recent years. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine anti-Dengue IgM ...

  11. Seroprevalence 0f Dengue Virus Infection in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B P Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue Virus infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease. It is a global health problem and its expanding endemicity towards new territories is a serious concern. Relatively a new disease in Nepalese context, dengue abruptly appeared as massive outbreak in 2010, merely four years after its first introduction. It is a nagging public health problem in the low lands of Terai, expanding to new areas of Nepal in recent years. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine anti-Dengue IgM positive rate in Lumbini, Dhading and Chitwan district. The study was carried from June 2012 to November 2012. The total number of Serum samples was collected from 275 patients visiting hospitals with history of fever, headache and suspected DF. The samples were examined by ELISA. The anti-Dengue IgM positivity was found to be 29.09 %. The positive rate was highest in Dhading (70.37% followed by Bharatpur (37.6% and Lumbini (11.38%. The Dengue positive cases were higher in males (32.5 % than female (24.8 %. The highest positive cases (41.6% were from age group less than 15 years. Dengue has substantial expansion in Western and Far Western Terai region of Nepal which was limited to the middle Terai region in the past and mostly infects older people.

  12. Marketing 2.0 für Medizinbibliotheken

    OpenAIRE

    Obst, O

    2007-01-01

    For medical libraries marketing and public relations are essential factors, which are important for strategic planning. They positively affect the imbedding into the organization and the customer relationship. The decrease of the information monopoly, the flood of information and the increasing competition strengthen the necessity for marketing activities. Fundamental principles of marketing and public relations are described and illustrated with examples from the Branch Library of Medicine a...

  13. Circulating Cytokines as Biomarkers of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeshwara N. Achur; Freeman, Willard M.; Vrana, Kent E.

    2009-01-01

    There are currently no consistent objective biochemical markers of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Development of reliable diagnostic biomarkers that permit accurate assessment of alcohol intake and patterns of drinking is of prime importance to treatment and research fields. Diagnostic biomarker development in other diseases has demonstrated the utility of both open, systems biology, screening for biomarkers and more rational focused efforts on specific biomolecules or families of biomolecules...

  14. Biomarker Discovery by Novel Sensors Based on Nanoproteomics Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fuentes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, proteomics has facilitated biomarker discovery by coupling high-throughput techniques with novel nanosensors. In the present review, we focus on the study of label-based and label-free detection systems, as well as nanotechnology approaches, indicating their advantages and applications in biomarker discovery. In addition, several disease biomarkers are shown in order to display the clinical importance of the improvement of sensitivity and selectivity by using nanoproteomics approaches as novel sensors.

  15. Biomarkers and Personalized Therapy in Lower Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Treatment of IBS and lower functional gastrointestinal disorders is still based predominantly on symptoms; biomarkers that reflect the mechanism or pathophysiology have been identified. Given the diverse mechanisms that result in the same clinical phenotype of IBS, it is hypothesized that identification of biomarkers may lead to individualization of medical therapy. Aim To review the biomarkers that have been appraised in IBS. Methods A single author reviewed the published literature on biomarkers appraised in IBS. Results The current literature suggests that these biomarkers are insufficiently sensitive or specific to differentiate IBS from health or from other diseases causing similar symptoms, such as celiac disease or inflammatory bowel disease. Most of the proposed biomarkers are not actionable, that is, they do not lead to an efficacious therapy based on the biological inference of the biomarker itself. However, among proposed biomarkers in IBS, some are actionable, as they specifically reflect a quantitative difference in a mediator of dysfunction or result in a quantifiable disturbance of function that can be specifically treated. Such biomarkers may potentially identify relevant subgroups that respond to specific therapy. The most promising actionable biomarkers are measurement of colonic transit (leading to treatments that reverse the abnormal transit) and measurements of bile acid diarrhea to identify responders to bile acid sequestrants. Conclusions Therefore, although biomarkers are not ready for prime time as diagnostic tests in IBS, some biomarkers could identify subgroups of patients with IBS for inclusion in clinical trials that target specific dysfunctions. Such an approach may enhance treatment efficacy, and may ultimately help reduce costs in drug development and in the management of patients in clinical practice. PMID:26264216

  16. Emerging Risk Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Diseases and Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2015-01-01

    Present review article highlights various cardiovascular risk prediction biomarkers by incorporating both traditional risk factors to be used as diagnostic markers and recent technologically generated diagnostic and therapeutic markers. This paper explains traditional biomarkers such as lipid profile, glucose, and hormone level and physiological biomarkers based on measurement of levels of important biomolecules such as serum ferritin, triglyceride to HDLp (high density lipoproteins) ratio, l...

  17. The Combined Detection of Morphological and Molecular Biomarkers: Implications for Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toporski, J.; Steele, A.; Westall, F.; McKay, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    Experience gathered by previous researchers during their hunt for evidence of early Earth life has shown the complexity in interpreting observations of possible microfossils and to establish the evidence to be positive. Similarly, the stillsimmering controversy on the nature of the nano-structures in Martian meteorite ALH84001 described by McKay et al. (1996) emphasizes the difficulties of conclusively identifying those structures as (a) fossilized bacterial cells and (b) establish their indigeneity. A better understanding of biological signatures in rocks is needed in order to identify traces of microbial life, which include morphological, mineralogical and chemical traces. It is thus considered crucial to tackle the problems emerging in the search for evidence of early life on Earth and in exopaleontological research with a multidisciplinary approach. With this is mind we applied surface sensitive Time of Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) to a previously described 25 m.y. old fossil bacterial biofilm. This technique allows in situ analysis with high mass resolution as well as molecular imaging of micron sized structures. As no extraction or derivatisation of the sample is required for ToF-SIMS analysis, electron microscopical investigation of the same samples subsequent to analysis is possible, thus allowing the combination of molecular and morphological biomarkers. The analysed fossil bacterial biofilms were associated with macrofossils from volcanoclastic lacustrine sediments from the Upper Oligocene Enspel formation (Germany). Preliminary scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies have shown that a fossil structure interpreted as a coprolite purely consisted of fossilized bacterial biofilm. For ToF-SIMS investigation small particles were taken from the fossil biofilm and mounted onto Au-coated In-foil and analysed in a Phi Evans T-2000 TRIFT system. The ToF-SIMS analysed samples were Au/Pd-sputter coated and imaged using a Philips XL40 Field

  18. Sparse discriminant analysis for breast cancer biomarker identification and classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Shi; Daoqing Dai; Chaochun Liu; Hong Yan

    2009-01-01

    Biomarker identification and cancer classification are two important procedures in microarray data analysis. We propose a novel uni-fied method to carry out both tasks. We first preselect biomarker candidates by eliminating unrelated genes through the BSS/WSS ratio filter to reduce computational cost, and then use a sparse discriminant analysis method for simultaneous biomarker identification and cancer classification. Moreover, we give a mathematical justification about automatic biomarker identification. Experimental results show that the proposed method can identify key genes that have been verified in biochemical or biomedical research and classify the breast cancer type correctly.

  19. YKL-40: a new biomarker in cardiovascular disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Henningsen, Kristoffer Mads Aaris; Harutyunyan, Marina Jurjevna;

    2010-01-01

    . But in spite of improved treatments, many patients are still plagued by a high frequency of angina symptoms, hospitalizations and a poor prognosis. There is a need for new independent or supplementary biomarkers that can help to predict cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events earlier and more...... precisely, and thus accompany existing biomarkers in both primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention. One such potential new biomarker is the protein YKL-40. As an independent biomarker in both cardiovascular diseases and noncardiovascular diseases, current evidence suggests YKL-40 to be most useful...

  20. Acute kidney injury in children: Enhancing diagnosis with novel biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Nkachukwu Uwaezuoke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This narrative review aims to appraise the sensitivity and specificity of novel biomarkers in identifying acute kidney injury (AKI in children. Serum creatinine represents a poor traditional biomarker for AKI due to some limitations. Although alternative reliable biomarkers that would better identify individuals at high risk for developing AKI, identify AKI early enough, monitor its progression and patients' recovery, as well as identify those patients at higher risk for poor outcomes are not yet available in renal care, the search-light has recently been focused on various novel biomarkers, some of which could provide this information in time ahead. Several studies have established their predictive value. However, none of them could solely fulfill all the criteria of the ideal biomarker. Therefore, to increase their sensitivity and specificity and enhance the diagnosis of AKI, constellations of different biomarkers with specific features are probably required. In future, the diagnostic evaluation of AKI in intensive care units will have to undergo a paradigm shift from serum creatinine as the traditional biomarker to tissue-specific injury biomarkers. A panel of these novel biomarkers employed at the bedside setting will ultimately revolutionize the diagnosis and prognostication of AKI in children.

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in neurological diseases in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahim, Pashtun; Månsson, Jan-Eric; Darin, Niklas; Zetterberg, Henrik; Mattsson, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers is an integral part of neurology. Basic CSF biomarkers, such as CSF/serum albumin ratio and CSF cell counts, have been used to diagnose inflammatory and infectious CNS disorders in adults and children for decades. During recent years, however, numerous biomarkers for neuronal and astroglial injury, as well as disease-specific protein inclusions, have been developed for neurodegenerative disorders in adults. The overall aim of this paper is to give an updated overview of some of these biomarkers with special focus on their possible relevance to neurological disorders in children and adolescents.

  2. The economics of cardiac biomarker testing in suspected myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodacre, Steve; Thokala, Praveen

    2015-03-01

    Suspected myocardial infarction (MI) is a common reason for emergency hospital attendance and admission. Cardiac biomarker measurement is an essential element of diagnostic assessment of suspected MI. Although the cost of a routinely available biomarker may be small, the large patient population and consequences in terms of hospital admission and investigation mean that the economic impact of cardiac biomarker testing is substantial. Economic evaluation involves comparing the estimated costs and effectiveness (outcomes) of two or more interventions or care alternatives. This process creates some difficulties with respect to cardiac biomarkers. Estimating the effectiveness of cardiac biomarkers involves identifying how they help to improve health and how we can measure this improvement. Comparison to an appropriate alternative is also problematic. New biomarkers may be promoted on the basis of reducing hospital admission or length of stay, but hospital admission for low risk patients may incur significant costs while providing very little benefit, making it an inappropriate comparator. Finally, economic evaluation may conclude that a more sensitive biomarker strategy is more effective but, by detecting and treating more cases, is also more expensive. In these circumstances it is unclear whether we should use the more effective or the cheaper option. This article provides an introduction to health economics and addresses the specific issues relevant to cardiac biomarkers. It describes the key concepts relevant to economic evaluation of cardiac biomarkers in suspected MI and highlights key areas of uncertainty and controversy. PMID:25173750

  3. The Human Vaginal Bacterial Biota and Bacterial Vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Srinivasan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial biota of the human vagina can have a profound impact on the health of women and their neonates. Changes in the vaginal microbiota have been associated with several adverse health outcomes including premature birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of HIV infection. Cultivation-independent molecular methods have provided new insights regarding bacterial diversity in this important niche, particularly in women with the common condition bacterial vaginosis (BV. PCR methods have shown that women with BV have complex communities of vaginal bacteria that include many fastidious species, particularly from the phyla Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Healthy women are mostly colonized with lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, and Lactobacillus iners, though a variety of other bacteria may be present. The microbiology of BV is heterogeneous. The presence of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae coating the vaginal epithelium in some subjects with BV suggests that biofilms may contribute to this condition.

  4. Autologous Blood Transfusion in Sports: Emerging Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamin, Olivier; De Angelis, Sara; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Saugy, Martial; Leuenberger, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Despite being prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency, blood doping through erythropoietin injection or blood transfusion is frequently used by athletes to increase oxygen delivery to muscles and enhance performance. In contrast with allogeneic blood transfusion and erythropoietic stimulants, there is presently no direct method of detection for autologous blood transfusion (ABT) doping. Blood reinfusion is currently monitored with individual follow-up of hematological variables via the athlete biological passport, which requires further improvement. Microdosage is undetectable, and suspicious profiles in athletes are often attributed to exposure to altitude, heat stress, or illness. Additional indirect biomarkers may increase the sensitivity and specificity of the longitudinal approach. The emergence of "-omics" strategies provides new opportunities to discover biomarkers for the indirect detection of ABT. With the development of direct quantitative methods, transcriptomics based on microRNA or messenger RNA expression is a promising approach. Because blood donation and blood reinfusion alter iron metabolism, quantification of proteins involved in metal metabolism, such as hepcidin, may be applied in an "ironomics" strategy to improve the detection of ABT. As red blood cell (RBC) storage triggers changes in membrane proteins, proteomic methods have the potential to identify the presence of stored RBCs in blood. Alternatively, urine matrix can be used for the quantification of the plasticizer di(2-ethyhexyl)phthalate and its metabolites that originate from blood storage bags, suggesting recent blood transfusion, and have an important degree of sensitivity and specificity. This review proposes that various indirect biomarkers should be applied in combination with mathematical approaches for longitudinal monitoring aimed at improving ABT detection. PMID:27260108

  5. Salivary biomarkers for detection of systemic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilminie Rathnayake

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Analysis of inflammatory biomarkers in saliva could offer an attractive opportunity for the diagnosis of different systemic conditions specifically in epidemiological surveys. The aim of this study was to investigate if certain salivary biomarkers could be used for detection of common systemic diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomly selected sample of 1000 adults living in Skåne, a county in the southern part of Sweden, was invited to participate in a clinical study of oral health. 451 individuals were enrolled in this investigation, 51% women. All participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire, history was taken, a clinical examination was made and stimulated saliva samples were collected. Salivary concentrations of IL-1β, -6, -8, TNF-α, lysozyme, MMP-8 and TIMP-1 were determined using ELISA, IFMA or Luminex assays. RESULTS: Salivary IL-8 concentration was found to be twice as high in subjects who had experience of tumour diseases. In addition, IL-8 levels were also elevated in patients with bowel disease. MMP-8 levels were elevated in saliva from patients after cardiac surgery or suffering from diabetes, and muscle and joint diseases. The levels of IL-1β, IL-8 and MMP-8, as well as the MMP-8/TIMP-1 ratio were higher in subjects with muscle and joint diseases. CONCLUSION: Biomarkers in saliva have the potential to be used for screening purposes in epidemiological studies. The relatively unspecific inflammatory markers used in this study can not be used for diagnosis of specific diseases but can be seen as markers for increased systemic inflammation.

  6. The Search for Biomarkers in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As population demographic shift and the number of individuals with Alzheimer Disease (AD continue to increase, the challenge is to develop targeted, effective treatments and our ability to recognize early symptoms. In view of this, the need for specific AD biomarker is crucial. CONTENT: In recent years it has become evident that CSF concentrations of some brain-specific proteins are related to underlying disease pathogenesis and may therefore aid clinical investigation. Among several, we have focused on three candidates that have been suggested to fulfil the requirements for biomarkers of AD: β-amyloid 42 (Aβ42, total Tau (T-tau and tau phosphorylated at various epitopes (P-tau. An increasing number of studies suggest that supplementary use of these CSF markers, preferably in combination, adds to the accuracy of an AD diagnosis. More recently visinin-like protein (VLP-1, a marker for neuronal cell injury has been studied. CSF VLP-1 concentrations were 50% higher in AD patients than in the control population. SUMMARY: The number of studies aimed at the identification of new biomarkers for AD is expected to increase rapidly, not only because of the increasing insights into the pathological mechanisms underlying this disease, but also because new therapies have been developed or are under consideration now, which warrant an early and specific diagnosis for effective treatment of the patients. KEYWORDS: dementia, amyloid plaque, neurofibrillary tangels, amyloid β-peptide 42 (Aβ42, total tau (T-tau, phosphorylated tau (P-tau, visinin–like protein 1 (VLP-1.

  7. Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Encephalitis : CSF Biomarkers of SIV Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissel, Stephanie J; Kofler, Julia; Nyaundi, Julia; Murphey-Corb, Michael; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Wiley, Clayton A

    2016-06-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has led to increased survival of HIV-infected patients but also increased prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. We previously identified YKL40 as a potential cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker of lentiviral central nervous system (CNS) disease in HIV-infected patients and in the macaque model of HIV encephalitis. The aim of this study was to define the specificity and sensitivity along with the predictive value of YKL40 as a biomarker of encephalitis and to assess its relationship to CSF viral load. CSF YKL40 and SIV RNA concentrations were analyzed over the course of infection in 19 SIV-infected pigtailed macaques and statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship to encephalitis. Using these relationships, CSF alterations of 31 neuroimmune markers were studied pre-infection, during acute and asymptomatic infection, at the onset of encephalitis, and at necropsy. YKL40 CSF concentrations above 1122 ng/ml were found to be a specific and sensitive biomarker for the presence of encephalitis and were highly correlated with CSF viral load. Macaques that developed encephalitis had evidence of chronic CNS immune activation during early, asymptomatic, and end stages of infection. At the onset of encephalitis, CSF demonstrated a rise of neuroimmune markers associated with macrophage recruitment, activation and interferon response. CSF YKL40 concentration and viral load are valuable biomarkers to define the onset of encephalitis. Chronic CNS immune activation precedes the development of encephalitis while some responses suggest protection from CNS lentiviral disease. PMID:27059917

  8. BIOMARKERS New biomarker for Sjogren's syndrome-time to treat patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, Frans G. M.; Bootsma, Hendrika

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in our understanding of the pathogenesis of primary Sjgren's syndrome (pSS) and the development of indices to measure disease activity in patients with this condition, offer us ample possibilities for treatment with biologic DMARDs. New biomarkers further aid selection of patients wi

  9. A Prototype Biomarker Detector Combining Biomarker Extraction and Fixed Temperature PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Patricia K; Karhade, Aditya V; Bitting, Anna L; Doyle, Andrew; Solinas, Francesca; Wright, David W; Haselton, Frederick R

    2016-08-01

    PCR is the most sensitive molecular diagnostic available for infectious diseases. The goal for low-resource settings is a simple, inexpensive instrument. Toward this goal, we previously published a self-contained sample preparation instrument that uses magnetics and prearrayed reagents in thin tubing to extract nucleic acids and perform isothermal amplification and detection of extracted biomarkers. To incorporate PCR thermal cycling, after biomarker is magnetically extracted from a patient sample, the section of tubing containing the extracted biomarker and PCR reagents is alternately positioned within two constant temperature blocks. This instrument was evaluated initially by extracting and amplifying a 140 bp fragment of the IS6110 sequence of tuberculosis from TE buffer. The mean cycle threshold for 5 × 10(6) copies of IS6110 was 25.5 ± 1.5 cycles (n = 4), which was significantly different from negative control samples (34.0 ± 2.6 cycles; n = 3). Using a more clinically relevant sample, we extracted and amplified Plasmodium falciparum DNA from malaria-infected human blood cultures. The average cycle threshold for 1% parasitemia samples was 24.7 ± 1.5 cycles (n = 3) and significantly different from negatives (31.5 ± 2.1 cycles; n = 3). This approach integrates biomarker extraction, PCR amplification, and detection in a simple, linear tubing design with potential for use as a low-resource instrument. PMID:26920577

  10. Atherosclerosis, biomarkers of atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiolaki, Aidonio; Tsamis, Konstantinos I; Milionis, Haralampos J; Kyritsis, Athanassios P; Kosmidou, Maria; Giannopoulos, Sotirios

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent type of dementia, involving progressive deterioration of neuronal networks. Although the pathophysiological mechanism of AD is not fully elucidated, apart from β-amyloid and tau protein, a diverse number of factors such as cardiovascular risk factors, inflammation, and lipids metabolism may play a significant role. Numerous epidemiological and laboratory studies support vascular injury and inflammation, as key pathological processes. The present review is focused on cardiovascular risk factors, lipids, and circulating biomarkers of inflammation, discussing them as independent mechanisms converging to the same final pathogenetic cascade of AD.

  11. The COPD Biomarker Qualification Consortium (CBQC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casaburi, Richard; Celli, Bartolome; Crapo, James;

    2013-01-01

    industry and academia conducted a workshop to survey the available information that could contribute to new tools. Based on this, a collaborative project, the COPD Biomarkers Qualification Consortium, was initiated. The Consortium in now actively preparing integrated data sets from existing resources......, and no interested party has been in a position to undertake such a process. In order to facilitate the development of novel tools to assess new treatments, the Food and Drug Administration, in collaboration with the COPD Foundation, the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute and scientists from the pharmaceutical...

  12. Cardiac biomarkers in neonatal hypoxic ischaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweetman, D

    2012-04-01

    Following a perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic insult, term infants commonly develop cardiovascular dysfunction. Troponin-T, troponin-I and brain natriuretic peptide are sensitive indicators of myocardial compromise. The long-term effects of cardiovascular dysfunction on neurodevelopmental outcome following perinatal hypoxic ischaemia remain controversial. Follow-up studies are warranted to ensure optimal cardiac function in adulthood. CONCLUSION: Cardiac biomarkers may improve the diagnosis of myocardial injury, help guide management, estimate mortality risk and may also aid in longterm neurodevelopmental outcome prediction following neonatal hypoxic-ischaemia.

  13. Hypermethylated DNA, a Biomarker for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon Ladefoged; Krarup, Henrik Bygum; Sunesen, Kåre Gotschalck;

    2016-01-01

    AIM: In colorectal cancer (CRC), improved methods for early detection are essential for increasing survival. Hypermethylated DNA in blood or stool has been proposed as a biomarker for CRC. In recent years, biochemical methods have improved, and several hypermethylated genes that are sensitive....... In blood samples, hypermethylated P16, HLTF, TMEFF1, ALX4, VIM, and FBN2 were associated with poor prognosis, hypermethylated APC, TAC1, SEPT9, NEUROG1, RASSF1A, SDC2, and THBD were detected in early-stage CRC, and hypermethylated P16 and TFPI2 could detect CRC recurrence. In stool samples, hypermethylated...

  14. Exhaled Breath Condensate for Proteomic Biomarker Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean W. Harshman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Exhaled breath condensate (EBC has been established as a potential source of respiratory biomarkers. Compared to the numerous small molecules identified, the protein content of EBC has remained relatively unstudied due to the methodological and technical difficulties surrounding EBC analysis. In this review, we discuss the proteins identified in EBC, by mass spectrometry, focusing on the significance of those proteins identified. We will also review the limitations surrounding mass spectral EBC protein analysis emphasizing recommendations to enhance EBC protein identifications by mass spectrometry. Finally, we will provide insight into the future directions of the EBC proteomics field.

  15. Device and method for detecting biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Gracia, Fernando; González Fernández, Francisco; Barreda Gómez, Ángela Inmaculada; Díez Ahedo, Ruth; Otaduy del Paso, Deitze; Merino Álvarez, Santos; Fernández Luna, José Luis; Talamillo Cancelo, Ana

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The invention relates to a biosensor for detecting the concentration or quantity of at least one biomarker present in a sample of fluid, said biosensor comprising: a chip having a substrate on which a metal layer has been deposited, said metal layer having at least one nanostructure designed to produce LSPR when subjected to optical radiation of a determined spectral range; and a resonant cavity delimited by two surfaces that act as a mirror, wherein one of the two surfaces is the m...

  16. Hepcidin - A novel biomarker with changing trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunava Kali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepcidin is a novel peptide hormone of hepatic origin. It has a crucial role in iron metabolism. The causative association of this peptide in anemia and iron overloading states has been well established. Current research has expanded the diagnostic implications of hepcidin in other medical conditions. Increased serum hepcidin has been reported in neoplastic diseases, inflammation, and sepsis. However, the clinical use of hepcidin as a biomarker is limited owing to nonavailability of an appropriate diagnostic test. Assays for serum and urine hepcidin estimation have been developed recently, which are likely to facilitate the use of hepcidin in research as well as in patient care in the near future.

  17. Cardiovascular biomarkers in preeclampsia at triage

    OpenAIRE

    Wellmann, Sven; Benzing, Jörg; Fleischlin, Silvia; Morgenthaler, Nils; Fouzas, Sotirios; Bührer, Christoph A; Szinnai, Gabor; Burkhardt, Tilo; Lapaire, Olav

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: o investigate the ability of cardiovascular plasma biomarkers to identify imminent preeclampsia (PE) among pregnant women at triage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: C-terminal pro-arginine vasopressin (copeptin), C-terminal pro-endothelin-1 (CT-proET-1), mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM), and mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) were prospectively measured in pregnant women presenting at the obstetrical triage units of the University Hospitals of Basel and ...

  18. Biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Don D; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Currently, with exception of lung function tests, there are no well validated biomarkers or surrogate endpoints that can be used to establish efficacy of novel drugs for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the lung function test is not an ideal surrogate for short-term drug...... trials because it (1) does not provide information regarding disease activity or the underlying pathologic process, (2) cannot separate the various phenotypes of COPD, (3) is not specific for COPD, and (4) is relatively unresponsive to known therapies that prolong survival. Accordingly, there are large...

  19. Bacterial tactic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, J P

    1999-01-01

    Many, if not most, bacterial species swim. The synthesis and operation of the flagellum, the most complex organelle of a bacterium, takes a significant percentage of cellular energy, particularly in the nutrient limited environments in which many motile species are found. It is obvious that motility accords cells a survival advantage over non-motile mutants under normal, poorly mixed conditions and is an important determinant in the development of many associations between bacteria and other organisms, whether as pathogens or symbionts and in colonization of niches and the development of biofilms. This survival advantage is the result of sensory control of swimming behaviour. Although too small to sense a gradient along the length of the cell, and unable to swim great distances because of buffetting by Brownian motion and the curvature resulting from a rotating flagellum, bacteria can bias their random swimming direction towards a more favourable environment. The favourable environment will vary from species to species and there is now evidence that in many species this can change depending on the current physiological growth state of the cell. In general, bacteria sense changes in a range of nutrients and toxins, compounds altering electron transport, acceptors or donors into the electron transport chain, pH, temperature and even the magnetic field of the Earth. The sensory signals are balanced, and may be balanced with other sensory pathways such as quorum sensing, to identify the optimum current environment. The central sensory pathway in this process is common to most bacteria and most effectors. The environmental change is sensed by a sensory protein. In most species examined this is a transmembrane protein, sensing the external environment, but there is increasing evidence for additional cytoplasmic receptors in many species. All receptors, whether sensing sugars, amino acids or oxygen, share a cytoplasmic signalling domain that controls the activity of a

  20. A proteomic approach for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jesse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The discrimination of bacterial meningitis (BM versus viral meningitis (VM shapes up as a problem, when laboratory data are not equivocal, in particular, when Gram stain is negative. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With the aim to determine reliable marker for bacterial or viral meningitis, we subjected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF to a quantitative proteomic screening. By using a recently established 2D-DIGE protocol which was adapted to the individual CSF flow, we compared a small set of patients with proven BM and VM. Thereby, we identified six potential biomarkers out of which Prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase was already described in BM, showing proof of concept. In the subsequent validation phase on a more comprehensive collective of 80 patients, we could validate that in BM high levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and low levels of soluble amyloid precursor protein alpha/beta (sAPPalpha/beta are present as possible binding partner of Fibulin-1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that our CSF flow-adapted 2D-DIGE protocol is valid especially in comparing samples with high differences in total protein and suppose that GFAP and sAPPalpha/beta have a high potential as additional diagnostic markers for differentiation of BM from VM. In the clinical setting, this might lead to an improved early diagnosis and to an individual therapy.

  1. Canine uterine bacterial infection induces upregulation of proteolysis-related genes and downregulation of homeobox and zinc finger factors.

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    Ragnvi Hagman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial infection with the severe complication of sepsis is a frequent and serious condition, being a major cause of death worldwide. To cope with the plethora of occurring bacterial infections there is therefore an urgent need to identify molecular mechanisms operating during the host response, in order both to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention and to identify biomarkers for disease. Here we addressed this issue by studying global gene expression in uteri from female dogs suffering from spontaneously occurring uterine bacterial infection. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis showed that almost 800 genes were significantly (p2-fold in the uteri of diseased animals. Among these were numerous chemokine and cytokine genes, as well as genes associated with inflammatory cell extravasation, anti-bacterial action, the complement system and innate immune responses, as well as proteoglycan-associated genes. There was also a striking representation of genes associated with proteolysis. Robust upregulation of immunoglobulin components and genes involved in antigen presentation was also evident, indicating elaboration of a strong adaptive immune response. The bacterial infection was also associated with a significant downregulation of almost 700 genes, of which various homeobox and zinc finger transcription factors were highly represented. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, these finding outline the molecular patterns involved in bacterial infection of the uterus. The study identified altered expression of numerous genes not previously implicated in bacterial disease, and several of these may be evaluated for potential as biomarkers of disease or as therapeutic targets. Importantly, since humans and dogs show genetic similarity and develop diseases that share many characteristics, the molecular events identified here are likely to reflect the corresponding situation in humans afflicted by similar disease.

  2. New Treatments for Bacterial Keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L. M. Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review the newer treatments for bacterial keratitis. Data Sources. PubMed literature search up to April 2012. Study Selection. Key words used for literature search: “infectious keratitis”, “microbial keratitis”, “infective keratitis”, “new treatments for infectious keratitis”, “fourth generation fluoroquinolones”, “moxifloxacin”, “gatifloxacin”, “collagen cross-linking”, and “photodynamic therapy”. Data Extraction. Over 2400 articles were retrieved. Large scale studies or publications at more recent dates were selected. Data Synthesis. Broad spectrum antibiotics have been the main stay of treatment for bacterial keratitis but with the emergence of bacterial resistance; there is a need for newer antimicrobial agents and treatment methods. Fourth-generation fluoroquinolones and corneal collagen cross-linking are amongst the new treatments. In vitro studies and prospective clinical trials have shown that fourth-generation fluoroquinolones are better than the older generation fluoroquinolones and are as potent as combined fortified antibiotics against common pathogens that cause bacterial keratitis. Collagen cross-linking was shown to improve healing of infectious corneal ulcer in treatment-resistant cases or as an adjunct to antibiotics treatment. Conclusion. Fourth-generation fluoroquinolones are good alternatives to standard treatment of bacterial keratitis using combined fortified topical antibiotics. Collagen cross-linking may be considered in treatment-resistant infectious keratitis or as an adjunct to antibiotics therapy.

  3. T lymphocyte surface expression of exhaustion markers as biomarkers of the efficacy of chemotherapy for tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao-Tamayo, Marcela; Irwin, Scott M.; Shang, Shaobin; Ordway, Diane; Orme, Ian M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Predictive biomarkers illustrating the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic regimens for tuberculosis still remain elusive. To date, most are predicated on assays using sputum or serum; as a result, if not predictive, treatment failure in patients may not be evident for some time. We report here the results of a simple screening study in which T cell surface markers were examined in mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and then treated with drugs. These studies identified certain markers, the exhaustion markers PD-1 and TIM-3, as well as the marker KLRG-1, particularly on CD8 T cells, that changed in concert with reduction of the bacterial load in the lungs. While there is no guarantee these changes would also be seen on T cells in the blood, this approach should be further investigated. PMID:21530406

  4. Biomarker records and paleoenvironment of the central Arctic Ocean during Paleogene times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, P.; Stein, R.

    2007-12-01

    During IODP Expedition 302 (Arctic Coring Expedition - ACEX), a more than 200 m thick sequence of Paleogene organic-carbon (OC)-rich (black shale-type) sediments has been drilled. Here, we present new biomarker data determined in ACEX sediment samples to decipher processes controlling OC accumulation and their paleo- environmental significance during periods of extreme global warmth and proposed increased freshwater discharge in the early Cenozoic. Specific source-related biomarkers including n-alkanes, fatty acids, isoprenoids, carotenoids, steranes/sterenes, hopanes/hopenes, hopanoic acids, aromatic terpenoids, benzohopanes, long- chain alkenones and organic sulfur compounds show a high variable of compounds, derived from marine, terrestrial and bacterial origin. Based on the biomarker data, the terrestrial OC supply was significantly enriched during the late Paleocene and part of the earliest Eocene, whereas n-alkanes and n-fatty acids in samples from the PETM and Elmo events as well as the middle Eocene indicate increased aquatic contributions. For the latter, an anoxic environment similar to the modern Black Sea, and moderate primary productivity are proposed. The occurrence of C37-alkenenones, which were first determined in the middle part of the Azolla Freshwater Event (about 49 Ma), suggests that significant amounts of the OC is of marine origin during in middle Eocene. During the Eocene, a prominant cooling and onset of first significant IRD deposition near 45.4 Ma were recorded in the terrigenous coarse fraction of the ACEX sequence, related to iceberg and/or sea-ice transport (K. St. John, Paleoceanography, in press). This cooling trend is also reflected in the alkenone SST, showing a temperature decrease of about 10°C between about 49 and 44 Ma.

  5. Procalcitonin: A New Biomarker for Medullary Thyroid Cancer? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis, Apostolos K A; Girio-Fragkoulakis, Constantine; Nakouti, Theodora

    2016-08-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare but aggressive thyroid malignancy. The gold-standard biomarker for its diagnosis and follow-up is calcitonin (CT); however, it has a variable half-life dependent on its circadian variability. It has been suggested that a more stable hormone, procalcitonin (PCT), may overcome these problems and its introduction to routine practice may give more accurate results in the diagnosis and follow-up of MTC. We systematically reviewed Pubmed, Scopus, Biosis Previews and Embase databases up to March 2016. A total of 15 out of 184 articles were retrieved and analyzed. Of these 15 studies, 3 were case reports. In these 15 studies, the values of CT and PCT were assessed in both patients with MTC and patients that were either healthy volunteers or with benign/malignant thyroid nodular disease or with bacterial infection. Our search suggests that PCT seems to be a useful biomarker for the diagnosis and follow-up of MTC when used in conjunction with CT, particularly in a small proportion of tumors that are CT-negative or secrete low levels of CT. So far, there has not been enough data to suggest a specific threshold for normal PCT. However, most studies indicate a value of 0.1 ng/ml as an acceptable cut-off in everyday clinical practice. At present, CT should continue to be the primary biomarker in MTC with the addition of PCT in some patient groups. Nevertheless, larger patient series need to be conducted in order to provide safer and more accurate results. PMID:27466480

  6. Antibiotic resistance of bacterial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoiby, N.; Bjarnsholt, T.; Givskov, M.;

    2010-01-01

    A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein and DNA. Bacterial biofilms cause chronic infections because they show increased tolerance to antibiotics and disinfectant chemicals as well as resisting phagocytosis...... and other components of the body's defence system. The persistence of, for example, staphylococcal infections related to foreign bodies is due to biofilm formation. Likewise, chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients is caused by biofilm-growing mucoid strains....... Characteristically, gradients of nutrients and oxygen exist from the top to the bottom of biofilms and these gradients are associated with decreased bacterial metabolic activity and increased doubling times of the bacterial cells; it is these more or less dormant cells that are responsible for some of the tolerance...

  7. Phylogenetic organization of bacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Ember M; Mau, Rebecca L; Schwartz, Egbert; Caporaso, J Gregory; Dijkstra, Paul; van Gestel, Natasja; Koch, Benjamin J; Liu, Cindy M; Hayer, Michaela; McHugh, Theresa A; Marks, Jane C; Price, Lance B; Hungate, Bruce A

    2016-09-01

    Phylogeny is an ecologically meaningful way to classify plants and animals, as closely related taxa frequently have similar ecological characteristics, functional traits and effects on ecosystem processes. For bacteria, however, phylogeny has been argued to be an unreliable indicator of an organism's ecology owing to evolutionary processes more common to microbes such as gene loss and lateral gene transfer, as well as convergent evolution. Here we use advanced stable isotope probing with (13)C and (18)O to show that evolutionary history has ecological significance for in situ bacterial activity. Phylogenetic organization in the activity of bacteria sets the stage for characterizing the functional attributes of bacterial taxonomic groups. Connecting identity with function in this way will allow scientists to begin building a mechanistic understanding of how bacterial community composition regulates critical ecosystem functions. PMID:26943624

  8. Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing X. Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic compounds are among the most prevalent and persistent pollutants in the environment. Petroleum-contaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and heterocyclic aromatics. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. This review focuses on bacterial degradation pathways of selected aromatic compounds. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene are described in detail. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Bacterial catabolism of alkylated PAHs is summarized, followed by a brief discussion of proteomics and metabolomics as powerful tools for elucidation of biodegradation mechanisms.

  9. Clinical applications of bacterial glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Kelly M; Smith, Jeffrey C; Twine, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing race between bacterial evolution and medical advances. Pathogens have the advantages of short generation times and horizontal gene transfer that enable rapid adaptation to new host environments and therapeutics that currently outpaces clinical research. Antibiotic resistance, the growing impact of nosocomial infections, cancer-causing bacteria, the risk of zoonosis, and the possibility of biowarfare all emphasize the increasingly urgent need for medical research focussed on bacterial pathogens. Bacterial glycoproteins are promising targets for alternative therapeutic intervention since they are often surface exposed, involved in host-pathogen interactions, required for virulence, and contain distinctive glycan structures. The potential exists to exploit these unique structures to improve clinical prevention, diagnosis, and treatment strategies. Translation of the potential in this field to actual clinical impact is an exciting prospect for fighting infectious diseases. PMID:26971465

  10. Bacillus cereus cell response upon exposure to acid environment: towards the identification of potential biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noémie eDESRIAC

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are able to adapt to different environments and evolve rapidly, allowing them to cope with their new environments. Such adaptive response and associated protections towards other lethal stresses, is a crucial survival strategy for a wide spectrum of microorganisms, including food spoilage bacteria, pathogens and organisms used in functional food applications. The growing demand for minimal processed food yields to an increasing use of combination of hurdles or mild preservation factors in the food industry. A commonly used hurdle is low pH which allows the decrease in bacterial growth rate but also the inactivation of pathogens or spoilage microorganisms. Bacillus cereus is a well-known food-borne pathogen leading to economical and safety issues in food industry. Because survival mechanisms implemented will allow bacteria to cope with environmental changes, it is important to provide understanding of B. cereus stress response. Thus this review deals with the adaptive traits of B. cereus cells facing to acid stress conditions. The acid stress response of B. cereus could be divided into four groups (i general stress response (ii pH homeostasis, (iii metabolic modifications and alkali production and (iv secondary oxidative stress response. This current knowledge may be useful to understand how B. cereus cells may cope to acid environment such as encountered in food products and thus to find some molecular biomarkers of the bacterial behaviour. These biomarkers could be furthermore used to develop new microbial behaviour prediction tools which can provide insights into underlying molecular physiological states which govern the behaviour of microorganisms and thus opening the avenue toward the detection of stress adaptive behaviour at an early stage and the control of stress-induced resistance throughout the food chain.

  11. Hepcidin: an emerging biomarker for iron disorders, inflammatory diseases, and infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Mark E.; Olbina, Gordana; Ostland, Vaughn E.; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas

    2010-04-01

    The peptide hormone hepcidin, has emerged as the master regulator of iron homeostasis. Dysregulation of hepcidin is a principal or contributing factor in most genetic and acquired systemic iron disorders, including anemia of inflammation (anemia of chronic disease). Hepcidin maintains healthy blood iron levels by regulating dietary iron absorption and transport from body iron stores to plasma. High serum hepcidin levels observed in chronic and acute inflammatory conditions can cause anemia by limiting plasma iron available for erythropoiesis. Chronically low serum hepcidin levels cause iron-overload and ultimately, accumulation of iron in liver and heart. We recently validated the first immunoassay for serum hepcidin and established the normal ranges in adults. Hepcidin has excellent potential as a biomarker and has a known mechanism of action, good stability, and rapid response to iron stores, inflammatory stimuli, and bacterial infections. Hepcidin can be measured in blood, urine, and saliva, and is generally not measurable in iron deficient/anemic patients and highly elevated in inflammatory diseases and infections. Intrinsic LifeSciences (ILS) is developing second generation hepcidin immunoassays and lateral-flow POC devices for hepcidin, a well characterized multi-purpose biomarker with applications in global health security.

  12. Circulating MicroRNAs as Promising Biomarkers in Forensic Body Fluids Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumache, Raluca; Ciocan, Veronica; Muresan, Camelia; Rogobete, Alexandru Florin; Enache, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In the last 20 years, DNA molecular analysis has become an important tool in forensic investigations. Currently, it is possible to genotype all types of biological traces or micro-traces containing nucleated cells if they are not entirely destroyed, chemically or bacterial. The DNA profiling is based on the short tandem repeats (STR) and aids in human identification from biological samples, but due to the recent advances in molecular genetics, other biomarkers have been proposed to be used in forensic identifications, such as: messenger RNA(mRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and DNA methylation. MicroRNAs are part of a class of small, non-coding RNAs that contain 19 - 23 nucleotides. MicroRNAs play an important role in the regulation of biochemical mechanisms, cell proliferation and other cellular mechanisms in the human body. The level of microRNAs in blood and other body fluids (urine, saliva, sweat) increases as a consequence of altered pathophysiological mechanisms and tissue insult. Moreover, the stability and specificity of microRNAs make them ideal candidates for circulating biomarkers in forensic bioanalytical procedures. In this review, we want to present a brief overview of biogenesis, functions, and applications of miRNAs in the identification of forensic body fluids. PMID:26554231

  13. Vertical distribution and indications of lipids biomarkers in the sediment core from East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Wang, Jiangtao; Li, Feng; Yang, Shu; Tan, Liju

    2016-07-01

    To study the distribution and indications of lipids biomarkers in the mud areas of the East China Sea shelf, a sediment core was collected. Lipids were determined to find the origination of different organic matter (fatty acids and sterols) inputs. The results demonstrated that the distribution of fatty acids and sterols indicated the organic matter derived from the mixed allochthonous and autochthonous sources, but mainly autochthonous. The total fatty acids concentrations ranged from 29.08 μg g-1 to 303.92 μg g-1 and exhibited unimodal distribution with the predominance of C16-fatty acid. Neutral lipid concentrations ranged from 1.77 μg g-1 to 4.65 μg g-1. Furthermore, the distribution patterns of sterols varied with depth, and were dominated by C27-sterol and C29-sterol in the top and bottom sediments respectively. Although bacterial lipids were recruited during diagenesis, the refractory terrestrial lipids were usually preferentially preserved. This records dated from the 1980s suggested that the phytoplankton community was mainly influenced by eutrophication in the East China Sea and this variation may be recorded by lipid biomarkers deposited in the sediment.

  14. Biomarkers for bipolar disorder: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Angela Duong,1 Bushra Syed,1 Gustavo Scola2,3 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 3Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: Currently, there exists a lack of definitive diagnostic tools for neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly molecular markers that could help assess the illness and develop more personalized treatments for different disorders. Understanding of the neurobiology and potential novel treatments for bipolar disorder (BD, one of the most complex psychiatric illnesses, remains poor. This review aims to compile the most reproducible findings regarding the molecular, genetic, and structural changes that occur in BD. Neuroimaging studies have indicated alterations in neural circuits, disrupted white matter integrity, alterations in reward activation, and decreased gray matter (GM volume. Genetic studies have identified variations in a number of genes that confer risk for BD development. Studies involving peripheral biomarkers include alterations in the levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, and neurotrophins. These potential molecular markers could be used as tools for diagnosis, to assess illness progression, and to help with the improvement of more specific and personalized treatments for patients with BD. Identification of biologically relevant markers could improve the quality of life of patients with BD and revolutionize public health. Keywords: biomarkers, neuroimaging, neural activation, gene regulation, microRNAs, oxidative stress, inflammation

  15. [Biomarkers for neoplasmas in digestive organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Arai, Kuniyoshi; Katayanagi, Soh; Takahashi, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Tatsurou; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Hidenori

    2004-07-01

    This review is concerned with the usefulness and the problem of biomarkers for cancer of digestive organs. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a most popular and useful tumor marker for cancer of digestive organs. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen and CYFRA have been reported as a useful tumor marker for esophageal cancer. CEA and CA 19-9 are a good prognostic factor in gastric cancer patients. The post-operative increase of serum CEA can be a predictive marker for the patients of colorectal cancer. Development of a radioimmunoassay for highly sensitive detection of tumor markers, they are considered to be useful for monitoring after treatment. But are not useful for the early diagnosis. The diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is based mainly on serological markers, such as alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II. The two are useful complementary markers of HCC because they do not correlate with each other. But the problem of the false-positive rate for the patients with chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis is still remained. A typical marker of pancreatic and bile duct cancer is carbohydrate antigen, but the sensitivity of these markers is only 50%. Recent molecular biological analysis may be used as effective biomarkers in the diagnosis, prognosis, therapy, and risk assessment of digestive cancer.

  16. Multiple system atrophy: pathogenic mechanisms and biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinger, Kurt A; Wenning, Gregor K

    2016-06-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a unique proteinopathy that differs from other α-synucleinopathies since the pathological process resulting from accumulation of aberrant α-synuclein (αSyn) involves the oligodendroglia rather than neurons, although both pathologies affect multiple parts of the brain, spinal cord, autonomic and peripheral nervous system. Both the etiology and pathogenesis of MSA are unknown, although animal models have provided insight into the basic molecular changes of this disorder. Accumulation of aberrant αSyn in oligodendroglial cells and preceded by relocation of p25α protein from myelin to oligodendroglia results in the formation of insoluble glial cytoplasmic inclusions that cause cell dysfunction and demise. These changes are associated with proteasomal, mitochondrial and lipid transport dysfunction, oxidative stress, reduced trophic transport, neuroinflammation and other noxious factors. Their complex interaction induces dysfunction of the oligodendroglial-myelin-axon-neuron complex, resulting in the system-specific pattern of neurodegeneration characterizing MSA as a synucleinopathy with oligodendroglio-neuronopathy. Propagation of modified toxic αSyn species from neurons to oligodendroglia by "prion-like" transfer and its spreading associated with neuronal pathways result in a multi-system involvement. No reliable biomarkers are currently available for the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of MSA. Multidisciplinary research to elucidate the genetic and molecular background of the deleterious cycle of noxious processes, to develop reliable diagnostic biomarkers and to deliver targets for effective treatment of this hitherto incurable disorder is urgently needed. PMID:27098666

  17. Biomarkers of extrasolar planets and their observability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selsis, Franck; Paillet, Jimmy; Allard, France

    The first space-borne instruments able to detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial planets, Darwin (ESA) and TPF-C (Terrestrial Planet Finder-Coronograph, NASA), should be launched at the end of the next decade. Beyond the challenge of planet detection itself, the ability to measure mid-infrared (Darwin) and visible (TPF-C) spectra at low resolution will allow us to characterize the exoplanets discovered. The spectral analysis of these planets will extend the field of planetary science beyond the Solar System to the nearby Universe: It will give access to certain planetary properties (albedo, brightness temperature, radius) and reveal the presence of atmospheric compounds, which, together with the radiative budget of the planet, will provide the keys to understanding how the climate system works on these worlds. If terrestrial planets are sufficiently abundant, these missions will collect data for numerous planetary systems of different ages and orbiting different types of stars. Theories for the formation, evolution and habitability of the terrestrial planets will at last face the test observation. The most fascinating perspective offered by these space observatories is the ability to detect spectral signatures indicating biological activity. In this chapter, we review and discuss the concept of extrasolar biosignatures or biomarkers. We focus mainly on the identification of oxygen-rich atmospheres through the detection of O2 and O3 features, addressing also the case of other possible biomarkers and indicators of habitability.

  18. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    Most validation studies show that the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is rather low in precision and accuracy, and there is an ongoing debate regarding the applicability of such self-reported data with regard to diet-disease relationships. However, no other method has so far been able to repla....... Collection of 24h urine is difficult and time consuming, and therefore morning spot urine may be a more convenient tool than 24h urine for validating the fruit and vegetable consumption in large population studies....... of fruit and vegetable intake (Nielsen et al. 2002). The overall aim of the present Ph.D. thesis was to further develop and validate this potentially new fruit and vegetable biomarker and furthermore use it for the validation of self-reported dietary intake of fruits and vegetables in intervention...... and cohort studies. The Ph.D. thesis contains four scientific papers. Paper I provides evidence that the sum of 7 flavonoids in 24h urine respond in a linear and sensitive manner to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables, and thus consolidates that the flavonoids are a valid biomarker...

  19. Biomarkers and Mechanisms of FANCD2 Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Willers

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic or epigenetic inactivation of the pathway formed by the Fanconi anemia (FA and BRCA1 proteins occurs in several cancer types, making the affected tumors potentially hypersensitive to DNA cross-linkers and other chemotherapeutic agents. It has been proposed that the inability of FA/BRCA-defective cells to form subnuclear foci of effector proteins, such as FANCD2, can be used as a biomarker to aid individualization of chemotherapy. We show that FANCD2 inactivation not only renders cells sensitive to cross-links, but also oxidative stress, a common effect of cancer therapeutics. Oxidative stress sensitivity does not correlate with FANCD2 or RAD51 foci formation, but associates with increased γH2AX foci levels and apoptosis. Therefore, FANCD2 may protect cells against cross-links and oxidative stress through distinct mechanisms, consistent with the growing notion that the pathway is not linear. Our data emphasize the need for multiple biomarkers, such as γH2AX, FANCD2, and RAD51, to capture all pathway activities.

  20. Sarcopenia--The search for emerging biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinkovich, Alexander; Livshits, Gregory

    2015-07-01

    Sarcopenia, an age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass and function, dramatically affects the life quality of elder people. In view of increasing life expectancy, sarcopenia renders a heavy burden on the health care system. However, although there is a consensus that sarcopenia is a multifactorial syndrome, its etiology, underlying mechanisms, and even definition remain poorly delineated, thus, preventing development of a precise treatment strategy. The main aim of our review is to critically analyze potential sarcopenia biomarkers in light of the molecular mechanisms of their involvement in sarcopenia pathogenesis. Normal muscle mass and function maintenance are proposed to be dependent on the dynamic balance between the positive regulators of muscle growth such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), follistatin (FST) and irisin, and negative regulators including TGFβ, myostatin, activins A and B, and growth and differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15). We hypothesize that the shift in this balance to muscle growth inhibitors, along with increased expression of the C- terminal agrin fragment (CAF) associated with age-dependent neuromuscular junction (NMJ) dysfunction, as well as skeletal muscle-specific troponin T (sTnT), a key component of contractile machinery, is a main mechanism underlying sarcopenia pathogenesis. Thus, this review proposes and emphasizes that these molecules are the emerging sarcopenia biomarkers.

  1. Metabolic Imaging Biomarkers of Postradiotherapy Xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Xerostomia is a major complication of head and neck radiotherapy (RT). Available xerostomia measures remain flawed. [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose-labeled positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG-PET-CT) is routinely used for staging and response assessment of head and neck cancer. We investigated quantitative measurement of parotid gland FDG uptake as a potential biomarker for post-RT xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Ninety-eight locally advanced head and neck cancer patients receiving definitive RT underwent baseline and post-RT FDG-PET-CT on a prospective imaging trial. A separate validation cohort of 14 patients underwent identical imaging while prospectively enrolled in a second trial collecting sialometry and patient-reported outcomes. Radiation dose and pre- and post-RT standard uptake values (SUVs) for all voxels contained within parotid gland ROI were deformably registered. Results: Average whole-gland or voxel-by-voxel models incorporating parotid DMet (defined as the pretreatment parotid SUV weighted by dose) accurately predicted posttreatment changes in parotid FDG uptake (e.g., fractional parotid SUV). Fractional loss of parotid FDG uptake closely paralleled early parotid toxicity defined by posttreatment salivary output (p Met may potentially be used to guide function-sparing treatment planning. Prospective validation of FDG-PET-CT as a convenient, quantifiable imaging biomarker of parotid function is warranted and ongoing.

  2. Novel biomarkers of fibrosis in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellino, Gianluca; Pallante, Pierlorenzo; Selvaggi, Francesco

    2016-08-15

    Fibrosis represents a major challenge in Crohn's disease (CD), and many CD patients will develop fibrotic strictures requiring treatment throughout their lifetime. There is no drug that can reverse intestinal fibrosis, and so endoscopic balloon dilatation and surgery are the only effective treatments. Since patients may need repeated treatments, it is important to obtain the diagnosis at an early stage before strictures become symptomatic with extensive fibrosis. Several markers of fibrosis have been proposed, but most need further validation. Biomarkers can be measured either in biological samples obtained from the serum or bowel of CD patients, or using imaging tools and tests. The ideal tool should be easily obtained, cost-effective, and reliable. Even more challenging is fibrosis occurring in ulcerative colitis. Despite the important burden of intestinal fibrosis, including its detrimental effect on outcomes and quality of life in CD patients, it has received less attention than fibrosis occurring in other organs. A common mechanism that acts via a specific signaling pathway could underlie both intestinal fibrosis and cancer. A comprehensive overview of recently introduced biomarkers of fibrosis in CD is presented, along with a discussion of the controversial areas remaining in this field. PMID:27574564

  3. Diagnosis of Periodontal Diseases by Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Jun-Ichi; Hino, Mami; Bando, Mika; Hiroshima, Yuka

    Many middle aged and old persons take periodontal diseases that mainly cause teeth loss and result in some systemic diseases. The prevention of periodontal diseases is very important for oral and systemic health, but the present diagnostic examination is not fully objective and suitable. To diagnose periodontal diseases exactly, some biomarkers shown inflammation, tissue degradation and bone resorption, in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva are known. We demonstrated that GCF levels of calprotectin, inflammation-related protein, and carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen, bone metabolism-related protein, were associated with clinical condition of periodontal diseases, and suggested that these proteins may be useful biomarkers for periodontal diseases. Recently, determinations of genes and proteins by using microdevices are studied for diagnosis of some diseases. We detected calprotectin protein by chemiluminescent immunoassay on a microchip and showed the possibility of specific and quantitative detection of calprotectin in a very small amount of GCF. To determine plural markers in GCF by using microdevices contributes to develop accurate, objective diagnostic system of periodontal diseases.

  4. Cytokine levels as biomarkers for leptospirosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirathaworn, C; Supputtamongkol, Y; Lertmaharit, S; Poovorawan, Y

    2016-09-01

    Inflammatory mediators were suggested to be biomarkers for prediction of disease severity. In this study, we investigated the levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α in leptospirosis patients with mild or severe illnesses. Sera samples were divided into two groups. The OI group and NOI groups included sera from patients with and without organ involvement, respectively. Each group consisted of 20 pairs of sera. Twenty-five sera from healthy individuals were included as controls. Cytokine levels were compared. Although IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 levels in acute sera from the OI group were significantly higher than NOI group, only IL-8 level was significantly higher in the OI group when cytokine levels in convalescent sera were compared. TNF-α, an inflammatory cytokine widely studied in leptospirosis was not significantly different between two groups of patients. Our data suggested that IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 were involved in disease severity. However, time of specimen collection could affect the significant levels of cytokines especially as biomarkers for monitoring disease severity. PMID:27295614

  5. The Role of Biomarkers in Diverticular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Antonella; Ianiro, Gianluca; Montalto, Massimo; Cammarota, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    Diverticulosis of the colon is a common condition in western countries. Acute diverticulitis may occur in 10% to 25% of the patients, sometimes associated with the presence of complications such as abscess, fistula, and perforation. Early diagnosis and accurate assessment of acute diverticulitis are necessary to start an efficacious treatment promptly, either conservatively or by surgery. The clinical picture may mimic other abdominal conditions; therefore, imaging techniques such as ultrasound or computed tomography are usually recommended, although they are expensive, examiner dependent, and potentially harmful. Recently, there has been increasing interest about the role of biological markers in diverticular disease as noninvasive, reliable, and inexpensive tools, conceivably able to support physicians in the diagnosis, the assessment of activity, and the monitoring of acute diverticulitis. By a MEDLINE search, most of the relevant data derived from C-reactive protein showed that it strongly supported the diagnosis of acute diverticulitis at values of >50 mg/L. It also represents a stronger marker compared with other serum biomarkers, able to correlate with the histologic severity in acute diverticulitis, the risk of perforation, and the response to therapy. Regarding fecal biomarkers, an interesting role has been reported for fecal calprotectin. It significantly correlates with inflammatory infiltrate. More relevantly, it correlates with the response to therapy and may predict the recurrence of colonic diverticulitis, as it is reliable in detecting subclinical intestinal inflammation, as reported already for inflammatory bowel disease. These represent encouraging results, but need to be confirmed in further larger studies. PMID:27622356

  6. Sleep electroencephalography as a biomarker in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiger A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Axel Steiger, Marcel Pawlowski, Mayumi Kimura Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany Abstract: The sleep electroencephalogram (EEG provides biomarkers of depression, which may help with diagnosis, prediction of therapy response, and prognosis in the treatment of depression. In patients with depression, characteristic sleep EEG changes include impaired sleep continuity, disinhibition of rapid-eye-movement (REM sleep, and impaired non-REM sleep. Most antidepressants suppress REM sleep in depressed patients, healthy volunteers, and in animal models. REM suppression appears to be an important, but not an absolute requirement, for antidepressive effects of a substance. Enhanced REM density, a measure for frequency of REM, characterizes high-risk probands for affective disorders. REM-sleep changes were also found in animal models of depression. Sleep-EEG variables were shown to predict the response to treatment with antidepressants. Furthermore, certain clusters of sleep EEG variables predicted the course of the disorder for several years. Some of the predicted sleep EEG markers appear to be related to hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal system activity. Keywords: biomarkers, depression, sleep EEG, antidepressants, prediction, animal models

  7. Urinary Sugars--A Biomarker of Total Sugars Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Natasha

    2015-07-01

    Measurement error in self-reported sugars intake may explain the lack of consistency in the epidemiologic evidence on the association between sugars and disease risk. This review describes the development and applications of a biomarker of sugars intake, informs its future use and recommends directions for future research. Recently, 24 h urinary sucrose and fructose were suggested as a predictive biomarker for total sugars intake, based on findings from three highly controlled feeding studies conducted in the United Kingdom. From this work, a calibration equation for the biomarker that provides an unbiased measure of sugars intake was generated that has since been used in two US-based studies with free-living individuals to assess measurement error in dietary self-reports and to develop regression calibration equations that could be used in future diet-disease analyses. Further applications of the biomarker include its use as a surrogate measure of intake in diet-disease association studies. Although this biomarker has great potential and exhibits favorable characteristics, available data come from a few controlled studies with limited sample sizes conducted in the UK. Larger feeding studies conducted in different populations are needed to further explore biomarker characteristics and stability of its biases, compare its performance, and generate a unique, or population-specific biomarker calibration equations to be applied in future studies. A validated sugars biomarker is critical for informed interpretation of sugars-disease association studies.

  8. Current technological challenges in biomarker discovery and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvatovich, Peter L.; Bischoff, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    In this review we will give an overview of the issues related to biomarker discovery studies with a focus on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods. Biomarker discovery is based on a close collaboration between clinicians, analytical scientists and chemometritians/statisticians. It

  9. Marine pollution detection through biomarkers in marine bivalves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Pereira, N.; Desai, S.R.; Jena, K.B.; Snigdha

    and the antioxidant system, as also damage to genetic material. This could be used as potential biomarker to measure pollution stress in animals. While extensive work on biomarker research is being undertaken in several parts of the world, such studies are yet...

  10. DNA methylation based biomarkers: Practical considerations and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helene Myrtue; How Kit, Alexandre; Tost, Jorg

    2012-01-01

    A biomarker is a molecular target analyzed in a qualitative or quantitative manner to detect and diagnose the presence of a disease, to predict the outcome and the response to a specific treatment allowing personalized tailoring of patient management. Biomarkers can belong to different types of b...

  11. Cancer Biomarker Discovery: Lectin-Based Strategies Targeting Glycoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Clark

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarker discovery can identify molecular markers in various cancers that can be used for detection, screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of disease progression. Lectin-affinity is a technique that can be used for the enrichment of glycoproteins from a complex sample, facilitating the discovery of novel cancer biomarkers associated with a disease state.

  12. Improving Biomarker Development and Assessment: Standards for Study Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziding FENG

    2009-01-01

    Background: The Early Detection Research Network (EDRN), NCI funded and investigator driven, has the mission to evaluate biomarkers for their clinical utilities in cancer risk prediction, diagnosis, early detection, and prognosis. Abundant cancer biomarkers reported in literature yet few are used in clinics. Therefore, the emphasis of the EDRN is biomarker validation. Although schema for a phased approach to development exists and guidelines are available for study reporting, a coherent and comprehensive set of guideline for a definitive biomarker validation study design have not been delineated.Methods: We proposed PROBE study design, Prospective specimen collec-tion and Retrospective Blinded Evaluation, for pivotal definitive evaluation of the accuracy of a classification biomarker. A detailed formulation of all aspects of the design is provided. Four tables itemize aspects that relate to (i) the Clinical Context; (ii) Performance Criteria; (iii) the Biomarker test; and (iv) Study power and termination. Alternative designs and strategies were contrasted to illustrate the merit of PROBE design.Results: The ideas are applied to studies of biomarkers the intended use of which is for disease diagnosis, screening, or prognosis. Two EDRN valida-tion studies (breast cancer and prostate cancer) were used as examples to elucidate PROBE design.Conclusion: Common biases that pervade the biomarker research literaturewould be eliminated if these rigorous standards were followed closely. We urge the adoption of the design as standard of practice for pivotal evaluation of the classification accuracy ofbiomarkers.

  13. Optimal allocation of resources in a biomarker setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Bernard; Hendrickson, Sara; Willett, Walter

    2015-01-30

    Nutrient intake is often measured with substantial error both in commonly used surrogate instruments such as a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and in gold standard-type instruments such as a diet record (DR). If there is a correlated error between the FFQ and DR, then standard measurement error correction methods based on regression calibration can produce biased estimates of the regression coefficient (λ) of true intake on surrogate intake. However, if a biomarker exists and the error in the biomarker is independent of the error in the FFQ and DR, then the method of triads can be used to obtain unbiased estimates of λ, provided that there are replicate biomarker data on at least a subsample of validation study subjects. Because biomarker measurements are expensive, for a fixed budget, one can use a either design where a large number of subjects have one biomarker measure and only a small subsample is replicated or a design that has a smaller number of subjects and has most or all subjects validated. The purpose of this paper is to optimize the proportion of subjects with replicated biomarker measures, where optimization is with respect to minimizing the variance of ln(λ̂). The methodology is illustrated using vitamin C intake data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study where plasma vitamin C is the biomarker. In this example, the optimal validation study design is to have 21% of subjects with replicated biomarker measures.

  14. Tumor antigens as proteogenomic biomarkers in invasive ductal carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars Rønn; Campos, Benito; Winther, Ole;

    2014-01-01

    Background: The majority of genetic biomarkers for human cancers are defined by statistical screening of high-throughput genomics data. While a large number of genetic biomarkers have been proposed for diagnostic and prognostic applications, only a small number have been applied in the clinic. Si...

  15. Smoking reduction and biomarkers in two longitudinal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina; Prescott, Eva; Vestbo, Jørgen;

    2006-01-01

    -completion questionnaire. Measurements of biomarkers of smoke intake were taken at the second time-point in the two studies: expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) in the CCHS and serum cotinine in the CMS. Biomarker levels in medium (15-29 g tobacco/day) and heavy (> 30 g/day) smokers at the first time-point who later reported...

  16. Flow cytometry: A powerful technology for measuring biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jett, J.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Life Sciences Div.

    1994-09-01

    A broad definition of a biomarker is that it is a measurable characteristic of a biological system that changes upon exposure to a physical or chemical insult. While the definition can be further refined, it is sufficient for the purposes of demonstrating the advantages of flow cytometry for making quantitative measurements of biomarkers. Flow cytometry and cell sorting technologies have emerged during the past 25 years to take their place alongside other essential tools used in biology such as optical and electron microscopy. This paper describes the basics of flow cytometry technology, provides illustrative examples of applications of the technology in the field of biomarkers, describes recent developments in flow cytometry that have not yet been applied to biomarker measurements, and projects future developments of the technology. The examples of uses of flow cytometry for biomarker quantification cited in this paper are meant to be illustrative and not exhaustive in the sense of providing a review of the field.

  17. 2-Furoylglycine as a Candidate Biomarker of Coffee Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzmann, Silke S; Holmes, Elaine; Kochhar, Sunil; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2015-09-30

    Specific and sensitive food biomarkers are necessary to support dietary intake assessment and link nutritional habits to potential impact on human health. A multistep nutritional intervention study was conducted to suggest novel biomarkers for coffee consumption. (1)H NMR metabolic profiling combined with multivariate data analysis resolved 2-furoylglycine (2-FG) as a novel putative biomarker for coffee consumption. We relatively quantified 2-FG in the urine of coffee drinkers and investigated its origin, metabolism, and excretion kinetics. When searching for its potential precursors, we found different furan derivatives in coffee products, which are known to get metabolized to 2-FG. Maximal urinary excretion of 2-FG occurred 2 h after consumption (p = 0.0002) and returned to baseline after 24 h (p = 0.74). The biomarker was not excreted after consumption of coffee substitutes such as tea and chicory coffee and might therefore be a promising acute biomarker for the detection of coffee consumption in human urine.

  18. 2-Furoylglycine as a Candidate Biomarker of Coffee Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzmann, Silke S; Holmes, Elaine; Kochhar, Sunil; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2015-09-30

    Specific and sensitive food biomarkers are necessary to support dietary intake assessment and link nutritional habits to potential impact on human health. A multistep nutritional intervention study was conducted to suggest novel biomarkers for coffee consumption. (1)H NMR metabolic profiling combined with multivariate data analysis resolved 2-furoylglycine (2-FG) as a novel putative biomarker for coffee consumption. We relatively quantified 2-FG in the urine of coffee drinkers and investigated its origin, metabolism, and excretion kinetics. When searching for its potential precursors, we found different furan derivatives in coffee products, which are known to get metabolized to 2-FG. Maximal urinary excretion of 2-FG occurred 2 h after consumption (p = 0.0002) and returned to baseline after 24 h (p = 0.74). The biomarker was not excreted after consumption of coffee substitutes such as tea and chicory coffee and might therefore be a promising acute biomarker for the detection of coffee consumption in human urine. PMID:26357997

  19. Potential Peripheral Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the discovery of a peripheral biomarker for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's would provide a way to better detect the onset of this debilitating disease in a manner that is both noninvasive and universally available. This paper examines the current approaches that are being used to discover potential biomarker candidates available in the periphery. The search for a peripheral biomarker that could be utilized diagnostically has resulted in an extensive amount of studies that employ several biological approaches, including the assessment of tissues, genomics, proteomics, epigenetics, and metabolomics. Although a definitive biomarker has yet to be confirmed, advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of the disease and major susceptibility factors have been uncovered and reveal promising possibilities for the future discovery of a useful biomarker.

  20. Serum Glycoprotein Biomarker Discovery and Qualification Pipeline Reveals Novel Diagnostic Biomarker Candidates for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Alok K; Cao, Kim-Anh Lê; Choi, Eunju; Chen, David; Gautier, Benoît; Nancarrow, Derek; Whiteman, David C; Saunders, Nicholas A; Barbour, Andrew P; Joshi, Virendra; Hill, Michelle M

    2015-11-01

    We report an integrated pipeline for efficient serum glycoprotein biomarker candidate discovery and qualification that may be used to facilitate cancer diagnosis and management. The discovery phase used semi-automated lectin magnetic bead array (LeMBA)-coupled tandem mass spectrometry with a dedicated data-housing and analysis pipeline; GlycoSelector (http://glycoselector.di.uq.edu.au). The qualification phase used lectin magnetic bead array-multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry incorporating an interactive web-interface, Shiny mixOmics (http://mixomics-projects.di.uq.edu.au/Shiny), for univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. Relative quantitation was performed by referencing to a spiked-in glycoprotein, chicken ovalbumin. We applied this workflow to identify diagnostic biomarkers for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a life threatening malignancy with poor prognosis in the advanced setting. EAC develops from metaplastic condition Barrett's esophagus (BE). Currently diagnosis and monitoring of at-risk patients is through endoscopy and biopsy, which is expensive and requires hospital admission. Hence there is a clinical need for a noninvasive diagnostic biomarker of EAC. In total 89 patient samples from healthy controls, and patients with BE or EAC were screened in discovery and qualification stages. Of the 246 glycoforms measured in the qualification stage, 40 glycoforms (as measured by lectin affinity) qualified as candidate serum markers. The top candidate for distinguishing healthy from BE patients' group was Narcissus pseudonarcissus lectin (NPL)-reactive Apolipoprotein B-100 (p value = 0.0231; AUROC = 0.71); BE versus EAC, Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL)-reactive complement component C9 (p value = 0.0001; AUROC = 0.85); healthy versus EAC, Erythroagglutinin Phaseolus vulgaris (EPHA)-reactive gelsolin (p value = 0.0014; AUROC = 0.80). A panel of 8 glycoforms showed an improved AUROC of 0.94 to discriminate EAC from BE. Two biomarker candidates

  1. Milk and blood biomarkers associated to the clinical efficacy of a probiotic for the treatment of infectious mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Martos, I; Jiménez, E; de Andrés, J; Rodríguez-Alcalá, L M; Tavárez, S; Manzano, S; Fernández, L; Alonso, E; Fontecha, J; Rodríguez, J M

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have shown the efficacy of oral administration of selected lactobacilli strains to treat mastitis. The objective of this study was to find microbiological, biochemical and/or immunological biomarkers of the probiotic effect. Women with (n=23) and without (n=8) symptoms of mastitis received three daily doses (10(9) cfu) of Lactobacillus salivarius PS2 for 21 days. Samples of milk, blood and urine were collected before and after the probiotic intervention, and screened for a wide spectrum of microbiological, biochemical and immunological parameters. In the mastitis group, L. salivarius PS2 intake led to a reduction in milk bacterial counts, milk and blood leukocyte counts and interleukin (IL)-8 level in milk, an increase in those of immunoglobulin (Ig)E, IgG3, epidermal growth factor and IL-7, a modification of the milk electrolyte profile, and a reduction of some oxidative stress biomarkers. Such biomarkers will be useful in future clinical studies involving a larger cohort. PMID:26925605

  2. Early biomarkers of joint damage in rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mc Ardle, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Joint destruction, as evidenced by radiographic findings, is a significant problem for patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. Inherently irreversible and frequently progressive, the process of joint damage begins at and even before the clinical onset of disease. However, rheumatoid and psoriatic arthropathies are heterogeneous in nature and not all patients progress to joint damage. It is therefore important to identify patients susceptible to joint destruction in order to initiate more aggressive treatment as soon as possible and thereby potentially prevent irreversible joint damage. At the same time, the high cost and potential side effects associated with aggressive treatment mean it is also important not to over treat patients and especially those who, even if left untreated, would not progress to joint destruction. It is therefore clear that a protein biomarker signature that could predict joint damage at an early stage would support more informed clinical decisions on the most appropriate treatment regimens for individual patients. Although many candidate biomarkers for rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis have been reported in the literature, relatively few have reached clinical use and as a consequence the number of prognostic biomarkers used in rheumatology has remained relatively static for several years. It has become evident that a significant challenge in the transition of biomarker candidates to clinical diagnostic assays lies in the development of suitably robust biomarker assays, especially multiplexed assays, and their clinical validation in appropriate patient sample cohorts. Recent developments in mass spectrometry-based targeted quantitative protein measurements have transformed our ability to rapidly develop multiplexed protein biomarker assays. These advances are likely to have a significant impact on the validation of biomarkers in the future. In this review, we have comprehensively compiled a list of candidate

  3. Disease notes - Bacterial root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial root rot initiated by lactic acid bacteria, particularly Leuconostoc, occurs every year in Idaho sugarbeet fields. Hot fall weather seems to make the problem worse. Although Leuconostoc initiates the rot, other bacteria and yeast frequently invade the tissue as well. The acetic acid bac...

  4. Biotechnological applications of bacterial cellulases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Menendez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cellulases have numerous applications in several industries, including biofuel production, food and feed industry, brewing, pulp and paper, textile, laundry, and agriculture.Cellulose-degrading bacteria are widely spread in nature, being isolated from quite different environments. Cellulose degradation is the result of a synergic process between an endoglucanase, an exoglucanase and a,β-glucosidase. Bacterial endoglucanases degrade ß-1,4-glucan linkages of cellulose amorphous zones, meanwhile exoglucanases cleave the remaining oligosaccharide chains, originating cellobiose, which is hydrolyzed by ß-glucanases. Bacterial cellulases (EC 3.2.1.4 are comprised in fourteen Glycosil Hydrolase families. Several advantages, such as higher growth rates and genetic versatility, emphasize the suitability and advantages of bacterial cellulases over other sources for this group of enzymes. This review summarizes the main known cellulolytic bacteria and the best strategies to optimize their cellulase production, focusing on endoglucanases, as well as it reviews the main biotechnological applications of bacterial cellulases in several industries, medicine and agriculture.

  5. A Program Against Bacterial Bioterrorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, Michael; Dargis, Rimtas; Andresen, Keld;

    2012-01-01

    In 2002 it was decided to establish laboratory facilities in Denmark for diagnosing agents associated with bioterrorism in order to make an immediate appropriate response to the release of such agents possible. Molecular assays for detection of specific agents and molecular and proteomic techniques...... for bacterial infections not associated with bioterrorism that are difficult to culture or identify....

  6. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Bacterial Persisters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maisonneuve, Etienne; Gerdes, Kenn

    2014-01-01

    technological advances in microfluidics and reporter genes have improved this scenario. Here, we summarize recent progress in the field, revealing the ubiquitous bacterial stress alarmone ppGpp as an emerging central regulator of multidrug tolerance and persistence, both in stochastically and environmentally...

  7. Application of immuno-rotary biosensor based on F0F1 -ATPase in chromatophores for detecting HIV-1 P24%免疫旋转生物传感器高灵敏检测HIV-1 P24抗原方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑云虎; 张晓梅; 张晓光; 马晶; 李学仁; 乐家昌; 曾毅

    2010-01-01

    目的 通过构建免疫旋转生物传感器,建立一种高灵敏度的HIV-1 P24定量检测方法.方法 将生物素标记的HIV-1 P24单克隆抗体通过亲和素-生物素-β亚基抗体(Streptavidin-biotin-β antibody)的方式连接到光合作用复合体(Chromatophores)的β亚基上,同时用pH敏感的荧光索F1300标记到Chromatophores上,构建了用于检测P24的免疫旋转生物传感器,并用原核表达的P24抗原对该传感器进行了灵敏度、特异性实验.结果 构建的免疫旋转生物传感器可以将P24抗原结合ATPase造成的旋转速率变化转变为光强度的变化,可以高灵敏的检测HIV-1P24抗原,最低检出度可达0.1 fg/ml.结论 成功建立了基于免疫生物传感器(Immuno-rotary Biosensor,IRB)系统的HIV-1 P24检测方法,该方法操作简单,灵敏度高,为建立基于分子马达HIV-1 P24定量检测方法打下基础.%Objective To build a high sensitive method to detect HIV-1 P24 antigen quantitatively by Immuno-rotary Biosensor (IRB) based on F0F1-ATPase. Methods The immuno-rotary biosensor based on F0F1-ATPase in chromatophores for detecting HIV-1 P24 was assembled by label F0F1-ATPase chromatophores with the biotin-labled HIV-1 P24 antibody through the streptavidin-biotin-β antibody and the pH sensitivity of fluorescence F1300. Then it's sensitivity and specificity was tested by the prokaryotic expressed HIV-1 P24 antigen. Results Immuno-rotary biosensor based on F0F1-ATPase in chromatophores can detect P24 antigen sensitivily, the lowest level that could be detected was 0.1 fg/ml. Conclusion IRBbased system was successfully assembled and used for the detection of P24 antigen, the rapid and sensitive technique will be useful for detecting HIV-1 P24 antigen quantitatively.

  8. Study of cardiovascular disease biomarkers among tobacco consumers, part 1: biomarkers of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Leanne R.; Brown, Buddy G.; Jones, Bobbette A.; Marano, Kristin M.; Borgerding, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A study was conducted to evaluate biomarkers of biological effect and physiological assessments related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) among adult male cigarette smokers (SMK), moist snuff consumers (MSC) and non-consumers of tobacco (NTC). Additionally, biomarkers of tobacco and tobacco smoke exposure (BoE) were measured in spot urines and are reported here. Except for the BoE to nicotine and NNK, BoE were generally greater in SMK compared with MSC, and BoE were generally not different in comparisons of MSC and NTC. Results demonstrated that MSC had lower systemic exposures to many harmful and potentially harmful constituents than SMK, which is consistent with epidemiological data that indicate a differential in CVD risk between these groups. PMID:25787703

  9. Study of cardiovascular disease biomarkers among tobacco consumers, part 2: biomarkers of biological effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordskog, Brian K.; Brown, Buddy G.; Marano, Kristin M.; Campell, Leanne R.; Jones, Bobbette A.; Borgerding, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An age-stratified, cross-sectional study was conducted in the US among healthy adult male cigarette smokers, moist snuff consumers, and non-tobacco consumers to evaluate cardiovascular biomarkers of biological effect (BoBE). Physiological assessments included flow-mediated dilation, ankle-brachial index, carotid intima-media thickness and expired carbon monoxide. Approximately one-half of the measured serum BoBE showed statistically significant differences; IL-12(p70), sICAM-1 and IL-8 were the BoBE that best differentiated among the three groups. A significant difference in ABI was observed between the cigarette smokers and non-tobacco consumer groups. Significant group and age effect differences in select biomarkers were identified. PMID:25787701

  10. Study of cardiovascular disease biomarkers among tobacco consumers, part 2: biomarkers of biological effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordskog, Brian K; Brown, Buddy G; Marano, Kristin M; Campell, Leanne R; Jones, Bobbette A; Borgerding, Michael F

    2015-02-01

    An age-stratified, cross-sectional study was conducted in the US among healthy adult male cigarette smokers, moist snuff consumers, and non-tobacco consumers to evaluate cardiovascular biomarkers of biological effect (BoBE). Physiological assessments included flow-mediated dilation, ankle-brachial index, carotid intima-media thickness and expired carbon monoxide. Approximately one-half of the measured serum BoBE showed statistically significant differences; IL-12(p70), sICAM-1 and IL-8 were the BoBE that best differentiated among the three groups. A significant difference in ABI was observed between the cigarette smokers and non-tobacco consumer groups. Significant group and age effect differences in select biomarkers were identified. PMID:25787701

  11. Study of cardiovascular disease biomarkers among tobacco consumers, part 2: biomarkers of biological effect

    OpenAIRE

    Nordskog, Brian K.; Brown, Buddy G.; Marano, Kristin M.; Campell, Leanne R.; Jones, Bobbette A.; Borgerding, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An age-stratified, cross-sectional study was conducted in the US among healthy adult male cigarette smokers, moist snuff consumers, and non-tobacco consumers to evaluate cardiovascular biomarkers of biological effect (BoBE). Physiological assessments included flow-mediated dilation, ankle-brachial index, carotid intima-media thickness and expired carbon monoxide. Approximately one-half of the measured serum BoBE showed statistically significant differences; IL-12(p70), sICAM-1 and IL...

  12. Asymptomatic cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis present exacerbated tissue pathology and bacterial dissemination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Menin

    Full Text Available Rational discovery of novel immunodiagnostic and vaccine candidate antigens to control bovine tuberculosis (bTB requires knowledge of disease immunopathogenesis. However, there remains a paucity of information on the Mycobacterium bovis-host immune interactions during the natural infection. Analysis of 247 naturally PPD+ M. bovis-infected cattle revealed that 92% (n = 228 of these animals were found to display no clinical signs, but presented severe as well as disseminated bTB-lesions at post-mortem examination. Moreover, dissemination of bTB-lesions positively correlated with both pathology severity score (Spearman r = 0.48; p<0.0001 and viable tissue bacterial loads (Spearman r = 0.58; p = 0.0001. Additionally, granuloma encapsulation negatively correlated with M. bovis growth as well as pathology severity, suggesting that encapsulation is an effective mechanism to control bacterial proliferation during natural infection. Moreover, multinucleated giant cell numbers were found to negatively correlate with bacterial counts (Spearman r = 0.25; p = 0.03 in lung granulomas. In contrast, neutrophil numbers in the granuloma were associated with increased M. bovis proliferation (Spearman r = 0.27; p = 0.021. Together, our findings suggest that encapsulation and multinucleated giant cells control M. bovis viability, whereas neutrophils may serve as a cellular biomarker of bacterial proliferation during natural infection. These data integrate host granuloma responses with mycobacterial dissemination and could provide useful immunopathological-based biomarkers of disease severity in natural infection with M. bovis, an important cattle pathogen.

  13. Diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers in pancreaticobiliarymalignancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and cholangiocarcinoma(CCA) are two malignancies that carry significantmorbidity and mortality. The poor prognoses ofthese cancers are strongly related to lack of effectivescreening modalities as well as few therapeutic options.In this review, we highlight novel biomarkers that havethe potential to be used as diagnostic, prognostic andpredictive markers. The focus of this review is biomarkersthat can be evaluated on endoscopically-obtained biopsiesor brush specimens in the pre-operative setting.We also provide an overview of novel serum basedmarkers in the early diagnosis of both PDAC and CCA. Inpancreatic cancer, the emphasis is placed on prognosticand theranostic markers, whereas in CCA the utilityof molecular markers in diagnosis and prognosis arehighlighted.

  14. Apolipoprotein M - a new biomarker in sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Christina; Nielsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Sepsis is one of the leading causes of mortality in non-cardiac intensive care units, and the need for markers of progression and severity are high. Also, treatment of sepsis is highly debated and potential new targets of treatment are of great interest. In the previous issue of Critical...... Care Kumaraswamy and colleagues have investigated whether plasma apolipoprotein M (apoM) is affected during different grades of sepsis, septic shock and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Interestingly, plasma apoM was significantly decreased in all groups of patients with a relationship...... to severity of disease. This identifies apoM as a potential new biomarker in sepsis. It also underscores the possibility that altered high-density lipoprotein in sepsis patients can affect the course of disease. Thus, since apoM is the carrier of Sphingosine-1-P (S1P), a molecule with great influence...

  15. Adipokines as Potential Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Del Prete

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by severe joint injury. Recently, research has been focusing on the possible identification of predictor markers of disease onset and/or progression, of joint damage, and of therapeutic response. Recent findings have uncovered the role of white adipose tissue as a pleiotropic organ not only specialized in endocrine functions but also able to control multiple physiopathological processes, including inflammation. Adipokines are a family of soluble mediators secreted by white adipose tissue endowed with a wide spectrum of actions. This review will focus on the recent advances on the role of the adipokine network in the pathogenesis of RA. A particular attention will be devoted to the action of these proteins on RA effector cells, and on the possibility to use circulating levels of adipokines as potential biomarkers of disease activity and therapeutic response.

  16. Biomarkers of postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna eAndrosova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Elderly surgical patients frequently experience postoperative delirium (POD and the subsequent development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD. Clinical features include deterioration in cognition, disturbance in attention and reduced awareness of the environment and result in higher morbidity, mortality and greater utilization of social financial assistance. The aging Western societies can expect an increase in the incidence of POD and POCD. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms have been studied on the molecular level albeit with unsatisfying small research efforts given their societal burden. Here, we review the known physiological and immunological changes and genetic risk factors, identify candidates for further studies and integrate the information into a draft network for exploration on a systems level. The pathogenesis of these postoperative cognitive impairments is multifactorial; application of integrated systems biology has the potential to reconstruct the underlying network of molecular mechanisms and help in the identification of prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers.

  17. Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Charles L.

    2011-12-31

    Research for the DOE Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers focused on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). RVFV and VEEV are Category A and B pathogens respectively. Among the priority threats, RVFV and VEEV rank high in their potential for being weaponized and introduced to the United States, spreading quickly, and having a large health and economic impact. In addition, they both have live attenuated vaccine, which allows work to be performed at BSL-2. While the molecular biology of RVFV and VEEV are increasingly well-characterized, little is known about its host-pathogen interactions. Our research is aimed at determining critical alterations in host signaling pathways to identify therapeutics targeted against the host.

  18. DNA Methylation as a Biomarker for Preeclampsia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Cindy M.; Ralph, Jody L.; Wright, Michelle L.; Linggi, Bryan E.; Ohm, Joyce E.

    2014-10-01

    Background: Preeclampsia contributes significantly to pregnancy-associated morbidity and mortality as well as future risk of cardiovascular disease in mother and offspring, and preeclampsia in offspring. The lack of reliable methods for early detection limits the opportunities for prevention, diagnosis, and timely treatment. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore distinct DNA methylation patterns associated with preeclampsia in both maternal cells and fetal-derived tissue that represent potential biomarkers to predict future preeclampsia and inheritance in children. Method: A convenience sample of nulliparous women (N = 55) in the first trimester of pregnancy was recruited for this prospective study. Genome-wide DNA methylation was quantified in first-trimester maternal peripheral white blood cells and placental chorionic tissue from normotensive women and those with preeclampsia (n = 6/group). Results: Late-onset preeclampsia developed in 12.7% of women. Significant differences in DNA methylation were identified in 207 individual linked cytosine and guanine (CpG) sites in maternal white blood cells collected in the first trimester (132 sites with gain and 75 sites with loss of methylation), which were common to approximately 75% of the differentially methylated CpG sites identified in chorionic tissue of fetal origin. Conclusion: This study is the first to identify maternal epigenetic targets and common targets in fetal-derived tissue that represent putative biomarkers for early detection and heritable risk of preeclampsia. Findings may pave the way for diagnosis of preeclampsia prior to its clinical presentation and acute damaging effects, and the potential for prevention of the detrimental long-term sequelae.

  19. Biomarkers of peripheral muscle fatigue during exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finsterer Josef

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomarkers of peripheral muscle fatigue (BPMFs are used to offer insights into mechanisms of exhaustion during exercise in order to detect abnormal fatigue or to detect defective metabolic pathways. This review aims at describing recent advances and future perspectives concerning the most important biomarkers of muscle fatigue during exercise. Results BPMFs are classified according to the mechanism of fatigue related to adenosine-triphosphate-metabolism, acidosis, or oxidative-metabolism. Muscle fatigue is also related to an immunological response. impaired calcium handling, disturbances in bioenergetic pathways, and genetic responses. The immunological and genetic response may make the muscle susceptible to fatigue but may not directly cause muscle fatigue. Production of BPMFs is predominantly dependent on the type of exercise. BPMFs need to change as a function of the process being monitored, be stable without appreciable diurnal variations, correlate well with exercise intensity, and be present in detectable amounts in easily accessible biological fluids. The most well-known BPMFs are serum lactate and interleukin-6. The most widely applied clinical application is screening for defective oxidative metabolism in mitochondrial disorders by means of the lactate stress test. The clinical relevance of most other BPMFs, however, is under debate, since they often depend on age, gender, physical fitness, the energy supply during exercise, the type of exercise needed to produce the BPMF, and whether healthy or diseased subjects are investigated. Conclusions Though the role of BPMFs during fatigue is poorly understood, measuring BPMFs under specific, standardised conditions appears to be helpful for assessing biological states or processes during exercise and fatigue.

  20. Procalcitonin as an adjunctive biomarker in sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahua Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis can sometimes be difficult to substantiate, and its distinction from non-infectious conditions in critically ill patients is often a challenge. Serum procalcitonin (PCT assay is one of the biomarkers of sepsis. The present study was aimed to assess the usefulness of PCT assay in critically ill patients with suspected sepsis. The study included 40 patients from the intensive care unit with suspected sepsis. Sepsis was confirmed clinically and/or by positive blood culture. Serum PCT was assayed semi-quantitatively by rapid immunochromatographic technique (within 2 hours of sample receipt. Among 40 critically ill patients, 21 had clinically confirmed sepsis. There were 12 patients with serum PCT ≥10 ng/ml (8, blood culture positive; 1, rickettsia; 2, post-antibiotic blood culture sterile; and 1, non-sepsis; 7 patients with PCT 2-10 ng/ml (4, blood culture positive; 1, falciparum malaria; 2, post-antibiotic blood culture sterile; 3 patients with PCT of 0.5 to 2 ng/ml (sepsis in 1 patient; and 18 patients with PCT < 0.5 ng/ml (sepsis in 2 patients. Patients with PCT ≥ 2 ng/ml had statistically significant correlation with the presence of sepsis (P<0.0001. The PCT assay revealed moderate sensitivity (86% and high specificity (95% at a cut-off ≥ 2 ng/ml. The PCT assay was found to be a useful biomarker of sepsis in this study. The assay could be performed and reported rapidly and provided valuable information before availability of culture results. This might assist in avoiding unwarranted antibiotic usage.

  1. Metabolic Imaging Biomarkers of Postradiotherapy Xerostomia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Blake [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Schwartz, David L., E-mail: dschwartz3@nshs.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, New Hyde Park, New York (United States); Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York (United States); Dong Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Xerostomia is a major complication of head and neck radiotherapy (RT). Available xerostomia measures remain flawed. [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose-labeled positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG-PET-CT) is routinely used for staging and response assessment of head and neck cancer. We investigated quantitative measurement of parotid gland FDG uptake as a potential biomarker for post-RT xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Ninety-eight locally advanced head and neck cancer patients receiving definitive RT underwent baseline and post-RT FDG-PET-CT on a prospective imaging trial. A separate validation cohort of 14 patients underwent identical imaging while prospectively enrolled in a second trial collecting sialometry and patient-reported outcomes. Radiation dose and pre- and post-RT standard uptake values (SUVs) for all voxels contained within parotid gland ROI were deformably registered. Results: Average whole-gland or voxel-by-voxel models incorporating parotid D{sub Met} (defined as the pretreatment parotid SUV weighted by dose) accurately predicted posttreatment changes in parotid FDG uptake (e.g., fractional parotid SUV). Fractional loss of parotid FDG uptake closely paralleled early parotid toxicity defined by posttreatment salivary output (p < 0.01) and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer xerostomia scores (p < 0.01). Conclusions: In this pilot series, loss of parotid FDG uptake was strongly associated with acute clinical post-RT parotid toxicity. D{sub Met} may potentially be used to guide function-sparing treatment planning. Prospective validation of FDG-PET-CT as a convenient, quantifiable imaging biomarker of parotid function is warranted and ongoing.

  2. Cognitive outcome in adults after bacterial meningitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogman, M.; Beek, D. van de; Weisfelt, M.; Gans, J. de; Schmand, B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cognitive outcome in adult survivors of bacterial meningitis. METHODS: Data from three prospective multicentre studies were pooled and reanalysed, involving 155 adults surviving bacterial meningitis (79 after pneumococcal and 76 after meningococcal meningitis) and 72 healthy c

  3. Filtration properties of bacterial cellulose membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtonen, Janika

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose has the same molecular formula as cellulose from plant origin, but it is characterized by several unique properties including high purity, crystallinity and mechanical strength. These properties are dependent on parameters such as the bacterial strain used, the cultivation conditions and post-growth processing. The possibility to achieve bacterial cellulose membranes with different properties by varying these parameters could make bacterial cellulose an interesting materi...

  4. The role of metabolic biomarkers in drug toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnackenberg, Laura K; Beger, Richard D

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Metabolic profiling is a technique that can potentially provide more sensitive and specific biomarkers of toxicity than the current clinical measures benefiting preclinical and clinical drug studies. Both nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) platforms have been used for metabolic profiling studies of drug toxicity. Not only can both techniques provide novel biomarker(s) of toxicity but the combination of both techniques gives a broader range of metabolites evaluated. Changes in metabolic patterns can provide insight into mechanism(s) of toxicity and help to eliminate a potentially toxic new chemical entity earlier in the developmental process. Metabolic profiling offers numerous advantages in toxicological research and screening as sample collection and preparation are relatively simple. Further, sample throughput, reproducibility, and accuracy are high. The area of drug toxicity of therapeutic compounds has already been impacted by metabolic profiling studies and will continue to be impacted as new, more specific biomarker(s) are found. In order for a biomarker or pattern of biomarkers to be accepted, it must be shown that they originate from the target tissue of interest. Metabolic profiling studies are amenable to any biofluid or tissue sample making it possible to link the changes noted in urine for instance as originating from renal injury. Additionally, the ease of sample collection makes it possible to follow a single animal or subject over time in order to determine whether and when the toxicity resolves itself. This review focuses on the advantages of metabolic profiling for drug toxicity studies.

  5. Advances in the development of biomarkers for epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Asla; Löscher, Wolfgang; Vezzani, Annamaria; Becker, Albert J; Simonato, Michele; Lukasiuk, Katarzyna; Gröhn, Olli; Bankstahl, Jens P; Friedman, Alon; Aronica, Eleonora; Gorter, Jan A; Ravizza, Teresa; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Kokaia, Merab; Beck, Heinz

    2016-07-01

    Over 50 million people worldwide have epilepsy. In nearly 30% of these cases, epilepsy remains unsatisfactorily controlled despite the availability of over 20 antiepileptic drugs. Moreover, no treatments exist to prevent the development of epilepsy in those at risk, despite an increasing understanding of the underlying molecular and cellular pathways. One of the major factors that have impeded rapid progress in these areas is the complex and multifactorial nature of epilepsy, and its heterogeneity. Therefore, the vision of developing targeted treatments for epilepsy relies upon the development of biomarkers that allow individually tailored treatment. Biomarkers for epilepsy typically fall into two broad categories: diagnostic biomarkers, which provide information on the clinical status of, and potentially the sensitivity to, specific treatments, and prognostic biomarkers, which allow prediction of future clinical features, such as the speed of progression, severity of epilepsy, development of comorbidities, or prediction of remission or cure. Prognostic biomarkers are of particular importance because they could be used to identify which patients will develop epilepsy and which might benefit from preventive treatments. Biomarker research faces several challenges; however, biomarkers could substantially improve the management of people with epilepsy and could lead to prevention in the right person at the right time, rather than just symptomatic treatment. PMID:27302363

  6. Scrutinizing the Biomarkers for the Neglected Chagas Disease: How Remarkable!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Rosa T.; Waghabi, Mariana C.; Cardillo, Fabíola; Mengel, José; Antas, Paulo R. Z.

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers or biosignature profiles have become accessible over time in population-based studies for Chagas disease. Thus, the identification of consistent and reliable indicators of the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with heart failure might facilitate the prioritization of therapeutic management to those with the highest chance of contracting this disease. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent state and the upcoming trends in biomarkers for human Chagas disease. As an emerging concept, we propose a classification of biomarkers based on plasmatic-, phenotype-, antigenic-, genetic-, and management-related candidates. The available data revisited here reveal the lessons learned thus far and the existing challenges that still lie ahead to enable biomarkers to be employed consistently in risk evaluation for this disease. There is a strong need for biomarker validation, particularly for biomarkers that are specific to the clinical forms of Chagas disease. The current failure to achieve the eradication of the transmission of this disease has produced determination to solve this validation issue. Finally, it would be strategic to develop a wide variety of biomarkers and to test them in both preclinical and clinical trials. PMID:27563302

  7. In situ evaluation of cadmium biomarkers in green algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Dana F.; Davis, Thomas A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Montreal, P.O. Box 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Tercier-Waeber, Mary-Lou [Analytical and Biophysical Environmental Chemistry, University of Geneva, Sciences II, 30 Quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); England, Roxane [Department of Chemistry, University of Montreal, P.O. Box 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Wilkinson, Kevin J., E-mail: kj.wilkinson@umontreal.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Montreal, P.O. Box 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    In situ measurements provide data that are the highly representative of the natural environment. In this paper, laboratory-determined biomarkers of Cd stress that were previously identified for the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, were tested in two French rivers: a contaminated site on the Riou Mort River and an 'uncontaminated' reference site on the Lot River. Transcript abundance levels were determined by real time qPCR for biomarkers thought to be Cd sensitive. Transcript levels were significantly higher (>5 fold) for organisms exposed to the contaminated site as compared to those exposed at the uncontaminated site. Biomarker mRNA levels were best correlated to free Cd (Cd{sup 2+}) rather than intracellular Cd, suggesting that they may be useful indicators of in situ stress. The paper shows that biomarker expression levels increased with time, were sensitive to metal levels and metal speciation and were higher in the 'contaminated' as opposed to the 'reference' site. - Highlights: > Biomarkers of Cd stress were tested in a contaminated and a reference site. > The organism was viable under exposure conditions and metal accumulation occurred. > Biomarker levels were correlated to Cd{sup 2+} and were higher in the contaminated site. - Algal transcription levels of several biomarkers were studied in two natural waters in situ.

  8. Biomarkers and imaging: physics and chemistry for noninvasive analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Brian R; Barrett, John A

    2009-05-01

    The era of 'modern medicine' has changed its name to 'molecular medicine', and reflects a new age based on personalized medicine utilizing molecular biomarkers in the diagnosis, staging and monitoring of therapy. Alzheimer's disease has a classical biomarker determined at autopsy with the histologic staining of amyloid accumulation in the brain. Today we can diagnose Alzheimer's disease using the same classical pathologic biomarker, but now using a noninvasive imaging probe to image the amyloid deposition in a patient and potentially provide treatment strategies and measure their effectiveness. Molecular medicine is the exploitation of biomarkers to detect disease before overt expression of pathology. Physicians can now find, fight and follow disease using imaging, and the need for other disease biomarkers is in high demand. This review will discuss the innovative physical and molecular biomarker probes now being developed for imaging systems and we will introduce the concepts needed for validation and regulatory acceptance of surrogate biomarkers in the detection and treatment of disease. PMID:21083171

  9. Significant biomarkers for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yasuteru; Kimura, Osamu; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-06-01

    Surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is important for early detection. Imaging tests including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography with or without various kinds of contrast medium are important options for detecting HCC. In addition to the imaging tests, various kinds of biomarkers including alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), lectin-bound AFP (AFP-L3) and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) have been widely used to detect HCC and analyze treatment response. Recently, various kinds of novel biomarkers (proteins and miRNA) have been found to predict the malignancy potential of HCC and treatment response to specific therapies. Moreover, various combinations of well-established biomarkers and novel biomarkers have been tested to improve sensitivity and specificity. In practical terms, biomarkers that can be analyzed using peripheral blood samples might be more useful than immunohistochemical techniques. It has been reported that quantification of cytokines in peripheral blood and the analysis of peripheral immune subsets could be good biomarkers for managing HCC. Here, we describe the usefulness of and update well-established and novel biomarkers for the management of HCC. PMID:25855582

  10. A New Serum Biomarker for Lung Cancer - Transthyretin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyun LIU

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and very few specific biomarkers could be used in clinical diagnosis at present. The aim of this study is to find novel potential serum biomarkers for lung cancer using Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI technique. Methods Serumsample of 227 cases including 146 lung cancer, 13 pneumonia, 28 tuberculous pleurisy and 40 normal individuals were analyzed by CM10 chips. The candidate biomarkers were identified by ESI/MS-MS and database searching, and further confirmed by immunoprecipitation. The same sets of serum sample from all groups were re-measured by ELISA assay. Results Three protein peaks with the molecular weight 13.78 kDa, 13.90 kDa and 14.07 kDa were found significantlydecreased in lung cancer serum compared to the other groups and were all automatically selected as specific biomarkers by Biomarker Wizard software. The candidate biomarkers obtained from 1-D SDS gel bands by matching the molecular weight with peaks on CM10 chips were identified by Mass spectrometry as the native transthyretin (nativeTTR, cysTTR and glutTTR, and the identity was further validated by immunoprecipitation using commercial TTR antibodies. Downregulated of TTR was found in both ELISA and SELDI analysis. Conclusion TTRs acted as the potentially useful biomarkers for lung cancer by SELDI technique.

  11. Significant biomarkers for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yasuteru; Kimura, Osamu; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-06-01

    Surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is important for early detection. Imaging tests including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography with or without various kinds of contrast medium are important options for detecting HCC. In addition to the imaging tests, various kinds of biomarkers including alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), lectin-bound AFP (AFP-L3) and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) have been widely used to detect HCC and analyze treatment response. Recently, various kinds of novel biomarkers (proteins and miRNA) have been found to predict the malignancy potential of HCC and treatment response to specific therapies. Moreover, various combinations of well-established biomarkers and novel biomarkers have been tested to improve sensitivity and specificity. In practical terms, biomarkers that can be analyzed using peripheral blood samples might be more useful than immunohistochemical techniques. It has been reported that quantification of cytokines in peripheral blood and the analysis of peripheral immune subsets could be good biomarkers for managing HCC. Here, we describe the usefulness of and update well-established and novel biomarkers for the management of HCC.

  12. Far Beyond the Usual Biomarkers in Breast Cancer: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos Pultz, Brunna; da Luz, Felipe Andrés Cordero; de Faria, Paulo Rogério; Oliveira, Ana Paula Lima; de Araújo, Rogério Agenor; Silva, Marcelo José Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Research investigating biomarkers for early detection, prognosis and the prediction of treatment responses in breast cancer is rapidly expanding. However, no validated biomarker currently exists for use in routine clinical practice, and breast cancer detection and management remains dependent on invasive procedures. Histological examination remains the standard for diagnosis, whereas immunohistochemical and genetic tests are utilized for treatment decisions and prognosis determinations. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive review of literature published in PubMed on breast cancer biomarkers between 2009 and 2013. The keywords that were used together were breast cancer, biomarkers, diagnosis, prognosis and drug response. The cited references of the manuscripts included in this review were also screened. We have comprehensively summarized the performance of several biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and predicted drug responses of breast cancer. Finally, we have identified 15 biomarkers that have demonstrated promise in initial studies and several miRNAs. At this point, such biomarkers must be rigorously validated in the clinical setting to be translated into clinically useful tests for the diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of drug responses of breast cancer. PMID:25057307

  13. Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development-Folate Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Lynn B; Stover, Patrick J; McNulty, Helene; Fenech, Michael F; Gregory, Jesse F; Mills, James L; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Fazili, Zia; Zhang, Mindy; Ueland, Per M; Molloy, Anne M; Caudill, Marie A; Shane, Barry; Berry, Robert J; Bailey, Regan L; Hausman, Dorothy B; Raghavan, Ramkripa; Raiten, Daniel J

    2015-07-01

    The Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) project is designed to provide evidence-based advice to anyone with an interest in the role of nutrition in health. Specifically, the BOND program provides state-of-the-art information and service with regard to selection, use, and interpretation of biomarkers of nutrient exposure, status, function, and effect. To accomplish this objective, expert panels are recruited to evaluate the literature and to draft comprehensive reports on the current state of the art with regard to specific nutrient biology and available biomarkers for assessing nutrients in body tissues at the individual and population level. Phase I of the BOND project includes the evaluation of biomarkers for 6 nutrients: iodine, iron, zinc, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin B-12. This review represents the second in the series of reviews and covers all relevant aspects of folate biology and biomarkers. The article is organized to provide the reader with a full appreciation of folate's history as a public health issue, its biology, and an overview of available biomarkers (serum folate, RBC folate, and plasma homocysteine concentrations) and their interpretation across a range of clinical and population-based uses. The article also includes a list of priority research needs for advancing the area of folate biomarkers related to nutritional health status and development. PMID:26451605

  14. Blood biomarkers in the early stage of cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrini, I; Ducroquet, A; Moulin, S; Leys, D; Cordonnier, C; Bordet, R

    2016-03-01

    In ischemic stroke patients, blood-based biomarkers may be applied for the diagnosis of ischemic origin and subtype, prediction of outcomes and targeted treatment in selected patients. Knowledge of the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia has led to the evaluation of proteins, neurotransmitters, nucleic acids and lipids as potential biomarkers. The present report focuses on the role of blood-based biomarkers in the early stage of ischemic stroke-within 72h of its onset-as gleaned from studies published in English in such patients. Despite growing interest in their potential role in clinical practice, the application of biomarkers for the management of cerebral ischemia is not currently recommended by guidelines. However, there are some promising clinical biomarkers, as well as the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) peptide and NMDA-receptor (R) autoantibodies that appear to identify the ischemic nature of stroke, and the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) that might be able to discriminate between acute ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. Moreover, genomics and proteomics allow the characterization of differences in gene expression, and protein and metabolite production, in ischemic stroke patients compared with controls and, thus, may help to identify novel markers with sufficient sensitivity and specificity. Additional studies to validate promising biomarkers and to identify novel biomarkers are needed. PMID:26988891

  15. Distribution of Triplet Separators in Bacterial Genomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Rui; ZHENG Wei-Mou

    2001-01-01

    Distributions of triplet separator lengths for two bacterial complete genomes are analyzed. The theoretical distributions for the independent random sequence and the first-order Markov chain are derived and compared with the distributions of the bacterial genomes. A prominent double band structure, which does not exist in the theoretical distributions, is observed in the bacterial distributions for most triplets.``

  16. Investigation of bacterial hopanoid inputs to soils from Western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopanoids have been widely used as characteristic biomarkers to study inputs of bacterial biomass to sediments because they are preserved in the geologic record. A limited number of studies have been performed on hopanoid biomarkers in soils. The present study examined the distribution and potential preservation of hopanoids in soils that are developed under different climatic conditions and varying vegetative inputs. Solvent extraction and sequential chemical degradation methods were employed to extract both 'free' and 'bound' hopanoids, from three grassland soils, a grassland-forest transition soil, and a forest soil from Western Canada. Identification and quantification of hopanoids in the soil samples were carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Methylbishomohopanol, bishomohopanol and bishomohopanoic acid were detected in all solvent extracts. The base hydrolysis and ruthenium tetroxide extracts contained only bishomohopanoic acid at a concentration range of 0.8-8.8 μg/gC and 2.2-28.3 μg/gC, respectively. The acid hydrolysis procedure did not release detectable amounts of hopanoids. The solvent extraction yielded the greatest amounts of 'free' hopanoids in two of the grassland soils (Dark Brown and Black Chernozems) and in the forest soil (Gray Luvisol). In contrast, the chemical degradation methods resulted in higher amounts of 'bound' hopanoids in the third grassland soil (Brown Chernozem) and the transition soil (Dark Gray Chernozem), indicating that more hopanoids exist in the 'bound' form in these soils. Overall, the forest and the transition soils contained more hopanoids than the grassland soils. This is hypothesized to be due to the greater degradation of hopanoids in the grassland soils and or sorption to clay minerals, as compared to the forest and transition soils

  17. Identification of cancer protein biomarkers using proteomic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mor, Gil G.; Ward, David C.; Bray-Ward, Patricia

    2016-10-18

    The claimed invention describes methods to diagnose or aid in the diagnosis of cancer. The claimed methods are based on the identification of biomarkers which are particularly well suited to discriminate between cancer subjects and healthy subjects. These biomarkers were identified using a unique and novel screening method described herein. The biomarkers identified herein can also be used in the prognosis and monitoring of cancer. The invention comprises the use of leptin, prolactin, OPN and IGF-II for diagnosing, prognosis and monitoring of ovarian cancer.

  18. IL-8 and cathepsin B as melanoma serum biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongtao; Fu, Ting; McGettigan, Suzanne; Kumar, Suresh; Liu, Shujing; Speicher, David; Schuchter, Lynn; Xu, Xiaowei

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma accounts for only a small portion of skin cancer but it is associated with high mortality. Melanoma serum biomarkers that may aid early diagnosis or guide therapy are needed clinically. However, studies of serum biomarkers have often been hampered by the serum interference that causes false readouts in immunological tests. Here we show that, after using a special buffer to eliminate the serum interference, IL-8 and cathepsin B levels were significantly elevated in melanoma patients (p < 0.05). More importantly, the combination of IL-8 and cathepsin B were also studied as a prognosis marker for melanoma mortality. Our study provides a novel approach to examine serum biomarkers. PMID:21673904

  19. The ongoing quest for biomarkers in Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danve, Abhijeet; O'Dell, James

    2015-11-01

    Ankylosing Spondylitis poses significant challenges in terms of early diagnosis, assessment of disease activity, predicting response to the treatment and monitoring radiographic progression. With better understanding of underlying immunopathogenesis, effective targeted therapies are available which improve symptoms, quality of life and possibly slow the radiographic progression. There has been a growing interest in the discovery of biomarkers for defining various aspects of disease assessment and management in Ankylosing Spondylitis. The C-reactive protein and HLA-B27 are most commonly used biomarkers. This review describes many other newer biomarkers which have potential clinical applications in this chronic inflammatory disease.

  20. Translational biomarkers of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beger, Richard D; Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Yang, Xi; Gill, Pritmohinder S; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Sun, Jinchun; James, Laura P

    2015-09-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a commonly used analgesic drug that can cause liver injury, liver necrosis and liver failure. APAP-induced liver injury is associated with glutathione depletion, the formation of APAP protein adducts, the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and mitochondrial injury. The systems biology omics technologies (transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) have been used to discover potential translational biomarkers of liver injury. The following review provides a summary of the systems biology discovery process, analytical validation of biomarkers and translation of omics biomarkers from the nonclinical to clinical setting in APAP-induced liver injury.

  1. Biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease in body fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Various innovative diagnostic methods for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have been developed in view of the increasing preva-lence and consequences of later-life dementia. Biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood for AD are primarily based on the detection of components derived from amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Published reports on CSF and blood biomarkers in AD indicate that although biomarkers in body fluids may be utilized in the clinical diagnosis of AD, there are no specific markers that permit accurate and reliable diagnosis of early-stage AD or the monitoring of disease pro-gression.

  2. Identification of cancer protein biomarkers using proteomic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mor, Gil G; Ward, David C; Bray-Ward, Patricia

    2015-03-10

    The claimed invention describes methods to diagnose or aid in the diagnosis of cancer. The claimed methods are based on the identification of biomarkers which are particularly well suited to discriminate between cancer subjects and healthy subjects. These biomarkers were identified using a unique and novel screening method described herein. The biomarkers identified herein can also be used in the prognosis and monitoring of cancer. The invention comprises the use of leptin, prolactin, OPN and IGF-II for diagnosing, prognosis and monitoring of ovarian cancer.

  3. Identification of cancer protein biomarkers using proteomic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mor, Gil G. (Cheshire, CT); Ward, David C. (Las Vegas, NV); Bray-Ward, Patricia (Las Vegas, NV)

    2010-02-23

    The claimed invention describes methods to diagnose or aid in the diagnosis of cancer. The claimed methods are based on the identification of biomarkers which are particularly well suited to discriminate between cancer subjects and healthy subjects. These biomarkers were identified using a unique and novel screening method described herein. The biomarkers identified herein can also be used in the prognosis and monitoring of cancer. The invention comprises the use of leptin, prolactin, OPN and IGF-II for diagnosing, prognosis and monitoring of ovarian cancer.

  4. Predictive value of liver enzymes and inflammatory biomarkers for the severity of liver fibrosis stage in HIV/HCV co-infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Charpentier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to assess a possible association between plasma inflammatory biomarkers (CRP, IL-6, soluble CD14 and the extent of fibrosis or cirrhosis using a FibroScan® in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study assessed 60 HIV/HCV co-infected patients who had paired plasma samples and FibroScan® values available. All included patients were controlled for HIV infection (HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL and had detectable HCV RNA levels. Levels of three biomarkers were measured in all samples using commercial ELISA kits. Multivariate logistic regression models identified factors associated with the METAVIR stages of fibrosis (F0-F2 vs. F3-F4. RESULTS: In univariate logistic regression analyses, in addition to sCD14 (odds ratio [OR] = 3.23, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 1.30-7.97, P = 0.01, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase, platelet counts, and CD4 cell counts were associated with the stage of liver fibrosis and, thus, were introduced into the model. However, only AST (OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.02-1.10, P = 0.0009 was independently associated with F3-F4 stage liver fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: In our study of HIV/HCV co-infected patients, sCD14 plasma level, a biomarker of monocyte activation, was not independently associated with the F3-F4 stage of liver fibrosis. We hypothesize that the higher levels of inflammation markers observed in HIV/HCV co-infected patients, compared to HCV mono-infected patients, prevent this association being observed within this population.

  5. Bacterial chromosome organization and segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrinarayanan, Anjana; Le, Tung B K; Laub, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    If fully stretched out, a typical bacterial chromosome would be nearly 1 mm long, approximately 1,000 times the length of a cell. Not only must cells massively compact their genetic material, but they must also organize their DNA in a manner that is compatible with a range of cellular processes, including DNA replication, DNA repair, homologous recombination, and horizontal gene transfer. Recent work, driven in part by technological advances, has begun to reveal the general principles of chromosome organization in bacteria. Here, drawing on studies of many different organisms, we review the emerging picture of how bacterial chromosomes are structured at multiple length scales, highlighting the functions of various DNA-binding proteins and the impact of physical forces. Additionally, we discuss the spatial dynamics of chromosomes, particularly during their segregation to daughter cells. Although there has been tremendous progress, we also highlight gaps that remain in understanding chromosome organization and segregation. PMID:26566111

  6. Bacterial streamers in curved microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard

    2009-11-01

    Biofilms, generally identified as microbial communities embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, are involved in a wide variety of health-related problems ranging from implant-associated infections to disease transmissions and dental plaque. The usual picture of these bacterial films is that they grow and develop on surfaces. However, suspended biofilm structures, or streamers, have been found in natural environments (e.g., rivers, acid mines, hydrothermal hot springs) and are always suggested to stem from a turbulent flow. We report the formation of bacterial streamers in curved microfluidic channels. By using confocal laser microscopy we are able to directly image and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of these filamentous structures. Such streamers, which always connect the inner corners of opposite sides of the channel, are always located in the middle plane. Numerical simulations of the flow provide evidences for an underlying hydrodynamic mechanism behind the formation of the streamers.

  7. Bacterial survival in Martian conditions

    CERN Document Server

    D'Alessandro, Giuseppe Galletta; Giulio Bertoloni; Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    We shortly discuss the observable consequences of the two hypotheses about the origin of life on Earth and Mars: the Lithopanspermia (Mars to Earth or viceversa) and the origin from a unique progenitor, that for Earth is called LUCA (the LUCA hypothesis). To test the possibility that some lifeforms similar to the terrestrial ones may survive on Mars, we designed and built two simulators of Martian environments where to perform experiments with different bacterial strains: LISA and mini-LISA. Our LISA environmental chambers can reproduce the conditions of many Martian locations near the surface trough changes of temperature, pressure, UV fluence and atmospheric composition. Both simulators are open to collaboration with other laboratories interested in performing experiments on many kind of samples (biological, minerals, electronic) in situations similar to that of the red planet. Inside LISA we have studied the survival of several bacterial strains and endospores. We verified that the UV light is the major re...

  8. Collective Functionality through Bacterial Individuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Martin

    According to the conventional view, the properties of an organism are a product of nature and nurture - of its genes and the environment it lives in. Recent experiments with unicellular organisms have challenged this view: several molecular mechanisms generate phenotypic variation independently of environmental signals, leading to variation in clonal groups. My presentation will focus on the causes and consequences of this microbial individuality. Using examples from bacterial genetic model systems, I will first discuss different molecular and cellular mechanisms that give rise to bacterial individuality. Then, I will discuss the consequences of individuality, and focus on how phenotypic variation in clonal populations of bacteria can promote interactions between individuals, lead to the division of labor, and allow clonal groups of bacteria to cope with environmental uncertainty. Variation between individuals thus provides clonal groups with collective functionality.

  9. Bacterial communication and group behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, E. Peter

    2003-01-01

    The existence of species-specific and interspecies bacterial cell-cell communication and group organization was only recently accepted. Researchers are now realizing that the ability of these microbial teams to communicate and form structures, known as biofilms, at key times during the establishment of infection significantly increases their ability to evade both host defenses and antibiotics. This Perspective series discusses the known signaling mechanisms, the roles they play in both chroni...

  10. The problem of bacterial diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, J T

    1976-01-01

    The reported incidence of "pathogenic" bacteria, as judged by serotype, in the stools of children with acute diarrhoea has varied from 4 to 33% over the last twenty years. Techniques such as tissue culture provide a means for detecting enterotoxin-producing strains of bacteria, strains which often do not possess "pathogenic" serotypes. "Pathogenicity" requires redefinition, and the aetiological importance of bacteria in diarrhoea is probably considerably greater than previous reports have indicated. Colonization of the bowel by a pathogen will result in structural and/or mucosal abnormalities, and will depend on a series of complex interactions between the external environment, the pathogen, and the host and its resident bacterial flora. Enteropathogenic bacteria may be broadly classified as (i) invasive (e.g. Shigella, Salmonella and some Escherichia coli) which predominantly affect the distal bowel, or (ii) non-invasive (e.g. Vibrio cholerae and E. coli) which affect the proximal bowel. V. cholerae and E. coli elaborate heat-labile enterotoxins which activate adenylate cyclase and induce small intestinal secretion; the secretory effects of heat-stable E. coli and heat-labile Shigella dysenteriae enterotoxins are not accompanied by cyclase activation. The two major complications of acute diarrhoea are (i) hypernatraemic dehydration with its attendant neurological, renal and vascular lesions, and (ii) protracted diarrhoea which may lead to severe malnutrition. Deconjugation of bile salts and colonization of the small bowel with toxigenic strains of E. coli may be important in the pathophysiology of the protracted diarrhoea syndrome. The control of bacterial diarrhoea requires a corrdinated political, educational, social, public health and scientific attack. Bacterial diarrhoea is a major health problem throughout the world, and carries an appreciable morbidity and mortality. This is particularly the case during infancy, and in those developing parts of the world

  11. Bacterial survival in Martian conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Galletta, Giuseppe; Bertoloni, Giulio; D'Alessandro, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    We shortly discuss the observable consequences of the two hypotheses about the origin of life on Earth and Mars: the Lithopanspermia (Mars to Earth or viceversa) and the origin from a unique progenitor, that for Earth is called LUCA (the LUCA hypothesis). To test the possibility that some lifeforms similar to the terrestrial ones may survive on Mars, we designed and built two simulators of Martian environments where to perform experiments with different bacterial strains: LISA and mini-LISA. ...

  12. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan; Bures; Jiri; Cyrany; Darina; Kohoutova; Miroslav; Frstl; Stanislav; Rejchrt; Jaroslav; Kvetina; Viktor; Vorisek; Marcela; Kopacova

    2010-01-01

    Human intestinal microbiota create a complex polymi-crobial ecology. This is characterised by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interaction. Any dysbalance of this complex intestinal microbiome, both qualitative and quantitative, might have serious health consequence for a macro-organism, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO).SIBO is defined as an increase in the number and/or alteration in the type of bacteria in the upper gastro-intestinal tract. There...

  13. Population dynamics of bacterial persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Patra, Pintu

    2014-01-01

    The life of microorganisms is characterized by two main tasks, rapid growth under conditions permitting growth and survival under stressful conditions. The environments, in which microorganisms dwell, vary in space and time. The microorganisms innovate diverse strategies to readily adapt to the regularly fluctuating environments. Phenotypic heterogeneity is one such strategy, where an isogenic population splits into subpopulations that respond differently under identical environments. Bacteri...

  14. Immunization by a bacterial aerosol

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Contreras, Lucila; Wong, Yun-Ling; Muttil, Pavan; Padilla, Danielle; Sadoff, Jerry; DeRousse, Jessica; Germishuizen, Willem Andreas; Goonesekera, Sunali; Elbert, Katharina; Bloom, Barry R.; Miller, Rich; Fourie, P. Bernard; Hickey, Anthony; Edwards, David

    2008-01-01

    By manufacturing a single-particle system in two particulate forms (i.e., micrometer size and nanometer size), we have designed a bacterial vaccine form that exhibits improved efficacy of immunization. Microstructural properties are adapted to alter dispersive and aerosol properties independently. Dried “nanomicroparticle” vaccines possess two axes of nanoscale dimensions and a third axis of micrometer dimension; the last one permits effective micrometer-like physical dispersion, and the form...

  15. Rheumatoid arthritis and bacterial infections

    OpenAIRE

    N L Prokopjeva; N N Vesikova; I M Marusenko; V A Ryabkov

    2008-01-01

    To study features of bacterial infections course in pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and changes of laboratory measures after focus of infection sanation. Material and methods. 46 pts with definite rheumatoid arthritis were examined at the time of comorbid infection (Cl) detection and after infection focus sanation. Bacteriological test with evaluation of flora sensitivity to antibiotics by disco-diffusion method was performed at baseline and after the course of antibacterial therapy to ass...

  16. Molecular approaches for bacterial azoreductases

    OpenAIRE

    Montira Leelakriangsak

    2013-01-01

    Azo dyes are the dominant types of synthetic dyes, widely used in textiles, foods, leather, printing, tattooing, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. Many microorganisms are able to decolorize azo dyes, and there is increasing interest in biological waste treatment methods. Bacterial azoreductases can cleave azo linkages (-N=N-) in azo dyes, forming aromatic amines. This review mainly focuses on employing molecular approaches, including gene manipulation and recombinant strains, to study...

  17. Bacterial meningitis by streptococcus agalactiae

    OpenAIRE

    Villarreal-Velásquez Tatiana Paola; Cortés-Daza César Camilo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: bacterial meningitis is an infectious disease considered a medicalemergency. The timely management has an important impact on the evolution of thedisease. Streptococcus agalactiae, a major causative agent of severe infections innewborns can colonize different tissues, including the central nervous system.Case report: Male patient 47 years old from rural areas, with work activity as amilker of cattle, referred to tertiary care, with disorientation, neck stiffness, and grandmal se...

  18. Volatile emissions from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis mirror bacterial growth and enable distinction of different strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Trefz

    Full Text Available Control of paratuberculosis in livestock is hampered by the low sensitivity of established direct and indirect diagnostic methods. Like other bacteria, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP emits volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Differences of VOC patterns in breath and feces of infected and not infected animals were described in first pilot experiments but detailed information on potential marker substances is missing. This study was intended to look for characteristic volatile substances in the headspace of cultures of different MAP strains and to find out how the emission of VOCs was affected by density of bacterial growth. One laboratory adapted and four field strains, three of MAP C-type and one MAP S-type were cultivated on Herrold's egg yolk medium in dilutions of 10(-0, 10(-2, 10(-4 and 10(-6. Volatile substances were pre-concentrated from the headspace over the MAP cultures by means of Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME, thermally desorbed from the SPME fibers and separated and identified by means of GC-MS. Out of the large number of compounds found in the headspace over MAP cultures, 34 volatile marker substances could be identified as potential biomarkers for growth and metabolic activity. All five MAP strains could clearly be distinguished from blank culture media by means of emission patterns based on these 34 substances. In addition, patterns of volatiles emitted by the reference strain were significantly different from the field strains. Headspace concentrations of 2-ethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, 3-methylfuran, 2-pentylfuran, ethyl acetate, 1-methyl-1-H-pyrrole and dimethyldisulfide varied with density of bacterial growth. Analysis of VOCs emitted from mycobacterial cultures can be used to identify bacterial growth and, in addition, to differentiate between different bacterial strains. VOC emission patterns may be used to approximate bacterial growth density. In a perspective volatile marker substances could be used to

  19. Identification of Methanotrophic Lipid Biomarkers in Cold-Seep Mussel Gills: Chemical and Isotopic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Summons, Roger E.; Dowling, Lesley M.; Zahiralis, Karen D.

    1995-01-01

    A lipid analysis of the tissues of a cold-seep mytilid mussel collected from the Louisiana slope of the Gulf of Mexico was used in conjunction with a compound-specific isotope analysis to demonstrate the presence of methanotrophic symbionts in the mussel gill tissue and to demonstrate the host's dependence on bacterially synthesized metabolic intermediates. The gill tissue contained large amounts of group-specific methanotrophic biomarkers, bacteriohopanoids, 4-methylsterols, lipopolysaccharide-associated hydroxy fatty acids, and type I-specific 16:1 fatty acid isomers with bond positions at delta-8, delta-10, and delta-ll. Only small amounts of these compounds were detected in the mantle or other tissues of the host animal. A variety of cholesterol and 4-methylsterol isomers were identified as both free and steryl esters, and the sterol double bond positions suggested that the major bacterially derived gill sterol(11.0% 4(alpha)-methyl-cholesta-8(14), 24-dien-3(beta)-ol) was converted to host cholesterol (64.2% of the gill sterol was cholest-5-en-3(beta)-ol). The stable carbon isotope values for gill and mantle preparations were, respectively, -59.0 and -60.4 per thousand for total tissue, -60.6 and -62.4 per thousand for total lipids, -60.2 and -63.9 per thousand for phospholipid fatty acids, and -71.8 and -73.8 per thousand for sterols. These stable carbon isotope values revealed that the relative fractionation pattern was similar to the patterns obtained in pure culture experiments with methanotrophic bacteria further supporting the conversion of the bacterial methyl-sterol pool.

  20. Bacterial sex in dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingar Olsen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Genes are transferred between bacteria in dental plaque by transduction, conjugation, and transformation. Membrane vesicles can also provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer. DNA transfer is considered bacterial sex, but the transfer is not parallel to processes that we associate with sex in higher organisms. Several examples of bacterial gene transfer in the oral cavity are given in this review. How frequently this occurs in dental plaque is not clear, but evidence suggests that it affects a number of the major genera present. It has been estimated that new sequences in genomes established through horizontal gene transfer can constitute up to 30% of bacterial genomes. Gene transfer can be both inter- and intrageneric, and it can also affect transient organisms. The transferred DNA can be integrated or recombined in the recipient's chromosome or remain as an extrachromosomal inheritable element. This can make dental plaque a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. The ability to transfer DNA is important for bacteria, making them better adapted to the harsh environment of the human mouth, and promoting their survival, virulence, and pathogenicity.

  1. Cytochemical Differences in Bacterial Glycocalyx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautgartner, Wolf Dietrich; Vitkov, Ljubomir; Hannig, Matthias; Pelz, Klaus; Stoiber, Walter

    2005-02-01

    To examine new cytochemical aspects of the bacterial adhesion, a strain 41452/01 of the oral commensal Streptococcus sanguis and a wild strain of Staphylococcus aureus were grown with and without sucrose supplementation for 6 days. Osmiumtetraoxyde (OsO4), uranyl acetate (UA), ruthenium red (RR), cupromeronic blue (CB) staining with critical electrolytic concentrations (CECs), and the tannic acid-metal salt technique (TAMST) were applied for electron microscopy. Cytochemically, only RR-positive fimbriae in S. sanguis were visualized. By contrast, some types of fimbriae staining were observed in S. aureus glycocalyx: RR-positive, OsO4-positive, tannophilic and CB-positive with ceasing point at 0.3 M MgCl2. The CB staining with CEC, used for the first time for visualization of glycoproteins of bacterial glycocalyx, also reveals intacellular CB-positive substances-probably the monomeric molecules, that is, subunits forming the fimbriae via extracellular assembly. Thus, glycosylated components of the biofilm matrix can be reliably related to single cells. The visualization of intracellular components by CB with CEC enables clear distinction between S. aureus and other bacteria, which do not produce CB-positive substances. The small quantities of tannophilic substances found in S. aureus makes the use of TAMST for the same purpose difficult. The present work protocol enables, for the first time, a partial cytochemical differentiation of the bacterial glycocalyx.

  2. Detection of serological biomarkers by proximity extension assay for detection of colorectal neoplasias in symptomatic individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch Thorsen, Stine; Lundberg, Martin; Villablanca, Andrea;

    2013-01-01

    of biomarkers from the bench to clinical practice we initiated a biomarker study focusing on a novel technique, the proximity extension assay, with multiplexing capability and the possible additive effect obtained from biomarker panels. We performed a screening of 74 different biomarkers in plasma derived from...

  3. The Combined Detection of Morphological and Molecular Biomarkers: Implications for Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toporski, J.; Steele, A.; Westall, F.; McKay, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    Experience gathered by previous researchers during their hunt for evidence of early Earth life has shown the complexity in interpreting observations of possible microfossils and to establish the evidence to be positive. Similarly, the stillsimmering controversy on the nature of the nano-structures in Martian meteorite ALH84001 described by McKay et al. (1996) emphasizes the difficulties of conclusively identifying those structures as (a) fossilized bacterial cells and (b) establish their indigeneity. A better understanding of biological signatures in rocks is needed in order to identify traces of microbial life, which include morphological, mineralogical and chemical traces. It is thus considered crucial to tackle the problems emerging in the search for evidence of early life on Earth and in exopaleontological research with a multidisciplinary approach. With this is mind we applied surface sensitive Time of Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) to a previously described 25 m.y. old fossil bacterial biofilm. This technique allows in situ analysis with high mass resolution as well as molecular imaging of micron sized structures. As no extraction or derivatisation of the sample is required for ToF-SIMS analysis, electron microscopical investigation of the same samples subsequent to analysis is possible, thus allowing the combination of molecular and morphological biomarkers. The analysed fossil bacterial biofilms were associated with macrofossils from volcanoclastic lacustrine sediments from the Upper Oligocene Enspel formation (Germany). Preliminary scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies have shown that a fossil structure interpreted as a coprolite purely consisted of fossilized bacterial biofilm. For ToF-SIMS investigation small particles were taken from the fossil biofilm and mounted onto Au-coated In-foil and analysed in a Phi Evans T-2000 TRIFT system. The ToF-SIMS analysed samples were Au/Pd-sputter coated and imaged using a Philips XL40 Field

  4. Bacterial adhesion and biofilms on surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Trevor Roger Garrett; Manmohan Bhakoo; Zhibing Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion has become a significant problem in industry and in the domicile,and much research has been done for deeper understanding of the processes involved.A generic biological model of bacterial adhesion and population growth called the bacterial biofilm growth cycle,has been described and modified many times.The biofilm growth cycle encompasses bacterial adhesion at all levels,starting with the initial physical attraction of bacteria to a substrate,and ending with the eventual liberation of cell dusters from the biofilm matrix.When describing bacterial adhesion one is simply describing one or more stages of biofilm development,neglecting the fact that the population may not reach maturity.This article provides an overview of bacterial adhesion.cites examples of how bac-terial adhesion affects industry and summarises methods and instrumentation used to improve our understanding of the adhesive prop-erties of bacteria.

  5. Glioblastoma extracellular vesicles: reservoirs of potential biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redzic JS

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Jasmina S Redzic,1 Timothy H Ung,2 Michael W Graner2 1Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA Abstract: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most frequent and most devastating of the primary central nervous system tumors, with few patients living beyond 2 years postdiagnosis. The damage caused by the disease and our treatments for the patients often leave them physically and cognitively debilitated. Generally, GBMs appear after very short clinical histories and are discovered by imaging (using magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], and the diagnosis is validated by pathology, following surgical resection. The treatment response and diagnosis of tumor recurrence are also tracked by MRI, but there are numerous problems encountered with these monitoring modalities, such as ambiguous interpretation and forms of pseudoprogression. Diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers would be an immense boon in following treatment schemes and in determining recurrence, which often requires an invasive intracranial biopsy to verify imaging data. Extracellular vesicles (EVs are stable, membrane-enclosed, virus-sized particles released from either the cell surface or from endosomal pathways that lead to the systemic release of EVs into accessible biofluids, such as serum/plasma, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and saliva. EVs carry a wide variety of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and other metabolites, with many common features but with enough individuality to be able to identify the cell of origin of the vesicles. These components, if properly interrogated, could allow for the identification of tumor-derived EVs in biofluids, indicating tumor progression, relapse, or treatment failure. That knowledge would allow clinicians to continue with treatment regimens that were actually effective or to change course if the therapies were failing. Here, we review

  6. Biomarkers as point-of-care tests to guide prescription of antibiotics in patients with acute respiratory infections in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune; Jensen, Jens Ulrik Stæhr; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl;

    2014-01-01

    of the observed heterogeneity.There was no difference between using a C-reactive protein point-of-care test and standard care in clinical recovery (defined as at least substantial improvement at day 7 and 28 or need for re-consultations day 28). However, we noted an increase in hospitalisations in the C......BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are by far the most common reason for prescribing an antibiotic in primary care, even though the majority of ARIs are of viral or non-severe bacterial aetiology. Unnecessary antibiotic use will, in many cases, not be beneficial to the patients...... and renders patients at risk of future ineffective treatments, in turn increasing morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. One strategy aiming to reduce antibiotic use in primary care is the guidance of antibiotic treatment by use of a point-of-care biomarker. A point-of-care biomarker of infection...

  7. cNEUPRO: Novel Biomarkers for Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Spitzer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available “clinical NEUroPROteomics of neurodegenerative diseases” (cNEUPRO is a Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP within the sixth framework program of the European Commission dedicated to the search for novel biomarker candidates for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. The ultimate goal of cNEUPRO is to identify one or more valid biomarker(s in blood and CSF applicable to support the early and differential diagnosis of dementia disorders. The consortium covers all steps required for the discovery of novel biomarker candidates such as acquisition of high quality CSF and blood samples from relevant patient groups and controls, analysis of body fluids by various methods, and finally assay development and assay validation. Here we report the standardized procedures for diagnosis and preanalytical sample-handling within the project, as well as the status of the ongoing research activities and some first results.

  8. Renal Cancer Biomarkers | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute's Laboratory of Proteomics and Analytical Technologies is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic cancer biomarkers from clinical specimens.

  9. Retracing Circulating Tumour Cells for Biomarker Characterization after Enumeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders S. Frandsen

    2015-06-01

    Mapping and retracing of CTCs enables downstream analysis of individual CTCs for existing and future cancer genotypic and phenotypic biomarkers. Future studies will uncover this potential of the novel retracing technology.

  10. HISTORICAL MONITORING OF BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE OF BROWN BULLHEAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomarkers of exposure to chemical contamination, benzo(a)pyrene (BAP) and naphthalene (NAPH) type metabolites were measured in brown bullhead from a heavily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated section of the Black River, Ohio during and immediately after remedial ...

  11. Tau/Amyloid Beta 42 Peptide Test (Alzheimer Biomarkers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful? Also known as: Alzheimer Biomarkers Formal name: Tau Protein and Amyloid Beta 42 Peptide Related tests: Phosporylated ... should know? How is it used? Tests for Tau protein and Aß42 may be used as supplemental tests ...

  12. Discovery of Novel Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease from Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jintao; Pan, Genhua; Ifeachor, Emmanuel; Belshaw, Robert; Li, Xinzhong

    2016-01-01

    Blood-based biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease would be very valuable because blood is a more accessible biofluid and is suitable for repeated sampling. However, currently there are no robust and reliable blood-based biomarkers for practical diagnosis. In this study we used a knowledge-based protein feature pool and two novel support vector machine embedded feature selection methods to find panels consisting of two and three biomarkers. We validated these biomarker sets using another serum cohort and an RNA profile cohort from the brain. Our panels included the proteins ECH1, NHLRC2, HOXB7, FN1, ERBB2, and SLC6A13 and demonstrated promising sensitivity (>87%), specificity (>91%), and accuracy (>89%). PMID:27418712

  13. The Present and Future of Prostate Cancer Urine Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Clark

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to successfully cure patients with prostate cancer (PCa, it is important to detect the disease at an early stage. The existing clinical biomarkers for PCa are not ideal, since they cannot specifically differentiate between those patients who should be treated immediately and those who should avoid over-treatment. Current screening techniques lack specificity, and a decisive diagnosis of PCa is based on prostate biopsy. Although PCa screening is widely utilized nowadays, two thirds of the biopsies performed are still unnecessary. Thus the discovery of non-invasive PCa biomarkers remains urgent. In recent years, the utilization of urine has emerged as an attractive option for the non-invasive detection of PCa. Moreover, a great improvement in high-throughput “omic” techniques has presented considerable opportunities for the identification of new biomarkers. Herein, we will review the most significant urine biomarkers described in recent years, as well as some future prospects in that field.

  14. ARSENIC INDUCTION OF HEME OXYGENASE AS A BIOMARKER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useful biomarkers of arsenic effects in both experimental animals and humans are needed. Arsenate and arsenite are good inducers of rat hepatic and renal heme oxygenase (HO); monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) are not. Therefore, HO enzyme induction ...

  15. Using biomarkers to improve detection of Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, Milton C; Galvin, James E

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Disease-modifying approaches for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) might be most effective when initiated very early in the course, before the pathologic burden and neuronal and synaptic degeneration make it unlikely that halting disease progression would have a significant impact on patient outcomes. Biomarkers of disease may provide important avenues of research to enhance the diagnosis of individuals with early AD and could assist in the identification of those individuals at risk for developing AD. However, for such biomarkers to become clinically useful, long-term follow-up studies are necessary to evaluate the relevance of cross-sectional biomarker changes to the longitudinal course of the disease. The objective of this article is to review recent progress in AD biomarkers for the early diagnosis, classification, progression and prediction of AD and their usefulness in new treatment trials. PMID:22076127

  16. Use of Gene Expression Biomarkers to Predict Suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Ries

    2016-07-01

    Since the tragic accident of Germanwings flight 4U9525, there has been discussion about methods to identify and prevent suicidality in pilots. Neurogenetic scientists claim that biomarker tests for suicidality as part of healthcare assessments may lead to early identification of suicidal behavior. In this commentary the value of these gene expression biomarkers for aeromedical purposes is evaluated based on relevant literature. It is concluded that the currently identified biomarkers for suicidality need thorough validation before they can be used. The aeromedical examiner's most important tool is still an anamnesis, in which warning signs of suicidal behavior can be picked up. Simons R. Use of gene expression biomarkers to predict suicidality. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(7):659-660. PMID:27503048

  17. Biomarkers of alcohol misuse: recent advances and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzębska, Iwona; Zwolak, Agnieszka; Szczyrek, Michał; Wawryniuk, Agnieszka; Skrzydło-Radomańska, Barbara; Daniluk, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence are highly prevalent in many cultures and contribute considerably to the global burden of health and social issues. The current inability to accurately characterise long-term drinking behaviours is a major obstacle to alcoholism diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop objective diagnostic tools to discern subjects with excessive alcohol use and alcoholism or to confirm abstinence. Research over past years has revealed several biochemical compounds with considerable potential for accurate reflection of alcohol intake. This review will address the issue of alcohol biomarker definition, the types of molecules used as so-called traditional biomarkers, and the compounds that can serve as novel biomarker candidates or components of biomarker panels. PMID:27350834

  18. Telomere Length – a New Biomarker in Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozłowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of xenobiotics in the environment and workplace influences on our health and life. Biomarkers are tools for measuring such exposures and their effects in the organism. Nowadays, telomere length, epigenetic changes, mutations and changes in gene expression pattern have become new molecular biomarkers. Telomeres play the role of molecular clock, which influences on expectancy of cell life and thus aging, the formation of damages, development diseases and carcinogenesis. The telomere length depends on mechanisms of replication and the activity of telomerase. Telomere length is currently used as a biomarker of susceptibility and/or exposure. This paper describes the role of telomere length as a biomarker of aging cells, oxidative stress, a marker of many diseases including cancer, and as a marker of environmental and occupational exposure.

  19. Neurotoxicity and Biomarkers of Lead Exposure:a Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang-sheng Liu; Jia-hu Hao; Yu Zeng; Fan-chun Dai; Ping-qing Gu

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate selection and measurement of lead biomarkers of exposure are critically important for health care management purposes, public health decision making, and primary prevention synthesis. Lead is one of the neurotoxicants that seems to be involved in the etiology of psychologies. Biomarkers are generally classified into three groups:biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility.The main body compartments that store lead are the blood, soft tissues, and bone;the half-life of lead in these tissues is measured in weeks for blood, months for soft tissues, and years for bone. Within the brain, lead-induced damage in the prefrontal cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum can lead to a variety of neurological disorders, such as brain damage, mental retardation, behavioral problems, nerve damage, and possibly Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and schizophrenia. This paper presents an overview of biomarkers of lead exposure and discusses the neurotoxic effects of lead with regard to children and adults.

  20. Stable carbon isotopes and lipid biomarkers provide new insight into the formation of calcite and siderite concretions in organic-matter rich deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Lydia; Birgel, Daniel; Wagreich, Michael; Peckmann, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    Carbonate concretions from two distinct settings have been studied for their petrography, stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, and lipid biomarker content. Carbonate concretions are in large part products of microbial degradation of organic matter, as for example by sulfate-reducing bacteria, iron-reducing bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. For these prokaryotes certain lipid biomarkers such as hopanoids, terminally-branched fatty acids (bacteria) and isoprenoids (archaea) are characteristic. Two different types of concretions were studied: a) Upper Miocene septarian calcite concretions of the southern Vienna Basin embedded in brackish sediments represented by partly bituminous calcareous sands, silts and clays; b) Paleocene-Eocene siderite concretions enclosed in marine, sandy to silty turbidites with varying carbonate contents and marl layers from the Upper Gosau Subgroup in northern Styria. Calcite concretions consist of abundant calcite microspar (80-90 vol.%), as well as detrital minerals and iron oxyhydroxides. The septarian cracks show beginning cementation with dog-tooth calcite to varying degrees. Framboidal pyrite occurs in some of the calcite concretions, pointing to bacterial sulfate reduction. Siderite concretions consist of even finer carbonate crystals, mainly siderite (40-70 vol.%) but also abundant ferroan calcite, accompanied by iron oxyhydroxides and detrital minerals. The δ13C values of the calcite concretions (-6.8 to -4.1o ) most likely reflect a combination of bacterial organic matter oxidation and input of marine biodetrital carbonate. The δ18O values range from -8.9 to -7.8o agreeing with a formation within a meteoric environment. The surrounding host sediment shows about 1-2o higher δ13C and δ18O values. The siderite δ13C values (-11.1 to -7.5o ) point to microbial respiration of organic carbon and the δ18O values (-3.5 to +2.2o ) agree with a marine depositional environment. In contrast to the calcite concretions, the stable isotope