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Sample records for biomarker blood levels

  1. Blood eosinophil levels as a biomarker in COPD.

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    Brusselle, Guy; Pavord, Ian D; Landis, Sarah; Pascoe, Steven; Lettis, Sally; Morjaria, Nikhil; Barnes, Neil; Hilton, Emma

    2018-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disorder and patients respond differently to treatment. Blood eosinophils are a potential biomarker to stratify patient subsets for COPD therapy. We reviewed the value of blood eosinophils in predicting exacerbation risk and response to corticosteroid treatment in the available literature (PubMed articles in English; keywords: "COPD" and "eosinophil"; published prior to May 2017). Overall, clinical data suggest that in patients with a history of COPD exacerbations, a higher blood eosinophil count predicts an increased risk of future exacerbations and is associated with improved response to treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (in combination with long-acting bronchodilator[s]). Blood eosinophils are therefore a promising biomarker for phenotyping patients with COPD, although prospective studies are needed to assess blood eosinophils as a biomarker of corticosteroid response for this. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vitamins and iron blood biomarkers are associated with blood pressure levels in European adolescents. The HELENA study.

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    de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Iglesia, Iris; González-Gross, Marcela; Breidenassel, Christina; Ferrari, Marika; Molnar, Dénes; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Androutsos, Odysseas; Kafatos, Anthony; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Sjöström, Michael; Gottrand, Frederic; Widhalm, Kurt; Carvalho, Heráclito Barbosa; Moreno, Luis A

    2014-01-01

    Previous research showed that low concentration of biomarkers in the blood during adolescence (i.e., iron status; retinol; and vitamins B6, B12, C, and D) may be involved in the early stages of development of many chronic diseases, such as hypertension. The aim was to evaluate if iron biomarkers and vitamins in the blood are associated with blood pressure in European adolescents. Participants from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence cross-sectional study (N = 1089; 12.5-17.5 y; 580 girls) were selected by complex sampling. Multilevel linear regression models examined the associations between iron biomarkers and vitamins in the blood and blood pressure; the analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted for contextual and individual potential confounders. A positive association was found in girls between RBC folate concentration and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (β = 3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-5.77), although no association between the vitamin serum biomarkers concentrations and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was found. In boys, retinol was positively associated with DBP (β = 3.84; 95% CI, 0.51-7.17) and vitamin B6 was positively associated with SBP (β = 3.82; 95% CI, 1.46-6.18). In contrast, holotranscobalamin was inversely associated with SBP (β = -3.74; 95% CI, -7.28 to -0.21). Levels of RBC folate and vitamin B6 in blood may affect BP in adolescents. In this context, programs aimed at avoiding high BP levels should promote healthy eating behavior by focusing on the promotion of vegetable proteins and foods rich in vitamin B12 (i.e., white meat and eggs), which may help to achieve BP blood control in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Meta-regression analysis to evaluate relationships between maternal blood levels of placentation biomarkers and low delivery weight.

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    Goto, Eita

    2018-05-03

    Caution is required for women at increased risk of low neonatal delivery weight. To evaluate relationships between maternal placentation biomarkers and the odds of low delivery weight. Databases including PubMed/MEDLINE were searched up to May 2017 using keywords involving biomarker names and "low birthweight." English language studies providing true- and false-positive, and true- and false-negative results of low delivery weight classified by maternal blood levels of placentation biomarkers (in units of multiple of the mean [MoM]) were included. Coefficients representing changes in log odds ratio for low delivery weight per 1 MoM increase in maternal blood placentation biomarkers, and those adjusted for race, sampling period, and/or study quality were calculated. Adjusted coefficients representing changes in log odds ratio for low delivery weight per 1 MoM increase in maternal blood levels of α-fetoprotein (AFP) and β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) were significantly greater than 0 (both Plow delivery weight. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Red blood cell populations and membrane levels of peroxiredoxin 2 as candidate biomarkers to reveal blood doping.

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    Marrocco, Cristina; Pallotta, Valeria; D'alessandro, Angelo; Alves, Gilda; Zolla, Lello

    2012-05-01

    Blood doping represents one main trend in doping strategies. Blood doping refers to the practice of boosting the number of red blood cells (RBCs) in the bloodstream in order to enhance athletic performance, by means of blood transfusions, administration of erythropoiesis-stimulating substances, blood substitutes, natural or artificial altitude facilities, and innovative gene therapies. While detection of recombinant EPO and homologous transfusion is already feasible through electrophoretic, mass spectrometry or flow cytometry-based approaches, no method is currently available to tackle doping strategies relying on autologous transfusions. We exploited an in vitro model of autologous transfusion through a 1:10 dilution of concentrated RBCs after 30 days of storage upon appropriate dilution in freshly withdrawn RBCs from the same donor. Western blot towards membrane Prdx2 and Percoll density gradients were exploited to assess their suitability as biomarkers of transfusion. Membrane Prdx2 was visible in day 30 samples albeit not in day 0, while it was still visible in the 1:10 dilution of day 30 in day 0 RBCs. Cell gradients also highlighted changes in the profile of the RBC subpopulations upon dilution of stored RBCs in the fresh ones. From this preliminary in vitro investigation it emerges that Prdx2 and RBC populations might be further tested as candidate biomarkers of blood doping through autologous transfusion, though it is yet to be assessed whether the kinetics in vivo of Prdx2 exposure in the membrane of transfused RBCs will endow a sufficient time-window to allow reliable anti-doping testing.

  5. Nampt/PBEF/visfatin serum levels: a new biomarker for retinal blood vessel occlusions

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    Kaja S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Simon Kaja,1,* Anna A Shah,1,* Shamim A Haji,1,* Krishna B Patel,1 Yuliya Naumchuk,1 Alexander Zabaneh,1 Bryan C Gerdes,1 Nancy Kunjukunju,1 Nelson R Sabates,1 Michael A Cassell,1 Ron K Lord,1 Kevin P Pikey,1 Abraham Poulose,1 Peter Koulen1,21Vision Research Center, Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Basic Medical Science, School of Medicine, University of Missouri – Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The main objective of the study was to quantify serum levels of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt/pre-B-Cell colony-enhancing factor 1/visfatin in subjects with a history of retinal vascular occlusions (RVOs, disease conditions characterized by pronounced ischemia, and metabolic energy deficits. A case–control study of 18 subjects with a history of RVO as well as six healthy volunteers is presented. Serum Nampt levels were quantified using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Serum Nampt levels were 79% lower in patients with a history of RVO compared with that in healthy volunteers (P<0.05. There was no statistically significant difference among the types of RVOs, specifically branch retinal vein occlusions (n=7, central retinal vein occlusions (n=5, hemiretinal vein occlusions (n=3, and central retinal artery occlusions (n=3; P=0.69. Further studies are needed to establish the temporal kinetics of Nampt expression and to determine whether Nampt may represent a novel biomarker to identify at-risk populations, or whether it is a druggable target with the potential to ameliorate the long-term complications associated with the condition, ie, macular edema, macular ischemia, neovascularization, and permanent loss of vision.Keywords: Nampt, PBEF, visfatin, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor, retinal artery occlusion, retinal vein occlusion, biomarker, retina, vasculature

  6. Benzene in blood as a biomarker of low level occupational exposure

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    Brugnone, F.; Perbellini, L.; Romeo, L.; Cerpelloni, M.; Bianchin, M.; Tonello, A. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, University of Verona, Policlinico Borgo Roma, 37134 Verona (Italy)

    1999-09-01

    The occupational airborne exposure to benzene of 150 workers employed in petrol stations and a refinery plant was assessed using personal sampling pumps. All workers provided blood samples after the end of work and on the following morning before resuming work. Benzene concentrations in the blood of 243 non-occupationally-exposed subjects were also measured. The median occupational benzene exposure for all 150 workers studied was 80 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Overall median blood benzene of all workers was 251 ng/l at the end of the shift, and 174 ng/l the following morning. The benzene concentrations measured in blood collected the following morning proved to be significantly lower than those measured at the end of the shift. Median blood benzene for the 243 'normal' subjects was 128 ng/l, which was significantly lower than that measured in the workers before a new work shift. The median blood benzene concentration was significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, both in the general population (210 ng/l vs. 110 ng/l) and in the exposed workers at the end of the shift (476 ng/l vs. 132 ng/l) and the following morning (360 ng/l vs. 99 ng/l). End-of-shift blood benzene correlated significantly with environmental exposure; this correlation was better in the 83 non-smokers than in the 67 smokers. In non-smokers with the median benzene occupational exposure of 50 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, no difference was found in blood benzene concentration in exposed and non-exposed subjects.

  7. Comparison of arterial and venous blood biomarker levels in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/9x

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    Emer Kelly

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The development of novel biomarkers is an unmet need in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Arterial blood comes directly from the lung and venous blood drains capillary beds of the organ or tissue supplied. We hypothesized that there would be a difference in levels of the biomarkers metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A and interleukin 6 (IL-6 in arterial compared with venous blood.  Methods: Radial artery and brachial vein blood samples were taken simultaneously in each of 12 patients with COPD and seven controls with normal lung function. Circulating immunoreactive MMP-9, VEGF-A and IL-6 levels in serum were measured using quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results were compared using a Student’s paired t test. The study was powered to determine whether significant differences in cytokine levels were present between paired arterial and venous blood samples.   Results: In the 12 patients with COPD, four were female, and age ranged 53-85 years, mean age 69 years. Three patients in the control group were female, with age range 46-84 years, mean age 64.7 years. In the COPD group, three patients had mild, five moderate and four severe COPD. No significant difference was found between arterial and venous levels of MMP-9, VEGF-A or IL-6.  Conclusions: In this pilot study, levels of the measured biomarkers in arterial compared with venous blood in both COPD patients and healthy controls did not differ. This suggests that as we continue to chase the elusive biomarker in COPD as a potential tool to measure disease activity, we should focus on venous blood for this purpose.

  8. Blood biomarkers and contaminant levels in feathers and eggs to assess environmental hazards in heron nestlings from impacted sites in Ebro basin (NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barata, C.; Fabregat, M.C.; Cotin, J.; Huertas, D.; Sole, M.; Quiros, L.; Sanpera, C.; Jover, L.; Ruiz, X.; Grimalt, J.O.; Pina, B.

    2010-01-01

    Blood biomarkers and levels of major pollutants in eggs and feathers were used to determine pollution effects in nestlings of the Purple Heron Ardea purpurea and the Little Egret Egretta garzetta, sampled on three Ebro River (NE Spain) areas: a reference site, a site affected by the effluents of a chlor-alkali industry and the river Delta. The two impacted heron populations showed mutually different pollutant and response patterns, suggesting different sources of contamination. In the population nesting near the chlor-alkali plant, elevated levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in eggs, and mercury in feathers in A. purpurea chicks were related with reduced blood antioxidant defenses and increased levels of micronuclei. In Ebro Delta, high levels of plasmatic lactate dehydrogenase in A. purpurea chicks and high frequency of micronuclei in blood of both species were tentatively associated with intensive agricultural activities taking place in the area. These results provide the first evidence of a biological response in heron chicks to the release of pollutants at a chlor-alkali plant. - High levels of organochlorine and mercury levels in eggs and feathers were related with altered blood biomarkers of heron nesting chicks.

  9. Changes in cytokine and biomarker blood levels in patients with colorectal cancer during dendritic cell-based vaccination

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    Burgdorf, Stefan K; Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Nielsen, Hans J

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Immunotherapy based on dendritic cell vaccination has exciting perspectives for treatment of cancer. In order to clarify immunological mechanisms during vaccination it is essential with intensive monitoring of the responses. This may lead to optimization of treatment and prediction...... of responding patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate cytokine and biomarker responses in patients with colorectal cancer treated with a cancer vaccine based on dendritic cells pulsed with an allogeneic melanoma cell lysate. Material and methods. Plasma and serum samples were collected prior...... disease showed increasing levels of plasma GM-CSF, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-2, and IL-5. Patients with progressive disease showed significant increase in CEA and TIMP-1 levels, while patients with stable disease showed relatively unaltered levels. Conclusion. The increased levels of key pro...

  10. The mRNA level of MLH1 in peripheral blood is a biomarker for the diagnosis of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Li, Hui; Cui, Yongan; Xiao, Wei; Dai, Guihong; Huang, Junxing; Wang, Chaofu

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is caused by functional defects in mismatch repair (MMR) genes, including mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) and mutS homolog 2 (MSH2). This study aimed to assess whether the mRNA expression of MLH1 in peripheral blood could be used as a biomarkers for the diagnosis of HNPCC. The mRNA level of MLH1 was determined in 19 HNPCC families (46 members) using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The mRNA levels of MLH1 in HNPCC were significantly lower than controls (P MLH1 for the diagnosis of HNPCC with the area under curve of 0.858. At an optimal cut-off value (0.511), the mRNA level of MLH1 had a sensitivity of 81.3% and a specificity of 86.7% for distinguishing HNPCC from controls. In conclusion, the mRNA expression of MLH1 in peripheral blood may serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis of HNPCC.

  11. Blood biomarkers and contaminant levels in feathers and eggs to assess environmental hazards in heron nestlings from impacted sites in Ebro basin (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, C; Fabregat, M C; Cotín, J; Huertas, D; Solé, M; Quirós, L; Sanpera, C; Jover, L; Ruiz, X; Grimalt, J O; Piña, B

    2010-03-01

    Blood biomarkers and levels of major pollutants in eggs and feathers were used to determine pollution effects in nestlings of the Purple Heron Ardea purpurea and the Little Egret Egretta garzetta, sampled on three Ebro River (NE Spain) areas: a reference site, a site affected by the effluents of a chlor-alkali industry and the river Delta. The two impacted heron populations showed mutually different pollutant and response patterns, suggesting different sources of contamination. In the population nesting near the chlor-alkali plant, elevated levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in eggs, and mercury in feathers in A. purpurea chicks were related with reduced blood antioxidant defenses and increased levels of micronuclei. In Ebro Delta, high levels of plasmatic lactate dehydrogenase in A. purpurea chicks and high frequency of micronuclei in blood of both species were tentatively associated with intensive agricultural activities taking place in the area. These results provide the first evidence of a biological response in heron chicks to the release of pollutants at a chlor-alkali plant. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [The umbilical blood levels of lead and some other toxic metals as a biomarker of environment-induced exposure].

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    Privalova, L I; Malykh, O L; Matiukhina, G V; Gnezdilova, S V

    2007-01-01

    Groups of pregnant women, which made up in Revda, Pervouralsk, Krasnouralsk, and Verkh-Isetsky District of Yekaterinburg, were studied. Tests of umbilical blood samples (UB) for the levels of calcium, iron, chromium, manganese, zinc, nickel, cadmium, lead, arsenic, copper, and mercury have established that the mean concentration of lead and the proportion of samples with elevated UB lead concentrations depend on how close the residential area is located to the major industrial source of emission of this toxic metal into ambient air. This correlation is less marked for other metals or it is not found. The particular position of lead is likely to be explained by the fact that it is entirely foreign to an organism and by the comparative unimportance of a contribution of the sources of exposure to this metal, which are unassociated with man-caused environmental and food pollution. As far as other metals are concerned, the situation is complicated by the fact that they are not only toxic, but when upon minor exposures, also essential biotrace elements with controlled and interdependent toxic kinetics. It is also shown that when a pregnant woman takes a complex of biological protectors promoting a reduction in her body's levels of lead, its concentrations in her body, its UB concentration is much lower than such a bioprophylactic effect is absent.

  13. Autologous Blood Transfusion in Sports: Emerging Biomarkers.

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    Salamin, Olivier; De Angelis, Sara; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Saugy, Martial; Leuenberger, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Despite being prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency, blood doping through erythropoietin injection or blood transfusion is frequently used by athletes to increase oxygen delivery to muscles and enhance performance. In contrast with allogeneic blood transfusion and erythropoietic stimulants, there is presently no direct method of detection for autologous blood transfusion (ABT) doping. Blood reinfusion is currently monitored with individual follow-up of hematological variables via the athlete biological passport, which requires further improvement. Microdosage is undetectable, and suspicious profiles in athletes are often attributed to exposure to altitude, heat stress, or illness. Additional indirect biomarkers may increase the sensitivity and specificity of the longitudinal approach. The emergence of "-omics" strategies provides new opportunities to discover biomarkers for the indirect detection of ABT. With the development of direct quantitative methods, transcriptomics based on microRNA or messenger RNA expression is a promising approach. Because blood donation and blood reinfusion alter iron metabolism, quantification of proteins involved in metal metabolism, such as hepcidin, may be applied in an "ironomics" strategy to improve the detection of ABT. As red blood cell (RBC) storage triggers changes in membrane proteins, proteomic methods have the potential to identify the presence of stored RBCs in blood. Alternatively, urine matrix can be used for the quantification of the plasticizer di(2-ethyhexyl)phthalate and its metabolites that originate from blood storage bags, suggesting recent blood transfusion, and have an important degree of sensitivity and specificity. This review proposes that various indirect biomarkers should be applied in combination with mathematical approaches for longitudinal monitoring aimed at improving ABT detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in cytokine and biomarker blood levels in patients with colorectal cancer during dendritic cell-based vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, Stefan; Claesson, Mogens; Nielsen, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Immunotherapy based on dendritic cell vaccination has exciting perspectives for treatment of cancer. In order to clarify immunological mechanisms during vaccination it is essential with intensive monitoring of the responses. This may lead to optimization of treatment and prediction......-inflammatory cytokines in serum of patients who achieved stable disease following vaccination suggest the occurrence of vaccine-induced Th1 responses. Since Th1 responses seem to be essential in cancer immunotherapy this may indicate a therapeutic potential of the vaccine....... of responding patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate cytokine and biomarker responses in patients with colorectal cancer treated with a cancer vaccine based on dendritic cells pulsed with an allogeneic melanoma cell lysate. Material and methods. Plasma and serum samples were collected prior...

  15. BLOOD BIOMARKERS FOR EVALUATION OF PERINATAL ENCEPHALOPATHY

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    Ernest Marshall Graham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in identification of brain injury after trauma shows many possible blood biomarkers that may help identify the fetus and neonate with encephalopathy. Traumatic brain injury shares many common features with perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Trauma has a hypoxic component, and one of the 1st physiologic consequences of moderate-severe traumatic brain injury is apnea. Trauma and hypoxia-ischemia initiate an excitotoxic cascade and free radical injury followed by the inflammatory cascade, producing injury in neurons, glial cells and white matter. Increased excitatory amino acids, lipid peroxidation products and alteration in microRNAs and inflammatory markers are common to both traumatic brain injury and perinatal encephalopathy. The blood-brain barrier is disrupted in both leading to egress of substances normally only found in the central nervous system. Brain exosomes may represent ideal biomarker containers, as RNA and protein transported within the vesicles are protected from enzymatic degradation. Evaluation of fetal or neonatal brain derived exosomes that cross the blood-brain barrier and circulate peripherally has been referred to as the liquid brain biopsy. A multiplex of serum biomarkers could improve upon the current imprecise methods of identifying fetal and neonatal brain injury such as fetal heart rate abnormalities, meconium, cord gases at delivery, and Apgar scores. Quantitative biomarker measurements of perinatal brain injury and recovery could lead to operative delivery only in the presence of significant fetal risk, triage to appropriate therapy after birth and measure the effectiveness of treatment.

  16. Blood Biomarkers in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

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    Guiot, Julien; Moermans, Catherine; Henket, Monique; Corhay, Jean-Louis; Louis, Renaud

    2017-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and lethal lung disease of unknown origin whose incidence has been increasing over the latest decade partly as a consequence of population ageing. New anti-fibrotic therapy including pirfenidone and nintedanib have now proven efficacy in slowing down the disease. Nevertheless, diagnosis and follow-up of IPF remain challenging. This review examines the recent literature on potentially useful blood molecular and cellular biomarkers in IPF. Most of the proposed biomarkers belong to chemokines (IL-8, CCL18), proteases (MMP-1 and MMP-7), and growth factors (IGBPs) families. Circulating T cells and fibrocytes have also gained recent interest in that respect. Up to now, though several interesting candidates are profiling there has not been a single biomarker, which proved to be specific of the disease and predictive of the evolution (decline of pulmonary function test values, risk of acute exacerbation or mortality). Large scale multicentric studies are eagerly needed to confirm the utility of these biomarkers.

  17. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis multiprotein biomarkers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

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    Giovanni Nardo

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal progressive motor neuron disease, for which there are still no diagnostic/prognostic test and therapy. Specific molecular biomarkers are urgently needed to facilitate clinical studies and speed up the development of effective treatments.We used a two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis approach to identify in easily accessible clinical samples, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, a panel of protein biomarkers that are closely associated with ALS. Validations and a longitudinal study were performed by immunoassays on a selected number of proteins. The same proteins were also measured in PBMC and spinal cord of a G93A SOD1 transgenic rat model. We identified combinations of protein biomarkers that can distinguish, with high discriminatory power, ALS patients from healthy controls (98%, and from patients with neurological disorders that may resemble ALS (91%, between two levels of disease severity (90%, and a number of translational biomarkers, that link responses between human and animal model. We demonstrated that TDP-43, cyclophilin A and ERp57 associate with disease progression in a longitudinal study. Moreover, the protein profile changes detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of ALS patients are suggestive of possible intracellular pathogenic mechanisms such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, nitrative stress, disturbances in redox regulation and RNA processing.Our results indicate that PBMC multiprotein biomarkers could contribute to determine amyotrophic lateral sclerosis diagnosis, differential diagnosis, disease severity and progression, and may help to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms.

  18. Blood biomarkers of Hikikomori, a severe social withdrawal syndrome.

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    Hayakawa, Kohei; Kato, Takahiro A; Watabe, Motoki; Teo, Alan R; Horikawa, Hideki; Kuwano, Nobuki; Shimokawa, Norihiro; Sato-Kasai, Mina; Kubo, Hiroaki; Ohgidani, Masahiro; Sagata, Noriaki; Toda, Hiroyuki; Tateno, Masaru; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Kishimoto, Junji; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2018-02-13

    Hikikomori, a severe form of social withdrawal syndrome, is a growing social issue in Japan and internationally. The pathophysiology of hikikomori has not yet been elucidated and an effective treatment remains to be established. Recently, we revealed that avoidant personality disorder is the most common comorbidity of hikikomori. Thus, we have postulated that avoidant personality is the personality underpinning hikikomori. First, we herein show relationships between avoidant personality traits, blood biomarkers, hikikomori-related psychological features, and behavioural characteristics assessed by a trust game in non-hikikomori volunteers. Avoidant personality traits were negatively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and uric acid (UA) in men, and positively associated with fibrin degeneration products (FDP) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in women. Next, we recruited actual individuals with hikikomori, and compared avoidant personality traits, blood biomarkers, and psychological features between individuals with hikikomori and age-matched healthy controls. Individuals with hikikomori had higher avoidant personality scores in both sexes, and showed lower serum UA levels in men and lower HDL-C levels in women compared with healthy controls. This is the first report showing possible blood biomarkers for hikikomori, and opens the door to clarify the underlying biological pathophysiology of hikikomori.

  19. Using exposure windows to explore an elusive biomarker: blood manganese.

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    Baker, Marissa G; Stover, Bert; Simpson, Christopher D; Sheppard, Lianne; Seixas, Noah S

    2016-05-01

    We sought to understand the time course between exposure to manganese (Mn) and uptake into the blood, to allow a more meaningful interpretation of exposure biomarker data, and to determine the utility of blood as a biomarker of Mn exposure. Welder trainees were monitored over the course of a five-quarter training program. Each quarter, trainees gave eight blood samples and had personal air monitoring four times. A mixed model was fit to obtain estimates of airborne exposure by welding type (fixed effect), adjusted for subject (random effect). Considering weekends and days absent as zero exposure, estimated exposures were summed over various exposure windows and related to measured blood manganese (MnB) using a mixed model. A relationship consistent with zero was found between MnB and modeled 1 or 7 days of exposure. After 30 days of preceding exposure, a 1 mg-days/m(3) increase in air Mn is associated with a 0.57 ng/mL increase in MnB (95% CI -0.04, 1.19). Considering a 90-day exposure window and a cumulative exposure window, a 1 mg-days/m(3) increase in air Mn is associated with a 0.26 (95% CI 0.005, 0.51) and 0.09 (95% CI 0.006, 0.17) ng/mL increase in MnB, respectively. From this analysis, MnB may begin to act as a biomarker of Mn exposure over longer time periods, or at higher levels of exposure. This novel study design allowed investigation of how MnB relates to different time windows of exposure, representing the most robust Mn exposure assessment in the biomarker literature.

  20. Lead levels - blood

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    Blood lead levels ... is used to screen people at risk for lead poisoning. This may include industrial workers and children ... also used to measure how well treatment for lead poisoning is working. Lead is common in the ...

  1. Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

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    ... and NutritionHealth Insurance: Understanding What It CoversHigh Homocysteine Level: How It Affects Your Blood VesselsUnderstanding Your Medical ... Health Resources Healthcare Management Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level Share Print What ...

  2. Effect of consuming a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage on health-related biomarkers and safety parameters in Caucasian subjects with elevated levels of blood pressure and liver function biomarkers: a 4-week, open-label, non-comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Tomoyuki; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Watanabe, Osamu; Goto, Kazuhisa; Boelsma, Esther; Ishikawa, Fumiyasu; Suda, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    An open-label study with one treatment arm was conducted to investigate changes in health-related biomarkers (blood pressure and liver enzyme activity) and the safety of 4 weeks of consuming a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage in Caucasian subjects. Twenty healthy adults, 18-70 years of age, with a body mass index >25 kg/m(2), elevated blood pressure and elevated levels of liver function biomarkers consumed two cartons of purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage (125 ml, including 117 mg anthocyanin per carton) daily for 4 weeks. Hematology, serum clinical profile, dipstick urinalysis and blood pressure were determined before consumption, at 2 and 4 weeks of consumption and after a 2-week washout period. A trend was found toward lowering systolic blood pressure during the treatment period (p=0.0590). No significant changes were found in diastolic blood pressure throughout the study period. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower after 4 weeks of consumption compared with before consumption (p=0.0125) and was significantly higher after the 2-week washout period compared with after consumption (p=0.0496). The serum alanine aminotransferase level significantly increased over time, but aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyltransferase levels stayed within the normal range of reference values. Safety parameters of the blood and urine showed no clinically relevant changes. The consumption of a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage for 4 weeks resulted in no clinically relevant changes in safety parameters of the blood and urine and showed a trend toward lowering systolic blood pressure.

  3. INTEGRATION OF BIOMARKERS INTO THE PRACTICE OF TREATING PATIENTS WITH HEART FAILURE: THE ROLE OF DETERMINING THE BLOOD LEVEL OF NATRIURETIC PEPTIDES

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    S. R. Gilyarevskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinical role of biomarkers (especially, natriuretic peptides is discussed in the article. The most important evidences of clinical effectiveness of using biomarkers in patients with suspected heart failure and in patients with confirmed diagnose of heart failure are reviewed. The need to use natriuretic peptides in patients with takotsubo syndrome is discussed. Limited diagnostic value of using natriuretic peptides in renal dysfunction, as well as in other diseases in which the concentration of natriuretic peptides may increase in the absence of heart failure, is also discussed.

  4. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  5. Differential blood-based biomarkers of psychopathological dimensions of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alvarez, Leticia; Garcia-Portilla, Maria Paz; Gonzalez-Blanco, Leticia; Saiz Martinez, Pilar Alejandra; de la Fuente-Tomas, Lorena; Menendez-Miranda, Isabel; Iglesias, Celso; Bobes, Julio

    Symptomatology of schizophrenia is heterogeneous, there is not any pathognomonic symptom. Moreover, the diagnosis is difficult, since it is based on subjective information, instead of markers. The purpose of this study is to provide a review of the current status of blood-based biomarkers of psychopathological dimensions of schizophrenia. Inflammatory, hormonal or metabolic dysfunctions have been identified in patients with schizophrenia and it has attempted to establish biomarkers responsible for these dysfunctions. The identification of these biomarkers could contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Developing novel blood-based biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snyder, Heather M; Carrillo, Maria C; Grodstein, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the public health crisis of the 21st century. There is a clear need for a widely available, inexpensive and reliable method to diagnosis Alzheimer's disease in the earliest stages, track disease progression, and accelerate clinical development of new therapeutics. One avenue...... of research being explored is blood based biomarkers. In April 2012, the Alzheimer's Association and the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation convened top scientists from around the world to discuss the state of blood based biomarker development. This manuscript summarizes the meeting and the resultant...

  7. Novel automated blood separations validate whole cell biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas E Burger

    Full Text Available Progress in clinical trials in infectious disease, autoimmunity, and cancer is stymied by a dearth of successful whole cell biomarkers for peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs. Successful biomarkers could help to track drug effects at early time points in clinical trials to prevent costly trial failures late in development. One major obstacle is the inaccuracy of Ficoll density centrifugation, the decades-old method of separating PBLs from the abundant red blood cells (RBCs of fresh blood samples.To replace the Ficoll method, we developed and studied a novel blood-based magnetic separation method. The magnetic method strikingly surpassed Ficoll in viability, purity and yield of PBLs. To reduce labor, we developed an automated platform and compared two magnet configurations for cell separations. These more accurate and labor-saving magnet configurations allowed the lymphocytes to be tested in bioassays for rare antigen-specific T cells. The automated method succeeded at identifying 79% of patients with the rare PBLs of interest as compared with Ficoll's uniform failure. We validated improved upfront blood processing and show accurate detection of rare antigen-specific lymphocytes.Improving, automating and standardizing lymphocyte detections from whole blood may facilitate development of new cell-based biomarkers for human diseases. Improved upfront blood processes may lead to broad improvements in monitoring early trial outcome measurements in human clinical trials.

  8. Novel automated blood separations validate whole cell biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Douglas E; Wang, Limei; Ban, Liqin; Okubo, Yoshiaki; Kühtreiber, Willem M; Leichliter, Ashley K; Faustman, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    Progress in clinical trials in infectious disease, autoimmunity, and cancer is stymied by a dearth of successful whole cell biomarkers for peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Successful biomarkers could help to track drug effects at early time points in clinical trials to prevent costly trial failures late in development. One major obstacle is the inaccuracy of Ficoll density centrifugation, the decades-old method of separating PBLs from the abundant red blood cells (RBCs) of fresh blood samples. To replace the Ficoll method, we developed and studied a novel blood-based magnetic separation method. The magnetic method strikingly surpassed Ficoll in viability, purity and yield of PBLs. To reduce labor, we developed an automated platform and compared two magnet configurations for cell separations. These more accurate and labor-saving magnet configurations allowed the lymphocytes to be tested in bioassays for rare antigen-specific T cells. The automated method succeeded at identifying 79% of patients with the rare PBLs of interest as compared with Ficoll's uniform failure. We validated improved upfront blood processing and show accurate detection of rare antigen-specific lymphocytes. Improving, automating and standardizing lymphocyte detections from whole blood may facilitate development of new cell-based biomarkers for human diseases. Improved upfront blood processes may lead to broad improvements in monitoring early trial outcome measurements in human clinical trials.

  9. Use of blood biomarkers to screen for obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleming WE

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Wesley Elon Fleming,1 Jon-Erik C Holty,2 Richard K Bogan,3 Dennis Hwang,4 Aliya S Ferouz-Colborn,4 Rohit Budhiraja,5 Susan Redline,5 Edith Mensah-Osman,6 Nadir Ishag Osman,6 Qing Li,7 Armaghan Azad,1 Susann Podolak,1 Michael K Samoszuk,8 Amabelle B Cruz,8 Yang Bai,8 Jiuliu Lu,8 John S Riley,8 Paula C Southwick8 1Sleep Center Orange County, Irvine, CA, USA; 2Stanford Medical School, VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine Section, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 3SleepMed Inc., Bogan Sleep Consultants, LLC, Columbia, SC, USA; 4Sleep Medicine Department, Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Kaiser Permanente, Fontana Medical Center, Fontana, CA, USA; 5Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 6EENA Comprehensive Neurology and Sleep Center, Boynton Beach, FL, USA; 7South Bend Medical Foundation, New Technology and Test Development, South Bend, IN, USA; 8Clinical Research Department, Beckman Coulter, Inc., Brea, CA, USAPurpose: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a highly prevalent disorder associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other chronic conditions. Unfortunately, up to 90% of individuals with OSA remain without a diagnosis or therapy. We assess the relationship between OSA and blood biomarkers, and test the hypothesis that combinations of markers provide a characteristic OSA signature with diagnostic screening value. This validation study was conducted in an independent cohort in order to replicate findings from a prior feasibility study.Patients and methods: This multicenter prospective study consecutively enrolled adult male subjects with clinically suspected OSA. All subjects underwent overnight sleep studies. An asymptomatic control group was also obtained. Five biomarkers were tested: glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, C-reactive protein (CRP, uric acid, erythropoietin (EPO, and interleukin-6 (IL-6.Results: The study

  10. Blood biomarkers for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Shaikh, Rabia; Farquhar, Cindy; Jordan, Vanessa; Scheffers, Carola S; Mol, Ben Willem J; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M Louise

    2016-05-01

    About 10% of reproductive-aged women suffer from endometriosis, a costly chronic disease causing pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, but is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no non-invasive or minimally invasive tests available in clinical practice to accurately diagnose endometriosis. Although other reviews have assessed the ability of blood tests to diagnose endometriosis, this is the first review to use Cochrane methods, providing an update on the rapidly expanding literature in this field. To evaluate blood biomarkers as replacement tests for diagnostic surgery and as triage tests to inform decisions on surgery for endometriosis. Specific objectives include:1. To provide summary estimates of the diagnostic accuracy of blood biomarkers for the diagnosis of peritoneal, ovarian and deep infiltrating pelvic endometriosis, compared to surgical diagnosis as a reference standard.2. To assess the diagnostic utility of biomarkers that could differentiate ovarian endometrioma from other ovarian masses. We did not restrict the searches to particular study designs, language or publication dates. We searched CENTRAL to July 2015, MEDLINE and EMBASE to May 2015, as well as these databases to 20 April 2015: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, LILACS, OAIster, TRIP, ClinicalTrials.gov, DARE and PubMed. We considered published, peer-reviewed, randomised controlled or cross-sectional studies of any size, including prospectively collected samples from any population of reproductive-aged women suspected of having one or more of the following target conditions: ovarian, peritoneal or deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). We included studies comparing the diagnostic test accuracy of one or more blood biomarkers with the findings of surgical visualisation of endometriotic lesions. Two authors independently collected and performed a quality assessment of data from each study. For each diagnostic test

  11. [Neuroimaging and Blood Biomarkers in Functional Prognosis after Stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, João Paulo; Costa, Joana Santos; Sargento-Freitas, João; Oliveira, Sandra; Mendes, Bruno; Laíns, Jorge; Pinheiro, João

    2016-11-01

    Stroke remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world and it is associated with an important long-term functional disability. Some neuroimaging resources and certain peripheral blood or cerebrospinal fluid proteins can give important information about etiology, therapeutic approach, follow-up and functional prognosis in acute ischemic stroke patients. However, among the scientific community, there is currently more interest in the stroke vital prognosis over the functional prognosis. Predicting the functional prognosis during acute phase would allow more objective rehabilitation programs and better management of the available resources. The aim of this work is to review the potential role of acute phase neuroimaging and blood biomarkers as functional recovery predictors after ischemic stroke. Review of the literature published between 2005 and 2015, in English, using the terms "ischemic stroke", "neuroimaging" e "blood biomarkers". We included nine studies, based on abstract reading. Computerized tomography, transcranial doppler ultrasound and diffuse magnetic resonance imaging show potential predictive value, based on the blood flow study and the evaluation of stroke's volume and localization, especially when combined with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Several biomarkers have been studied as diagnostic, risk stratification and prognostic tools, namely the S100 calcium binding protein B, C-reactive protein, matrix metalloproteinases and cerebral natriuretic peptide. Although some biomarkers and neuroimaging techniques have potential predictive value, none of the studies were able to support its use, alone or in association, as a clinically useful functionality predictor model. All the evaluated markers were considered insufficient to predict functional prognosis at three months, when applied in the first hours after stroke. Additional studies are necessary to identify reliable predictive markers for functional

  12. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Multiprotein Biomarkers in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nardo, Giovanni; Pozzi, Silvia; Pignataro, Mauro; Lauranzano, Eliana; Spano, Giorgia; Garbelli, Silvia; Mantovani, Stefania; Marinou, Kalliopi; Papetti, Laura; Monteforte, Marta; Torri, Valter; Paris, Luca; Bazzoni, Gianfranco; Lunetta, Christian; Corbo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal progressive motor neuron disease, for which there are still no diagnostic/prognostic test and therapy. Specific molecular biomarkers are urgently needed to facilitate clinical studies and speed up the development of effective treatments. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis approach to identify in easily accessible clinical samples, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), a panel...

  13. Transcriptomic biomarkers of altered erythropoiesis to detect autologous blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamin, Olivier; Mignot, Jonathan; Kuuranne, Tiia; Saugy, Martial; Leuenberger, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    Autologous blood transfusion is a powerful means of improving performance and remains one of the most challenging methods to detect. Recent investigations have identified 3 candidate reticulocytes genes whose expression was significantly influenced by blood transfusion. Using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction as an alternative quantitative method, the present study supports that delta-aminolevulinate synthase 2 (ALAS2), carbonic anhydrase (CA1), and solute carrier family 4 member 1 (SLC4A1) genes are down-regulated post-transfusion. The expression of these genes exhibited stronger correlation with immature reticulocyte fraction than with reticulocytes percentage. Moreover, the repression of reticulocytes' gene expression was more pronounced than the diminution of immature reticulocyte fraction and reticulocyte percentage following blood transfusion. It suggests that the 3 candidate genes are reliable predictors of bone marrow's response to blood transfusion and that they represent potential biomarkers for the detection of this method prohibited in sports. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The impact of self-reported psychological stress levels on changes to peripheral blood immune biomarkers in recreational marathon runners during training and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Kristina E; Elci, Okan U; Hahn, Kathryn; Marshall, Gailen D

    2013-01-01

    Marathon training is both physically and psychologically stressful, both of which can lead to altered immunity. The purpose of this study was to determine if the overall immunoregulatory changes associated with the physical stress of marathon training are affected by psychological stress. Nineteen recreational marathoners completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), and had levels of T cell subpopulations and cytokine (IFNγ, IL4 and IL10) production determined 4 weeks before (baseline), 24-48 h before (prerace) and 1 week after (recovery) participation in a marathon. PSS scores decreased at the prerace visit compared to baseline and remained low at recovery. Compared to baseline, there were significant changes to numerous immune measures at the prerace visit, including decreases in Th1/Th2 ratio, Tc1/Tc2 ratio, Tr1 and Th3 cell populations as well as decreases in IFNγ/IL4 cytokine ratio and IL10 production. Most immune parameters had returned to near baseline values at the recovery visit. Higher levels of perceived stress, anxiety and worry exacerbated many of the alterations in immunity that were observed at the prerace visit. Higher levels of perceived stress and worry had significant effects on changes to Treg, IL4 production and the IFNγ/IL4 cytokine ratio. Stress had an additional impact on changes in IL10 production. High anxiety levels resulted in significant changes to Treg, Tr1 and Th3. These data suggest that recreational marathon runners with higher levels of psychological stress may be more at risk for the immune alterations that are common during periods of prolonged physical training. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Common Genetic Polymorphisms Influence Blood Biomarker Measurements in COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, M. Bradley; Hawkins, Gregory A.; Yang, Jenny; Chen, Ting-huei; Quibrera, Pedro Miguel; Anderson, Wayne; Barr, R. Graham; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Beaty, Terri; Casaburi, Richard; Castaldi, Peter; Cho, Michael H.; Comellas, Alejandro; Crapo, James D.; Criner, Gerard; Demeo, Dawn; Christenson, Stephanie A.; Couper, David J.; Doerschuk, Claire M.; Freeman, Christine M.; Gouskova, Natalia A.; Han, MeiLan K.; Hanania, Nicola A.; Hansel, Nadia N.; Hersh, Craig P.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Kaner, Robert J.; Kanner, Richard E.; Kleerup, Eric C.; Lutz, Sharon; Martinez, Fernando J.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Peters, Stephen P.; Regan, Elizabeth A.; Rennard, Stephen I.; Scholand, Mary Beth; Silverman, Edwin K.; Woodruff, Prescott G.; O’Neal, Wanda K.; Bowler, Russell P.

    2016-01-01

    Implementing precision medicine for complex diseases such as chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) will require extensive use of biomarkers and an in-depth understanding of how genetic, epigenetic, and environmental variations contribute to phenotypic diversity and disease progression. A meta-analysis from two large cohorts of current and former smokers with and without COPD [SPIROMICS (N = 750); COPDGene (N = 590)] was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with measurement of 88 blood proteins (protein quantitative trait loci; pQTLs). PQTLs consistently replicated between the two cohorts. Features of pQTLs were compared to previously reported expression QTLs (eQTLs). Inference of causal relations of pQTL genotypes, biomarker measurements, and four clinical COPD phenotypes (airflow obstruction, emphysema, exacerbation history, and chronic bronchitis) were explored using conditional independence tests. We identified 527 highly significant (p 10% of measured variation in 13 protein biomarkers, with a single SNP (rs7041; p = 10−392) explaining 71%-75% of the measured variation in vitamin D binding protein (gene = GC). Some of these pQTLs [e.g., pQTLs for VDBP, sRAGE (gene = AGER), surfactant protein D (gene = SFTPD), and TNFRSF10C] have been previously associated with COPD phenotypes. Most pQTLs were local (cis), but distant (trans) pQTL SNPs in the ABO blood group locus were the top pQTL SNPs for five proteins. The inclusion of pQTL SNPs improved the clinical predictive value for the established association of sRAGE and emphysema, and the explanation of variance (R2) for emphysema improved from 0.3 to 0.4 when the pQTL SNP was included in the model along with clinical covariates. Causal modeling provided insight into specific pQTL-disease relationships for airflow obstruction and emphysema. In conclusion, given the frequency of highly significant local pQTLs, the large amount of variance potentially explained by pQTL, and the

  16. Common Genetic Polymorphisms Influence Blood Biomarker Measurements in COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Implementing precision medicine for complex diseases such as chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD will require extensive use of biomarkers and an in-depth understanding of how genetic, epigenetic, and environmental variations contribute to phenotypic diversity and disease progression. A meta-analysis from two large cohorts of current and former smokers with and without COPD [SPIROMICS (N = 750; COPDGene (N = 590] was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with measurement of 88 blood proteins (protein quantitative trait loci; pQTLs. PQTLs consistently replicated between the two cohorts. Features of pQTLs were compared to previously reported expression QTLs (eQTLs. Inference of causal relations of pQTL genotypes, biomarker measurements, and four clinical COPD phenotypes (airflow obstruction, emphysema, exacerbation history, and chronic bronchitis were explored using conditional independence tests. We identified 527 highly significant (p 10% of measured variation in 13 protein biomarkers, with a single SNP (rs7041; p = 10-392 explaining 71%-75% of the measured variation in vitamin D binding protein (gene = GC. Some of these pQTLs [e.g., pQTLs for VDBP, sRAGE (gene = AGER, surfactant protein D (gene = SFTPD, and TNFRSF10C] have been previously associated with COPD phenotypes. Most pQTLs were local (cis, but distant (trans pQTL SNPs in the ABO blood group locus were the top pQTL SNPs for five proteins. The inclusion of pQTL SNPs improved the clinical predictive value for the established association of sRAGE and emphysema, and the explanation of variance (R2 for emphysema improved from 0.3 to 0.4 when the pQTL SNP was included in the model along with clinical covariates. Causal modeling provided insight into specific pQTL-disease relationships for airflow obstruction and emphysema. In conclusion, given the frequency of highly significant local pQTLs, the large amount of variance potentially explained by pQTL, and the

  17. Averaged differential expression for the discovery of biomarkers in the blood of patients with prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Uma Bai

    Full Text Available The identification of a blood-based diagnostic marker is a goal in many areas of medicine, including the early diagnosis of prostate cancer. We describe the use of averaged differential display as an efficient mechanism for biomarker discovery in whole blood RNA. The process of averaging reduces the problem of clinical heterogeneity while simultaneously minimizing sample handling.RNA was isolated from the blood of prostate cancer patients and healthy controls. Samples were pooled and subjected to the averaged differential display process. Transcripts present at different levels between patients and controls were purified and sequenced for identification. Transcript levels in the blood of prostate cancer patients and controls were verified by quantitative RT-PCR. Means were compared using a t-test and a receiver-operating curve was generated. The Ring finger protein 19A (RNF19A transcript was identified as having higher levels in prostate cancer patients compared to healthy men through the averaged differential display process. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed a more than 2-fold higher level of RNF19A mRNA levels in the blood of patients with prostate cancer than in healthy controls (p = 0.0066. The accuracy of distinguishing cancer patients from healthy men using RNF19A mRNA levels in blood as determined by the area under the receiving operator curve was 0.727.Averaged differential display offers a simplified approach for the comprehensive screening of body fluids, such as blood, to identify biomarkers in patients with prostate cancer. Furthermore, this proof-of-concept study warrants further analysis of RNF19A as a clinically relevant biomarker for prostate cancer detection.

  18. Blood Biomarkers of Chronic Inflammation in Gulf War Illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard J Johnson

    Full Text Available More than twenty years following the end of the 1990-1991 Gulf War it is estimated that approximately 300,000 veterans of this conflict suffer from an unexplained chronic, multi-system disorder known as Gulf War Illness (GWI. The etiology of GWI may be exposure to chemical toxins, but it remains only partially defined, and its case definition is based only on symptoms. Objective criteria for the diagnosis of GWI are urgently needed for diagnosis and therapeutic research.This study was designed to determine if blood biomarkers could provide objective criteria to assist diagnosis of GWI.A surveillance study of 85 Gulf War Veteran volunteers identified from the Department of Veterans Affairs Minnesota Gulf War registry was performed. All subjects were deployed to the Gulf War. Fifty seven subjects had GWI defined by CDC criteria, and 28 did not have symptomatic criteria for a diagnosis of GWI. Statistical analyses were performed on peripheral blood counts and assays of 61 plasma proteins using the Mann-Whitney rank sum test to compare biomarker distributions and stepwise logistic regression to formulate a diagnostic model.Lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil, and platelet counts were higher in GWI subjects. Six serum proteins associated with inflammation were significantly different in GWI subjects. A diagnostic model of three biomarkers-lymphocytes, monocytes, and C reactive protein-had a predicted probability of 90% (CI 76-90% for diagnosing GWI when the probability of having GWI was above 70%.The results of the current study indicate that inflammation is a component of the pathobiology of GWI. Analysis of the data resulted in a model utilizing three readily measurable biomarkers that appears to significantly augment the symptom-based case definition of GWI. These new observations are highly relevant to the diagnosis of GWI, and to therapeutic trials.

  19. Blood biomarkers in male and female participants after an Ironman-distance triathlon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Danielsson

    Full Text Available While overall physical activity is clearly associated with a better short-term and long-term health, prolonged strenuous physical activity may result in a rise in acute levels of blood-biomarkers used in clinical practice for diagnosis of various conditions or diseases. In this study, we explored the acute effects of a full Ironman-distance triathlon on biomarkers related to heart-, liver-, kidney- and skeletal muscle damage immediately post-race and after one week's rest. We also examined if sex, age, finishing time and body composition influenced the post-race values of the biomarkers.A sample of 30 subjects was recruited (50% women to the study. The subjects were evaluated for body composition and blood samples were taken at three occasions, before the race (T1, immediately after (T2 and one week after the race (T3. Linear regression models were fitted to analyse the independent contribution of sex and finishing time controlled for weight, body fat percentage and age, on the biomarkers at the termination of the race (T2. Linear mixed models were fitted to examine if the biomarkers differed between the sexes over time (T1-T3.Being male was a significant predictor of higher post-race (T2 levels of myoglobin, CK, and creatinine levels and body weight was negatively associated with myoglobin. In general, the models were unable to explain the variation of the dependent variables. In the linear mixed models, an interaction between time (T1-T3 and sex was seen for myoglobin and creatinine, in which women had a less pronounced response to the race.Overall women appear to tolerate the effects of prolonged strenuous physical activity better than men as illustrated by their lower values of the biomarkers both post-race as well as during recovery.

  20. Blood biomarkers in male and female participants after an Ironman-distance triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Tom; Carlsson, Jörg; Schreyer, Hendrik; Ahnesjö, Jonas; Ten Siethoff, Lasse; Ragnarsson, Thony; Tugetam, Åsa; Bergman, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    While overall physical activity is clearly associated with a better short-term and long-term health, prolonged strenuous physical activity may result in a rise in acute levels of blood-biomarkers used in clinical practice for diagnosis of various conditions or diseases. In this study, we explored the acute effects of a full Ironman-distance triathlon on biomarkers related to heart-, liver-, kidney- and skeletal muscle damage immediately post-race and after one week's rest. We also examined if sex, age, finishing time and body composition influenced the post-race values of the biomarkers. A sample of 30 subjects was recruited (50% women) to the study. The subjects were evaluated for body composition and blood samples were taken at three occasions, before the race (T1), immediately after (T2) and one week after the race (T3). Linear regression models were fitted to analyse the independent contribution of sex and finishing time controlled for weight, body fat percentage and age, on the biomarkers at the termination of the race (T2). Linear mixed models were fitted to examine if the biomarkers differed between the sexes over time (T1-T3). Being male was a significant predictor of higher post-race (T2) levels of myoglobin, CK, and creatinine levels and body weight was negatively associated with myoglobin. In general, the models were unable to explain the variation of the dependent variables. In the linear mixed models, an interaction between time (T1-T3) and sex was seen for myoglobin and creatinine, in which women had a less pronounced response to the race. Overall women appear to tolerate the effects of prolonged strenuous physical activity better than men as illustrated by their lower values of the biomarkers both post-race as well as during recovery.

  1. Blood-based biomarkers of aggressive prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Men Long Liong

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Prostate cancer is a bimodal disease with aggressive and indolent forms. Current prostate-specific-antigen testing and digital rectal examination screening provide ambiguous results leading to both under-and over-treatment. Accurate, consistent diagnosis is crucial to risk-stratify patients and facilitate clinical decision making as to treatment versus active surveillance. Diagnosis is currently achieved by needle biopsy, a painful procedure. Thus, there is a clinical need for a minimally-invasive test to determine prostate cancer aggressiveness. A blood sample to predict Gleason score, which is known to reflect aggressiveness of the cancer, could serve as such a test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood mRNA was isolated from North American and Malaysian prostate cancer patients/controls. Microarray analysis was conducted utilizing the Affymetrix U133 plus 2·0 platform. Expression profiles from 255 patients/controls generated 85 candidate biomarkers. Following quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis, ten disease-associated biomarkers remained for paired statistical analysis and normalization. RESULTS: Microarray analysis was conducted to identify 85 genes differentially expressed between aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥8 and controls. Expression of these genes was qRT-PCR verified. Statistical analysis yielded a final seven-gene panel evaluated as six gene-ratio duplexes. This molecular signature predicted as aggressive (ie, Gleason score ≥8 55% of G6 samples, 49% of G7(3+4, 79% of G7(4+3 and 83% of G8-10, while rejecting 98% of controls. CONCLUSION: In this study, we have developed a novel, blood-based biomarker panel which can be used as the basis of a simple blood test to identify men with aggressive prostate cancer and thereby reduce the overdiagnosis and overtreatment that currently results from diagnosis using PSA alone. We discuss possible clinical uses of the panel to identify men more likely to benefit from

  2. Hepcidin as a new biomarker for detecting autologous blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Nicolas; Barras, Laura; Nicoli, Raul; Robinson, Neil; Baume, Norbert; Lion, Niels; Barelli, Stefano; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Saugy, Martial

    2016-05-01

    Autologous blood transfusion (ABT) is an efficient way to increase sport performance. It is also the most challenging doping method to detect. At present, individual follow-up of haematological variables via the athlete biological passport (ABP) is used to detect it. Quantification of a novel hepatic peptide called hepcidin may be a new alternative to detect ABT. In this prospective clinical trial, healthy subjects received a saline injection for the control phase, after which they donated blood that was stored and then transfused 36 days later. The impact of ABT on hepcidin as well as haematological parameters, iron metabolism, and inflammation markers was investigated. Blood transfusion had a particularly marked effect on hepcidin concentrations compared to the other biomarkers, which included haematological variables. Hepcidin concentrations increased significantly: 12 hr and 1 day after blood reinfusion, these concentrations rose by seven- and fourfold, respectively. No significant change was observed in the control phase. Hepcidin quantification is a cost-effective strategy that could be used in an "ironomics" strategy to improve the detection of ABT. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Connective tissue-activating peptide III: a novel blood biomarker for early lung cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, John; Sadar, Marianne D; Sin, Don D; Kuzyk, Michael; Xing, Li; Kondra, Jennifer; McWilliams, Annette; Man, S F Paul; Lam, Stephen

    2009-06-10

    There are no reliable blood biomarkers to detect early lung cancer. We used a novel strategy that allows discovery of differentially present proteins against a complex and variable background. Mass spectrometry analyses of paired pulmonary venous-radial arterial blood from 16 lung cancer patients were applied to identify plasma proteins potentially derived from the tumor microenvironment. Two differentially expressed proteins were confirmed in 64 paired venous-arterial blood samples using an immunoassay. Twenty-eight pre- and postsurgical resection peripheral blood samples and two independent, blinded sets of plasma from 149 participants in a lung cancer screening study (49 lung cancers and 100 controls) and 266 participants from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Lung Health Study (45 lung cancer and 221 matched controls) determined the accuracy of the two protein markers to detect subclinical lung cancer. Connective tissue-activating peptide III (CTAP III)/ neutrophil activating protein-2 (NAP-2) and haptoglobin were identified to be significantly higher in venous than in arterial blood. CTAP III/NAP-2 levels decreased after tumor resection (P = .01). In two independent population cohorts, CTAP III/NAP-2 was significantly associated with lung cancer and improved the accuracy of a lung cancer risk prediction model that included age, smoking, lung function (FEV(1)), and an interaction term between FEV(1) and CTAP III/NAP-2 (area under the curve, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.91) compared to CAPIII/NAP-2 alone. We identified CTAP III/NAP-2 as a novel biomarker to detect preclinical lung cancer. The study underscores the importance of applying blood biomarkers as part of a multimodal lung cancer risk prediction model instead of as stand-alone tests.

  4. Evaluation of Serum and Urinary Neopterin Levels as a Biomarker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Crystalline silica is a commonly used mineral in various industries and construction activities, and it is so important introducing potential biomarkers to identify early indicators of biological effects in its high‑risk occupational exposures. Aim: The present study was aimed to assess the blood and urinary neopterin ...

  5. Blood-based biomarkers of microvascular pathology in Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ewers, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) is a genetically complex and chronically progressive neurodegenerative disorder with molecular mechanisms and neuropathologies centering around the amyloidogenic pathway, hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of tau protein, and neurofibrillary degeneration. While cerebrovascular changes have not been traditionally considered to be a central part of AD pathology, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that they may, in fact, be a characteristic feature of the AD brain as well. In particular, microvascular abnormalities within the brain have been associated with pathological AD hallmarks and may precede neurodegeneration. In vivo assessment of microvascular pathology provides a promising approach to develop useful biological markers for early detection and pathological characterization of AD. This review focuses on established blood-based biological marker candidates of microvascular pathology in AD. These candidates include plasma concentration of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) that are increased in AD. Measures of endothelial vasodilatory function including endothelin (ET-1), adrenomedullin (ADM), and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), as well as sphingolipids are significantly altered in mild AD or during the predementia stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), suggesting sensitivity of these biomarkers for early detection and diagnosis. In conclusion, the emerging clinical diagnostic evidence for the value of blood-based microvascular biomarkers in AD is promising, however, still requires validation in phase II and III diagnostic trials. Moreover, it is still unclear whether the described protein dysbalances are early or downstream pathological events and how the detected systemic microvascular alterations relate to cerebrovascular and neuronal pathologies in the AD brain.

  6. Increasing the predictive accuracy of amyloid-β blood-borne biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Andrew D; Perez, Keyla A; Faux, Noel G; Pike, Kerryn E; Rowe, Christopher C; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Salvado, Olivier; Masters, Colin L; Villemagne, Victor L; Barnham, Kevin J

    2011-01-01

    Diagnostic measures for Alzheimer's disease (AD) commonly rely on evaluating the levels of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of affected individuals. These levels are often combined with levels of an additional non-Aβ marker to increase predictive accuracy. Recent efforts to overcome the invasive nature of CSF collection led to the observation of Aβ species within the blood cellular fraction, however, little is known of what additional biomarkers may be found in this membranous fraction. The current study aimed to undertake a discovery-based proteomic investigation of the blood cellular fraction from AD patients (n = 18) and healthy controls (HC; n = 15) using copper immobilized metal affinity capture and Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionisation Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Three candidate biomarkers were observed which could differentiate AD patients from HC (ROC AUC > 0.8). Bivariate pairwise comparisons revealed significant correlations between these markers and measures of AD severity including; MMSE, composite memory, brain amyloid burden, and hippocampal volume. A partial least squares regression model was generated using the three candidate markers along with blood levels of Aβ. This model was able to distinguish AD from HC with high specificity (90%) and sensitivity (77%) and was able to separate individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who converted to AD from MCI non-converters. While requiring further characterization, these candidate biomarkers reaffirm the potential efficacy of blood-based investigations into neurodegenerative conditions. Furthermore, the findings indicate that the incorporation of non-amyloid markers into predictive models, function to increase the accuracy of the diagnostic potential of Aβ.

  7. Patterns of Biomarkers in Cord Blood During Pregnancy and Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharb, S; Nanda, S

    2017-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is in contact with all the fetal tissues and can reflect the state of fetus and UCB can be compared with maternal blood. Inflammatory, metabolic and immunological disorders during pregnancy can affect the environment in which the fetus is developing and may produce various alterations. To analyze different biochemical parameters in maternal venous blood and new born umbilical cord blood from healthy normotensive pregnant and preeclamptic women. Homocysteine, folate, B12, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), endoglin, leptin, cholinesterase, IGF-1, Apo A, lipoproteins, TSH, fT3, fT4 were analyzed in maternal sera and venous umbilical cord sera of newborns of twenty five preeclamptics (group II) and twenty five normotensive pregnant women (group I). Homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12, Apo A I & II, TSH, fT3, fT4 levels were estimated by competitive immunoassay using direct chemiluminiscence technology. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), endoglin, leptin, cholinesterase, IGF-1 were analyzed by ELISA. Maternal and cord blood levels of homocysteine, folic acid, lipid profile (namely, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C and HDL-C), TSH, heme oxygenase 1, were higher in preeclamptic women as compared to normotensive pregnant women. Endoglin levels were significantly lower in cord blood of preeclamptic mother as compared to normotensive mothers. Serum and cord blood vitamin B12, Apo A-I and Apo B l, cholinesterase, leptin levels, IGF-I were lower in preeclamptic women as compared to normotensive pregnant. Findings of the present study suggest that biochemical alterations occur in mothers and fetuses and modifications of uterine environment (in terms of thyroxine and folate and vitamin B12 supplementation) can be of help. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Why control blood glucose levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, A A

    1976-03-01

    The controversy as to the relationship between the degree of control of diabetes and the progression of the complications of the disease has not been solved. However, in this review, various studies suggesting a relationship between the metabolic abnormality and the diabetic complications are examined. The disadvantages of the uncontrolled diabetes mellitus can be divided into two major categories-short-term and long-term. The short-term disadvantages of controlled diabetes mellitus include the following: (1) ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma; (2) intracellular dehydration; (3) electrolyte imbalance; (4) decreased phagocytosis; (5) immunologic and lymphocyte activity; (6) impairment of wound healing; and (7) abnormality of lipids. The long-term disadvantages of uncontrolled diabetes melitus include the following: (1) nephropathy; (2) neuropathy; (3) retinopathy; (4) cataract formation; (5) effect on perinatal mortality; (6) complications of vascular disease; and (7) the evaluation of various clinical studies suggesting the relationship of elevated blood glucose levels and complications of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that until the question of control can absolutely be resolved, the recommendation is that the blood glucose levels should be controlled as close to the normal as possible.

  9. Rapid detection of cancer related DNA nanoparticulate biomarkers and nanoparticles in whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Michael J.; Krishnan, Raj; Sonnenberg, Avery

    2010-08-01

    The ability to rapidly detect cell free circulating (cfc) DNA, cfc-RNA, exosomes and other nanoparticulate disease biomarkers as well as drug delivery nanoparticles directly in blood is a major challenge for nanomedicine. We now show that microarray and new high voltage dielectrophoretic (DEP) devices can be used to rapidly isolate and detect cfc-DNA nanoparticulates and nanoparticles directly from whole blood and other high conductance samples (plasma, serum, urine, etc.). At DEP frequencies of 5kHz-10kHz both fluorescent-stained high molecular weight (hmw) DNA, cfc-DNA and fluorescent nanoparticles separate from the blood and become highly concentrated at specific DEP highfield regions over the microelectrodes, while blood cells move to the DEP low field-regions. The blood cells can then be removed by a simple fluidic wash while the DNA and nanoparticles remain highly concentrated. The hmw-DNA could be detected at a level of <260ng/ml and the nanoparticles at <9.5 x 109 particles/ml, detection levels that are well within the range for viable clinical diagnostics and drug nanoparticle monitoring. Disease specific cfc-DNA materials could also be detected directly in blood from patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and confirmed by PCR genotyping analysis.

  10. A composite peripheral blood gene expression measure as a potential diagnostic biomarker in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Peijs, L; Vinberg, M

    2015-01-01

    as a diagnostic and state biomarker in bipolar disorder. First, messenger RNA levels of 19 candidate genes were assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 37 rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients in different affective states (depression, mania and euthymia) during a 6-12-month period and in 40 age...... subjects. In patients with bipolar disorder, upregulation of NDUFV2 was observed in a depressed state compared with a euthymic state. The composite gene expression measure for discrimination between patients and healthy control subjects on the basis of 19 genes generated an area under the receiver...

  11. Work stress, anthropometry, lung function, blood pressure, and blood-based biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Westerlund, Hugo; Goldberg, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    -based biomarkers. Linear regression analyses before and after multivariable adjustment for age, socioeconomic status, depressive symptoms, health-related behaviours, and chronic conditions showed that work stress was associated with higher BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, alanine transaminase, white......Work stress is a risk factor for cardio-metabolic diseases, but few large-scale studies have examined the clinical profile of individuals with work stress. To address this limitation, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 43,593 working adults from a French population-based sample aged 18......–72 years (the CONSTANCES cohort). According to the Effort-Reward Imbalance model, work stress was defined as an imbalance between perceived high efforts and low rewards at work. A standardized health examination included measures of anthropometry, lung function, blood pressure and standard blood...

  12. The future of blood-based biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Kim; O'Bryant, Sid E; Hampel, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is significantly hampered by the lack of easily accessible biomarkers that can detect disease presence and predict disease risk reliably. Fluid biomarkers of AD currently provide indications of disease stage; however, they are not robust predictors of disease...

  13. Improving Blood Monitoring of Enzymes as Biomarkers of Risk from Anticholinergic Pesticides and Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Barry W

    2006-01-01

    Blood biomarkers are an important way to monitor exposure to anticholinergic pesticides and chemical warfare agents and to establish whether some personnel are at greater risk than others from exposure...

  14. Improving Blood Monitoring of Enzymes as Biomarkers of Risk from Anticholinergic Pesticides and Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Barry W

    2005-01-01

    Blood biomarkers are an important way to monitor exposure to anticholinergic pesticides and chemical warfare agents and to establish whether some personnel are at greater risk than others from exposure...

  15. Blood Glucose Levels and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Weyand, David

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between varying blood glucose levels and problem behavior during daily scheduled activities was examined. The effects that varying blood glucose levels had on problem behavior during daily scheduled activities were examined. Prior research has shown that differing blood glucose levels can affect behavior and mood. Results of this…

  16. MiRNAs of peripheral blood as the biomarker of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kuanjun; Guo, Chuang; He, Lin; Shi, Yongyong

    2018-01-01

    The diagnosis of schizophrenia is currently based on the symptoms and bodily signs rather than on the pathological and physiological markers of the patient. In the search for new molecular targeted therapy medicines, and recurrence of early-warning indicators have become the major focus of contemporary research, because they improve diagnostic accuracy. Biomarkers reflect the physiological, physical and biochemical status of the body, and so have extensive applicability and practical significance. The ascertainment of schizophrenia biomarkers will help diagnose, stratify of disease, and treat of schizophrenia patients. The detection of biomarkers from blood has become a promising area of schizophrenia research. Recently, a series of studies revealed that, MiRNAs play an important role in the genesis of schizophrenia, and their abnormal expressions have the potential to be used as biomarkers of schizophrenia. This article presents and summarizes the value of peripheral blood miRNAs with abnormal expression as the biomarker of schizophrenia.

  17. Biomarkers of traumatic injury are transported from brain to blood via the glymphatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plog, Benjamin A; Dashnaw, Matthew L; Hitomi, Emi; Peng, Weiguo; Liao, Yonghong; Lou, Nanhong; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2015-01-14

    The nonspecific and variable presentation of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has motivated an intense search for blood-based biomarkers that can objectively predict the severity of injury. However, it is not known how cytosolic proteins released from traumatized brain tissue reach the peripheral blood. Here we show in a murine TBI model that CSF movement through the recently characterized glymphatic pathway transports biomarkers to blood via the cervical lymphatics. Clinically relevant manipulation of glymphatic activity, including sleep deprivation and cisternotomy, suppressed or eliminated TBI-induced increases in serum S100β, GFAP, and neuron specific enolase. We conclude that routine TBI patient management may limit the clinical utility of blood-based biomarkers because their brain-to-blood transport depends on glymphatic activity. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/350518-09$15.00/0.

  18. Discovery of Novel Biomarkers for Alzheimer’s Disease from Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintao Long

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood-based biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease would be very valuable because blood is a more accessible biofluid and is suitable for repeated sampling. However, currently there are no robust and reliable blood-based biomarkers for practical diagnosis. In this study we used a knowledge-based protein feature pool and two novel support vector machine embedded feature selection methods to find panels consisting of two and three biomarkers. We validated these biomarker sets using another serum cohort and an RNA profile cohort from the brain. Our panels included the proteins ECH1, NHLRC2, HOXB7, FN1, ERBB2, and SLC6A13 and demonstrated promising sensitivity (>87%, specificity (>91%, and accuracy (>89%.

  19. Identification of clinical biomarkers for pre-analytical quality control of blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun Ju; Jeon, Soon Young; Park, Jae-Sun; Yun, Ji Young; Kil, Han Na; Hong, Won Kyung; Lee, Mee-Hee; Kim, Jun-Woo; Jeon, Jae-Pil; Han, Bok Ghee

    2013-04-01

    Pre-analytical conditions are key factors in maintaining the high quality of biospecimens. They are necessary for accurate reproducibility of experiments in the field of biomarker discovery as well as achieving optimal specificity of laboratory tests for clinical diagnosis. In research at the National Biobank of Korea, we evaluated the impact of pre-analytical conditions on the stability of biobanked blood samples by measuring biochemical analytes commonly used in clinical laboratory tests. We measured 10 routine laboratory analytes in serum and plasma samples from healthy donors (n = 50) with a chemistry autoanalyzer (Hitachi 7600-110). The analyte measurements were made at different time courses based on delay of blood fractionation, freezing delay of fractionated serum and plasma samples, and at different cycles (0, 1, 3, 6, 9) of freeze-thawing. Statistically significant changes from the reference sample mean were determined using the repeated-measures ANOVA and the significant change limit (SCL). The serum levels of GGT and LDH were changed significantly depending on both the time interval between blood collection and fractionation and the time interval between fractionation and freezing of serum and plasma samples. The glucose level was most sensitive only to the elapsed time between blood collection and centrifugation for blood fractionation. Based on these findings, a simple formula (glucose decrease by 1.387 mg/dL per hour) was derived to estimate the length of time delay after blood collection. In addition, AST, BUN, GGT, and LDH showed sensitive responses to repeated freeze-thaw cycles of serum and plasma samples. These results suggest that GGT and LDH measurements can be used as quality control markers for certain pre-analytical conditions (eg, delayed processing or repeated freeze-thawing) of blood samples which are either directly used in the laboratory tests or stored for future research in the biobank.

  20. Biomarker Analysis of Stored Blood Products: Emphasis on Pre-Analytical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delobel, Julien; Rubin, Olivier; Prudent, Michel; Crettaz, David; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Lion, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Millions of blood products are transfused every year; many lives are thus directly concerned by transfusion. The three main labile blood products used in transfusion are erythrocyte concentrates, platelet concentrates and fresh frozen plasma. Each of these products has to be stored according to its particular components. However, during storage, modifications or degradation of those components may occur, and are known as storage lesions. Thus, biomarker discovery of in vivo blood aging as well as in vitro labile blood products storage lesions is of high interest for the transfusion medicine community. Pre-analytical issues are of major importance in analyzing the various blood products during storage conditions as well as according to various protocols that are currently used in blood banks for their preparations. This paper will review key elements that have to be taken into account in the context of proteomic-based biomarker discovery applied to blood banking. PMID:21151459

  1. Altered Blood Biomarker Profiles in Athletes with a History of Repetitive Head Impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P Di Battista

    Full Text Available The long-term health effects of concussion and sub-concussive impacts in sport are unknown. Growing evidence suggests both inflammation and neurodegeneration are pivotal to secondary injury processes and the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study we characterized circulating brain injury and inflammatory mediators in healthy male and female athletes according to concussion history and collision sport participation. Eighty-seven university level athletes (male, n = 60; female, n = 27 were recruited before the start of the competitive season. Athletes were healthy at the time of the study (no medications, illness, concussion or musculoskeletal injuries. Dependent variables included 29 inflammatory and 10 neurological injury analytes assessed in the peripheral blood by immunoassay. Biomarkers were statistically evaluated using partial least squares multivariate analysis to identify possible relationships to self-reported previous concussion history, number of previous concussions and collision sport participation in male and female athletes. Multiple concussions were associated with increases in peripheral MCP-1 in females, and MCP-4 in males. Collision sport participation was associated with increases in tau levels in males. These results are consistent with previous experimental and clinical findings that suggest ongoing inflammatory and cerebral injury processes after repetitive mild head trauma. However, further validation is needed to correlate systemic biomarkers to repetitive brain impacts, as opposed to the extracranial effects common to an athletic population such as exercise and muscle damage.

  2. Osteopontin (OPN) as a CSF and blood biomarker for multiple sclerosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agah, Elmira; Zardoui, Arshia; Saghazadeh, Amene; Ahmadi, Mona; Tafakhori, Abbas; Rezaei, Nima

    2018-01-01

    Identifying a reliable biomarker may accelerate diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and lead to early management of the disease. Accumulating evidence suggest that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood concentration of osteopontin (OPN) may have diagnostic and prognostic value in MS. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that measured peripheral blood and CSF levels of OPN in MS patients and controls to evaluate the diagnostic potential of this biomarker better. We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases to find articles that measured OPN concentration in peripheral blood and CSF samples from MS patients up to October 19, 2016. Q statistic tests and the I2 index were applied for heterogeneity assessment. If the I2 index was less than 40%, the fixed-effects model was used for meta-analysis. Random-effects meta-analysis was chosen if the I2 value was greater than 40%. After removal of duplicates, 918 articles were identified, and 27 of them fulfilled the inclusion criteria. We included 22 eligible studies in the final meta-analysis. MS patients, in general, had considerably higher levels of OPN in their CSF and blood when compared to all types of controls (pCSF of MS subgroups (pCSF concentrations of OPN between MS patient subtypes. CIS patients had significantly lower levels of OPN both in their peripheral blood and CSF compared to patients with progressive subtypes of MS (pCSF concentration of OPN was significantly higher among RRMS patients compared to the CIS patients and SPMS patients (PCSF compared to patients with stable disease (P = 0.007). The result of this study confirms that increased levels of OPN exist in CSF and peripheral blood of MS patients and strengthens the evidence regarding the clinical utility of OPN as a promising and validated biomarker for MS.

  3. Blood creatinine level in postmortem cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Atsushi; Funaki, Hironao; Kobayashi, Masaki; Tanaka, Yuka; Akasaka, Yoshihisa; Kubo, Toshikazu; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Blood chemical analysis for the diagnosis of diseases in forensic cases should be conducted in the same way as for clinical cases. However, it is sometimes difficult to obtain serum samples in forensic cases because of postmortem changes such as hemolysis and putrefaction. This study aimed to evaluate renal function in postmortem cases by blood creatinine analysis. The blood creatinine level was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using whole blood samples taken from 77 postmortem cases, and the relationships between blood creatinine level, postmortem interval, and cause of death were examined. The median blood creatinine level was found to be 1.15 mg/dL, with no significant differences between blood samples taken from different parts of the body. The blood creatinine level was stable for 3 days after death and gradually increased after that period, in line with a previous study using enzymatic analysis that found the serum creatinine level was stable in the early postmortem period. The blood creatinine level was high in the cases of blunt injury, intoxication, and in deaths caused by fire. This was considered to reflect acute renal dysfunction. However, the postmortem blood creatinine level remained higher than the clinical normal value despite omitting cases with renal dysfunction from the analysis. Therefore, we next investigated the change in postmortem creatinine levels in mice and found that the blood creatinine level increased with the emergence of rigor mortis. Our findings indicate that HPLC is useful in the postmortem evaluation of renal function even in the cases where serum cannot be obtained. However, the presence of rigor mortis should be considered in the evaluation of blood creatinine values. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of cord blood chemokines and other biomarkers with neonatal complications following intrauterine inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Otsubo

    Full Text Available Intrauterine inflammation has been associated with preterm birth and neonatal complications. Few reports have comprehensively investigated multiple cytokine profiles in cord blood and precisely identified surrogate markers for intrauterine inflammation.To identify the cytokines and surrogate markers associated with intrauterine inflammation and subsequent neonatal complications.We analyzed cord blood samples from 135 patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at Sasebo City General Hospital. We retrospectively determined the associations between the presence of neonatal complications and cord blood cytokines, prenatal factors, and laboratory data at birth. A total of 27 cytokines in the cord blood were measured using a bead-based array sandwich immunoassay.Both Th1 and Th2 cytokine levels were low, whereas the levels of growth factors and chemokines were high. In particular, chemokines IL-8, MCP-1, and MIP-1α were significantly higher in very premature neonates when compared with more mature neonates. In addition, some have been shown to be associated with multiple neonatal complications, including patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, and chronic lung disease (CLD. Similarly, the levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, nucleated RBC, and urinary β2-microglobulin were associated with these complications and chemokine levels.Our results suggest the association of inflammatory chemokines IL-8, MCP-1, and MIP-1α with intrauterine inflammation, premature birth, and neonatal complications in these perinatal subjects. Furthermore, the association of the aforementioned biomarkers with PDA, RDS, and CLD may help establish early diagnostic measures to predict such neonatal complications following intrauterine inflammation.

  5. Amyloid Beta and Tau as Alzheimer's Disease Blood Biomarkers: Promise From New Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, Lih-Fen; Guerra, Andre; Walker, Douglas G

    2017-07-01

    The utility of the levels of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide and tau in blood for diagnosis, drug development, and assessment of clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has not been established. The lack of availability of ultra-sensitive assays is one critical issue that has impeded progress. The levels of Aβ species and tau in plasma and serum are much lower than levels in cerebrospinal fluid. Furthermore, plasma or serum contain high levels of assay-interfering factors, resulting in difficulties in the commonly used singulex or multiplex ELISA platforms. In this review, we focus on two modern immune-complex-based technologies that show promise to advance this field. These innovative technologies are immunomagnetic reduction technology and single molecule array technology. We describe the technologies and discuss the published studies using these technologies. Currently, the potential of utilizing these technologies to advance Aβ and tau as blood-based biomarkers for AD requires further validation using already collected large sets of samples, as well as new cohorts and population-based longitudinal studies.

  6. Paraneoplastic antigen Ma2 autoantibodies as specific blood biomarkers for detection of early recurrence of small intestine neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tao; Hurtig, Monica; Elgue, Graciela; Li, Su-Chen; Veronesi, Giulia; Essaghir, Ahmed; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Alimohammadi, Mohammad; Öberg, Kjell; Giandomenico, Valeria

    2010-12-30

    Small intestine neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) belong to a rare group of cancers. Most patients have developed metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, for which there is currently no cure. The delay in diagnosis is a major issue in the clinical management of the patients and new markers are urgently needed. We have previously identified paraneoplastic antigen Ma2 (PNMA2) as a novel SI-NET tissue biomarker. Therefore, we evaluated whether Ma2 autoantibodies detection in the blood stream is useful for the clinical diagnosis and recurrence of SI-NETs. A novel indirect ELISA was set up to detect Ma2 autoantibodies in blood samples of patients with SI-NET at different stages of disease. The analysis was extended to include typical and atypical lung carcinoids (TLC and ALC), to evaluate whether Ma2 autoantibodies in the blood stream become a general biomarker for NETs. In total, 124 blood samples of SI-NET patients at different stages of disease were included in the study. The novel Ma2 autoantibody ELISA showed high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy with ROC curve analysis underlying an area between 0.734 and 0.816. Ma2 autoantibodies in the blood from SI-NET patients were verified by western blot and sequential immunoprecipitation. Serum antibodies of patients stain Ma2 in the tumor tissue and neurons. We observed that SI-NET patients expressing Ma2 autoantibody levels below the cutoff had a longer progression and recurrence-free survival compared to those with higher titer. We also detected higher levels of Ma2 autoantibodies in blood samples from TLC and ALC patients than from healthy controls, as previously shown in small cell lung carcinoma samples. Here we show that high Ma2 autoantibody titer in the blood of SI-NET patients is a sensitive and specific biomarker, superior to chromogranin A (CgA) for the risk of recurrence after radical operation of these tumors.

  7. Increased serological cancer-associated biomarker levels at large bowel endoscopy and risk of subsequent primary cancer (†)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolris, Martin H; Piper, Thomas B; Hammer, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Frequently, subjects offered colonoscopy due to symptoms of colorectal neoplasia are diagnosed with diverticula. The symptoms may, however, also be related to extra-colonic neoplasia. The present retrospective study evaluated a possible association between increased levels of predefined...... biomarkers in subjects diagnosed with diverticula and risk of developing a primary malignant disease. Methods: During 2004/2005, about 4509 subjects were included in a multicenter study with collection of blood samples before bowel endoscopy. The aim was to evaluate a relation between the protein biomarkers...... was calculated. The relation with the four biomarkers was divided into three groups: 0 = none increased; 1 = one increased and 2 = two or more increased. Results: In the observation period, 148 subjects developed a primary malignant disease. Univariable analyzes of the biomarker levels showed that CEA, TIMP-1...

  8. Direct detection of cancer biomarkers in blood using a "place n play" modular polydimethylsiloxane pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honglian; Li, Gang; Liao, Lingying; Mao, Hongju; Jin, Qinghui; Zhao, Jianlong

    2013-01-01

    Cancer biomarkers have significant potential as reliable tools for the early detection of the disease and for monitoring its recurrence. However, most current methods for biomarker detection have technical difficulties (such as sample preparation and specific detector requirements) which limit their application in point of care diagnostics. We developed an extremely simple, power-free microfluidic system for direct detection of cancer biomarkers in microliter volumes of whole blood. CEA and CYFRA21-1 were chosen as model cancer biomarkers. The system automatically extracted blood plasma from less than 3 μl of whole blood and performed a multiplex sample-to-answer assay (nano-ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) technique) without the use of external power or extra components. By taking advantage of the nano-ELISA technique, this microfluidic system detected CEA at a concentration of 50 pg/ml and CYFRA21-1 at a concentration of 60 pg/ml within 60 min. The combination of PnP polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pump and nano-ELISA technique in a single microchip system shows great promise for the detection of cancer biomarkers in a drop of blood.

  9. Alarming levels of carboxyhemoglobin in banked blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Melissa; Labaze, Georges; Hanakova, Marcela; McCloskey, David; Wilner, George

    2009-06-01

    To determine the level of carboxyhemoglobin found in banked blood in the Albany, NY region. A retrospective descriptive analysis of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in a series of packed red blood cell (PRBC) units. The blood bank of a university tertiary care hospital in Albany, NY. All PRBC units considered for possible use in pediatric cardiac surgery were first analyzed for levels of COHb. Only those units with COHb levels of <1.5% were deemed acceptable for use during pediatric cardiac surgery. A sample of blood drawn from the sample side arm of each PRBC unit was analyzed on a Chiron 855 Blood Gas Analyzer (Chiron Inc, Emeryville, CA, now Siemens/Bayer RapidLab 865) to determine the level of COHb. The average COHb level was 0.78% (standard deviation +/- 1.48%), and out of the 468 units tested, 48 (10.3%) had COHb levels of 1.5% or greater. The highest recorded COHb level was 12%. The transfusion of PRBC units may artificially elevate readings of COHb and cause confusion over possible causes. Certain high-risk populations (eg, cyanotic neonates undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass) may be especially at risk. Although levels of COHb in the US blood supply are dropping, institutions may want to consider analyzing COHb levels in their PRBC units before transfusion in these high-risk populations.

  10. The potential of pathological protein fragmentation in blood-based biomarker development for dementia - with emphasis on Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inekci, Dilek; Svendsen Jonesco, Ditte; Kennard, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    biomarkers that can detect the pre-dementia stage and allow differential diagnosis could provide an opportunity for timely and optimal intervention strategies. Also, such biomarkers could help in selection and inclusion of the right patients in clinical trials of both Alzheimer's disease and other dementia......, especially highlighting how the knowledge from CSF protein biomarkers can be used to guide blood-based biomarker development....

  11. Basic arterial blood gas biomarkers as a predictor of mortality in tetralogy of Fallot patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Vandana; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Irpachi, Kalpana; Ladha, Suruchi; Chowdhury, Ujjwal Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Serum lactate and base deficit have been shown to be a predictor of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Poor preoperative oxygenation appears to be one of the significant factors that affects early mortality in tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). There is little published literature evaluating the utility of serum lactate, base excess (BE), and oxygen partial pressure (PO 2 ) as simple, widely available, prognostic markers in patients undergoing surgical repair of TOF. This prospective, observational study was conducted in 150 TOF patients, undergoing elective intracardiac repair. PO 2 , BE, and lactate levels at three different time intervals were recorded. Arterial blood samples were collected after induction (T1), after cardiopulmonary bypass (T2), and 48 h (T3) after surgery in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). To observe the changes in PO 2 , BE, and lactate levels over a period of time, repeated measures analysis was performed with Bonferroni method. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was used to find area under curve (AUC) and cutoff values of various biomarkers for predicting mortality in ICU. The patients who could not survive showed significant elevated lactate levels at baseline (T1) and postoperatively (T2) as compared to patients who survived after surgery (P curve analysis showed that lactate levels (T3) have highest mortality predictive value (AUC: 96.9%) as compared to BE (AUC: 94.5%) and PO 2 (AUC: 81.1%). Serum lactate and BE may be used as prognostic markers to predict mortality in patients undergoing TOF repair. The routine analysis of these simple, fast, widely available, and cost-effective biomarkers should be encouraged to predict prognosis of TOF patients.

  12. Smoking affects diagnostic salivary periodontal disease biomarker levels in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Sorsa, Timo; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Tervahartiala, Taina; Kari, Kirsti; Broms, Ulla; Koskenvuo, Markku; Meurman, Jukka H

    2010-09-01

    The effects of smoking on periodontal biomarkers in adolescents are unknown. This study investigates matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and polymorphonuclear leukocyte elastase levels in saliva together with periodontal health indices accounting for body mass index and smoking in a birth cohort from Finland. The oral health of boys (n = 258) and girls (n = 243) aged 15 to 16 years was examined clinically. Health habits were assessed by questionnaire. Saliva samples were collected and analyzed by immunofluorometric and peptide assays for MMP-8 levels and polymorphonuclear leukocyte elastase activities, and investigated statistically with the background factors. Median MMP-8 values of male smokers were 112.03 microg/l compared to 176.89 microg/l of non-smokers (P = 0.05). For female smokers corresponding values were 170.88 microg/l versus 177.92 microg/l in non-smokers (not statistically significant). Elastase values in male smokers were 5.88 x 10(-3) Delta OD(405)/h versus 11.0 x 10(-3) Delta OD(405)/h in non-smokers (P = 0.02), and in female smokers 9.16 x 10(-3) Delta OD(405)/h versus 10.88 x 10(-3) Delta OD(405)/h in non-smokers (P = 0.72). The effect was strengthened by high pack-years of smoking (MMP-8, P = 0.04; elastase, P = 0.01). Both biomarkers increased with gingival bleeding. However, statistically significant associations were observed with bleeding on probing and MMP-8 (P = 0.04); MMP-8 was suggestively associated with probing depth (P = 0.09) in non-smoking boys. In smokers with calculus, MMP-8 increased after adjusting with body mass index (P = 0.03). No corresponding differences were seen in girls. Smoking significantly decreased both biomarkers studied. Compared to girls, boys seem to have enhanced susceptibility for periodontitis as reflected in salivary MMP-8 values.

  13. Synovial tissue heterogeneity in rheumatoid arthritis in relation to disease activity and biomarkers in peripheral blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baarsen, Lisa G. M.; Wijbrandts, Carla A.; Timmer, Trieneke C. G.; van der Pouw Kraan, Tineke C. T. M.; Tak, Paul P.; Verweij, Cornelis L.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical relevance of synovial tissue subtypes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to search for peripheral blood (PB) markers that may serve as biomarkers for tissue subtypes. METHODS: Gene expression analysis using complementary DNA microarrays was applied on paired

  14. Longitudinal weight differences, gene expression, and blood biomarkers in BMI discordant identical twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Jenny; Willemsen, Gonneke; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Neuteboom, Jacoline; Kluft, Cornelis; Jansen, Rick; Penninx, Brenda W.J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; de Geus, Eco J.C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Background BMI discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins allows an examination of the causes and consequences of adiposity in a genetically controlled design. Few studies have examined longitudinal BMI discordance in MZ pairs. Objectives To study the development over time of BMI discordance in adolescent and adult MZ twin pairs, and to examine lifestyle, metabolic, inflammatory, and gene expression differences associated with concurrent and long-term BMI discordance in MZ pairs. Subjects/Methods BMI data from 2775 MZ twin pairs, collected in eight longitudinal surveys and a biobank project between 1991 and 2011, were analyzed to characterize longitudinal discordance. Lifestyle characteristics were compared within discordant pairs (ΔBMI ≥ 3 kg/m2) and biomarkers (lipids, glucose, insulin, CRP, fibrinogen, IL-6, TNF-α and sIL-6R and liver enzymes AST, ALT and GGT) and gene expression were compared in peripheral blood from discordant pairs who participated in the NTR biobank project. Results The prevalence of discordance ranged from 3.2% in 1991 (mean age=17, SD=2.4) to 17.4% (N=202 pairs) in 2009 (mean age=35, SD=15), and was 16.5% (N=174) among pairs participating in the biobank project (mean age=35, SD=12). Of 699 MZ with BMI data from 3-5 time points, 17 pairs (2.4%) were long-term discordant (at all available time points; mean follow-up range=6.4 years). Concurrently discordant pairs showed significant differences in self-ratings of which twin eats most (p=2.3×10−13), but not in leisure time exercise activity (p=0.28) and smoking (p>0.05). Ten out of 14 biomarkers showed significantly more unfavorable levels in the heavier of twin of the discordant pairs (p-values BMI discordance is uncommon in adolescent identical pairs but increases with higher pair-mean of BMI at older ages, although long-term BMI discordance is rare. In discordant pairs, the heavier twin had a more unfavorable blood biomarker profile than the genetically matched leaner twin, in support of

  15. Blood-borne biomarkers and bioindicators for linking exposure to health effects in environmental health science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, M Ariel Geer; Kormos, Tzipporah M; Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health science aims to link environmental pollution sources to adverse health outcomes to develop effective exposure intervention strategies that reduce long-term disease risks. Over the past few decades, the public health community recognized that health risk is driven by interaction between the human genome and external environment. Now that the human genetic code has been sequenced, establishing this "G × E" (gene-environment) interaction requires a similar effort to decode the human exposome, which is the accumulation of an individual's environmental exposures and metabolic responses throughout the person's lifetime. The exposome is composed of endogenous and exogenous chemicals, many of which are measurable as biomarkers in blood, breath, and urine. Exposure to pollutants is assessed by analyzing biofluids for the pollutant itself or its metabolic products. New methods are being developed to use a subset of biomarkers, termed bioindicators, to demonstrate biological changes indicative of future adverse health effects. Typically, environmental biomarkers are assessed using noninvasive (excreted) media, such as breath and urine. Blood is often avoided for biomonitoring due to practical reasons such as medical personnel, infectious waste, or clinical setting, despite the fact that blood represents the central compartment that interacts with every living cell and is the most relevant biofluid for certain applications and analyses. The aims of this study were to (1) review the current use of blood samples in environmental health research, (2) briefly contrast blood with other biological media, and (3) propose additional applications for blood analysis in human exposure research.

  16. COPD association and repeatability of blood biomarkers in the ECLIPSE cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickens Jennifer A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for biomarkers to better characterise individuals with COPD and to aid with the development of therapeutic interventions. A panel of putative blood biomarkers was assessed in a subgroup of the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE cohort. Methods Thirty-four blood biomarkers were assessed in 201 subjects with COPD, 37 ex-smoker controls with normal lung function and 37 healthy non-smokers selected from the ECLIPSE cohort. Biomarker repeatability was assessed using baseline and 3-month samples. Intergroup comparisons were made using analysis of variance, repeatability was assessed through Bland-Altman plots, and correlations between biomarkers and clinical characteristics were assessed using Spearman correlation coefficients. Results Fifteen biomarkers were significantly different in individuals with COPD when compared to former or non-smoker controls. Some biomarkers, including tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, were measurable in only a minority of subjects whilst others such as C-reactive protein showed wide variability over the 3-month replication period. Fibrinogen was the most repeatable biomarker and exhibited a weak correlation with 6-minute walk distance, exacerbation rate, BODE index and MRC dyspnoea score in COPD subjects. 33% (66/201 of the COPD subjects reported at least 1 exacerbation over the 3 month study with 18% (36/201 reporting the exacerbation within 30 days of the 3-month visit. CRP, fibrinogen interleukin-6 and surfactant protein-D were significantly elevated in those COPD subjects with exacerbations within 30 days of the 3-month visit compared with those individuals that did not exacerbate or whose exacerbations had resolved. Conclusions Only a few of the biomarkers assessed may be useful in diagnosis or management of COPD where the diagnosis is based on airflow obstruction (GOLD. Further analysis of more promising biomarkers may reveal

  17. Blood biomarkers in moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury: potential utility of a multimarker approach in characterizing outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P Di Battista

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood biomarkers are valuable tools for elucidating the complex cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying traumatic brain injury (TBI pathophysiology. Profiling distinct classes of biomarkers could aid in the identification and characterization of both initial injury and secondary pathological processes. The purpose of this study was to characterize the prognostic performance, both individually and combined, of a recently developed multimarker panel of circulating biomarkers reflecting specific pathogenic mechanisms including neuroinflammation, oxidative damage and neuroregeneration, in moderate-to-severe TBI patients. Materials and Methods: Peripheral blood samples were drawn from 85 isolated TBI patients (n=60 severe, n=25 moderate at hospital admission, 6-, 12-, and 24-h post-injury. Mortality and neurological outcome were assessed using the extended Glasgow Outcome Score (GOSE. A multiplex platform was designed on MULTI-SPOT® plates to simultaneously analyze human plasma levels of s100 calcium binding protein (s100B, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, neuron specific enolase (NSE, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-5, and peroxiredoxin (PRDX-6. Results: Unfavorable outcome was associated with elevations in s100B, GFAP and MCP-1. Mortality was related to differences in 6 of 7 markers analyzed. Combined admission concentrations of s100B, GFAP and MCP-1 were able to discriminate favorable versus unfavorable outcome (AUC = 0.83, and survival versus death (AUC = 0.87, although not significantly better than s100B alone (AUC = 0.82 and 0.86, respectively. Conclusion: The multimarker panel of TBI-related biomarkers performed well in discriminating between unfavorable and favorable outcomes in the acute period after moderate-to-severe TBI. However, these combined biomarkers did not outperform s100B alone.

  18. Global DNA hypomethylation in peripheral blood leukocytes as a biomarker for cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

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    Hae Dong Woo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Good biomarkers for early detection of cancer lead to better prognosis. However, harvesting tumor tissue is invasive and cannot be routinely performed. Global DNA methylation of peripheral blood leukocyte DNA was evaluated as a biomarker for cancer risk. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis to estimate overall cancer risk according to global DNA hypomethylation levels among studies with various cancer types and analytical methods used to measure DNA methylation. Studies were systemically searched via PubMed with no language limitation up to July 2011. Summary estimates were calculated using a fixed effects model. RESULTS: The subgroup analyses by experimental methods to determine DNA methylation level were performed due to heterogeneity within the selected studies (p<0.001, I(2: 80%. Heterogeneity was not found in the subgroup of %5-mC (p = 0.393, I(2: 0% and LINE-1 used same target sequence (p = 0.097, I(2: 49%, whereas considerable variance remained in LINE-1 (p<0.001, I(2: 80% and bladder cancer studies (p = 0.016, I(2: 76%. These results suggest that experimental methods used to quantify global DNA methylation levels are important factors in the association study between hypomethylation levels and cancer risk. Overall, cancer risks of the group with the lowest DNA methylation levels were significantly higher compared to the group with the highest methylation levels [OR (95% CI: 1.48 (1.28-1.70]. CONCLUSIONS: Global DNA hypomethylation in peripheral blood leukocytes may be a suitable biomarker for cancer risk. However, the association between global DNA methylation and cancer risk may be different based on experimental methods, and region of DNA targeted for measuring global hypomethylation levels as well as the cancer type. Therefore, it is important to select a precise and accurate surrogate marker for global DNA methylation levels in the association studies between global DNA methylation levels in peripheral

  19. Evaluating Chagas disease progression and cure through blood-derived biomarkers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena-Méndez, Ana; López, Manuel Carlos; Angheben, Andrea; Izquierdo, Luis; Ribeiro, Isabela; Pinazo, Maria-Jesús; Gascon, Joaquim; Muñoz, José

    2013-09-01

    This article reviews the usefulness of various types of blood-derived biomarkers that are currently being studied to predict the progression of Chagas disease in patients with the indeterminate form, to assess the efficacy of antiparasitic drugs and to identify early cardiac and gastrointestinal damage. The authors used a search strategy based on MEDLINE, Cochrane Library Register for systematic review, EmBase, Global Health and LILACS databases. Out of 1716 screened articles, only 166 articles were eligible for final inclusion. The authors classified the biomarkers according to their biochemical structure and primary biological activity in four groups: i) markers of inflammation and cellular injury, ii) metabolic biomakers, iii) prothrombotic biomarkers and iv) markers derived from specific antigens of the parasite. Several potential biomarkers might have clinical potential for the detection of early cardiopathy. Such capacity is imperative in order to detect high-risk patients who require intensive monitoring and earlier therapy. Prospective studies with longer follow-ups are needed for the appraisal of biomarkers assessing clinical or microbiological cure after therapy. At the same time, studies evaluating more than one biomarker are useful to compare the efficacy among them given the lack of a recognized gold standard.

  20. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... closer to the levels seen in people without diabetes) your child's HbA1c, the better controlled the blood sugars have ... Diabetes Hypoglycemia Diabetes Control: Why It's Important Your Child's Diabetes Health Care Team Helping Kids Deal With Injections ...

  1. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been...... no studies directly comparing blood BDNF levels to brain BDNF levels in different species. We examined blood, serum, plasma and brain-tissue BDNF levels in three different mammalian species: rat, pig, and mouse, using an ELISA method. As a control, we included an analysis of blood and brain tissue from...... conditional BDNF knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Whereas BDNF could readily be measured in rat blood, plasma and brain tissue, it was undetectable in mouse blood. In pigs, whole-blood levels of BDNF could not be measured with a commercially available ELISA kit, but pig plasma BDNF levels (mean...

  2. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    no studies directly comparing blood BDNF levels to brain BDNF levels in different species. We examined blood, serum, plasma and brain-tissue BDNF levels in three different mammalian species: rat, pig, and mouse, using an ELISA method. As a control, we included an analysis of blood and brain tissue from......Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been...... conditional BDNF knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Whereas BDNF could readily be measured in rat blood, plasma and brain tissue, it was undetectable in mouse blood. In pigs, whole-blood levels of BDNF could not be measured with a commercially available ELISA kit, but pig plasma BDNF levels (mean...

  3. Blood-borne biomarkers of mortality risk: systematic review of cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Barron

    Full Text Available Lifespan and the proportion of older people in the population are increasing, with far reaching consequences for the social, political and economic landscape. Unless accompanied by an increase in health span, increases in age-related diseases will increase the burden on health care resources. Intervention studies to enhance healthy ageing need appropriate outcome measures, such as blood-borne biomarkers, which are easily obtainable, cost-effective, and widely accepted. To date there have been no systematic reviews of blood-borne biomarkers of mortality.To conduct a systematic review to identify available blood-borne biomarkers of mortality that can be used to predict healthy ageing post-retirement.Four databases (Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science were searched. We included prospective cohort studies with a minimum of two years follow up and data available for participants with a mean age of 50 to 75 years at baseline.From a total of 11,555 studies identified in initial searches, 23 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Fifty-one blood borne biomarkers potentially predictive of mortality risk were identified. In total, 20 biomarkers were associated with mortality risk. Meta-analyses of mortality risk showed significant associations with C-reactive protein (Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality 1.42, p<0.001; Cancer-mortality 1.62, p<0.009; CVD-mortality 1.31, p = 0.033, N Terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide (Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality 1.43, p<0.001; CHD-mortality 1.58, p<0.001; CVD-mortality 1.67, p<0.001 and white blood cell count (Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality 1.36, p = 0.001. There was also evidence that brain natriuretic peptide, cholesterol fractions, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, fibrinogen, granulocytes, homocysteine, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, neutrophils, osteoprotegerin, procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide, serum uric acid, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, tissue inhibitor of

  4. Glucosylceramide and Lysophosphatidylcholines as Potential Blood Biomarkers for Drug-Induced Hepatic Phospholipidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kosuke; Maekawa, Keiko; Ishikawa, Masaki; Senoo, Yuya; Urata, Masayo; Murayama, Mayumi; Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Saito, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced phospholipidosis is one of the major concerns in drug development and clinical treatment. The present study involved the use of a nontargeting lipidomic analysis with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to explore noninvasive blood biomarkers for hepatic phospholipidosis from rat plasma. We used three tricyclic antidepressants (clomipramine [CPM], imipramine [IMI], and amitriptyline [AMT]) for the model of phospholipidosis in hepatocytes and ketoconazole (KC) for the model of phospholipidosis in cholangiocytes and administered treatment for 3 and 28 days each. Total plasma lipids were extracted and measured. Lipid molecules contributing to the separation of control and drug-treated rat plasma in a multivariate orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis were identified. Four lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) (16:1, 18:1, 18:2, and 20:4) and 42:1 hexosylceramide (HexCer) were identified as molecules separating control and drug-treated rats in all models of phospholipidosis in hepatocytes. In addition, 16:1, 18:2, and 20:4 LPCs and 42:1 HexCer were identified in a model of hepatic phospholipidosis in cholangiocytes, although LPCs were identified only in the case of 3-day treatment with KC. The levels of LPCs were decreased by drug-induced phospholipidosis, whereas those of 42:1 HexCer were increased. The increase in 42:1 HexCer was much higher in the case of IMI and AMT than in the case of CPM; moreover, the increase induced by IMI was dose-dependent. Structural characterization determining long-chain base and hexose delineated that 42:1 HexCer was d18:1/24:0 glucosylceramide (GluCer). In summary, our study demonstrated that d18:1/24:0 GluCer and LPCs are potential novel biomarkers for drug-induced hepatic phospholipidosis. PMID:24980264

  5. Self-reported adherence and biomarker levels of CoQ10 and alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitolins MZ

    2018-04-01

    had decreases in their biomarker levels.Conclusion: These findings support that self-reported adherence is likely to be overestimated. Biological and other measures of adherence that can better identify true adherence to study pills provided in clinical trials are greatly needed as they may assist in improving the interpretation of findings of future clinical trials. Keywords: adherence, self-report, blood biomarkers, clinical trial, CoQ10, alpha-tocopherol

  6. Imaging blood-brain barrier dysfunction as a biomarker for epileptogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Klein, Guy; Lublinsky, Svetlana; Kamintsky, Lyn; Noyman, Iris; Veksler, Ronel; Dalipaj, Hotjensa; Senatorov, Vladimir V; Swissa, Evyatar; Rosenbach, Dror; Elazary, Netta; Milikovsky, Dan Z; Milk, Nadav; Kassirer, Michael; Rosman, Yossi; Serlin, Yonatan; Eisenkraft, Arik; Chassidim, Yoash; Parmet, Yisrael; Kaufer, Daniela; Friedman, Alon

    2017-06-01

    A biomarker that will enable the identification of patients at high-risk for developing post-injury epilepsy is critically required. Microvascular pathology and related blood-brain barrier dysfunction and neuroinflammation were shown to be associated with epileptogenesis after injury. Here we used prospective, longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging to quantitatively follow blood-brain barrier pathology in rats following status epilepticus, late electrocorticography to identify epileptic animals and post-mortem immunohistochemistry to confirm blood-brain barrier dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Finally, to test the pharmacodynamic relevance of the proposed biomarker, two anti-epileptogenic interventions were used; isoflurane anaesthesia and losartan. Our results show that early blood-brain barrier pathology in the piriform network is a sensitive and specific predictor (area under the curve of 0.96, P brain barrier pathology as a clinically relevant predictive, diagnostic and pharmaco!dynamics biomarker for acquired epilepsy. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Data-driven asthma endotypes defined from blood biomarker and gene expression data.

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    Barbara Jane George

    Full Text Available The diagnosis and treatment of childhood asthma is complicated by its mechanistically distinct subtypes (endotypes driven by genetic susceptibility and modulating environmental factors. Clinical biomarkers and blood gene expression were collected from a stratified, cross-sectional study of asthmatic and non-asthmatic children from Detroit, MI. This study describes four distinct asthma endotypes identified via a purely data-driven method. Our method was specifically designed to integrate blood gene expression and clinical biomarkers in a way that provides new mechanistic insights regarding the different asthma endotypes. For example, we describe metabolic syndrome-induced systemic inflammation as an associated factor in three of the four asthma endotypes. Context provided by the clinical biomarker data was essential in interpreting gene expression patterns and identifying putative endotypes, which emphasizes the importance of integrated approaches when studying complex disease etiologies. These synthesized patterns of gene expression and clinical markers from our research may lead to development of novel serum-based biomarker panels.

  8. A practical platform for blood biomarker study by using global gene expression profiling of peripheral whole blood.

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    Ze Tian

    Full Text Available Although microarray technology has become the most common method for studying global gene expression, a plethora of technical factors across the experiment contribute to the variable of genome gene expression profiling using peripheral whole blood. A practical platform needs to be established in order to obtain reliable and reproducible data to meet clinical requirements for biomarker study.We applied peripheral whole blood samples with globin reduction and performed genome-wide transcriptome analysis using Illumina BeadChips. Real-time PCR was subsequently used to evaluate the quality of array data and elucidate the mode in which hemoglobin interferes in gene expression profiling. We demonstrated that, when applied in the context of standard microarray processing procedures, globin reduction results in a consistent and significant increase in the quality of beadarray data. When compared to their pre-globin reduction counterparts, post-globin reduction samples show improved detection statistics, lowered variance and increased sensitivity. More importantly, gender gene separation is remarkably clearer in post-globin reduction samples than in pre-globin reduction samples. Our study suggests that the poor data obtained from pre-globin reduction samples is the result of the high concentration of hemoglobin derived from red blood cells either interfering with target mRNA binding or giving the pseudo binding background signal.We therefore recommend the combination of performing globin mRNA reduction in peripheral whole blood samples and hybridizing on Illumina BeadChips as the practical approach for biomarker study.

  9. Basic arterial blood gas biomarkers as a predictor of mortality in tetralogy of Fallot patients

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    Vandana Bhardwaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Serum lactate and base deficit have been shown to be a predictor of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Poor preoperative oxygenation appears to be one of the significant factors that affects early mortality in tetralogy of Fallot (TOF. There is little published literature evaluating the utility of serum lactate, base excess (BE, and oxygen partial pressure (PO 2 as simple, widely available, prognostic markers in patients undergoing surgical repair of TOF. Materials and Methods: This prospective, observational study was conducted in 150 TOF patients, undergoing elective intracardiac repair. PO 2 , BE, and lactate levels at three different time intervals were recorded. Arterial blood samples were collected after induction (T1, after cardiopulmonary bypass (T2, and 48 h (T3 after surgery in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU. To observe the changes in PO 2 , BE, and lactate levels over a period of time, repeated measures analysis was performed with Bonferroni method. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC analysis was used to find area under curve (AUC and cutoff values of various biomarkers for predicting mortality in ICU. Results: The patients who could not survive showed significant elevated lactate levels at baseline (T1 and postoperatively (T2 as compared to patients who survived after surgery (P < 0.001. However, in nonsurvivors, the BE value decreased significantly in the postoperative period in comparison to survivors (−2.8 ± 4.27 vs. 5.04 ± 2.06 (P < 0.001. In nonsurvivors, there was a significant fall of PO 2 to a mean value of 59.86 ± 15.09 in ICU (T3, whereas those who survived had a PO 2 of 125.86 ± 95.09 (P < 0.001. The ROC curve analysis showed that lactate levels (T3 have highest mortality predictive value (AUC: 96.9% as compared to BE (AUC: 94.5% and PO 2 (AUC: 81.1%. Conclusion: Serum lactate and BE may be used as prognostic markers to predict mortality in patients undergoing TOF repair. The

  10. Paraneoplastic antigen Ma2 autoantibodies as specific blood biomarkers for detection of early recurrence of small intestine neuroendocrine tumors.

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    Tao Cui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small intestine neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs belong to a rare group of cancers. Most patients have developed metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, for which there is currently no cure. The delay in diagnosis is a major issue in the clinical management of the patients and new markers are urgently needed. We have previously identified paraneoplastic antigen Ma2 (PNMA2 as a novel SI-NET tissue biomarker. Therefore, we evaluated whether Ma2 autoantibodies detection in the blood stream is useful for the clinical diagnosis and recurrence of SI-NETs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A novel indirect ELISA was set up to detect Ma2 autoantibodies in blood samples of patients with SI-NET at different stages of disease. The analysis was extended to include typical and atypical lung carcinoids (TLC and ALC, to evaluate whether Ma2 autoantibodies in the blood stream become a general biomarker for NETs. In total, 124 blood samples of SI-NET patients at different stages of disease were included in the study. The novel Ma2 autoantibody ELISA showed high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy with ROC curve analysis underlying an area between 0.734 and 0.816. Ma2 autoantibodies in the blood from SI-NET patients were verified by western blot and sequential immunoprecipitation. Serum antibodies of patients stain Ma2 in the tumor tissue and neurons. We observed that SI-NET patients expressing Ma2 autoantibody levels below the cutoff had a longer progression and recurrence-free survival compared to those with higher titer. We also detected higher levels of Ma2 autoantibodies in blood samples from TLC and ALC patients than from healthy controls, as previously shown in small cell lung carcinoma samples. CONCLUSION: Here we show that high Ma2 autoantibody titer in the blood of SI-NET patients is a sensitive and specific biomarker, superior to chromogranin A (CgA for the risk of recurrence after radical operation of these tumors.

  11. Development of a Blood-Based Biomarker Panel for Indeterminate Lung Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    based markers are a promising and attractive approach to complement LDCT because of the potential to identify those subjects that need to undergo further...concerns including high false positivity, cost, and radiation exposure. Blood- based markers are a promising and attractive approach to complement...innovations, successes, or any change in practice or behavior that has come about as a result of the project Although a large number of lung cancer biomarker

  12. Potential biomarkers of tardive dyskinesia: A multiplex analysis of blood serum

    OpenAIRE

    Boiko, Anastasia S; Kornetova, Elena G; Ivanova, Svetlana A.; Loonen, Antonius

    2017-01-01

    Potential biomarkers of tardive dyskinesia: a multiplex analysis of blood serum A.S. Boiko(1), E.G. Kornetova(2), S.A. Ivanova(1), A.J.M. Loonen(3) (1)Mental Health Research Institute, Tomsk National Research Medical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Tomsk, Russia (2)Mental Health Research Institute, Tomsk National Research Medical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Endogenous Disorders, Tomsk, Russia (3)Univers...

  13. Predicting Disease Progression in Scleroderma with Skin and Blood Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Heart Study , Center for Population Studies and Harvard Medical School, Framingham, Massachusetts, United States of America, 26 Institute of Psychological...Statistics Book with Some Demographic Data (fmsb) R package (S3 Methods). Similar to previous studies , the statistical significance of CRPPRS values...bipolar disorder. Notably, there was no evidence for an effect of genetically increased CRP levels on any of the other 27 outcomes studied . What Do These

  14. Increased Blood-Reelin-Levels in First Episode Schizophrenia.

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    Tobias Hornig

    Full Text Available Reelin is an extracellular glycoprotein involved in several functions of brain development, synaptogenesis and dendritic proliferation. Numerous studies found perturbation in the reelin system and altered serum reelin levels in neuropsychiatric patients using the western blot procedure. In the international literature, this is the first study that made use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to analyze serum reelin protein concentration quantitatively.In order to study possible alterations in reelin blood levels in schizophrenia, we analyzed this signal in schizophrenic patients with a first episode hallucinatory and paranoid syndrome and control subjects in a pilot study design.We found increased blood reelin protein concentration in schizophrenic patients compared to healthy controls.Our findings point to a relevant role of reelin metabolism in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.Reelin could be a biomarker for the course of disease or psychopharmacological treatment.We conclude that the reelin protein blood concentration might be a relevant signal with respect to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  15. Blood cholinesterases as human biomarkers of organophosphorus pesticide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, H N; Knaak, J B

    2000-01-01

    The organophosphorus pesticides of this review were discovered in 1936 during the search for a replacement for nicotine for cockroach control. The basic biochemical characteristics of RBC AChE and BChE were determined in the 1940s. The mechanism of inhibition of both enzymes and other serine esterases was known in the 1940s and, in general, defined in the 1950s. In 1949, the death of a parathion mixer-loader dictated blood enzyme monitoring to prevent acute illness from organophosphorus pesticide intoxication. However, many of the chemical and biochemical steps for serine enzyme inhibition by OP compounds remain unknown today. The possible mechanisms of this inhibition are presented kinetically beginning with simple (by comparison) Michaelis-Menten substrate enzyme interaction kinetics. As complicated as the inhibition kinetics appear here, PBPK model kinetics will be more complex. The determination of inter- and intraindividual variation in RBC ChE and BChE was recognized early as critical knowledge for a blood esterase monitoring program. Because of the relatively constant production of RBCs, variation in RBC AChE was determined by about 1970. The source of plasma (or serum) BChE was shown to be the liver in the 1960s with the change in BChE phenotype to the donor in liver transplant patients. BChE activity was more variable than RBC AChE, and only in the 1990s have BChE individual variation questions been answered. We have reviewed the chemistry, metabolism, and toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides along with their inhibitory action toward tissue acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterases. On the basis of the review, a monitoring program for individuals mixing-loading and applying OP pesticides for commercial applicators was recommended. Approximately 41 OPs are currently registered for use by USEPA in the United States. Under agricultural working conditions, OPs primarily are absorbed through the skin. Liver P-450 isozymes catalyze the desulfurization of

  16. Plasma processing conditions substantially influence circulating microRNA biomarker levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Heather H; Yi, Hye Son; Kim, Yeonju; Kroh, Evan M; Chien, Jason W; Eaton, Keith D; Goodman, Marc T; Tait, Jonathan F; Tewari, Muneesh; Pritchard, Colin C

    2013-01-01

    Circulating, cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs) are promising candidate biomarkers, but optimal conditions for processing blood specimens for miRNA measurement remain to be established. Our previous work showed that the majority of plasma miRNAs are likely blood cell-derived. In the course of profiling lung cancer cases versus healthy controls, we observed a broad increase in circulating miRNA levels in cases compared to controls and that higher miRNA expression correlated with higher platelet and particle counts. We therefore hypothesized that the quantity of residual platelets and microparticles remaining after plasma processing might impact miRNA measurements. To systematically investigate this, we subjected matched plasma from healthy individuals to stepwise processing with differential centrifugation and 0.22 µm filtration and performed miRNA profiling. We found a major effect on circulating miRNAs, with the majority (72%) of detectable miRNAs substantially affected by processing alone. Specifically, 10% of miRNAs showed 4-30x variation, 46% showed 30-1,000x variation, and 15% showed >1,000x variation in expression solely from processing. This was predominantly due to platelet contamination, which persisted despite using standard laboratory protocols. Importantly, we show that platelet contamination in archived samples could largely be eliminated by additional centrifugation, even in frozen samples stored for six years. To minimize confounding effects in microRNA biomarker studies, additional steps to limit platelet contamination for circulating miRNA biomarker studies are necessary. We provide specific practical recommendations to help minimize confounding variation attributable to plasma processing and platelet contamination.

  17. Quantitative, multiplexed workflow for deep analysis of human blood plasma and biomarker discovery by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshishian, Hasmik; Burgess, Michael W; Specht, Harrison; Wallace, Luke; Clauser, Karl R; Gillette, Michael A; Carr, Steven A

    2017-08-01

    Proteomic characterization of blood plasma is of central importance to clinical proteomics and particularly to biomarker discovery studies. The vast dynamic range and high complexity of the plasma proteome have, however, proven to be serious challenges and have often led to unacceptable tradeoffs between depth of coverage and sample throughput. We present an optimized sample-processing pipeline for analysis of the human plasma proteome that provides greatly increased depth of detection, improved quantitative precision and much higher sample analysis throughput as compared with prior methods. The process includes abundant protein depletion, isobaric labeling at the peptide level for multiplexed relative quantification and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to accurate-mass, high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis of peptides fractionated off-line by basic pH reversed-phase (bRP) chromatography. The overall reproducibility of the process, including immunoaffinity depletion, is high, with a process replicate coefficient of variation (CV) of 4,500 proteins are detected and quantified per patient sample on average, with two or more peptides per protein and starting from as little as 200 μl of plasma. The approach can be multiplexed up to 10-plex using tandem mass tags (TMT) reagents, further increasing throughput, albeit with some decrease in the number of proteins quantified. In addition, we provide a rapid protocol for analysis of nonfractionated depleted plasma samples analyzed in 10-plex. This provides ∼600 quantified proteins for each of the ten samples in ∼5 h of instrument time.

  18. Signatures of reproductive events on blood counts and biomarkers of inflammation: Implications for chronic disease risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W Cramer

    Full Text Available Whether inflammation mediates how reproductive events affect chronic-disease risk is unclear. We studied inflammatory biomarkers in the context of reproductive events using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data. From 15,986 eligible women from the 1999-2011 data cycles, we accessed information on reproductive events, blood counts, C-reactive protein (CRP, and total homocysteine (tHCY. We calculated blood-count ratios including: platelet-lymphocyte (PLR, lymphocyte-monocyte (LMR, platelet-monocyte (PMR, and neutrophil-monocyte (NMR. Using sampling weights per NHANES guidelines, means for counts, ratios, or biomarkers by reproductive events were compared using linear regression. We performed trend tests and calculated p-values with partial sum of squares F-tests. Higher PLR and lower LMR were associated with nulliparity. In postmenopausal women, lower PMR was associated with early age at first birth and higher NMR with later age at and shorter interval since last birth. Lower PNR and higher neutrophils and tHCY were associated with early natural menopause. In all women, the neutrophil count correlated positively with CRP; but, in premenopausal women, correlated inversely with tHCY. Reproductive events leave residual signatures on blood counts and inflammatory biomarkers that could underlie their links to chronic disease risk.

  19. Application of Raman spectroscopy in type 2 diabetes screening in blood using leucine and isoleucine amino-acids as biomarkers and in comparative anti-diabetic drugs efficacy studies

    OpenAIRE

    Birech, Zephania; Mwangi, Peter Waweru; Bukachi, Fredrick; Mandela, Keith Makori

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is an irreversible condition characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. Currently, there are no predictive biomarkers for this disease and the existing ones such as hemoglobin A1c and fasting blood glucose are used only when diabetes symptoms are noticed. The objective of this work was first to explore the potential of leucine and isoleucine amino acids as diabetes type 2 biomarkers using their Raman spectroscopic signatures. Secondly, we wanted to explore whether Raman spectros...

  20. Impact of age, BMI and HbA1c levels on the genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA expression patterns in human adipose tissue and identification of epigenetic biomarkers in blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönn, Tina; Volkov, Petr; Gillberg, Linn

    2015-01-01

    Increased age, BMI and HbA1c levels are risk factors for several non-communicable diseases. However, the impact of these factors on the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in human adipose tissue remains unknown. We analyzed the DNA methylation of ∼480 000 sites in human adipose tissue from 96 ma...

  1. Biomarkers of coagulation, fibrinolysis, endothelial function, and inflammation in arterialized venous blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Anne Sofie; Skov, Jane; Ploug, Thorkil

    2014-01-01

    Effects of venous blood arterialization on cardiovascular risk markers are still unknown. We evaluated biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation, fibrinolysis, and endothelial function in arterialized compared with regular venous blood. Cubital venipunctures were obtained from 10 healthy volunteers....... Arterialization was generated by 10 min heating of the contralateral hand. Concentrations of albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), and von Willebrand factor (vWF) were measured by validated assays. Concentrations of albumin......, CRP, and vWF were significantly lower in arterialized than in venous blood (albumin: 43.8 g/l and 44.8 g/l, P = 0.02). Differences in CRP and vWF became insignificant after adjusting for albumin. The endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) was significantly higher in arterialized than in venous blood...

  2. Two novel blood-based biomarker candidates measuring degradation of tau are associated with dementia: A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Jesper Skov; Dragsbæk, Katrine; Christiansen, Claus

    2018-01-01

    fragments were detected in serum of 5,309 women from the Prospective Epidemiological Risk Factor study. The study was an observational, prospective study of Danish postmenopausal women. Subjects were followed with registry-linkage for up to 15 years (median follow-up time 13.7 years). Cox regression......Truncated tau appears to be specifically related to disease pathology and recent studies have shown the presence and elevation of several truncated tau species in Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the relevance of truncated Tau measurements in blood...... is still being studied. The aim of the current study was to assess the longitudinal associations between baseline levels of two novel blood biomarker candidates measuring truncated tau, Tau-A and Tau-C, and the risk of incident dementia and AD in elderly women. Using solid phase competitive ELISA, two tau...

  3. The potential of pathological protein fragmentation in blood-based biomarker development for dementia – with emphasis on Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek eInekci

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of dementia is challenging and early stages are rarely detected limiting the possibilities for early interven-tion. Another challenge is the overlap in the clinical features across the different dementia types leading to difficulties in the differential diagnosis. Identifying biomarkers that can detect the pre-dementia stage and allow differential diagnosis could provide an opportunity for timely and optimal intervention strategies. Also, such biomarkers could help in selection and inclusion of the right patients in clinical trials of both Alzheimer’s disease and other dementia treatment candidates.The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF has been the most investigated source of biomarkers and several candidate proteins have been identified. However, looking solely at protein levels is too simplistic to provide enough detailed information to differentiate between dementias, as there is a significant crossover between the proteins involved in the different types of dementia. Additionally, CSF sampling makes these biomarkers challenging for presymptomatic identification. We need to focus on disease-specific protein fragmentation to find a fragment pattern unique for each separate dementia type – a form of protein fragmentology. Targeting protein fragments generated by disease-specific combinations of proteins and proteases opposed to detecting the intact protein could reduce the overlap between diagnostic groups as the extent of processing as well as which proteins and proteases constitute the major hallmark of each dementia type differ. In addition, the fragments could be detectable in blood as they may be able to cross the blood-brain-barrier due to their smaller size. In this review, the potential of the fragment-based biomarker discovery for dementia diagnosis and prognosis is discussed, especially highlighting how the knowledge from CSF protein biomarkers can be used to guide blood-based biomarker development.

  4. Computational Prediction of Human Salivary Proteins from Blood Circulation and Application to Diagnostic Biomarker Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaxin; Liang, Yanchun; Wang, Yan; Cui, Juan; Liu, Ming; Du, Wei; Xu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Proteins can move from blood circulation into salivary glands through active transportation, passive diffusion or ultrafiltration, some of which are then released into saliva and hence can potentially serve as biomarkers for diseases if accurately identified. We present a novel computational method for predicting salivary proteins that come from circulation. The basis for the prediction is a set of physiochemical and sequence features we found to be discerning between human proteins known to be movable from circulation to saliva and proteins deemed to be not in saliva. A classifier was trained based on these features using a support-vector machine to predict protein secretion into saliva. The classifier achieved 88.56% average recall and 90.76% average precision in 10-fold cross-validation on the training data, indicating that the selected features are informative. Considering the possibility that our negative training data may not be highly reliable (i.e., proteins predicted to be not in saliva), we have also trained a ranking method, aiming to rank the known salivary proteins from circulation as the highest among the proteins in the general background, based on the same features. This prediction capability can be used to predict potential biomarker proteins for specific human diseases when coupled with the information of differentially expressed proteins in diseased versus healthy control tissues and a prediction capability for blood-secretory proteins. Using such integrated information, we predicted 31 candidate biomarker proteins in saliva for breast cancer. PMID:24324552

  5. Blood alcohol levels in suicide cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, L; Zubrick, S R; Silburn, S

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to investigate the relationship between alcohol consumption prior to suicide and the act of suicide. DESIGN--This was a retrospective total ascertainment survey of a three year cohort of suicides in Western Australia. SETTING--Coroner's records of suicide in Western Australia between 1986 and 1988 inclusive. PARTICIPANTS--The study involved 515 consecutive suicides: 414 males and 101 females. MAIN RESULTS--Information on blood alcohol levels at time of death, pres...

  6. Peripheral blood gene expression as a novel genomic biomarker in complicated sarcoidosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhou

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis, a systemic granulomatous syndrome invariably affecting the lung, typically spontaneously remits but in ~20% of cases progresses with severe lung dysfunction or cardiac and neurologic involvement (complicated sarcoidosis. Unfortunately, current biomarkers fail to distinguish patients with remitting (uncomplicated sarcoidosis from other fibrotic lung disorders, and fail to identify individuals at risk for complicated sarcoidosis. We utilized genome-wide peripheral blood gene expression analysis to identify a 20-gene sarcoidosis biomarker signature distinguishing sarcoidosis (n = 39 from healthy controls (n = 35, 86% classification accuracy and which served as a molecular signature for complicated sarcoidosis (n = 17. As aberrancies in T cell receptor (TCR signaling, JAK-STAT (JS signaling, and cytokine-cytokine receptor (CCR signaling are implicated in sarcoidosis pathogenesis, a 31-gene signature comprised of T cell signaling pathway genes associated with sarcoidosis (TCR/JS/CCR was compared to the unbiased 20-gene biomarker signature but proved inferior in prediction accuracy in distinguishing complicated from uncomplicated sarcoidosis. Additional validation strategies included significant association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in signature genes with sarcoidosis susceptibility and severity (unbiased signature genes - CX3CR1, FKBP1A, NOG, RBM12B, SENS3, TSHZ2; T cell/JAK-STAT pathway genes such as AKT3, CBLB, DLG1, IFNG, IL2RA, IL7R, ITK, JUN, MALT1, NFATC2, PLCG1, SPRED1. In summary, this validated peripheral blood molecular gene signature appears to be a valuable biomarker in identifying cases with sarcoidoisis and predicting risk for complicated sarcoidosis.

  7. Carbon nanotube and nanofiber exposure and sputum and blood biomarkers of early effect among U.S. workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, John D; Erdely, Aaron; Dahm, Matthew M; de Perio, Marie A; Birch, M Eileen; Evans, Douglas E; Fernback, Joseph E; Eye, Tracy; Kodali, Vamsi; Mercer, Robert R; Bertke, Stephen J; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K

    2018-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers (CNT/F) are increasingly used for diverse applications. Although animal studies suggest CNT/F exposure may cause deleterious health effects, human epidemiological studies have typically been small, confined to single workplaces, and limited in exposure assessment. We conducted an industrywide cross-sectional epidemiological study of 108 workers from 12 U.S. sites to evaluate associations between occupational CNT/F exposure and sputum and blood biomarkers of early effect. We assessed CNT/F exposure via personal breathing zone, filter-based air sampling to measure background-corrected elemental carbon (EC) (a CNT/F marker) mass and microscopy-based CNT/F structure count concentrations. We measured 36 sputum and 37 blood biomarkers. We used factor analyses with varimax rotation to derive factors among sputum and blood biomarkers separately. We used linear, Tobit, and unconditional logistic regression models to adjust for potential confounders and evaluate associations between CNT/F exposure and individual biomarkers and derived factors. We derived three sputum and nine blood biomarker factors that explained 78% and 67%, respectively, of the variation. After adjusting for potential confounders, inhalable EC and total inhalable CNT/F structures were associated with the most sputum and blood biomarkers, respectively. Biomarkers associated with at least three CNT/F metrics were 72 kDa type IV collagenase/matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), interleukin-18, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), myeloperoxidase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in sputum and MMP-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, metalloproteinase inhibitor 1/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, GPx, SOD, endothelin-1, fibrinogen, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular cell adhesion protein 1, and von Willebrand factor in blood, although directions of associations were not always as expected. Inhalable rather than respirable CNT/F was more

  8. Work related stress and blood glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancini, A; Ricci, S; Tomei, F; Sacco, C; Pacchiarotti, A; Nardone, N; Ricci, P; Suppi, A; De Cesare, D P; Anzelmo, V; Giubilati, R; Pimpinella, B; Rosati, M V; Tomei, G

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate work-related subjective stress in a group of workers on a major Italian company in the field of healthcare through the administration of a valid "questionnaire-tool indicator" (HSE Indicator Tool), and to analyze any correlation between stress levels taken from questionnaire scores and blood glucose values. We studied a final sample consisting of 241 subjects with different tasks. The HSE questionnaire - made up of 35 items (divided into 7 organizational dimensions) with 5 possible answers - has been distributed to all the subjects in occasion of the health surveillance examinations provided by law. The questionnaire was then analyzed using its specific software to process the results related to the 7 dimensions. These results were compared using the Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression with the blood glucose values obtained from each subject. From the analysis of the data the following areas resulted critical, in other words linked to an intermediate (yellow area) or high (red area) condition of stress: sustain from managers, sustain from colleagues, quality of relationships and professional changes. A significant positive correlation (p work stress can be statistically associated with increased levels of blood glucose.

  9. Recursive SVM biomarker selection for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Kaufman, Howard L; Deng, Youping; Drabier, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is worldwide the second most common type of cancer after lung cancer. Traditional mammography and Tissue Microarray has been studied for early cancer detection and cancer prediction. However, there is a need for more reliable diagnostic tools for early detection of breast cancer. This can be a challenge due to a number of factors and logistics. First, obtaining tissue biopsies can be difficult. Second, mammography may not detect small tumors, and is often unsatisfactory for younger women who typically have dense breast tissue. Lastly, breast cancer is not a single homogeneous disease but consists of multiple disease states, each arising from a distinct molecular mechanism and having a distinct clinical progression path which makes the disease difficult to detect and predict in early stages. In the paper, we present a Support Vector Machine based on Recursive Feature Elimination and Cross Validation (SVM-RFE-CV) algorithm for early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood and show how to use SVM-RFE-CV to model the classification and prediction problem of early detection of breast cancer in peripheral blood.The training set which consists of 32 health and 33 cancer samples and the testing set consisting of 31 health and 34 cancer samples were randomly separated from a dataset of peripheral blood of breast cancer that is downloaded from Gene Express Omnibus. First, we identified the 42 differentially expressed biomarkers between "normal" and "cancer". Then, with the SVM-RFE-CV we extracted 15 biomarkers that yield zero cross validation score. Lastly, we compared the classification and prediction performance of SVM-RFE-CV with that of SVM and SVM Recursive Feature Elimination (SVM-RFE). We found that 1) the SVM-RFE-CV is suitable for analyzing noisy high-throughput microarray data, 2) it outperforms SVM-RFE in the robustness to noise and in the ability to recover informative features, and 3) it can improve the prediction performance (Area Under

  10. Nickel exposure and plasma levels of biomarkers for assessing oxidative stress in nickel electroplating workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yu-Chung; Gu, Po-Wen; Liu, Su-Hsun; Tzeng, I-Shiang; Chen, Jau-Yuan; Luo, Jiin-Chyuan John

    2017-07-01

    The mechanism of nickel-induced pathogenesis remains elusive. To examine effects of nickel exposure on plasma oxidative and anti-oxidative biomarkers. Biomarker data were collected from 154 workers with various levels of nickel exposure and from 73 controls. Correlations between nickel exposure and oxidative and anti-oxidative biomarkers were determined using linear regression models. Workers with a exposure to high nickel levels had significantly lower levels of anti-oxidants (glutathione and catalase) than those with a lower exposure to nickel; however, only glutathione showed an independent association after multivariable adjustment. Exposure to high levels of nickel may reduce serum anti-oxidative capacity.

  11. Mercury levels assessment and its relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers in children from three localities in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Méndez, Jorge A; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor E; Fargher, Lane F; Moo-Puc, Rosa E

    2016-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that is released into the environment from geologic and anthropogenic sources. Once it enters an organism, it generates several toxicity mechanisms and oxidative stress has been proposed as the main one. Metal susceptibility is greater in children, which is a result of their physiology and behavior. In Yucatan, Mexico, burning of unregulated garbage dumps and household trash, ingestion of top marine predators, and pottery manufacturing are among the conditions that could promote Hg exposure. However, for Yucatan, there are no published studies that report Hg levels and associated oxidative stress status in children. Therefore, this study aimed to assess Hg levels in blood and urine and oxidative stress biomarkers levels in a sample of 107 healthy children from three localities in Yucatan, Mexico, as well as investigate the relationship between these parameters. Hg was detected in 11 (10.28%) of blood samples and 38 (35.51%) of urine samples collected from the participating children. Fourteen subjects showed Hg above recommended levels. The oxidative stress biomarkers were slightly elevated in comparison with other studies and were statistically different between the sampling sites. No linear correlation between Hg levels and oxidative stress biomarkers was found. Nevertheless, exploratory univariate and multivariate analysis showed non-linear relations among the measured variables. Globally, the study provides, for the first time, information regarding Hg levels and their relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers in a juvenile population from Mexico's southeast (Yucatan) region. In agreement with worldwide concern about Hg, this study should stimulate studies on metal monitoring in humans (especially children) among scientists working in Mexico, the establishment of polices for its regulation, and the reduction of human health risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The alkaline comet assay as a biomarker of primary DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes of nuclear medicine personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopjar, N.; Garaj-Vrhovac, V.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether occupational exposure to chronic low doses of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine departments may lead to genotoxicity. The alkaline comet assay was selected as a bio-marker of exposure to evaluate the levels of primary DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes of exposed and corresponding control subjects. Statistically significant differences were found between comet tail length and tail moment values measured in leukocytes from the exposed and control groups. Within exposed group significant inter-individual differences in DNA damage were assessed, indicating different genome sensitivity. In majority of exposed subjects the levels of DNA damage were in positive correlation with the duration of occupational exposure, while the influences of age and dosimeter readings could be excluded. However, the levels of primary DNA damage detected both in control and exposed subjects were significantly influenced by smoking. The present study indicates the possibility of genotoxic risks related to occupational exposure in nuclear medicine departments. Therefore, the exposed personnel should carefully apply the radiation protection procedures to minimize, as low as possible, radiation exposure to avoid possible genotoxic effects. According to results obtained, the alkaline comet assay could be usefully applied as a sensitive additional bio-marker in the regular health screening of workers occupationally exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation. (authors)

  13. An Evaluation of Serum Procalcitonin and C-Reactive Protein Levels as Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers of Severe Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szederjesi Janos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recommendations have been made, following the multicenter Surviving Sepsis Campaign study, to standardize the definition of severe sepsis with reference to several parameters such as haemodynamic stability, acid-base balance, bilirubin, creatinine, International Normalized Ratio (INR, urine output and pulmonary functional value of the ratio between arterial oxigen partial pressure and inspiratory oxigen concentration. Procalcitonin (PCT is considered to be a gold standard biomarker for the inflammatory response, and recent studies have shown that it may help to discover whether a seriously ill person is developing sepsis. C-reactive protein (CRP is also used as a marker of inflammation in the body, as its blood levels increase if there is any inflammation in the body. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein levels as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of severe sepsis.

  14. Eosinophilia in routine blood samples as a biomarker for solid tumor development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christen Bertel L; Siersma, V.D.; Hasselbalch, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    eosinophilia in routine blood samples as a potential biomarker of solid tumor development in a prospective design. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From the Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff) Database, we identified 356 196 individuals with at least one differential cell count (DIFF) encompassing...... was increased with mild eosinophilia [OR 1.93 (CI 1.29-2.89), p = 0.0013]. No associations with eosinophilia were observed for the remaining solid cancers. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that eosinophilia in routine blood samples associates with an increased risk of bladder cancer. Our data emphasize...... that additional preclinical studies are needed in order to shed further light on the role of eosinophils in carcinogenesis, where it is still unknown whether the cells contribute to tumor immune surveillance or neoplastic evolution....

  15. Blood arsenic as a biomarker of arsenic exposure: Results from a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Marni; Chen Yu; Ahsan, Habibul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Geen, Alexander van; Parvez, Faruque; Graziano, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic (As)-contaminated drinking water affects millions of people worldwide. Arsenic exposure is associated with skin lesions, skin, lung, kidney and liver cancers, neurologic and cardiovascular effects. Past studies involving biomarkers of As exposure have typically examined urinary As (UAs) (adjusted for urinary creatinine), hair or toenail As, but not blood As (BAs) since blood concentrations are exceedingly low and are not detectable by conventional atomic absorption spectrophotometric techniques. In a case-cohort analysis of 303 newly diagnosed cases of skin lesions, and 849 subcohort members randomly selected from 8092 participants in the health effects of as longitudinal study (HEALS) in Araihazar, Bangladesh, we measured blood, urine and water As concentrations, and examined their associations with each other, and with the risk for skin lesions. BAs concentrations were highly correlated with creatinine-adjusted UAs concentrations (r = 0.85) and with water As (WAs) (r = 0.75). We observed consistent dose-response relationships between the risk of skin lesions and all the measures of As exposure. Rate ratios (RRs) for skin lesions by quintile of As exposure, adjusted for age and gender, revealed that the two highest quintiles were significantly related to an increased risk of skin lesions for each measure of exposure: BAs, UAs, WAs and a time-weighted water As variable. This prospective study confirms the increased risk of skin lesions in relation to As concentrations in blood, urine and water and also establishes that BAs is a useful biomarker of As exposure in this study population

  16. Amyloid β levels in human red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro Kiko

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ is hypothesized to play a key role by oxidatively impairing the capacity of red blood cells (RBCs to deliver oxygen to the brain. These processes are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Although plasma Aβ has been investigated thoroughly, the presence and distribution of Aβ in human RBCs are still unclear. In this study, we quantitated Aβ40 and Aβ42 in human RBCs with ELISA assays, and provided evidence that significant amounts of Aβ could be detected in RBCs and that the RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. The RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. On the other hand, providing an antioxidant supplement (astaxanthin, a polar carotenoid to humans was found to decrease RBC Aβ as well as oxidative stress marker levels. These results suggest that plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 bind to RBCs (possibly with aging, implying a pathogenic role of RBC Aβ. Moreover, the data indicate that RBC Aβ40 and Aβ42 may constitute biomarkers of AD. As a preventive strategy, therapeutic application of astaxanthin as an Aβ-lowering agent in RBCs could be considered as a possible anti-dementia agent. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN42483402.

  17. Blood DNA methylation biomarkers predict clinical reactivity in food-sensitized infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, David; Dang, Thanh; Sexton-Oates, Alexandra; Prescott, Susan; Tang, Mimi L K; Dharmage, Shyamali; Gurrin, Lyle; Koplin, Jennifer; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Allen, Katrina J; Saffery, Richard

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of food allergy (FA) can be challenging because approximately half of food-sensitized patients are asymptomatic. Current diagnostic tests are excellent makers of sensitization but poor predictors of clinical reactivity. Thus oral food challenges (OFCs) are required to determine a patient's risk of reactivity. We sought to discover genomic biomarkers of clinical FA with utility for predicting food challenge outcomes. Genome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) profiling was performed on blood mononuclear cells from volunteers who had undergone objective OFCs, concurrent skin prick tests, and specific IgE tests. Fifty-eight food-sensitized patients (aged 11-15 months) were assessed, half of whom were clinically reactive. Thirteen nonallergic control subjects were also assessed. Reproducibility was assessed in an additional 48 samples by using methylation data from an independent population of patients with clinical FA. Using a supervised learning approach, we discovered a DNAm signature of 96 CpG sites that predict clinical outcomes. Diagnostic scores were derived from these 96 methylation sites, and cutoffs were determined in a sensitivity analysis. Methylation biomarkers outperformed allergen-specific IgE and skin prick tests for predicting OFC outcomes. FA status was correctly predicted in the replication cohort with an accuracy of 79.2%. DNAm biomarkers with clinical utility for predicting food challenge outcomes are readily detectable in blood. The development of this technology in detailed follow-up studies will yield highly innovative diagnostic assays. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Biomarkers for early and late stage chronic allograft nephropathy by proteogenomic profiling of peripheral blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil M Kurian

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant improvements in life expectancy of kidney transplant patients due to advances in surgery and immunosuppression, Chronic Allograft Nephropathy (CAN remains a daunting problem. A complex network of cellular mechanisms in both graft and peripheral immune compartments complicates the non-invasive diagnosis of CAN, which still requires biopsy histology. This is compounded by non-immunological factors contributing to graft injury. There is a pressing need to identify and validate minimally invasive biomarkers for CAN to serve as early predictors of graft loss and as metrics for managing long-term immunosuppression.We used DNA microarrays, tandem mass spectroscopy proteomics and bioinformatics to identify genomic and proteomic markers of mild and moderate/severe CAN in peripheral blood of two distinct cohorts (n = 77 total of kidney transplant patients with biopsy-documented histology.Gene expression profiles reveal over 2400 genes for mild CAN, and over 700 for moderate/severe CAN. A consensus analysis reveals 393 (mild and 63 (moderate/severe final candidates as CAN markers with predictive accuracy of 80% (mild and 92% (moderate/severe. Proteomic profiles show over 500 candidates each, for both stages of CAN including 302 proteins unique to mild and 509 unique to moderate/severe CAN.This study identifies several unique signatures of transcript and protein biomarkers with high predictive accuracies for mild and moderate/severe CAN, the most common cause of late allograft failure. These biomarkers are the necessary first step to a proteogenomic classification of CAN based on peripheral blood profiling and will be the targets of a prospective clinical validation study.

  19. Dried Blood Spot Collection of Health Biomarkers to Maximize Participation in Population Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostler, Michael W.; Porter, James H.; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers are directly-measured biological indicators of disease, health, exposures, or other biological information. In population and social sciences, biomarkers need to be easy to obtain, transport, and analyze. Dried Blood Spots meet this need, and can be collected in the field with high response rates. These elements are particularly important in longitudinal study designs including interventions where attrition is critical to avoid, and high response rates improve the interpretation of results. Dried Blood Spot sample collection is simple, quick, relatively painless, less invasive then venipuncture, and requires minimal field storage requirements (i.e. samples do not need to be immediately frozen and can be stored for a long period of time in a stable freezer environment before assay). The samples can be analyzed for a variety of different analytes, including cholesterol, C-reactive protein, glycosylated hemoglobin, numerous cytokines, and other analytes, as well as provide genetic material. DBS collection is depicted as employed in several recent studies. PMID:24513728

  20. Association of air pollution sources and aldehydes with biomarkers of blood coagulation, pulmonary inflammation, and systemic oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, Brent; Robson, Mark G; Kipen, Howard M; Ohman Strickland, Pamela; Meng, Qingyu; Gong, Jicheng; Huang, Wei; Wang, Guangfa; Rich, David Q; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Junfeng

    2017-05-01

    Using data collected before, during, and after the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing, this study examines associations between biomarkers of blood coagulation (vWF, sCD62P and sCD40L), pulmonary inflammation (EBC pH, EBC nitrite, and eNO), and systemic oxidative stress (urinary 8-OHdG) with sources of air pollution identified utilizing principal component analysis and with concentrations of three aldehydes of health concern. Associations between the biomarkers and the air pollution source types and aldehydes were examined using a linear mixed effects model, regressing through seven lag days and controlling for ambient temperature, relative humidity, gender, and day of week for the biomarker measurements. The biomarkers for pulmonary inflammation, particularly EBC pH and eNO, were most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion, oil combustion, and vegetative burning. The biomarkers for blood coagulation, particularly vWF and sCD62p, were most consistently associated with oil combustion. Systemic oxidative stress biomarker (8-OHdG) was most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion. The associations of the biomarkers were generally not significant or consistent with secondary formation of pollutants and with the aldehydes. The findings support policies to control anthropogenic pollution sources rather than natural soil or road dust from a cardio-respiratory health standpoint.

  1. The Effect of Probiotic Yogurt on Blood Glucose and cardiovascular Biomarkers in Patients with Type II Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Rezaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the high prevalence of type II diabetes and its complications, the evidence regarding the beneficial effects of probiotic yogurt on some cardiovascular biomarkers in diabetic patients is worthy of investigation. Aim: To investigate the effect of probiotic yogurt on blood glucose level and cardiovascular biomarkers in patients with type II diabetes. Method:This randomized, clinical trial was conducted on 90 patients with type II diabetes who visited the 5 Azar diabetes clinic in Gorgan, Iran, in 2014. The intervention group consumed three 100 g packages of probiotic yogurt per day for four weeks, while the control group used an equal amount of plain yogurt. Dietary intake, as well as anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured before and after the trial. To analyze the data, independent t-test, paired t-test, and analysis of covariance were performed, using SPSS version 18. Results: The mean ages of the intervention and control groups were 50.49±10.92 and 50.13±9.20 years, respectively. In the intervention group, paired t-test showed significant differences between mean levels of blood glucose, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure, and glycated hemoglobin before and after four weeks of daily intake of probiotic yogurt (P0.05. At the end of trial, the independent t-test showed a significant difference between the two groups in terms of mean levels of blood glucose, LDL, triglycerides, blood pressure, and glycated hemoglobin (P

  2. Serum Glutamine Levels as a Potential Diagnostic Biomarker in Sepsis following Surgery for Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Ju; Huang, Ting-Shuo; Lee, Tung-Liang; Yang, Kang-Chung; Yuan, Shin-Sheng; Lu, Ruey-Hwa; Hsieh, Chung-Ho; Shyu, Yu-Chiau

    2017-12-31

    Few diagnostic biomarkers for sepsis after emergency peritonitis surgery are available to clinicians, and, thus, it is important to develop new biomarkers for patients undergoing this procedure. We investigated whether serum glutamine and selenium levels could be diagnostic biomarkers of sepsis in individuals recovering from emergency peritonitis surgery. From February 2012 to March 2013, patients who had peritonitis diagnosed at the emergency department and underwent emergency surgery were screened for eligibility. Serum glutamine and selenium levels were obtained at pre-operative, post-operative and recovery time points. The average level of pre-operation serum glutamine was significantly different from that on the recovery day (0.317 ± 0.168 vs. 0.532 ± 0.155 mM, P peritonitis. We recommend including glutamine as a biomarker for sepsis severity assessment in addition to the commonly used clinical indicators.

  3. Storage-induced increase in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in red blood cell components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kücükakin, Bülent; Kocak, Volkan; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2011-01-01

    of buffy-coat reduced red cells in SAG-M additive solution, by assessing biomarkers of oxidative and inflammatory stress during a storage period of 35 days. Study design and methods. Ten units of RBCs were stored for 35 days. Samples were collected from the units at storage days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35......, respectively. The samples were analysed for various biomarkers expressing the oxidative stress and inflammation, including malondialdehyde (MDA), α-tocopherol (AT), dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), ascorbate (ASC), YKL-40 and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Results. The levels ofMDA, ASC, DHA, IL-6 and YKL-40 changed...... significantly during the storage period (p oxidative and inflammatory stress during a storage period...

  4. Arginine Vasopressin Is a Blood-Based Biomarker of Social Functioning in Children with Autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean S Carson

    Full Text Available Brain arginine vasopressin (AVP critically regulates normative social behavior in mammals, and experimental disruption of the AVP signaling pathway produces social impairments in rodent models. We therefore hypothesized that AVP signaling deficits may contribute to social impairments in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Since blood measures (which are far easier to obtain than brain measures of AVP are most meaningful if they are related to brain AVP activity, Study 1 tested the relationship between AVP concentrations in concomitantly collected blood and CSF samples from children and adults (N = 28 undergoing clinical procedures. Study 2 tested whether blood AVP concentrations: 1 differed between children with ASD (N = 57, their ASD discordant siblings (N = 47, and neurotypical controls (N = 55; and 2 predicted social functioning (using the NEPSY-II Theory of Mind and Affect Recognition tasks and the Social Responsiveness Scale in this large, well-characterized child cohort. Blood AVP concentrations significantly and positively predicted CSF AVP concentrations (F1,26 = 7.17, r = 0.46, p = 0.0127 in Study 1. In Study 2, blood AVP concentrations did not differ between groups or by sex, but significantly and positively predicted Theory of Mind performance, specifically in children with ASD, but not in non-ASD children (F1,144 = 5.83, p = 0.017. Blood AVP concentrations can be used: 1 as a surrogate for brain AVP activity in humans; and 2 as a robust biomarker of theory of mind ability in children with ASD. These findings also suggest that AVP biology may be a promising therapeutic target by which to improve social cognition in individuals with ASD.

  5. Evaluation of Serum and Urinary Neopterin Levels as a Biomarker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The present study was aimed to assess the blood and urinary neopterin as an ... and industries depending on their jobs are at risk to diseases associated ..... Qualitative control (11) ..... in workers with cement dust‑exposure [corrected].

  6. Urinary and Blood MicroRNA-126 and -770 are Potential Noninvasive Biomarker Candidates for Diabetic Nephropathy: a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungjin; Moon, SeongRyeol; Lee, Kiyoung; Park, Ie Byung; Lee, Dae Ho; Nam, Seungyoon

    2018-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN), a major diabetic microvascular complication, has a long and growing list of biomarkers, including microRNA biomarkers, which have not been consistent across preclinical and clinical studies. This meta-analysis aims to identify significant blood- and urine-incident microRNAs as diagnostic/prognostic biomarker candidates for DN. PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched from their earliest records through 12th Dec 2016. Relevant publications for the meta-analysis included (1) human participants; (2) microRNAs in blood and urine; (3) DN studies; and (4) English language. Four reviewers, including two physicians, independently and blindly extracted published data regarding microRNA profiles in blood and/or urine from subjects with diabetic nephropathy. A random-effect model was used to pool the data. Statistical associations between diabetic nephropathy and urinary or blood microRNA expression levels were assessed. Fourteen out of 327 studies (n=2,747 patients) were selected. Blood or urinary microRNA expression data of diabetic nephropathy were pooled for this analysis. The hsa-miR-126 family was significantly (OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.44-0.74; p-value diabetic kidney disease, while its urinary level was upregulated (OR: 2931.12; 95% CI: 9.96-862623.21; p-value = 0.0059). The hsa-miR-770 family microRNA were significantly (OR: 10.24; 95% CI: 2.37-44.25; p-value = 0.0018) upregulated in both blood and urine from patients with diabetic nephropathy. Our meta-analysis suggests that hsa-miR-126 and hsa-miR-770 family microRNA may have important diagnostic and pathogenetic implications for DN, which warrants further systematic clinical studies. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Laser-induced capillary leakage for blood biomarker detection and vaccine delivery via the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jeffrey H; Li, Bo; Wu, Mei X

    2016-07-01

    Circulation system is the center for coordination and communication of all organs in our body. Examination of any change in its analytes or delivery of therapeutic drugs into the system consists of important medical practice in today's medicine. Two recent studies prove that brief illumination of skin with a low powered laser, at wavelengths preferentially absorbed by hemoglobin, increases the amount of circulating biomarkers in the epidermis and upper dermis by more than 1,000-fold. When probe-coated microneedle arrays are applied into laser-treated skin, plasma blood biomarkers can be reliably, accurately, and sufficiently quantified in 15∼30 min assays, with a maximal detection in one hr in a manner independent of penetration depth or a molecular mass of the biomarker. Moreover, the laser treatment permits a high efficient delivery of radiation-attenuated malarial sporozoites (RAS) into the circulation, leading to robust immunity against malaria infections, whereas similar immunization at sham-treated skin elicits poor immune responses. Thus this technology can potentially instruct designs of small, portable devices for onsite, in mobile clinics, or at home for point-of-care diagnosis and drug/vaccine delivery via the skin. Laser-induced capillary leakage (a) to induce extravasation of circualing molecules only (b) or facilitate entry of attenuated malaria sporozoites into the capillary (c). Skin illumination with a laser preferably absorbed by hemoglobin causes dilation of the capillary beneath the skin. The extravasated molecules can be sufficiently measured in the skin or guide sporozoites to enter the vessel. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Exploring the Limitations of Peripheral Blood Transcriptional Biomarkers in Predicting Influenza Vaccine Responsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Marchetti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology has been recently applied to vaccinology to better understand immunological responses to the influenza vaccine. Particular attention has been paid to the identification of early signatures capable of predicting vaccine immunogenicity. Building from previous studies, we employed a recently established algorithm for signature-based clustering of expression profiles, SCUDO, to provide new insights into why blood-derived transcriptome biomarkers often fail to predict the seroresponse to the influenza virus vaccination. Specifically, preexisting immunity against one or more vaccine antigens, which was found to negatively affect the seroresponse, was identified as a confounding factor able to decouple early transcriptome from later antibody responses, resulting in the degradation of a biomarker predictive power. Finally, the broadly accepted definition of seroresponse to influenza virus vaccine, represented by the maximum response across the vaccine-targeted strains, was compared to a composite measure integrating the responses against all strains. This analysis revealed that composite measures provide a more accurate assessment of the seroresponse to multicomponent influenza vaccines.

  9. Blood Aspergillus RNA is a promising alternative biomarker for invasive aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanan; Paderu, Padmaja; Railkar, Radha; Douglas, Cameron; Iannone, Robert; Shire, Norah; Perlin, David S

    2016-11-01

    A critical challenge for the successful application of antifungal therapies for invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a lack of reliable biomarkers to assess early treatment response. Patients with proven or probable IA were prospectively enrolled, and serial blood samples were collected at 8 specified time points during 12-week antifungal therapy. Total nucleic acid was extracted from 2.5 ml blood and tested for Aspergillus-specific RNA by a pan-Aspergillus real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assay. Serum 1, 3-β-D-glucan (BG) and galactomannan (GM) were measured in parallel. Clinical outcome was evaluated at 6 and 12 weeks. Overall, 48/328 (14.6%) blood samples from 29/46 (63%) patients had positive NASBA detection at baseline and/or some point during the study. Positive NASBA results during the first 4 and 6 weeks of treatment are significantly associated with the 12-week outcome. Blood RNA load change during weeks 4-6 may be informative to predict outcome at 12 weeks. While independent of serum GM, the kinetic change of circulating Aspergillus RNA appears to be well correlated with that of BG on some patient individuals. Monitoring blood Aspergillus RNA during the first 4-6 weeks of antifungal treatment may help assess therapeutic response. Combination of circulating Aspergillus RNA and BG may be a useful adjunct to assess response. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Dialysate magnesium level and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriazis, John; Kalogeropoulou, Konstantina; Bilirakis, Leonidas; Smirnioudis, Nikolaos; Pikounis, Vasilios; Stamatiadis, Dimitrios; Liolia, Ekaterini

    2004-09-01

    We investigated the way dialysate magnesium (dMg) concentrations could affect blood pressure (BP) during hemodialysis (HD). Eight HD patients underwent four midweek HD treatments consecutively, using, during each four-hour HD session, one of the following four dialysate formulations, in randomized order, which differed only with regard to dMg and dialysate calcium (dCa) concentrations (in mmol/L): 0.75 dMg, 1.75 dCa (group I); 0.25 dMg, 1.75 dCa (group II); 0.75 dMg, 1.25 dCa (group III); 0.25 dMg, 1.25 dCa (group IV). Before HD and at four 60-minute intervals during the HD sessions, BP and noninvasive measurements of cardiac index (CI) were obtained. Additionally, 14 HD patients were treated for four weeks with 0.5 mmol/L dMg, followed by four weeks with 0.25 mmol/L dMg, and another four weeks with 0.75 mmol/L dMg, in random order. In all treatments dCa was 1.25 mmol/L. BP and symptoms were recorded during each HD session. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased to a significantly (P dMg was superior to the other two treatments regarding intradialytic morbidity (P dMg level to 0.75 mmol/L could prevent IDH frequently seen with the use of 1.25 mmol/L dCa. Thus, manipulating dMg levels independently or in concert with dCa levels might have important implications with regard to dialysis tolerance.

  11. Identification of specific bovine blood biomarkers with a non-targeted approach using HPLC ESI tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecrenier, M C; Marbaix, H; Dieu, M; Veys, P; Saegerman, C; Raes, M; Baeten, V

    2016-12-15

    Animal by-products are valuable protein sources in animal nutrition. Among them are blood products and blood meal, which are used as high-quality material for their beneficial effects on growth and health. Within the framework of the feed ban relaxation, the development of complementary methods in order to refine the identification of processed animal proteins remains challenging. The aim of this study was to identify specific biomarkers that would allow the detection of bovine blood products and processed animal proteins using tandem mass spectrometry. Seventeen biomarkers were identified: nine peptides for bovine plasma powder; seven peptides for bovine haemoglobin powder, including six peptides for bovine blood meal; and one peptide for porcine blood. They were not detected in several commercial compound feed or feed materials, such as blood by-products of other animal origins, milk-derived products and fish meal. These biomarkers could be used for developing a species-specific and blood-specific detection method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential Biomarker Peptides Associated with Acute Alcohol-Induced Reduction of Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Marumo, Mikio; Nonaka, Daisuke; Shimomura, Tomoko; Eguchi, Ryoji; Lee, Lyang-Ja; Tanaka, Kenji; Hatake, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the peptides that are related to acute reduction of blood pressure after alcohol drinking. Venous blood was collected from male healthy volunteers before and after drinking white wine (3 ml/kg weight) containing 13% of ethanol. Peptidome analysis for serum samples was performed using a new target plate, BLOTCHIP®. Alcohol caused significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels at 45 min. The peptidome analysis showed that the levels of three peptides of m/z 1467, 2380 and 2662 changed significantly after drinking. The m/z 1467 and 2662 peptides were identified to be fragments of fibrinogen alpha chain, and the m/z 2380 peptide was identified to be a fragment of complement C4. The intensities of the m/z 2380 and m/z 1467 peptides before drinking were associated with % decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels at 45 min after drinking compared with the levels before drinking, while there were no significant correlations between the intensity of the m/z 2662 peptide and % decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels after drinking. The m/z 1467 and 2380 peptides are suggested to be markers for acute reduction of blood pressure after drinking alcohol. PMID:26815288

  13. Blood lead levels in children, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shunqin; Zhang Jinliang

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate Chinese children's blood lead levels (BLLs) and identify its distribution features, we collected articles on children's BLLs published from 1994 to March 2004 using the Chinese Biomedical Disc and reviewed 32 articles eligible for the following criteria: (1) BLLs measured by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy or Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry; (2) strict quality control; (3) no lead pollution sources in the areas where the screened subjects live; and (4) sample size bigger than 100. We found that mean BLLs of Chinese children was 92.9 μg/L (37.2-254.2 μg/L), and 33.8% (9.6-80.5%) of the subjects had BLLs higher than 100 μg/L. Nine of the 27 provinces or cities reported had average BLLs ≥100 μg/L. Boys' BLL was 96.4 μg/L, significantly higher than girls' 89.4 μg/L (P<0.001). BLLs of children ≤6 years increased with age. The mean BLLs of children living in industrial and urban areas were significantly higher than those of children in suburbs and rural areas. Our results suggested that children's BLLs in China are higher than those of their counterparts in other countries due to its heavy lead pollution. Therefore, this is of great public health importance

  14. Why do premature newborn infants display elevated blood adenosine levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfoli, Isabella; Cassanello, Michela; Bruschettini, Matteo; Colella, Marina; Cerone, Roberto; Ravera, Silvia; Calzia, Daniela; Candiano, Giovanni; Ramenghi, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Our preliminary data show high levels of adenosine in the blood of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, positively correlating to their prematurity (i.e. body weight class). This prompted us to look for a mechanism promoting such impressive adenosine increase. We hypothesized a correlation with oxygen challenge. In fact, it is recognized that either oxygen lack or its excess contribute to the pathogenesis of the injuries of prematurity, such as retinopathy (ROP) and periventricular white matter lesions (PWMI). The optimal concentration of oxygen for resuscitation of VLBW infants is currently under revision. We propose that the elevated adenosine blood concentrations of VLBW infants recognizes two sources. The first could be its activity-dependent release from unmyelinated brain axons. Adenosine in this respect would be an end-product of the hypometabolic VLBW newborn unmyelinated axon intensely firing in response to the environmental stimuli consequent to premature birth. Adenosine would be eventually found in the blood due to blood-brain barrier immaturity. In fact, adenosine is the primary activity-dependent signal promoting differentiation of premyelinating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) into myelinating cells in the Central Nervous System, while inhibiting their proliferation and inhibiting synaptic function. The second, would be the ecto-cellular ATP synthesized by the endothelial cell plasmalemma exposed to ambient oxygen concentrations due to premature breathing, especially in lung. ATP would be rapidly transformed into adenosine by the ectonucleotidase activities such as NTPDase I (CD39), and NT5E (CD73). An ectopic extra-mitochondrial aerobic ATP synthetic ability was reported in many cell plasma-membranes, among which endothelial cells. The potential implications of the cited hypotheses for the neonatology area would be great. The amount of oxygen administration for reviving of newborns would find a molecular basis for its assessment. VLBW

  15. An Examination of Blood Lead Levels in Thai Nielloware Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Decharat, Somsiri; Kongtip, Pornpimol; Thampoophasiam, Prapin; Thetkathuek, Anamai

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the lead levels in blood samples from nielloware workers, to determine airborne lead levels, to describe the workers’ hygiene behaviors, and to ascertain and describe any correlations between lead levels in blood samples and lead levels in airborne samples. Methods: Blood samples and airborne samples from 45 nielloware workers were collected from nielloware workplaces in Nakhon Sri Thammarat Province, Thailand. Lead levels were det...

  16. Exposure to asbestos and levels of selected tumor biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajewska, B.; Lutz, W.; Pilacik, B.

    1996-01-01

    Occupational exposure to asbestos, a recognised carcinogen, poses a risk for such diseases as asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma. It is thought that asbestos fibres may damage microphages which undergo neoplastic transformation as well as fibroblast, while partial phagocytosis may generate free oxygenic radicals which induce cellular peroxidase and damage macromolecules. Neoplastic biomarkers such as tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) or carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) are now used for this purpose. The aim of the work was to identify workers exposed to asbestos in the population, especially high risk groups neoplastic diseases and to evaluate the usefulness of TPA and CEA determinations. The study covered a group of asbestos exposed workers (n = 4000 and the control group of workers (n = 135) nonexposed to any toxic factor at work. Age, exposure time, smoking habits and workpost characteristics were taken into consideration in the analysis of the results. It was revealed that in 38 persons exposed to asbestos, TPA values were above the concentration limit set on the basis of studies carried out in the control group, and elevated CEA values applied to 13 persons. Significant differences between groups under study were found in the proportion of pathological TPA values. Such a relationship was not observed in regard to CEA values. In the exposed group the results also indicated an evident effect of age and exposure time on the number of persons with TPA values above concentration limit. The effect of smoking on the frequency of pathological TPA values was also clear-cut in workers exposed to asbestos. Taking into account three types of employment, the analysis indicated significant differences in TPA values between blue collar workers and other personnel; and between white collar workers and other personnel. This means a similar percentage of pathological TPA values in the group of blue collar and white collar workers. The study carried out allowed to identify

  17. Fluoride Ion Regeneration of Cyclosarin (GF) From Rat Blood Following Whole-Body Exposure to Lethal Levels of GF Vapor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jakubowski, E. M; Anthony, J. S; Mioduszewski, R. J; Manthei, J. H; Burnett, D. C; Way, R. A; Gaviola, B. I; Scotto, J. A; Muse, W. T; Whalley, C. E

    2003-01-01

    .... Levels of exposure ranged from 2 mg/m3 for 240 min to 41.9 mg/m3 for 10 min. The GF biomarker found in rat plasma and red blood cell samples was regenerated GF, which is the product of adding fluoride ion at pH 4 to the post exposure samples...

  18. Oxidative stress and neurological disorders in relation to blood lead levels in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, M; Fareed, Mohd; Kumar, A; Siddiqui, W A; Siddiqui, M K J

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. Free radical generation appears to be the mode of lead toxicity. We evaluated the effects of blood lead levels on oxidative stress parameters in children suffering from neurological disorders. Thirty children (aged 3-12 years) with neurological disorders (cerebral palsy [n = 12], seizures [n = 11], and encephalopathy [n = 7]) were recruited in the study group. Sixty healthy children (aged 3-12 years) from similar socio-economic environments and not suffering from any chronic disease were taken as the controls. Blood lead levels and oxidant/antioxidant status were determined. Mean blood lead level was significantly higher while delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALAD) activity, a biomarker for lead exposure, was significantly lower in the study group as compared to the control group (P children with neurological disorders. Lead-induced oxidative stress as an underlying mechanism for neurological diseases in children warranted further investigation.

  19. Cpt1a gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as an early biomarker of diet-related metabolic alterations

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz-Rua, Ruben

    2016-11-23

    Background: Research on biomarkers that provide early information about the development of future metabolic alterations is an emerging discipline. Gene expression analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is a promising tool to identify subjects at risk of developing diet-related diseases.

  20. Differentially regulated miRNAs as prognostic biomarkers in the blood of primary CNS lymphoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Patrick; Keller, Andreas; Hoheisel, Jörg D; Codo, Paula; Bauer, Andrea S; Backes, Christina; Leidinger, Petra; Meese, Eckart; Thiel, Eckhard; Korfel, Agnieszka; Weller, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Despite improved therapeutic regimens, primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) remains a therapeutic challenge. A prognostic classification of PCNSL patients may represent an important step towards optimised patient-adapted therapy. However, only higher age and low Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) have repeatedly been reported to be associated with shorter overall survival (OS). Here we characterised microRNA (miRNA) fingerprints in the blood of PCNSL patients with short-term survival (STS) versus long-term survival (LTS) to assess their potential as novel prognostic biomarkers. Blood was collected from patients enrolled in the G-PCNSL-SG1 trial, a phase III study for patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL. miRNAs were extracted from the blood and analysed by next generation sequencing. The STS group comprised 20 patients with a median OS of 3 months and was compared to 20 LTS patients with a median OS of 55 months. The cohorts were balanced for age and KPS. Twelve annotated miRNAs were significantly deregulated between the two groups. Among them, miR-151a-5p and miR-151b exhibited the most prominent differences. Importantly, the combination of several miRNA allowed for a good separation between short- and long-term survivors with maximal Area Under Curve (AUC) above 0.75. Besides the known miRNAs we identified putative novel miRNA candidates with potential regulatory influence of PCNSL. Finally, the differential regulation of the most promising candidate miRNAs was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a validation cohort consisting of 20 STS and LTS patients. In conclusion, peripheral blood miRNA expression patterns hold promise as a prognostic tool in PCNSL patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biomarkers of World Trade Center Particulate Matter Exposure: Physiology of distal airway and blood biomarkers that predict FEV1 decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiden, Michael D.; Kwon, Sophia; Caraher, Erin; Berger, Kenneth I.; Reibman, Joan; Rom, William N.; Prezant, David J.; Nolan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers can be important predictors of disease severity and progression. The intense exposure to particulates and other toxins from the destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) overwhelmed the lung’s normal protective barriers. The Fire Department of New York (FDNY) cohort not only had baseline pre-exposure lung function measures but also had serum samples banked soon after their WTC exposure. This well phenotyped group of highly exposed first responders is an ideal cohort for biomarker discovery and eventual validation. Disease progression was heterogeneous in this group in that some individuals subsequently developed abnormal lung function while others recovered. Airflow obstruction predominated in WTC exposed patients who were symptomatic. Multiple independent disease pathways may cause this abnormal FEV1 after irritant exposure. WTC exposure activates one or more of these pathways causing abnormal FEV1 in an individual. Our hypothesis was that serum biomarkers expressed within 6 months after World Trade Center (WTC) exposure reflect active disease pathways and predict subsequent development or protection from abnormal FEV1biomarkers of WTC-LI. We have identified biomarkers of Inflammation, metabolic derangement, protease/antiprotease balance and vascular injury expressed in serum within 6 months of WTC exposure that were predictive of their FEV1 up to 7 years after their WTC exposure. Predicting future risk of airway injury after particulate exposures can focus monitoring and early treatment on a subset of patients in greatest need of these services. PMID:26024341

  2. Association between gene expression biomarkers of immunosuppression and blood transfusion in severely injured polytrauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Hew Dt; Brohi, Karim; Pearse, Rupert M; Mein, Charles A; Wozniak, Eva; Prowle, John R; Hinds, Charles J; OʼDwyer, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    To explore the hypothesis that blood transfusion contributes to an immunosuppressed phenotype in severely injured patients. Despite trauma patients using disproportionately large quantities of blood and blood products, the immunomodulatory effects of blood transfusion in this group are inadequately described. A total of 112 ventilated polytrauma patients were recruited. Messenger RNA (mRNA) was extracted from PAXGene tubes collected within 2 hours of the trauma, at 24 hours, and at 72 hours. T-helper cell subtype specific cytokines and transcription factors were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Median injury severity score was 29. Blood transfusion was administered to 27 (24%) patients before the 2-hour sampling point. Transfusion was associated with a greater immediate rise in IL-10 (P = 0.003) and IL-27 (P = 0.04) mRNA levels. Blood products were transfused in 72 (64%) patients within the first 24 hours. There was an association between transfusion at 24 hours and higher IL-10 (P < 0.0001), lower Foxp3 (P = 0.01), GATA3 (P = 0.006), and RORγt (P = 0.05) mRNA levels at 24 hours. There were greater reductions in T-bet (P = 0.03) mRNA levels and lesser increases in TNFα (P = 0.015) and IFNγ (P = 0.035) at 24 hours in those transfused. Multiple regression models confirmed that the transfusion of blood products was independently associated with altered patterns of gene expression. Blood stream infections occur in 15 (20.8%) of those transfused in the first 24 hours, compared with 1 patient (2.5%) not transfused (OR = 10.3 [1.3-81], P = 0.008). The primarily immunosuppressive inflammatory response to polytrauma may be exacerbated by the transfusion of blood products. Furthermore, transfusion was associated with an increased susceptibility to nosocomial infections.

  3. Relationship between blood glucose levels and muscle strength in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between blood glucose levels and muscle strength in rural South African ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... left handgrip and fasting blood glucose after adjusting for age, gender and family history of ...

  4. Evaluation of blood zinc, calcium and blood lead levels among children aged 1-36 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaojun; He, Hong; Ren, Lisheng; Liu, Ji; Han, Chunhua

    2014-09-01

    Early childhood lead exposure is associated with numerous adverse health effects. Biomonitoring among susceptible populations, such as children, has not been previously conducted. The aim of the study is to evaluate the blood lead (Pb) and total blood calcium (Ca) levels; blood zinc (Zn) levels. A cross-sectional study was designed to collect healthy children age 1- 36 months (Mean ± SD: 1.5 ± 0.6 age, 60% boys) in the study from January 2010 to September 2011. The overall mean blood Pb levels were 42.18 ± 12.13 μg/L, the overall mean blood Zn and total blood Ca concentrations were 62.18 ± 12.33 μmol/L and 1.78 ± 0.13 mmol/L, respectively. The prevalence of elevated blood Pb levels in all children was 1.3%. A significant difference was found between female and male subjects for the blood Pb and Zn. After controlling for gender and age, there was a weak positive correlation between total blood Ca and Zn level. The blood Pb levels had a significant negative correlation with total blood Ca level after adjusting for age and gender, and these findings suggest that Pb had effect on positive blood Zn and total blood Ca levels; parents should pay more attention to the nutrition of girls. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Blood RNA biomarkers in prodromal PARK4 and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder show role of complexin 1 loss for risk of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suna Lahut

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a frequent neurodegenerative process in old age. Accumulation and aggregation of the lipid-binding SNARE complex component α-synuclein (SNCA underlies this vulnerability and defines stages of disease progression. Determinants of SNCA levels and mechanisms of SNCA neurotoxicity have been intensely investigated. In view of the physiological roles of SNCA in blood to modulate vesicle release, we studied blood samples from a new large pedigree with SNCA gene duplication (PARK4 mutation to identify effects of SNCA gain of function as potential disease biomarkers. Downregulation of complexin 1 (CPLX1 mRNA was correlated with genotype, but the expression of other Parkinson's disease genes was not. In global RNA-seq profiling of blood from presymptomatic PARK4 indviduals, bioinformatics detected significant upregulations for platelet activation, hemostasis, lipoproteins, endocytosis, lysosome, cytokine, Toll-like receptor signaling and extracellular pathways. In PARK4 platelets, stimulus-triggered degranulation was impaired. Strong SPP1, GZMH and PLTP mRNA upregulations were validated in PARK4. When analysing individuals with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, the most specific known prodromal stage of general PD, only blood CPLX1 levels were altered. Validation experiments confirmed an inverse mutual regulation of SNCA and CPLX1 mRNA levels. In the 3′-UTR of the CPLX1 gene we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism that is significantly associated with PD risk. In summary, our data define CPLX1 as a PD risk factor and provide functional insights into the role and regulation of blood SNCA levels. The new blood biomarkers of PARK4 in this Turkish family might become useful for PD prediction.

  6. Meta-analysis of peripheral blood apolipoprotein E levels in Alzheimer's disease.

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    Chong Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peripheral blood Apolipoprotein E (ApoE levels have been proposed as biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD, but previous studies on levels of ApoE in blood remain inconsistent. This meta-analysis was designed to re-examine the potential role of peripheral ApoE in AD diagnosis and its potential value as a candidate biomarker. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, and BIOSIS previews for case-control studies measuring ApoE levels in serum or plasma from AD subjects and healthy controls. The pooled weighted mean difference (WMD and 95% confidence interval (CI were used to estimate the association between ApoE levels and AD risk. RESULTS: Eight studies with a total of 2250 controls and 1498 AD cases were identified and analyzed. The pooled WMD from a random-effect model of AD participants compared with the healthy controls was -5.59 mg/l (95% CI: [-8.12, -3.06]. The overall pattern in WMD was not varied by characteristics of study, including age, country, assay method, publication year, and sample type. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis supports a lowered level of blood ApoE in AD patients, and indicates its potential value as an important risk factor for AD. Further investigation employing standardized assay for ApoE measurement are still warranted to uncover the precise role of ApoE in the pathophysiology of AD.

  7. Changes in Cartilage Biomarker Levels During a Transcontinental Multistage Footrace Over 4486 km.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mündermann, Annegret; Klenk, Christopher; Billich, Christian; Nüesch, Corina; Pagenstert, Geert; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Schütz, Uwe

    2017-09-01

    Cartilage turnover and load-induced tissue changes are frequently assessed by quantifying concentrations of cartilage biomarkers in serum. To date, information on the effects of ultramarathon running on articular cartilage is scarce. Serum concentrations of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-3, MMP-9, COL2-3/4C long mono (C2C), procollagen type II C-terminal propeptide (CPII), and C2C:CPII will increase throughout a multistage ultramarathon. Descriptive laboratory study. Blood samples were collected from 36 runners (4 female; mean age, 49.0 ± 10.7 years; mean body mass index, 23.1 ± 2.3 kg/m 2 [start] and 21.4 ± 1.9 kg/m 2 [finish]) before (t 0 ) and during (t 1 : 1002 km; t 2 : 2132 km; t 3 : 3234 km; t 4 : 4039 km) a 4486-km multistage ultramarathon. Serum COMP, MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9, C2C, and CPII levels were assessed using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Linear mixed models were used to detect significant changes in serum biomarker levels over time with the time-varying covariates of body weight, running speed, and daily running time. Serum concentrations of COMP, MMP-9, and MMP-3 changed significantly throughout the multistage ultramarathon. On average, concentrations increased during the first measurement interval (MI1: t 1 -t 0 ) by 22.5% for COMP (95% CI, 0.29-0.71 ng/mL), 22.3% for MMP-3 (95% CI, 0.24-15.37 ng/mL), and 95.6% for MMP-9 (95% CI, 81.7-414.5 ng/mL) and remained stable throughout MI2, MI3, and MI4. Serum concentrations of MMP-1, C2C, CPII, and C2C:CPII did not change significantly throughout the multistage ultramarathon. Changes in MMP-3 were statistically associated with changes in COMP throughout the ultramarathon race (MMP-3: Wald Z = 3.476, P = .001). Elevated COMP levels indicate increased COMP turnover in response to extreme running, and the association between load-induced changes in MMP-3 and changes in COMP suggests the possibility that MMP-3 may be involved in the

  8. Blood lead level and correlation with pregnancy-associated anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehan Hamadneh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The most common reason that leads to anaemia is related to the reduction in certain trace elements such as Fe. However, it has been found that an elevation in some other heavy metals such as Pb could also lead to anaemia. Aims This research aims to assess the Correlation between Pb blood levels and Fe, Haemoglobin levels during pregnancy among Jordanian women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Northern area of Jordan. Venous blood samples collected from 167 pregnant women for the determination of haemoglobin (Hb, Fe and Pb levels of which 17 in the first trimester, 19 in second trimesters, 131 in third trimesters. Women were classified into two groups, the first group included cases with blood Pb Levels ≥10µg/dL (high blood Pb level group, n=118 and the second with blood Lead levels less than 10µg/dL (low blood Lead level group, n=49. Results About 71.4 per cent of women had anaemia (n=120; Hb>10.5g/dl and 70.7 per cent of women had a high blood Pb level of ≥10µg/dL. Pb blood levels ranged from 6.45 to 28.0μg/dL. The mean (SD of blood Pb level was 12.1 (4.1 µg/dL. The mean haemoglobin and Fe levels did not differ significantly between women with low and high levels of Pb. Blood Pb levels were not significantly correlated with haemoglobin levels (r=-0.025; P=0.747 nor with iron levels (r=0.099; P=0.241. After adjusting for important variables, Pb was not significantly associated with haemoglobin (P=0.223 and with iron (P=0.116. Conclusion The level of Pb in the blood of pregnant women has no any association with haemoglobin and Fe levels during pregnancy.

  9. Ex vivo changes in blood glucose levels seldom change blood glucose control algorithm recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groene, L.; Harmsen, R. E.; Binnekade, J. M.; Spronk, P. E.; Schultz, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Hyperglycemia and glycemic variabilities are associated with adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. Blood glucose control with insulin mandates an adequate and precise assessment of blood glucose levels. Blood glucose levels, however, can change ex vivo after sampling. The aim of

  10. Do classic blood biomarkers of JSLE identify active lupus nephritis? Evidence from the UK JSLE Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E M D; Jorgensen, A L; Beresford, M W

    2017-10-01

    Background Lupus nephritis (LN) affects up to 80% of juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) patients. The value of commonly available biomarkers, such as anti-dsDNA antibodies, complement (C3/C4), ESR and full blood count parameters in the identification of active LN remains uncertain. Methods Participants from the UK JSLE Cohort Study, aged modeling, with stepAIC function applied to select a final model. Receiver-operating curve analysis was used to assess diagnostic accuracy. Results A total of 370 patients were recruited; 191 (52%) had active LN and 179 (48%) had inactive LN. Binary logistic regression modeling demonstrated a combination of ESR, C3, white cell count, neutrophils, lymphocytes and IgG to be best for the identification of active LN (area under the curve 0.724). Conclusions At best, combining common classic blood biomarkers of lupus activity using multivariate analysis provides a 'fair' ability to identify active LN. Urine biomarkers were not included in these analyses. These results add to the concern that classic blood biomarkers are limited in monitoring discrete JSLE manifestations such as LN.

  11. IFI44L promoter methylation as a blood biomarker for systemic lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Zhou, Yin; Zhu, Bochen; Wan, Mengjie; Jiang, Tingting; Tan, Qiqun; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Juqing; Luo, Shuaihantian; Tan, Yixin; Wu, Haijing; Renauer, Paul; Gutiérrez, Maria del Mar Ayala; Palma, Maria Jesús Castillo; Castro, Rafaela Ortega; Fernández-Roldán, Concepción; Raya, Enrique; Faria, Raquel; Carvalho, Claudia; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Xiang, Zhongyuan; Chen, Jinwei; Li, Fen; Ling, Guanghui; Zhao, Hongjun; Liao, Xiangping; Lin, Youkun; Sawalha, Amr H; Lu, Qianjin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a clinically heterogeneous disease with limited reliable diagnostic biomarkers. We investigated whether gene methylation could meet sensitivity and specificity criteria for a robust biomarker. Methods IFI44L promoter methylation was examined using DNA samples from a discovery set including 377 patients with SLE, 358 healthy controls (HCs) and 353 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Two independent sets including 1144 patients with SLE, 1350 HCs, 429 patients with RA and 199 patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) were used for validation. Results Significant hypomethylation of two CpG sites within IFI44L promoter, Site1 (Chr1: 79 085 222) and Site2 (Chr1: 79 085 250; cg06872964), was identified in patients with SLE compared with HCs, patients with RA and patients with pSS. In a comparison between patients with SLE and HCs included in the first validation cohort, Site1 methylation had a sensitivity of 93.6% and a specificity of 96.8% at a cut-off methylation level of 75.5% and Site2 methylation had a sensitivity of 94.1% and a specificity of 98.2% at a cut-off methylation level of 25.5%. The IFI44L promoter methylation marker was also validated in an European-derived cohort. In addition, the methylation levels of Site1 and Site2 within IFI44L promoter were significantly lower in patients with SLE with renal damage than those without renal damage. Patients with SLE showed significantly increased methylation levels of Site1 and Site2 during remission compared with active stage. Conclusions The methylation level of IFI44L promoter can distinguish patients with SLE from healthy persons and other autoimmune diseases, and is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic marker for SLE. PMID:26787370

  12. Increased Cord Blood Betatrophin Levels in the Offspring of Mothers with Gestational Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shimin; Zhao, Yue; Du, Caiqi; Yuan, Guandou; Ning, Qin; McCormick, Kenneth; Luo, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Aim Exposing a fetus to hyperglycemia can increase the risk for later-life metabolic disorders. Betatrophin has been proposed as a key regulator of pancreatic beta cell proliferation and lipid regulation. Highly responsive to nutritional signals, serum betatrophin concentrations have been found to be altered by various physiological and pathological conditions. We hypothesized that betatrophin levels are increased in the cord blood in offspring exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study including 54 mothers who underwent uncomplicated Cesarean delivery in a university hospital. Maternal gestational glucose concentration was determined at 24–48 weeks gestation after a 75-g OGTT. Cord blood and placental tissue was collected immediately post delivery. Metabolic parameters were determined in the Clinical Laboratory. Cord blood betatrophin levels were assayed using a commercially available ELISA kit. Placental mitochondrial content was determined by real-time PCR. Results Cord blood betatrophin levels were increased in the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) group compared with the normoglycemic group. Furthermore, betatrophin levels were positively correlated with maternal gestational 2h post-OGTT glucose, cord blood insulin, HOMA-IR, and inversely correlated with placental mitochondrial content. Conclusions Cord blood betatrophin may function as a potential biomarker of maternal intrauterine hyperglycemia and fetal insulin resistance, which may presage for long-term metabolic impact of GDM on offspring. PMID:27196053

  13. Potential epigenetic biomarkers of obesity-related insulin resistance in human whole-blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Samantha E; Coletta, Richard L; Kim, Joon Young; Garcia, Luis A; Campbell, Latoya E; Benjamin, Tonya R; Roust, Lori R; De Filippis, Elena A; Mandarino, Lawrence J; Coletta, Dawn K

    2017-04-03

    Obesity can increase the risk of complex metabolic diseases, including insulin resistance. Moreover, obesity can be caused by environmental and genetic factors. However, the epigenetic mechanisms of obesity are not well defined. Therefore, the identification of novel epigenetic biomarkers of obesity allows for a more complete understanding of the disease and its underlying insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to identify DNA methylation changes in whole-blood that were strongly associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Whole-blood was obtained from lean (n = 10; BMI = 23.6 ± 0.7 kg/m 2 ) and obese (n = 10; BMI = 34.4 ± 1.3 kg/m 2 ) participants in combination with euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps to assess insulin sensitivity. We performed reduced representation bisulfite sequencing on genomic DNA isolated from the blood. We identified 49 differentially methylated cytosines (DMCs; q obese compared with lean participants. We identified 2 sites (Chr.21:46,957,981 and Chr.21:46,957,915) in the 5' untranslated region of solute carrier family 19 member 1 (SLC19A1) with decreased methylation in obese participants (lean 0.73 ± 0.11 vs. obese 0.09 ± 0.05; lean 0.68 ± 0.10 vs. obese 0.09 ± 0.05, respectively). These 2 DMCs identified by obesity were also significantly predicted by insulin sensitivity (r = 0.68, P = 0.003; r = 0.66; P = 0.004). In addition, we performed a differentially methylated region (DMR) analysis and demonstrated a decrease in methylation of Chr.21:46,957,915-46,958,001 in SLC19A1 of -34.9% (70.4% lean vs. 35.5% obese). The decrease in whole-blood SLC19A1 methylation in our obese participants was similar to the change observed in skeletal muscle (Chr.21:46,957,981, lean 0.70 ± 0.09 vs. obese 0.31 ± 0.11 and Chr.21:46,957,915, lean 0.72 ± 0.11 vs. obese 0.31 ± 0.13). Pyrosequencing analysis further demonstrated a decrease in methylation at Chr.21:46,957,915 in both whole-blood (lean 0.71 ± 0.10 vs. obese 0.18 ± 0

  14. Evaluation of serum osteopontin level and gene polymorphism as biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasmickaite, Lina; Berge, Gisle; Bettum, Ingrid J

    2015-01-01

    samples from 275 high-risk melanoma patients enrolled in the Nordic Adjuvant IFN Melanoma trial were analyzed for circulating OPN concentrations and OPN promoter polymorphisms in position -443. The potential relation between serum OPN levels, the genotypes and survival in non-treated patients and patients...... receiving adjuvant IFN-α was investigated. Although slightly better survival was observed in the treated patients that had high levels of OPN, the difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, serum OPN (its level or the genotype) cannot distinguish melanoma patients with poor prognosis...

  15. Blood profiling of proteins and steroids during weight maintenance with manipulation of dietary protein level and glycaemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne

    2012-01-01

    ) blood biomarkers of dietary protein and GI levels during the weight-maintenance phase. Blood samples were collected at baseline, after 8 weeks of low-energy diet-induced weight loss and after a 6-month dietary intervention period from female continued weight losers (n 48) and weight regainers (n 48......), evenly selected from four dietary groups that varied in protein and GI levels. The blood concentrations of twenty-nine proteins and three steroid hormones were measured. The changes in analytes during weight maintenance largely correlated negatively with the changes during weight loss, with some...

  16. Cord Blood Leptin Levels in Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Şengül

    2010-08-01

    CONCLUSION: In this study there is a minimal clinical effect of cord blood leptin on macrosomia in women with GD, although it is increased in GD and associated with birthweight. Therefore overgrowth may be a result of direct anabolic effect of insulin, rather than indirect effect via leptin.

  17. High-Sensitivity Troponin: A Clinical Blood Biomarker for Staging Cardiomyopathy in Fabry Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydelmann, Nora; Liu, Dan; Krämer, Johannes; Drechsler, Christiane; Hu, Kai; Nordbeck, Peter; Schneider, Andreas; Störk, Stefan; Bijnens, Bart; Ertl, Georg; Wanner, Christoph; Weidemann, Frank

    2016-05-31

    High-sensitivity troponin (hs-TNT), a biomarker of myocardial damage, might be useful for assessing fibrosis in Fabry cardiomyopathy. We performed a prospective analysis of hs-TNT as a biomarker for myocardial changes in Fabry patients and a retrospective longitudinal follow-up study to assess longitudinal hs-TNT changes relative to fibrosis and cardiomyopathy progression. For the prospective analysis, hs-TNT from 75 consecutive patients with genetically confirmed Fabry disease was analyzed relative to typical Fabry-associated echocardiographic findings and total myocardial fibrosis as measured by late gadolinium enhancement (LE) on magnetic resonance imaging. Longitudinal data (3.9±2.0 years), including hs-TNT, LE, and echocardiographic findings from 58 Fabry patients, were retrospectively collected. Hs-TNT level positively correlated with LE (linear correlation coefficient, 0.72; odds ratio, 32.81 [95% CI, 3.56-302.59]; P=0.002); patients with elevated baseline hs-TNT (>14 ng/L) showed significantly increased LE (median: baseline, 1.9 [1.1-3.3] %; follow-up, 3.2 [2.3-4.9] %; PFabry disease and a qualified predictor of cardiomyopathy progression. Thus, hs-TNT could be helpful for staging and follow-up of Fabry patients. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  18. ErbB3 mRNA leukocyte levels as a biomarker for major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanesi Elena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the identification of peripheral biomarkers that are associated with psychiatric diseases, such as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, has become relevant because these biomarkers may improve the efficiency of the differential diagnosis process and indicate targets for new antidepressant drugs. Two recent candidate genes, ErbB3 and Fgfr1, are growth factors whose mRNA levels have been found to be altered in the leukocytes of patients that are affected by bipolar disorder in a depressive state. On this basis, the aim of the study was to determine if ErbB3 and Fgfr1 mRNA levels could be a biomarkers of MDD. Methods We measured by Real Time PCR ErbB3 and Fgfr1 mRNA expression levels in leukocytes of MDD patients compared with controls. Successively, to assess whether ErbB3 mRNA levels were influenced by previous antidepressant treatment we stratified our patients sample in two cohorts, comparing drug-naive versus drug-free patients. Moreover, we evaluated the levels of the transcript in MDD patients after 12 weeks of antidepressant treatment, and in prefrontal cortex of rats stressed and treated with an antidepressant drug of the same class. Results These results showed that ErbB3 but not Fgfr1 mRNA levels were reduced in leukocytes of MDD patients compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, ErbB3 levels were not affected by antidepressant treatment in either human or animal models Conclusions Our data suggest that ErbB3 might be considered as a biomarker for MDD and that its deficit may underlie the pathopsysiology of the disease and is not a consequence of treatment. Moreover the study supports the usefulness of leukocytes as a peripheral system for identifying biomarkers in psychiatric diseases.

  19. European multicentre double-blind placebo-controlled trial of Nilvadipine in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease-the substudy protocols: NILVAD frailty; NILVAD blood and genetic biomarkers; NILVAD cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers; NILVAD cerebral blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenbroek, Olga; O'Dwyer, Sarah; de Jong, Daan; van Spijker, Gerrita; Kennelly, Sean; Cregg, Fiona; Olde Rikkert, Marcel; Abdullah, Laila; Wallin, Anders; Walsh, Cathal; Coen, Robert; Kenny, Rose Anne; Daly, Leslie; Segurado, Ricardo; Borjesson-Hanson, Anne; Crawford, Fiona; Mullan, Michael; Lucca, Ugo; Banzi, Rita; Pasquier, Florence; Breuilh, Laetitia; Riepe, Matthias; Kalman, Janos; Molloy, William; Tsolaki, Magda; Howard, Robert; Adams, Jessica; Gaynor, Siobhan; Lawlor, Brian

    2016-07-19

    In conjunction with the NILVAD trial, a European Multicentre Double-Blind Placebo Controlled trial of Nilvadipine in Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are four NILVAD substudies in which eligible NILVAD patients are also invited to participate. The main NILVAD protocol was previously published in BMJ Open (2014). The objectives of the NILVAD substudies are to determine whether frailty, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood biomarker profile and Apolipoprotein E (APOE) status predict response to Nilvadipine, and to investigate the effect of Nilvadipine on cerebral blood flow and blood biomarkers. All participants who fulfil criteria for the main NILVAD study are eligible for participation in the NILVAD substudies. Participation is subject to informed consent and whether the substudy is available at a particular NILVAD study site. Each substudy entails extra measurements during the course of the main NILVAD study. For example, in the blood and genetic biomarkers substudy, extra blood (30 mL) will be collected at week 0, week 13, week 52 and week 78, while in the cerebral blood flow substudy, participants will receive an MRI and transcranial Doppler measurements at week 0, week 26 and week 78. In the CSF substudy, 10 mL CSF is collected at week 0 and week 78. All NILVAD substudies and all subsequent amendments have received ethical approval within each participating country, according to national regulations. Each participant provides written consent to participate. All participants remain anonymised throughout and the results of each substudy will be published in an international peer reviewed journal. EUDRACT 2012-002764-27; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Blood lead levels in preschool children in Cape Town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deveaux, P.; Kibel, M.A.; Dempster, W.S.; Pocock, F.; Formenti, K.

    1986-03-29

    Blood lead levels were assessed in 293 children aged between 4 and 6 years attending preschool centers in metropolitan Cape Town in order to establish the degree of lead absorption. Anthropometric data, blood count, zinc protoporphyrin and blood lead level were obtained for each child. A questionnaire was used to determine socio-economic status, dietary habits and history of pica. Thirteen children, or 4,4% of those sampled, had blood levels of greater than or equal to 30 micrograms/dl. The majority of these children lived in close proximity to one another in a socially deprived inner urban environment. Environmental sampling for lead was carried out in the homes of children with the highest blood levels as well as in the homes of a matched control group with low levels living in the same area. The only difference was a significantly higher incidence of pica in the children with high levels.

  1. Alpha-synuclein levels in blood plasma decline with healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Niklas K U; Stransky, Elke; Meyer, Mirjam; Gaertner, Susanne; Shing, Mona; Schnaidt, Martina; Celej, Maria S; Jovin, Thomas M; Leyhe, Thomas; Laske, Christoph; Batra, Anil; Buchkremer, Gerhard; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Wernet, Dorothee; Richartz-Salzburger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years) compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years) individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (phealthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens.

  2. Blood-Based Biomarker Candidates of Cerebral Amyloid Using PiB PET in Non-Demented Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Sarah; Leoni, Emanuela; Hye, Abdul; Lynham, Steven; Khondoker, Mizanur R.; Ashton, Nicholas J.; Kiddle, Steven J.; Baird, Alison L.; Sainz-Fuertes, Ricardo; Leung, Rufina; Graf, John; Hehir, Cristina Tan; Baker, David; Cereda, Cristina; Bazenet, Chantal; Ward, Malcolm; Thambisetty, Madhav; Lovestone, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Increasingly, clinical trials for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are being conducted earlier in the disease phase and with biomarker confirmation using in vivo amyloid PET imaging or CSF tau and Aβ measures to quantify pathology. However, making such a pre-clinical AD diagnosis is relatively costly and the screening failure rate is likely to be high. Having a blood-based marker that would reduce such costs and accelerate clinical trials through identifying potential participants with likely pre-clinical AD would be a substantial advance. In order to seek such a candidate biomarker, discovery phase proteomic analyses using 2DGE and gel-free LC-MS/MS for high and low molecular weight analytes were conducted on longitudinal plasma samples collected over a 12-year period from non-demented older individuals who exhibited a range of 11C-PiB PET measures of amyloid load. We then sought to extend our discovery findings by investigating whether our candidate biomarkers were also associated with brain amyloid burden in disease, in an independent cohort. Seven plasma proteins, including A2M, Apo-A1, and multiple complement proteins, were identified as pre-clinical biomarkers of amyloid burden and were consistent across three time points (p biomarker signature indicative of AD pathology at a stage long before the onset of clinical disease manifestation. As in previous studies, acute phase reactants and inflammatory markers dominate this signature. PMID:27031486

  3. Characterization and Peripheral Blood Biomarker Assessment of Jo-1 Antibody-Positive Interstitial Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Thomas J.; Eggebeen, Aaron; Gibson, Kevin; Yousem, Samuel; Fuhrman, Carl; Gochuico, Bernadette R.; Fertig, Noreen; Oddis, Chester V.; Kaminski, Naftali; Rosas, Ivan O.; Ascherman, Dana P.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Combining clinical, radiographic, functional, and serum protein biomarker assessment, this study defines the prevalence and clinical characteristics of ILD in a large cohort of patients possessing anti-Jo-1 antibodies. Methods Clinical records, pulmonary function testing, and imaging studies determined the existence of ILD in anti-Jo-1 antibody positive (anti-Jo-1 Ab+) individuals accumulated in the University of Pittsburgh Myositis Database from 1982–2007. Multiplex ELISA of serum inflammatory markers, cytokines, chemokines, and matrix metalloproteinases in different patient subgroups then permitted assessment of serum proteins associated with anti-Jo-1 Ab+ ILD. Results Among 90 anti-Jo-1 Ab+ individuals with sufficient clinical, radiographic, and/or pulmonary function data, 77 (86%) met criteria for ILD. While computerized tomography scans revealed a variety of patterns suggestive of underlying UIP or NSIP, review of histopathologic abnormalities in a subset (n=22) of individuals undergoing open lung biopsy demonstrated a preponderance of UIP and DAD. Multiplex ELISA yielded statistically significant associations between Jo-1 Ab+ ILD and elevated serum levels of CRP, CXCL9, and CXCL10 that distinguished this subgroup from IPF and anti-SRP Ab+ myositis. Recursive partitioning further demonstrated that combinations of these and other serum protein biomarkers can distinguish these subgroups with high sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion In this large cohort of anti-Jo-1 Ab+ individuals, the incidence of ILD approaches 90%. Multiplex ELISA demonstrates disease-specific associations between Jo-1 Ab+ ILD and serum levels of CRP as well as the IFN-γ-inducible chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10, highlighting the potential of this approach to define biologically active molecules contributing to the pathogenesis of myositis-associated ILD. PMID:19565490

  4. Urinary Levels of IL-1β and GDNF in Preterm Neonates as Potential Biomarkers of Motor Development: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Coelho Magalhães

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the association between inflammatory biomarkers, neurotrophic factors, birth conditions, and the presence of motor development abnormalities in preterm neonates. Methods. Plasma and urinary levels of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF, and IL-12p70, chemokines (CXCL8/IL-8, CCL2/MCP-1, CCL5/RANTES, CXCL10/IP-10, and CXCL9/MIG, and neurotrophic factors (BDNF and GDNF were evaluated in 40 preterm neonates born between 28 and 32 incomplete weeks of gestation, at four distinct time points: at birth (umbilical cord blood (T0, at 48 (T1, at 72 hours (T2, and at 3 weeks after birth (T3. Biomarkers levels were compared between different time points and then associated with Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP percentiles. Results. Maternal age, plasma, and urinary concentrations of inflammatory molecules and neurotrophic factors were significantly different between groups with normal versus lower than expected motor development. Higher levels of GDNF were found in the group with lower than expected motor development, while IL-1β and CXCL8/IL-8 values were higher in the group with typical motor development. Conclusion. Measurements of cytokines and neurotrophic factors in spot urine may be useful in the follow-up of motor development in preterm neonates.

  5. Distribution of blood lead levels in schoolchildren in selected cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine blood lead levels among children attending schools in selected Cape Peninsula suburbs, and to assess the impact of a reduction in the lead content of petrol. Design. A cross-sectional analytical study of children's blood lead levels and associated risk factors. Setting. Selected inner city, suburban, ...

  6. Anomaly in the education–health gradient: Biomarker profiles among adults with subbaccalaureate attainment levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zajacova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This Short Communication builds on recent findings that documented an anomaly in the education–health gradient: adults who attended college but did not earn a BA (the subbaccalaureate group reported an equal or higher level of health problems than adults with high school (HS diploma. Our aim is to test whether this anomaly holds when we eliminate potential reporting differences, by examining biomarker levels in the subbaccalaureate vs HS groups.Using the restricted 1999–2012 NHANES, we estimate models of biomarkers for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases as a function of educational attainment, including three subbaccalaureate levels: “some college”, vocational associate degree (AA, and academic AA.The data show that adults with “some college” or vocational AA have no systematic advantage over HS graduates in most biomarker indices while academic AA is associated with a significantly better risk profile compared to HS. The findings indicate that the adults with some college and vocational AA degrees do not benefit from their college experience in terms of improved physiological risk profile.This pattern underscores the need to understand and explain the anomalous health pattern that concerns 28% of American adults in the subbaccalaureate group among whom many reap little health payoffs to postsecondary schooling. Keywords: Education, Subbaccalaureate, Biomarkers, Health, Gradient, US adults

  7. Blood parameters as biomarkers of cadmium and lead exposure and effects in wild wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) living along a pollution gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tête, Nicolas; Afonso, Eve; Bouguerra, Ghada; Scheifler, Renaud

    2015-11-01

    Small mammal populations living on contaminated sites are exposed to various chemicals. Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), two well-known nonessential trace metals, accumulate in different organs and are known to cause multiple adverse effects. To develop nonlethal markers in ecotoxicology, the present work aimed to study the relationships between blood parameters (hematocrit, leukocyte levels and granulated erythrocyte levels) and Cd and Pb concentrations in the soil and in the liver and kidneys of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus). Individuals were trapped along a pollution gradient with high levels of Cd, Pb and zinc (Zn) contamination. The results indicated that hematological parameters were independent of individual characteristics (age and gender). Blood parameters varied along the pollution gradient, following a pattern similar to the accumulation of Cd in the organs of the wood mice. No relationship was found between the blood parameters studied and Pb concentrations in the organs or in the environment. The hematocrit and leukocyte number decreased with increasing concentrations of Cd in the kidneys and/or in the liver. Moreover, the hematocrit was lower in the animals that were above the thresholds (LOAELs) for Cd concentrations in the liver. These responses were interpreted as a warning of potential negative effects of Cd exposure on the oxygen transport capacity of the blood (e.g., anemia). The present results suggest that blood parameters, notably hematocrit, may offer a minimally invasive biomarker for the evaluation of Cd exposure in further ecotoxicological studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An examination of blood lead levels in thai nielloware workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decharat, Somsiri; Kongtip, Pornpimol; Thampoophasiam, Prapin; Thetkathuek, Anamai

    2012-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the lead levels in blood samples from nielloware workers, to determine airborne lead levels, to describe the workers' hygiene behaviors, and to ascertain and describe any correlations between lead levels in blood samples and lead levels in airborne samples. Blood samples and airborne samples from 45 nielloware workers were collected from nielloware workplaces in Nakhon Sri Thammarat Province, Thailand. Lead levels were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), at a wavelength of 283.3 nm. FAAS was used especially adequate for metals at relatively high concentration levels. The geometric mean of the 45 airborne lead levels was 81.14 µg/m(3) (range 9.0-677.2 µg/m(3)). The geometric mean blood lead level of the 45 workers was 16.25 µg/dL (range 4.59-39.33 µg/dL). No worker had a blood lead level > 60 µg/dL. A statistically significantly positive correlation was found between airborne lead level and blood lead levels (r = 0.747, p lead levels (p leads and airborne lead levels.

  9. Effect of Oral and Vaginal Hormonal Contraceptives on Inflammatory Blood Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin A. Divani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of combined hormonal contraceptives has been reported to increase the level of C-reactive protein (CRP. We assessed the effect of hormonal contraceptive use on inflammatory cytokines including CRP, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, soluble tumor necrosis factor (sTNF, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and soluble CD40 ligand. We used 79 female subjects (19 to 30 years old who were combined oral contraceptives users (n=29, combined vaginal contraceptive users (n=20, and nonusers (n=30 with CRP values of ≤1 (n=46 or ≥3 (n=33. Information on medical history, physical activities, and dietary and sleeping habits were collected. Both oral and vaginal contraceptive users had higher levels of CRP (P<0.0001, compared to nonusers. Only oral contraceptive users exhibited elevated sCD40L (P<0.01. When comparing the groups with CRP ≤ 1 and CRP ≥ 3, levels of IL-6 and sTNF-RI were positively correlated with CRP among oral contraceptive users. We did not observe the same elevation for other inflammatory biomarkers for the CRP ≥ 3 group among vaginal contraceptive users. The clear cause of elevation in CRP level due to the use of different hormonal contraceptive formulations and methods is not well understood. Longitudinal studies with larger sample size are required to better assess the true cause of CRP elevation among hormonal contraceptive users.

  10. Metabolomics as a Tool for Discovery of Biomarkers of Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Blood Plasma of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Paul R.; Amaral, David G.; Bais, Preeti; Smith, Alan M.; Egnash, Laura A.; Ross, Mark E.; Palmer, Jessica A.; Fontaine, Burr R.; Conard, Kevin R.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Cezar, Gabriela G.; Donley, Elizabeth L. R.; Burrier, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at the earliest age possible is important for initiating optimally effective intervention. In the United States the average age of diagnosis is 4 years. Identifying metabolic biomarker signatures of ASD from blood samples offers an opportunity for development of diagnostic tests for detection of ASD at an early age. Objectives To discover metabolic features present in plasma samples that can discriminate children with ASD from typically developing (TD) children. The ultimate goal is to identify and develop blood-based ASD biomarkers that can be validated in larger clinical trials and deployed to guide individualized therapy and treatment. Methods Blood plasma was obtained from children aged 4 to 6, 52 with ASD and 30 age-matched TD children. Samples were analyzed using 5 mass spectrometry-based methods designed to orthogonally measure a broad range of metabolites. Univariate, multivariate and machine learning methods were used to develop models to rank the importance of features that could distinguish ASD from TD. Results A set of 179 statistically significant features resulting from univariate analysis were used for multivariate modeling. Subsets of these features properly classified the ASD and TD samples in the 61-sample training set with average accuracies of 84% and 86%, and with a maximum accuracy of 81% in an independent 21-sample validation set. Conclusions This analysis of blood plasma metabolites resulted in the discovery of biomarkers that may be valuable in the diagnosis of young children with ASD. The results will form the basis for additional discovery and validation research for 1) determining biomarkers to develop diagnostic tests to detect ASD earlier and improve patient outcomes, 2) gaining new insight into the biochemical mechanisms of various subtypes of ASD 3) identifying biomolecular targets for new modes of therapy, and 4) providing the basis for individualized treatment

  11. Metabolomics as a tool for discovery of biomarkers of autism spectrum disorder in the blood plasma of children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R West

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD at the earliest age possible is important for initiating optimally effective intervention. In the United States the average age of diagnosis is 4 years. Identifying metabolic biomarker signatures of ASD from blood samples offers an opportunity for development of diagnostic tests for detection of ASD at an early age.To discover metabolic features present in plasma samples that can discriminate children with ASD from typically developing (TD children. The ultimate goal is to identify and develop blood-based ASD biomarkers that can be validated in larger clinical trials and deployed to guide individualized therapy and treatment.Blood plasma was obtained from children aged 4 to 6, 52 with ASD and 30 age-matched TD children. Samples were analyzed using 5 mass spectrometry-based methods designed to orthogonally measure a broad range of metabolites. Univariate, multivariate and machine learning methods were used to develop models to rank the importance of features that could distinguish ASD from TD.A set of 179 statistically significant features resulting from univariate analysis were used for multivariate modeling. Subsets of these features properly classified the ASD and TD samples in the 61-sample training set with average accuracies of 84% and 86%, and with a maximum accuracy of 81% in an independent 21-sample validation set.This analysis of blood plasma metabolites resulted in the discovery of biomarkers that may be valuable in the diagnosis of young children with ASD. The results will form the basis for additional discovery and validation research for 1 determining biomarkers to develop diagnostic tests to detect ASD earlier and improve patient outcomes, 2 gaining new insight into the biochemical mechanisms of various subtypes of ASD 3 identifying biomolecular targets for new modes of therapy, and 4 providing the basis for individualized treatment recommendations.

  12. High Blood Caffeine Levels in MCI Linked to Lack of Progression to Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chuanhai; Loewenstein, David A.; Lin, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Li; Duara, Ranjan; Wu, Yougui; Giannini, Alessandra; Bai, Ge; Cai, Jianfeng; Greig, Maria; Schofield, Elizabeth; Ashok, Raj; Small, Brent; Potter, Huntington; Arendash, Gary W.

    2017-01-01

    Although both human epidemiologic and animal model studies have suggested that caffeine/coffee protects against Alzheimer’s disease, direct human evidence for this premise has been lacking. In the present case-control study, two separate cohorts consisting of 124 total individuals (65–88 years old) were cognitively assessed and a blood sample taken for caffeine/biomarker analysis. Subjects were then monitored for cognitive status over the ensuing 2–4 year period to determine the extent to which initial plasma caffeine/biomarkers levels would be predictive of changes in cognitive status. Plasma caffeine levels at study onset were substantially lower (−51%) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects who later progressed to dementia (MCI→DEM) compared to levels in stable MCI subjects (MCI→MCI). Moreover, none of the MCI→DEM subjects had initial blood caffeine levels that were above a critical level of 1200 ng/ml, while half of stable MCI→MCI subjects had blood caffeine levels higher than that critical level. Thus, plasma caffeine levels greater than 1200 ng/ml (≈6 µM) in MCI subjects were associated with no conversion to dementia during the ensuing 2–4 year follow-up period. Among the 11 cytokines measured in plasma, three of them (GCSF, IL-10, and IL-6) were decreased in MCI→DEM subjects, but not in stable MCI→MCI subjects with high plasma caffeine levels. Coffee would appear to be the major or perhaps only source of caffeine for such stable MCI patients. This case-control study provides the first direct evidence that caffeine/coffee intake is associated with a reduced risk of dementia or delayed onset, particularly for those who already have MCI. PMID:22430531

  13. Blood cells transcriptomics as source of potential biomarkers of articular health improvement: effects of oral intake of a rooster combs extract rich in hyaluronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Juana; Bonet, M Luisa; Keijer, Jaap; van Schothorst, Evert M; Mölller, Ingrid; Chetrit, Carles; Martinez-Puig, Daniel; Palou, Andreu

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to explore peripheral blood gene expression as a source of biomarkers of joint health improvement related to glycosaminoglycan (GAG) intake in humans. Healthy individuals with joint discomfort were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study in humans. Subjects ate control yoghurt or yoghurt supplemented with a recently authorized novel food in Europe containing hyaluronic acid (65 %) from rooster comb (Mobilee™ as commercial name) for 90 days. Effects on functional quality-of-life parameters related to joint health were assessed. Whole-genome microarray analysis of peripheral blood samples from a subset of 20 subjects (10 placebo and 10 supplemented) collected pre- and post-intervention was performed. Mobilee™ supplementation reduced articular pain intensity and synovial effusion and improved knee muscular strength indicators as compared to placebo. About 157 coding genes were differentially expressed in blood cells between supplemented and placebo groups post-intervention, but not pre-intervention (p < 0.05; fold change ≥1.2). Among them, a reduced gene expression of glucuronidase-beta (GUSB), matrix metallopeptidase 23B (MMP23B), xylosyltransferase II (XYLT2), and heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase 1 (HS6ST1) was found in the supplemented group. Correlation analysis indicated a direct relationship between blood cell gene expression of MMP23B, involved in the breakdown of the extracellular matrix, and pain intensity, and an inverse relationship between blood cell gene expression of HS6ST1, responsible for 6-O-sulfation of heparan sulfate, and indicators of knee muscular strength. Expression levels of specific genes in blood cells, in particular genes related to GAG metabolism and extracellular matrix dynamics, are potential biomarkers of beneficial effects on articular health.

  14. Blood antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers acute responses to a 1000-m kayak sprint in elite male kayakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, V H; Valente, H F; Casal, S I; Marques, F P; Moreira, P A

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the response of blood antioxidants and biomarkers of lipid peroxidation, muscle damage and inflammation to a 1000m kayak trial in elite male kayakers. Enzymatic (superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione reductase [Gr] and glutathione peroxidase [GPx] activities) and non-enzymatic (total antioxidant status [TAS], uric acid, α-tocopherol, α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene and lutein and zeaxanthin) antioxidants, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), creatine kinase (CK), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cortisol were determined in 15 elite male kayakers before and 15 min after a 1000-m kayak simulated race. Both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were unaffected by exercise, with the exception of α-carotene which decreased (P=0.013). Uric acid levels were incremented following exercise (P=0.016). The acute exercise resulted in a significant decrease in TAS (P=0.001) and in an increase in CK (P=0.023), TBARS (P<0.001) and IL-6 (P=0.028). Our study suggests that a 1000-m kayak simulated race induces oxidative stress and damage in highly-trained kayakers.

  15. Network-Based Biomarkers for Cold Coagulation Blood Stasis Syndrome and the Therapeutic Effects of Shaofu Zhuyu Decoction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulan Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the reverse docking methodology was applied to predict the action targets and pathways of Shaofu Zhuyu decoction (SFZYD bioactive ingredients. Furthermore, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM cold coagulation blood stasis (CCBS syndrome was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats with an ice-water bath and epinephrine, and SFZYD was used to treat CCBS syndrome. A metabolomic approach was used to evaluate changes in the metabolic profiles and to analyze the pharmacological mechanism of SFZYD actions. Twenty-three potential protein targets and 15 pathways were discovered, respectively; among these, pathways are associated with inflammation and immunological stress, hormone metabolism, coagulation function, and glycometabolism. There were also changes in the levels of endogenous metabolites of LysoPCs and glucuronides. Twenty endogenous metabolites were identified. Furthermore, the relative quantities of 6 endogenous metabolites in the plasma and 5 in the urine were significantly affected by SFZYD (P<0.05. The pharmacological mechanism of SFZYD was partially associated with glycerophospholipid metabolism and pentose and glucuronate interconversions. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that TCM CCBS pattern induced by ice water and epinephrine was complex and related to multiple metabolic pathways. SFZYD did regulate the TCM CCBS by multitargets, and biomarkers and SFZYD should be used for the clinical treatment of CCBS syndrome.

  16. Expression of NMDA receptor subunits in human blood lymphocytes: A peripheral biomarker in online computer game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat-Shirazi, Mitra-Sadat; Vousooghi, Nasim; Alizadeh, Bentolhoda; Makki, Seyed Mohammad; Zarei, Seyed Zeinolabedin; Nazari, Shahrzad; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2018-05-23

    Background and aims Repeated performance of some behaviors such as playing computer games could result in addiction. The NMDA receptor is critically involved in the development of behavioral and drug addictions. It has been claimed that the expression level of neurotransmitter receptors in the brain may be reflected in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Methods Here, using a real-time PCR method, we have investigated the mRNA expression of GluN2A, GluN2D, GluN3A, and GluN3B subunits of the NMDA receptor in PBLs of male online computer game addicts (n = 25) in comparison with normal subjects (n = 26). Results Expression levels of GluN2A, GluN2D, and GluN3B subunits were not statistically different between game addicts and the control group. However, the mRNA expression of the GluN3A subunit was downregulated in PBLs of game addicts. Discussion and conclusions Transcriptional levels of GluN2A and GluN2D subunits in online computer game addicts are similar to our previously reported data of opioid addiction and are not different from the control group. However, unlike our earlier finding of drug addiction, the mRNA expression levels of GluN3A and GluN3B subunits in PBLs of game addicts are reduced and unchanged, respectively, compared with control subjects. It seems that the downregulated state of the GluN3A subunit of NMDA receptor in online computer game addicts is a finding that deserves more studies in the future to see whether it can serve as a peripheral biomarker in addiction studies, where the researcher wants to rule out the confusing effects of abused drugs.

  17. Anomaly in the education–health gradient: Biomarker profiles among adults with subbaccalaureate attainment levels

    OpenAIRE

    Zajacova, Anna; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    This Short Communication builds on recent findings that documented an anomaly in the education-health gradient: adults who attended college but did not earn a BA (the subbaccalaureate group) reported an equal or higher level of health problems than adults with high school (HS) diploma. Our aim is to test whether this anomaly holds when we eliminate potential reporting differences, by examining biomarker levels in the subbaccalaureate vs HS groups. Using the restricted 1999?2012 NHANES, we est...

  18. Change in blood glucose level in rats after immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, R. D.; Baskakova, G. M.; Chepurnov, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on male white rats divided into four groups. In group one the blood glucose level was determined immediately after immobilization. In the other three groups, two hours following immobilization, the blood glucose level was determined every 20 minutes for 3 hours 40 minutes by the glucose oxidase method. Preliminary immobilization for 2 hours removed the increase in the blood glucose caused by the stress reaction. By the 2nd hour of immobilization in the presence of continuing stress, the blood glucose level stabilized and varied within 42 + or - 5.5 and 47 + or - 8.1 mg %. Within 2 hours after the immobilization, the differences in the blood glucose level of the rats from the control groups were statistically insignificant.

  19. Surfactant Protein D Levels in Umbilical Cord Blood and Capillary Blood of Premature Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Marianne; Holmskov, Uffe; Husby, Steffen

    2006-01-01

    of SP-D in capillary blood day 1 was 1,466 ng/mL (range 410-5,051 ng/mL), with lowest values in infants born with ROM and delivered vaginally. High SP-D levels in umbilical cord blood and capillary blood on day 1 were found to be more likely in infants in need for respiratory support or surfactant...... treatment and susceptibility to infections. We conclude that SP-D concentrations in umbilical cord blood and capillary blood in premature infants are twice as high as in mature infants and depend on several perinatal conditions. High SP-D levels in umbilical cord blood and capillary blood on day 1 were...... found to be related to increased risk of RDS and infections....

  20. The Biomarker-Surrogacy Evaluation Schema: a review of the biomarker-surrogate literature and a proposal for a criterion-based, quantitative, multidimensional hierarchical levels of evidence schema for evaluating the status of biomarkers as surrogate endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassere, Marissa N

    2008-06-01

    There are clear advantages to using biomarkers and surrogate endpoints, but concerns about clinical and statistical validity and systematic methods to evaluate these aspects hinder their efficient application. Section 2 is a systematic, historical review of the biomarker-surrogate endpoint literature with special reference to the nomenclature, the systems of classification and statistical methods developed for their evaluation. In Section 3 an explicit, criterion-based, quantitative, multidimensional hierarchical levels of evidence schema - Biomarker-Surrogacy Evaluation Schema - is proposed to evaluate and co-ordinate the multiple dimensions (biological, epidemiological, statistical, clinical trial and risk-benefit evidence) of the biomarker clinical endpoint relationships. The schema systematically evaluates and ranks the surrogacy status of biomarkers and surrogate endpoints using defined levels of evidence. The schema incorporates the three independent domains: Study Design, Target Outcome and Statistical Evaluation. Each domain has items ranked from zero to five. An additional category called Penalties incorporates additional considerations of biological plausibility, risk-benefit and generalizability. The total score (0-15) determines the level of evidence, with Level 1 the strongest and Level 5 the weakest. The term ;surrogate' is restricted to markers attaining Levels 1 or 2 only. Surrogacy status of markers can then be directly compared within and across different areas of medicine to guide individual, trial-based or drug-development decisions. This schema would facilitate communication between clinical, researcher, regulatory, industry and consumer participants necessary for evaluation of the biomarker-surrogate-clinical endpoint relationship in their different settings.

  1. Blood amyloid beta levels in healthy, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease individuals: replication of diastolic blood pressure correlations and analysis of critical covariates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Ruiz

    Full Text Available Plasma amyloid beta (Aβ levels are being investigated as potential biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. In AB128 cross-sectional study, a number of medical relevant correlates of blood Aβ40 or Aβ42 were analyzed in 140 subjects (51 Alzheimer's disease patients, 53 healthy controls and 36 individuals diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment. We determined the association between multiple variables with Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels measured in three different blood compartments called i Aβ directly accessible (DA in the plasma, ii Aβ recovered from the plasma matrix (RP after diluting the plasma sample in a formulated buffer, and iii associated with the remaining cellular pellet (CP. We confirmed that diastolic blood pressure (DBP is consistently correlated with blood DA Aβ40 levels (r=-0.19, P=0.032. These results were consistent in the three phenotypic groups studied. Importantly, the observation resisted covariation with age, gender or creatinine levels. Observed effect size and direction of Aβ40 levels/DBP correlation are in accordance with previous reports. Of note, DA Aβ40 and the RP Aβ40 were also strongly associated with creatinine levels (r=0.599, P<<0.001 and to a lesser extent to urea, age, hematocrit, uric acid and homocysteine (p<0.001. DBP and the rest of statistical significant correlates identified should be considered as potential confounder factors in studies investigating bloodlevels as potential AD biomarker. Remarkably, the factors affecting Aβ levels in plasma (DA, RP and blood cell compartments (CP seem completely different.

  2. Cord Blood Ischemia-Modified Albumin Levels in Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Iacovidou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA is a sensitive biomarker of cardiac ischemia. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR may imply fetal hypoxia, resulting in blood flow centralization in favour of vital organs (brain, heart, adrenals—‘‘brain sparing effect’’. Based on the latter, we hypothesized that cord blood IMA levels should not differ between IUGR and appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA full-term pregnancies. IMA was measured in blood samples from doubly-clamped umbilical cords of 110 AGA and 57 asymmetric IUGR pregnancies. No significant differences in IMA levels were documented between AGA and IUGR groups. IMA levels were elevated in cases of elective cesarean section (P = .035, and offspring of multigravidas (P = .021. In conclusion, ‘‘brain sparing effect’’ is possibly responsible for the lack of differences in cord blood IMA levels at term, between IUGR and AGA groups. Furthermore, higher oxidative stress could account for the elevated IMA levels in cases of elective cesarean section, and offspring of multigravidas.

  3. Fasting Blood Glucose Levels in Different Haemoglobin Genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the different Hb genotypes (HBAA, HBAS, HBSC and HBSS) the following mean fasting blood glucose levels were obtained respectively: 71.9±8.Omg/dl 73.4±7.4mgldl, 94.7±6.Imgldl and 94.6±5.9mgldl. There was a significant difference between the mean fasting blood glucose concentrations of blood groups O,A,B and ...

  4. Association Between Exercise and Blood Glucose Levels In Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryna Laili Putri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a chronic disease with high prevalence, associated with various debilitating complications and can decreases the quality of life in people with it. It is important for people with DM to doing exercise to control the stability of their blood glucose levels. The purpose of this study was to finding out the association between frequency, duration, and intensity of exercise with average blood glucose levels in people with DM. This was an observational study that used case control design. Data obtained from interview with 20 samples from case group and 20 samples from control group, that had been chosen with systematic random sampling technique. Dependent variable of this study was the average blood glucose levels and independents variables were frequency, duration, intensity, and the kind of exercise. This study used Chi Square test 3 × 2 contingency tables to finding out the association and risk of dependent variable with independent variables,. The results showed that exercise factors that associated to average blood glucose levels were duration of exercise (p = 0.022 and intensity of exercise (p = 0.021. The frequency of exercise does not associated to average blood glucose levels (p = 0.340. Diabetic patients who did not do any exercise have the risk of having uncontrolled blood glucose levels. The conclusion was duration and intensity of exercise related significantly to blood glucose levels. By doing exercise three times a week for 30 minutes or more can decreases the risk of uncontrolled blood glucose levels in people with DM. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, exercise, average blood glucose levels

  5. fasting blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    (HbA1c) levels of diabetes mellitus patients as an index of glycaemic control. It was a prospective case- finding study using laboratory and general practice records. ... range of glycosylated haemoglobins, and the cut-off values for some clinical .... quality of glycaemic control by glycated haemoglobin in out-patient diabetic ...

  6. Short Communication - Blood Magnesium levels in migraineurs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Some probable mechanisms have been described to the relationship between magnesium (Mg) level and migraine headache attacks. In the study reported here, we sought to determine the total Mg serum status of patients with migraine within and between the headache attacks and compare it with ...

  7. MMP1 and MMP7 as potential peripheral blood biomarkers in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan O Rosas

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a chronic progressive fibrotic lung disease associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine whether there is a peripheral blood protein signature in IPF and whether components of this signature may serve as biomarkers for disease presence and progression.We analyzed the concentrations of 49 proteins in the plasma of 74 patients with IPF and in the plasma of 53 control individuals. We identified a combinatorial signature of five proteins-MMP7, MMP1, MMP8, IGFBP1, and TNFRSF1A-that was sufficient to distinguish patients from controls with a sensitivity of 98.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 92.7%-100% and specificity of 98.1% (95% CI 89.9%-100%. Increases in MMP1 and MMP7 were also observed in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from IPF patients. MMP7 and MMP1 plasma concentrations were not increased in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or sarcoidosis and distinguished IPF compared to subacute/chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, a disease that may mimic IPF, with a sensitivity of 96.3% (95% CI 81.0%-100% and specificity of 87.2% (95% CI 72.6%-95.7%. We verified our results in an independent validation cohort composed of patients with IPF, familial pulmonary fibrosis, subclinical interstitial lung disease (ILD, as well as with control individuals. MMP7 and MMP1 concentrations were significantly higher in IPF patients compared to controls in this cohort. Furthermore, MMP7 concentrations were elevated in patients with subclinical ILD and negatively correlated with percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC% and percent predicted carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO%.Our experiments provide the first evidence for a peripheral blood protein signature in IPF to our knowledge. The two main components of this signature, MMP7 and MMP1, are overexpressed in the lung microenvironment and distinguish IPF from other chronic lung

  8. Factors Associated With Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Sakshi; Firdaus, Uzma; Ali, Syed Manazir; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2018-01-15

    To determine the prevalence and correlates of elevated blood lead level in children (6-144 months) of Aligarh. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted. Venous blood was obtained for lead estimation and a structured questionnaire was filled. A total of 260 children were enrolled. The prevalence of elevated blood lead level was 44.2%, seen mostly in children below 5 years of age. Old and deteriorating wall paints at home was found to be significantly associated with elevated levels. Lead-based house paints are potential source of lead exposure. Meticulous renovation and painting of the walls with safe paints is desirable.

  9. Fluctuation of zonulin levels in blood vs stability of antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Vojdani, Aristo; Vojdani, Elroy; Kharrazian, Datis

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the measurement of zonulin level and antibodies of zonulin and other tight junction proteins in the blood of controls and celiac disease patients. METHODS This study was conducted to assess the variability or stability of zonulin levels vs IgA and IgG antibodies against zonulin in blood samples from 18 controls at 0, 6, 24 and 30 h after blood draw. We also measured zonulin level as well as zonulin, occludin, vinculin, aquaporin 4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein antibodies...

  10. Levels of micronutrients and heavy metals in cord blood and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The basis of the impact of HAP on maternal and fetal health was assessed by determining the levels of teratogenic heavy metals [Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg)] and micronutrients associated with DNA methylation [Zinc (Zn), Iodine (I), vitamins B6 and B12, folic acid and homocysteine] in cord blood of babies and maternal blood ...

  11. Examination of liver and muscle glycogen and blood glucose levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... changes in fish affect the conversion of liver glycogen into blood ... province, altitude 1248 m and surface area of 86 km2, 20 km in length 4.5 km in width ... alcohol (95% pure) were added, followed by boiling for a further 15 min. ..... water temperature on the blood glucose level of chub (Leuciscus cephalus ...

  12. A Preliminary Report on Brain-Derived Extracellular Vesicle as Novel Blood Biomarkers for Sport-Related Concussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Kawata

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to test the utility of unique panel of blood biomarkers as a means to reflect one’s recovery process after sport-related neurotrauma. We established a panel of biomarkers that reacted positive with CD81 (extracellular vesicle marker and various neuron- and glia-specific antigens [e.g., neurofilament light polypeptide (NF-L, tau, synaptosome-associated protein 25 (SNAP25, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein]. We first evaluated test–retest reliabilities of brain-derived exosome markers, followed by an application of these markers in eight professional ice hockey players to detect cumulative neuronal burden from a single ice hockey season. During the season, two players were diagnosed with concussions by team physician based on an exhibition of symptoms as well as abnormality in balance and ocular motor testing. One player reached symptom-free status 7 days after the concussion, while the other player required 36 days for symptoms to completely resolve. Blood samples and clinical assessments including balance error scoring system and near point of convergence throughout recovery process were obtained. Biomarkers indicative of axonal damage, neuronal inflammation, and glial activation showed excellent test–retest reliabilities (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.713–0.998, p’s < 0.01. There was a statistically significant increase in the NF-L marker at post-season follow-up compared to pre-season baseline (Z = −2.100, P = 0.036; however the statistical significance did not withstand Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. In concussion cases, neuronal and microglia markers notably increased after concussions, with the unique expression patterns being similar to that of concussion recovery process. These longitudinal data coupled with excellent test–retest reliabilities of novel array of blood biomarkers potentially reflect the damage in neural cell

  13. P-gp expression levels in the erythrocytes of brown trout: a new tool for aquatic sentinel biomarker development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valton, Emeline; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Amblard, Christian; Combourieu, Bruno; Bayle, Marie-Laure; Desmolles, François; Kwiatkowski, Fabrice; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Bamdad, Mahchid

    2017-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a ubiquitous membrane detoxification pump involved in cellular defence against xenobiotics. Blood is a hub for the trade and transport of physiological molecules and xenobiotics. Our recent studies have highlighted the expression of a 140-kDa P-gp in brown trout erythrocytes in primary cell culture and its dose-dependent response to Benzo[a]pyrene pollutant. The purpose of this study was focused on using P-gp expression in brown trout erythrocytes as a biomarker for detecting the degree of river pollution. abcb1 gene and P-gp expression level were analysed by reverse transcriptase-PCR and Western blot, in the erythrocytes of brown trouts. The latter were collected in upstream and downstream of four rivers in which 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 348 varieties of pesticides micro-residues were analysed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The abcb1 gene and the 140-kDa P-gp were not expressed in trout erythrocytes from uncontaminated river. In contrast, they are clearly expressed in contaminated rivers, in correlation with the river pollution degree and the nature of the pollutants. This biological tool may offer considerable advantages since it provides an effective response to the increasing need for an early biomarker.

  14. Development of a blood-based molecular biomarker test for identification of schizophrenia before disease onset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.K. Chan (Man K.); M.-O. Krebs (M-O); D. Cox; P.C. Guest (Paul); R.H. Yolken; H. Rahmoune (Hassan); M. Rothermundt (Matthias); J. Steiner (Johann); F.M. Leweke (Marcus); N.J.M. van Beveren (Nico); D. Niebuhr (David); N. Weber (Natalya); D. Cowan (David); P. Suarez-Pinilla; B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); C. Mam-Lam-Fook; J. Bourgin; R.J. Wenstrup (Richard); R.R. Kaldate; J.D. Cooper (Jason); S. Bahn (Sabine)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractRecent research efforts have progressively shifted towards preventative psychiatry and prognostic identification of individuals before disease onset. We describe the development of a serum biomarker test for the identification of individuals at risk of developing schizophrenia based

  15. Interpretation of Urinary and Blood Benzene biomarkers of Exposure for Non-Occupationally Exposed Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-occupational exposure to benzene occurs primarily through inhalation ofair impacted by motor vehicle exhaust, fuel sources, and cigarette smoke. This study relates published measurements ofbenzene biomarkers to air exposure concentrations. Benzene has three reliable biomar...

  16. Storage Time and Urine Biomarker Levels in the ASSESS-AKI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kathleen D.; Siew, Edward D.; Reeves, W. Brian; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Go, Alan S.; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Bennett, Michael R.; Devarajan, Prasad; Ikizler, T. Alp; Kaufman, James S.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Parikh, Chirag R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although stored urine samples are often used in biomarker studies focused on acute and chronic kidney disease, how storage time impacts biomarker levels is not well understood. Methods 866 subjects enrolled in the NIDDK-sponsored ASsessment, Serial Evaluation, and Subsequent Sequelae in Acute Kidney Injury (ASSESS-AKI) Study were included. Samples were processed under standard conditions and stored at -70°C until analyzed. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), interleukin-18 (IL-18), and liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) were measured in urine samples collected during the index hospitalization or an outpatient visit 3 months later. Mixed effects models were used to determine the effect of storage time on biomarker levels and stratified by visit. Results Median storage was 17.8 months (25–75% IQR 10.6–23.7) for samples from the index hospitalization and 14.6 months (IQR 7.3–20.4) for outpatient samples. In the mixed effects models, the only significant association between storage time and biomarker concentration was for KIM-1 in outpatient samples, where each month of storage was associated with a 1.7% decrease (95% CI -3% to -0.3%). There was no relationship between storage time and KIM-1 levels in samples from the index hospitalization. Conclusion There was no significant impact of storage time over a median of 18 months on urine KIM-1, NGAL, IL-18 or L-FABP in hospitalized samples; a statistically significant effect towards a decrease over time was noted for KIM-1 in outpatient samples. Additional studies are needed to determine whether longer periods of storage at -70°C systematically impact levels of these analytes. PMID:27788160

  17. Storage Time and Urine Biomarker Levels in the ASSESS-AKI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen D Liu

    Full Text Available Although stored urine samples are often used in biomarker studies focused on acute and chronic kidney disease, how storage time impacts biomarker levels is not well understood.866 subjects enrolled in the NIDDK-sponsored ASsessment, Serial Evaluation, and Subsequent Sequelae in Acute Kidney Injury (ASSESS-AKI Study were included. Samples were processed under standard conditions and stored at -70°C until analyzed. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, interleukin-18 (IL-18, and liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP were measured in urine samples collected during the index hospitalization or an outpatient visit 3 months later. Mixed effects models were used to determine the effect of storage time on biomarker levels and stratified by visit.Median storage was 17.8 months (25-75% IQR 10.6-23.7 for samples from the index hospitalization and 14.6 months (IQR 7.3-20.4 for outpatient samples. In the mixed effects models, the only significant association between storage time and biomarker concentration was for KIM-1 in outpatient samples, where each month of storage was associated with a 1.7% decrease (95% CI -3% to -0.3%. There was no relationship between storage time and KIM-1 levels in samples from the index hospitalization.There was no significant impact of storage time over a median of 18 months on urine KIM-1, NGAL, IL-18 or L-FABP in hospitalized samples; a statistically significant effect towards a decrease over time was noted for KIM-1 in outpatient samples. Additional studies are needed to determine whether longer periods of storage at -70°C systematically impact levels of these analytes.

  18. Comparisons of the oxidative stress biomarkers levels in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and non-GDM among Thai population: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueangdetnarong, Hathairat; Sekararithi, Rattanaporn; Jaiwongkam, Thidarat; Kumfu, Sirinart; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Tongsong, Theera; Jatavan, Phudit

    2018-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers between pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and normoglycemic pregnancies. A prospective study was conducted on pregnant women at average risk for GDM. The participants were screened for GDM with glucose challenge test and confirmed by 100 g, 3-h oral glucose tolerance test and categorized into the control (non-GDM) and GDM groups. Maternal blood was collected from all participants at gestational age (GA) 24-28 weeks and early labor and fetal cord blood was collected for measurements of 8 Isoprostane (8Isop) (oxidative stress marker), TNF-α (inflammatory marker) and IL-10 (anti-inflammatory marker) and were followed up for maternal and neonatal outcomes. A total of 62 women, 30 in GDM and 32 in control group, met the inclusion criteria. At 24-28 weeks of gestation, maternal serum 8Isop and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in GDM group ( P  = 0.032 and P  = 0.047), in spite of good glycemic control. At early labor, maternal 8Isop levels were significantly higher in GDM ( P  = 0.001). The biomarkers in the cord blood as well as maternal and neonatal outcomes in both groups were not significantly different. GDM is significantly associated with inflammatory process when compared to normal pregnancy, as indicated by higher oxidative stress and apoptosis markers. However, such levels were not correlated with the pregnancy outcomes. An increase in oxidative stress could not be prevented by good glycemic control. Cord blood biomarker levels in pregnancy with GDM were not changed, suggesting that the placenta could be the barrier for the oxidative stress and cytokines. © 2018 The authors.

  19. Association between Blood Levels of Glucose and Urea and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    osman

    2017-08-05

    Aug 5, 2017 ... Normal blood glucose and urea levels in dairy cows vary within breeds, ..... prolapse, and postpartum uterine haemorrhage, the effect of metabolic stress, ... and the effect of efficiency of heat detection on the average days to.

  20. Plasma amyloid levels within the Alzheimer's process and correlations with central biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanon, Olivier; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; Lehmann, Sylvain; Bombois, Stéphanie; Allinquant, Bernadette; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Gelé, Patrick; Delmaire, Christine; Blanc, Fredéric; Mangin, Jean-François; Buée, Luc; Touchon, Jacques; Hugon, Jacques; Vellas, Bruno; Galbrun, Evelyne; Benetos, Athanase; Berrut, Gilles; Paillaud, Elèna; Wallon, David; Castelnovo, Giovanni; Volpe-Gillot, Lisette; Paccalin, Marc; Robert, Philippe-Henri; Godefroy, Olivier; Dantoine, Thierry; Camus, Vincent; Belmin, Joël; Vandel, Pierre; Novella, Jean-Luc; Duron, Emmanuelle; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie; Schraen-Maschke, Suzanna; Gabelle, Audrey

    2018-02-17

    Diagnostic relevance of plasma amyloid β (Aβ) for Alzheimer's disease (AD) process yields conflicting results. The objective of the study was to assess plasma levels of Aβ 42 and Aβ 40 in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), nonamnestic MCI, and AD patients and to investigate relationships between peripheral and central biomarkers. One thousand forty participants (417 amnestic MCI, 122 nonamnestic MCI, and 501 AD) from the Biomarker of AmyLoïd pepTide and AlZheimer's diseAse Risk multicenter prospective study with cognition, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and magnetic resonance imaging assessments were included. Plasma Aβ 1-42 and Aβ 1-40 were lower in AD (36.9 [11.7] and 263 [80] pg/mL) than in amnestic MCI (38.2 [11.9] and 269 [68] pg/mL) than in nonamnestic MCI (39.7 [10.5] and 272 [52] pg/mL), respectively (P = .01 for overall difference between groups for Aβ 1-42 and P = .04 for Aβ 1-40 ). Globally, plasma Aβ 1-42 correlated with age, Mini-Mental State Examination, and APOE ε4 allele. Plasma Aβ 1-42 correlated with all CSF biomarkers in MCI but only with CSF Aβ 42 in AD. Plasma Aβ was associated with cognitive status and CSF biomarkers, suggesting the interest of plasma amyloid biomarkers for diagnosis purpose. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High?Sensitivity Troponin: A Clinical Blood Biomarker for Staging Cardiomyopathy in Fabry Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background High?sensitivity troponin (hs?TNT), a biomarker of myocardial damage, might be useful for assessing fibrosis in Fabry cardiomyopathy. We performed a prospective analysis of hs?TNT as a biomarker for myocardial changes in Fabry patients and a retrospective longitudinal follow?up study to assess longitudinal hs?TNT changes relative to fibrosis and cardiomyopathy progression. Methods and Results For the prospective analysis, hs?TNT from 75 consecutive patients with genetically confirm...

  2. Relationship of concentrations of cortisol in hair with health, biomarkers in blood, and reproductive status in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Tracy A; Madureira, Augusto M L; Silper, Bruna F; Tahmasbi, Abdolmansour; Nadalin, Audrey; Veira, Douglas M; Cerri, Ronaldo L A

    2015-07-01

    Hair cortisol has been used to measure chronic stress in dairy cows as it offers the advantage of being noninvasive, fast, and able to indicate levels of cortisol over long periods. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between hair cortisol with clinical disorders, reproductive status, and the development of subclinical endometritis in dairy cows. Furthermore, we aimed to determine the association between hair cortisol concentrations and blood markers associated with metabolic status and acute inflammation. In experiment 1, cows (n=64) were hair sampled every 3wk from the tail switch beginning at calving (d 0) until d 126 for cortisol analysis; blood samples were collected every 3wk from d 0 until 42 for β-hydroxybutyrate and glucose analysis. In experiment 2, cows (n=54) were chosen retrospectively by diagnosis of subclinical endometritis (END), subclinical endometritis and at least 1 clinical disease (END+CLIN), or as healthy (control) using a cytobrush and ultrasonography at 30±3d in milk. At the same time, animals were hair sampled for cortisol analysis and blood sampled for haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin analysis. Health records were recorded throughout both experimental periods. Animals with clinical disease presented higher cortisol concentrations than clinically healthy animals in experiment 1 [geometric mean (95% confidence interval); 8.8 (7.8, 9.9) vs. 10.7 (9.6, 12.0) pg/mg]; however, animals diagnosed with subclinical endometritis in experiment 2 did not differ in hair cortisol concentrations [11.7 (9.8, 14.0), 12.2 (9.3, 15.9), 10.5 (8.1, 13.6) pg/mg for control, END, and END+CLIN, respectively]. In experiment 1, an effect of sample day was noted, where d 21 had higher cortisol concentrations than d 42, 84, and 126, but not from d 0 for both parities. Within both experiments, a parity effect was present where multiparous animals consistently had higher cortisol concentrations than primiparous animals. Multiparous cows that became

  3. Deoxypyridinoline level in gingival crevicular fluid as alveolar bone loss biomarker in periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Wulan Suci Dharmayanti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal diseases have high prevalence in Indonesia. They are caused by bacteria plaque that induced host response to release pro inflammatory mediator. Pro inflammatory mediators and bacteria product cause degradation of collagen fibers in periodontal tissue. Deoxypyridinoline is one of pyridinoline cross-link of collagen type I that can be used as biomarker in bone metabolic diseases, however, their contribution to detect alveolar bone loss in periodontal diseases remains unclear. Purpose: This study was to evaluate deoxypyridinoline level in gingival crevicular fluid as alveolar bone loss biomarker on periodontal disease. Methods: This study used 24 subjects with periodontal diseases and 6 healthy subjects. Dividing of periodontal disease was based on index periodontal. Gingival crevicular fluid was taken at mesial site of maxillary posterior tooth by paper point and deoxypyridinoline be measured by ELISA technique. Results: We found increasing of deoxypyridinoline level following of the severity of periodontal diseases. There was also significant difference between healthy subjects and periodontal diseases subjects (p<0.05. Conclusion: Deoxypyridinoline level in gingiva crevicular fluid can be used as alveolar bone loss biomarker in periodontal disease subjects.Latar belakang: Prevalensi penyakit periodontal di Indonesia cukup tinggi. Ini disebabkan oleh bakteri plak yang merangsang respon tubuh untuk mengeluarkan mediator keradangan. Mediator keradangan dan produk bakteri menyebabkan degradasi serat kolagen jaringan periodontal. Deoksipiridinolin merupakan salah satu ikatan piridinium dari kolagen tipe I yang dapat digunakan sebagai biomarker penyakit metabolisme tubuh. Akan tetapi, penggunaan deoksipiridinolin untuk mendeteksi kehilangan tulang alveolar pada penyakit periodontal masih belum jelas. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui bahwa kadar deoksipiridinolin pada cairan krevikular gingival dapat digunakan

  4. Anomaly in the education-health gradient: Biomarker profiles among adults with subbaccalaureate attainment levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajacova, Anna; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2016-12-01

    This Short Communication builds on recent findings that documented an anomaly in the education-health gradient: adults who attended college but did not earn a BA (the subbaccalaureate group) reported an equal or higher level of health problems than adults with high school (HS) diploma. Our aim is to test whether this anomaly holds when we eliminate potential reporting differences, by examining biomarker levels in the subbaccalaureate vs HS groups. Using the restricted 1999-2012 NHANES, we estimate models of biomarkers for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases as a function of educational attainment, including three subbaccalaureate levels: "some college", vocational associate degree (AA), and academic AA. The data show that adults with "some college" or vocational AA have no systematic advantage over HS graduates in most biomarker indices while academic AA is associated with a significantly better risk profile compared to HS. The findings indicate that the adults with some college and vocational AA degrees do not benefit from their college experience in terms of improved physiological risk profile. This pattern underscores the need to understand and explain the anomalous health pattern that concerns 28% of American adults in the subbaccalaureate group among whom many reap little health payoffs to postsecondary schooling.

  5. Brachial blood flow under relative levels of blood flow restriction is decreased in a nonlinear fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, J Grant; Ade, Carl J; Black, Christopher D; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2018-05-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR), the application of external pressure to occlude venous return and restrict arterial inflow, has been shown to increase muscular size and strength when combined with low-load resistance exercise. BFR in the research setting uses a wide range of pressures, applying a pressure based upon an individual's systolic pressure or a percentage of occlusion pressure; not a directly determined reduction in blood flow. The relationship between relative pressure and blood flow has not been established. To measure blood flow in the arm under relative levels of BFR. Forty-five people (18-40 years old) participated. Arterial occlusion pressure in the right arm was measured using a 5-cm pneumatic cuff. Blood flow in the brachial artery was measured at rest and at pressures between 10% and 90% of occlusion using ultrasound. Blood flow decreased in a nonlinear, stepped fashion. Blood flow decreased at 10% of occlusion and remained constant until decreasing again at 40%, where it remained until 90% of occlusion. The decrease in brachial blood flow is not proportional to the applied relative pressure. The prescription of blood flow restriction should take into account the stimulus provided at each relative level of blood flow. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, T M; Varnhagen, C K; Parent, M B

    2001-05-01

    Arousal enhances memory in human participants and this enhancing effect is likely due to the release of peripheral epinephrine. As epinephrine does not readily enter the brain, one way that peripheral epinephrine may enhance memory is by increasing circulating blood glucose levels. The present study investigated the possibility that emotionally arousing color pictures would improve memory and elevate blood glucose levels in human participants. Blood glucose levels were measured before, 15 min, and 30 min after male university students viewed 60 emotionally arousing or relatively neutral pictures. Participants viewed each picture for 6 s and then had 10 s to rate the arousal (emotional intensity) and valence (pleasantness) of each picture. A free-recall memory test was given 30 min after the last picture was viewed. Although the emotionally arousing and neutral picture sets were given comparable valence ratings, participants who viewed the emotionally arousing pictures rated the pictures as being more arousing, recalled more pictures, and had higher blood glucose levels after viewing the pictures than did participants who viewed the neutral pictures. These findings indicate that emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance memory, and that this effect is not due to differences in the degree of pleasantness of the stimuli. These findings support the possibility that increases in circulating blood glucose levels in response to emotional arousal may be part of the biological mechanism that allows emotional arousal to enhance memory. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  7. Blood Pyrrole-Protein Adducts--A Biomarker of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid-Induced Liver Injury in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jianqing; Gao, Hong; Li, Na; Xue, Junyi; Chen, Jie; Ke, Changqiang; Ye, Yang; Fu, Peter Pi-Cheng; Zheng, Jiang; Wang, Jiyao; Lin, Ge

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) induce liver injury (PA-ILI) and is very likely to contribute significantly to drug-induced liver injury (DILI). In this study we used a newly developed ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS)-based method to detect and quantitate blood pyrrole-protein adducts in DILI patients. Among the 46 suspected DILI patients, 15 were identified as PA-ILI by the identification of PA-containing herbs exposed. Blood pyrrole-protein adducts were detected in all PA-ILI patients (100%). These results confirm that PA-ILI is one of the major causes of DILI and that blood pyrrole-protein adducts quantitated by the newly developed UHPLC-MS method can serve as a specific biomarker of PA-ILI.

  8. Application of Raman spectroscopy in type 2 diabetes screening in blood using leucine and isoleucine amino-acids as biomarkers and in comparative anti-diabetic drugs efficacy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birech, Zephania; Mwangi, Peter Waweru; Bukachi, Fredrick; Mandela, Keith Makori

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is an irreversible condition characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. Currently, there are no predictive biomarkers for this disease and the existing ones such as hemoglobin A1c and fasting blood glucose are used only when diabetes symptoms are noticed. The objective of this work was first to explore the potential of leucine and isoleucine amino acids as diabetes type 2 biomarkers using their Raman spectroscopic signatures. Secondly, we wanted to explore whether Raman spectroscopy can be applied in comparative efficacy studies between commercially available anti-diabetic drug pioglitazone and the locally used anti-diabetic herbal extract Momordica spinosa (Gilg.)Chiov. Sprague Dawley (SD) rat's blood was used and were pipetted onto Raman substrates prepared from conductive silver paste smeared glass slides. Prominent Raman bands associated with glucose (926, 1302, 1125 cm-1), leucine (1106, 1248, 1302, 1395 cm-1) and isolecucine (1108, 1248, 1437 and 1585 cm-1) were observed. The Raman bands centered at 1125 cm-1, 1395 cm-1 and 1437 cm-1 associated respectively to glucose, leucine and isoleucine were chosen as biomarker Raman peaks for diabetes type 2. These Raman bands displayed decreased intensities in blood from diabetic SD rats administered antidiabetic drugs pioglitazone and herbal extract Momordica spinosa (Gilg.)Chiov. The intensity decrease indicated reduced concentration levels of the respective biomarker molecules: glucose (1125 cm-1), leucine (1395 cm-1) and isoleucine (1437 cm-1) in blood. The results displayed the power and potential of Raman spectroscopy in rapid (10 seconds) diabetes and pre-diabetes screening in blood (human or rat's) with not only glucose acting as a biomarker but also leucine and isoleucine amino-acids where intensities of respectively assigned bands act as references. It also showed that using Raman spectroscopic signatures of the chosen biomarkers, the method can be an alternative for performing comparative

  9. Application of Raman spectroscopy in type 2 diabetes screening in blood using leucine and isoleucine amino-acids as biomarkers and in comparative anti-diabetic drugs efficacy studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zephania Birech

    Full Text Available Diabetes is an irreversible condition characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. Currently, there are no predictive biomarkers for this disease and the existing ones such as hemoglobin A1c and fasting blood glucose are used only when diabetes symptoms are noticed. The objective of this work was first to explore the potential of leucine and isoleucine amino acids as diabetes type 2 biomarkers using their Raman spectroscopic signatures. Secondly, we wanted to explore whether Raman spectroscopy can be applied in comparative efficacy studies between commercially available anti-diabetic drug pioglitazone and the locally used anti-diabetic herbal extract Momordica spinosa (Gilg.Chiov. Sprague Dawley (SD rat's blood was used and were pipetted onto Raman substrates prepared from conductive silver paste smeared glass slides. Prominent Raman bands associated with glucose (926, 1302, 1125 cm-1, leucine (1106, 1248, 1302, 1395 cm-1 and isolecucine (1108, 1248, 1437 and 1585 cm-1 were observed. The Raman bands centered at 1125 cm-1, 1395 cm-1 and 1437 cm-1 associated respectively to glucose, leucine and isoleucine were chosen as biomarker Raman peaks for diabetes type 2. These Raman bands displayed decreased intensities in blood from diabetic SD rats administered antidiabetic drugs pioglitazone and herbal extract Momordica spinosa (Gilg.Chiov. The intensity decrease indicated reduced concentration levels of the respective biomarker molecules: glucose (1125 cm-1, leucine (1395 cm-1 and isoleucine (1437 cm-1 in blood. The results displayed the power and potential of Raman spectroscopy in rapid (10 seconds diabetes and pre-diabetes screening in blood (human or rat's with not only glucose acting as a biomarker but also leucine and isoleucine amino-acids where intensities of respectively assigned bands act as references. It also showed that using Raman spectroscopic signatures of the chosen biomarkers, the method can be an alternative for performing

  10. High-throughput sequencing of microRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells: identification of potential weight loss biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín I Milagro

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are being increasingly studied in relation to energy metabolism and body composition homeostasis. Indeed, the quantitative analysis of miRNAs expression in different adiposity conditions may contribute to understand the intimate mechanisms participating in body weight control and to find new biomarkers with diagnostic or prognostic value in obesity management. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was the search for miRNAs in blood cells whose expression could be used as prognostic biomarkers of weight loss. METHODS: Ten Caucasian obese women were selected among the participants in a weight-loss trial that consisted in following an energy-restricted treatment. Weight loss was considered unsuccessful when 5% (responders. At baseline, total miRNA isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC was sequenced with SOLiD v4. The miRNA sequencing data were validated by RT-PCR. RESULTS: Differential baseline expression of several miRNAs was found between responders and non-responders. Two miRNAs were up-regulated in the non-responder group (mir-935 and mir-4772 and three others were down-regulated (mir-223, mir-224 and mir-376b. Both mir-935 and mir-4772 showed relevant associations with the magnitude of weight loss, although the expression of other transcripts (mir-874, mir-199b, mir-766, mir-589 and mir-148b also correlated with weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: This research addresses the use of high-throughput sequencing technologies in the search for miRNA expression biomarkers in obesity, by determining the miRNA transcriptome of PBMC. Basal expression of different miRNAs, particularly mir-935 and mir-4772, could be prognostic biomarkers and may forecast the response to a hypocaloric diet.

  11. Whole blood angiopoietin-1 and -2 levels discriminate cerebral and severe (non-cerebral malaria from uncomplicated malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangpukdee Noppadon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe and cerebral malaria are associated with endothelial activation. Angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1 and angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2 are major regulators of endothelial activation and integrity. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical utility of whole blood angiopoietin (ANG levels as biomarkers of disease severity in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Methods The utility of whole blood ANG levels was examined in Thai patients to distinguish cerebral (CM; n = 87 and severe (non-cerebral malaria (SM; n = 36 from uncomplicated malaria (UM; n = 70. Comparative statistics are reported using a non-parametric univariate analysis (Kruskal-Wallis test or Chi-squared test, as appropriate. Multivariate binary logistic regression was used to examine differences in whole blood protein levels between groups (UM, SM, CM, adjusting for differences due to ethnicity, age, parasitaemia and sex. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the ANGs in their ability to distinguish between UM, SM and CM. Cumulative organ injury scores were obtained for patients with severe disease based on the presence of acute renal failure, jaundice, severe anaemia, circulatory collapse or coma. Results ANG-1 and ANG-2 were readily detectable in whole blood. Compared to UM there were significant decreases in ANG-1 (p Conclusions These results suggest that whole blood ANG-1/2 levels are promising clinically informative biomarkers of disease severity in malarial syndromes.

  12. Red blood cell distribution width: biomarker for red cell dysfunction and critical illness outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Ahmed S.; Spinella, Philip C.; Hartman, Mary E.; Steffen, Katherine M.; Jackups, Ronald; Holubkov, Richard; Wallendorf, Mike; Doctor, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is reported to be an independent predictor of outcome in adults with a variety of conditions. We sought to determine if RDW is associated with morbidity or mortality in critically ill children. Design Retrospective observational study. Setting Tertiary pediatric intensive care unit. Patients All admissions to Saint Louis Children’s Hospital Pediatric Intensive Care Unit between 1/1/2005 and 12/31/2012. Interventions We collected demographics, laboratory values, hospitalization characteristics and outcomes. We calculated the relative change in RDW (R-RDW) from admission (A-RDW) to the highest RDW during the first 7 days of hospitalization. Our primary outcome was ICU mortality or use of ECMO as a composite. Secondary outcomes were ICU- and ventilator-free days. Measurements and main results We identified 3,913 eligible subjects with an estimated mortality (by PIM2) of 2.94±9.25% and an actual ICU mortality of 2.91%. For the study cohort, A-RDW was 14.12±1.89% and R-RDW was +2.63±6.23%. On univariate analysis, both A-RDW and R-RDW correlated with mortality or use of ECMO (OR=1.19 [95% CI: 1.12–1.27] and OR=1.06 [95% CI: 1.04–1.08], respectively, p<0.001). After adjusting for confounding variables, including severity of illness, both A-RDW (OR=1.13, 95% CI 1.03–1.24) and R-RDW (OR=1.04, 95% CI 1.01–1.07) remained independently associated with ICU mortality or use of ECMO. A-RDW and R-RDW both weakly correlated with fewer ICU-free (r2=0.038) and ventilator-free days, (r2=0.05), (p<0.001). Conclusions Independent of illness severity in critically ill children, A-RDW is associated with ICU mortality and morbidity. These data suggest that RDW may be a biomarker for RBC injury that is of sufficient magnitude to influence critical illness outcome, possibly via oxygen delivery impairment. PMID:27832023

  13. Associations between cadmium levels in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension among Canadian adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, Rochelle E., E-mail: rochelle.garner@canada.ca [Health Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Levallois, Patrick [Direction de la santé environnementale et de la toxicologie, Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec, Québec City, Québec (Canada); Axe santé des populations et pratiques optimales en santé, Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Québec City, Québec (Canada)

    2017-05-15

    Background: Cadmium has been inconsistently related to blood pressure and hypertension. The present study seeks to clarify the relationship between cadmium levels found in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension in a large sample of adults. Methods: The study sample included participants ages 20 through 79 from multiple cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007 through 2013) with measured blood cadmium (n=10,099) and urinary cadmium (n=6988). Linear regression models examined the association between natural logarithm transformed cadmium levels and blood pressure (separate models for systolic and diastolic blood pressure) after controlling for known covariates. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between cadmium and hypertension. Models were run separately by sex, smoking status, and body mass index category. Results: Men had higher mean systolic (114.8 vs. 110.8 mmHg, p<0.01) and diastolic (74.0 vs. 69.6 mmHg, p<0.01) blood pressure compared to women. Although, geometric mean blood (0.46 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) and creatinine-adjusted standardized urinary cadmium levels (0.48 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) were higher among those with hypertension, these differences were no longer significant after adjustment for age, sex and smoking status. In overall regression models, increases in blood cadmium were associated with increased systolic (0.70 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.25–1.16, p<0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (0.74 mmHg, 95% CI=0.30–1.19, p<0.01). The associations between urinary cadmium, blood pressure and hypertension were not significant in overall models. Model stratification revealed significant and negative associations between urinary cadmium and hypertension among current smokers (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.44–0.85, p<0.01), particularly female current smokers (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.32–0.85, p=0.01). Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a significant association between cadmium levels, blood pressure

  14. Associations between cadmium levels in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension among Canadian adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, Rochelle E.; Levallois, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cadmium has been inconsistently related to blood pressure and hypertension. The present study seeks to clarify the relationship between cadmium levels found in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension in a large sample of adults. Methods: The study sample included participants ages 20 through 79 from multiple cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007 through 2013) with measured blood cadmium (n=10,099) and urinary cadmium (n=6988). Linear regression models examined the association between natural logarithm transformed cadmium levels and blood pressure (separate models for systolic and diastolic blood pressure) after controlling for known covariates. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between cadmium and hypertension. Models were run separately by sex, smoking status, and body mass index category. Results: Men had higher mean systolic (114.8 vs. 110.8 mmHg, p<0.01) and diastolic (74.0 vs. 69.6 mmHg, p<0.01) blood pressure compared to women. Although, geometric mean blood (0.46 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) and creatinine-adjusted standardized urinary cadmium levels (0.48 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) were higher among those with hypertension, these differences were no longer significant after adjustment for age, sex and smoking status. In overall regression models, increases in blood cadmium were associated with increased systolic (0.70 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.25–1.16, p<0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (0.74 mmHg, 95% CI=0.30–1.19, p<0.01). The associations between urinary cadmium, blood pressure and hypertension were not significant in overall models. Model stratification revealed significant and negative associations between urinary cadmium and hypertension among current smokers (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.44–0.85, p<0.01), particularly female current smokers (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.32–0.85, p=0.01). Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a significant association between cadmium levels, blood pressure

  15. Blood lead and carboxyhemoglobin levels in chainsaw operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Netten, C; Brubaker, R L; Mackenzie, C J; Godolphin, W J

    1987-06-01

    Fallers in the British Columbia west coast lumber industry often work in climatic and local conditions where little ventilation in their immediate environment is possible. Under these conditions carbon monoxide (CO) and lead fumes from exhaust gases could build up and become a serious occupational hazard. This study monitored the environmental exposure of six fallers to carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and lead under conditions where buildup of these agents would be expected. At the same time blood samples were taken to correlate these environmental concentrations to carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and blood lead levels. Although there was a highly significant difference between the fallers and the controls regarding the exposure to CO and lead as well as their corresponding COHb and blood lead levels, the environmental and blood concentration of the agents in question did not exceed the maximum allowable concentrations. Temporary short fluctuations in carboxyhemoglobin levels were not monitored in this study and cannot be ruled out as a potential occupational hazard.

  16. Blood lead and carboxyhemoglobin levels in chainsaw operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Netten, C.; Brubaker, R.L.; Mackenzie, C.J.; Godolphin, W.J.

    1987-06-01

    Fallers in the British Columbia west coast lumber industry often work in climatic and local conditions where little ventilation in their immediate environment is possible. Under these conditions carbon monoxide (CO) and lead fumes from exhaust gases could build up and become a serious occupational hazard. This study monitored the environmental exposure of six fallers to carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and lead under conditions where buildup of these agents would be expected. At the same time blood samples were taken to correlate these environmental concentrations to carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and blood lead levels. Although there was a highly significant difference between the fallers and the controls regarding the exposure to CO and lead as well as their corresponding COHb and blood lead levels, the environmental and blood concentration of the agents in question did not exceed the maximum allowable concentrations. Temporary short fluctuations in carboxyhemoglobin levels were not monitored in this study and cannot be ruled out as a potential occupational hazard.

  17. Blood lipid levels in a rural male population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, A; Stiernström, E L; Holmberg, S

    2001-06-01

    Farmers have a low risk for cardiovascular disease, which may be related to a favourable blood lipid profile. In order to study the blood lipid levels and evaluate the effect of other cardiovascular risk factors on the blood lipid profile, this cross-sectional study was made. A total of 1013 farmers and 769 non-farming rural men in nine different Swedish counties were examined, interviewed, and replied to questionnaires. The inter-relationships between different risk factors were analysed using a multivariate linear regression model. The farmers had a significantly more favourable blood lipid profile than the non-farmers although the total cholesterol levels were almost the same for the two groups. In the total study population there were significant positive relationships between total cholesterol level and body mass index (BMI), diastolic blood pressure and smoking. The high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level was positively related to physical workload and alcohol consumption, and negatively related to BMI, waist/hip ratio and smoking. Triglyceride levels showed a positive relationship to BMI, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Differences between farmers and other rural males were seen, especially with respect to the effect of physical activity and psychosocial factors. Among the farmers, a negative correlation between the Karasek-Theorell authority over work index and total cholesterol, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/HDL ratio and triglyceride levels was observed. This study indicated that diet is of minor significance for the blood lipid profile, whereas factors such as physical activity, body weight and the waist/hip ratio, smoking, alcohol consumption, and perhaps psychosocial working conditions are major independent factors affecting the blood lipid profile most prominently among farmers, but also among non-farming rural men.

  18. Polymorphisms within the APOBR gene are highly associated with milk levels of prognostic ketosis biomarkers in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetens, Jens; Heuer, Claas; Heyer, Iris; Klein, Matthias S; Gronwald, Wolfram; Junge, Wolfgang; Oefner, Peter J; Thaller, Georg; Krattenmacher, Nina

    2015-04-01

    Essentially all high-yielding dairy cows experience a negative energy balance during early lactation leading to increased lipomobilization, which is a normal physiological response. However, a severe energy deficit may lead to high levels of ketone bodies and, subsequently, to subclinical or clinical ketosis. It has previously been reported that the ratio of glycerophosphocholine to phosphocholine in milk is a prognostic biomarker for the risk of ketosis in dairy cattle. It was hypothesized that this ratio reflects the ability to break down blood phosphatidylcholine as a fatty acid resource. In the current study, 248 animals from a previous study were genotyped with Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip, and genome-wide association studies were carried out for the milk levels of phosphocholine, glycerophosphocholine, and the ratio of both metabolites. It was demonstrated that the latter two traits are heritable with h2 = 0.43 and h2 = 0.34, respectively. A major quantitative trait locus was identified on cattle chromosome 25. The APOBR gene, coding for the apolipoprotein B receptor, is located within this region and was analyzed as a candidate gene. The analysis revealed highly significant associations of polymorphisms within the gene with glycerophosphocholine as well as the metabolite ratio. These findings support the hypothesis that differences in the ability to take up blood phosphatidylcholine from low-density lipoproteins play an important role in early lactation metabolic stability of dairy cows and indicate APOBR to contain a causative variant. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. A retrospective cohort study of blood hemoglobin levels in blood donors and competitive rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, P.I.; Ullum, H.; Jensen, K.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of blood hemoglobin levels in healthy blood donors and elite athletes, a retrospective cohort study from 2001 to 2005 of candidate blood donors and elite rowers in Denmark was performed. Eighty-five thousand eight hundred and forty-six blood donors were identified.......3% of the females demonstrated values above the recommended limit for athletic competition. Thus, the prevalence of a high hemoglobin value was greater in the rowers, of both gender, than in the candidate blood donors (Pblood are seen regularly in normal...... (36 962 males), and 3.9% of the males had a blood hemoglobin above 10.5 mM, equalling a hematocrit of 51% and, 1.6% of the females had hemoglobin above 9.7 mM, corresponding to a hematocrit above 47%. One thousand four hundred and six rowers (1116 males) were investigated and 10.4% of the males and 8...

  20. Definitions and validation criteria for biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: development and testing of a quantitative hierarchical levels of evidence schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassere, Marissa N; Johnson, Kent R; Boers, Maarten; Tugwell, Peter; Brooks, Peter; Simon, Lee; Strand, Vibeke; Conaghan, Philip G; Ostergaard, Mikkel; Maksymowych, Walter P; Landewe, Robert; Bresnihan, Barry; Tak, Paul-Peter; Wakefield, Richard; Mease, Philip; Bingham, Clifton O; Hughes, Michael; Altman, Doug; Buyse, Marc; Galbraith, Sally; Wells, George

    2007-03-01

    There are clear advantages to using biomarkers and surrogate endpoints, but concerns about clinical and statistical validity and systematic methods to evaluate these aspects hinder their efficient application. Our objective was to review the literature on biomarkers and surrogates to develop a hierarchical schema that systematically evaluates and ranks the surrogacy status of biomarkers and surrogates; and to obtain feedback from stakeholders. After a systematic search of Medline and Embase on biomarkers, surrogate (outcomes, endpoints, markers, indicators), intermediate endpoints, and leading indicators, a quantitative surrogate validation schema was developed and subsequently evaluated at a stakeholder workshop. The search identified several classification schema and definitions. Components of these were incorporated into a new quantitative surrogate validation level of evidence schema that evaluates biomarkers along 4 domains: Target, Study Design, Statistical Strength, and Penalties. Scores derived from 3 domains the Target that the marker is being substituted for, the Design of the (best) evidence, and the Statistical strength are additive. Penalties are then applied if there is serious counterevidence. A total score (0 to 15) determines the level of evidence, with Level 1 the strongest and Level 5 the weakest. It was proposed that the term "surrogate" be restricted to markers attaining Levels 1 or 2 only. Most stakeholders agreed that this operationalization of the National Institutes of Health definitions of biomarker, surrogate endpoint, and clinical endpoint was useful. Further development and application of this schema provides incentives and guidance for effective biomarker and surrogate endpoint research, and more efficient drug discovery, development, and approval.

  1. Systematic review and meta-analysis of circulating S100B blood levels in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katina Aleksovska

    Full Text Available S100B is a calcium-binding protein secreted in central nervous system from astrocytes and other glia cells. High blood S100B levels have been linked to brain damage and psychiatric disorders. S100B levels have been reported to be higher in schizophrenics than healthy controls. To quantify the relationship between S100B blood levels and schizophrenia a systematic literature review of case-control studies published on this topic within July 3rd 2014 was carried out using three bibliographic databases: Medline, Scopus and Web of Science. Studies reporting mean and standard deviation of S100B blood levels both in cases and controls were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-Mean Ratio (mMR of S100B blood levels in cases compared to controls was used as a measure of effect along with its 95% Confidence Intervals (CI. 20 studies were included totaling for 994 cases and 785 controls. Schizophrenia patients showed 76% higher S100B blood levels than controls with mMR = 1.76 95% CI: 1.44-2.15. No difference could be found between drug-free patients with mMR = 1.84 95%CI: 1.24-2.74 and patients on antipsychotic medication with mMR = 1.75 95% CI: 1.41-2.16. Similarly, ethnicity and stage of disease didn't affect results. Although S100B could be regarded as a possible biomarker of schizophrenia, limitations should be accounted when interpreting results, especially because of the high heterogeneity that remained >70%, even after carrying out subgroups analyses. These results point out that approaches based on traditional categorical diagnoses may be too restrictive and new approaches based on the characterization of new complex phenotypes should be considered.

  2. Consensus Guidelines for CSF and Blood Biobanking for CNS Biomarker Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte E. Teunissen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a long history of research into body fluid biomarkers in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases. However, only a few biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF are being used in clinical practice. Anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies in serum are currently useful for the diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO, but we could expect novel CSF biomarkers that help define prognosis and response to treatment for this disease. One of the most critical factors in biomarker research is the inadequate powering of studies performed by single centers. Collaboration between investigators is needed to establish large biobanks of well-defined samples. A key issue in collaboration is to establish standardized protocols for biobanking to ensure that the statistical power gained by increasing the numbers of CSF samples is not compromised by pre-analytical factors. Here, consensus guidelines for CSF collection and biobanking are presented, based on the guidelines that have been published by the BioMS-eu network for CSF biomarker research. We focussed on CSF collection procedures, pre-analytical factors and high quality clinical and paraclinical information. Importantly, the biobanking protocols are applicable for CSF biobanks for research targeting any neurological disease.

  3. Amyloidosis, synucleinopathy, and prion encephalopathy in a neuropathic lysosomal storage disease: the CNS-biomarker potential of peripheral blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartholomew J Naughton

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS IIIB is a devastating neuropathic lysosomal storage disease with complex pathology. This study identifies molecular signatures in peripheral blood that may be relevant to MPS IIIB pathogenesis using a mouse model. Genome-wide gene expression microarrays on pooled RNAs showed dysregulation of 2,802 transcripts in blood from MPS IIIB mice, reflecting pathological complexity of MPS IIIB, encompassing virtually all previously reported and as yet unexplored disease aspects. Importantly, many of the dysregulated genes are reported to be tissue-specific. Further analyses of multiple genes linked to major pathways of neurodegeneration demonstrated a strong brain-blood correlation in amyloidosis and synucleinopathy in MPS IIIB. We also detected prion protein (Prnp deposition in the CNS and Prnp dysregulation in the blood in MPS IIIB mice, suggesting the involvement of Prnp aggregation in neuropathology. Systemic delivery of trans-BBB-neurotropic rAAV9-hNAGLU vector mediated not only efficient restoration of functional α-N-acetylglucosaminidase and clearance of lysosomal storage pathology in the central nervous system (CNS and periphery, but also the correction of impaired neurodegenerative molecular pathways in the brain and blood. Our data suggest that molecular changes in blood may reflect pathological status in the CNS and provide a useful tool for identifying potential CNS-specific biomarkers for MPS IIIB and possibly other neurological diseases.

  4. Blood pressure response to low level static contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallentin, Nils; Jørgensen, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    The present study re-examines the 15% MVC concept, i.e. the existence of a circulatory steady-state in low intensity static contractions below 15% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Mean arterial blood pressure was studied during static endurance contractions of the elbow flexor and extensor...... 0.7) min for elbow extension]. Mean arterial blood pressure exhibited a continuous and progressive increase during the 10% MVC contractions indicating that the 15% MVC concept would not appear to be valid. The terminal blood pressure value recorded at the point of exhaustion in the 10% MVC elbow...... the circulation to the muscles was arrested just prior to the cessation of the contraction, blood pressure only partly recovered and remained elevated for as long as the occlusion persisted, indicating the level of pressure-raising muscle chemoreflexes. Based on blood pressure recordings obtained during...

  5. Chronic periodontitis can affect the levels of potential oral cancer salivary mRNA biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y-S L; Jordan, L; Chen, H-S; Kang, D; Oxford, L; Plemons, J; Parks, H; Rees, T

    2017-06-01

    More than 100 salivary constituents have been found to show levels significantly different in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) from those found in healthy controls, and therefore have been suggested to be potential salivary biomarkers for OSCC detection. However, many of these potential OSCC salivary biomarkers are also involved in chronic inflammation, and whether the levels of these biomarkers could be affected by the presence of chronic periodontitis was not known. The objective of this pilot study was therefore to measure the levels of seven previously reported potential OSCC salivary mRNA biomarkers in patients with chronic periodontitis and compare them to levels found in patients with OSCC and healthy controls. The seven salivary mRNAs were interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, dual specificity phosphatase 1, H3 histone family 3A, ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1, S100 calcium-binding protein P (S100P) and spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase 1. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from a total of 105 human subjects from the following four study groups: OSCC; CPNS (chronic periodontitis, moderate to severe degree, non-smokers); CPS (chronic periodontitis, moderate to severe degree, smokers); and healthy controls. Levels of each mRNA in patient groups (OSCC or chronic periodontitis) relative to the healthy controls were determined by a pre-amplification reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction approach with nested gene-specific primers. Results were recorded and analyzed by the Bio-Rad CFX96 Real-Time System. Mean fold changes between each pair of patient vs. control groups were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni corrections. Only S100P showed significantly higher levels in patients with OSCC compared to both patients with CPNS (p = 0.003) and CPS (p = 0.007). The difference in S100P levels between patients with OSCC and healthy controls was also marginally significant (p = 0.009). There was no

  6. Ghrelin administered spinally increases the blood glucose level in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Lim, Su-Min; Jung, Jun-Sub; Suh, Hong-Won

    2014-04-01

    Ghrelin is known as a regulator of the blood glucose homeostasis and food intake. In the present study, the possible roles of ghrelin located in the spinal cord in the regulation of the blood glucose level were investigated in ICR mice. We found that intrathecal (i.t.) injection with ghrelin (from 1 to 10 μg) caused an elevation of the blood glucose level. In addition, i.t. pretreatment with YIL781 (ghrelin receptor antagonist; from 0.1 to 5 μg) markedly attenuated ghrelin-induced hyperglycemic effect. The plasma insulin level was increased by ghrelin. The enhanced plasma insulin level by ghrelin was reduced by i.t. pretreatment with YIL781. However, i.t. pretreatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1; 5 μg) did not affect the ghrelin-induced hyperglycemia. Furthermore, i.t. administration with ghrelin also elevated the blood glucose level, but in an additive manner, in d-glucose-fed model. Our results suggest that the activation of ghrelin receptors located in the spinal cord plays important roles for the elevation of the blood glucose level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Proteomics mapping of cord blood identifies haptoglobin "switch-on" pattern as biomarker of early-onset neonatal sepsis in preterm newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhimschi, Catalin S; Bhandari, Vineet; Dulay, Antonette T; Nayeri, Unzila A; Abdel-Razeq, Sonya S; Pettker, Christian M; Thung, Stephen; Zhao, Guomao; Han, Yiping W; Bizzarro, Matthew; Buhimschi, Irina A

    2011-01-01

    Intra-amniotic infection and/or inflammation (IAI) are important causes of preterm birth and early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS). A prompt and accurate diagnosis of EONS is critical for improved neonatal outcomes. We sought to explore the cord blood proteome and identify biomarkers and functional protein networks characterizing EONS in preterm newborns. We studied a prospective cohort of 180 premature newborns delivered May 2004-September 2009. A proteomics discovery phase employing two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry identified 19 differentially-expressed proteins in cord blood of newborns with culture-confirmed EONS (n = 3) versus GA-matched controls (n = 3). Ontological classifications of the proteins included transfer/carrier, immunity/defense, protease/extracellular matrix. The 1(st)-level external validation conducted in the remaining 174 samples confirmed elevated haptoglobin and haptoglobin-related protein immunoreactivity (Hp&HpRP) in newborns with EONS (presumed and culture-confirmed) independent of GA at birth and birthweight (PLCA) was further used for unbiased classification of all 180 cases based on probability of "antenatal IAI exposure" as latent variable. This was then subjected to 2(nd)-level validation against indicators of adverse short-term neonatal outcome. The optimal LCA algorithm combined Hp&HpRP switch pattern (most input), interleukin-6 and neonatal hematological indices yielding two non-overlapping newborn clusters with low (≤20%) versus high (≥70%) probability of IAI exposure. This approach reclassified ∼30% of clinical EONS diagnoses lowering the number needed to harm and increasing the odds ratios for several adverse outcomes including intra-ventricular hemorrhage. Antenatal exposure to IAI results in precocious switch-on of Hp&HpRP expression. As EONS biomarker, cord blood Hp&HpRP has potential to improve the selection of newborns for prompt and targeted treatment at birth.

  8. Proteomics Mapping of Cord Blood Identifies Haptoglobin “Switch-On” Pattern as Biomarker of Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis in Preterm Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhimschi, Catalin S.; Bhandari, Vineet; Dulay, Antonette T.; Nayeri, Unzila A.; Abdel-Razeq, Sonya S.; Pettker, Christian M.; Thung, Stephen; Zhao, Guomao; Han, Yiping W.; Bizzarro, Matthew; Buhimschi, Irina A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Intra-amniotic infection and/or inflammation (IAI) are important causes of preterm birth and early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS). A prompt and accurate diagnosis of EONS is critical for improved neonatal outcomes. We sought to explore the cord blood proteome and identify biomarkers and functional protein networks characterizing EONS in preterm newborns. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied a prospective cohort of 180 premature newborns delivered May 2004-September 2009. A proteomics discovery phase employing two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry identified 19 differentially-expressed proteins in cord blood of newborns with culture-confirmed EONS (n = 3) versus GA-matched controls (n = 3). Ontological classifications of the proteins included transfer/carrier, immunity/defense, protease/extracellular matrix. The 1st-level external validation conducted in the remaining 174 samples confirmed elevated haptoglobin and haptoglobin-related protein immunoreactivity (Hp&HpRP) in newborns with EONS (presumed and culture-confirmed) independent of GA at birth and birthweight (PLCA) was further used for unbiased classification of all 180 cases based on probability of “antenatal IAI exposure” as latent variable. This was then subjected to 2nd-level validation against indicators of adverse short-term neonatal outcome. The optimal LCA algorithm combined Hp&HpRP switch pattern (most input), interleukin-6 and neonatal hematological indices yielding two non-overlapping newborn clusters with low (≤20%) versus high (≥70%) probability of IAI exposure. This approach reclassified ∼30% of clinical EONS diagnoses lowering the number needed to harm and increasing the odds ratios for several adverse outcomes including intra-ventricular hemorrhage. Conclusions/Significance Antenatal exposure to IAI results in precocious switch-on of Hp&HpRP expression. As EONS biomarker, cord blood Hp&HpRP has potential to improve the

  9. Relationship of blood lead levels to obstetric outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angell, N.F.; Lavery, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Lead represents a significant environmental hazard to pregnant women and their offspring. Exposure to high environmental levels of lead has been associated with spontaneous abortion, premature rupture of fetal membranes (PROM), and preterm delivery. The relationship between lower exposures and obstetric complications is unknown. The concentration of lead in the blood was measured in 635 specimens of umbilical cord blood collected at delivery. No relationship was found between concentrations of lead in cord blood and the incidence of PROM, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, or meconium staining. Maternal and infant capillary blood was collected 24 hours post partum from 154 of these deliveries. The concentrations of lead in the blood did not vary significantly among cord, infant, and maternal samples, and the three measurements were highly correlated. Levels of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnP) were increased in cord blood as compared with mothers' blood, but no concentration-response relationships between the ratio of cord ZnP to maternal ZnP and lead were found.

  10. Redox balance and blood elemental levels in atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napoleao, P. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental and Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal) and Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. no 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: pnapoleao@itn.pt; Lopes, P.A. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental and Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Santos, M. [Centro de Quimica e Bioquimica and Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Steghens, J.-P. [Federation de Biochimie, Hopital Edouard Herriot, 3 Place d' Arsonval, 69437 03 Lyon (France); Viegas-Crespo, A.M. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental and Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Pinheiro, T. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. no 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Egas Moniz, 1700 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2006-08-15

    Oxidation of lipids and proteins represents a causative event for atherogenesis, which can be opposed by antioxidant activity. Elements, such as, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se can be involved in both mechanisms. Thus, evaluation of blood elemental levels, easily detected by PIXE, and of redox parameters may be useful in assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. A group of stable patients suffering from atherosclerosis, was matched with a cohort of normo-tensive and -lipidemic volunteers. Although no major discrepancies were observed for trace elemental levels in blood, increased concentrations of K and Ca were found in atherosclerotic group. Patients presented enhance levels of antioxidant ({alpha}-tocopherol) and decreased of protein oxidation (protein carbonyls), while for the lipid oxidation marker (malondialdehyde) no variation was observed. This study contributes to a better understanding of atherosclerosis development and its relationship with blood elemental levels, and set basis for further clinical trials with pathological groups in acute phase.

  11. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD). Renal imaging. Concepts and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissen, Johanna C.; Haneder, Stefan; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Michaely, Henrik J.

    2010-01-01

    Many renal diseases as well as several pharmacons cause a change in renal blood flow and/or renal oxygenation. The blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) imaging takes advantage of local field inhomogeneities and is based on a T2 * -weighted sequence. BOLD is a non-invasive method allowing an estimation of the renal, particularly the medullary oxygenation, and an indirect measurement of blood flow without administration of contrast agents. Thus, effects of different drugs on the kidney and various renal diseases can be controlled and observed. This work will provide an overview of the studies carried out so far and identify ways how BOLD can be used in clinical studies. (orig.)

  12. DNA repair and cell cycle biomarkers of radiation exposure and inflammation stress in human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Budworth

    Full Text Available DNA damage and repair are hallmarks of cellular responses to ionizing radiation. We hypothesized that monitoring the expression of DNA repair-associated genes would enhance the detection of individuals exposed to radiation versus other forms of physiological stress. We employed the human blood ex vivo radiation model to investigate the expression responses of DNA repair genes in repeated blood samples from healthy, non-smoking men and women exposed to 2 Gy of X-rays in the context of inflammation stress mimicked by the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Radiation exposure significantly modulated the transcript expression of 12 genes of 40 tested (2.2E-06blood ex vivo dataset, and 100% accuracy for discriminating patients who received total body radiation. Three genes of this panel (CDKN1A, FDXR and BBC3 were also highly sensitive to LPS treatment in the absence of radiation exposure, and LPS co-treatment significantly affected their radiation responses. At the protein level, BAX and pCHK2-thr68 were elevated after radiation exposure, but the pCHK2-thr68 response was significantly decreased in the presence of LPS. Our combined panel yields an estimated 4-group accuracy of ∼90% to discriminate between radiation alone, inflammation alone, or combined exposures. Our findings suggest that DNA repair gene expression may be helpful to identify biodosimeters of exposure to radiation, especially within high-complexity exposure scenarios.

  13. Maternal blood metal levels and fetal markers of metabolic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian [Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Dodds, Linda, E-mail: l.dodds@dal.ca [Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Arbuckle, Tye E. [Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Ettinger, Adrienne S. [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Shapiro, Gabriel D. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Fisher, Mandy [Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Taback, Shayne [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Bouchard, Maryse F. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Monnier, Patricia [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Dallaire, Renee [Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Fraser, William D. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Exposure to metals commonly found in the environment has been hypothesized to be associated with measures of fetal growth but the epidemiological literature is limited. The Maternal–Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study recruited 2001 women during the first trimester of pregnancy from 10 Canadian sites. Our objective was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to metals (lead, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury) and fetal metabolic function. Average maternal metal concentrations in 1st and 3rd trimester blood samples were used to represent prenatal metals exposure. Leptin and adiponectin were measured in 1363 cord blood samples and served as markers of fetal metabolic function. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between metals and both high (≥90%) and low (≤10%) fetal adiponectin and leptin levels. Leptin levels were significantly higher in female infants compared to males. A significant relationship between maternal blood cadmium and odds of high leptin was observed among males but not females in adjusted models. When adjusting for birth weight z-score, lead was associated with an increased odd of high leptin. No other significant associations were found at the top or bottom 10th percentile in either leptin or adiponectin models. This study supports the proposition that maternal levels of cadmium influence cord blood adipokine levels in a sex-dependent manner. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and to determine how such findings at birth will translate into childhood anthropometric measures. - Highlights: • We determined relationships between maternal metal levels and cord blood adipokines. • Cord blood leptin levels were higher among female than male infants. • Maternal cadmium was associated with elevated leptin in male, not female infants. • No significant associations were observed between metals and

  14. Maternal blood metal levels and fetal markers of metabolic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Shapiro, Gabriel D.; Fisher, Mandy; Taback, Shayne; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Monnier, Patricia; Dallaire, Renee; Fraser, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to metals commonly found in the environment has been hypothesized to be associated with measures of fetal growth but the epidemiological literature is limited. The Maternal–Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study recruited 2001 women during the first trimester of pregnancy from 10 Canadian sites. Our objective was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to metals (lead, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury) and fetal metabolic function. Average maternal metal concentrations in 1st and 3rd trimester blood samples were used to represent prenatal metals exposure. Leptin and adiponectin were measured in 1363 cord blood samples and served as markers of fetal metabolic function. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between metals and both high (≥90%) and low (≤10%) fetal adiponectin and leptin levels. Leptin levels were significantly higher in female infants compared to males. A significant relationship between maternal blood cadmium and odds of high leptin was observed among males but not females in adjusted models. When adjusting for birth weight z-score, lead was associated with an increased odd of high leptin. No other significant associations were found at the top or bottom 10th percentile in either leptin or adiponectin models. This study supports the proposition that maternal levels of cadmium influence cord blood adipokine levels in a sex-dependent manner. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and to determine how such findings at birth will translate into childhood anthropometric measures. - Highlights: • We determined relationships between maternal metal levels and cord blood adipokines. • Cord blood leptin levels were higher among female than male infants. • Maternal cadmium was associated with elevated leptin in male, not female infants. • No significant associations were observed between metals and

  15. Can gingival crevicular blood be relied upon for assessment of blood glucose level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Shivani; Verma, Sharmila J; Shah, Monali; Jain, Kapil

    2014-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is undiagnosed in approximately half of the patients actually suffering from the disease. In addition, the prevalence of DM is more than twice as high as in patients with periodontitis when compared to periodontally healthy subjects. Thus, a high number of patients with periodontitis may have undiagnosed DM. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether blood oozing from a gingival crevice during routine periodontal examination can be used for determining glucose levels. Observational cross-sectional studies were carried out in 75 patients (43 males and 32 females) with chronic periodontitis who were divided into two groups: Group I and Group II, respectively. Blood oozing from the gingival crevices of anterior teeth following periodontal probing was collected with the stick of glucose self-monitoring device, and the blood glucose levels were measured. At the same time, finger-prick blood was taken for glucometric analysis and subsequent readings were recorded. The patient's blood glucose values ranged from 74 to 256 mg/dl. The comparison between gingival crevicular blood and finger-prick blood showed a very strong correlation, with a t value of 3.97 (at P value = 0.001). The data from this study has shown that GCB collected during diagnostic periodontal examination can be an excellent source of blood for glucometric analysis.

  16. Feather growth influences blood mercury level of young songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Anne M; Cristol, Daniel A

    2009-02-01

    Dynamics of mercury in feathers and blood of free-living songbirds is poorly understood. Nestling eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) living along the mercury-contaminated South River (Virginia, USA) had blood mercury levels an order of magnitude lower than their parents (nestling: 0.09 +/- 0.06 mg/kg [mean +/- standard deviation], n = 156; adult: 1.21 +/- 0.57 mg/kg, n = 86). To test whether this low blood mercury was the result of mercury sequestration in rapidly growing feathers, we repeatedly sampled free-living juveniles throughout the period of feather growth and molt. Mean blood mercury concentrations increased to 0.52 +/- 0.36 mg/kg (n = 44) after the completion of feather growth. Some individuals had reached adult blood mercury levels within three months of leaving the nest, but levels dropped to 0.20 +/- 0.09 mg/kg (n = 11) once the autumn molt had begun. Most studies of mercury contamination in juvenile birds have focused on recently hatched young with thousands of rapidly growing feathers. However, the highest risk period for mercury intoxication in young birds may be during the vulnerable period after fledging, when feathers no longer serve as a buffer against dietary mercury. We found that nestling blood mercury levels were not indicative of the extent of contamination because a large portion of the ingested mercury ended up in feathers. The present study demonstrates unequivocally that in songbirds blood mercury level is influenced strongly by the growth and molt of feathers.

  17. Blood Biomarker Profile of TBI-Associated Cognitive Impairment Among Old and Young Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Unclassified c. THIS PAGE Unclassified Unclassified 9 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) Email : cgawards@ncire.org Table of Contents...analyze and interpret the results, comparing the biomarker profiles of veterans with TBI, controls, and veterans with mild AD, and write them up for

  18. Study on IL-2 and CA 15-3 level as combined biomarkers in monitoring chemotherapeutic response among invasive breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Ahmed Muthanna Abdul; Hamid, Auni Fatin Abdul; Shahfiza Noor, Nurul; Appalanaido, Gokula Kumar; Bariyah Sahul Hamid, Shahrul

    2017-05-01

    In Malaysia, breast cancer is the most frequent type of disease among women. This study was designed to determine the clinical usefulness of carbohydrate antigen (CA 15-3) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) levels as combined biomarkers in monitoring breast cancer patient’s response to chemotherapy. Ethical approval was obtained to recruit patients with histologically confirmed invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) attending Oncology Clinic at Advanced Medical and Dental Institute. Whole blood was collected from 10 IDC breast cancer patients’ pre and post primary chemotherapy. Plasma was separated from the whole blood to determine the CA 15-3 level and IL-2 level using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) pre and post-treatment. In addition, the histological findings, tumour stage and other patients’ data were obtained from the medical record. Findings showed that IL-2 had borderline significant changes between pre- and post-chemotherapy (p = 0.074) whereas for CA 15-3, there was insignificant differences of CA 15-3 level between pre and post-chemotherapy (p > 0.05). It was noted that only CA 15-3 level had significant correlation with tumour size. This study demonstrates that IL-2 level requires further investigation in a larger sample size to correlate its potential use as combined biomarker with CA 15-3 in monitoring response to chemotherapy.

  19. Analysis And Quantification Of Cerebral Blood Flow As A Possible Biomarker In Early Alzheimer’s Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goñi, I.; Garcia-Eulate, R.; Fernandez Seara, M.A.; Galiano, A.; Vidorreta, M.; Riverol, M.; Zubieta, J.L.

    2016-07-01

    For the past years, a deep research into possible biomarkers has taken place in order to detect Alzheimer’s disease even before earliest symptoms arise. Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) is among those, and its measurement can be performed by non-invasive Magnetic Resonance Imaging techniques. This practical work is framed into a bigger study which assesses diagnostic ability of CBF by Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL), and has used phasecontrast generated images to quantify CBF by measuring internal carotid (ICA) and vertebral arteries (VA) blood flow. Age, gender and diagnosis-related changes in CBF have been assessed with statistical methods. Therefore, this work aims to determine if CBF is a suitable parameter for discerning different diagnosis groups: twenty-nine control subjects and seventy-one case subjects including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subjective memory loss (SML) have been studied. (Author)

  20. Blood carboxyhaemoglobin and cyanide levels in fire survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.J.; Campbell, D.; Reid, W.H.

    1981-06-20

    Blood carboxyhaemoglobin and cyanide concentrations were measured in 53 fire survivors, 36 of whom had clinical evidence of smoke inhalation. Carboxyhaemoglobin and cyanide levels were raised only in patients with smoke inhalation. Blood carboxyhaemoglobin measurement can be used to confirm the diagnosis of severe smoke inhalation in cases in which the clinical data are inconclusive, provided that the time of sampling after exposure is taken into account. A nomogram has been constructed for this purpose. There is no quick method of measuring blood cyanide levels, but the close relation between cyanide and carboxyhaemoglobin levels suggests that carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations, which can be rapidly and easily measured, could be used to identify those who might benefit from treatment with cyanide antidotes.

  1. Correlation of Cell Surface Biomarker Expression Levels with Adhesion Contact Angle Measured by Lateral Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Jenna A; Mace, Charles R

    2018-06-05

    Immunophenotyping is typically achieved using flow cytometry, but any influence a biomarker may have on adhesion or surface recognition cannot be determined concurrently. In this manuscript, we demonstrate the utility of lateral microscopy for correlating cell surface biomarker expression levels with quantitative descriptions of cell morphology. With our imaging system, we observed single cells from two T cell lines and two B cell lines adhere to antibody-coated substrates and quantified this adhesion using contact angle measurements. We found that SUP-T1 and CEM CD4+ cells, both of which express similar levels of CD4, experienced average changes in contact angle that were not statistically different from one another on surfaces coated in anti-CD4. However, MAVER-1 and BJAB K20 cells, both of which express different levels of CD20, underwent average changes in contact angle that were significantly different from one another on surfaces coated in anti-CD20. Our results indicate that changes in cell contact angles on antibody-coated substrates reflect the expression levels of corresponding antigens on the surfaces of cells as determined by flow cytometry. Our lateral microscopy approach offers a more reproducible and quantitative alternative to evaluate adhesion compared to commonly used wash assays and can be extended to many additional immunophenotyping applications to identify cells of interest within heterogeneous populations.

  2. Saliva levels of Abeta1-42 as potential biomarker of Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antequera Desiree

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simple, non-invasive tests for early detection of degenerative dementia by use of biomarkers are urgently required. However, up to the present, no validated extracerebral diagnostic markers for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD are available. The clinical diagnosis of probable AD is made with around 90% accuracy using modern clinical, neuropsychological and imaging methods. A biochemical marker that would support the clinical diagnosis and distinguish AD from other causes of dementia would therefore be of great value as a screening test. A total of 126 samples were obtained from subjects with AD, and age-sex-matched controls. Additionally, 51 Parkinson's disease (PD patients were used as an example of another neurodegenerative disorder. We analyzed saliva and plasma levels of β amyloid (Aβ using a highly sensitive ELISA kit. Results We found a small but statistically significant increase in saliva Aβ42 levels in mild AD patients. In addition, there were not differences in saliva concentration of Aβ42 between patients with PD and healthy controls. Saliva Aβ40 expression was unchanged within all the studied sample. The association between saliva Aβ42 levels and AD was independent of established risk factors, including age or Apo E, but was dependent on sex and functional capacity. Conclusions We suggest that saliva Aβ42 levels could be considered a potential peripheral marker of AD and help discrimination from other types of neurodegenerative disorders. We propose a new and promising biomarker for early AD.

  3. NovaSil clay intervention in Ghanaians at high risk for aflatoxicosis: II. Reduction in biomarkers of aflatoxin exposure in blood and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Afriyie-Gyawu, E; Tang, Y; Johnson, N M; Xu, L; Tang, L; Huebner, H J; Ankrah, N-A; Ofori-Adjei, D; Ellis, W; Jolly, P E; Williams, J H; Wang, J-S; Phillips, T D

    2008-05-01

    The efficacy of NovaSil clay (NS) to reduce aflatoxin (AF) biomarkers of exposure was evaluated in 656 blood samples and 624 urine samples collected from study participants during a 3-month phase IIa clinical intervention trial in Ghana. NS was delivered before meals via capsules. Serum AFB (1)-albumin adduct was measured by radioimmunoassay and urinary AFM (1) metabolites were quantified by immunoaffinity-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescence methods. Levels of AFB (1) -albumin adduct in serum samples collected at baseline and at 1 month were similar (p = 0.2354 and p = 0.3645, respectively) among the placebo (PL), low dose (LD, 1.5 g NS day (-1)), and high dose (HD, 3.0 g NS day (-1)) groups. However, the levels of AFB (1)-albumin adduct at 3 months were significantly decreased in both the LD group (p clay can be used to reduce effectively the bioavailability of dietary AF based on a reduction of AF-specific biomarkers.

  4. Protein S100B in umbilical cord blood as a potential biomarker of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in asphyxiated newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaigham, Mehreen; Lundberg, Fredrik; Olofsson, Per

    2017-09-01

    Neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a devastating condition resulting from a sustained lack of oxygen during birth. The interest in identifying a relevant biomarker of HIE has thrown into limelight the role of protein S100B as a clinical diagnostic marker of hypoxic brain damage in neonates. To evaluate the diagnostic value of protein S100B, measured in umbilical cord blood immediately after birth, as a useful biomarker in the diagnosis of HIE Sarnat stages II-III as well as a marker for long-term mortality and morbidity. Protein S100B was analyzed in cord blood sampled at birth from 13 newborns later diagnosed with stage II-III HIE and compared with 21 healthy controls. S100B concentrations were related to cord artery pH, amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG), stage of HIE, and death/sequelae up to an age of 6years. Both parametric and non-parametric statistics were used with a two-sided P<0.05 considered significant. The difference in S100B concentration was marginally statistically significant between HIE cases and controls (P=0.056). Cord blood acidosis (P=0.046), aEEG pattern severity (P=0.030), HIE severity (P=0.027), and condition at 6-year follow-up (healthy/permanent sequelae/death; P=0.027) were all related to an increase in S100B concentration. Protein S100B in neonates suffering from HIE stages II-III appeared elevated in umbilical cord blood at birth. The S100B concentrations were positively associated to the severity of disease and the risk of suffering from neurodevelopmental sequelae and even death. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. The optimal blood glucose level for critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shaoning; Ross, Paul; Tori, Kathleen

    2017-09-01

    Glycaemic control is recognized as one of the important aspects in managing critically ill patients. Both hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia independently increase the risk of patient mortality. Hence, the identification of optimal glycaemic control is of paramount importance in the management of critically ill patients. The aim of this literature review is to examine the current status of glycaemic control in critically ill adult patients. This literature review will focus on randomized controlled trials comparing intensive insulin therapy to conventional insulin therapy, with an objective to identify optimal blood glucose level targets for critically ill adult patients. A literature review was conducted to identify large randomized controlled trials for the optimal targeted blood glucose level for critically ill adult patients published since 2000. A total of eight studies fulfilled the selection criteria of this review. With current human and technology resources, the results of the studies support commencing glycaemic control once the blood glucose level of critically ill patients reaches 10 mmol/L and maintaining this level between 8 mmol/L and 10 mmol/L. This literature review provides a recommendation for targeting the optimal blood glucose level for critically ill patients within moderate blood glucose level target range (8-10 mmol/L). The need for uniformed glucometrics for unbiased reporting and further research for optimal blood glucose target is required, especially in light of new technological advancements in closed-loop insulin delivery and monitoring devices. This literature review has revealed a need to call for consensus in the measurement and reporting of glycaemic control using standardized glucometrics. © 2017 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  6. Umbilical Cord Blood Lead Levels and Neonatal Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. de Cáceres

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative correlations have been found between cord blood lead levels and scores on the Brazelton Neonatal Behaviour Assessment in 30 otherwise healthy newborns. Items in the Habituation, Orientation and Regulation of state clusters, particularly those items related to self-regulatory, self-quieting and auditory habituation, showed lower scores (worse performance in those newborns with higher cord blood lead levels. These disturbances are potentially important since this type of behavior may interfere with the normal process of adaptation to their environment, leading to a less than optimal bonding between newborns and their carers.

  7. Relationship of blood lead levels and blood pressure in NHANES II: additional calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartside, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    In performing research for associations and relationships among the data thus far published from the NHANES II survey, only the data for the 64 communities involved may be used. The simple omission of a few essential data makes impossible any valid analysis from the data for the 20,325 individual respondents. In this research for associations between blood lead levels and blood pressure in NHANES II, the method of forward stepwise regression was used. This avoids the problem of inflated error rates for blood lead, maximizes the number of data analyzed, and minimizes the number of independent variables entered into the regression model, thus avoiding the pitfalls that previous NHANES II research of blood lead and blood pressure has fallen into when using backward stepwise regression. The results of this research for white male adults, white female adults, and black adults were contradictory and lacked consistency and reliability. In addition, the overall average association between blood lead level and blood pressure was so minute that the only rational conclusion is that there is no evidence for this association to be found in the NHANES II data

  8. Monitoring carcinogenesis in a case of oral squamous cell carcinoma using a panel of new metabolic blood biomarkers as liquid biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Martin; Hoefert, Sebastian; Krimmel, Michael; Biegner, Thorsten; Feyen, Oliver; Teriete, Peter; Reinert, Siegmar

    2016-09-01

    One of the common malignant tumors of the head and neck worldwide with generally unfavorable prognosis is squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) of the oral cavity. Early detection of primary, secondary, or recurrent OSCC by liquid biopsy tools is much needed. Twelve blood biomarkers were used for monitoring a case of OSCC suffering from precancerous oral lichen ruber planus mucosae (OLP). After curative R0 tumor resection of primary OSCC (buccal mucosa), elevated epitope detection in monocytes (EDIM)-Apo10, EDIM-transketolase-like-1 (TKTL1), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag), total serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and its anaerobic isoforms (LDH-4, LDH-5) decreased to normal levels. Three and six months after surgery, transformation of suspicious mucosal lesions has been accompanied with an increase of EDIM scores, total serum LDH values, and a metabolic shift from aerobic (decrease of LDH-1, LDH-2) to anaerobic (increase of LDH-4, LDH-5) conditions. Two months later, secondary OSCC was histopathologically analyzed after tissue biopsy. Cytokeratin fraction 21-1 (CYFRA 21-1), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) were not affected during the clinical course of carcinogenesis. A combination strategy using a standardized panel of established (metabolic) blood biomarkers (TKTL1, LDH, LDH isoenzymes) is worth and can be recommended among others (apoptosis resistance-related Apo10, SCC-Ag) for early detection and diagnosis of primary, secondary, and recurrent OSCC. A tandem strategy utilizing (metabolic pronounced) routine liquid biopsies with imaging techniques may enhance diagnosis of OSCC in the future. Although we demonstrated the diagnostic utility of separated liquid biopsies in our previous study cohorts, further investigations in a larger patient cohort are necessary to recommend this combination strategy (EDIM blood test, LDH value, metabolic shift of LDH isoenzymes, and others, e.g., SCC-Ag or immunophenotyping) as a

  9. Calculations for Adjusting Endogenous Biomarker Levels During Analytical Recovery Assessments for Ligand-Binding Assay Bioanalytical Method Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelletti, John F; Evans, Cindy L; Saxena, Manju; Lopez, Adriana E

    2015-07-01

    It is often necessary to adjust for detectable endogenous biomarker levels in spiked validation samples (VS) and in selectivity determinations during bioanalytical method validation for ligand-binding assays (LBA) with a matrix like normal human serum (NHS). Described herein are case studies of biomarker analyses using multiplex LBA which highlight the challenges associated with such adjustments when calculating percent analytical recovery (%AR). The LBA test methods were the Meso Scale Discovery V-PLEX® proinflammatory and cytokine panels with NHS as test matrix. The NHS matrix blank exhibited varied endogenous content of the 20 individual cytokines before spiking, ranging from undetectable to readily quantifiable. Addition and subtraction methods for adjusting endogenous cytokine levels in %AR calculations are both used in the bioanalytical field. The two methods were compared in %AR calculations following spiking and analysis of VS for cytokines having detectable endogenous levels in NHS. Calculations for %AR obtained by subtracting quantifiable endogenous biomarker concentrations from the respective total analytical VS values yielded reproducible and credible conclusions. The addition method, in contrast, yielded %AR conclusions that were frequently unreliable and discordant with values obtained with the subtraction adjustment method. It is shown that subtraction of assay signal attributable to matrix is a feasible alternative when endogenous biomarkers levels are below the limit of quantitation, but above the limit of detection. These analyses confirm that the subtraction method is preferable over that using addition to adjust for detectable endogenous biomarker levels when calculating %AR for biomarker LBA.

  10. Cytokine levels as biomarkers of radiation fibrosis in patients treated with breast radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbury, Charlotte B; Yarnold, John R; Haviland, Joanne; Davies, Sue; Gothard, Lone; Abdi, Bahja Ahmed; Sydenham, Mark; Bowen, Jo; Stratton, Richard; Short, Susan C

    2014-01-01

    Radiation fibrosis is not easily measurable although clinical scores have been developed for this purpose. Biomarkers present an alternative more objective approach to quantification, and estimation in blood provides accessible samples. We investigated if blood cytokines could be used to measure established fibrosis in patients who have undergone radiotherapy for breast cancer. We studied two cohorts treated by breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy in the UK START Trial A, one with breast fibrosis (cases) and one with no or minimal fibrosis (controls). Two candidate cytokines, plasma connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and serum interleukin-6 (IL6) were estimated by ELISA. Comparisons between cases and controls used the t-test or Mann–Whitney test and associations between blood concentration and clinical factors were assessed using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Seventy patients were included (26 cases, 44 controls). Mean time since radiotherapy was 9.9 years (range 8.3-12.0). No statistically significant differences between cases and controls in serum IL6 (median (IQR) 0.84 pg/ml (0.57-1.14), 0.75 pg/ml (0.41-1.43) respectively) or plasma CTGF (331.4 pg/ml (234.8-602.9), 334.5 pg/ml (270.0-452.8) were identified. There were no significant associations between blood cytokine concentration and age, fibrosis severity, breast size or time since radiotherapy. No significant difference in IL6 or CTGF concentrations was detected between patients with breast fibrosis and controls with minimal or no fibrosis

  11. Elevated blood lead levels from exposure via a radiator workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble, R G; Thompson, T S; Morton, D N

    1998-04-01

    Elevated lead levels were discovered in blood samples collected from family members where both the father and the mother worked in a radiator repair workshop. The father and mother were found to have blood lead levels of 2.0 and 0.5 mumol/L (41.7 and 10.4 micrograms/dL), respectively. The father's blood lead level was just below the Canadian occupational health and safety intervention level (2.5 mumol/L or 52.1 micrograms/dL). The two children had blood lead levels of 1.0 and 0.8 mumol/L (20.8 and 16.7 micrograms/dL), both of which are in excess of the recommended guideline for intervention in the case of children (0.5 mumol/L or 10.4 micrograms/dL). The exposure of the two children was possibly due to a combination of pathways including exposure at the workshop itself during visits and also the transportation of lead-containing dust to the home environment.

  12. Evaluation of current and new biomarkers in severe preeclampsia: a microarray approach reveals the VSIG4 gene as a potential blood biomarker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Textoris

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a placental disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria in pregnant women, and it is associated with a high maternal and neonatal morbidity. However, circulating biomarkers that are able to predict the prognosis of preeclampsia are lacking. Thirty-eight women were included in the current study. They consisted of 19 patients with preeclampsia (13 with severe preeclampsia and 6 with non-severe preeclampsia and 19 gestational age-matched women with normal pregnancies as controls. We measured circulating factors that are associated with the coagulation pathway (including fibrinogen, fibronectin, factor VIII, antithrombin, protein S and protein C, endothelial activation (such as soluble endoglin and CD146, and the release of total and platelet-derived microparticles. These markers enabled us to discriminate the preeclampsia condition from a normal pregnancy but were not sufficient to distinguish severe from non-severe preeclampsia. We then used a microarray to study the transcriptional signature of blood samples. Preeclampsia patients exhibited a specific transcriptional program distinct from that of the control group of women. Interestingly, we also identified a severity-related transcriptional signature. Functional annotation of the upmodulated signature in severe preeclampsia highlighted two main functions related to "ribosome" and "complement". Finally, we identified 8 genes that were specifically upmodulated in severe preeclampsia compared with non-severe preeclampsia and the normotensive controls. Among these genes, we identified VSIG4 as a potential diagnostic marker of severe preeclampsia. The determination of this gene may improve the prognostic assessment of severe preeclampsia.

  13. The use of antioxidative stress enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and red blood cell abnormalities as biomarkers of stress in Periphthalmus papilio of the polluted coastal Lagos lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnamdi, Amaeze H; Olumide, Adebesin A; Adeladun, Adepegba E; Oyenike, Kolapo; Rosemary, Egonmwan I

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the mudskipper, Periphthalmus papilio inhabiting the coast line of the Lagos lagoon, Gulf of Guinea, to determine suitable biomarkers of stress due to its current status as a polluted water body. The gill and liver samples showed evidence of some activities of antioxidative stress enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-s-transferase, reduced glutahthione, as well as some detectable levels of lipid peroxidation product. The stress status of the fishes was also elucidated by nuclear abnormalities especially micronucleus formation and the presence of numerous vacuolated red blood cells. Given the current need for more sensitive bioindicators in monitoring pollution in this lagoon, we hereby present these inherent responses in P. papilio as a suitable candidate for incorporation into the current repertoire for ecotoxicological investigations in polluted water bodies of the Gulf of Guinea coastline.

  14. The relationship between cord blood immunoglobulin E levels and allergy-related outcomes in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Purvee S; Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Johnson, Christine Cole; Ownby, Dennis R; Zoratti, Edward M

    2011-03-01

    Elevated cord blood IgE may be associated with a higher risk of allergic disease. To determine whether cord blood IgE is associated with allergic biomarkers or allergic disorders in young adults. Data was collected from 670 subjects 18-21 years of age that were among 835 original participants in the Detroit Childhood Allergy Study, a general risk, population-based birth cohort. Cord blood IgE was assessed in relation to biomarkers associated with allergy and asthma including total IgE, allergen-specific IgE, blood eosinophilia, and spirometry. Cord blood IgE was also analyzed for associations to subsequent allergic disease including atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and asthma. Cord blood IgE, analyzed as a continuous measure, was modestly correlated with total IgE (r = 0.18, P Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Emerging Field of Quantitative Blood Metabolomics for Biomarker Discovery in Critical Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkova, Natalie J.; Standiford, Theodore J.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolomics, a science of systems biology, is the global assessment of endogenous metabolites within a biologic system and represents a “snapshot” reading of gene function, enzyme activity, and the physiological landscape. Metabolite detection, either individual or grouped as a metabolomic profile, is usually performed in cells, tissues, or biofluids by either nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy or mass spectrometry followed by sophisticated multivariate data analysis. Because loss of metabolic homeostasis is common in critical illness, the metabolome could have many applications, including biomarker and drug target identification. Metabolomics could also significantly advance our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of acute illnesses, such as sepsis and acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome. Despite this potential, the clinical community is largely unfamiliar with the field of metabolomics, including the methodologies involved, technical challenges, and, most importantly, clinical uses. Although there is evidence of successful preclinical applications, the clinical usefulness and application of metabolomics in critical illness is just beginning to emerge, the advancement of which hinges on linking metabolite data to known and validated clinically relevant indices. In addition, other important aspects, such as patient selection, sample collection, and processing, as well as the needed multivariate data analysis, have to be taken into consideration before this innovative approach to biomarker discovery can become a reliable tool in the intensive care unit. The purpose of this review is to begin to familiarize clinicians with the field of metabolomics and its application for biomarker discovery in critical illnesses such as sepsis. PMID:21680948

  16. Endocan Levels in Peripheral Blood Predict Outcomes of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

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    Ling Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the prognostic significance of endocan, compared with procalcitonin (PCT, C-reactive protein (CRP,white blood cells (WBC, neutrophils (N, and clinical severity scores in patients with ARDS. Methods. A total of 42 patients with ARDS were initially enrolled, and there were 20 nonsurvivors and 22 survivors based on hospital mortality. Plasma levels of biomarkers were measured and the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II was calculated on day 1 after the patient met the defining criteria of ARDS. Results. Endocan levels significantly correlated with the APACHE II score in the ARDS group (r=0.676, P=0.000, n=42. Of 42 individuals with ARDS, 20 were dead, and endocan was significantly higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors (median (IQR 5.01 (2.98–8.44 versus 3.01 (2.36–4.36 ng/mL, P=0.017. According to the results of the ROC-curve analysis and COX proportional hazards models, endocan can predict mortality of ARDS independently with a hazard ratio of 1.374 (95% CI, 1.150–1.641 and an area of receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC of 0.715 (P=0.017. Moreover, endocan can predict the multiple-organ dysfunction of ARDS. Conclusion. Endocan is a promising biomarker to predict the disease severity and mortality in patients with ARDS.

  17. Blood and Brain Glutamate Levels in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Tamer H.; Abdelrahman, Hadeel M.; Fattah, Nelly R. Abdel; El-Masry, Nagda M.; Hashim, Haitham M.; El-Gerby, Khaled M.; Fattah, Nermin R. Abdel

    2013-01-01

    Despite of the great efforts that move forward to clarify the pathophysiologic mechanisms in autism, the cause of this disorder, however, remains largely unknown. There is an increasing body of literature concerning neurochemical contributions to the pathophysiology of autism. We aimed to determine blood and brain levels of glutamate in children…

  18. CHILDHOOD BLOOD LEAD LEVELS NOT AFFECTED BY HOUSING COMPLIANCE STATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a secondary analysis of data from the Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of Philadelphia (July 1, 1999 through September 1, 2004), the authors evaluated the effect of housing compliance status and time to achieve compliance on changes in children's blood lead levels. ...

  19. Blood hemoglobin level and treatment outcome of early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, M.; Sindlinger, F.; Ikenberg, H.; Gerds, T.; Schumacher, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: to determine whether the blood hemoglobin concentration correlates with the prognosis of patients with early breast cancer and, if so, whether this is restricted to treatment modality. Patients and methods: data were collected retrospectively from patients with early breast cancer (T1,2 NO-2 MO) who underwent either breast-conserving surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (BCS-RT; n = 96) or a modified radical mastectomy (MRM; n = 194). The effect of preoperative blood hemoglobin level, nodal status, histological grading and hormone receptor status on disease-free survival was determined for both treatment modalities using a cox regression model and visualized by kaplan-meier plots. Results: the blood hemoglobin concentration significantly correlated with disease-free survival of patients receiving BCS-RT (relative risk [RR]: 0.67 per g/dl; p = 0.007). This was independent of other known risk factors for breast cancer patients, as determined by multivariate analysis. By contrast, the blood hemoglobin level had no prognostic significance when patients were treated with MRM. Conclusion: blood hemoglobin concentration seems to affect the prognosis of patients with early breast cancer when a treatment schedule that includes radiotherapy is applied. Reduced radiosensitivity due to diminished tumor oxygenation may be the underlying cause. Confirmative trials and studies intended to elucidate the underlying mechanism are warranted. (orig.)

  20. Quantifying murine bone marrow and blood radiation dose response following {sup 18}F-FDG PET with DNA damage biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Grainne [Biological Effects Department, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 ORQ (United Kingdom); Taylor, Kristina [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Finnon, Paul [Biological Effects Department, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 ORQ (United Kingdom); Lemon, Jennifer A.; Boreham, Douglas R. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Badie, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.badie@phe.gov.uk [Biological Effects Department, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 ORQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Mice received either a range of {sup 18}F-FDG activities or whole body X-ray doses. • Blood samples were collected at 24 and 43 h for MN-RET and QPCR analysis. • Regression analysis showed that both types of exposure produced a linear response. • BM doses of 33 mGy ({sup 18}F-FDG) and 25 mGy X-rays were significantly higher than controls. • No significant difference between internal ({sup 18}F-FDG) and external (X-ray) was found. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to quantify the poorly understood radiation doses to murine bone marrow and blood from whole-body fluorine 18 ({sup 18}F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), by using specific biomarkers and comparing with whole body external low dose exposures. Groups of 3–5 mice were randomly assigned to 10 groups, each receiving either a different activity of {sup 18}F-FDG: 0–37 MBq or whole body irradiated with corresponding doses of 0–300 mGy X-rays. Blood samples were collected at 24 h and at 43 h for reticulocyte micronucleus assays and QPCR analysis of gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes. Blood and bone marrow dose estimates were calculated from injected activities of {sup 18}F-FDG and were based on a recommended ICRP model. Doses to the bone marrow corresponding to 33.43 mGy and above for internal {sup 18}F-FDG exposure and to 25 mGy and above for external X-ray exposure, showed significant increases in radiation-induced MN-RET formation relative to controls (P < 0.05). Regression analysis showed that both types of exposure produced a linear response with linear regression analysis giving R{sup 2} of 0.992 and 0.999 for respectively internal and external exposure. No significant difference between the two data sets was found with a P-value of 0.493. In vivo gene expression dose–responses at 24 h for Bbc3 and Cdkn1 were similar for {sup 18}F-FDG and X-ray exposures, with significant modifications occurring for doses over 300 mGy for Bbc3

  1. Biomarker-based classification of bacterial and fungal whole-blood infections in a genome-wide expression study

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    Andreas eDix

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a clinical syndrome that can be caused by bacteria or fungi. Early knowledge on the nature of the causative agent is a prerequisite for targeted anti-microbial therapy. Besides currently used detection methods like blood culture and PCR-based assays, the analysis of the transcriptional response of the host to infecting organisms holds great promise. In this study, we aim to examine the transcriptional footprint of infections caused by the bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and the fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus in a human whole-blood model. Moreover, we use the expression information to build a random forest classifier to classify if a sample contains a bacterial, fungal, or mock-infection. After normalizing the transcription intensities using stably expressed reference genes, we filtered the gene set for biomarkers of bacterial or fungal blood infections. This selection is based on differential expression and an additional gene relevance measure. In this way, we identified 38 biomarker genes, including IL6, SOCS3, and IRG1 which were already associated to sepsis by other studies. Using these genes, we trained the classifier and assessed its performance. It yielded a 96% accuracy (sensitivities >93%, specificities >97% for a 10-fold stratified cross-validation and a 92% accuracy (sensitivities and specificities >83% for an additional test dataset comprising Cryptococcus neoformans infections. Furthermore, the classifier is robust to Gaussian noise, indicating correct class predictions on datasets of new species. In conclusion, this genome-wide approach demonstrates an effective feature selection process in combination with the construction of a well-performing classification model. Further analyses of genes with pathogen-dependent expression patterns can provide insights into the systemic host responses, which may lead to new anti-microbial therapeutic advances.

  2. Systemic effects of ionizing radiation at the proteome and metabolome levels in the blood of cancer patients treated with radiotherapy: the influence of inflammation and radiation toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelonek, Karol; Pietrowska, Monika; Widlak, Piotr

    2017-07-01

    Blood is the most common replacement tissue used to study systemic responses of organisms to different types of pathological conditions and environmental insults. Local irradiation during cancer radiotherapy induces whole body responses that can be observed at the blood proteome and metabolome levels. Hence, comparative blood proteomics and metabolomics are emerging approaches used in the discovery of radiation biomarkers. These techniques enable the simultaneous measurement of hundreds of molecules and the identification of sets of components that can discriminate different physiological states of the human body. Radiation-induced changes are affected by the dose and volume of irradiated tissues; hence, the molecular composition of blood is a hypothetical source of biomarkers for dose assessment and the prediction and monitoring of systemic responses to radiation. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview on the available evidence regarding molecular responses to ionizing radiation detected at the level of the human blood proteome and metabolome. It focuses on patients exposed to radiation during cancer radiotherapy and emphasizes effects related to radiation-induced toxicity and inflammation. Systemic responses to radiation detected at the blood proteome and metabolome levels are primarily related to the intensity of radiation-induced toxicity, including inflammatory responses. Thus, several inflammation-associated molecules can be used to monitor or even predict radiation-induced toxicity. However, these abundant molecular features have a rather limited applicability as universal biomarkers for dose assessment, reflecting the individual predisposition of the immune system and tissue-specific mechanisms involved in radiation-induced damage.

  3. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid blood biomarkers increase linearly in men and women after tightly controlled intakes of 0.25, 0.5, and 1 g/d of EPA + DHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ashley C; Chalil, Alan; Aristizabal Henao, Juan J; Streit, Isaac T; Stark, Ken D

    2015-12-01

    Blood levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been related to coronary heart disease risk. Understanding the response of EPA + DHA in blood to dietary intake of EPA + DHA would facilitate the use of blood measures as markers of adherence and enable the development of dietary recommendations. The objective of this study is examine the blood response to intakes of EPA + DHA ≤1 g/d with an intervention designed for dietary adherence. It was hypothesized this relationship would be linear and that intakes of EPA + DHA DHA intake of men and women (n = 20) was determined by food frequency questionnaire and adherence was monitored by weekly fingertip blood sampling for fatty acid determinations. Participants consumed nutraceuticals to achieve intakes of 0.25 g/d and 0.5 g/d EPA + DHA for successive four-week periods. A subgroup (n = 5) had intakes of 1.0 g/d EPA + DHA for an additional 4 weeks. Fatty acid composition of whole blood, erythrocytes, and plasma phospholipids were determined at each time point. Blood levels of EPA and DHA increased linearly in these pools. A comprehensive review of the literature was used to verify the blood-intake relationship. Blood levels of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reached blood levels associated with the highest levels of primary cardiac arrest reduction and sudden cardiac death risk only with intakes of 1.0 g/d of EPA + DHA. The blood biomarker response to intakes of EPA + DHA ≤1 g/d is linear in a small but highly adherent study sample and this information can assist in determining adherence in clinical studies and help identify dietary intake targets from associations between blood and disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Blood androgen levels in male baboons throughout the year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taranov, A.G.; Goncharov, N.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a study of possible dependence of the androgen level in male baboons on the time of year. Plasma was obtained by centrifugation of the blood at 3000 rpm and the following androgens were determined by radioimmunoassay, using chromatographic separation of the steroids on columns with celite: testosterone, 5s-dihydrotestosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone. Plasma steriod concentrations were calculated and the results were subjected to statistical analysis by Students test. Seasonal change in the concentration of steroids in the animals' blood plasma were discovered. The results of androgen assay throughout the year and determination of their mean annual concentrations are shown

  5. Correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels with oral ulcer in diabetic patients

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    Fildzah Rahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a syndrome in metabolism of carbohydrates which indicated by the increased level of blood glucose and also may increase salivary glucose levels. Oral ulcer has been frequently recognized in diabetic patients, which can be due to increased glucose in oral fluids and immune dysfunction. This study aimed to determine the correlation of blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels with oral ulcer in diabetic patients. Analytic observational study was carried out through the determination of blood glucose levels just by way of strip using a glucometer and salivary glucose levels with the method "GOD-PAP test enzymatic colorimetric". Oral ulcer was determined in presenting ulcer on 30 patients with DM. The results showed r = 0.228, which is higher salivary glucose levels followed by high levels of blood glucose, and intraoral examination of oral ulcer found in the whole sample and the most location commonly found in buccal mucosa and lingual. It was concluded that there is a correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels, and glucose levels affect the occurrence of oral ulcer in patients with DM

  6. Both physiology and epidemiology support zero tolerable blood lead levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefa, Syeda T; Héroux, Paul

    2017-10-05

    Inorganic lead is one of the most common causes of environmental metal poisonings, and its adverse effects on multiple body systems are of great concern. The brain, along with the kidneys, are critically susceptible to lead toxicity for their hosting of high affinity lead binding proteins, and very sensitive physiology. Prolonged low-lead exposure frequently remains unrecognized, causes subtle changes in these organ systems, and manifests later at an irreversible stage. With the repeated documentation of "no safe blood lead level", the pernicious effects of lead at any measurable concentration need to be emphasized. In this review, we surveyed articles on chronic low-level lead exposures with a blood lead concentrations lead on both nervous and renal systems were obvious at a blood lead concentration of 2μg/dL, with the absence of any detectable threshold. The deleterious effect of lead on two different organ systems at such low concentrations drew our attention to the various extracellular and intracellular events that might be affected by minimal concentration of body lead, especially blood lead. Is there a true common ground between low-level lead toxicity in both the nervous system and the kidney? Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning on Blood Cortisol Level

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    Fariba Farnaghi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute intoxication with ALP is extremely lethal. The present study was conducted to determine the range of serum cortisol levels in ALP poisoning and its correlation with patient outcome. Methods: This study was carried out on patients who were intoxicated with ALP. Their demographic data and pertinent findings in their history and physical examination were recorded at the time of arrival and also when shock and severe metabolic acidosis emerged. 5cc blood was taken from the patients to measure blood cortisol level, when shock and severe metabolic acidosis developed. Blood cortisol level analysis was performed using ELISA method. Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 16.0. Results: The average ingested dose was 1.98+1.79 tablets each containing 3 grams of ALP. Overall, 77% of the patients presented tachycardia and hypotension. Blood cortisol level less than 15 µg/dl, 15-33 µg/dl, and more than 34 µg/dl were regarded as adrenal insufficiency, critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency, and adequate adrenal response, respectively. Eventually, 3 patients fell within the first category, 24 patients matched with the second category, and 3 patients corresponded to the last category. Conclusion: Blood cortisol concentration is satisfactory only in 10% of the patients. In majority of the patients although it is not apparently low, it has not shown the expected rise comparable to the shock and stress state of such patients. It defines a role for corticosteroids therapy in management of ALP poisoning, particularly if it does not respond to conventional treatments.

  8. Elevated blood lead levels associated with illegally distilled alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegues, D A; Hughes, B J; Woernle, C H

    1993-06-28

    Whiskey produced in illegal stills (ie, "moonshine") remains an important and underappreciated source of lead toxicity in some rural counties of the Southeast. From March 5 through October 26, 1991, eight adult patients with elevated blood lead levels were identified at a rural county hospital in Alabama and were reported to the Alabama Department of Public Health notifiable disease surveillance system. A case-patient was defined as any person 17 years of age or more who presented to the hospital from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1991, and had a blood lead level of 0.72 mumol/L or more (15 micrograms/dL or more). To identify cases and potential sources of lead exposure, we reviewed medical and laboratory records from the hospital, interviewed patients with elevated blood lead levels, and determined the lead content of moonshine samples. Nine patients met the case definition, including one patient who was not reported to the state. Patients ranged in age from 28 to 62 years; blood lead values ranged from 0.77 to 12.50 mumol/L (16 to 259 micrograms/dL). The most frequent signs of possible lead toxicity included seizures (six), microcytic anemia (five), and encephalopathy (two); one patient died. The only identified source of lead exposure for the nine patients was moonshine ingestion. Moonshine samples available from local stills contained sufficient amounts of lead (340 to 4600 mumol/L) to result in the observed blood lead levels. This investigation emphasizes the adverse health effects and ongoing public health impact of moonshine ingestion.

  9. Detection of cervical cancer biomarker patterns in blood plasma and urine by differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C; Merchant, Michael L; Helm, C William; Jenson, Alfred B; Klein, Jon B; Chaires, Jonathan B

    2014-01-01

    Improved methods for the accurate identification of both the presence and severity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and extent of spread of invasive carcinomas of the cervix (IC) are needed. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has recently been shown to detect specific changes in the thermal behavior of blood plasma proteins in several diseases. This methodology is being explored to provide a complementary approach for screening of cervical disease. The present study evaluated the utility of DSC in differentiating between healthy controls, increasing severity of CIN and early and advanced IC. Significant discrimination was apparent relative to the extent of disease with no clear effect of demographic factors such as age, ethnicity, smoking status and parity. Of most clinical relevance, there was strong differentiation of CIN from healthy controls and IC, and amongst patients with IC between FIGO Stage I and advanced cancer. The observed disease-specific changes in DSC profiles (thermograms) were hypothesized to reflect differential expression of disease biomarkers that subsequently bound to and affected the thermal behavior of the most abundant plasma proteins. The effect of interacting biomarkers can be inferred from the modulation of thermograms but cannot be directly identified by DSC. To investigate the nature of the proposed interactions, mass spectrometry (MS) analyses were employed. Quantitative assessment of the low molecular weight protein fragments of plasma and urine samples revealed a small list of peptides whose abundance was correlated with the extent of cervical disease, with the most striking plasma peptidome data supporting the interactome theory of peptide portioning to abundant plasma proteins. The combined DSC and MS approach in this study was successful in identifying unique biomarker signatures for cervical cancer and demonstrated the utility of DSC plasma profiles as a complementary diagnostic tool to evaluate cervical cancer

  10. Detection of cervical cancer biomarker patterns in blood plasma and urine by differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola C Garbett

    Full Text Available Improved methods for the accurate identification of both the presence and severity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and extent of spread of invasive carcinomas of the cervix (IC are needed. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC has recently been shown to detect specific changes in the thermal behavior of blood plasma proteins in several diseases. This methodology is being explored to provide a complementary approach for screening of cervical disease. The present study evaluated the utility of DSC in differentiating between healthy controls, increasing severity of CIN and early and advanced IC. Significant discrimination was apparent relative to the extent of disease with no clear effect of demographic factors such as age, ethnicity, smoking status and parity. Of most clinical relevance, there was strong differentiation of CIN from healthy controls and IC, and amongst patients with IC between FIGO Stage I and advanced cancer. The observed disease-specific changes in DSC profiles (thermograms were hypothesized to reflect differential expression of disease biomarkers that subsequently bound to and affected the thermal behavior of the most abundant plasma proteins. The effect of interacting biomarkers can be inferred from the modulation of thermograms but cannot be directly identified by DSC. To investigate the nature of the proposed interactions, mass spectrometry (MS analyses were employed. Quantitative assessment of the low molecular weight protein fragments of plasma and urine samples revealed a small list of peptides whose abundance was correlated with the extent of cervical disease, with the most striking plasma peptidome data supporting the interactome theory of peptide portioning to abundant plasma proteins. The combined DSC and MS approach in this study was successful in identifying unique biomarker signatures for cervical cancer and demonstrated the utility of DSC plasma profiles as a complementary diagnostic tool to evaluate

  11. Association between Blood Mercury Level and Visceral Adiposity in Adults

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    Jong Suk Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFew studies have examined the association between mercury exposure and obesity. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between blood mercury concentrations and indices of obesity in adults.MethodsA total of 200 healthy subjects, aged 30 to 64 years, who had no history of cardiovascular or malignant disease, were examined. Anthropometric and various biochemical profiles were measured. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA.ResultsAll subjects were divided into three groups according to blood mercury concentrations. Compared with the subjects in the lowest tertile of mercury, those in the highest tertile were more likely to be male; were current alcohol drinkers and smokers; had a higher body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and VAT; had higher levels of blood pressure, fasting glucose, and insulin resistance; and consumed more fish. The blood mercury concentration was significantly associated with anthropometric parameters, showing relationships with BMI, WC, and VAT. After adjusting for multiple risk factors, the odds ratios (ORs for high mercury concentration was significantly higher in the highest VAT tertile than in the lowest VAT tertile (OR, 2.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 6.62; P<0.05.ConclusionThe blood mercury concentration was significantly associated with VAT in healthy adults. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

  12. Quantitative influence of risk factors on blood glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Songjing; Luo, Senlin; Pan, Limin; Zhang, Tiemei; Han, Longfei; Zhao, Haixiu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantitatively analyze the influence of risk factors on the blood glucose level, and to provide theory basis for understanding the characteristics of blood glucose change and confirming the intervention index for type 2 diabetes. The quantitative method is proposed to analyze the influence of risk factors on blood glucose using back propagation (BP) neural network. Ten risk factors are screened first. Then the cohort is divided into nine groups by gender and age. According to the minimum error principle, nine BP models are trained respectively. The quantitative values of the influence of different risk factors on the blood glucose change can be obtained by sensitivity calculation. The experiment results indicate that weight is the leading cause of blood glucose change (0.2449). The second factors are cholesterol, age and triglyceride. The total ratio of these four factors reaches to 77% of the nine screened risk factors. And the sensitivity sequences can provide judgment method for individual intervention. This method can be applied to risk factors quantitative analysis of other diseases and potentially used for clinical practitioners to identify high risk populations for type 2 diabetes as well as other disease.

  13. Validity and Reliability of Perinatal Biomarkers after Storage as Dry Blood Spots on Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalopoulos, Nicole L.; Phillips, Terry M.; Slater, Hillarie; Thomson, J. Anne; Varner, Michael W.; Moyer-Mileur, Laurie J.

    2013-01-01

    Ojective To validate use of chip-based immunoaffinity capillary electrophoresis on dry blood spot samples (DBSS) to measure obesity-related cytokines. Methods Chip-based immunoaffinity capillary electrophoresis was used to measure adiponectin, leptin and insulin in serum and DBSS in pregnant women, cord blood, and infant heelstick at birth and 6 weeks. Concordance of measurements was determined with Pearson's correlation. Results We report high concordance between results obtained from serum and DBSS with the exception of cord blood specimens. Conclusions Ease of sample collection and storage makes DBSS an optimal method for use in studies involving neonates and young children. PMID:21735507

  14. Blood levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP in patients with neurological diseases.

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    Christoph A Mayer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The brain-specific astroglial protein GFAP is a blood biomarker candidate indicative of intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with symptoms suspicious of acute stroke. Comparably little, however, is known about GFAP release in other neurological disorders. In order to identify potential "specificity gaps" of a future GFAP test used to diagnose intracerebral hemorrhage, we measured GFAP in the blood of a large and rather unselected collective of patients with neurological diseases. METHODS: Within a one-year period, we randomly selected in-patients of our university hospital for study inclusion. Patients with ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack and intracerebral hemorrhage were excluded. Primary endpoint was the ICD-10 coded diagnosis reached at discharge. During hospital stay, blood was collected, and GFAP plasma levels were determined using an advanced prototype immunoassay at Roche Diagnostics. RESULTS: A total of 331 patients were included, covering a broad spectrum of neurological diseases. GFAP levels were low in the vast majority of patients, with 98.5% of cases lying below the cut-off that was previously defined for the differentiation of intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. No diagnosis or group of diagnoses was identified that showed consistently increased GFAP values. No association with age and sex was found. CONCLUSION: Most acute and chronic neurological diseases, including typical stroke mimics, are not associated with detectable GFAP levels in the bloodstream. Our findings underline the hypothesis that rapid astroglial destruction as in acute intracerebral hemorrhage is mandatory for GFAP increase. A future GFAP blood test applied to identify patients with intracerebral hemorrhage is likely to have a high specificity.

  15. Cigarettes with different nicotine levels affect sensory perception and levels of biomarkers of exposure in adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Diana L; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Oldham, Michael J; Fisher, Michael T; Wang, Jingzhu; Gogova, Maria; Kobal, Gerd

    2014-07-01

    Few clinical studies involving cigarettes have provided a comprehensive picture of smoke exposure, test article characterization, and insights into sensory properties combined. The purpose of these pilot studies was to determine whether cigarettes with different levels of nicotine but similar tar levels would affect sensory experience or smoking behavior so as to significantly alter levels of selected biomarkers of exposure (BOE). In 2 confined, double-blind studies, 120 adult smokers switched from Marlboro Gold cigarettes at baseline to either 1 of 2 lower nicotine cigarettes or 1 of 2 higher nicotine cigarettes and then to the other cigarette after 5 days. Urinary excretion of exposure biomarkers (nicotine equivalents [NE], total and free 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol [NNAL], 1-hydroxypyrene, and 3-hydroxypropyl mercapturic acid) as well as carboxyhemoglobin and plasma cotinine were measured at baseline, Day 5, and Day 10. Daily cigarette consumption was monitored and sensory characteristics were rated for each cigarette. With higher nicotine yield, urine NE, urine total NNAL, and plasma cotinine increased while nonnicotine BOE decreased without changes in cigarette consumption. In contrast, with lower nicotine yield, urine NE, urine total NNAL, and plasma cotinine dropped while nonnicotine BOE and cigarettes per day increased. Higher nicotine cigarettes were rated harsher and stronger than at baseline while lower nicotine cigarettes were less strong. All 4 test cigarettes were highly disliked. These studies demonstrate that abrupt increases or decreases in nicotine and the resulting sensory changes impact BOE through changes in intensity or frequency of smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Blood lactate levels in 31 female dogs with pyometra

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    Karlstam Erika

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine pyometra is a life-threatening disease common in countries where spaying of dogs is not routinely performed. The disease is associated with endotoxemia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and a 3–4% mortality rate. Blood lactate analysis is clinically valuable in predicting prognosis and survival, evaluating tissue perfusion and treatment response in human and veterinary critical care settings. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1 the blood lactate levels of female dogs with pyometra by a hand-held analyser and 2 if these levels are related with the clinical status or other biochemical or hematological disorders. Methods In total 31 female dogs with pyometra admitted for surgical ovariohysterectomy and 16 healthy female control dogs were included in the present study. A complete physical examination including SIRS-status determination was performed. Blood samples for lactate concentrations, hematological and biochemical parameters, acid-base and blood gas analysis and other laboratory parameters were collected and subsequently analysed. The diagnosis pyometra was verified with histopathological examination of the uterus and ovaries. Increased hospitalisation length and presence of SIRS were used as indicators of outcome. Results In the pyometra group the median blood lactate level was 1,6 mmol l-1 (range -1. In the control group the median lactate level was 1,2 mmol l-1 (range -1. Of the 31 bitches 19 (61% fulfilled 2 or more criteria for SIRS at inclusion, 10 bitches (32% fulfilled 3 of the SIRS criteria whereas none accomplished more than 3 criteria. Lactate levels did not differ significantly between the pyometra and control group, or between the SIRS positive and SIRS negative dogs with pyometra. Increased lactate concentration (>2.5 mmol l-1 was demonstrated in one female dog with pyometra (3%, and was not associated with longer hospitalisation or presence of SIRS. Lactate

  17. Napsin A levels in epithelial lining fluid as a diagnostic biomarker of primary lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Akifumi; Samukawa, Takuya; Kumamoto, Tomohiro; Ohshige, Masahiro; Hatanaka, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Mizuno, Keiko; Higashimoto, Ikkou; Sato, Masami; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2017-12-12

    It is crucial to develop novel diagnostic approaches for determining if peripheral lung nodules are malignant, as such nodules are frequently detected due to the increased use of chest computed tomography scans. To this end, we evaluated levels of napsin A in epithelial lining fluid (ELF), since napsin A has been reported to be an immunohistochemical biomarker for histological diagnosis of primary lung adenocarcinoma. In consecutive patients with indeterminate peripheral lung nodules, ELF samples were obtained using a bronchoscopic microsampling (BMS) technique. The levels of napsin A and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in ELF at the nodule site were compared with those at the contralateral site. A final diagnosis of primary lung adenocarcinoma was established by surgical resection. We performed BMS in 43 consecutive patients. Among patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma, the napsin A levels in ELF at the nodule site were markedly higher than those at the contralateral site, while there were no significant differences in CEA levels. Furthermore, in 18 patients who were undiagnosed by bronchoscopy and finally diagnosed by surgery, the napsin A levels in ELF at the nodule site were identically significantly higher than those at the contralateral site. In patients with non-adenocarcinoma, there were no differences in napsin A levels in ELF. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for identifying primary lung adenocarcinoma was 0.840 for napsin A and 0.542 for CEA. Evaluation of napsin A levels in ELF may be useful for distinguishing primary lung adenocarcinoma.

  18. Alpha-synuclein levels in blood plasma decline with healthy aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas K U Koehler

    Full Text Available There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (p<0.0001, possibly reflecting a decrease of alpha-synuclein-antibody complexes or chaperone activity in older individuals. Our results support the concept that alpha-synuclein homeostasis may be impaired early on, possibly due to disturbance of the proteostasis network, a key component of healthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens.

  19. Pain in the Blood? Envisioning Mechanism-Based Diagnoses and Biomarkers in Clinical Pain Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Bäckryd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is highly prevalent, and pain medicine lacks objective biomarkers to guide diagnosis and choice of treatment. The current U.S. “opioid epidemic” is a reminder of the paucity of effective and safe treatment options. Traditional pain diagnoses according to the International Classification of Diseases are often unspecific, and analgesics are often prescribed on a trial-and-error basis. In contrast to this current state of affairs, the vision of future mechanism-based diagnoses of chronic pain conditions is presented in this non-technical paper, focusing on the need for biomarkers and the theoretical complexity of the task. Pain is and will remain a subjective experience, and as such is not objectively measurable. Therefore, the concept of “noci-marker” is presented as an alternative to “pain biomarker”, the goal being to find objective, measurable correlates of the pathophysiological processes involved in different chronic pain conditions. This vision entails a call for more translational pain research in order to bridge the gap between clinical pain medicine and preclinical science.

  20. Admission biomarkers of trauma-induced secondary cardiac injury predict adverse cardiac events and are associated with plasma catecholamine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganathar, Sriveena; De'Ath, Henry D; Wall, Johanna; Brohi, Karim

    2015-07-01

    Secondary cardiac injury and dysfunction may be important contributors to poor outcomes in trauma patients, but the pathophysiology and clinical impact remain unclear. Early elevations in cardiac injury markers have been associated with the development of adverse cardiac events (ACEs), prolonged intensive care unit stays, and increased mortality. Studies of preinjury β-blocker use suggest a potential protective effect in critically ill trauma patients. This study aimed to prospectively examine the association of early biomarker evidence of trauma-induced secondary cardiac injury (TISCI) and ACEs and to examine the potential contribution of circulating catecholamines to its pathophysiology. Injured patients who met the study criteria were recruited at a single major trauma center. A blood sample was collected immediately on arrival. Serum epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), and cardiac biomarkers including heart-related fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) were assayed. Data were prospectively collected on ACEs. Of 300 patients recruited, 38 (13%) developed an ACE and had increased mortality (19% vs. 9%, p = 0.01) and longer intensive care unit stays (13 days, p < 0.001). H-FABP was elevated on admission in 56% of the patients, predicted the development of ACE, and was associated with higher mortality (14% vs. 5%, p = 0.01). Admission E and NE levels were strongly associated with elevations in H-FABP and ACEs (E, 274.0 pg/mL vs. 622.5 pg/mL, p < 0.001; NE, 1,063.2 pg/mL vs. 2,032.6 pg/mL, p < 0.001). Catecholamine effect on the development of TISCI or ACEs was not statistically independent of injury severity or depth of shock. Admission levels of H-FABP predict the development of ACEs and may be useful for prognosis and stratification of trauma patients. The development of TISCI and ACEs was associated with high admission levels of catecholamines, but their role in pathogenesis remains unclear. Clinical trials of adrenergic blockade may have the potential to

  1. Fluctuation of zonulin levels in blood vs stability of antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, Aristo; Vojdani, Elroy; Kharrazian, Datis

    2017-08-21

    To evaluate the measurement of zonulin level and antibodies of zonulin and other tight junction proteins in the blood of controls and celiac disease patients. This study was conducted to assess the variability or stability of zonulin levels vs IgA and IgG antibodies against zonulin in blood samples from 18 controls at 0, 6, 24 and 30 h after blood draw. We also measured zonulin level as well as zonulin, occludin, vinculin, aquaporin 4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein antibodies in the sera of 30 patients with celiac disease and 30 controls using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methodology. The serum zonulin level in 6 out of 18 subjects was low or zonulin levels of > 2.8 ng/mL and showed significant fluctuation from sample to sample. Comparatively, zonulin antibody measured in all samples was highly stable and reproducible from sample to sample. Celiac disease patients showed zonulin levels with a mean of 8.5 ng/mL compared to 3.7 ng/mL in controls ( P zonulin level at 2SD above the mean was demonstrated in 37% of celiac disease patients, while antibodies against zonulin, occludin and other tight junction proteins was detected in up to 86% of patients with celiac disease. Due to its fluctuation, a single measurement of zonulin level is not recommended for assessment of intestinal barrier integrity. Measurement of IgG and IgA antibodies against zonulin, occludin, and other tight junction proteins is proposed for the evaluation of the loss of intestinal barrier integrity.

  2. Association of curry consumption with blood lipids and glucose levels

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Youngjoo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Curcumin, an active ingredient in turmeric, is highly consumed in South Asia. However, curry that contains turmeric as its main spice might be the major source of curcumin in most other countries. Although curcumin consumption is not as high in these countries as South Asia, the regular consumption of curcumin may provide a significant health-beneficial effect. This study evaluated whether the moderate consumption of curry can affect blood glucose and lipid levels that b...

  3. Umbilical cord blood glucose levels in full-term newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Karpova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation was to determine the umbilical cord venous blood level of glucose in full-term newborns and its relationship to the mode of delivery. The investigation included 102 full-term newborn infants, including 33 and 69 babies born via cesar-ean and vaginal delivery, respectively. Umbilical cord serum glucose levels were determined by the glucose oxidase test using a Sap-phire-400 biochemical analyzer. In healthy full-term newborns, the mean umbilical cord blood glucose levels were 4,29±0,88 mmol/1 (minimum, 2,9 mmol/1 and maximum, 5,9 mmol/1. In the babies born via cesarean delivery, the umbilical cord blood concentration of glucose was ascertained to be significantly lower than in those born vaginally (3,84+0,71 mmol/1 versus 4,51+0,87 mmol/1; /><0,0001. Abdominal delivery can be apparently considered to be a risk factor for hypoglycemia in neonatal infants.

  4. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Reduces Blood Lead Level in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: “super lecithin” (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  5. A peripheral blood transcriptome biomarker test to diagnose functional recovery potential in advanced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mario C

    2018-05-08

    Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome that causes systemic hypoperfusion and failure to meet the body's metabolic demands. In an attempt to compensate, chronic upregulation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone leads to further myocardial injury, HF progression and reduced O 2 delivery. This triggers progressive organ dysfunction, immune system activation and profound metabolic derangements, creating a milieu similar to other chronic systemic diseases and presenting as advanced HF with severely limited prognosis. We hypothesize that 1-year survival in advanced HF is linked to functional recovery potential (FRP), a novel clinical composite parameter that includes HF severity, secondary organ dysfunction, co-morbidities, frailty, disabilities as well as chronological age and that can be diagnosed by a molecular biomarker.

  6. Serum levels of adiponectin and leptin as biomarkers of proteinuria in lupus nephritis.

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    Valeria Diaz-Rizo

    Full Text Available There are controversial results about the role of serum leptin and adiponectin levels as biomarkers of the severity of proteinuria in lupus nephritis.The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum leptin and adiponectin levels with severity of proteinuria secondary to lupus nephritis (LN.In a cross-sectional study, 103 women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE were evaluated for kidney involvement. We compared 30 SLE patients with LN, all of them with proteinuria, versus 73 SLE patients without renal involvement (no LN. A comprehensive set of clinical and laboratory variables was assessed, including serum levels of leptin and adiponectin by ELISA. Multivariate analyses were used to adjust for potential confounders associated with proteinuria in LN.We found higher adiponectin levels in the LN group compared with the no LN group (20.4 ± 10.3 vs 15.6 ± 7.8 μg/mL; p = 0.02, whereas no differences were observed in leptin levels (33.3 ± 31.4 vs 22.5 ± 25.5 ng/mL; p = 0.07. Severity of proteinuria correlated with an increase in adiponectin levels (r = 0.31; p = 0.001, but no correlation was observed with leptin. Adiponectin levels were not related to anti-dsDNA or anti-nucleosome antibodies. In the logistic regression, adiponectin levels were associated with a high risk of proteinuria in SLE (OR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.12; p = 0.02. Instead, leptin was not associated with LN.These findings indicate that adiponectin levels are useful markers associated with proteinuria in LN. Further longitudinal studies are required to identify if these levels are predictive of renal relapse.

  7. Glutathione enzyme and selenoprotein polymorphisms associate with mercury biomarker levels in Michigan dental professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Wang, Yi [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Gillespie, Brenda [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Werner, Robert [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Michigan, 325 E. Eisenhower Parkway Suite 100, Ann Arbor, MI 48108 (United States); Franzblau, Alfred [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Basu, Niladri, E-mail: niladri@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Mercury is a potent toxicant of concern to both the general public and occupationally exposed workers (e.g., dentists). Recent studies suggest that several genes mediating the toxicokinetics of mercury are polymorphic in humans and may influence inter-individual variability in mercury accumulation. This work hypothesizes that polymorphisms in key glutathione synthesizing enzyme, glutathione s-transferase, and selenoprotein genes underlie inter-individual differences in mercury body burden as assessed by analytical mercury measurement in urine and hair, biomarkers of elemental mercury and methylmercury, respectively. Urine and hair samples were collected from a population of dental professionals (n = 515), and total mercury content was measured. Average urine (1.06 {+-} 1.24 ug/L) and hair mercury levels (0.49 {+-} 0.63 ug/g) were similar to national U.S. population averages. Taqman assays were used to genotype DNA from buccal swab samples at 15 polymorphic sites in genes implicated in mercury metabolism. Linear regression modeling assessed the ability of polymorphisms to modify the relationship between mercury biomarker levels and exposure sources (e.g., amalgams, fish consumption). Five polymorphisms were significantly associated with urine mercury levels (GSTT1 deletion), hair mercury levels (GSTP1-105, GSTP1-114, GSS 5 Prime ), or both (SEPP1 3 Prime UTR). Overall, this study suggests that polymorphisms in selenoproteins and glutathione-related genes may influence elimination of mercury in the urine and hair or mercury retention following exposures to elemental mercury (via dental amalgams) and methylmercury (via fish consumption). -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explore the influence of 15 polymorphisms on urine and hair Hg levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urine and hair Hg levels in dental professionals were similar to the US population. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GSTT1 and SEPP1 polymorphisms associated with urine Hg levels. Black

  8. Glutathione enzyme and selenoprotein polymorphisms associate with mercury biomarker levels in Michigan dental professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Wang, Yi; Gillespie, Brenda; Werner, Robert; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2011-01-01

    Mercury is a potent toxicant of concern to both the general public and occupationally exposed workers (e.g., dentists). Recent studies suggest that several genes mediating the toxicokinetics of mercury are polymorphic in humans and may influence inter-individual variability in mercury accumulation. This work hypothesizes that polymorphisms in key glutathione synthesizing enzyme, glutathione s-transferase, and selenoprotein genes underlie inter-individual differences in mercury body burden as assessed by analytical mercury measurement in urine and hair, biomarkers of elemental mercury and methylmercury, respectively. Urine and hair samples were collected from a population of dental professionals (n = 515), and total mercury content was measured. Average urine (1.06 ± 1.24 ug/L) and hair mercury levels (0.49 ± 0.63 ug/g) were similar to national U.S. population averages. Taqman assays were used to genotype DNA from buccal swab samples at 15 polymorphic sites in genes implicated in mercury metabolism. Linear regression modeling assessed the ability of polymorphisms to modify the relationship between mercury biomarker levels and exposure sources (e.g., amalgams, fish consumption). Five polymorphisms were significantly associated with urine mercury levels (GSTT1 deletion), hair mercury levels (GSTP1-105, GSTP1-114, GSS 5′), or both (SEPP1 3′UTR). Overall, this study suggests that polymorphisms in selenoproteins and glutathione-related genes may influence elimination of mercury in the urine and hair or mercury retention following exposures to elemental mercury (via dental amalgams) and methylmercury (via fish consumption). -- Highlights: ► We explore the influence of 15 polymorphisms on urine and hair Hg levels. ► Urine and hair Hg levels in dental professionals were similar to the US population. ► GSTT1 and SEPP1 polymorphisms associated with urine Hg levels. ► Accumulation of Hg in hair following exposure from fish was modified by genotype. ► GSTP1, GSS

  9. Blood cells transcriptomics as source of potential biomarkers of articular health improvement: effects of oral intake of a rooster combs extract rich in hyaluronic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez, J.; Bonet, M.L.; Keijer, J.; Schothorst, van E.M.; Moller, I.; Chetrit, C.; Martinez-Puig, D.; Palou, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore peripheral blood gene expression as a source of biomarkers of joint health improvement related to glycosaminoglycan (GAG) intake in humans. Healthy individuals with joint discomfort were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study

  10. Correlation of salivary glucose level with blood glucose level in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shreya; Nayak, Meghanand T; Sunitha, J D; Dawar, Geetanshu; Sinha, Nidhi; Rallan, Neelakshi Singh

    2017-01-01

    Saliva is a unique fluid, which is important for normal functioning of the oral cavity. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of absolute or relative insulin deficiency characterized by insufficient secretion of insulin by pancreatic beta-cells. The diagnosis of diabetes through blood is difficult in children, older adults, debilitated and chronically ill patients, so diagnosis by analysis of saliva can be potentially valuable as collection of saliva is noninvasive, easier and technically insensitive, unlike blood. The aim of the study was to correlate blood glucose level (BGL) and salivary glucose level (SGL) in DM patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 120 patients, who were categorized as 40 controlled diabetics, 40 uncontrolled diabetics and 40 healthy, age- and sex-matched individuals constituted the controls. The blood and unstimulated saliva samples were collected from the patients at the different intervals for fasting, random and postprandial levels. These samples were then subjected for analysis of glucose in blood and saliva using glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent in HITACHI 902 (R) Automatic analyzer, and the results were recorded. The mean SGLs were higher in uncontrolled and controlled diabetic groups than in nondiabetic group. A highly statistically significant correlation was found between fasting saliva glucose and fasting blood glucose in all the groups. With increase in BGL, increase in SGL was observed in patients with diabetes suggesting that SGL can be used for monitoring glycemic level in DM.

  11. Association between blood glucose level derived using the oral glucose tolerance test and glycated hemoglobin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung Joo; Kim, Young Geon; Park, Jin Soo; Ahn, Young Hwan; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Dae Jung

    2016-05-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is widely used as a marker of glycemic control. Translation of the HbA1c level to an average blood glucose level is useful because the latter figure is easily understood by patients. We studied the association between blood glucose levels revealed by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c levels in a Korean population. A total of 1,000 subjects aged 30 to 64 years from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center cohort were included. Fasting glucose levels, post-load glucose levels at 30, 60, and 120 minutes into the OGTT, and HbA1c levels were measured. Linear regression of HbA1c with mean blood glucose levels derived using the OGTT revealed a significant correlation between these measures (predicted mean glucose [mg/dL] = 49.4 × HbA1c [%] - 149.6; R (2) = 0.54, p Glucose (ADAG) study and Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) cohort. Discrepancies between our results and those of the ADAG study and DCCT cohort may be attributable to differences in the test methods used and the extent of insulin secretion. More studies are needed to evaluate the association between HbA1c and self monitoring blood glucose levels.

  12. Blood Triglycerides Levels and Dietary Carbohydrate Indices in Healthy Koreans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sook Min

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Previous studies have obtained conflicting findings regarding possible associations between indices measuring carbohydrate intake and dyslipidemia, which is an established risk factor of coronary heart disease. In the present study, we examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate indices, including the dietary glycemic index (GI, glycemic load (GL, total amount of carbohydrates, and the percentage of energy from carbohydrates, and a range of blood lipid parameters. Methods: This study included 1530 participants (554 men and 976 women from 246 families within the Healthy Twin Study. We analyzed the associations using a generalized linear mixed model to control for familial relationships. Results: Levels of the Apo B were inversely associated with dietary GI, GL, and the amount of carbohydrate intake for men, but these relationships were not significant when fat-adjusted values of the carbohydrate indices were used. Triglyceride levels were positively associated with dietary GI and GL in women, and this pattern was more notable in overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2. However, total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly related with carbohydrate intake overall. Conclusions: Of the blood lipid parameters we investigated, only triglyceride levels were positively related with dietary carbohydrate indices among women participants in the Healthy Twin Study, with an interactive role observed for BMI. However, these associations were not observed in men, suggesting that the association between blood lipid levels and carbohydrate intake depends on the type of lipid, specific carbohydrate indices, gender, and BMI.

  13. Potential use of glycogen level as biomarker of chemical stress in Biomphalaria glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansaldo, Martin; Nahabedian, Daniel E.; Holmes-Brown, Eduardo; Agote, Marcos; Ansay, Cristina V.; Guerrero, Noemi R. Verrengia; Wider, Eva A.

    2006-01-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata, a freshwater gastropod mollusc, was tested as biondicator organism to assess cadmium, lead and arsenic exposure using acute laboratory bioassays. Modifications of glycogen levels were measured in different anatomical regions of B. glabrata in order to test the usefulness of this parameter as a general biomarker of chemical stress. The snails were exposed 96 h to different concentrations of the following contaminants: 0.1 and 0.05 mg Cd/L; 0.5, 0.1 and 0.05 mg Pb/L; 0.5, 0.1 and 0.05 mg As/L. Significant decreases in the polysaccharide content were observed in gonadal region for all treated animals. Arsenic and lead at 0.1 and 0.5 mg/L level of exposure were also able to decrease the levels of glycogen in the pulmonary and digestive gland region. Glycogen content in the cephalopedal region of treated animals presented a significant decrease (p < 0.05) when compared with control organisms only for arsenic at the highest level of exposure. To establish possible correlations between glycogen and contaminants accumulated by snails, analyses of the elements bioaccumulated in the different anatomical regions of B. glabrata were also performed. Cadmium and lead followed a similar pattern of bioaccumulation with highest values in the digestive gland region. Arsenic bioaccumulation, however, was highest in the gonadal region

  14. Determining Childhood Blood Lead Level Screening Compliance Among Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haboush-Deloye, Amanda; Marquez, Erika R; Gerstenberger, Shawn L

    2017-08-01

    Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Programs throughout the U.S. have addressed childhood lead poisoning by implementing primary and secondary prevention efforts. While many programs have helped increase screening rates, in some states children under the age of six still have not been tested for lead. This study aims to identify the barriers to childhood blood lead testing and develop a strategy to increase the number of children tested. Clark County physicians who work with children six and under were surveyed about blood lead level (BLL) testing practices, particularly, adherence to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines, and parental compliance with orders to have their children tested to determine their blood lead levels. In addition, select in-person interviews were conducted with physicians who reported high parental compliance to identify best practices and barriers. Of the 77 physicians that provided data, 48% indicated they did not follow CDC guideline compared to 52% who follow guidelines. 18 of the 30 (or 60%) physicians reported more than 80% of parents complied with doctor recommended BLL testing. Twelve physicians identified cost, lack of insurance, and absence of symptomology as persistent barriers to lead screening. This study identified barriers to childhood lead screening including inadequate parental adherence to physician-ordered screenings and physician non-compliance with screening recommendations are two primary contributors. Addressing these issues could increase screening in children and reduce the risk of lead poisoning.

  15. Assessment of serum level cholinesterase as a biomarker of liver cirrhosis in Egyptian cirrhotic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. Amin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum cholinesterase levels are closely correlated with the severity of liver disease. The aim of the paper was to assess the value of serum cholinesterase in evaluating liver reserve function in cirrhotic patients. 90 patients with liver cirrhosis and thirty healthy control group were included. Liver cirrhosis patients were classified according to child score into three equal groups: Child A liver cirrhosis, Child B liver cirrhosis and Child C liver cirrhosis. Patients were subjected to clinical evaluation, laboratory analysis, abdominal U/S. Measuring serum cholinesterase, and Calculation of both Child and model of end stage liver disease (MELD scores. The level of serum cholinesterase was higher in control group than the three groups of liver cirrhosis with median (IQR 17,410 (12,111-21,774, 7528 (5200-9856, 6021 (4500-7542, 3828.5 (1541-6060, respectively P<0.001. And the level of serum cholinesterase was higher in Child A more than Child B and Child C and the level of serum cholinesterase was higher in Child B more than Child C with very strong negative correlation between serum Cholinesterase level and Child score (r=-0.9, P<0.001. Also strong negative correlation between serum Cholinesterase level and MELD score (r=- 0.85, P=0.001, and positive correlation with prothrombin concentration (r=0.554, P=0.009, and serum albumin levels (r=0.582, P=0.0002. Serum cholinesterase is a good biomarker of cirrhosis. Since it distinguishes decompensated from compensated cirrhosis well, low levels in cirrhosis may serve as a useful prognostic marker of advanced liver disease.

  16. Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Hemant K; Gomes, Andrew; Turzhitsky, Vladimir; Goldberg, Michael J; Rogers, Jeremy; Ruderman, Sarah; Young, Kim L; Kromine, Alex; Brand, Randall E; Jameel, Mohammed; Vakil, Parmede; Hasabou, Nahla; Backman, Vadim

    2008-10-01

    We previously used a novel biomedical optics technology, 4-dimensional elastically scattered light fingerprinting, to show that in experimental colon carcinogenesis the predysplastic epithelial microvascular blood content is increased markedly. To assess the potential clinical translatability of this putative field effect marker, we characterized the early increase in blood supply (EIBS) in human beings in vivo. We developed a novel, endoscopically compatible, polarization-gated, spectroscopic probe that was capable of measuring oxygenated and deoxygenated (Dhb) hemoglobin specifically in the mucosal microcirculation through polarization gating. Microvascular blood content was measured in 222 patients from the endoscopically normal cecum, midtransverse colon, and rectum. If a polyp was present, readings were taken from the polyp tissue along with the normal mucosa 10-cm and 30-cm proximal and distal to the lesion. Tissue phantom studies showed that the probe had outstanding accuracy for hemoglobin determination (r(2) = 0.99). Augmentation of microvasculature blood content was most pronounced within the most superficial ( approximately 100 microm) layer and dissipated in deeper layers (ie, submucosa). EIBS was detectable within 30 cm from the lesion and the magnitude mirrored adenoma proximity. This occurred for both oxygenated hemoglobin and DHb, with the effect size being slightly greater for DHb. EIBS correlated with adenoma size and was not engendered by nonneoplastic (hyperplastic) polyps. We show, herein, that in vivo microvascular blood content can be measured and provides an accurate marker of field carcinogenesis. This technological/biological advance has numerous potential applications in colorectal cancer screening such as improved polyp detection and risk stratification.

  17. Radioimmunoassay of atrial peptide blood and tissue levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michener, M.L.; Schwartz, D.; Currie, M.G.; Geller, D.M.; Needleman, P.

    1987-01-01

    AP has now been established as an important hormone for the regulation of vascular fluid volume and blood pressure. AP release in response to atrial stretchy provides an ideal means of responding to changes in vascular volume. This response is composed of actions on the kidneys and vascular smooth muscle, and an integrated endocrine response through the inhibition of aldosterone and vasopressin secretion. The detection of AP in the cardiovascular control centers of the brain by both RIA and immunohistochemical staining suggests that AP may also play a role in the central regulation of cardiovascular system. The development of RIAs for AP make it possible to measure stored and secreted AP and to begin to understand how changes in AP levels relate to physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions such as high blood pressure and congestive heart failure

  18. Rosiglitazone Reduces Plasma Levels of Inflammatory and Hemostatic Biomarkers and Improves Global Endothelial Function in Habitual Heavy Smokers Without Diabetes Mellitus or Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chih Chen

    2010-02-01

    Conclusion: Rosiglitazone significantly reduces plasma levels of inflammatory and hemostatic biomarkers, and restores global endothelial dysfunction, independently from insulin sensitization, in healthy smokers.

  19. Biomarker responses and contamination levels in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum for biomonitoring the Lagoon of Venice (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matozzo, Valerio; Binelli, Andrea; Parolini, Marco; Locatello, Lisa; Marin, Maria Gabriella

    2010-03-01

    A multibiomarker approach was used to assess effects of environmental contaminants in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum from the Lagoon of Venice. Bivalves were collected in 8 sites of the Lagoon (Campalto, Marghera, Palude del Monte, Valle di Brenta, Cà Roman, San Servolo, Fusina and Canale Dese), differently influenced by both anthropogenic impact and natural conditions. The following biomarkers were chosen: total haemocyte count and lysozyme activity in cell-free haemolymph as immunomarkers, acetylcholinesterase activity in gills as a biomarker of exposure to neurotoxic compounds, vitellogenin-like protein levels in both digestive gland and cell-free haemolymph as a biomarker of exposure to estrogenic compounds, and survival-in-air widely used to evaluate general stress conditions in clams. In addition, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) and its breakdown products (DDE, DDD), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) were measured in clams. Results demonstrated that the integrated approach between biomarkers and chemical analyses in R. philippinarum is a useful tool in biomonitoring the Lagoon of Venice. The biomarker responses suggested quite similar contamination levels in the entire Lagoon, although the relative impact of differing classes of pollutants changed among sites according to potential sources, as chemical analyses demonstrated. Overall, among the sampling sites investigated, Palude del Monte can represent an environmental risk area, bearing in mind its peculiar use for clam culture.

  20. Identifying blood biomarkers and physiological processes that distinguish humans with superior performance under psychological stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Cooksey

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Attrition of students from aviation training is a serious financial and operational concern for the U.S. Navy. Each late stage navy aviator training failure costs the taxpayer over $1,000,000 and ultimately results in decreased operational readiness of the fleet. Currently, potential aviators are selected based on the Aviation Selection Test Battery (ASTB, which is a series of multiple-choice tests that evaluate basic and aviation-related knowledge and ability. However, the ASTB does not evaluate a person's response to stress. This is important because operating sophisticated aircraft demands exceptional performance and causes high psychological stress. Some people are more resistant to this type of stress, and consequently better able to cope with the demands of naval aviation, than others.Although many psychological studies have examined psychological stress resistance none have taken advantage of the human genome sequence. Here we use high-throughput -omic biology methods and a novel statistical data normalization method to identify plasma proteins associated with human performance under psychological stress. We identified proteins involved in four basic physiological processes: innate immunity, cardiac function, coagulation and plasma lipid physiology.The proteins identified here further elucidate the physiological response to psychological stress and suggest a hypothesis that stress-susceptible pilots may be more prone to shock. This work also provides potential biomarkers for screening humans for capability of superior performance under stress.

  1. Biomarkers for Monitoring Pre-Analytical Quality Variation of mRNA in Blood Samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, H.; Korenková, Vlasta; Sjoback, R.; Švec, David; Bjorkman, J.; Kruhoffer, M.; Verderio, P.; Pizzamiglio, S.; Ciniselli, Ch.M.; Wyrich, R.; Oelmueller, U.; Kubista, Mikael; Lindahl, T.; Lonneborg, A.; Rian, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 11/e111644 (2014) E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : GENE-EXPRESSION PROFILES * HUMAN WHOLE-BLOOD * TIME RT-PCR Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  2. High plasma corticosterone levels persist during frequent automatic blood sampling in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Adem, Bashir; Royo, Felix

    2005-01-01

    Corticosterone levels in blood may be used as a marker of stress in rodents, provided that the blood sampling procedure itself is non-stressful. Automated blood sampling equipment (Accusampler) allows blood sampling without any interference with the animal and might be useful as a tool for an on......-line measurement of stress markers in blood. However, the impact of the blood sampling itself on the corticosterone levels in blood is unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate whether the frequency of blood sampling influences the plasma corticosterone levels in male and female rats. During anaesthesia...... the importance of considering the frequency of blood withdrawal during automated blood sampling. This parameter may have an impact on the experimental results when using blood corticosterone levels as a stress marker, but also during any in vivo study where blood is collected, since high corticosterone levels...

  3. A model for mild traumatic brain injury that induces limited transient memory impairment and increased levels of axon related serum biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham eRostami

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI is one of the most common neuronal insults and can lead to long-term disabilities. mTBI occurs when the head is exposed to a rapid acceleration-deceleration movement triggering axonal injuries. Our limited understanding of the underlying pathological changes makes it difficult to predict the outcome of mTBI. In this study we used a scalable rat model for rotational acceleration TBI, previously characterized for the threshold of axonal pathology. We have analyzed whether a TBI just above the defined threshold would induce any detectable behavioral changes and/or changes in serum biomarkers. The effect of injury on sensory motor functions, memory and anxiety were assessed by beam walking, radial arms maze and elevated plus maze at 3 to 7 days following TBI. The only behavioral deficits found were transient impairments in working and reference memory. Blood serum was analyzed at 1, 3 and 14 days after injury for changes in selected protein biomarkers. Serum levels of neurofilament heavy chain (NF-H and Tau, as well as S100B and myelin basic protein (MBP showed significant increases in the injured animals at all time points. No signs of macroscopic injuries such as intracerebral hematomas or contusions were found. Amyloid precursor protein (APP immunostaining indicated axonal injuries at all time points analyzed. In summary, this model mimics some of the key symptoms of mTBI, such as transient memory impairment, which is paralleled by an increase in serum biomarkers. Our findings suggest that serum biomarkers may be used to detect mTBI. The model provides a suitable foundation for further investigation of the underlying pathology of mTBI.

  4. Effects of metals on blood oxidative stress biomarkers and acetylcholinesterase activity in dice snakes (Natrix tessellata from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrić Jelena P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of waterborne metals in water on the activities of blood copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE, and on the concentrations of total glutathione (GSH and lipid peroxides (TBARS in the blood of dice snakes (Natrix tessellata caught in Obedska Bara, Sebia (control area, with snakes caught in Pančevački Rit, a contaminated area in Serbia were examined. The activities of CAT, GSH-Px, GR and AChE, and the concentration of TBARS were significantly decreased, while GST activity and GSH concentration were significantly increased in snakes from the contaminated area compared to specimens from the control area. Significantly increased concentrations of Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mn, Na, Ni and Zn in the water at the contaminated area as compared to control area were detected. The metals Ag, Bi, Cd, Co, Hg, In and Tl were not observed in any of the localities. Cr, Mo and Pb were not detected at the control area but were observed at the contaminated area. The concentrations of Sr were similar at both sites. The concentration of Mg was 2-fold higher at the control site than at the contaminated area. The obtained results show that most of the investigated blood biomarkers correlate with concentrations of metals present in the environment. These findings suggest that dice snakes are sensitive bioindicator species for monitoring the effects of increased metal concentrations in the environment. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173041 i br. 173043

  5. Self-Powered Implantable Skin-Like Glucometer for Real-Time Detection of Blood Glucose Level In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanglinhan; Zhang, Linlin; Gao, Huiling; Yang, Wenyan; Wang, Shuai; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu

    2018-06-01

    Implantable bioelectronics for analyzing physiological biomarkers has recently been recognized as a promising technique in medical treatment or diagnostics. In this study, we developed a self-powered implantable skin-like glucometer for real-time detection of blood glucose level in vivo. Based on the piezo-enzymatic-reaction coupling effect of GOx@ZnO nanowire, the device under an applied deformation can actively output piezoelectric signal containing the glucose-detecting information. No external electricity power source or battery is needed for this device, and the outputting piezoelectric voltage acts as both the biosensing signal and electricity power. A practical application of the skin-like glucometer implanted in mouse body for detecting blood glucose level has been simply demonstrated. These results provide a new technique path for diabetes prophylaxis and treatment.

  6. Left ventricular dysfunction and blood glycohemoglobin levels in young diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydiner, A.; Oto, A.; Oram, E.; Oram, A.; Ugurlu, S.; Karamehmetoglu, A.; Aras, T.; Bekdik, C.F.; Gedik, O.

    1991-01-01

    Left ventricular function including regional wall motion (RWM) was evaluated by 99m Tc first-pass and equilibrium gated blood pool ventriculography and glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) blood levels determined by a quantitative column technique in 25 young patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus without clinical evidence of heart diesease, and in healthy controls matched for age and sex. Phase analysis revealed abnormal RWM in 19 of 21 diabetic patients. The mean left ventricular global ejection fraction, the mean regional ejection fraction and the mean 1/3 filling fraction were lower and the time to peak ejection, the time to peak filling and the time to peak ejection/cardiac cycle were longer in diabetics than in controls. We found high HbA1c levels in all diabetics. There was no significant difference between patients with and without retinopathy and with and without peripheral neuropathy in terms of left ventricular function and HbA1c levels. (orig.) [de

  7. Blood Lead Level in Children with Neurological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhoudeh, Marzieh; Inaloo, Soroor; Zahmatkeshan, Mozhgan; Seratishirazi, Zahra; Haghbin, Saeedeh

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the blood lead level (BLL) in children with neurologic disorders of unknown causes and compare with normal children. In this prospective case-control study, 68 patients aged 1 to 18 yr with neurologic disorders of unknown causes, were referred to pediatric neurology clinics and wards, Shiraz, Iran selected during a 12 months period from Sep 2013. They were compared with 1:1 ratio, age, and sex-matched healthy children. BLL was checked from all participants using 3 cc heparinized venous blood sample. Level of ≥5 mcg/dl was considered toxic dose. Totally, 136 children (68 cases and 68 controls) with mean ages of 5.20±4.12 and 4.18±3.86 yr, respectively, were enrolled. Mean BLL was higher in case group than in controls but the difference was not significant ( P =0.84), though they were less than toxic levels in both. In addition, the difference in mean BLLs was not significant in terms of living place, sex, and age. Totally, 17.7% of the study sample had BLL ≥5 mcg/dl. The frequency of BLL ≥5 mcg/dl was significantly higher in case group ( P =0.024) with an odds ratio 2.9 times higher (95% CI: 1.066-7.60). Strategies in public health must focus on practicing primary and secondary preventions of lead exposure in children.

  8. Left ventricular dysfunction and blood glycohemoglobin levels in young diabetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydiner, A.; Oto, A.; Oram, E.; Oram, A.; Ugurlu, S.; Karamehmetoglu, A. (Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Cardiology); Aras, T.; Bekdik, C.F. (Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Gedik, O. (Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Endocrinology)

    1991-10-01

    Left ventricular function including regional wall motion (RWM) was evaluated by {sup 99m}Tc first-pass and equilibrium gated blood pool ventriculography and glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) blood levels determined by a quantitative column technique in 25 young patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus without clinical evidence of heart diesease, and in healthy controls matched for age and sex. Phase analysis revealed abnormal RWM in 19 of 21 diabetic patients. The mean left ventricular global ejection fraction, the mean regional ejection fraction and the mean 1/3 filling fraction were lower and the time to peak ejection, the time to peak filling and the time to peak ejection/cardiac cycle were longer in diabetics than in controls. We found high HbA1c levels in all diabetics. There was no significant difference between patients with and without retinopathy and with and without peripheral neuropathy in terms of left ventricular function and HbA1c levels. (orig.).

  9. Correlation of Salivary Glucose Level with Blood Glucose Level in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arati S. Panchbhai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is alarming rise in number of people with diabetes mellitus over these years. If glucose in saliva is linked to glucose in blood it can be used to detect diabetes mellitus at an early stage. The present study is undertaken with the aim to assess the correlation of salivary glucose level with blood glucose level in people with diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods: For investigations, 2 sets of samples of people with diabetes and the age and sex matched non-diabetic subjects were recruited. The salivary glucose was analyzed in unstimulated whole saliva samples using glucose oxidase method. Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was applied to assess the correlation between salivary glucose level and blood glucose level. Results: The significant (P < 0.05 positive correlation of salivary glucose level and fasting blood glucose level was observed in people with uncontrolled diabetes in both the sets of samples.Conclusions: Although study suggests some potential for saliva as a marker in monitoring of diabetes mellitus, there are many aspects that need clarification before we reach to a conclusion.

  10. Quantile Regression Analysis of the Distributional Effects of Air Pollution on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate Variability, Blood Lipids, and Biomarkers of Inflammation in Elderly American Men: The Normative Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bind, Marie-Abele; Peters, Annette; Koutrakis, Petros; Coull, Brent; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have observed associations between air pollution and heart disease. Susceptibility to air pollution effects has been examined mostly with a test of effect modification, but little evidence is available whether air pollution distorts cardiovascular risk factor distribution. This paper aims to examine distributional and heterogeneous effects of air pollution on known cardiovascular biomarkers. A total of 1,112 men from the Normative Aging Study and residents of the greater Boston, Massachusetts, area with mean age of 69 years at baseline were included in this study during the period 1995-2013. We used quantile regression and random slope models to investigate distributional effects and heterogeneity in the traffic-related responses on blood pressure, heart rate variability, repolarization, lipids, and inflammation. We considered 28-day averaged exposure to particle number, PM2.5 black carbon, and PM2.5 mass concentrations (measured at a single monitor near the site of the study visits). We observed some evidence suggesting distributional effects of traffic-related pollutants on systolic blood pressure, heart rate variability, corrected QT interval, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). For example, among participants with LDL cholesterol below 80 mg/dL, an interquartile range increase in PM2.5 black carbon exposure was associated with a 7-mg/dL (95% CI: 5, 10) increase in LDL cholesterol, while among subjects with LDL cholesterol levels close to 160 mg/dL, the same exposure was related to a 16-mg/dL (95% CI: 13, 20) increase in LDL cholesterol. We observed similar heterogeneous associations across low versus high percentiles of the LDL distribution for PM2.5 mass and particle number. These results suggest that air pollution distorts the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors, and that, for several outcomes, effects may be greatest among individuals who are already at high risk

  11. MicroRNA-126:a promising novel biomarker in peripheral blood for diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Li; Qin; Mei-Xia; An; Yan-Li; Liu; Han-Chun; Xu; Zhi-Qing; Lu

    2017-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the content of serum micro RNA-126(mi R-126) and its role in screening retinal endothelial injury and early diagnosis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy.METHODS:The study included 184 serum samples,59 samples from healthy individuals,44 samples from diabetes mellitus(DM) patients without diabetic retinopathy(NDR),42 from non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy(NPDR) patients and 39 samples from proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR) patients.The expression of mi R-126 was evaluated using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.RESULTS:The serum content of mi R-126 declined as the damage degree in the retina.There was significant difference between the two retinopathy groups(P0.05).Receiver operating characteristic curve(ROC) analyses indicated that serum mi R-126 had significant diagnostic value for PDR.It yielded an area under the curve(AUC) of ROC of 0.976 with 81.21% sensitivity and 90.34% specificity in discriminating PDR from healthy controls,and an AUC of ROC of 0.919 with 84.75% sensitivity and 94.41% specificity in discriminating NDR and NPDR from healthy controls.When the diagnostic threshold was greater than or equal to 8.43,there was an increase in the possibility of NPDR.When the content of mi R-126 was less than or equal to 5.02,the possibility of the occurrence of PDR increased.CONCLUSION:Serum mi R-126 can serve as a non-invasive biomarker for screening retinal endothelial injury and early diagnosis PDR.

  12. Correlation of Salivary Glucose Level with Blood Glucose Level in Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Arati S. Panchbhai

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives There is alarming rise in number of people with diabetes mellitus over these years. If glucose in saliva is linked to glucose in blood it can be used to detect diabetes mellitus at an early stage. The present study is undertaken with the aim to assess the correlation of salivary glucose level with blood glucose level in people with diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods For investigations, 2 sets of samples of people with diabetes and the age and sex matched non-diabetic ...

  13. Increased levels of the oxidative stress biomarker 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α in wastewater associated with tobacco use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Bade, Richard

    2016-01-01

    oxidative stress at a community level. In this work, 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) was analysed in raw 24 h-composite wastewater samples collected from 4 Norwegian and 7 other European cities in 2014 and 2015. Using the same samples, biomarkers of alcohol (ethyl sulfate) and tobacco (trans-3...

  14. Microchip-based ELISA strategy for the detection of low-level disease biomarker in serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yun; Wang Huixiang; Huang Jingyu; Yang Jie; Liu Baohong [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yang Pengyuan, E-mail: pyyang@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2009-09-14

    A simple and sensitive method has been proposed to determine a trace level of {alpha}-fetoprotein (AFP), hepatocellular carcinoma biomarker, using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfluidic chips coupled with electrochemical detection system. The PMMA microchannels have been modified with poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) containing abundant NH{sub 2} groups to covalently immobilize AFP monoclonal antibody. Afterward, the antigen AFP and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated AFP antibody can sequentially bind through antigen-antibody specific interaction. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and confocal fluorescence microscope (CFFM) were utilized to characterize the surface topography and protein immobilization after modification. Coupled with three-electrode electrochemical detection system, the immunochip can perform the detection limit of AFP down to 1 pg mL{sup -1}, and achieve a detectable linear concentration range of 1-500 pg mL{sup -1} by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The on-chip immunoassay platform can not only provide rapid and sensitive detection for target proteins but also be resistant to non-specific adsorption of proteins, which contributes to the detection of low-level protein in real sample. Finally, AFP existing in healthy human serum was detected to demonstrate the utility of the immunochip. The result shows that the proposed approach is feasible and has the potential application in clinical analysis and diagnosis.

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate level as a diagnostic biomarker for bacterial meningitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekitarian Filho, Eduardo; Horita, Sérgio Massaru; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Nigrovic, Lise E

    2014-02-27

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate is a potential biomarker for bacterial meningitis in children. To this end, we performed a single-center retrospective cohort study of children from Sao Paulo, Brazil, with CSF pleocytosis to evaluate the ability of CSF lactate to distinguish between children with bacterial and aseptic meningitis. We determined the optimum cutoff point for CSF lactate using receiver-operator curve (ROC) analysis. We identified 451 children of whom 40 (9%) had bacterial meningitis. Children with bacterial meningitis had a higher median CSF lactate level [9.6 mmol/l, interquartile range (IQR) 3.2-38.5 mmol/l bacterial meningitis vs. 2.0 mmol/l, IQR 1.2-2.8 mmol/l aseptic meningitis]. A CSF lactate cutoff point of 3.0 mmol/l had a sensitivity of 95% [95% confidence interval (CI) 83-99%), specificity of 94% (95% CI 90-96%) and negative predictive value of 99.3% (95% CI 97.7-99.9%) for bacterial meningitis. In combination with a validated meningitis clinical prediction rule, the CSF lactate level can be used to distinguish between bacterial and aseptic meningitis in children with CSF pleocytosis.

  16. Definitions and validation criteria for biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: development and testing of a quantitative hierarchical levels of evidence schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassere, Marissa N; Johnson, Kent R; Boers, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    endpoints, and leading indicators, a quantitative surrogate validation schema was developed and subsequently evaluated at a stakeholder workshop. RESULTS: The search identified several classification schema and definitions. Components of these were incorporated into a new quantitative surrogate validation...... level of evidence schema that evaluates biomarkers along 4 domains: Target, Study Design, Statistical Strength, and Penalties. Scores derived from 3 domains the Target that the marker is being substituted for, the Design of the (best) evidence, and the Statistical strength are additive. Penalties...... of the National Institutes of Health definitions of biomarker, surrogate endpoint, and clinical endpoint was useful. CONCLUSION: Further development and application of this schema provides incentives and guidance for effective biomarker and surrogate endpoint research, and more efficient drug discovery...

  17. Amylase and blood cell-count hematological radiation-injury biomarkers in a rhesus monkey radiation model-use of multiparameter and integrated biological dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, W.F. [Uniformed Services University, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)], E-mail: blakely@afrri.usuhs.mil; Ossetrova, N.I.; Manglapus, G.L.; Salter, C.A.; Levine, I.H.; Jackson, W.E.; Grace, M.B.; Prasanna, P.G.S.; Sandgren, D.J.; Ledney, G.D. [Uniformed Services University, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Effective medical management of suspected radiation exposure incidents requires the recording of dynamic medical data (clinical signs and symptoms), biological assessments of radiation exposure, and physical dosimetry in order to provide diagnostic information to the treating physician and dose assessment for personnel radiation protection records. The need to rapidly assess radiation dose in mass-casualty and population-monitoring scenarios prompted an evaluation of suitable biomarkers that can provide early diagnostic information after exposure. We investigated the utility of serum amylase and hematological blood-cell count biomarkers to provide early assessment of severe radiation exposures in a non-human primate model (i.e., rhesus macaques; n=8) exposed to whole-body radiation of {sup 60}Co-gamma rays (6.5 Gy, 40cGymin{sup -1}). Serum amylase activity was significantly elevated (12.3{+-}3.27- and 2.6{+-}0.058-fold of day zero samples) at 1 and 2-days, respectively, after radiation. Lymphocyte cell counts decreased ({<=}15% of day zero samples) 1 and 2 days after radiation exposure. Neutrophil cell counts increased at day one by 1.9({+-}0.38)-fold compared with levels before irradiation. The ratios of neutrophil to lymphocyte cell counts increased by 13({+-}2.66)- and 4.23({+-}0.95)-fold at 1 and 2 days, respectively, after irradiation. These results demonstrate that increases in serum amylase activity along with decreases of lymphocyte counts, increases in neutrophil cell counts, and increases in the ratio of neutrophil to lymphocyte counts 1 day after irradiation can provide enhanced early triage discrimination of individuals with severe radiation exposure and injury. Use of the biodosimetry assessment tool (BAT) application is encouraged to permit dynamic recording of medical data in the management of a suspected radiological casualty.

  18. A pilot study to examine the correlation between cognition and blood biomarkers in a Singapore Chinese male cohort with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Amanda Goh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes is reported to be linked to poorer cognitive function. The purpose of this study is to examine (a clinical correlation between cognitive function and the biochemical perturbations in T2DM, and (b the impact of statin treatment on cognitive function in diabetic subjects. METHODS: Forty Singaporean Chinese males with diabetes and twenty Singaporean Chinese males without diabetes were recruited for this study. Twenty-two of the diabetic subjects were on statin therapy and all subjects were non-demented. This was a 2-period non-interventional case-control study in which subjects were assessed for cognitive function in period 1 and blood samples taken over 2 periods, approximately 1 week apart. Blood was collected to determine the level of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, triglycerides, glucose and insulin. Cognitive performance was measured by a neuropsychological battery covering domains of attention, language, verbal and visual memory, visuomotor speed and executive function. Z-scores were derived for each cognitive domain using the mean and standard deviations (SDs, and they were used to compare between (a diabetic and non-diabetic groups, and (b diabetic subjects with and without statin treatment. ANCOVAs with age, education, BMI, and the duration of diabetes as covariates were employed to examine differences in mean score of cognitive domains and subtests between the two groups. RESULTS: Overall cognitive function was similar among diabetics and age matched non-diabetic controls. Among diabetic statin users, HDL, LDL and total cholesterol were negatively correlated with executive function, whereas peripheral insulin levels and insulin resistance were negatively associated with attention. CONCLUSION: Diabetic statin users were likely to have poorer performance in attention and executive function. Increasing levels of the peripheral biomarkers are likely to contribute to poorer

  19. Regular Breakfast and Blood Lead Levels among Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Needleman Herbert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that fasting increases lead absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of adults. Regular meals/snacks are recommended as a nutritional intervention for lead poisoning in children, but epidemiological evidence of links between fasting and blood lead levels (B-Pb is rare. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between eating a regular breakfast and B-Pb among children using data from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study. Methods Parents completed a questionnaire regarding children's breakfast-eating habit (regular or not, demographics, and food frequency. Whole blood samples were collected from 1,344 children for the measurements of B-Pb and micronutrients (iron, copper, zinc, calcium, and magnesium. B-Pb and other measures were compared between children with and without regular breakfast. Linear regression modeling was used to evaluate the association between regular breakfast and log-transformed B-Pb. The association between regular breakfast and risk of lead poisoning (B-Pb≥10 μg/dL was examined using logistic regression modeling. Results Median B-Pb among children who ate breakfast regularly and those who did not eat breakfast regularly were 6.1 μg/dL and 7.2 μg/dL, respectively. Eating breakfast was also associated with greater zinc blood levels. Adjusting for other relevant factors, the linear regression model revealed that eating breakfast regularly was significantly associated with lower B-Pb (beta = -0.10 units of log-transformed B-Pb compared with children who did not eat breakfast regularly, p = 0.02. Conclusion The present study provides some initial human data supporting the notion that eating a regular breakfast might reduce B-Pb in young children. To our knowledge, this is the first human study exploring the association between breakfast frequency and B-Pb in young children.

  20. [Effect of amino acid solutions on the blood ammonia level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjo, K; Harihara, Y; Kawasaki, S; Umekita, N; Idezuki, Y

    1985-09-01

    We have carried out several basic experiments on artificial liver support and found that the plasma free amino acid balance was lost after treatment according to this procedure. Application of fluid therapy--Using conventional amino acid preparations available on the market--Is not adequate during and after the treatment with artificial liver. Fluid therapy using mainly special amino acid preparations should have been established; preparations, named Todai Hospital fluid (THF), are intended to correct the deranged aminogram, supply nutrition and promote the improvement in symptoms. Furthermore, experimental animals with acute hepatic insufficiency of diverse severity were prepared and basic experiments were performed which these animals to see how the efficacy of THF developed. In the basic experiments, psychoneurotic symptoms and the electroencephalogram were improved with the lowering of the blood ammonia level. Clinically, THF was not only used as a therapeutic agent after treatment by artificial liver support in patients with fulminant hepatitis, but is also served as a further indication in hepatic encephalopathy accompanying chronic liver diseases in late stages. Improvement in encephalopathy was observed immediately after the administration of THF and persisted while the aminogram pattern returned to the premedication representation. There was more improvement in patients in whom ammonemia was complicated, and the blood ammonia level was reduced markedly.

  1. Association of von Willebrand factor blood levels with exercise hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Sonja B; Adams, Murray J; Otahal, Petr; Edwards, Lindsay M; Sharman, James E

    2015-05-01

    A hypertensive response to moderate intensity exercise (HRE) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The mechanisms of an HRE are unclear, although previous studies suggest this may be due to haemostatic and/or haemodynamic factors. We investigated the relationships between an HRE with haemostatic and hemodynamic indices. Sixty-four participants (57 ± 10 years, 71 % male) with indication for exercise stress testing underwent cardiovascular assessment at rest and during moderate intensity exercise, from which 20 participants developed an HRE (defined as moderate exercise systolic BP ≥ 170 mmHg/men and ≥ 160 mmHg/women). Rest, exercise and post-exercise blood samples were analysed for haemostatic markers, including von Willebrand factor (vWf), and haemodynamic measures of brachial and central blood pressure (BP), aortic stiffness and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRi). HRE participants had higher rest vWf compared with normotensive response to exercise (NRE) participants (1,927 mU/mL, 95 % CI 1,240-2,615, vs. 1,129 mU/mL, 95 % CI 871-1,386; p = 0.016). vWf levels significantly decreased from rest to post-exercise in HRE participants (p = 0.005), whereas vWf levels significantly increased from rest to exercise in NRE participants (p = 0.030). HRE participants also had increased triglycerides, rest BP, aortic stiffness and exercise SVRi (p HRE at moderate intensity.

  2. Olfactory stimulation modulates the blood glucose level in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Tadataka; Tanaka, Susumu; Bakhshishayan, Sanam; Kogo, Mikihiko; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    In both humans and animals, chemosensory stimuli, including odors and tastes, induce a variety of physiologic and mental responses related to energy homeostasis, such as glucose kinetics. The present study examined the importance of olfactory function in glucose kinetics following ingestion behavior in a simplified experimental scenario. We applied a conventional glucose tolerance test to rats with and without olfactory function and analyzed subsequent blood glucose (BG) curves in detail. The loss of olfactory input due to experimental damage to the olfactory mucosa induced a marked decrease in the area under the BG curve. Exposure to grapefruit odor and its main component, limonene, both of which activate the sympathetic nerves, before glucose loading also greatly depressed the BG curve. Pre-loading exposure to lavender odor, a parasympathetic activator, stabilized the BG level. These results suggest that olfactory function is important for proper glucose kinetics after glucose intake and that certain fragrances could be utilized as tools for controlling BG levels.

  3. Determinants of Blood Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Blood Levels in Patients with Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nubukpo, Philippe; Ramoz, Nicolas; Girard, Murielle; Malauzat, Dominique; Gorwood, Philip

    2017-07-01

    Blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are influenced by both addiction and mood disorders, as well as somatic conditions, gender, and genetic polymorphisms, leading to widely varying results. Depressive symptoms and episodes are frequently observed in patients with alcohol use disorder, and vary widely over time, making it a challenge to determine which aspects are specifically involved in variations of serum BDNF levels in this population. We assessed 227 patients with alcohol dependence involved in a detoxification program, at baseline and after a follow-up of 6 months, for the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score, the length of alcohol dependence, and the number of past detoxification programs. The Beck Depression Inventory and information on current tobacco and alcohol use, suicidal ideation, body mass index, age, gender, and psychotropic treatments were also collected. Serum BDNF (ELISA) and 2 genetic polymorphisms of the BDNF gene (Val33Met and rs962369) were analyzed. The presence of the Met allele, 2 markers of the history of alcohol dependence (gamma glutamyl transferase and the number of past treatments in detoxification programs), and the presence of a depressive episode (but not depressive score) were significantly associated with the 2 blood levels of BDNF at baseline and after 6 months. After controlling for baseline BDNF levels, the presence of the Met allele and an ongoing depressive episode were the only variables associated with changes in BNDF levels after 6 months. Low serum BDNF levels are associated with characteristics related to alcohol consumption and mood disorders, and variants of the BDNF gene in alcohol use disorder patients. The factors that most strongly influenced changes in serum BDNF levels following treatment in an alcohol detoxification program were variants of the BDNF gene and ongoing depression. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Blood parameters as biomarkers in a Salmonella spp. disease model of weaning piglets.

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    Emili Barba-Vidal

    Full Text Available The weaning pig is used as an experimental model to assess the impact of diet on intestinal health. Blood parameters (BP are considered a useful tool in humans, but there is very scarce information of such indicators in the weaning pig. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the use of different BP as indicators in an experimental model of salmonellosis.Seventy-two 28-day-old piglets were divided into four groups in a 2x2 factorial arrangement, with animals receiving or not a probiotic combination based on B. infantis IM1® and B. lactis BPL6 (109 colony forming units (cfu/d and orally challenged or not a week later with Salmonella Typhimurium (5x108 cfu. Blood samples of one animal per pen (N = 24 were taken four days post-inoculation for the evaluation of different BP using an I-stat® System and of plasmatic concentrations of zinc, iron and copper.Results reported marginal deficiencies of zinc in piglets at weaning. Moreover, plasmatic zinc, copper and iron presented good correlations with weight gain (r 0.57, r -0.67, r 0.54 respectively; P < 0.01. Blood electrolytes (Na+, Cl- and K+ decreased (P < 0.01 only when the performance of the animals was seriously compromised and clinical symptoms were more apparent. Acid-base balance parameters such as HCO3-, TCO2 and BEecf significantly correlated with weight gain, but only in the challenged animals (r -0.54, r -0.55, and r -0.51, respectively; P < 0.05, suggesting metabolic acidosis depending on Salmonella infection. Glucose was affected by the challenge (P = 0.040, while Htc and Hgb increased with the challenge and decreased with the probiotic (P < 0.05. Furthermore, correlations of Glu, Htc and Hgb with weight gain were observed (P < 0.05. Overall, BP could be regarded as simple, useful indexes to assess performance and health of weaning piglets.

  5. Association of Folate Level in Blood with the Risk of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yujie; Ju, Mingliang; He, Lin; Chen, Wenzhong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between folate level and the risk of schizophrenia and to identify possible biomarker for schizophrenia. Data about folate were extracted from 16 high quality studies. The association of folate level in blood and schizophrenia was evaluated using standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Totally 1183 (52.1%) cases and 1089 (47.9%) controls were included in the current metaanalysis. Folate level in schizophrenia patients was significantly lower than that in healthy controls (SMD= -0.65; 95% CI: [-0.86, -0.45]; P 0.05). Sensitivity analysis confirmed that these results were stable and reliable, no publication bias existed in our meta-analysis based on Egger's and Begg's tests (P=0.48 and 0.30, respectively). These results suggest that decreased folate may be a risk factor for schizophrenia. More epidemiological and biochemistry studies are required to describe how folate or folate supplementation play roles in the progress of schizophrenia. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. [The heterogeneity of blood flow on magnetic resonance imaging: a biomarker for grading cerebral astrocytomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revert Ventura, A J; Sanz Requena, R; Martí-Bonmatí, L; Pallardó, Y; Jornet, J; Gaspar, C

    2014-01-01

    To study whether the histograms of quantitative parameters of perfusion in MRI obtained from tumor volume and peritumor volume make it possible to grade astrocytomas in vivo. We included 61 patients with histological diagnoses of grade II, III, or IV astrocytomas who underwent T2*-weighted perfusion MRI after intravenous contrast agent injection. We manually selected the tumor volume and peritumor volume and quantified the following perfusion parameters on a voxel-by-voxel basis: blood volume (BV), blood flow (BF), mean transit time (TTM), transfer constant (K(trans)), washout coefficient, interstitial volume, and vascular volume. For each volume, we obtained the corresponding histogram with its mean, standard deviation, and kurtosis (using the standard deviation and kurtosis as measures of heterogeneity) and we compared the differences in each parameter between different grades of tumor. We also calculated the mean and standard deviation of the highest 10% of values. Finally, we performed a multiparametric discriminant analysis to improve the classification. For tumor volume, we found statistically significant differences among the three grades of tumor for the means and standard deviations of BV, BF, and K(trans), both for the entire distribution and for the highest 10% of values. For the peritumor volume, we found no significant differences for any parameters. The discriminant analysis improved the classification slightly. The quantification of the volume parameters of the entire region of the tumor with BV, BF, and K(trans) is useful for grading astrocytomas. The heterogeneity represented by the standard deviation of BF is the most reliable diagnostic parameter for distinguishing between low grade and high grade lesions. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Blood pressure load does not add to ambulatory blood pressure level for cardiovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José

    2014-01-01

    Experts proposed blood pressure (BP) load derived from 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings as a more accurate predictor of outcome than level, in particular in normotensive people. We analyzed 8711 subjects (mean age, 54.8 years; 47.0% women) randomly recruited from 10 populations. We expressed BP...... load as percentage (%) of systolic/diastolic readings ≥135/≥85 mm Hg and ≥120/≥70 mm Hg during day and night, respectively, or as the area under the BP curve (mm Hg×h) using the same ceiling values. During a period of 10.7 years (median), 1284 participants died and 1109 experienced a fatal or nonfatal...... cardiovascular end point. In multivariable-adjusted models, the risk of cardiovascular complications gradually increased across deciles of BP level and load (Pbased on 24-hour systolic or diastolic BP level (generalized R(2) statistic ≤0.294%; net...

  8. Blood Biomarkers Predict the Cognitive Effects of Aripiprazole in Patients with Acute Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikaru Hori

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aripiprazole has been reported to exert variable effects on cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated biological markers, clinical data, and psychiatric symptoms in order to identify factors that influence cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia undergoing aripiprazole treatment. We evaluated cognitive function in 51 patients with schizophrenia using Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS, as well as background information, psychiatric symptoms, plasma catecholamine metabolites—homovanillic acid (HVA, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG—, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. Multivariate analyses were performed in order to identify factors independently associated with cognitive function. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, number of hospitalizations, and MHPG levels were associated with verbal memory and learning. Total hospitalization period and MHPG levels were associated with working memory. Age at first hospitalization and education were associated with motor speed. The number of hospital admissions, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative subscale scores (PANSS-N, MHPG levels, BDNF levels, and Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS scores were associated with verbal fluency. Homovanillic acid and MHPG levels, duration of illness, and PANSS-N scores were associated with attention and processing speed. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and MHPG levels were associated with executive function. These results suggest that treatment of psychiatric symptoms and cognitive dysfunction may be improved in patients treated with aripiprazole by controlling for these contributing factors.

  9. Blood biomarkers are helpful in the prediction of response to chemoradiation in rectal cancer: A prospective, hypothesis driven study on patients with locally advanced rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buijsen, Jeroen; Stiphout, Ruud G. van; Menheere, Paul P.C.A.; Lammering, Guido; Lambin, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/objective: Chemoradiation (CRT) has been shown to lead to downsizing of an important portion of rectal cancers. In order to tailor treatment at an earlier stage during treatment, predictive models are being developed. Adding blood biomarkers may be attractive for prediction, as they can be collected very easily and determined with excellent reproducibility in clinical practice. The hypothesis of this study was that blood biomarkers related to tumor load, hypoxia and inflammation can help to predict response to CRT in rectal cancer. Material/methods: 295 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were planned to undergo CRT were prospectively entered into a biobank protocol ( (NCT01067872)). Blood samples were drawn before start of CRT. Nine biomarkers were selected, based on a previously defined hypothesis, and measured in a standardized way by a certified lab: CEA, CA19-9, LDH, CRP, IL-6, IL-8, CA IX, osteopontin and 25-OH-vitamin D. Outcome was analyzed in two ways: pCR vs. non-pCR and responders (defined as ypT0-2N0) vs. non-responders (all other ypTN stages). Results: 276 patients could be analyzed. 20.7% developed a pCR and 47.1% were classified as responders. In univariate analysis CEA (p = 0.001) and osteopontin (p = 0.012) were significant predictors for pCR. Taking response as outcome CEA (p < 0.001), IL-8 (p < 0.001) and osteopontin (p = 0.004) were significant predictors. In multivariate analysis CEA was the strongest predictor for pCR (OR 0.92, p = 0.019) and CEA and IL-8 predicted for response (OR 0.97, p = 0.029 and OR 0.94, p = 0.036). The model based on biomarkers only had an AUC of 0.65 for pCR and 0.68 for response; the strongest model included clinical data, PET-data and biomarkers and had an AUC of 0.81 for pCR and 0.78 for response. Conclusion: CEA and IL-8 were identified as predictive biomarkers for tumor response and PCR after CRT in rectal cancer. Incorporation of these blood biomarkers leads to an additional accuracy of

  10. Differences in abundances of cell-signalling proteins in blood reveal novel biomarkers for early detection of clinical Alzheimer's disease.

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    Mateus Rocha de Paula

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In November 2007 a study published in Nature Medicine proposed a simple test based on the abundance of 18 proteins in blood to predict the onset of clinical symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease (AD two to six years before these symptoms manifest. Later, another study, published in PLoS ONE, showed that only five proteins (IL-1, IL-3, EGF, TNF- and G-CSF have overall better prediction accuracy. These classifiers are based on the abundance of 120 proteins. Such values were standardised by a Z-score transformation, which means that their values are relative to the average of all others. METHODOLOGY: The original datasets from the Nature Medicine paper are further studied using methods from combinatorial optimisation and Information Theory. We expand the original dataset by also including all pair-wise differences of z-score values of the original dataset ("metafeatures". Using an exact algorithm to solve the resulting Feature Set problem, used to tackle the feature selection problem, we found signatures that contain either only features, metafeatures or both, and evaluated their predictive performance on the independent test set. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to show that a specific pattern of cell signalling imbalance in blood plasma has valuable information to distinguish between NDC and AD samples. The obtained signatures were able to predict AD in patients that already had a Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI with up to 84% of sensitivity, while maintaining also a strong prediction accuracy of 90% on a independent dataset with Non Demented Controls (NDC and AD samples. The novel biomarkers uncovered with this method now confirms ANG-2, IL-11, PDGF-BB, CCL15/MIP-1; and supports the joint measurement of other signalling proteins not previously discussed: GM-CSF, NT-3, IGFBP-2 and VEGF-B.

  11. Definitions and validation criteria for biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: development and testing of a quantitative hierarchical levels of evidence schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassere, Marissa N; Johnson, Kent R; Boers, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    endpoints, and leading indicators, a quantitative surrogate validation schema was developed and subsequently evaluated at a stakeholder workshop. RESULTS: The search identified several classification schema and definitions. Components of these were incorporated into a new quantitative surrogate validation...... of the National Institutes of Health definitions of biomarker, surrogate endpoint, and clinical endpoint was useful. CONCLUSION: Further development and application of this schema provides incentives and guidance for effective biomarker and surrogate endpoint research, and more efficient drug discovery...... are then applied if there is serious counterevidence. A total score (0 to 15) determines the level of evidence, with Level 1 the strongest and Level 5 the weakest. It was proposed that the term "surrogate" be restricted to markers attaining Levels 1 or 2 only. Most stakeholders agreed that this operationalization...

  12. Multiplex detection of pathogen biomarkers in human blood, serum, and saliva using silicon photonic microring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, I. A.; Burlingame, R. W.; Wang, A. P.; Chawla, K.; Grove, T.; Wang, J.; Southern, S. O.; Iqbal, M.; Gunn, L. C.; Gleeson, M. A.

    2015-05-01

    Genalyte has developed a multiplex silicon photonic chip diagnostics platform (MaverickTM) for rapid detection of up to 32 biological analytes from a drop of sample in just 10 to 20 minutes. The chips are manufactured with waveguides adjacent to ring resonators, and probed with a continuously variable wavelength laser. A shift in the resonant wavelength as mass binds above the ring resonators is measured and is directly proportional to the amount of bound macromolecules. We present here the ability to multiplex the detection of hemorrhagic fever antigens in whole blood, serum, and saliva in a 16 minute assay. Our proof of concept testing of a multiplex antigencapture chip has the ability to detect Zaire Ebola (ZEBOV) recombinant soluble glycoprotein (rsGP), Marburg virus (MARV) Angola recombinant glycoprotein (rGP) and dengue nonstructural protein I (NS1). In parallel, detection of 2 malaria antigens has proven successful, but has yet to be incorporated into multiplex with the others. Each assay performs with sensitivity ranging from 1.6 ng/ml to 39 ng/ml depending on the antigen detected, and with minimal cross-reactivity.

  13. Comparison of p53 levels in lymphocytes and in blood plasma of nuclear power plant workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessner, Pavel; Chvatalova, Irena; Schmuczerova, Jana; Milcova, Alena; Roessner, Pavel; Sram, Radim J.

    2004-01-01

    p53 levels were assessed in lymphocytes and in blood plasma of workers from two Czech nuclear power plants (NPP): 114 subjects working in Temelin and 108 subjects working in Dukovany. Ionizing radiation (IR) exposure data were available for 64 and 59 subjects working in the monitored zones from the NPP in Temelin and Dukovany, respectively. The short-term doses of IR for these subjects were 0.01 and 0.12 mSv, and the long-term doses were 0.46 and 5.68 mSv, in the Temelin and Dukovany NPP, respectively. As a control group, 46 subjects living in Ceske Budejovice, a city nearby the Temelin NPP, were analyzed. The concentration of p53 in lymphocytes was significantly higher in workers from the monitored zone in the Dukovany NPP (median value 6.4 pg/μg protein, P < 0.001) than in workers from the Temelin NPP (3.2 pg/μg) as well as in the control group (3.5 pg/μg). In contrast, plasma levels of p53 were comparable in the control group (median value 116 pg/ml plasma) and workers from the monitored zone of Dukovany NPP (102 pg/ml), but lower in workers from Temelin NPP (5 pg/ml). Other factors affecting p53 levels were studied. Smoking resulted in increased p53 lymphocyte levels. The effect of polymorphisms in metabolic and DNA repair genes on p53 levels was analyzed. The correlation was found between p53 levels in lymphocytes and p53 codon 72 polymorphism in subjects working in NPPs, but not in the control group. The results of measurement p53 levels in lymphocytes suggest that this biomarker could reflect the short-term as well as long-term effects of low doses IR. Its impact on human health should be further explored

  14. Increased blood 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels in methamphetamine users during early abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Chyi; Lai, Ying-Ching; Lin, Shih-Ku; Chen, Chun-Hsin

    2018-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to play a role in the adverse physical and mental consequences of methamphetamine usage. The oxidative DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is a well-known biomarker of ROS-induced DNA damage. Currently, there is insufficient clinical information about methamphetamine-induced oxidative DNA damage. This study examined differences in blood levels of 8-OHdG between methamphetamine users and non-users as well as alterations in 8-OHdG levels after 2 weeks of methamphetamine abstinence. We recruited 182 methamphetamine users (78.6% of male) and 71 healthy controls (95.8% of male). Baseline serum 8-OHdG levels were measured in both groups using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In methamphetamine users, 8-OHdG levels were measured again 2 weeks after baseline measurement. The results showed that methamphetamine users had significantly higher 8-OHdG levels (0.34 ± 0.13 ng/mL) than healthy controls (0.30 ± 0.08 ng/mL) (p users and post-abstinence interval, age of the first methamphetamine use, duration of methamphetamine use, or history of frequent methamphetamine use. Our findings suggest that methamphetamine users had an enhanced level of oxidative damage, which did not normalize during early abstinence. Future studies are required to determine the effects of long-term methamphetamine abstinence and potential confounders on 8-OHdG levels in methamphetamine users.

  15. On detecting reference level of acrolein content in children's blood

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    T.S. Ulanova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the results of complex chemical-analytical and clinical-laboratory research in course of which biological media of children living in Perm region were examined. To study impacts exerted by exogenous acrolein we examined 156 children in 2014–2016, aged 5–10, attending pre-school facilities and schools, and living in Perm region. As we conducted this research we detected average annual acrolein concentration in atmosphere on the examined territory; this concentration was equal to 0.000024 mg/m3, and it was 1.2 times higher than reference acrolein concentration in the air for chronic inhalation exposure. Average group acrolein concentration in children's blood was 1.2 times authentically higher (р3.96, p≤0.05. We used increased content of delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine as a limiting marker for effects occurring at chronic inhalation exposure to acrolein. Basing on the results of the performed examination we recommend concentration equal to 0.10 mgr/dm 3 as a reference level of acrolein content in blood at chronic inhalation exposure.

  16. Blood-Based Biomarkers for Lung Cancer Early Detection and Evaluation of CT-Based Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    conserved protein in eukaryotic nuclei, binds to NuMA. J Biol Chem 2000;275: 31979–85. 45. Debernardi S, Bassini A, Jones LK, Chaplin T, Linder B, de Bruijn...level and two-hit gene dosage and/or DNA methylation alterations and (ii) undergoing concomitant alterations at the mRNA level would be indicative of...methylated in our cohort ( indicated in Supplementary Table S2). Of these, we focused on the putative TSG EYA4, based on the high frequency of

  17. Below background levels of blood lead impact cytokine levels in male and female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iavicoli, I.; Carelli, G.; Stanek, E.J.; Castellino, N.; Calabrese, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    A number of studies have documented that Pb exerts immunotoxic effects on T lymphocytes. In studies designed to explore this general response over a broad dose range, female Swiss mice were administered six different diets containing Pb acetate 1 day after mating. During lactation, the mothers received the same feed given during pregnancy, and the same diets were administered to the offspring for 9 months after weaning. At the end of exposure, blood Pb level in the offspring was determined, and possible changes in two type 1 cytokines (IL-2, INF-γ) and one type 2 cytokine (IL-4) in the serum were measured. At higher dietary Pb levels (40 and 400 ppm), a significant increase in IL-4 production was associated with a profound decrease in INF-γ and IL-2 production. At the lowest Pb diet level (0.02 ppm), which resulted in a blood lead level of (0.8 μg/dL), which is below background (2-3 μg/dL) values in humans, increases in INF-γ and IL-2 production along with a significant decrease in IL-4 production were observed. The findings provide evidence of a reversal of lead-induced cytokine skewing depending on the blood lead concentration. As blood lead concentration increases, there is a notable skewing toward Th2, while the pattern is reversed favoring Th1 development at lower blood lead values. The present findings are also notable since they indicate the potential for dietary Pb to have significant biological effects below normal background concentrations

  18. Low level dose induced chromosome aberrations in human blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl-Rueling, J.

    1992-01-01

    Unstable structural aberrations in chromosomes of human blood lymphocytes cannot be used as biological dosemeters in the low dose range, when extrapolating from high doses using a linear dose response, as required by the original formula of the dual radiation action theory. A survey is given of experimental dose-response curves of chromosome aberrations, obtained in investigations not only by this institute, in cooperation with many other laboratories, but also by various authors in different areas of the world. The results are not compatible with the predicted linear dose relationships at in vivo dose ranges up to 30 mGy.y -1 . The aberration frequencies rise sharply with dose within the normal environmental exposure up to about twice that level. At higher doses, aberration frequencies increase less rapidly and reach a plateau. Some in vitro experiments of various authors with higher doses of low LET radiations, up to about 400 mGy have found dose responses with steps. (author)

  19. Cpt1a gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as an early biomarker of diet-related metabolic alterations

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    Rubén Díaz-Rúa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research on biomarkers that provide early information about the development of future metabolic alterations is an emerging discipline. Gene expression analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC is a promising tool to identify subjects at risk of developing diet-related diseases. Objective: We analysed PBMC expression of key energy homeostasis-related genes in a time-course analysis in order to find out early markers of metabolic alterations due to sustained intake of high-fat (HF and high-protein (HP diets. Design: We administered HF and HP diets (4 months to adult Wistar rats in isocaloric conditions to a control diet, mainly to avoid overweight associated with the intake of hyperlipidic diets and, thus, to be able to characterise markers of metabolically obese normal-weight (MONW syndrome. PBMC samples were collected at different time points of dietary treatment and expression of relevant energy homeostatic genes analysed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Serum parameters related with metabolic syndrome, as well as fat deposition in liver, were also analysed. Results: The most outstanding results were those obtained for the expression of the lipolytic gene carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a. Cpt1a expression in PBMC increased after only 1 month of exposure to both unbalanced diets, and this increased expression was maintained thereafter. Interestingly, in the case of the HF diet, Cpt1a expression was altered even in the absence of increased body weight but correlated with alterations such as higher insulin resistance, alteration of serum lipid profile and, particularly, increased fat deposition in liver, a feature characteristic of metabolic syndrome, which was even observed in animals fed with HP diet. Conclusions: We propose Cpt1a gene expression analysis in PBMC as an early biomarker of metabolic alterations associated with MONW phenotype due to the intake of isocaloric HF diets, as

  20. Proteomics Mapping of Cord Blood Identifies Haptoglobin ?Switch-On? Pattern as Biomarker of Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis in Preterm Newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Buhimschi, Catalin S.; Bhandari, Vineet; Dulay, Antonette T.; Nayeri, Unzila A.; Abdel-Razeq, Sonya S.; Pettker, Christian M.; Thung, Stephen; Zhao, Guomao; Han, Yiping W.; Bizzarro, Matthew; Buhimschi, Irina A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Intra-amniotic infection and/or inflammation (IAI) are important causes of preterm birth and early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS). A prompt and accurate diagnosis of EONS is critical for improved neonatal outcomes. We sought to explore the cord blood proteome and identify biomarkers and functional protein networks characterizing EONS in preterm newborns. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied a prospective cohort of 180 premature newborns delivered May 2004-September 2009. A prote...

  1. Laboratory changes and levels of biomarkers in localized bacterial infections and sepsis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larysa Pypa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The success of sepsis treatment depends on early diagnosis of the generalization of bacterial infection, but the nonspecificity of clinical manifestations often makes the diagnosis delayed. Therefore, the search for highly specific and sensitive biomarkers for early diagnosis of sepsis is relevant. The aim of our research is investigate the laboratory features and diagnostic value of a number of modern biomarkers for the diagnosis of sepsis in children. Materials and methods. of general laboratory studies and determination of CRP level were performed in 115 children with generalized and localized forms of bacterial infections. The main group (47 children - children with sepsis, a comparison group (68 children - with a localized bacterial infection of various localization. The age of children was from 1 month. up to 18 years. Grouping was performed according to the presence of signs and symptoms of SIRS and organ dysfunction. Determination of the level of procalcitonin and TNF-α was performed in 31 children of the main group, 45 children in the comparison group and 30 children in the control group (children without signs of inflammation. Prespepsin levels were determined in 16 main group children,14 in the comparison group and26 in the control group. Results. During the study, it was found that the level of leukocytosis was much higher and continued 2.6 times longer in the main group than in the children of the comparison group (p <0.01.Anemia was found in 76.6% of the children in the main group, while in the comparator group, the anemia syndrome was diagnosed 3.7 times less frequently. In the study of CRP in the main group, its level reached 44.7 mg / l and 28.3 mg / l in the comparison group, the specificity and sensitivity for diagnosis of sepsis was 46.8% and 51.5% respectively. The mean TNF-α level in children in the main group was 280.3 pg / ml CI 95% [243.9-316.7], which was 1.5 times higher than in children with a localized

  2. Survivin gene levels in the peripheral blood of patients with gastric cancer independently predict survival

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    Scalerta Romano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC is considered a promising tool for improving risk stratification in patients with solid tumors. We investigated on whether the expression of CTC related genes adds any prognostic power to the TNM staging system in patients with gastric carcinoma. Methods Seventy patients with TNM stage I to IV gastric carcinoma were retrospectively enrolled. Peripheral blood samples were tested by means of quantitative real time PCR (qrtPCR for the expression of four CTC related genes: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, cytokeratin-19 (CK19, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and Survivin (BIRC5. Results Gene expression of Survivin, CK19, CEA and VEGF was higher than in normal controls in 98.6%, 97.1%, 42.9% and 38.6% of cases, respectively, suggesting a potential diagnostic value of both Survivin and CK19. At multivariable survival analysis, TNM staging and Survivin mRNA levels were retained as independent prognostic factors, demonstrating that Survivin expression in the peripheral blood adds prognostic information to the TNM system. In contrast with previously published data, the transcript abundance of CEA, CK19 and VEGF was not associated with patients' clinical outcome. Conclusions Gene expression levels of Survivin add significant prognostic value to the current TNM staging system. The validation of these findings in larger prospective and multicentric series might lead to the implementation of this biomarker in the routine clinical setting in order to optimize risk stratification and ultimately personalize the therapeutic management of these patients.

  3. Molecular pathways associated with blood pressure and hexadecanedioate levels.

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    Cristina Menni

    Full Text Available The dicarboxylic acid hexadecanedioate is associated with increased blood pressure (BP and mortality in humans and feeding it to rats raises BP. Here we aim to characterise the molecular pathways that influence levels of hexadecanedioate linked to BP regulation, using genetic and transcriptomic studies. The top associations for hexadecanedioate in a genome-wide association scan (GWAS conducted on 6447 individuals from the TwinsUK and KORA cohorts were tested for association with BP and hypertension in the International Consortium for BP and in a GWAS of BP extremes. Transcriptomic analyses correlating hexadecanedioate with gene expression levels in adipose tissue in 740 TwinsUK participants were further performed. GWAS showed 242 SNPs mapping to two independent loci achieving genome-wide significance. In rs414056 in the SCLO1B1 gene (Beta(SE = -0.088(0.006P = 1.65 x 10-51, P < 1 x 10-51, the allele previously associated with increased risk of statin associated myopathy is associated with higher hexadecanedioate levels. However this SNP did not show association with BP or hypertension. The top SNP in the second locus rs6663731 mapped to the intronic region of CYP4Z2P on chromosome 1 (0.045(0.007, P = 5.49x10-11. Hexadecanedioate levels also correlate with adipose tissue gene-expression of the 3 out of 4 CYP4 probes (P<0.05 and of alcohol dehydrogenase probes (Beta(SE = 0.12(0.02; P = 6.04x10-11. High circulating levels of hexadecanedioate determine a significant effect of alcohol intake on BP (SBP: 1.12(0.34, P = 0.001; DBP: 0.70(0.22, P = 0.002, while no effect is seen in the lower hexadecanedioate level group. In conclusion, levels in fat of ADH1A, ADH1B and CYP4 encoding enzymes in the omega oxidation pathway, are correlated with hexadecanedioate levels. Hexadecanedioate appears to regulate the effect of alcohol on BP.

  4. Reduced ferritin levels in individuals with non-O blood group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigas, Andreas S; Berkfors, Adam A; Pedersen, Ole B

    2017-01-01

    stores expressed as ferritin levels. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Ferritin levels were measured at least once for 30,595 Danish Blood Donor Study participants. Linear regression analyses were performed with the ABO blood group as explanatory variable and adjusted for age, number of donations 3 years before......BACKGROUND: Genomewide association studies have reported alleles in the ABO locus to be associated with ferritin levels. These studies warrant the investigation of a possible association between the ABO blood group and ferritin levels. We aimed to explore if ABO blood group is associated with iron...... blood group was associated with a ferritin level of less than 15 ng/mL. RESULTS: Non-O blood group donors had lower ferritin levels than blood group O donors, regardless of sex. Accordingly, risk of ferritin level of less than 15 ng/mL was increased for individuals with non-O blood group compared with O...

  5. Elevated red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels in black blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallas, C H

    1978-01-01

    Mean levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) were significantly increased in erythrocytes (RBC) from 43 nonanemic black blood donors (4.80 +/- 0.06 micromoles/l RBC) compared with 22 white donors 4.47 +/- 0.08 micromoles/l RBCs from eight of the 12 black donors with DPG levels greater than 5 micromoles/l RBC. Although a potentially hemolytic disorder could be defined in four (AS hemoglobin, beta-Thalassemia minor, G6PD deficiency), reticulocyte counts were normal. However, when RBCs from the subgroup were compared to RBCs from an additional 25 unselected white donors, the following suggested an abnormally large population of young RBCs in the subgroup: 1) normal or elevated RBC-ATP with normal serum phosphate level; 2) significantly increased activities of RBC age-dependent enzymes hexokinase (p less than 0.02), pyruvate kinase (p less than 0.05), and glutamicoxaloacetic transaminase (p less than 0.01), with normal activity of phosphoglycerate kinase, an age-independent enzyme; 3) decreased dense (older) RBCs as determined by sedimentation in phthalate esters. Since DPG is increased in young RBCs and falls as the RBC ages, loss of older relatively DPG depleted RBCs due to shortened survival could account for the elevated DPG levels seen in the subgroup.

  6. Increased levels of etheno-DNA adducts and genotoxicity biomarkers of long-term exposure to pure diesel engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Meili; Bin, Ping; Li, Haibin; Zhang, Xiao; Sun, Xin; Duan, Huawei; Niu, Yong; Meng, Tao; Dai, Yufei; Gao, Weimin; Yu, Shanfa; Gu, Guizhen; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-02-01

    Etheno-DNA adducts are biomarkers for assessing oxidative stress. In this study, the aim was to detect the level of etheno-DNA adducts and explore the relationship between the etheno-DNA adducts and genotoxicity biomarkers of the diesel engine exhaust (DEE)-exposed workers. We recruited 86 diesel engine testing workers with long-term exposure to DEE and 99 non-DEE-exposed workers. The urinary mono-hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and etheno-DNA adducts (εdA and εdC) were detected by HPLC-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS, respectively. Genotoxicity biomarkers were also evaluated by comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. The results showed that urinary εdA was significantly higher in the DEE-exposed workers (p<0.001), exhibited 2.1-fold increase compared with the non-DEE-exposed workers. The levels of urinary OH-PAHs were positively correlated with the level of εdA among all the study subjects (p<0.001). Moreover, we found that the increasing level of εdA was significantly associated with the increased olive tail moment, percentage of tail DNA, or frequency of micronucleus in the study subjects (p<0.01). No significant association was observed between the εdC level and any measured genotoxicity biomarkers. In summary, εdA could serve as an indicator for DEE exposure in the human population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduced levels of potential circulating biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases in apparently healthy vegetarian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Julio Acosta; de Gouveia, Luiza Antoniazzi; Rocha-Penha, Lilliam; Cinegaglia, Naiara; Belo, Vanessa; Castro, Michele Mazzaron de; Sandrim, Valeria Cristina

    2016-10-01

    Several evidences report that a vegetarian diet is protector against cardiovascular diseases. Few studies have demonstrated the circulating profile of cardiovascular biomarkers in vegetarians. Therefore, the aims of the current study were compared the plasma concentrations of myeloperoxidase (MPO), metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 between healthy vegetarian (Veg) and healthy omnivorous (Omn). Using ELISA and multiplexed bead immunoassay, we measured in plasma from 43 Veg and 41 Omn the cardiovascular biomarkers concentrations cited above. We found significant lower concentrations of MPO, MMP-9, MMP-2 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in Veg compared to Omn (all Pvegetarian diet is associated with a healthier profile of cardiovascular biomarkers compared to omnivorous. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Serum C-Reactive Protein Level as a Biomarker for Differentiation of Ischemic from Hemorrhagic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Roudbary

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrovascular accidents rank first in the frequency and importance among all neurological disease. Although a number of studies had shown increased level of the high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP in patients with ischemic stroke, the association of increased hs-CRP with various type of stroke especially the assessment hs-CRP level in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke have not been investigated. In the present study, we assessed the concentration of hs-CRP in patients with documented ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in the first 24 hours of the onset of symptoms. Thirty-two patients with Ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke were evaluated at neurology department of Poursina Hospital. The presence of baseline vascular risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and smoking, was determined. The blood samples were then collected and routine hematology and biochemistry tests were done. hs-CRP levels were determined using a highly sensitive immunonephelometric method. In this cross sectional study, the age of patient varied from 45-85 years (Mean 70.9  9.4. Serum level of hs-CRP in Ischemic patients were 18.92  11.28 and in hemorrhagic group was 2.65  1.7. This relationship was statistically significant (P<0.0001. It might be concluded that hs-CRP might be considered as a usefully adjunct method for the initial diagnosis of the type of stroke.

  9. The prognostic blood biomarker proadrenomedullin for outcome prediction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a qualitative clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Philipp; Marlowe, Robert J; Mueller, Beat

    2015-03-01

    Plasma proadrenomedullin (ProADM) is a blood biomarker that may aid in multidimensional risk assessment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Co-secreted 1:1 with adrenomedullin (ADM), ProADM is a less biologically active, more chemically stable surrogate for this pluripotent regulatory peptide, which due to biological and ex vivo physical characteristics is difficult to reliably directly quantify. Upregulated by hypoxia, inflammatory cytokines, bacterial products, and shear stress and expressed widely in pulmonary cells and ubiquitously throughout the body, ADM exerts or mediates vasodilatory, natriuretic, diuretic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and metabolic effects. Observational data from four separate studies totaling 1366 patients suggest that as a single factor, ProADM is a significant independent, and accurate, long-term all-cause mortality predictor in COPD. This body of work also suggests that combined with different groups of demographic/clinical variables, ProADM provides significant incremental long-term mortality prediction power relative to the groups of variables alone. Additionally, the literature contains indications that ProADM may be a global cardiopulmonary stress marker, potentially supplying prognostic information when cardiopulmonary exercise testing results such as 6-min walk distance are unavailable due to time or other resource constraints or to a patient's advanced disease. Prospective, randomized, controlled interventional studies are needed to demonstrate whether ProADM use in risk-based guidance of site-of-care, monitoring, and treatment decisions improves clinical, quality-of-life, or pharmacoeconomic outcomes in patients with COPD.

  10. Effect of oral acetyl L-carnitine arginate on resting and postprandial blood biomarkers in pre-diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucker Patrick S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resting and postprandial oxidative stress is elevated in those with metabolic disorders such as diabetes. Antioxidant supplementation may attenuate the rise in oxidative stress following feeding. Therefore we sought to determine the effects of acetyl L-carnitine arginate (ALCA on resting and postprandial biomarkers of glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as oxidative stress. Methods Twenty-nine pre-diabetic men and women were randomly assigned to either 3 g·day-1 of ALCA (n = 14; 31 ± 3 yrs or placebo (n = 15; 35 ± 3 yrs in a double-blind design, to consume for eight weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken from subjects both pre and post intervention. After each fasting sample was obtained, subjects consumed a high fat, high carbohydrate meal and additional blood samples were taken at 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours post meal. Samples were analyzed for a variety of metabolic variables (e.g., glucose, HbA1c, lipid panel, C-reactive protein, nitrate/nitrite, and several markers of oxidative stress. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated for each variable measured post meal, both pre and post intervention. Results ALCA, but not placebo, resulted in an increase in nitrate/nitrite (25.4 ± 1.9 to 30.1 ± 2.8 μmol·L-1 from pre to post intervention, with post intervention values greater compared to placebo (p = 0.01. No other changes of statistical significance were noted (p > 0.05, although ALCA resulted in slight improvements in glucose (109 ± 5 to 103 ± 5 mg·dL-1, HbA1c (6.6 ± 1.1 to 6.2 ± 1.2%, and HOMA-IR (3.3 ± 1.3 to 2.9 ± 1.2. AUC postprandial data were not statistically different between ALCA and placebo for any variable (p > 0.05. However, nitrate/nitrite demonstrated a moderate effect size (r = 0.35 for increase from pre (139.50 ± 18.35 μmol·L-1·6 hr-1 to post (172.40 ± 21.75 μmol·L-1·6 hr-1 intervention with ALCA, and the magnitude of decrease following feeding was not as pronounced as with placebo

  11. Effect of vitamin levels on biomarkers of exposure and oxidative damage – The EXPAH study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Farmer, P.; Singh, R.; Garte, S.; Kalina, I.; Popov, T. A.; Binková, Blanka; Ragin, C.; Taioli, E.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 672, č. 2 (2009), s. 129-134 ISSN 1383-5718 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : molecular epidemiology * cross-sectional study * biomarkers of exposure Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.552, year: 2009

  12. Hormonal Influence on Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pontecorvi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone for its presence in all body cells, is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes. Due to these two actions, CoQ10 is commonly used in clinical practice in chronic heart failure, male infertility, and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is also taken as an anti-aging substance by healthy people aiming for long-term neuroprotection and by sportsmen to improve endurance. Many hormones are known to be involved in body energy regulation, in terms of production, consumption and dissipation, and their influence on CoQ10 body content or blood values may represent an important pathophysiological mechanism. We summarize the main findings of the literature about the link between hormonal systems and circulating CoQ10 levels. In particular the role of thyroid hormones, directly involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is discussed. There is also a link with gonadal and adrenal hormones, partially due to the common biosynthetic pathway with CoQ10, but also to the increased oxidative stress found in hypogonadism and hypoadrenalism.

  13. Effect of thallium-201 blood levels on reversible myocardial defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C.W.; Wilson, R.A.; Angello, D.A.; Palac, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    To determine if 201 Tl plasma blood levels correlate with the presence of reversible myocardial defects during exercise testing, 14 patients with stable coronary artery disease underwent two separate exercise 201 Tl stress tests. Between initial and delayed imaging, on one test the patients drank an instant breakfast drink (eating) and on the other they drank an equivalent volume of water as a control (H 2 O). Thallium-201 imaging was performed immediately postexercise, immediately after eating/H 2 O and 210 min after eating/H 2 O. Between initial and immediate post eating/H 2 O images 201Tl reversible defects occurred in 27/38 regions in the H 2 O test versus 15/38 regions in the eating test (p = 0.02). Over this early time period, plasma 201 Tl activity was significantly higher in the H 2 O test than eating test (p less than 0.05). In conclusion, early reversal of 201 Tl defects may, in part, be the result of higher plasma 201 Tl activity early after initial postexercise 201 Tl imaging

  14. Association between blood cholesterol level with periodontal status of coronary heart disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valensia, Rosy; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Lessang, Robert; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is an abnormal narrowing of heart arteries associated with local accumulation of lipids, in the form of cholesterol and triglycerides. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory that suggests link to the development of CHD. In periodontitis have been reported changes in lipid profile, include increased of cholesterol levels of blood. Objective: to analyse correlation between blood cholesterol level with periodontal status of CHD and non CHD subjects. Methods: Periodontal status and blood cholesterol level of 60 CHD and 40 non CHD subjects was measured. Result: Blood cholesterol level in CHD subjects differs from non CHD subjects (p=0.032). Blood cholesterol level correlates with pocket depth (p=0.003) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) (p=0.000) in CHD subjects. Blood cholesterol level correlates with pocket depth (p=0.010) in non CHD subjects. There is no significant correlation between blood cholesterol level and bleeding on probing (BOP) in CHD subjects. There is no significant correlation between blood cholesterol level with BOP and CAL in non CHD subjects. Conclusion: Blood cholesterol level in control group is higher than CHD patients. Blood cholesterol level positively associated with pocket depth (r=0.375) and CAL (r=0.450) in CHD patients. Blood cholesterol level is positively associated with pocket depth (r=0.404) in control group.

  15. Blood profiles of indigenous Pedi goats fed varying levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    david

    2016-12-01

    Dec 1, 2016 ... immensely to the economy and food security of many smallholder ... However, their productivity is constrained by shortage of good-quality feed, especially during the long ... There is insufficient plant biomass to support the production of goats in this .... Red blood cells (RBC) and total white blood cells.

  16. Using a novel "Integrated Biomarker Proteomic" index to assess the effects of freshwater pollutants in European eel peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Kathleen; Kestemont, Patrick; Dieu, Marc; Raes, Martine; Silvestre, Frédéric

    2016-03-30

    Using proteomic data as biomarkers of environmental pollution has the potential to be of a great interest in ecological risk assessment as they constitute early warning indicators of ecologically relevant effects on biological systems. To develop such specific and sensitive biomarkers, the use of a set of proteins is required and the identification of protein expression signatures (PES) may reflect the exposure to specific classes of pollutants. Using 2D-DIGE (Differential in Gel Electrophoresis) methodology, this study aimed at identifying specific PES on European eel (Anguilla anguilla) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after 48 h in vitro exposure to two sublethal concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) (10 μg/L and 1mg/L) or cadmium (Cd) (1 μg/L and 100 μg/L). The present results have been supplemented with data of a first in vitro study on cells exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (10 μg/L and 1mg/L). A total of thirty-four protein spots, belonging to 18 different identified proteins found in all conditions, have been selected as possible biomarkers to develop a synthetic Integrated Biomarker Proteomic (IBP) index. IBP follows a dose-response relationship with higher values at the highest tested concentration for each pollutant (Cd: 9.96; DDT: 7.44; PFOS: 7.94) compared to the lowest tested concentration (Cd: 3.81; DDT: 2.91; PFOS: 2.06). In a second step, star plot graphs have been applied to proteomic data in order to allow visual integration of a set of early warning responses measured with protein biomarkers. Such star plots permit to discriminate the type of pollutant inducing a proteomic response. We conclude that using IBP is relevant in environmental risk assessment, giving to this index the potential to be applied as a global index of proteome alteration in endangered species such as the European eel. In this study, 34 protein spots have been selected as possible biomarkers to develop a synthetic Integrated

  17. The Great Recession worsened blood pressure and blood glucose levels in American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Teresa; Thomas, Duncan; Merkin, Sharon Stein; Moore, Kari; Watson, Karol; Karlamangla, Arun

    2018-03-27

    Longitudinal, individual-specific data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) provide support for the hypothesis that the 2008 to 2010 Great Recession (GR) negatively impacted the health of US adults. Results further advance understanding of the relationship by ( i ) illuminating hypothesized greater negative impacts in population subgroups exposed to more severe impacts of the GR and ( ii ) explicitly controlling for confounding by individual differences in age-related changes in health over time. Analyses overcome limitations of prior work by ( i ) employing individual-level data that avoid concerns about ecological fallacy associated with prior reliance on group-level data, ( ii ) using four waves of data before the GR to estimate and control for underlying individual-level age-related trends, ( iii ) focusing on objective, temporally appropriate health outcomes rather than mortality, and ( iv ) leveraging a diverse cohort to investigate subgroup differences in the GR's impact. Innovative individual fixed-effects modeling controlling for individual-level age-related trajectories yielded substantively important insights: ( i ) significant elevations post-GR for blood pressure and fasting glucose, especially among those on medication pre-GR, and ( ii ) reductions in prevalence and intensity of medication use post-GR. Important differences in the effects of the GR are seen across subgroups, with larger effects among younger adults (who are likely still in the labor force) and older homeowners (whose declining home wealth likely reduced financial security, with less scope for recouping losses during their lifetime); least affected were older adults without a college degree (whose greater reliance on Medicare and Social Security likely provided more protection from the recession).

  18. Blood-based biomarkers of selenium and thyroid status indicate possible adverse biological effects of mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls in Southern Beaufort Sea polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Katrina K; Schenk, Patricia; Beyerlein, Susan; Boyd, Daryle; Ylitalo, Gina M; O'Hara, Todd M

    2011-11-01

    We examined biomarkers of selenium status (whole blood Se; serum Se; glutathione peroxidase activity) and thyroid status (concentrations and ratios of thyroxine, T4; tri-iodothyronine, T3; albumin) in polar bears to assess variations among cohorts, and relationships to circulating concentrations of contaminants. Concentrations of total mercury (Hg) in whole blood were similar among cohorts (prime aged males and females, older animals, ages≥16 years, and young animals, ages 1-5 years; 48.44±35. 81; p=0.253). Concentrations of sum of seven polychlorinated biphenyls (∑PCB7) in whole blood were greater in females (with and without cubs, 26.44±25.82 ng/g ww) and young (26.81±10.67 ng/g ww) compared to males (8.88±5.76 ng/g ww, p0.08). Thyroid hormones were greater in females (solitary females and females with cubs) compared to males (ppolar bears (ppolar bears were more susceptible to changes in blood-based biomarkers of selenium and thyroid status than males. Further classifications of the physiologic states of polar bears and repeated measures of individuals over time are needed to accurately assess the biological impact of combined toxicant exposures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. N-alkylvaline levels in globin as a new type of biomarker in risk assessment of alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewalter, J

    1996-01-01

    Adducts with the N-terminal valine of erythrocyte globin can serve as individual biomarkers of systemic and cellular exposure to endogenous and exogenous alkylating agents. In contrast to "detoxification markers" of this kind of mecapturic acids derived from alkylation of glutathione, individual N-alkylations of valine in globin reflect the formally "toxifying" part of the stress due to alkylating agents transformed into the ultimate toxicant. Thus, in contrast to the traditional methods of biological monitoring this approach enables a better evaluation of systemic exposure to reactive agents, adapted more sensibly to the exposure situation over the whole life span of erythrocytes, and it can serve as a specific biomarker of exposure for the purpose of health surveillance in occupational medicine. An individual evaluation of exposures in comparison with the range of corresponding background levels is discussed from the point of view of supplementary risk assessment in medical surveillance of occupationally exposed persons.

  20. Impact of cigarette smoking on volatile organic compound (VOC) blood levels in the U.S. population: NHANES 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David M; Ocariz, Jessica M; McGuirk, Maureen F; Blount, Benjamin C

    2011-11-01

    The impact of cigarette smoking on volatile organic compound (VOC) blood levels is studied using 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Cigarette smoke exposure is shown to be a predominant source of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and styrene (BTEXS) measured in blood as determined by (1) differences in central tendency and interquartile VOC blood levels between daily smokers [≥1 cigarette per day (CPD)] and less-than-daily smokers, (2) correlation among BTEXS and the 2,5-dimethylfuran (2,5-DMF) smoking biomarker in the blood of daily smokers, and (3) regression modeling of BTEXS blood levels versus categorized CPD. Smoking status was determined by 2,5-DMF blood level using a cutpoint of 0.014 ng/ml estimated by regression modeling of the weighted data and confirmed with receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis. The BTEXS blood levels among daily smokers were moderately-to-strongly correlated with 2,5-DMF blood levels (correlation coefficient, r, ranging from 0.46 to 0.92). Linear regression of the geometric mean BTEXS blood levels versus categorized CPD showed clear dose-response relationship (correlation of determination, R(2), ranging from 0.81 to 0.98). Furthermore, the pattern of VOCs in blood of smokers is similar to that reported in mainstream cigarette smoke. These results show that cigarette smoking is a primary source of benzene, toluene and styrene and an important source of ethylbenzene and xylene exposure for the U.S. population, as well as the necessity of determining smoking status and factors affecting dose (e.g., CPD, time since last cigarette) in assessments involving BTEXS exposure. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Adaptive Returns of Deficient Systemic Plasma Immunoglobulin G Levels as Rehabilitation Biomarker After Emergency Colectomy for Fulminant Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander T Hawkins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Restorative proctocolectomy (RPC with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA is the standard surgical treatment for ulcerative colitis (UC. Emergency colectomies are performed for fulminant colitis (ie, toxic megacolon, profuse bleeding, perforation, or sepsis. The RPC and IPAA involve manipulation of the proximal ileum, which may influence the essential physiological function of gut-associated lymphoid tissues. Circulating plasma immunoglobulin G (p-IgG deficiency is observed in patients with fulminant UC. In addition, increased levels have been reported in colonic tissues of active UC compared with quiescent disease. We aimed to examine levels of p-IgG for clinical evaluation following emergency colectomies in patients with fulminant UC compared with patients with quiescent disease having elective RPC operations. In total 45 patients received an ileoanal pouch (IAP due to UC. In all, 27 patients were men and 18 were women. The mean age was 34 years (range: 18-55. Because of fulminant UC, 26 patients had emergency subtotal colectomies with terminal ileostomy (TI. During second operation, the rectum was excised, and an IAP with diverting loop ileostomy (DLI was performed. Nineteen patients had elective operations and had colectomies performed in conjunction with the pouch operation. Mucosectomy was performed in all groups. As a last procedure, the DLI was closed. Blood samples for immunoglobulin G (IgG analyses were collected from each patient before the colectomy, after the colectomy with TI (before construction of the pouch, during the period with pouches (prior to DLI closure, and at 1, 2, and 3 years and at mean 13.7 years (range: 10-20 after DLI closure. Immunoglobulin G was determined by immunonephelometric assay technique. The statistics were analyzed by analysis of variance and linear regression. Preoperatively, p-IgG was significantly lower in the patients who had emergency operations compared with the group that had elective

  2. Biosensor Detection of Neuropathy Target Esterase in Whole Blood as a Biomarker of Exposure to Neuropathic Organophosphorus Compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Makhaeva, Galina F; Sigolaeva, Larisa V; Zhuravleva, Lyudmila Z; Eremenko, Arkady V; Kurochkin, Ilya N; Malygin, Vladimir V; Richardson, Rudy J

    2002-01-01

    .... Lymphocyte NTE has also found use as a biomarker of human exposure to neuropathic OPs. Recently, a sensitive NTE biosensor was developed using a tyrosinase carbon-paste electrode for amperometric (Amp...

  3. Postpartum levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α in plasma and milk phospholipid fractions as biomarker of oxidative stress in first-lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernunft, A; Viergutz, T; Plinski, C; Weitzel, J M

    2014-08-01

    F2-isoprostanes such as 8-iso-prostaglandin F2 (8-iso-PGF2α) are formed by free radical-catalyzed mechanisms from membrane phospholipids and from low density lipoproteins through peroxidation of arachidonic acid. Esterified 8-iso-PGF2α is cleaved by phospholipases, circulates in blood and is excreted as putatively harmful oxidatively modified lipid via the kidney into urine. In this study we demonstrate that 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations in plasma samples from heifers are higher (piso-PGF2α concentrations vary with ovarian activity and differ in response to luteolytic initiation as well as activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis between heifers and first-lactating cows. Sustainable concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2α (50-150 pg/ml) are detectable in the phospholipid fraction of milk, suggesting milk as an additional excretion route for 8-isoprostanes. Plasma levels largely paralleled levels in milk (piso-PGF2α concentrations in cyclic cows decreased (piso-PGF2α rather increased (piso-PGF2α were not correlated with milk yield (p>0.05). Our data indicate 8-iso-PGF2α may be a novel biomarker of oxidative stress in dairy cow, which is detectable in blood as well as in milk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A cross-sectional assessment of biomarker levels around implants versus natural teeth in periodontal maintenance patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recker, Erica N; Avila-Ortiz, Gustavo; Fischer, Carol L; Pagan-Rivera, Keyla; Brogden, Kim A; Dawson, Deborah V; Elangovan, Satheesh

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies point to the clinical utility of using peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF) as a valuable diagnostic aid for monitoring peri-implant tissue health. The objectives of this study are to determine the levels of key biomarkers in PISF in periodontal maintenance participants and compare them with their corresponding levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) obtained from the same participants. PISF and GCF were collected from an implant and a contralateral natural tooth after the clinical examination of 73 participants. The levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17A, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, C-reactive protein, osteoprotegerin, leptin, and adiponectin were determined using multiplex proteomic immunoassays. The correlation of biomarker concentrations between GCF versus PISF, within GCF or PISF, and with several covariates (age, brushing frequency, days since professional cleaning, probing depth [PD], and plaque index) were also determined. Significantly higher levels of IL-17A (P = 0.02) and TNF-α (P = 0.03) were noted in PISF when compared with their levels in GCF. Significant positive correlations were noted between the concentrations of cytokines in PISF versus their levels in GCF. Among the covariates, a significant positive correlation was noted between mean PDs around implants and levels of IL-1β (P periodontal maintenance patients, which is critical information before establishing PISF as a diagnostic fluid to monitor peri-implant health.

  5. Micronucleus assay for human peripheral blood lymphocytes as a biomarker of individual sensitivity to assessing radiation health risk in different population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, C.-M.; Jeon, H.-J.; Lee, Y.-S.; Lee, S.-J.; Jin, Y.-H.; Kim, Y.-H.; Kim, T.-W.; Cho, C.-K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Our studies were to evaluate micronucleus (MN) assay for human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL) as a biomarker of individual sensitivity to assessing radiation health risk in different population in Korea. Further studied are carried out to provide evidence for the existence of individual variations in age-dependent responses. For the MN assay, HPBLs were irradiated with doses of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8Gy 60 Co γ-rays. Spontaneous frequencies not only vary greatly between individuals, but also working or living areas because of the groups with different lifestyle living in different ecological situation and the reaction to radiation exposure. It was shown that the increased level of spontaneous cell with MN was observed with increased age. The relationship between radiosensitivity and the increased spontaneous level of MN may be in inverse proportion. Age and gender are the most important demographic variables impact on MN index with MN frequencies in female being greater than those in male by a factor of depending on the age group. For both sexes, MN frequency was significantly and positively correlated with age. The main lifestyle factors influencing the MN index in subjects are significantly and positively correlated with smoking in measuring the spontaneous frequencies of micronuclei. The described results show that the genetic damaged rate like MN index in human populations is correlated significantly with age, sex and lifestyle factors. So far, it is evident that with regard to the application of MN assay all future studies to evaluate radiation health risks in different population have to take into account the influence of age, gender, and lifestyle. The results suggested that the MN assay have a high potential to ensure appropriate quality control and standard documentation protocol which can be used to monitor a large population exposed to radiation epidemiologically. We conclude that the determination of individual radiosensitivity with MN assay is

  6. Comparison of quantification algorithms for circulating cell-free DNA methylation biomarkers in blood plasma from cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Luka; Gevensleben, Heidrun; Schröck, Andreas; Franzen, Alina; Kristiansen, Glen; Bootz, Friedrich; Dietrich, Dimo

    2017-01-01

    SHOX2 and SEPT9 methylation in circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) in blood are established powerful and clinically valuable biomarkers for diagnosis, staging, prognosis, and monitoring of cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate different quantification algorithms (relative quantification, absolute quantification, quasi-digital PCR) with regard to their clinical performance. Methylation analyses were performed in a training cohort (141 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma [HNSCC], 170 control cases) and a testing cohort (137 HNSCC cases, 102 controls). DNA was extracted from plasma samples, bisulfite-converted, and analyzed via quantitative real-time PCR. SHOX2 and SEPT9 methylations were assessed separately and as panel [mean SEPT9 / SHOX2 ] using the ΔCT method for absolute quantification and the ΔΔCT-method for relative quantification. Quasi-digital PCR was defined as the number of amplification-positive PCR replicates. The diagnostic (sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC)) and prognostic accuracy (hazard ratio (HR) from Cox regression) were evaluated. Sporadic methylation in control samples necessitated the introduction of cutoffs resulting in 61-63% sensitivity/90-92% specificity ( SEPT9 /training), 53-57% sensitivity/87-90% specificity ( SHOX2 /training), and 64-65% sensitivity/90-91% specificity (mean SEPT9 / SHOX2 /training). Results were confirmed in a testing cohort with 54-56% sensitivity/88-90% specificity ( SEPT9 /testing), 43-48% sensitivity/93-95% specificity ( SHOX2 /testing), and 49-58% sensitivity/88-94% specificity (mean SEPT9 / SHOX2 /testing). All algorithms showed comparable cutoff-independent diagnostic accuracy with largely overlapping 95% confidence intervals ( SEPT9 : AUC training  = 0.79-0.80; AUC testing  = 0.74-0.75; SHOX2 : AUC training  = 0.78-0.81, AUC testing  = 0.77-0.79; mean SEPT9 / SHOX2 : AUC training  = 0

  7. Effect of consumption of fresh and heated virgin coconut oil on the blood pressure and inflammatory biomarkers: An experimental study in Sprague Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Afiq Hamsi

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Repeatedly heated VCO caused an elevation in the BP. The BP elevation was associated with a significant increase in the inflammatory bio-markers (VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and CRP, TXB2 and a significant reduction in the plasma PGI2 level.

  8. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Anderson, Phil [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Taylor, Alan [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10

  9. Mercury levels in cord blood and meconium of healthy newborns and venous blood of their mothers: Clinical, prospective cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unuvar, Emin [Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Department of Pediatrics, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: Eunuvar@superonline.com; Ahmadov, Hasan [Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Department of Pediatrics, Istanbul (Turkey); Kiziler, Ali Riza [Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Department of Pediatrics, Istanbul (Turkey); Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Department of Biophysics, Istanbul (Turkey); Aydemir, Birsen [Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Department of Pediatrics, Istanbul (Turkey); Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Department of Biophysics, Istanbul (Turkey); Toprak, Sadik [Gazi Osman Pasa University, Department of Forensic Pathology, Tokat (Turkey); Ulker, Volkan [Bakirkoy Government Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Ark, Cemal [Bakirkoy Government Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2007-03-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the chronic mercury intoxication in pregnant women and newborns living in Istanbul, Turkey. Methods: The research was carried out as a prospective with 143 pregnant women and their newborns. Venous blood from the mother, cord blood from the neonate, and meconium were collected for mercury analysis. Frequency of fish and vegetable-eating and the number of teeth filled were investigated. Analyses were made in cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, {mu}g/L). Results: Mercury levels were 0.38 {+-} 0.5 {mu}g/L (0-2.34) in venous blood of pregnant women, 0.50 {+-} 0.64 {mu}g/L (0-2.36) in umbilical cord blood and 9.45 {+-} 13.8 {mu}g/g (0-66.5) in meconium. Maternal blood mercury level was lower than the known toxic limit for humans (EPA, 5 {mu}g/L). Mercury levels of the maternal venous blood were significantly correlated with umbilical cord blood. The primary risk factors affecting mercury levels were eating fishmeals more than twice a week and having filled teeth more than five. The fact that the mother had a regular vegetable diet everyday reduced the mercury levels. Increased levels of mercury in the mother and umbilical cord blood could lead to retarded newborns' weight and height. Conclusion: Pregnant women living in Istanbul may be not under the risk of chronic mercury intoxication. Fish consumption more than twice per week and tooth-filling of mother more than five may increase mercury level. On the contrary, regular diet rich in vegetable decreases the mercury level.

  10. Mercury levels in cord blood and meconium of healthy newborns and venous blood of their mothers: Clinical, prospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unuvar, Emin; Ahmadov, Hasan; Kiziler, Ali Riza; Aydemir, Birsen; Toprak, Sadik; Ulker, Volkan; Ark, Cemal

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the chronic mercury intoxication in pregnant women and newborns living in Istanbul, Turkey. Methods: The research was carried out as a prospective with 143 pregnant women and their newborns. Venous blood from the mother, cord blood from the neonate, and meconium were collected for mercury analysis. Frequency of fish and vegetable-eating and the number of teeth filled were investigated. Analyses were made in cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, μg/L). Results: Mercury levels were 0.38 ± 0.5 μg/L (0-2.34) in venous blood of pregnant women, 0.50 ± 0.64 μg/L (0-2.36) in umbilical cord blood and 9.45 ± 13.8 μg/g (0-66.5) in meconium. Maternal blood mercury level was lower than the known toxic limit for humans (EPA, 5 μg/L). Mercury levels of the maternal venous blood were significantly correlated with umbilical cord blood. The primary risk factors affecting mercury levels were eating fishmeals more than twice a week and having filled teeth more than five. The fact that the mother had a regular vegetable diet everyday reduced the mercury levels. Increased levels of mercury in the mother and umbilical cord blood could lead to retarded newborns' weight and height. Conclusion: Pregnant women living in Istanbul may be not under the risk of chronic mercury intoxication. Fish consumption more than twice per week and tooth-filling of mother more than five may increase mercury level. On the contrary, regular diet rich in vegetable decreases the mercury level

  11. Negative blood oxygen level dependent signals during speech comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Moreno, Diana; Schiff, Nicholas D; Hirsch, Joy

    2015-05-01

    Speech comprehension studies have generally focused on the isolation and function of regions with positive blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals with respect to a resting baseline. Although regions with negative BOLD signals in comparison to a resting baseline have been reported in language-related tasks, their relationship to regions of positive signals is not fully appreciated. Based on the emerging notion that the negative signals may represent an active function in language tasks, the authors test the hypothesis that negative BOLD signals during receptive language are more associated with comprehension than content-free versions of the same stimuli. Regions associated with comprehension of speech were isolated by comparing responses to passive listening to natural speech to two incomprehensible versions of the same speech: one that was digitally time reversed and one that was muffled by removal of high frequencies. The signal polarity was determined by comparing the BOLD signal during each speech condition to the BOLD signal during a resting baseline. As expected, stimulation-induced positive signals relative to resting baseline were observed in the canonical language areas with varying signal amplitudes for each condition. Negative BOLD responses relative to resting baseline were observed primarily in frontoparietal regions and were specific to the natural speech condition. However, the BOLD signal remained indistinguishable from baseline for the unintelligible speech conditions. Variations in connectivity between brain regions with positive and negative signals were also specifically related to the comprehension of natural speech. These observations of anticorrelated signals related to speech comprehension are consistent with emerging models of cooperative roles represented by BOLD signals of opposite polarity.

  12. Dextrose in the banked blood products does not seem to affect the blood glucose levels in patients undergoing liver transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kwok-Wai; Chen, Chao-Long; Cheng, Yu-Fan; Tseng, Chia-Chih; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Chen, Yaw-Sen; Wang, Chih-Chi; Huang, Tung-Liang; Eng, Hock-Liew; Chiu, King-Wah; Wang, Shih-Hor; Lin, Chih-Che; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Jawan, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Hyperglycemia commonly seen in liver transplantation (LT) has often been attributed to the dextrose in the storage solution of blood transfusion products. The purpose of the study is to compare the changes of the blood glucose levels in transfused and non-transfused patients during LT. METHODS: A retrospective study on 60 biliary pediatric patients and 16 adult patients undergoing LT was carried out. Transfused pediatric patients were included in Group I (GI), those not transfused in Group II (GII). Twelve adult patients were not given transfusion and assigned to Group III (GIII); whereas, four adult patients who received massive transfusion were assigned to Group IV (GIV). The blood glucose levels, volume of blood transfused, and the volume of crystalloid infused were recorded, compared and analyzed. RESULTS: Results showed that the changes in blood glucose levels during LT for both non-transfused and minimally transfused pediatric groups and non-transfused and massively-transfused adult groups were almost the same. CONCLUSION: We conclude that blood transfusion does not cause significant changes in the blood glucose levels in this study. PMID:15884124

  13. Expression profiling of blood samples from an SU5416 Phase III metastatic colorectal cancer clinical trial: a novel strategy for biomarker identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolich Beverly D

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray-based gene expression profiling is a powerful approach for the identification of molecular biomarkers of disease, particularly in human cancers. Utility of this approach to measure responses to therapy is less well established, in part due to challenges in obtaining serial biopsies. Identification of suitable surrogate tissues will help minimize limitations imposed by those challenges. This study describes an approach used to identify gene expression changes that might serve as surrogate biomarkers of drug activity. Methods Expression profiling using microarrays was applied to peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC samples obtained from patients with advanced colorectal cancer participating in a Phase III clinical trial. The PBMC samples were harvested pre-treatment and at the end of the first 6-week cycle from patients receiving standard of care chemotherapy or standard of care plus SU5416, a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK inhibitor. Results from matched pairs of PBMC samples from 23 patients were queried for expression changes that consistently correlated with SU5416 administration. Results Thirteen transcripts met this selection criterion; six were further tested by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of 62 additional samples from this trial and a second SU5416 Phase III trial of similar design. This method confirmed four of these transcripts (CD24, lactoferrin, lipocalin 2, and MMP-9 as potential biomarkers of drug treatment. Discriminant analysis showed that expression profiles of these 4 transcripts could be used to classify patients by treatment arm in a predictive fashion. Conclusions These results establish a foundation for the further exploration of peripheral blood cells as a surrogate system for biomarker analyses in clinical oncology studies.

  14. Expression profiling of blood samples from an SU5416 Phase III metastatic colorectal cancer clinical trial: a novel strategy for biomarker identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePrimo, Samuel E; Wong, Lily M; Khatry, Deepak B; Nicholas, Susan L; Manning, William C; Smolich, Beverly D; O'Farrell, Anne-Marie; Cherrington, Julie M

    2003-01-01

    Microarray-based gene expression profiling is a powerful approach for the identification of molecular biomarkers of disease, particularly in human cancers. Utility of this approach to measure responses to therapy is less well established, in part due to challenges in obtaining serial biopsies. Identification of suitable surrogate tissues will help minimize limitations imposed by those challenges. This study describes an approach used to identify gene expression changes that might serve as surrogate biomarkers of drug activity. Expression profiling using microarrays was applied to peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples obtained from patients with advanced colorectal cancer participating in a Phase III clinical trial. The PBMC samples were harvested pre-treatment and at the end of the first 6-week cycle from patients receiving standard of care chemotherapy or standard of care plus SU5416, a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor. Results from matched pairs of PBMC samples from 23 patients were queried for expression changes that consistently correlated with SU5416 administration. Thirteen transcripts met this selection criterion; six were further tested by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of 62 additional samples from this trial and a second SU5416 Phase III trial of similar design. This method confirmed four of these transcripts (CD24, lactoferrin, lipocalin 2, and MMP-9) as potential biomarkers of drug treatment. Discriminant analysis showed that expression profiles of these 4 transcripts could be used to classify patients by treatment arm in a predictive fashion. These results establish a foundation for the further exploration of peripheral blood cells as a surrogate system for biomarker analyses in clinical oncology studies

  15. TNF-Alpha Levels in Tears: A Novel Biomarker to Assess the Degree of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Costagliola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We assess the level of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha in tear fluids and other serum parameters associated with diabetes in different degrees of diabetic retinopathy. We have performed a prospective, nonrandomized, observational study. Study population consisted of 16 healthy subjects (controls and 32 type 2 diabetic patients: 16 affected by proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR and 16 with nonproliferative retinopathy (NDPR, background/preproliferative. Body mass index, urinary albumin, blood glucose, HbA1c, and tear levels of TNF-alpha were measured in all subjects. The value of glycaemia, microalbuminurea, and Body mass index in diabetic retinopathy groups were higher than those in control group (. Glycemia in NPDR: 6.6 mmol/L (range: 5.8–6.3; in PDR: 6.7 mmol/L (range: 6.1–7.2; in control: 5.7 mmol/L (range: 4.9–6.1; microalbuminurea in NPDR: 10.6 mg/L (range: 5.6–20; in PDR: 25.2 mg/L (range: 17–40; in control: 5.3 mg/L (range: 2.6–10; Body mass index in NPDR: 26 Kg/m2 (range: 20.3–40; in PDR: 28 Kg/m2 (range 20.3–52; in control: 21 Kg/m2 (range 19–26. The TNF-alpha concentrations in tears increase with the severity of pathology and were lower in control group than in diabetic subjects. In the end, the level of TNF-alpha is highly correlated with severity of diabetic retinopathy and with nephropathy. Tear fluid collection may be a useful noninvasive method for the detection of proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

  16. Blood lactate levels as a biomarker for angling-induced stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These data suggest that longer angling time significantly increases physiological stress, which may have an impact on breading success and mortality in tigerfish. Keywords: catch-and-release angling; fish; physiology; recreational fisheries management; stress. African Journal of Aquatic Science 2009, 34(3): 255–259 ...

  17. Manganese and lead levels in settled dust in elementary schools are correlated with biomarkers of exposure in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Juliana L G; Bandeira, Matheus J; Araújo, Cecília F S; Dos Santos, Nathália R; Anjos, Ana Laura S; Koin, Ng Lai; Pereira, Laiz C; Oliveira, Sérgio S P; Mergler, Donna; Menezes-Filho, José A

    2018-05-01

    Previously, we showed that manganese (Mn) levels in settled dust in elementary schools increased at a rate of 34.1% per km closer to a ferro-manganese alloy plant in the rainy season. In this study, we investigated how this environmental pollution indicator varied in the dry season and if there was an association with Mn biomarker levels in school-aged children. Dust samples were collected with passive samplers (disposable Petri dishes) placed in interior and exterior environments of 14 elementary schools. Occipital hair, toenails and blood samples were collected from 173 students aged 7-12 years from three of these schools, with varying distance from the industrial plant. Mn and lead (Pb) levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Mn concentration geometric means (GM) in dust fall accumulation in interior environments of schools located at 2, 4, 6 and > 6 km-radii from the plant were 2212, 584, 625 and 224 μg Mn/m 2 /30 days, respectively. The modelled rate of change of dust Mn levels decreases by 59.8% for each km further from the plant. Pb levels in settled dust varied between 18 and 81 μg/m 2 /30 days with no association with distance from the plant. Blood lead levels median (range) were 1.2 μg/dL (0.2-15.6), of which 97.8% were children's age; and also with log MnTn (β = 2.31 × 10 -5 , p children exposure to Mn, independently of age, increases significantly with school proximity to the ferro-manganese alloy plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The δ13C Value of Fingerstick Blood Is a Valid, Reliable, and Sensitive Biomarker of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Carly R; Hill, Catelyn E; Jahren, A Hope; Savla, Jyoti; Riebl, Shaun K; Hedrick, Valisa E; Raynor, Hollie A; Dunsmore, Julie C; Frisard, Madlyn I; Davy, Brenda M

    2018-01-01

    Reliance on self-reported dietary intake methods is a commonly cited research limitation, and dietary misreporting is a particular problem in children and adolescents. Objective indicators of dietary intake, such as dietary biomarkers, are needed to overcome this research limitation. The added sugar (AS) biomarker δ13C, which measures the relative abundance of 13C to 12C, has demonstrated preliminary validity in adults. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the comparative validity, test-retest reliability, and sensitivity of the δ13C biomarker to detect AS and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake using fingerstick blood samples in children and adolescents. Children (aged 6-11 y, n = 126, 56% male, mean ± SD age: 9 ± 2 y) and adolescents (aged 12-18 y, n = 200, 44% male, mean ± SD age: 15 ± 2 y) completed 4 testing sessions within a 3-wk period. Participants' height, weight, demographic characteristics, and health history were determined at the first session; 24-h recalls were obtained at each visit and fingerstick blood samples were collected at visits 1 and 3. Samples were analyzed for δ13C value using natural abundance stable isotope mass spectrometry. δ13C value was compared with dietary outcomes in the full sample, and in child and adolescent subgroups. t Tests and correlational analyses were used to assess biomarker validity and reliability, whereas logistic regression and area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC) were used to evaluate sensitivity. Reported mean ± SD AS consumption was 82.2 ± 35.8 g/d and 329 ± 143 kcal/d, and SSB consumption was 222 ± 243 mL/d and 98 ± 103 kcal/d. Mean δ13C value was -19.65 ± 0.69‰, and was lower in children than in adolescents (-19.80 ± 0.67‰ compared with -19.56 ± 0.67‰, P = 0.002). δ13C values were similar across sessions (visit 1: -19.66 ± 0.68‰; visit 3: -19.64 ± 0.68‰; r = 0.99, P AUC (0.75 and 0.62, respectively). The δ13C biomarker is a promising

  19. Evaluation the effect of silver nanoparticles on oxidative stress biomarkers in blood serum and liver and kidney tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Tashakori Miyanroudi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs are one of the most widely used nanomaterials recently. Despite the wide application of nanomaterials, there is limited information concerning their impact on human health and the environment. This study aimed to find the effects of Ag-NPs (40 nm on blood serum, liver and kidney tissues of homing pigeons (Columbia livia.Materials and Methods: Columba livia, in vivo model used in ecotoxicity experiments were gavaged 3 times daily with 75 and 150 ppm of Ag-NPs within 14 days. A group of 30 Pigeon were randomly divided into three groups: Ag-NPs exposed and control groups (n=10. Data analysis was counducted by performing one-way variance (ANOVA in SPSS.v.16.0                                                                         Results: The results of this study illustrated that in the enzyme activity of Glutathione S –transferase (GST, Aspartate amino transferase (AST, Alanine amino transferase (ALT and lactate dehydrogenas (LDH there is a significant difference between treatment groups with Ag-NPs and the control group. Also, lipid peroxidation (LPO analysis and catalase activity CAT suggest Ag-NPs cause the main damage to the liver tissue. On the other hand: Ag-NPs have toxic and harmful effects in both concentrations (75 and 150 ppm, and cause LPO induction, oxidative stress and increase of biomarkers of liver necrosis in under treatment pigeons.Conclusion: The results of this study show that the organism’s exposure to Ag-NPs cause toxicity that is dose-dependant. in this study, the highest damage was observed in the liver. However, this issue will have to be considered more extensively in further studies.

  20. Blood glucose level reconstruction as a function of transcapillary glucose transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutny, Tomas

    2014-10-01

    A diabetic patient occasionally undergoes a detailed monitoring of their glucose levels. Over the course of a few days, a monitoring system provides a detailed track of their interstitial fluid glucose levels measured in their subcutaneous tissue. A discrepancy in the blood and interstitial fluid glucose levels is unimportant because the blood glucose levels are not measured continuously. Approximately five blood glucose level samples are taken per day, and the interstitial fluid glucose level is usually measured every 5min. An increased frequency of blood glucose level sampling would cause discomfort for the patient; thus, there is a need for methods to estimate blood glucose levels from the glucose levels measured in subcutaneous tissue. The Steil-Rebrin model is widely used to describe the relationship between blood and interstitial fluid glucose dynamics. However, we measured glucose level patterns for which the Steil-Rebrin model does not hold. Therefore, we based our research on a different model that relates present blood and interstitial fluid glucose levels to future interstitial fluid glucose levels. Using this model, we derived an improved model for calculating blood glucose levels. In the experiments conducted, this model outperformed the Steil-Rebrin model while introducing no additional requirements for glucose sample collection. In subcutaneous tissue, 26.71% of the calculated blood glucose levels had absolute values of relative differences from smoothed measured blood glucose levels less than or equal to 5% using the Steil-Rebrin model. However, the same difference interval was encountered in 63.01% of the calculated blood glucose levels using the proposed model. In addition, 79.45% of the levels calculated with the Steil-Rebrin model compared with 95.21% of the levels calculated with the proposed model had 20% difference intervals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of blood lead levels of mothers and cord blood in intrauterine growth retarded neonates and normal term neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iranpour, R.; Besharati, Amir A.; Nasseri, F.; Hashemipour, M.; Kelishadi, R.; Balali-Mood, M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to compare the blood lead levels of mothers and cord blood in intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR) neonates and normal term neonates. From April 2005, we carried out a cross-sectional, prospective study in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Blood lead levels were measured in the umbilical cord and maternal venous blood samples in the 32 mother-infant pairs with IUGR full term neonates and 34 mother-infant pairs with normal full term neonates. Blood-lead levels were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean lead concentration in neonates of IUGR and normal groups was not significantly different (107.47+- 16.75 versus 113.08+-19.08 ug/L, p=0.2). The mean lead concentration in mothers of IUGR group was lower than normal groups, but this difference was not significant (124.56+-19.71 versus 135.26+-26.91 ug/L, p=0.07). Maternal lead levels were strongly related with related with cord blood in both IUGR and normal groups (r=0.8, p 100ug/L by the centers for disease control; however, this was not statistically different between the groups. Our results indicate that the mean lead level was not higher in IUGR neonates, and the whole blood lead was not related to the birth weight. In addition, maternal and cord blood lead levels were strongly correlated, and there were remarkable lead burdens on both the mothers and their neonates in this industrial area. (author)

  2. Serum levels of angiotensin converting enzyme as a biomarker of liver fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Aline Silva; Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The renin angiotensin system (RAS) is classically conceived as a circulating hormonal system involved in blood pressure control and hydroelectrolyte balance. The discovery that RAS components are locally expressed in a wide range of organs and tissues, including the liver, pointed to a role for this system in the pathogenesis of several conditions including hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. It has been widely reported that the classical RAS axis composed by the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-angiotensin (Ang) II-Ang type 1 (AT1) receptor mediates pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic, and pro-fibrotic processes. On the other hand, the alternative axis comprising ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas receptor seems to play a protective role by frequently opposing Ang II action. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is one of the leading causes of liver fibrosis, accounting for the death of nearly one million people worldwide. Liver fibrosis is a key factor to determine therapeutic interventions for patients with CHB. However, the establishment of non-invasive and accurate methods to detect reversible stages of liver fibrosis is still a challenge. In an elegant study published in the 36th issue of the World Journal of Gastroenterology, Noguchi et al showed the predictive value of serum ACE levels in detecting not only advanced stages of liver fibrosis but also initial and intermediate fibrotic stages. The serum levels of ACE might represent an accurate, non-invasive, widely available, and easy method to evaluate fibrosis related to CHB. Moreover, therapies involving the inhibition of the classical RAS axis components might be promising in the control of CHB-related liver fibrosis. PMID:29358853

  3. Quantify Glucose Level in Freshly Diabetic's Blood by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Chen, Xiaofeng; Ma, Shihua; Wu, Xiumei; Yang, Wenxing; Zhang, Weifeng; Li, Xiao

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate the capability of terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) to quantify glucose level in ex vivo freshly diabetic's blood. By investigating the THz spectra of different human blood, we find out THz absorption coefficients reflect a high sensitivity to the glucose level in blood. With a quantitative analysis of 70 patients, we demonstrate that the THz absorption coefficients and the blood glucose levels perform a linear relationship. A comparative experiment between THz measurement and glucometers is also conducted with another 20 blood samples, and the results confirm that the relative error is as less as 15%. Our ex vivo human blood study indicates that THz technique has great potential application to diagnose blood glucose level in clinical practice.

  4. Blood lead levels of traffic- and gasoline-exposed professionals in the city of Athens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapaki, E.N.; Varelas, P.N.; Syrigou, A.I.; Spanaki, M.V.; Andreadou, E.; Kakami, A.E.; Papageorgiou, C.T.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 10 y, blood lead levels in the population of Athens, Greece, have decreased steadily. This decrease has paralleled the reduction of tetraethyl lead in gasoline and the introduction of unleaded fuel. Blood lead levels and other parameters were studied in 42 gas-station employees, 47 taxi drivers, 47 bus drivers, and 36 controls, all of whom worked in Athens. The blood lead levels did not differ significantly among the four groups. Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase were elevated in gas-station employees, and the former was elevated in taxi drivers. Gas-station employees who smoked had higher blood lead levels than their nonsmoking counterparts. The absence of any difference in the blood lead levels of individuals for whom physical examinations were either normal or abnormal suggests that either lead was not the cause of increased blood lead levels or that its contribution may have been important in the past

  5. Acute effect of different concentrations of cayenne pepper cataplasm on sensory-motor functions and serum levels of inflammation-related biomarkers in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejc Šarabon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical medicine therapies are often used in treating widespread musculoskeletal disorders, such as neck and low back pain. Herbal cataplasms containing rubefacient substances, such as Cayenne pepper, or galenic preparations like Munari cataplasm are commonly used as natural medications to treat painful areas. In this paper we show the effects of a 20-min application of Cayenne pepper and kaolin powder cataplasm (CPC on healthy subjects. Treatment effects were evaluated by cold/hot feeling on visual analogue scale, blood pressure, body temperature, skin light touch sensations, two-point discrimination, and pain threshold to a mechanical stimulus, before and immediately after, 15 min after and 30 min after different concentration of Cayenne pepper in CPC preparation on healthy subjects. Maximal voluntary trunk extension force and trunk extension submaximal force matching error were also measured. In addition, the resulting optimal CPC mixture was tested for its safety by measuring changes in circulating levels of inflammatory-related biomarkers after 20-min application. The results indicate that the 5% concentration of Cayenne pepper in the preparation of CPC is the best choice, since no additional effects can be obtained with the 10% concentration, and the effects are higher than those observed at the 2.5% concentration. Importantly, 5% CPC application did not induce a significant increase of inflammatory-related biomarkers, suggesting that 20-min application has no negative side effects at systemic levels. Further studies are needed to investigate the immediate and long-term effects of repeated CPC applications as well as to understand the intersecting underlying mechanisms activated by Capsaicin and other identified factors, in order to be more extensively used in the field of physical medicine therapies.

  6. Protease Expression Levels in Prostate Cancer Tissue Can Explain Prostate Cancer-Associated Seminal Biomarkers-An Explorative Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Jochen; Schiffer, Eric; Mannello, Ferdinando; Horn, Lars-Christian; Ganzer, Roman; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe

    2017-05-04

    Previously, we described prostate cancer (PCa) detection (83% sensitivity; 67% specificity) in seminal plasma by CE-MS/MS. Moreover, advanced disease was distinguished from organ-confined tumors with 80% sensitivity and 82% specificity. The discovered biomarkers were naturally occurring fragments of larger seminal proteins, predominantly semenogelin 1 and 2, representing endpoints of the ejaculate liquefaction. Here we identified proteases putatively involved in PCa specific protein cleavage, and examined gene expression and tissue protein levels, jointly with cell localization in normal prostate (nP), benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), seminal vesicles and PCa using qPCR, Western blotting and confocal laser scanning microscopy. We found differential gene expression of chymase (CMA1), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP3, MMP7), and upregulation of MMP14 and tissue inhibitors (TIMP1 and TIMP2) in BPH. In contrast tissue protein levels of MMP14 were downregulated in PCa. MMP3/TIMP1 and MMP7/TIMP1 ratios were decreased in BPH. In seminal vesicles, we found low-level expression of most proteases and, interestingly, we also detected TIMP1 and low levels of TIMP2. We conclude that MMP3 and MMP7 activity is different in PCa compared to BPH due to fine regulation by their inhibitor TIMP1. Our findings support the concept of seminal plasma biomarkers as non-invasive tool for PCa detection and risk stratification.

  7. Influence of Machine-Derived Smoke Yields on Biomarker of Exposure (BOE Levels in Cigarette Smokers*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherer Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual uptake of tobacco smoke constituents by smoking is highly variable in cigarette smokers and cannot be predicted by smoking behaviour variables and machine-derived smoke yields. It is well established that uptake of smoke constituents is best described by a series of bio-markers of exposure (BOEs such as metabolites of nico-tine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, aromatic amines, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acrolein, hydrogen cyanide, 2,5-dimethyl-furan and other smoke constituents.

  8. Association between iron deficiency anemia and blood level in egyptian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, E.M.; Moawad, A.T.; Abd Alla, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between iron deficiency and blood lead levels was investigated in a cross-sectional study of 200 children of both sexes, aged 6-12 years with mean of 7.8 +- 2.6 years. They were randomly selected from governmental primary school located near a highly contaminated industrial area. Blood samples were collected for measuring blood lead levels, serum iron serum ferritin, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and other hematological indices. According to iron status, children were classified into non-anemic healthy controls(n=37),iron depleted children(n=58)and children with iron deficiency anemia (n=105).Iron deficiency is defined when MCV 10 / dl were significantly lower than those for children with blood lead levels < 10 /dl. Comparison of blood lead concentrations between boys and girls revealed highly significant increase in blood lead level in boys than girls. A strong negative correlation was detected between blood lead levels and serum iron in all subjects. However, such correlation vanished between blood lead concentration and serum ferritin,so, it could be concluded from the present study that the blood lead levels were changed according to changes in iron status. Improving iron status, along with reducing exposure to environmental contamination with lead, may help in reducing blood lead levels among most children especially those living in contaminated environment

  9. Correlation between high blood IL-6 level, hyperglycemia, and glucose control in septic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masataka; Oda, Shigeto; Sadahiro, Tomohito; Watanabe, Eizo; Abe, Ryuzo; Nakada, Taka-Aki; Morita, Yasumasa; Hirasawa, Hiroyuki

    2012-12-12

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the blood IL-6 level, the blood glucose level, and glucose control in septic patients. This retrospective observational study in a general ICU of a university hospital included a total of 153 patients with sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock who were admitted to the ICU between 2005 and 2010, stayed in the ICU for 7 days or longer, and did not receive steroid therapy prior to or after ICU admission. The severity of stress hyperglycemia, status of glucose control, and correlation between those two factors in these patients were investigated using the blood IL-6 level as an index of hypercytokinemia. A significant positive correlation between blood IL-6 level and blood glucose level on ICU admission was observed in the overall study population (n = 153; r = 0.24, P = 0.01), and was stronger in the nondiabetic subgroup (n = 112; r = 0.42, P glucose control (blood glucose level blood IL-6 level on ICU admission (P blood IL-6 level after ICU admission remained significantly higher and the 60-day survival rate was significantly lower in the failed glucose control group than in the successful glucose control group (P blood IL-6 level was correlated with hyperglycemia and with difficulties in glucose control in septic patients. These results suggest the possibility that hypercytokinemia might be involved in the development of hyperglycemia in sepsis, and thereby might affect the success of glucose control.

  10. Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 in Plasma from Soluble Leishmania Antigen-Stimulated Whole Blood as a Potential Biomarker of the Cellular Immune Response to Leishmania infantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V. Ibarra-Meneses

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available New biomarkers are needed to identify asymptomatic Leishmania infection as well as immunity following vaccination or treatment. With the aim of finding a robust biomarker to assess an effective cellular immune response, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1 was examined in plasma from soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA-stimulated whole blood collected from subjects living in a Leishmania infantum-endemic area. MCP-1, expressed 110 times more strongly than IL-2, identified 87.5% of asymptomatic subjects and verified some asymptomatic subjects close to the cutoff. MCP-1 was also significantly elevated in all patients cured of visceral leishmaniasis (VL, unlike IL-2, indicating the specific memory response generated against Leishmania. These results show MCP-1 to be a robust candidate biomarker of immunity that could be used as a marker of cure and to both select and follow the population in vaccine phase I–III human clinical trials with developed rapid, easy-to-use field tools.

  11. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Long-Lian; Lu, Ling; Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang; Xu, Da-Yong; Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established

  12. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long-Lian, E-mail: Longlian57@163.com [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Lu, Ling [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Xu, Da-Yong [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  13. IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-3, and IL-1RA hold promise as biomarkers for infection with M. tuberculosis in a whole blood based T-cell assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, Morten; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Rabna, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    and mitogen in the Quantiferon In Tube test tubes. Levels of biomarkers were measured using Luminex and ELISA (IFN-gamma). RESULTS: We found all five new biomarkers were expressed in significantly higher concentrations compared to IFN-gamma. IP-10 and MCP-3 levels in the un-stimulated samples were higher...

  14. Fibrocyte measurement in peripheral blood correlates with number of cultured mature fibrocytes in vitro and is a potential biomarker for interstitial lung disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Søren Andreas; Lindegaard, Hanne; Hejbøl, Eva Kildall

    2017-01-01

    using flow cytometry on lysed peripheral blood. Further, we showed for the first time, that the level of circulating fibrocytes correlated with the number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, that differentiated into mature fibrocytes in vitro. Reduced DLCOc was correlated with high levels...

  15. A Study on the Correlation between Cord Blood Glucose Level and the Apgar Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kalyan; Saha, Ashis Ranjan

    2013-02-01

    The study of the biochemical parameters of cord blood acts as a mirror, which usually reflects the neonatal status. The widely used system for the evaluation of a neonate is the Apgar score. There is no comprehensive published data which has established the association between the cord blood glucose level and the Apgar score. Similarly, there is also no well accepted reference range of the cord blood glucose level. The main objectives of the present study was to ascertain any adverse effects of an abnormal cord blood glucose level on the neonatal status and to find out a standard reference level of glucose in cord blood. The cord blood glucose estimation was done by using the glucose oxidase peroxidase method and the statistical analysis was performed by using the SPSS, version 16 software. In the present study, the cord blood glucose level was found to have no correlation with the Apgar scores which were calculated at both one minute and five minutes after birth. It was also found that for the foetus to be free from any obvious complication, the cord blood glucose level had to be around 87 mg/dl. The fluctuations in the maternal glucose levels are weakly associated with the glucose level in the cord blood.

  16. The influence of radiographic phenotype and smoking status on peripheral blood biomarker patterns in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Bon

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by both airway remodeling and parenchymal destruction. The identification of unique biomarker patterns associated with airway dominant versus parenchymal dominant patterns would support the existence of unique phenotypes representing independent biologic processes. A cross-sectional study was performed to examine the association of serum biomarkers with radiographic airway and parenchymal phenotypes of COPD.Serum from 234 subjects enrolled in a CT screening cohort was analyzed for 33 cytokines and growth factors using a multiplex protein array. The association of serum markers with forced expiratory volume in one second percent predicted (FEV1% and quantitative CT measurements of airway thickening and emphysema was assessed with and without stratification for current smoking status. Significant associations were found with several serum inflammatory proteins and measurements of FEV1%, airway thickening, and parenchymal emphysema independent of smoking status. The association of select analytes with airway thickening and emphysema was independent of FEV1%. Furthermore, the relationship between other inflammatory markers and measurements of physiologic obstruction or airway thickening was dependent on current smoking status.Airway and parenchymal phenotypes of COPD are associated with unique systemic serum biomarker profiles. Serum biomarker patterns may provide a more precise classification of the COPD syndrome, provide insights into disease pathogenesis and identify targets for novel patient-specific biological therapies.

  17. Effect of pertussis toxin pretreated centrally on blood glucose level induced by stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hong-Won; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Im, Hyun-Ju; Hong, Jae-Seung

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of pertussis toxin (PTX) administered centrally in a variety of stress-induced blood glucose level. Mice were exposed to stress after the pretreatment of PTX (0.05 or 0.1 µg) i.c.v. or i.t. once for 6 days. Blood glucose level was measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after stress stimulation. The blood glucose level was increased in all stress groups. The blood glucose level reached at maximum level after 30 min of stress stimulation and returned to a normal level after 2 h of stress stimulation in restraint stress, physical, and emotional stress groups. The blood glucose level induced by cold-water swimming stress was gradually increased up to 1 h and returned to the normal level. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment with PTX, a Gi inhibitor, alone produced a hypoglycemia and almost abolished the elevation of the blood level induced by stress stimulation. The central pretreatment with PTX caused a reduction of plasma insulin level, whereas plasma corticosterone level was further up-regulated in all stress models. Our results suggest that the hyperglycemia produced by physical stress, emotional stress, restraint stress, and the cold-water swimming stress appear to be mediated by activation of centrally located PTX-sensitive G proteins. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX appears to due to the reduction of plasma insulin level. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX was accompanied by the reduction of plasma insulin level. Plasma corticosterone level up-regulation by PTX in stress models may be due to a blood glucose homeostatic mechanism.

  18. Impact of methods used to express levels of circulating fatty acids on the degree and direction of associations with blood lipids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Susan; Ruczinski, Ingo; Ivester, Priscilla; Lee, Tammy C; Morgan, Timothy M; Nicklas, Barbara J; Mathias, Rasika A; Chilton, Floyd H

    2016-01-28

    Numerous studies have examined relationships between disease biomarkers (such as blood lipids) and levels of circulating or cellular fatty acids. In such association studies, fatty acids have typically been expressed as the percentage of a particular fatty acid relative to the total fatty acids in a sample. Using two human cohorts, this study examined relationships between blood lipids (TAG, and LDL, HDL or total cholesterol) and circulating fatty acids expressed either as a percentage of total or as concentration in serum. The direction of the correlation between stearic acid, linoleic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid and DHA and circulating TAG reversed when fatty acids were expressed as concentrations v. a percentage of total. Similar reversals were observed for these fatty acids when examining their associations with the ratio of total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol. This reversal pattern was replicated in serum samples from both human cohorts. The correlations between blood lipids and fatty acids expressed as a percentage of total could be mathematically modelled from the concentration data. These data reveal that the different methods of expressing fatty acids lead to dissimilar correlations between blood lipids and certain fatty acids. This study raises important questions about how such reversals in association patterns impact the interpretation of numerous association studies evaluating fatty acids and their relationships with disease biomarkers or risk.

  19. Sex hormone levels in spermatic and peripheral venous blood in patients with varicocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Mang; He Xuejun; Wang Luhua; Fang Lingli; Xi Baoshan; Hong Hanye; Yang Fengtao; She Shaoyi

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the mechanism of changes of plasma sex hormone levels in patients with varicocele. Methods: Plasma sex hormones (LH, FSH, T) levels in spermatic and peripheral venous blood in 25 patients with varicocele and 22 patients with inguinal hernia were measured and compared. Results: The plasma T levels of spermatic venous blood in varicocele group were lower than those in inguinal hernia group (p 0.05). Conclusion: The sex hormones concentrations in peripheral blood could be influenced by many factors, making interpretation difficult. The concentration of plasma sex hormone in spermatic venous blood might reflect the truth better

  20. Critical congenital heart defects and abnormal levels of routinely collected first- and second-trimester biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Melissa; Baer, Rebecca J; Chambers, Christina D; Smith, Tyler C; Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Laura L

    2017-02-01

    We examined the association between maternal characteristics, routinely collected first- and second-trimester biomarkers and the risk of having an infant with a critical congenital heart defect (CCHD). Included were women who participated in the California Prenatal Screening Program who had nuchal translucency (NT) measurement and first- and second-trimester serum screening. All pregnancies ended in a live birth of an infant without aneuploidy or a neural tube defect. Poisson regression analyses were used to estimate the relative risk and 95% confidence interval of a CCHD by maternal characteristics, first- and second-trimester serum biomarkers or NT measurements. The sample included 118,194 mother-infant pairs; 284 infants had a CCHD. Women with preexisting diabetes were three-times as likely to have an infant with a CCHD. After adjusting for preexisting diabetes, women with first-trimester human chorionic gonatotropin (hCG) measurement <10th centile were 1.6-times as likely to have an infant with a CCHD (P = 0.011). Women with a NT measurement ≥95th centile were at two- to threefold higher risk of having an infant with a CCHD (P's = 0.004-0.007). Pregnancies with two risk factors for an infant with a CCHD were 5.6-times more likely to have an infant with a CCHD than women with no identified risk factors (P < 0.001). Despite the increased risk, performance testing demonstrated low sensitivity and specificity for screening use of these risk factors. Of the women with an infant with a CCHD, only 21.8% had an identified risk factor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Biochemical changes correlated with blood thiamine and its phosphate esters levels in patients with diabetes type 1 (DMT1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Alharbi, Mohammed; Wani, Kaiser; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Sheshah, Eman; Alokail, Majed S

    2015-01-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential enzyme cofactor in most organisms required at several stages of anabolic and catabolic intermediary metabolism. However, little is known on the positive effects of thiamine in diabetic type 1 (DMT1) patients. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the biochemical changes related to thiamine deficiency in patients with DMT1 outcomes among Saudi adults. We hypothesized that blood thiamine deficiency in patients with DMT1 manifestations might lead to an increase in metabolic syndrome. A total of 77 patients with DMT1 (age 35.8 ± 5.5) and 81 controls (age 45.0 ± 18.1) (total N = 158) were randomly selected from the Riyadh Cohort Study for inclusion. Saudi adults with diabetes type 1, a significant decrease in systolic (P < 0.001), and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.008) and microalbuminuria (P = 0.02). Moreover, cholesterol, glucose and triglycerides were significantly increased (P 0.001, 0.001 and 0.008, respectively) in patients with diabetes type 1 compared to controls. On the other hand, HDL, TMP, TDP and thiamine, were significantly decreased in patients with diabetes type 1 (P 0.005, 0.002, 0.005, and 0.002), respectively. A strong association between blood thiamine level and diabetes type 1 was detected in our study population. The results confirmed the role of thiamine and thiamine phosphate esters, in preventing metabolic changes and complications of diabetes type 1. The levels of these thiamine and thiamine phosphate esters were correlated with diabetes related biomarkers including HDL, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol, as well as microalbuminuria, LDL and urine thiamine. The results support a pivotal role of blood thiamine and its phosphate esters in preventing the biochemical changes and complications in patients with DMT1.

  2. Gingival crevicular blood for screening of blood glucose level in patients with & without diabetes: a chair-side test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, M V; Brahmbhatt, N A; Sahayata, V; Bhavsar, N V

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes is a pandemic disease with increasing prevalence and serious complications. Periodontitis being one of its presentation and is its sixth recognized complication. This study compares blood glucose levels in gingival crevicular blood of patients with and without diabetes elicited during routine periodontal probing and venous blood sample. Seventy patients with moderate gingivitis and periodontitis positive for bleeding on probing were chosen. All the subjects were divided in two groups, group I consisted of 35 diabetic and group II of 35 non-diabetic subjects. Blood from the gingiva of the most inflamed site was collected with the test strip of a glucose self-monitoring device, and the blood glucose levels were measured. At the same time, intravenous blood was collected for measurement in a laboratory glucose analyzer. Gingival index and probing pocket depth were evaluated for each subject at same time. The mean GCB levels and VB derived from all samples were 156.07 ± 49.23 mg dl(-1) and 156 ± 49.89 mg dl(-1) , respectively, for diabetic group and 90.80 ± 11.07 and 93.41 ± 9.30 for non-diabetic group. In both the groups, the difference between GCB and VB glucose levels was non-significant (P > 0.005). Highly significant correlation between GCB and VB (r = 0.972 for diabetic and r = 0.721 for non-diabetic) in both the groups was found. The data from this study show that GCB collected during diagnostic periodontal examination can be an excellent source for estimation of blood sugar or glucometric analysis. This technique is also suitable for routine screening of diabetic and early diagnosis of unknown diabetic cases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Analysis of relationship between blood lipid metabolism levels and hs-CRP levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Fengjian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between blood lipid metabolism levels and hs-CRP levels in the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: The levels of plasma blood lipid (with biochemistry) and serum hs-CRP(with high-sensitive immuno turbidimetry) were determined in 96 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as well as 68 normal controls. Results: The plasma blood lipid levels in 96 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were significantly lower than those in 68 controls, plasma TC and LDL-C levels were not much difference (P>0.05), plasma HDL-C level was significantly difference (P<0.05), but TG and Lp (a) levels were very prominently difference (P<0.01). And the plasma hs-CRP level was significantly increased also (P<0.01). The close relationship was between blood lipid and hs-CRP levels. Conclusion: The study of relationship between blood lipid levels and hs-CRP levels in patients with COPD was helpful for understand the disease process as well as possible mechanisms. (authors)

  4. Noninvasive measurement of blood glucose level using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Kiriko; Kino, Saiko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2017-04-01

    For non-invasive measurement of blood glucose level, attenuated total reflection (ATR) absorption spectroscopy system using a QCL as a light source was developed. The results of measurement of glucose solutions showed that the system had a sensitivity that was enough for blood glucose measurement. In-vivo measurement using the proposed system based on QCL showed that there was a correlation between absorptions measured with human lips and blood glucose level.

  5. String Bean Juice Decreases Blood Glucose Level Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Harmayetty, Harmayetty; Krisnana, Ilya; Anisa, Faida

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is deficiency of insulin and caused by decreases of insulin receptor or bad quality of insulin. As a result, insulin hormone does not work effectively in blood glucose regulation. String bean juice contains thiamin and fiber may regulate blood glucose level. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of string bean juice to decrease blood glucose level of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: This study employed a quasy-experimental pre-po...

  6. An Investigation of Modifying Effects of Metallothionein Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms on the Association between Mercury Exposure and Biomarker Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Gillespie, Brenda; Werner, Robert; Basu, Niladri

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested that several genes that mediate mercury metabolism are polymorphic in humans. Objective: We hypothesized that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in metallothionein (MT) genes may underlie interindividual differences in mercury biomarker levels. We studied the potential modifying effects of MT SNPs on mercury exposure–biomarker relationships. Methods: We measured total mercury in urine and hair samples of 515 dental professionals. We also surveyed occupational and personal exposures to dental amalgam and dietary fish consumption, from which daily methylmercury (MeHg) intake was estimated. Log-transformed urine and hair levels were modeled in multivariable linear regression separately against respective exposure surrogates, and the effect modification of 13 MT SNPs on exposure was investigated. Results: The mean mercury levels in urine (1.06 μg/L) and hair (0.51 μg/g) were not significantly different from the U.S. general population (0.95 μg/L and 0.47 μg/g, respectively). The mean estimated daily MeHg intake was 0.084 μg/kg/day (range, 0–0.98 μg/kg/day), with 25% of study population intakes exceeding the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reference dose of 0.1 μg/kg/day. Multivariate regression analysis showed that subjects with the MT1M (rs2270837) AA genotype (n = 10) or the MT2A (rs10636) CC genotype (n = 42) had lower urinary mercury levels than did those with the MT1M or MT2A GG genotype (n = 329 and 251, respectively) after controlling for exposure and potential confounders. After controlling for MeHg intake, subjects with MT1A (rs8052394) GA and GG genotypes (n = 24) or the MT1M (rs9936741) TT genotype (n = 459) had lower hair mercury levels than did subjects with MT1A AA (n = 113) or MT1M TC and CC genotypes (n = 15), respectively. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that some MT genetic polymorphisms may influence mercury biomarker concentrations at levels of exposure relevant to the general

  7. Serological biomarkers in triage of FIT-positive subjects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Andersen, Berit

    2017-01-01

    with neoplastic lesions missed by increased cut-off levels appears to be much higher than expected. Therefore, tests that identify those patients missed by increased FIT cut-off levels must be developed. Preliminary results of determination of one of several biomarker entities currently under investigation show...... that nucleosome blood tests may be one option for identifying some of these patients. Implementation of a triage test consisting of FIT, blood-based biomarkers and plus/minus colonoscopy is suggested to identify subjects with FIT levels between the initial and the increased cut-off level that must be offered...

  8. Effects of end-stage renal disease and dialysis modalities on blood ammonia level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, Nosratola D; Khazaeli, Mahyar; Nunes, Ane C F; Harley, Kevin T; Said, Hyder; Alipour, Omeed; Lau, Wei Ling; Pahl, Madeleine V

    2017-07-01

    Uremia results in a characteristic breath odor (uremic fetor) which is largely due to its high ammonia content. Earlier studies have shown a strong correlation between breath ammonia and blood urea levels and a 10-fold reduction in breath ammonia after hemodialysis in patients with chronic kidney disease. Potential sources of breath ammonia include: (i) local ammonia production from hydrolysis of urea in the oropharyngeal and respiratory tracts by bacterial flora, and (ii) release of circulating blood ammonia by the lungs. While the effects of uremia and hemodialysis on breath ammonia are well known their effects on blood ammonia are unknown and were explored here. Blood samples were obtained from 23 hemodialysis patients (immediately before and after dialysis), 14 peritoneal dialysis patients, and 10 healthy controls. Blood levels of ammonia, creatinine, urea, and electrolytes were measured. No significant difference was found in baseline blood ammonia between hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and control groups. Hemodialysis procedure led to a significant reduction in urea concentration (P ammonia level in 10 of the 23 patients studied. Change in blood ammonia pre- and post-hemodialysis correlated with change in serum bicarbonate levels (r = 0.61, P ammonia levels after dialysis, there was a strong correlation with drop in mean arterial pressure (r = 0.88, P ammonia compared to the patients who manifested a fall in blood ammonia (124 ± 8 vs. 136 ± 6 mmHg respectively, P = 0.27). Fall in blood urea following hemodialysis in ESRD patients was paradoxically accompanied by a modest rise in blood ammonia levels in 43% of the patients studied, contrasting prior reported effects of hemodialysis on breath ammonia. In this subgroup of patients, changes in blood ammonia during hemodialysis correlated with rise in blood bicarbonate and fall in mean arterial blood pressure. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  9. Blood pressure levels in male carriers of Arg82Cys in CD300LG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Julie; Grarup, Niels; Hørlyck, Arne

    2014-01-01

    found to be associated with fasting HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The polymorphism has not been detected in hypertension GWAS potentially due to its low frequency, but CD300LG has been linked to blood pressure as CD300LG knockout mice have changes in blood pressure. Twenty......-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure was obtained in human CD300LG CT-carriers to follow up on these observations. METHODS: Twenty healthy male CD300LG rs72836561 CT-carriers matched for age and BMI with 20 healthy male CC-carriers. Office blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, carotid intima......-media thickness (CIMT), and fasting blood samples were evaluated. The clinical study was combined with a genetic-epidemiological study to replicate the association between blood pressure and CD300LG Arg82Cys in 2,637 men and 3,249 women. RESULTS: CT-carriers had a higher 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure...

  10. Serum metabolome biomarkers associate low-level environmental perfluorinated compound exposure with oxidative /nitrosative stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Liu, Liangpo; Zhang, Weibing; Zhang, Jie; Du, Xiaoyan; Huang, Qingyu; Tian, Meiping; Shen, Heqing

    2017-10-01

    Previous in vivo and in vitro studies have linked perfluorinated compound (PFC) exposure with metabolic interruption, but the inter-species difference and high treatment doses usually make the results difficult to be extrapolated to humans directly. The best strategy for identifying the metabolic interruption may be to establish the direct correlations between monitored PFCs data and metabolic data on human samples. In this study, serum metabolome data and PFC concentrations were acquired for a Chinese adult male cohort. The most abundant PFCs are PFOA and PFOS with concentration medians 7.56 and 12.78 nM, respectively; in together they count around 81.6% of the total PFCs. PFC concentration-related serum metabolic profile changes and the related metabolic biomarkers were explored by using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Respectively taking PFOS, PFOA and total PFC as the classifiers, serum metabolome can be differentiated between the lowest dose group (1st quartile PFCs) and the highest PFC dose group (4th quartile PFCs). Ten potential PFC biomarkers were identified, mainly involving in pollutant detoxification, antioxidation and nitric oxide (NO) signal pathways. These suggested that low-level environmental PFC exposure has significantly adverse impacts on glutathione (GSH) cycle, Krebs cycle, nitric oxide (NO) generation and purine oxidation in humans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report investigating the association of environmental PFC exposure with human serum metabolome alteration. Given the important biological functions of the identified biomarkers, we suggest that PFC could increase the metabolism syndromes risk including diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Emergency department blood alcohol level associates with injury factors and six-month outcome after uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, John K; Ngwenya, Laura B; Upadhyayula, Pavan S; Deng, Hansen; Winkler, Ethan A; Burke, John F; Lee, Young M; Robinson, Caitlin K; Ferguson, Adam R; Lingsma, Hester F; Cnossen, Maryse C; Pirracchio, Romain; Korley, Frederick K; Vassar, Mary J; Yuh, Esther L; Mukherjee, Pratik; Gordon, Wayne A; Valadka, Alex B; Okonkwo, David O; Manley, Geoffrey T

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between blood alcohol level (BAL) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) remains in need of improved characterization. Adult patients suffering mTBI without intracranial pathology on computed tomography (CT) from the prospective Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot study with emergency department (ED) Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 13-15 and recorded blood alcohol level (BAL) were extracted. BAL≥80-mg/dl was set as proxy for excessive use. Multivariable regression was performed for patients with six-month Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE; functional recovery) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Processing Speed Index Composite Score (WAIS-PSI; nonverbal processing speed), using BAL≥80-mg/dl and GOSE≤7; 38.1% vs. 11.5%; p=0.025) and lower WAIS-PSI (92.4±12.7, 30th-percentile vs. 105.1±11.7, 63rd-percentile; pGOSE≤7 and an adjusted mean decrease of 8.88-points (95% CI [0.67-17.09]; p=0.035) on WAIS-PSI. Day-of-injury BAL>80-mg/dl after uncomplicated mTBI was associated with decreased GCS score and prolongation of reported LOC. BAL may be a biomarker for impaired return to baseline function and decreased nonverbal processing speed at six-months postinjury. Future confirmatory studies are needed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of routine blood examinations and CSF lactate level for post-neurosurgical bacterial meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: The PBM diagnostic accuracy of routine blood examinations was relatively low, whereas the accuracy of CSF lactate level was high. Some variables that are involved in the incidence of PBM can also affect the diagnostic accuracy for PBM. Taking into account the effects of these variables significantly improves the diagnostic accuracies of routine blood examinations and CSF lactate level.

  13. Prevalence and determinants of declining versus stable hemoglobin levels in whole blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasserinejad, Kazem; van Rosmalen, Joost; van den Hurk, Katja; Baart, Mireille; Hoekstra, Trynke; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; de Kort, Wim

    2015-01-01

    A too short recovery time after blood donation results in a gradual depletion of iron stores and a subsequent decline in hemoglobin (Hb) levels over time. This decline in Hb levels may depend on individual, unobserved characteristics of the donor. We used a data set of 5388 Dutch blood donors from

  14. Predictors of blood lead levels in agricultural villages practicing wastewater irrigation in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, E; Villanueva, J; Sanin, L H

    2000-01-01

    To investigate whether the agricultural use of untreated wastewater (i.e. crop irrigation) was associated with elevated blood lead levels in a farming population in the Mezquital Valley and which risk factors, other than exposure to untreated wastewater, were associated with elevated blood lead levels, lead levels were measured in venous blood obtained from 735 individuals. Blood samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Food habits and dietary intake were gathered by interview, using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. The average blood lead level was 7.8 microg/dL (SD 4.66 microg/dL; range 1.2-36.7 microg/dL). 23% of the study population had blood lead levels exceeding 10 microg/dL. The use of lead-glazed ceramics (LGC) was significantly associated with elevated lead levels (p = workers). p = 0.005, 0.08, and 0.001, respectively. When the analysis was stratified by the use of LGC for food preparation, an inverse relationship between higher daily calcium intake and blood lead level was detected (beta = - 0.040, p = associated with the use of LGC. Calcium intake showed a protective effect, maybe by decreasing absorption of lead in the gastrointestinal tract. No association between occupational exposure to untreated wastewater or crop consumption and blood lead levels was detected. Further environmental and health surveillance is recommended.

  15. Blood Glucose Levels Following Intra-Articular Steroid Injections in Patients with Diabetes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, M N; Malik, R A; Charalambous, Charalambos Panayiotou

    2016-03-22

    Parenterally administered steroids have been shown to affect the metabolism of glucose and to cause abnormal blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. These abnormal blood glucose levels in diabetic patients raise concerns that intra-articular steroid injections also may affect blood glucose levels. We performed a systematic review of studies examining the effect of intra-articular steroid injections on blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. A literature search of the PubMed, EMBASE, AMED, and CINAHL databases using all relevant keywords and phrases revealed 532 manuscripts. After the application of inclusion criteria, seven studies with a total of seventy-two patients were analyzed. All studies showed a rise in blood glucose levels following intra-articular steroid injection. Four of the seven studies showed a substantial increase in blood glucose. Peak values reached as high as 500 mg/dL. The peak increase in blood glucose did not occur immediately following intra-articular steroid injection, and in some cases it took several days to occur. In many patients, post-injection hyperglycemia occurred within twenty-four to seventy-two hours. Intra-articular steroid injections may cause hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus, and patients should be warned of this complication. Diabetic patients should be advised to regularly monitor their blood glucose levels for up to a week after injection and should seek medical advice if safe thresholds are breached. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  16. Biomarkers for Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution - Comparison of Carcinogen-DNA Adduct Levels with Other Exposure Markers and Markers for Oxidative Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Daneshvar, Bahram; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    1999-01-01

    Human exposure to genotoxic compounds present in ambient air has been studied using selected biomarkers in nonsmoking Danish bus drivers and postal workers. A large interindividual variation in biomarker levels was observed. Significantly higher levels of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts (75.42 adducts....../10(8) nucleotides) and of 2-amino-apidic semialdehyde (AAS) in plasma proteins (56.7 pmol/mg protein) were observed in bus drivers working in the central part of Copenhagen, Denmark. In contrast, significantly higher levels of AAS in hemoglobin (55.8 pmol/mg protein), malondialdehyde in plasma (0. 96...... nmol/ml plasma), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-albumin adduct (3.38 fmol/ microg albumin) were observed in the suburban group. The biomarker levels in postal workers were similar to the levels in suburban bus drivers. In the combined group of bus drivers and postal workers, negative...

  17. Relationship between systemic hemodynamics and ambulatory blood pressure level are sex dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfie, J; Waisman, G D; Galarza, C R; Magi, M I; Vasvari, F; Mayorga, L M; Cámera, M I

    1995-12-01

    Sex-related differences in systemic hemodynamics were analyzed by means of cardiac index and systemic vascular resistance according to the level of daytime ambulatory blood pressure. In addition, we assessed the relations between ambulatory blood pressure measurements and systemic hemodynamics in male and female patients. We prospectively included 52 women and 53 men referred to our unit for evaluation of arterial hypertension. Women and men were grouped according to the level of daytime mean arterial pressure: or = 110 mm Hg. Patients underwent noninvasive evaluation of resting hemodynamics (impedance cardiography) and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Compared with women men with lower daytime blood pressure had a 12% higher systemic vascular resistance index (P = NS) and a 14% lower cardiac index (P < .02), whereas men with higher daytime blood pressure had a 25% higher vascular resistance (P < .003) and a 21% lower cardiac index (P < .0004). Furthermore, in men systemic vascular resistance correlated positively with both daytime and nighttime systolic and diastolic blood pressures, whereas cardiac index correlated negatively only with daytime diastolic blood pressure. In contrast, women did not exhibit any significant correlation between hemodynamic parameters and ambulatory blood pressure measurements. In conclusion, sex-related differences in systemic hemodynamics were more pronounced in the group with higher daytime hypertension. The relations between systemic hemodynamics and ambulatory blood pressure level depended on the sex of the patient. In men a progressive circulatory impairment underlies the increasing level of ambulatory blood pressure, but this was not observed in women.

  18. [Search for potential gastric cancer biomarkers using low molecular weight blood plasma proteome profiling by mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V E; Arnotskaia, N E; Ogorodnikova, E V; Davydov, M M; Ibraev, M A; Turkin, I N; Davydov, M I

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer, one of the most widespread malignant tumors, still lacks reliable serum/plasma biomarkers of its early detection. In this study we have developed, unified, and tested a new methodology for search of gastric cancer biomarkers based on profiling of low molecular weight proteome (LMWP) (1-17 kDa). This approach included three main components: sample pre-fractionation, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), data analysis by a bioinformatics software package. Applicability and perspectives of the developed approach for detection of potential gastric cancer markers during LMWP analysis have been demonstrated using 69 plasma samples from patients with gastric cancer (stages I-IV) and 238 control samples. The study revealed peptides/polypeptides, which may be potentially used for detection of this pathology.

  19. Evaluation of Blood Biomarkers Associated with Risk of Malnutrition in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiying; Pereira, Suzette L; Luo, Menghua; Matheson, Eric M

    2017-08-03

    Malnutrition is a common yet under-recognized problem in hospitalized patients. The aim of this paper was to systematically review and evaluate malnutrition biomarkers among order adults. Eligible studies were identified through Cochrane, PubMed and the ProQuest Dialog. A meta-regression was performed on concentrations of biomarkers according to malnutrition risks classified by validated nutrition assessment tools. A total of 111 studies were included, representing 52,911 participants (55% female, 72 ± 17 years old) from various clinical settings (hospital, community, care homes). The estimated BMI ( p malnutrition risk by MNA were significantly lower than those without a risk. Similar results were observed for malnutrition identified by SGA and NRS-2002. A sensitivity analysis by including patients with acute illness showed that albumin and prealbumin concentrations were dramatically reduced, indicating that they must be carefully interpreted in acute care settings. This review showed that BMI, hemoglobin, and total cholesterol are useful biomarkers of malnutrition in older adults. The reference ranges and cut-offs may need to be updated to avoid underdiagnosis of malnutrition.

  20. Evaluation of Blood Biomarkers Associated with Risk of Malnutrition in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is a common yet under-recognized problem in hospitalized patients. The aim of this paper was to systematically review and evaluate malnutrition biomarkers among order adults. Eligible studies were identified through Cochrane, PubMed and the ProQuest Dialog. A meta-regression was performed on concentrations of biomarkers according to malnutrition risks classified by validated nutrition assessment tools. A total of 111 studies were included, representing 52,911 participants (55% female, 72 ± 17 years old from various clinical settings (hospital, community, care homes. The estimated BMI (p < 0.001 and concentrations of albumin (p < 0.001, hemoglobin (p < 0.001, total cholesterol (p < 0.001, prealbumin (p < 0.001 and total protein (p < 0.05 among subjects at high malnutrition risk by MNA were significantly lower than those without a risk. Similar results were observed for malnutrition identified by SGA and NRS-2002. A sensitivity analysis by including patients with acute illness showed that albumin and prealbumin concentrations were dramatically reduced, indicating that they must be carefully interpreted in acute care settings. This review showed that BMI, hemoglobin, and total cholesterol are useful biomarkers of malnutrition in older adults. The reference ranges and cut-offs may need to be updated to avoid underdiagnosis of malnutrition.

  1. Mass spectrometry for biomarker development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chaochao; Liu, Tao; Baker, Erin Shammel; Rodland, Karin D.; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-06-19

    Biomarkers potentially play a crucial role in early disease diagnosis, prognosis and targeted therapy. In the past decade, mass spectrometry based proteomics has become increasingly important in biomarker development due to large advances in technology and associated methods. This chapter mainly focuses on the application of broad (e.g. shotgun) proteomics in biomarker discovery and the utility of targeted proteomics in biomarker verification and validation. A range of mass spectrometry methodologies are discussed emphasizing their efficacy in the different stages in biomarker development, with a particular emphasis on blood biomarker development.

  2. Parsimonious model for blood glucose level monitoring in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Ma, Yan Fen; Wen, Jing Xiao; DU, Yan Fang; Li, Chun Lin; Li, Guang Wei

    2014-07-01

    To establish the parsimonious model for blood glucose monitoring in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving oral hypoglycemic agent treatment. One hundred and fifty-nine adult Chinese type 2 diabetes patients were randomized to receive rapid-acting or sustained-release gliclazide therapy for 12 weeks. Their blood glucose levels were measured at 10 time points in a 24 h period before and after treatment, and the 24 h mean blood glucose levels were measured. Contribution of blood glucose levels to the mean blood glucose level and HbA1c was assessed by multiple regression analysis. The correlation coefficients of blood glucose level measured at 10 time points to the daily MBG were 0.58-0.74 and 0.59-0.79, respectively, before and after treatment (Pblood glucose levels measured at 6 of the 10 time points could explain 95% and 97% of the changes in MBG before and after treatment. The three blood glucose levels, which were measured at fasting, 2 h after breakfast and before dinner, of the 10 time points could explain 84% and 86% of the changes in MBG before and after treatment, but could only explain 36% and 26% of the changes in HbA1c before and after treatment, and they had a poorer correlation with the HbA1c than with the 24 h MBG. The blood glucose levels measured at fasting, 2 h after breakfast and before dinner truly reflected the change 24 h blood glucose level, suggesting that they are appropriate for the self-monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetes patients receiving oral anti-diabetes therapy. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of low-abundance biomarker levels in capillary-collected nonstimulated tears and washout tears of aqueous-deficient and normal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyette, Nicole; Williams, Larezia; Tran, My-Tho; Than, Tammy; Bradley, John; Kehinde, Lucy; Edwards, Clara; Beasley, Mark; Fullard, Roderick

    2013-05-01

    Low tear volume limits the use of nonstimulated (NS) microcapillary tear collection in aqueous-deficient (AD) patients. Adding a small amount of "washout" fluid to the eye prior to tear collection is a potentially viable alternative method for abundant proteins, but is relatively untested for low-abundance biomarkers. This study determined the feasibility of the washout (WO) method as an NS alternative for low-abundance biomarkers. NS and WO biomarker profiles were compared between AD patients and non-AD controls to determine if the two methods identify the same intergroup differences. Matching NS and WO tears were collected from 48 patients by micropipette, the WO sample after instillation of 10 μL saline. Tear cytokine levels were measured by 27-Plex Bio-Rad assay. Bland-Altman analyses for each biomarker determined the agreement between tear sample types. Patients were grouped as AD or non-AD based on Schirmer score to determine if NS profile between-group differences were preserved in WO tears. Bland-Altman plots showed good biomarker level agreement between NS and WO tears for most cytokines. Five biomarkers, among those most often cited as differing in AD dry eye, differed significantly between non-AD and AD groups in both tear types. Additional biomarker differences were seen in NS tears only. The WO tear collection method is a viable alternative to NS tears for many low-abundance biomarkers and is able to replicate major NS tear differences between dry eye groups. More subtle intergroup differences are lost in WO samples because of reduced statistical power.

  4. An artificial pancreas provided a novel model of blood glucose level variability in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munekage, Masaya; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Takezaki, Yuka; Tamura, Takahiko; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Although the effects on prognosis of blood glucose level variability have gained increasing attention, it is unclear whether blood glucose level variability itself or the manifestation of pathological conditions that worsen prognosis. Then, previous reports have not been published on variability models of perioperative blood glucose levels. The aim of this study is to establish a novel variability model of blood glucose concentration using an artificial pancreas. We maintained six healthy, male beagles. After anesthesia induction, a 20-G venous catheter was inserted in the right femoral vein and an artificial pancreas (STG-22, Nikkiso Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was connected for continuous blood glucose monitoring and glucose management. After achieving muscle relaxation, total pancreatectomy was performed. After 1 h of stabilization, automatic blood glucose control was initiated using the artificial pancreas. Blood glucose level varied for 8 h, alternating between the target blood glucose values of 170 and 70 mg/dL. Eight hours later, the experiment was concluded. Total pancreatectomy was performed for 62 ± 13 min. Blood glucose swings were achieved 9.8 ± 2.3 times. The average blood glucose level was 128.1 ± 5.1 mg/dL with an SD of 44.6 ± 3.9 mg/dL. The potassium levels after stabilization and at the end of the experiment were 3.5 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that an artificial pancreas contributed to the establishment of a novel variability model of blood glucose levels in beagles.

  5. Effect of intrapleural oxytocin injection on blood glucose level in rat (rattus norvegicous).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezhkam, Y; Dezhkam, N

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Oxytocin on energy metabolism is still question. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exogenous oxytocin injection in different dose and timetable on blood glucose level in rat. In this study 16 adult female rats were divided into 2 groups (Treatment 1(T1) and Treatment 2(T2)). T1 with 8 adult female rats received 0.2 IU/Kg oxytocin via intrapleural (IP) and blood glucose level was tested at 0th, 20th, 40th and 60th min after injection by collecting the blood from jugular vein. In T2 eight female rats received 0.4 IU/kg oxytocin via IP taking blood glucose measure at the same minutes as T1. The experiment tested in three replicates. Blood glucose meter (Model: 3TMSO1G) was used with glucose smart blood glucose monitoring system to the measurement of blood glucose level in rats. Data were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS (SAS, version 9) PDIFF was used to compare least square means among treatments adjusting by tukey test. There were hypoglycemic tendency in the changes of the blood glucose level in both T1 and T2, 20th min after injection (88.79 ± 3.28, 68.58 ± 3.63, respectively), while in the remaining subjects (4th and 60th min) blood glucose level increased (115.54 ± 4, 79.7 ± 2.09 and 136.33 ± 5.8, 123.54 ± 0.9, respectively). These results showed that blood glucose level in T1 significantly higher than T2 (p blood glucose level very fast.

  6. A RAPID Method for Blood Processing to Increase the Yield of Plasma Peptide Levels in Human Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuffel, Pauline; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Hofmann, Tobias; Prinz, Philip; Scharner, Sophie; Körner, Jan L; Grötzinger, Carsten; Rose, Matthias; Klapp, Burghard F; Stengel, Andreas

    2016-04-28

    Research in the field of food intake regulation is gaining importance. This often includes the measurement of peptides regulating food intake. For the correct determination of a peptide's concentration, it should be stable during blood processing. However, this is not the case for several peptides which are quickly degraded by endogenous peptidases. Recently, we developed a blood processing method employing Reduced temperatures, Acidification, Protease inhibition, Isotopic exogenous controls and Dilution (RAPID) for the use in rats. Here, we have established this technique for the use in humans and investigated recovery, molecular form and circulating concentration of food intake regulatory hormones. The RAPID method significantly improved the recovery for (125)I-labeled somatostatin-28 (+39%), glucagon-like peptide-1 (+35%), acyl ghrelin and glucagon (+32%), insulin and kisspeptin (+29%), nesfatin-1 (+28%), leptin (+21%) and peptide YY3-36 (+19%) compared to standard processing (EDTA blood on ice, p processing, while after standard processing 62% of acyl ghrelin were degraded resulting in an earlier peak likely representing desacyl ghrelin. After RAPID processing the acyl/desacyl ghrelin ratio in blood of normal weight subjects was 1:3 compared to 1:23 following standard processing (p = 0.03). Also endogenous kisspeptin levels were higher after RAPID compared to standard processing (+99%, p = 0.02). The RAPID blood processing method can be used in humans, yields higher peptide levels and allows for assessment of the correct molecular form.

  7. Study of measurement of the alcohol biomarker phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in dried blood spot (DBS) samples and application of a volumetric DBS device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Olof; Kenan Modén, Naama; Seferaj, Sabina; Lenk, Gabriel; Helander, Anders

    2018-04-01

    Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is a group of phospholipids formed in cell membranes following alcohol consumption. PEth measurement in whole blood samples is established as a specific alcohol biomarker with clinical and medico-legal applications. This study further evaluated the usefulness of dried blood spot (DBS) samples collected on filter paper for PEth measurement. Specimens used were surplus volumes of venous whole blood sent for routine LC-MS/MS quantification of PEth 16:0/18:1, the major PEth homolog. DBS samples were prepared by pipetting blood on Whatman 903 Protein Saver Cards and onto a volumetric DBS device (Capitainer). The imprecision (CV) of the DBS sample amount based on area and weight measurements of spot punches were 23-28%. Investigation of the relationship between blood hematocrit and PEth concentration yielded a linear, positive correlation, and at around 1.0-1.5μmol/L PEth 16:0/18:1, the PEth concentration increased by ~0.1μmol/L for every 5% increase in hematocrit. There was a close agreement between the PEth concentrations obtained with whole blood samples and the corresponding results using Whatman 903 (PEth DBS =1.026 PEth WB +0.013) and volumetric device (PEth DBS =1.045 PEth WB +0.016) DBS samples. The CV of PEth quantification in DBS samples at concentrations≥0.05μmol/L were ≤15%. The present results further confirmed the usefulness of DBS samples for PEth measurement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Prenatal lead exposure related to cord blood brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and impaired neonatal neurobehavioral development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, L H; Mu, X Y; Chen, H Y; Yang, H L; Qi, W

    2016-06-01

    To explore the relationship between umbilical cord blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neonatal neurobehavioral development in lead exposure infants. All infants and their mother were randomly selected during 2011 to 2012, subjects were selected according to the umbilical cord blood lead concentrations, which contcentration of lead was higher than 0.48 μmol/L were taken into high lead exposure group, about 60 subjects included. Comparing to the high lead exposure group, according to gender, weight, pregnant week, length and head circumferenece, the level of cord blood lead concentration under 0.48 μmol/L were taken into control group, 60 cases included. Lead content was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Neonatal behavioral neurological assessment (NBNA) was used to determine the development of neonatal neuronal behavior. The content of BDNF was detected by ELISA. Comparing the BDNF and the NBNA score between two groups, and linear correlation was given on analysis the correlation between lead concentration in cord blood and BDNF, BDNF and the NBNA score. Lead content in high exposure group was (0.613±0.139) μmol/L, and higher than (0.336±0.142) μmol/L in low exposure group (t=3.21, PBDNF content in high exposure group which was (3.538±1.203) ng/ml was higher than low exposure group (2.464±0.918) ng/ml (t=7.60, PBDNF content was negatively correlated with NBNA summary score, passive muscle tension and active muscle tone score (r was -0.27, -0.29, -0.30, respectively, P values were BDNF was negatively correlated with neonatal neurodevelopment, may serve as a useful biomarker.

  9. Relationship between ABO Blood Groups and Lipid Profile Level in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... and Lipid Profile Level in Healthy Adult Residents in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria ... diseases (CVDs) and association of cardiovascular disease risk factors with the ABO ...

  10. HORMONE LEVELS IN THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , 1972. Plasma oestrogen and progesterone levels after mating, and during late pregnancy and post partum in cows . Endocrinologt, 90, 1336. MARION, G.B. & GIER, H.T., 1968. Factors affecting bovine ovarian activity after parturition. J. Anim.

  11. The Effects of Blood Glucose Levels on Cognitive Performance: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jolene; Barshi, Immanuel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to discuss the research literature on the effects of blood glucose levels on executive and non-executive functions in humans. The review begins with a brief description of blood glucose, how it has been studied, previous syntheses of prior studies, and basic results regarding the role of blood glucose on cognitive functioning. The following sections describe work that investigated the effect of blood glucose on both non-executive and executive functions (e.g., sensory processing, psychomotor functioning, attention, vigilance, memory, language and communication, judgement and decision-making, and complex task performance). Within each section, summaries of the findings and challenges to the literature are included. Measurement conversions of blood glucose levels, blood glucose values, and associated symptoms are depicted. References to the types of tests used to investigate blood glucose and cognitive performance are provided. For more detailed descriptions of references within (and in addition to) this paper, an annotated bibliography is also provided. Several moderator variables including individual differences and contextual variables related to the effects of blood glucose levels on performance (e.g., age, gender, time of day, familiarity with the task and symptom awareness, expectancy effects, dose dependent effects, time dependent effects, task specific effects, rising and falling blood glucose levels, and speed and/or accuracy trade-offs) are addressed later in the paper. Some suggestions for future experimental methodologies are also made.

  12. TAS2R38 and CA6 genetic polymorphisms, frequency of bitter food intake, and blood biomarkers among elderly woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk-Stecyna, Joanna; Malinowska, Anna M; Chmurzynska, Agata

    2017-09-01

    Taste sensitivity is one of the most important biological determinants of food choice. Three SNPs of the TAS2R38 gene (rs713598, rs1726866, and rs10246939) give rise to two common haplotypes: PAV and AVI. These haplotypes, as well as an SNP within the CA6 gene (rs2274333) that encodes carbonic anhydrase VI (CA6), correlate with bitterness perception. The extent of consumption of bitter food may influence some health outcomes. The aim of this study is thus to investigate the impact of the TAS2R38 and CA6 genetic polymorphisms on the choice of bitter food, BMI, blood lipoprotein, and glucose concentrations as well as systemic inflammation in elderly women. The associations between the TAS2R38 diplotype, CA6 genotype, and the intake of bitter-tasting foods were studied in a group of 118 Polish women over 60 years of age. The intake of Brassica vegetables, grapefruit, and coffee was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Biochemical parameters were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Genotyping was performed using the high resolution melting method. We found a correlation between lipid profile, glucose and CRP levels, and frequency of bitter food intake. The AVI/AVI subjects drank coffee more frequently than did the PAV/PAV homozygotes, as did the A carriers of CA6 in comparison with the GG homozygotes. We also observed that simultaneous carriers of the PAV haplotype and A allele of TAS2R38 and CA6, respectively, choose white cabbage more frequent and had lower plasma levels of CRP and glucose than did AVI/AVI and GG homozygotes. In elderly women, the TAS2R38 and CA6 polymorphisms may affect the frequency of consumption of coffee and white cabbage, but not of other bitter-tasting foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. TAS1R3 and UCN2 Transcript Levels in Blood Cells Are Associated With Sugary and Fatty Food Consumption in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priego, T; Sánchez, J; Picó, C; Ahrens, W; De Henauw, S; Kourides, Y; Lissner, L; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Russo, P; Siani, A; Veidebaum, T; Palou, A

    2015-09-01

    New types of dietary exposure biomarkers are needed to implement effective strategies for obesity prevention in children. Of special interest are biomarkers of consumption of food rich in simple sugars and fat because their intake has been associated with obesity development. Peripheral blood cells (PBCs) represent a promising new tool for identifying novel, transcript-based biomarkers. This study aimed to study potential associations between the transcripts of taste receptor type 1 member 3 (TAS1R3) and urocortin II (UCN2) genes in PBCs and the frequency of sugary and fatty food consumption in children. Four hundred sixty-three children from the IDEFICS cohort were selected to include a similar number of boys and girls, both normal-weight and overweight, belonging to eight European countries. Anthropometric parameters (measured at baseline and in a subset of 193 children after 2 years), food consumption frequency and transcript levels of TAS1R3 and UCN2 genes in PBCs were measured. Children with low-frequency consumption of sugary foods displayed higher TAS1R3 expression levels with respect to those with intermediate or high frequency. In turn, children with high-frequency consumption of fatty foods showed lower UCN2 expression levels with respect to those with low or intermediate frequency. Moreover, transcripts of TAS1R3 were related with body mass index and fat-mass changes after a 2-year follow-up period, with low expression levels of this gene being related with increased fat accumulation over time. The transcripts of TAS1R3 and UCN2 in PBCs may be considered potential biomarkers of consumption of sugary and fatty food, respectively, to complement data of food-intake questionnaires.

  14. Blood leptin levels and erythropoietin requirement in Iranian hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Anemia is a common complication accompanied by high morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Considering the fact that the reduction of erythropoietin (EPO synthesis is the main cause of uremic anemia, receiving recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO can improve the condition in these patients. Some of these hemodialysis patients, however, have acceptable hemoglobin levels without any need to EPO. Higher BMI, higher albumin and leptin plasma levels and longer durations of hemodialysis are possible factors contributing to the reduced need for rHuEPO in these patients. The present study is designed to asses the relationship between the plasma levels of leptin and the reduced EPO need. "nMethods: Fifty eligible hemodialysis patients with hemoglobin levels higher than 11 mg/dl were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. The information on age, sex, hemodialysis duration and the cause of renal dysfunction were extracted from the files. The baseline plasma levels of Leptin and albumin were measured. The patients BMI and the weekly need for rHuEPO were also calculated. "nResults: There was no correlation between the weekly need for rHuEPO and sex, BMI, the cause of renal dysfunction and the plasma levels of albumin and leptin; it, however, was related with age and the duration of dialysis. While age negatively influences the weekly need, the duration of dialysis has a positive effect on the need. "nConclusion: The plasma levels of leptin are not directly correlated with the required amounts of rHuEPO, indicating that leptin is not an effective factor in erythropoiesis. Conversely, older age and shorter hemodialysis durations are accompanied by reduced need for rHuEPO.

  15. Early intraoperative blood collection does not affect complete blood counts, von Willebrand factor or factor VIII levels in normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Hanni; Mundell, Gillianne; Engen, Dale; Lillicrap, David; Silva, Mariana; James, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining blood from children for research studies can be difficult, particularly for controls. One solution is to obtain samples during elective surgery; however, consideration must be given to the potential effects of the timing of phlebotomy. Ten children were recruited and phlebotomy was carried out during a preoperative clinic visit and intraoperatively immediately after the induction of anesthesia but before the start of surgery. CBCs, VWF, and FVIII levels were measured at both time points and no significant differences were seen. This negative result may be beneficial to pediatric research by suggesting that early intraoperative blood collection for controls does not affect the results.

  16. Impact of chronic exposure to gasoline automotive exhaust gases on some bio-markers affecting the hormonal sexual function, the kidney function and blood parameters, in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaoui, M.; Ghorbel, F.; Boujelbene, M.; El Feki, A.; Makni-Ayadi, F.

    2000-01-01

    The automotive exhaust gases constitute an important source of urban pollution. The objective of this study is to explore, in the rat, the effects of repetitive exposure to gasoline automotive exhaust gases on the level variations of serum testosterone, blood lead, bone lead, blood carbon monoxide, on the kidney function and blood parameters. 200 rats inhaling a mixture of air and automotive exhaust gas (10/1, v/v), are distributed in 4 groups treated during 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. They are compared to non treated controls. Our results show a decrease of serum testosterone level. This result is the origin of a masculine sterility already demonstrated in our laboratory. This sterility seems to be reversible because polluted rats regain their sexual activity, 2 months after stopping of the pollutant treatment. An increase of the blood carbon monoxide level with a lead accumulation in blood and in the tail is noticed. Biochemical analyses show that glycaemia, urea, and creatininaemia increase in treated animals. The urinary rate of creatinine decreases. These results indicate kidney deficiency. Our results show also in treated animals an increase of the number of red blood corpuscles, of hematocrit, of the blood level of haemoglobin and of the VGM, and a decrease of the CGMH. The carbon monoxide and the lead detected in blood of the treated animals are the origin of these perturbations. In conclusion, our results show that gasoline automotive exhaust gas induces, in the rat, a decrease of serum testosterone level. The carbon monoxide and the lead present in the exhaust gas, and detected in blood and in the tail of the treated animals, are the origin of sexual, kidney and blood parameters perturbations. (author)

  17. Pharmacist's Intervention in the Control of Blood Sugar Levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The extended roles of pharmacists in Nigeria in the improvement of quality of health care at the primary health care (PHC) level is currently poorly executed even though pharmacists have been proven to be involved in interventional activities in health care delivery. Objective: To evaluate pharmacists' ...

  18. Blood cholesterol level in Sudanese females with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N. M.

    2004-08-01

    In view to high incidence of thyroid dis function among Sudanese females, this study was conducted, essentially to study the effect of thyroid disorders on lipids metabolism, mainly on total cholesterol. In this study samples were collected from RIA laboratory in Sudan Atomic Energy Commission. 50 hyperthyroidism females were selected as a study group of age range (20-55) years. In addition 47 samples were collected with same age of study group used as control group. Thyroid related hormones thyroxine T4, triiodothyronine T3, thyroid stimulating hormone TSH using the sensitive radioimmunoassay method and cholesterol were measured for the two groups using enzymatic-calorimetric test. Statistical analysis were done with SPSS computer program to compare the cholesterol levels in the control subjects with the patients levels. The results showed significantly decreased cholesterol level of patient group when compared with the control group (p<0.01). At the end of this study the result was agreed well with previous results concerning cholesterol level as affected by thyroid disorder. (Author)

  19. The relationship between maternal blood cadmium, zinc levels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The delivery of babies with low birth weight is a prognosis of neonatal mortality, morbidity and poor health outcomes later in life. This study evaluates the levels of cadmium, zinc and calculated cadmium/zinc ratio in non-occupationally exposed pregnant women at delivery and their relationship with birth weight of babies.

  20. Blood Lead Levels And Potental Environmental Exposures Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p = 0.439). Low risk parental occupation (p = 0.001) and. Kales sourced from the market/kiosks (p = 0.001) were significantly associated with BLL ≥ 10ug/dl. Soil lead levels (Soil Pb) ranged from 3,000 to 90,000ug/kg, which was very high ...

  1. ( Myrciaria jaboticaba ) peel on blood glucose and cholesterol levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Berg) peel was lyophilized and the proximate composition, total anthocyanins and polyphenolic content were determined. The effect of the freeze-dried jaboticaba peels (FJP) in the plasmatic levels of glucose, lipid fractions, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in Wistar adult male rats was ...

  2. Effect of sulfonylureas administered centrally on the blood glucose level in immobilization stress model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Naveen; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Lim, Su-Min; Kim, Sung-Su; Jung, Jun-Sub; Hong, Jae-Seung; Suh, Hong-Won

    2015-05-01

    Sulfonylureas are widely used as an antidiabetic drug. In the present study, the effects of sulfonylurea administered supraspinally on immobilization stress-induced blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. Mice were once enforced into immobilization stress for 30 min and returned to the cage. The blood glucose level was measured 30, 60, and 120 min after immobilization stress initiation. We found that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection with 30 µg of glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride or tolazamide attenuated the increased blood glucose level induced by immobilization stress. Immobilization stress causes an elevation of the blood corticosterone and insulin levels. Sulfonylureas pretreated i.c.v. caused a further elevation of the blood corticosterone level when mice were forced into the stress. In addition, sulfonylureas pretreated i.c.v. alone caused an elevation of the plasma insulin level. Furthermore, immobilization stress-induced insulin level was reduced by i.c.v. pretreated sulfonylureas. Our results suggest that lowering effect of sulfonylureas administered supraspinally against immobilization stress-induced increase of the blood glucose level appears to be primarily mediated via elevation of the plasma insulin level.

  3. CLASSICAL MUSIC DECREASE STRESS LEVEL AND BLOOD PRESSURE PRIMIGRAVIDA IN THE THIRD TRIMESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Alit Armini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many changes in psychology and biology increase primigravida’s stress in the third trimester. The stress response makes blood pressure being unstable, it causes bad effect for pregnancy. Classical music can be used as one of relaxation facilities that can reduce stress. The aimed of this study were to analyze the effect of classical music on stress level and blood pressure. Method: This study was used a quasy experimental purposive sampling design. The sample in this study were 14 pregnancy women in the third trimester in RSIA Cempaka Putih Permata Surabaya. The independent variable in this study was classical music and the dependent variable were stress level and blood pressure. Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, Mann Withney U Test, Paired t Test and Independent t Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that the stress level in controlled group with p=0.567 and intervention group with p=0.025. The result of blood pressure in controlled group with p=0.522 in systolic blood pressure, p=0.35 in diastolic blood pressure and intervention group showed p=0.103 in systolic blood pressure and p=1.00 in diastolic blood pressure. Discussion: It can be concluded that listening classical music can reduce stress level, stabilize blood pressure, although blood pressure hasn’t significant result but mean of blood pressure show that it was stable. Further studies should be considered to used cortisol to identify stress biology response spesifically.

  4. Suitability of Yin Yang 1 transcript and protein levels for biomarker studies in B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas Arranz, Jéssica; Winter, Dalia Nilufar; Drexler, Hans Günter; Eberth, Sonja

    2018-01-01

    Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a transcription factor that plays an important role during all stages of B cell differentiation. Several studies reported upregulation of YY1 in B cell derived lymphoma, indicating that it might act as an oncogene. Furthermore, aberrant YY1 expression has been associated with survival in some entities of B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL), suggesting that YY1 could be a valuable biomarker in B-NHL. However, studies are controversial and methodologically disparate, partially because some studies are based on transcript levels while others rely on YY1 protein data. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the dependence of YY1 protein levels on YY1 transcription. A panel of human cell lines representing different B-NHL subtypes was used to test for the correlation of YY1 mRNA and protein levels which were determined by quantitative PCR and immunoblotting. To analyze YY1 mRNA and YY1 protein stability cells were treated with actinomycin-D and cycloheximide, respectively. siRNAs were transfected to knockdown YY1 . Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed with data from published patient cohorts. Pearson's correlation analyses were assessed and statistical power was examined by Student's t-test. In the analyzed panel of B-NHL cell lines YY1 transcript levels do not correlate with their cellular protein amounts. YY1 protein levels were unaffected by transient block of transcription or by targeting YY1 mRNA using siRNA. Additionally, global inhibition of translation up to 48 h did not alter protein levels of YY1, indicating that YY1 is a highly stable protein in B-NHL. Furthermore, in a retrospective analysis of two different B-NHL cohorts, YY1 transcript levels had no impact on patients' survival probabilities. Our results point out the necessity to focus on YY1 protein expression to understand the potential role of YY1 as an oncogene and to unravel its suitability as clinical biomarker in B-NHL.

  5. Evaluation of Ki-67 Staining