As an expert on literature and translation, Wang Zuliang has contributed a lot to both Chinese and foreign culture. Based on his own experiences he has formed his distinctive ideas about translation such as principle and function.
Many of the same ideas seem to crop up repeatedly in the higher education governance reform wave in recent decades, with accountability, flexibility, and strategic capacity being a few of the common concepts. Several studies have shown, however, that national higher education systems receive these inputs very differently, leading to dissimilar…
Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Palumbi, Stephen R
Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts, such as protecting coral reefs. Recent efforts to understand the cell biological mechanisms maintaining coral health such as innate immunity and acclimatization have prompted new developments in conservation. Similar to biomedicine, we urge that future efforts should focus on better frameworks for biomarker development to protect coral reefs.
Discusses communal translation of poetry from Spanish to English for publication in a college literary magazine. It is concluded that this activity motivates students to focus enthusiastically on the aesthetics of translation. Fourth-semester Spanish students possess the skills to successfully translate poetry. (Author/CK)
Gordon, Leslie B; Cao, Kan; Collins, Francis S
Cell biologists love to think outside the box, pursuing many surprising twists and unexpected turns in their quest to unravel the mysteries of how cells work. But can cell biologists think outside the bench? We are certain that they can, and clearly some already do. To encourage more cell biologists to venture into the realm of translational research on a regular basis, we would like to share a handful of the many lessons that we have learned in our effort to develop experimental treatments for Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), an endeavor that many view as a "poster child" for how basic cell biology can be translated to the clinic.
Scheuer, John Damm
The model of association has until now been less precise and needs development of its theorization of the role of human translators and their criteria for choices in local organizing processes. The paper contributes to this development by means of an explorative case-study. The case-analysis demo...
Southard, Katelyn; Wince, Tyler; Meddleton, Shanice; Bolger, Molly S.
Research has suggested that teaching and learning in molecular and cellular biology (MCB) is difficult. We used a new lens to understand undergraduate reasoning about molecular mechanisms: the knowledge-integration approach to conceptual change. Knowledge integration is the dynamic process by which learners acquire new ideas, develop connections between ideas, and reorganize and restructure prior knowledge. Semistructured, clinical think-aloud interviews were conducted with introductory and upper-division MCB students. Interviews included a written conceptual assessment, a concept-mapping activity, and an opportunity to explain the biomechanisms of DNA replication, transcription, and translation. Student reasoning patterns were explored through mixed-method analyses. Results suggested that students must sort mechanistic entities into appropriate mental categories that reflect the nature of MCB mechanisms and that conflation between these categories is common. We also showed how connections between molecular mechanisms and their biological roles are part of building an integrated knowledge network as students develop expertise. We observed differences in the nature of connections between ideas related to different forms of reasoning. Finally, we provide a tentative model for MCB knowledge integration and suggest its implications for undergraduate learning. PMID:26931398
Southard, Katelyn; Wince, Tyler; Meddleton, Shanice; Bolger, Molly S
Research has suggested that teaching and learning in molecular and cellular biology (MCB) is difficult. We used a new lens to understand undergraduate reasoning about molecular mechanisms: the knowledge-integration approach to conceptual change. Knowledge integration is the dynamic process by which learners acquire new ideas, develop connections between ideas, and reorganize and restructure prior knowledge. Semistructured, clinical think-aloud interviews were conducted with introductory and upper-division MCB students. Interviews included a written conceptual assessment, a concept-mapping activity, and an opportunity to explain the biomechanisms of DNA replication, transcription, and translation. Student reasoning patterns were explored through mixed-method analyses. Results suggested that students must sort mechanistic entities into appropriate mental categories that reflect the nature of MCB mechanisms and that conflation between these categories is common. We also showed how connections between molecular mechanisms and their biological roles are part of building an integrated knowledge network as students develop expertise. We observed differences in the nature of connections between ideas related to different forms of reasoning. Finally, we provide a tentative model for MCB knowledge integration and suggest its implications for undergraduate learning.
Singeç, Ilyas; Simeonov, Anton
Pluripotent stem cell research has made extraordinary progress over the last decade. The robustness of nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has created entirely novel opportunities for drug discovery and personalized regenerative medicine. Patient- and disease-specific iPSCs can be expanded indefinitely and differentiated into relevant cell types of different organ systems. As the utilization of iPSCs is becoming a key enabling technology across various scientific disciplines, there are still important challenges that need to be addressed. Here we review the current state and reflect on the issues that the stem cell and translational communities are facing in bringing iPSCs closer to clinical application.
Ronen, Keshet; Sharma, Amit; Overbaugh, Julie
Rigorous testing of new HIV-prevention strategies is a time-consuming and expensive undertaking. Thus, making well informed decisions on which candidate-prevention approaches are most likely to provide the most benefit is critical to appropriately prioritizing clinical testing. In the case of biological interventions, the decision to test a given prevention approach in human trials rests largely on evidence of protection in preclinical studies. The ability of preclinical studies to predict efficacy in humans may depend on how well the model recapitulates key biological features of HIV transmission relevant to the question at hand. Here, we review our current understanding of the biology of HIV transmission based on data from animal models, cell culture, and viral sequence analysis from human infection. We summarize studies of the bottleneck in viral transmission; the characteristics of transmitted viruses; the establishment of infection; and the contribution of cell-free and cell-associated virus. We seek to highlight the implications of HIV-transmission biology for development of prevention interventions, and to discuss the limitations of existing preclinical models. PMID:26418086
Bailey, Grant; Meadows, Judith; Morrison, Alan R
Calcification of atherosclerotic lesions was long thought to be an age - related, passive process, but increasingly data has revealed that atherosclerotic calcification is a more active process, involving complex signaling pathways and bone-like genetic programs. Initially, imaging of atherosclerotic calcification was limited to gross assessment of calcium burden, which is associated with total atherosclerotic burden and risk of cardiovascular mortality and of all cause mortality. More recently, sophisticated molecular imaging studies of the various processes involved in calcification have begun to elucidate information about plaque calcium composition and consequent vulnerability to rupture, leading to hard cardiovascular events like myocardial infarction. As such, there has been renewed interest in imaging calcification to advance risk assessment accuracy in an evolving era of precision medicine. Here we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the biologic process of atherosclerotic calcification as well as some of the molecular imaging tools used to assess it. PMID:27339750
Bebek, Gurkan; Koyutürk, Mehmet; Nathan D Price; Mark R Chance
The explosion of biomedical data, both on the genomic and proteomic side as well as clinical data, will require complex integration and analysis to provide new molecular variables to better understand the molecular basis of phenotype. Currently, much data exist in silos and is not analyzed in frameworks where all data are brought to bear in the development of biomarkers and novel functional targets. This is beginning to change. Network biology approaches, which emphasize the interactions betw...
Arfken, Cynthia L; Carney, Stuart; Boutros, Nash N
Psychiatry has lagged behind other specialties in developing diagnostic laboratory tests for the purpose of confirming or ruling out a diagnosis. Biological research into the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders has, however, yielded some highly replicable abnormalities that have the potential for development into clinically useful diagnostic tests. To achieve this goal, a process for systematic translation must be developed and implemented. Building on our previous work, we review a proposed process using four clearly defined steps. We conclude that biological parameters currently face challenges in their pathways to becoming diagnostic tests because of both the premature release and premature abandonment of tests. Attention to a systematic translation process aided by these principles may help to avoid these problems.
Suwa, Tomomi; Williamson, Brad
We present a guided-inquiry biology lesson, using the plant-rhizobium symbiosis as a model system. This system provides a rich environment for developing connections between the big ideas in biology as outlined in the College Board's new AP Biology Curriculum. Students gain experience with the practice of scientific investigation, from…
Likhachova L. I.
Full Text Available The idea about intracellular transport of metabolic products is presented considering two constituents. The first was described in general in the previous publication. It justified the thesis that cell metabolism is localized and realized not on the fixed structures but on the vigorously and steadily moving («prowling» microvesicles. In the current paper we have shown that an addition of tetrazolium (MTT to mesenchymal stem cells (MSC leads to the cumulation of formazan on the surface of actively moving vesicles. This process was time-tracked and shown in dynamics. As formazan is a metabolite product, its formation on the vesicles is an experimental confirmation of the metabolic processes on these moving structures. The second constituent is presented as a hypothesis that is based on the literature data on the intracellular electrical potentials and the calculations of their possible involvement in precision transport of metabolic products.
Michael R. Emmert-Buck
Full Text Available Advances in biology are occurring at a breathtaking pace today, from genetic insights facilitated by the Human Genome Project and next generation DNA sequencing technologies, to global nucleic acid and proteomic expression measurement using new high-throughput methods. Less publicized in recent years, yet still the central driver of progress, are the steadily proceeding biological insights gained through tried and true hypothesis-driven investigation into the complex worlds of metabolism, growth, development, and regulation. Certainly, the basic science ecosystem is productive and this portends well for the myriad new applications that will benefit mankind; drugs, vaccines, devices, and related economic growth—or perhaps not—in stark contrast to the generation of fundamental biological knowledge are inefficiencies in applying this information to real-world problems, especially those of the clinic. While investigation hums along at light speed, translation often does not. The good news is that obstacles to progress are tractable. The bad news, however, is that these problems are difficult. The present paper examines translational research from multiple perspectives, beginning with a historical account and proceeding to the current state of the art. Included are descriptions of successes and challenges, along with conjecture on how the field may need to evolve in the future.
- and management concepts (Clematide, Hagedorn-Rasmussen & Stahl). Lean and Performance management were chosen as examples of managerial ideas intended for moving business, work and production processes in directions that increase quality, performance and efficiency. The paper argues that managerial ideas...
Ali, Ayfer Habib
This dissertation is composed of three essays looking at innovation at Academic Medical Centers. It tries to empirically explore the problem of translating knowledge from the laboratory bench to the clinic and from the clinic to the bench. Chapter 1, co-authored with Iain Cockburn, establishes the importance of inhouse complementary knowledge in firm decision to license an invention from an Academic Medical Center. By using patent data to describe the technology portfolio of firms who look at...
Claudia TODA CASTÁN
, indudablemente, para mejorar en algunos aspectos de la enseñanza de la traducción literaria. A number of papers dealing with the way in which translation is taught at Spanish Universities have been published in recent years. Those papers tried to find out the opinion of students about the education they received by using questionnaires. The same technique was used in papers aiming at following the professional trajectories of Translation and Interpreting graduates, as well as showing the situation of professional translators. The present paper intends to bring the focus to the teaching of Literary Translation at University. 119 Translation and Interpreting students of the Faculty of Translation and Documentation of the University of Salamanca, in Spain, filled a questionnaire aimed at finding out their ideas and expectations about the teaching of Literary Translation, as well as about the profession of literary translator. The results made it possible to get an approximation to the opinions of students on these matters. Some interesting aspects appeared during this research. The fact that both professors and students become aware of these aspects could help improve the teaching of Literary Translation.
Full Text Available Science Translational Medicine’s mission is to improve human health care worldwide by providing a forum for communication and interdisciplinary idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners from all relevant established and emerging disciplines. The weekly journal debuted in October 2009 and is published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS, the publisher of Science and Science Signaling. The journal features peer-reviewed research articles, perspectives and commentary, and is guided by an international Advisory Board, led by Chief Scientific Adviser, Elias A. Zerhouni, M.D., former Director of the National Institutes of Health, and Senior Scientific Adviser, Elazer R. Edelman, M.D., Ph.D., Thomas D. and Virginia W. Cabot Professor of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Science Translational Medicine editorial team is led by Katrina L. Kelner, Ph.D., AAAS. A profound transition is required for the science of translational medicine. Despite 50 years of advances in our fundamental understanding of human biology and the emergence of powerful new technologies, the rapid transformation of this knowledge into effective health measures is not keeping pace with the challenges of global health care. Creative experimental approaches, novel technologies, and new ways of conducting scientific explorations at the interface of established and emerging disciplines are now required to an unprecedented degree if real progress is to be made. To aid in this reinvention, Science and AAAS have created a new interdisciplinary journal, Science Translational Medicine. The following interview exemplefies the pioneering content found in Science Translational Medicine. It is an excerpt from a Podcast interview with Dr. Samuel Broder, former director of the National Cancer Institute and current Chief Medical Officer at Celera. The Podcast was produced in tangent with Dr
Lessl, Monika; Schoepe, Stefanie; Sommer, Anette; Schneider, Martin; Asadullah, Khusru
Collaborations between industry and academia are steadily gaining importance. To combine expertises Bayer Healthcare has set up a novel open innovation approach called Grants4Targets. Ideas on novel drug targets can easily be submitted to http://www.grants4targets.com. After a review process, grants are provided to perform focused experiments to further validate the proposed targets. In addition to financial support specific know-how on target validation and drug discovery is provided. Experienced scientists are nominated as project partners and, depending on the project, tools or specific models are provided. Around 280 applications have been received and 41 projects granted. According to our experience, this type of bridging fund combined with joint efforts provides a valuable tool to foster drug discovery collaborations.
ZHAO Namula; LI Xue-en; WANG Mei; HU Da-lai
Splintage external fixation in Chinese Mongolian oste-opathy is a biological macroscopic model. In this model, the ideas of self-life "unity of mind and body" and vital natural "correspondence of nature and human" combine the physi-ological and psychological self-fixation with supplementary external fixation of fracture using small splints. This model implies macroscopic ideas of uncovering fixation and healing: structural stability integrating geometrical "dy-namic" stability with mechanical "dynamic" equilibrium and the stability of state integrating statics with dynamics, and osteoblasts with osteoclasts, and psychological stability in-tegrating closed and open systems of human and nature. These ideas indicate a trend of development in modem osteopathy.
Schwendimann, Beat Adrian
Many students leave school with a fragmented understanding of biology that does not allow them to connect their ideas to their everyday lives (Wandersee, 1989; Mintzes, Wandersee, & Novak, 1998; Mintzes, Wandersee, & Novak, 2000a). Understanding evolution ideas is seen as central to building an integrated knowledge of biology (Blackwell, Powell, & Dukes, 2003; Thagard & Findlay, 2010). However, the theory of evolution has been found difficult to understand as it incorporates a wide range of ideas from different areas (Bahar et al., 1999; Tsui & Treagust, 2003) and multiple interacting levels (Wilensky & Resnick, 1999; Duncan & Reiser, 2007; Hmelo-Silver et al., 2007). Research suggests that learners can hold a rich repertoire of co-existing alternative ideas of evolution (for example, Bishop & Anderson, 1990; Demastes, Good, & Peebles, 1996; Evans, 2008), especially of human evolution (for example, Nelson, 1986; Sinatra et al., 2003; Poling & Evans, 2004). Evolution ideas are difficult to understand because they often contradict existing alternative ideas (Mayr, 1982; Wolpert, 1994; Evans, 2008). Research suggests that understanding human evolution is a key to evolution education (for example, Blackwell et al., 2003; Besterman & Baggott la Velle, 2007). This dissertation research investigates how different concept mapping forms embedded in a collaborative technology-enhanced learning environment can support students' integration of evolution ideas using case studies of human evolution. Knowledge Integration (KI) (Linn et al., 2000; Linn et al., 2004) is used as the operational framework to explore concept maps as knowledge integration tools to elicit, add, critically distinguish, group, connect, and sort out alternative evolution ideas. Concept maps are a form of node-link diagram for organizing and representing connections between ideas as a semantic network (Novak & Gowin, 1984). This dissertation research describes the iterative development of a novel biology
Jun Zou; Ming-Wu Zheng; Gen Li; Zhi-Guang Su
Systems biology is in an exponential development stage in recent years and has been widely utilized in biomedicine to better understand the molecular basis of human disease and the mechanism of drug action. Here, we discuss the fundamental concept of systems biology and its two computational methods that have been commonly used, that is, network analysis and dynamical modeling. The applications of systems biology in elucidating human disease are highlighted, consisting of human disease networ...
Shiramizu, Bruce; Mussolin, Lara; Woessmann, Wilhelm; Klapper, Wolfram
Exciting advances have been achieved for infants, children and adolescents diagnosed with, and treated for, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In spite of these successes, new frontiers are being paved to improve the prognosis for those who relapse or have resistant disease. This review summarizes some of the novel approaches and ideas in NHL monitoring, diagnosis and treatment as discussed at the 5th International Symposium on Childhood, Adolescent and Young Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma on October 22nd-24th 2015 in Varese, Italy. PMID:27009921
Science Translational Medicine 's mission is to improve human health care worldwide by providing a forum for communication and interdisciplinary idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners from all relevant established and emerging disciplines. The weekly journal debuted in October 2009 and is published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the publisher of Science and Science Signaling . The journal features peer-reviewed researc...
Science Translational Medicine’s mission is to improve human health care worldwide by providing a forum for communication and interdisciplinary idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners from all relevant established and emerging disciplines. The weekly journal debuted in October 2009 and is published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the publisher of Science and Science Signaling. The journal features peer-reviewed research art...
Gong Xiangwen; Zhang Jinwen; Yang Qinhe; Yan Haizhen; Zhang Yupei; Liu Yizhen; Xu Yongjian; Wang Hong; Lin Chunmei
The core of translational medicine means that the effective relationship between science researchers of basic medicine and clinical doctors makes basic medicine research transform into diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases to compensate for the wide gap between basic and clinical application. Translational medicine was introduced into traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) study, and evidence-based medicine capable of improving the accuracy and reliability of TCM clinical research transforming into basic research and systems biology capable of enhancing the systematicness and integrality of basic research to make it transform into clinical application better were as major technical support, hence, the application of evidence-based medicine and systems biology mediated by translational medicine in TCM will have far-reaching signiifcance for the development of TCM modernization. In this article, the application of evidence-based medicine and systems biology mediated by translational medicine in TCM study is illustrated in terms of TCM in the prevention and treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its clinical and basic bidirectional transformation, literature mining, translational medicine platform and team building.
Bidet-Ildei, Christel; Kitromilides, Elenitsa; Orliaguet, Jean-Pierre; Pavlova, Marina; Gentaz, Edouard
In human newborns, spontaneous visual preference for biological motion is reported to occur at birth, but the factors underpinning this preference are still in debate. Using a standard visual preferential looking paradigm, 4 experiments were carried out in 3-day-old human newborns to assess the influence of translational displacement on perception…
Presented are five ideas for A-level biology experiments using a laboratory computer interface. Topics investigated include photosynthesis, yeast growth, animal movements, pulse rates, and oxygen consumption and production by organisms. Includes instructions specific to the BBC computer system. (CW)
de Hoon Michiel JL
Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational prediction methods are currently used to identify genes in prokaryote genomes. However, identification of the correct translation initiation sites remains a difficult task. Accurate translation initiation sites (TISs are important not only for the annotation of unknown proteins but also for the prediction of operons, promoters, and small non-coding RNA genes, as this typically makes use of the intergenic distance. A further problem is that most existing methods are optimized for Escherichia coli data sets; applying these methods to newly sequenced bacterial genomes may not result in an equivalent level of accuracy. Results Based on a biological representation of the translation process, we applied Bayesian statistics to create a score function for predicting translation initiation sites. In contrast to existing programs, our combination of methods uses supervised learning to optimally use the set of known translation initiation sites. We combined the Ribosome Binding Site (RBS sequence, the distance between the translation initiation site and the RBS sequence, the base composition of the start codon, the nucleotide composition (A-rich sequences following start codons, and the expected distribution of the protein length in a Bayesian scoring function. To further increase the prediction accuracy, we also took into account the operon orientation. The outcome of the procedure achieved a prediction accuracy of 93.2% in 858 E. coli genes from the EcoGene data set and 92.7% accuracy in a data set of 1243 Bacillus subtilis 'non-y' genes. We confirmed the performance in the GC-rich Gamma-Proteobacteria Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243. Conclusion Hon-yaku, being based on a careful choice of elements important in translation, improved the prediction accuracy in B. subtilis data sets and other bacteria except for E. coli. We believe that most remaining
't Hart, Bert A; Abbott, David H; Nakamura, Katsuki; Fuchs, Eberhard
The development of biologic molecules (monoclonal antibodies, cytokines, soluble receptors) as specific therapeutics for human disease creates a need for animal models in which safety and efficacy can be tested. Models in lower animal species are precluded when the reagents fail to recognize their targets, which is often the case in rats and mice. In this Feature article we will highlight the common marmoset, a small-bodied nonhuman primate (NHP), as a useful model in biomedical and preclinical translational research.
This paper analyses urban planning practices in South Yorkshire to reveal how EU strategic spatial ideas and values are reproduced. Specifically, the paper examines how the notion of spatial justice was interpreted as the organising concepts within the European Spatial Development Perspective became situated within a territory severely affected by deindustrialisation in the 1980s, but subsequently a major beneficiary of EU Structural Fund programmes. The analysis reveals how policy-making at this scale used a construct of polycentric urban development that reasserted a model of economic growth based on the indigenous assets held in city centres at the expense of more redistributive measures targeted at the former coal-mining communities in the sub-region. PMID:20857562
Full Text Available Abstract Background Kernel-based learning algorithms are among the most advanced machine learning methods and have been successfully applied to a variety of sequence classification tasks within the field of bioinformatics. Conventional kernels utilized so far do not provide an easy interpretation of the learnt representations in terms of positional and compositional variability of the underlying biological signals. Results We propose a kernel-based approach to datamining on biological sequences. With our method it is possible to model and analyze positional variability of oligomers of any length in a natural way. On one hand this is achieved by mapping the sequences to an intuitive but high-dimensional feature space, well-suited for interpretation of the learnt models. On the other hand, by means of the kernel trick we can provide a general learning algorithm for that high-dimensional representation because all required statistics can be computed without performing an explicit feature space mapping of the sequences. By introducing a kernel parameter that controls the degree of position-dependency, our feature space representation can be tailored to the characteristics of the biological problem at hand. A regularized learning scheme enables application even to biological problems for which only small sets of example sequences are available. Our approach includes a visualization method for transparent representation of characteristic sequence features. Thereby importance of features can be measured in terms of discriminative strength with respect to classification of the underlying sequences. To demonstrate and validate our concept on a biochemically well-defined case, we analyze E. coli translation initiation sites in order to show that we can find biologically relevant signals. For that case, our results clearly show that the Shine-Dalgarno sequence is the most important signal upstream a start codon. The variability in position and composition
Ying Zhao; Yachen Wang; Wei-Guo Zhu
The functions of the FoxO family proteins, in particular their transcriptional activities, are modulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs), including phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, methylation and glycosylation. These PTMs occur in response to different cellular stresses, which in turn regulate the subcellular localization of FoxO family proteins, as well as their half-life, DNA binding, transcriptional activity and ability to interact with other cellular proteins. In this review, we summarize the role of PTMs of FoxO family proteins in linking their biological and functional relevance with various diseases.%The functions of the FoxO family proteins,in particular their transcriptional activities,are modulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs),including phosphorylation,acetylation,ubiquitination,methylation and glycosylation.These PTMs occur in response to different cellular stresses,which in turn regulate the subceilular localization of FoxO family proteins,as well as their half-life,DNA binding,transcriptional activity and ability to interact with other cellular proteins.In this review,we summarize the role of PTMs of FoxO family proteins in linking their biological and functional relevance with various diseases.
The fact is pointed out that phenomena in radiochemistry and micro-scale radiobiology are non-linear similarly to phenomena in modern theoretical physics. A comparison is made of the conceptual development of theoretical physics and of theoretical radiation biology. The use of Bose-Einstein's exciton condensation is suggested for expressing the non-linearity of radiochemical and radiobiological processes. (Ha)
Masjkur, Jimmy; Poser, Steven W; Nikolakopoulou, Polyxeni; Chrousos, George; McKay, Ronald D; Bornstein, Stefan R; Jones, Peter M; Androutsellis-Theotokis, Andreas
Loss of insulin-producing pancreatic islet β-cells is a hallmark of type 1 diabetes. Several experimental paradigms demonstrate that these cells can, in principle, be regenerated from multiple endogenous sources using signaling pathways that are also used during pancreas development. A thorough understanding of these pathways will provide improved opportunities for therapeutic intervention. It is now appreciated that signaling pathways should not be seen as "on" or "off" but that the degree of activity may result in wildly different cellular outcomes. In addition to the degree of operation of a signaling pathway, noncanonical branches also play important roles. Thus, a pathway, once considered as "off" or "low" may actually be highly operational but may be using noncanonical branches. Such branches are only now revealing themselves as new tools to assay them are being generated. A formidable source of noncanonical signal transduction concepts is neural stem cells because these cells appear to have acquired unusual signaling interpretations to allow them to maintain their unique dual properties (self-renewal and multipotency). We discuss how such findings from the neural field can provide a blueprint for the identification of new molecular mechanisms regulating pancreatic biology, with a focus on Notch, Hes/Hey, and hedgehog pathways. PMID:26798118
Vuillemenot, Brian R; Korte, Sven; Wright, Teresa L; Adams, Eric L; Boyd, Robert B; Butt, Mark T
Many central nervous system (CNS) diseases are inadequately treated by systemically administered therapies due to the blood brain barrier (BBB), which prevents achieving adequate drug concentrations at sites of action. Due to the increasing prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases and the inability of most systemically administered therapies to cross the BBB, direct CNS delivery will likely play an increasing role in treatment. Administration of large molecules, cells, viral vectors, oligonucleotides, and other novel therapies directly to the CNS via the subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or parenchyma overcomes this obstacle. Clinical experience with direct CNS administration of small molecule therapies suggests that this approach may be efficacious for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders using biological therapies. Risks of administration into the brain tissue or cerebrospinal fluid include local damage from implantation of the delivery system and/or administration of the therapeutic and reactions affecting the CNS. Preclinical safety studies on CNS administered compounds must differentiate between the effects of the test article, the delivery device, and/or the vehicle, and assess exacerbations of reactions due to combinations of effects. Animal models characterized for safety assessment of CNS administered therapeutics have enabled human trials, but interpretation can be challenging. This manuscript outlines the challenges of preclinical intrathecal/intracerebroventricular/intraparenchymal studies, evaluation of results, considerations for special endpoints, and translation of preclinical findings to enable first-in-human trials. Recommendations will be made based on the authors' collective experience with conducting these studies to enable clinical development of CNS-administered biologics. PMID:27354708
Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Sala, Evis; Hricak, Hedvig [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Grimm, Jan [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Program in Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States); Donati, Olivio F. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)
The epidemiology of prostate cancer has dramatically changed since the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in the 1980's. Most prostate cancers today are detected at early stages of the disease and are considered 'indolent'; however, some patients' prostate cancers demonstrate a more aggressive behaviour which leads to rapid progression and death. Increasing understanding of the biology underlying the heterogeneity that characterises this disease has led to a continuously evolving role of imaging in the management of prostate cancer. Functional and metabolic imaging techniques are gaining importance as the impact on the therapeutic paradigm has shifted from structural tumour detection alone to distinguishing patients with indolent tumours that can be managed conservatively (e.g., by active surveillance) from patients with more aggressive tumours that may require definitive treatment with surgery or radiation. In this review, we discuss advanced imaging techniques that allow direct visualisation of molecular interactions relevant to prostate cancer and their potential for translation to the clinical setting in the near future. The potential use of imaging to follow molecular events during drug therapy as well as the use of imaging agents for therapeutic purposes will also be discussed. (orig.)
Ren, Chunhua; Chen, Ting; Jiang, Xiao; Wang, Yanhong; Hu, Chaoqun
Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a multifunctional protein that existed ubiquitously in different eukaryote species and distributed widely in various tissues and cell types. In this study, the gene structure and biological function of TCTP were first characterized in echinoderm. An echinoderm TCTP named StmTCTP was identified from sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus) by expression sequence tag (EST) analysis and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach. The StmTCTP cDNA is 1219 bp in length, containing a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 77 bp, a 3'-UTR of 623 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 519 bp that encoding a protein of 172 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 19.80 kDa and a predicted isolectric point of 4.66. Two deduced signal signatures termed TCTP1 and TCTP2, a microtubule binding domain, a Ca(2+) binding domain and the conserved residues forming Rab GTPase binding surface were found in the StmTCTP amino acid sequence. For the gene structure, StmTCTP contains four exons separated by three introns. The anti-oxidation and heat shock protein activities of recombinant TCTP protein were also demonstrated in this study. In addition, the expression of StmTCTP was found to be significantly upregulated by polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid [poly (I:C)], lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or inactivated bacteria challenge in in vitro primary culture experiments of coelomocytes, suggested that the sea cucumber TCTP might play critical roles not only in the defense against oxidative and thermal stresses, but also in the innate immune defense against bacterial and viral infections. PMID:25193395
Full Text Available Abstract Background To enhance our understanding of complex biological systems like diseases we need to put all of the available data into context and use this to detect relations, pattern and rules which allow predictive hypotheses to be defined. Life science has become a data rich science with information about the behaviour of millions of entities like genes, chemical compounds, diseases, cell types and organs, which are organised in many different databases and/or spread throughout the literature. Existing knowledge such as genotype - phenotype relations or signal transduction pathways must be semantically integrated and dynamically organised into structured networks that are connected with clinical and experimental data. Different approaches to this challenge exist but so far none has proven entirely satisfactory. Results To address this challenge we previously developed a generic knowledge management framework, BioXM™, which allows the dynamic, graphic generation of domain specific knowledge representation models based on specific objects and their relations supporting annotations and ontologies. Here we demonstrate the utility of BioXM for knowledge management in systems biology as part of the EU FP6 BioBridge project on translational approaches to chronic diseases. From clinical and experimental data, text-mining results and public databases we generate a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD knowledge base and demonstrate its use by mining specific molecular networks together with integrated clinical and experimental data. Conclusions We generate the first semantically integrated COPD specific public knowledge base and find that for the integration of clinical and experimental data with pre-existing knowledge the configuration based set-up enabled by BioXM reduced implementation time and effort for the knowledge base compared to similar systems implemented as classical software development projects. The knowledgebase enables the
Julian F. V. Vincent
Ideas from engineering have helped the understanding of biological organisms for thousands of years. However, the mechanical aspects of biological materials and structures can, if properly interpreted and analysed, lead to a deeper understanding of the biology of organisms. Such an approach, although always current in some form, is nevertheless subject to the vagaries of fashion and the availability of analytical techniques. At present we are in a period of upturn. Areas of interest are deployable structures (applications in aerospace), palaeontology (how little do we need to know in order to create a credible biosphere) and food science (we need a rational approach to the mechanics of food).
王蕾; 蒋飞; 罗芳
Logo has a special communicative function. The investigation showed that translation of the bilingual logo of the hospital had some problems, including improper wording of English translation, more than one translation for the same Chinese word, English translation in Chinese way, Chinese logo should be standardized, spelling mistakes, the lack of English translations for Chinese logo, not standardized written in English, etc. It proposed that the translation should pay attention to the principle of reciprocity, and logo interpreters should be brief.%标识语具有特殊的交际功能.调查表明,医院双语标识语翻译存在英语译文用词不当、同一医院中文标识语一词多译、中国式英语译文等问题.提出:翻译时应注意对等原则,标示语翻译力求简洁等.
An, Gary C
The greatest challenge facing the biomedical research community is the effective translation of basic mechanistic knowledge into clinically effective therapeutics. This challenge is most evident in attempts to understand and modulate "systems" processes/disorders, such as sepsis, cancer, and wound healing. Formulating an investigatory strategy for these issues requires the recognition that these are dynamic processes. Representation of the dynamic behavior of biological systems can aid in the investigation of complex pathophysiological processes by augmenting existing discovery procedures by integrating disparate information sources and knowledge. This approach is termed Translational Systems Biology. Focusing on the development of computational models capturing the behavior of mechanistic hypotheses provides a tool that bridges gaps in the understanding of a disease process by visualizing "thought experiments" to fill those gaps. Agent-based modeling is a computational method particularly well suited to the translation of mechanistic knowledge into a computational framework. Utilizing agent-based models as a means of dynamic hypothesis representation will be a vital means of describing, communicating, and integrating community-wide knowledge. The transparent representation of hypotheses in this dynamic fashion can form the basis of "knowledge ecologies," where selection between competing hypotheses will apply an evolutionary paradigm to the development of community knowledge.
Full Text Available Single-molecule fluorescence provides high resolution spatial distributions of ribosomes and RNA polymerase (RNAP in live, rapidly growing E. coli. Ribosomes are more strongly segregated from the nucleoids (chromosomal DNA than previous widefield fluorescence studies suggested. While most transcription may be co-translational, the evidence indicates that most translation occurs on free mRNA copies that have diffused from the nucleoids to a ribosome-rich region. Analysis of time-resolved images of the nucleoid spatial distribution after treatment with the transcription-halting drug rifampicin and the translation-halting drug chloramphenicol shows that both drugs cause nucleoid contraction on the 0-3 min timescale. This is consistent with the transertion hypothesis. We suggest that the longer-term (20-30 min nucleoid expansion after Rif treatment arises from conversion of 70S-polysomes to 30S and 50S subunits, which readily penetrate the nucleoids. Monte Carlo simulations of a polymer bead model built to mimic the chromosomal DNA and ribosomes (either 70S-polysomes or 30S and 50S subunits explain spatial segregation or mixing of ribosomes and nucleoids in terms of excluded volume and entropic effects alone. A comprehensive model of the transcription-translation-transertion system incorporates this new information about the spatial organization of the E. coli cytoplasm. We propose that transertion, which radially expands the nucleoids, is essential for recycling of 30S and 50S subunits from ribosome-rich regions back into the nucleoids. There they initiate co-transcriptional translation, which is an important mechanism for maintaining RNAP forward progress and protecting the nascent mRNA chain. Segregation of 70S-polysomes from the nucleoid may facilitate rapid growth by shortening the search time for ribosomes to find free mRNA concentrated outside the nucleoid and the search time for RNAP concentrated within the nucleoid to find transcription
Cagan, Ross L; Justice, Monica J.; George F. Tidmarsh
Summary To better translate basic research findings into the clinic, we are moving away from the traditional one-gene–one-phenotype model towards the discovery of complex mechanisms. In this Editorial, the new Editor-in-Chief and Senior Editors of Disease Models & Mechanisms (DMM) discuss the role that the journal will play in this transition. DMM will continue to provide a platform for studies that bridge basic and applied science, and, by demanding the rigorous assessment of animal model...
Valluru, Ravi; Reynolds, Matthew P; Salse, Jerome
Transferring the knowledge bases between related species may assist in enlarging the yield potential of crop plants. Being cereals, rice and wheat share a high level of gene conservation; however, they differ at metabolic levels as a part of the environmental adaptation resulting in different yield capacities. This review focuses on the current understanding of genetic and molecular regulation of yield-associated traits in both crop species, highlights the similarities and differences and presents the putative knowledge gaps. We focus on the traits associated with phenology, photosynthesis, and assimilate partitioning and lodging resistance; the most important drivers of yield potential. Currently, there are large knowledge gaps in the genetic and molecular control of such major biological processes that can be filled in a translational biology approach in transferring genomics and genetics informations between rice and wheat.
Kassab, Ghassan S; An, Gary; Sander, Edward A; Miga, Michael I; Guccione, Julius M; Ji, Songbai; Vodovotz, Yoram
In this era of tremendous technological capabilities and increased focus on improving clinical outcomes, decreasing costs, and increasing precision, there is a need for a more quantitative approach to the field of surgery. Multiscale computational modeling has the potential to bridge the gap to the emerging paradigms of Precision Medicine and Translational Systems Biology, in which quantitative metrics and data guide patient care through improved stratification, diagnosis, and therapy. Achievements by multiple groups have demonstrated the potential for (1) multiscale computational modeling, at a biological level, of diseases treated with surgery and the surgical procedure process at the level of the individual and the population; along with (2) patient-specific, computationally-enabled surgical planning, delivery, and guidance and robotically-augmented manipulation. In this perspective article, we discuss these concepts, and cite emerging examples from the fields of trauma, wound healing, and cardiac surgery. PMID:27015816
Bandiera, Lucia; Pasini, Alice; Pasotti, Lorenzo; Zucca, Susanna; Mazzini, Giuliano; Magni, Paolo; Giordano, Emanuele; Furini, Simone
The small number of molecules, unevenly distributed within an isogenic cell population, makes gene expression a noisy process, and strategies have evolved to deal with this variability in protein concentration and to limit its impact on cellular behaviors. As translational efficiency has a major impact on biological noise, a possible strategy to control noise is to regulate gene expression processes at the post-transcriptional level. In this study, fluctuations in the concentration of a green fluorescent protein were compared, at the single cell level, upon transformation of an isogenic bacterial cell population with synthetic gene circuits implementing either a transcriptional or a post-transcriptional control of gene expression. Experimental measurements showed that protein variability is lower under post-transcriptional control, when the same average protein concentrations are compared. This effect is well reproduced by stochastic simulations, supporting the hypothesis that noise reduction is due to the control mechanism acting on the efficiency of translation. Similar strategies are likely to play a role in noise reduction in natural systems and to be useful for controlling noise in synthetic biology applications.
Zee, Ate Gerard Jan van der
In this thesis diverse cell biological features that in cultured (ovarian) tumor cells have been linked to drug resistance and/or tumor aggressiveness are studied in tumor specimens of epithelial ovarian carcinomas.
Ross L. Cagan
To better translate basic research findings into the clinic, we are moving away from the traditional one-gene–one-phenotype model towards the discovery of complex mechanisms. In this Editorial, the new Editor-in-Chief and Senior Editors of Disease Models & Mechanisms (DMM discuss the role that the journal will play in this transition. DMM will continue to provide a platform for studies that bridge basic and applied science, and, by demanding the rigorous assessment of animal models of disease, will help drive the establishment of robust standards of preclinical testing for drug development.
Cagan, Ross L; Justice, Monica J; Tidmarsh, George F
To better translate basic research findings into the clinic, we are moving away from the traditional one-gene-one-phenotype model towards the discovery of complex mechanisms. In this Editorial, the new Editor-in-Chief and Senior Editors of Disease Models & Mechanisms (DMM) discuss the role that the journal will play in this transition. DMM will continue to provide a platform for studies that bridge basic and applied science, and, by demanding the rigorous assessment of animal models of disease, will help drive the establishment of robust standards of preclinical testing for drug development. PMID:23616075
Castaño, Aurora; Ruiz, Leticia; Hernández, Carmen
Pelargonium line pattern virus (PLPV), a proposed member of a prospective genus (Pelarspovirus) within family Tombusviridae, has a positive-sense, single-stranded genomic RNA. According to previous predictions, it contains six open reading frames (ORFs) potentially encoding proteins of 27 (p27), 13 (p13), 87 (p87), 7 (p7), 6 (p6), and 37 kDa (p37). Using a variety of techniques we demonstrate that all predicted ORFs are functional, with the exception of (p13) and (p6). We also characterize a previously unidentified ORF which encodes a 9.7 kDa protein (p9.7) that is essential for viral movement. Furthermore, we present evidence that the single subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) produced by the virus directs synthesis of p7, p9.7 and p37. Remarkably, the translation of these totally unrelated proteins is coordinated via leaky-scanning. This mechanism seems to be favoured by the poor translation context of the start codon of ORF(p7), the non-AUG weak initiation codon of ORF(p9.7) and the lack of additional AUG codons in any reading frame preceding ORF(p37). The results also suggest that precise regulation of protein production from the sgRNA is critical for virus viability. Altogether, the data supports the notion that PLPV belongs to a new genus of plant viruses.
Callahan, Alison; Abeyruwan, Saminda W; Al-Ali, Hassan; Sakurai, Kunie; Ferguson, Adam R; Popovich, Phillip G; Shah, Nigam H; Visser, Ubbo; Bixby, John L; Lemmon, Vance P
Spinal cord injury (SCI) research is a data-rich field that aims to identify the biological mechanisms resulting in loss of function and mobility after SCI, as well as develop therapies that promote recovery after injury. SCI experimental methods, data and domain knowledge are locked in the largely unstructured text of scientific publications, making large scale integration with existing bioinformatics resources and subsequent analysis infeasible. The lack of standard reporting for experiment variables and results also makes experiment replicability a significant challenge. To address these challenges, we have developed RegenBase, a knowledge base of SCI biology. RegenBase integrates curated literature-sourced facts and experimental details, raw assay data profiling the effect of compounds on enzyme activity and cell growth, and structured SCI domain knowledge in the form of the first ontology for SCI, using Semantic Web representation languages and frameworks. RegenBase uses consistent identifier schemes and data representations that enable automated linking among RegenBase statements and also to other biological databases and electronic resources. By querying RegenBase, we have identified novel biological hypotheses linking the effects of perturbagens to observed behavioral outcomes after SCI. RegenBase is publicly available for browsing, querying and download.Database URL:http://regenbase.org. PMID:27055827
Callahan, Alison; Abeyruwan, Saminda W; Al-Ali, Hassan; Sakurai, Kunie; Ferguson, Adam R; Popovich, Phillip G; Shah, Nigam H; Visser, Ubbo; Bixby, John L; Lemmon, Vance P
Spinal cord injury (SCI) research is a data-rich field that aims to identify the biological mechanisms resulting in loss of function and mobility after SCI, as well as develop therapies that promote recovery after injury. SCI experimental methods, data and domain knowledge are locked in the largely unstructured text of scientific publications, making large scale integration with existing bioinformatics resources and subsequent analysis infeasible. The lack of standard reporting for experiment variables and results also makes experiment replicability a significant challenge. To address these challenges, we have developed RegenBase, a knowledge base of SCI biology. RegenBase integrates curated literature-sourced facts and experimental details, raw assay data profiling the effect of compounds on enzyme activity and cell growth, and structured SCI domain knowledge in the form of the first ontology for SCI, using Semantic Web representation languages and frameworks. RegenBase uses consistent identifier schemes and data representations that enable automated linking among RegenBase statements and also to other biological databases and electronic resources. By querying RegenBase, we have identified novel biological hypotheses linking the effects of perturbagens to observed behavioral outcomes after SCI. RegenBase is publicly available for browsing, querying and download.Database URL:http://regenbase.org.
Callahan, Alison; Abeyruwan, Saminda W.; Al-Ali, Hassan; Sakurai, Kunie; Ferguson, Adam R.; Popovich, Phillip G.; Shah, Nigam H.; Visser, Ubbo; John L Bixby; Lemmon, Vance P.
Spinal cord injury (SCI) research is a data-rich field that aims to identify the biological mechanisms resulting in loss of function and mobility after SCI, as well as develop therapies that promote recovery after injury. SCI experimental methods, data and domain knowledge are locked in the largely unstructured text of scientific publications, making large scale integration with existing bioinformatics resources and subsequent analysis infeasible. The lack of standard reporting for experiment...
Lok, James B
Because of their free-living life cycle alternatives, Strongyloides and related nematode parasites may represent the best models for translating C. elegans science to the study of nematode parasitism. S. stercoralis, a significant pathogen of humans, can be maintained in laboratory dogs and gerbils. Biosafety precautions necessary for work with S. stercoralis, though unfamiliar to many C. elegans researchers, are straightforward and easily accomplished. Although specialized methods are necessary for large-scale culture of the free-living stages of S. stercoralis, small-scale cultures for experimental purposes may be undertaken using minor modifications of standard C. elegans methods. Similarly, the morphological similarities between C. elegans and the free-living stages of S. stercoralis allow investigational methods such as laser cell ablation and DNA transformation by gonadal microinjection to be easily adapted from C. elegans to S. stercoralis. Comparative studies employing these methods have yielded new insights into the neuronal control of the infective process in parasites and its similarity to regulation of dauer development in C. elegans. Furthermore, we have developed a practical method for transient transformation of S. stercoralis with vector constructs having various tissue- and cell-specific expression patterns and have assembled these into a modular vector kit for distribution to the community. PMID:18050500
Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN, a microvascular complication occurring in approximately 20–40% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, is characterized by the progressive impairment of glomerular filtration and the development of Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions leading to end-stage renal failure (ESRD. The causes and molecular mechanisms mediating the onset of T2DM chronic complications are yet sketchy and it is not clear why disease progression occurs only in some patients. We performed a systematic analysis of the most relevant studies investigating genetic susceptibility and specific transcriptomic, epigenetic, proteomic, and metabolomic patterns in order to summarize the most significant traits associated with the disease onset and progression. The picture that emerges is complex and fascinating as it includes the regulation/dysregulation of numerous biological processes, converging toward the activation of inflammatory processes, oxidative stress, remodeling of cellular function and morphology, and disturbance of metabolic pathways. The growing interest in the characterization of protein post-translational modifications and the importance of handling large datasets using a systems biology approach are also discussed.
Brown, Robert T., Ed.; Clark, Barbara G., Ed.
This guide contains a collection of laboratory and field inquiries designed to promote ecological awareness, sensitivity, and understanding. The activities compiled by 28 teachers are for use in teaching biology at the secondary level. They are presented in a "recipe" form to make it possible for teachers without prior experience or training to…
Tait, Malcolm; Jensen, Ole B.
A multitude of concepts and ideas have shaped practices in professions such as planning, urban design and urban management. Now, however, the speed and intensity by which these ideas travel seems historically unprecedented. This paper explores how some of these ideas are formed and circulated...... propose a framework that focuses our understanding of how ideas are translated into new spatial settings. The examples of the Urban Village and the Business Improvement District will be used to explicate the analytical framework. In concluding, the paper assesses the utility of the analytic framework...
Meyer, Renate; Jancsary, Dennis; Höllerer, Markus A.;
How do visualization and visual forms of communication influence the process of transforming a novel idea into established organizational practice? In this paper, we build theory with regard to the role of visuals in manifesting and giving form to an innovative idea as it proceeds through various...... representations diffuse more rapidly and further than the practices themselves. Consolidating the relationship between abstract ideas and specific practice, such visual or multi-modal representations facilitate the implementation of novel ideas, reinforce particular translations, and imbue associated...
Meyer, Renate E.; Jancsary, Dennis; Höllerer, Markus A.;
How do visualization and visual forms of communication influence the process of transforming a novel idea into established organizational practice? In this paper, we build theory with regard to the role of visuals in manifesting and giving form to an innovative idea as it proceeds through various...... representations diffuse more rapidly and further than the practices themselves. Consolidating the relationship between abstract ideas and specific practice, such visual or multi-modal representations facilitate the implementation of novel ideas, reinforce particular translations, and imbue associated...
Dr. Yuslina Mohamed
Full Text Available This research tries to contrive Jahiz's stands and ideas in translation which he has discussed in his two books named "Al-Bayan Wal-Tabyeen" and "Al-Haiwan". As it was known this issue of translation was emergence since long period of time, and there was no need toward translation, however, after Arabian and Persian assembled with Greek philosophers had increasingly the need and concerned on Religion Sciences and others, for instances: Mathematics, Medicine, Logic, Engineering, Business and others which were existed during that time. The translation movement had gone by several stages in the different periods and being developed during Abassid period for example, the works of "Hanen Ibn Ishaq" and his own school which the translators had faced difficulties and problems in their translation. To summarize, this research has found a number of results that the "Jahiz" was precedence than others who had stated the conditions of translation before 12th century ago. Besides, these conditions appropriate till nowadays, he had also pointed these conditions cannot be applied in translation of literature texts and holy texts because its might be obliterated the savoir faire. "Jahiz" had looked through this issue seriously, he tried to help translators in this area and he had stated in his famous books the conditions of translation and he had given his ideas toward translation benefited from his previous experience in translation the ancient philosopher's books from Persian to Arabic. Though, the readers could benefit his ideas in translation generally and for the translator specifically, also his books became as a heritage references and cannot be neglected at all in translation work.
Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of
Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Chung, Tammy
Research on mechanisms of behavior change provides an innovative method to improve treatment for addictive behaviors. An important extension of mechanisms of change research involves the use of translational approaches, which examine how basic biological (i.e., brain-based mechanisms) and behavioral factors interact in initiating and sustaining positive behavior change as a result of psychotherapy. Articles in this special issue include integrative conceptual reviews and innovative empirical ...
Full Text Available What exactly does (or should translation from one language into another try to do? Attempt to convey to readers of the target language (the language into which one is translating something of the strangeness, difference and historicity of the original in the source language (the language from which one is translating? Or must translation try to bridge the gap between source and target language, by rendering the original in a thoroughly contemporary style and diction, as if this were a work being written now for the first time? And related to these the further questions: how closely should a translation render the genre, language, metre, style and content of the original? How far can a translation depart from the original without ceasing to be a translation – in other words, where is one to situate the border between “translation”, “version” and “adaptation”?
German functionalist approach makes considerable contributions to translation studies for considering translation as an fact of intercultural communication and concentrate on the purpose and function of the target text. It distinctively promoted translation theory against the traditional translation views. The paper analyzes its main ideas ,contribution and criticism of the Ger⁃man Functionalist Translation Theory.
sidney Shapiro, an American-born translator famous for his translation of Chinese literary works, received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Translation by the Translators Association of China on December 2, 2010.
Meyer, Renate E.; Jancsary, Dennis; Höllerer, Markus A.;
How do visualization and visual forms of communication influence the process of transforming a novel idea into established organizational practice? In this paper, we build theory with regard to the role of visuals in manifesting and giving form to an innovative idea as it proceeds through various...... stages of institutionalization. Ideas become institutionalized not merely through widespread diffusion in a cognitive-discursive form but eventually through their translation into concrete activities and transformation into specific patterns of organizational practice. We argue that visualization plays...... a pivotal and unique role in this process. Visualization bridges the ideational with the practical realm by providing representations of ideas, connecting them to existing knowledge, and illustrating the specific actions that instantiate them. Similar to verbal discourse, and often in tandem, visual...
Many young doctors in linguistics or literature are filling positions in departments of translation studies but might not necessarily have a clear idea of the kind of research carried out by their new-found colleagues. For them, Juliane House's brief introduction to the field of translation theory provides a welcome survey of the main concepts and issues in this area, even though the book is actually intended for readers with little or no background in language study at all.
Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida
Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...
With the great development of technology, translation technology exerts great influence on human translators because during their translation process, they may use many computer-aided translation tools, such as TRADOS, Snowman, WordFisher and etc. However, they always misunderstand the concept of computer-aided translation, so this thesis managed to providedetails about some translation technology and human translators' strengths so as to help them improve the productivity and the quality of theirtranslation works effectively and efficiently.
Bae, Susie; Caruso, Denise; Desai, Jayesh
Each year approximately 800 Australians are diagnosed with sarcoma, accounting for less than 1% of cancer diagnoses overall. A significant proportion of these sarcoma cases are in children and adolescents. The rarity and heterogeneity of this group of tumours, coupled with Australasia's relative geographical isolation, pose significant challenges in developing locoregional basic, translational and clinical research. The Australasian Sarcoma Study Group (ASSG) was established in 2008 as a Cooperative Cancer Clinical Research Group and is now the peak body for sarcoma research in Australasia, providing a mechanism to drive and coordinate collaborative research, promote education and assist with advocating for sarcoma within the region. This paper describes the development of ASSG and examines the current state of play with regard to sarcoma research in Australasia. PMID:24378392
An international survey of conditions and practices involving translators deals with the following points: (1) change in the legal status and material situation of translators since 1968; (2) translators' associations; (3) translators' training, and (4) encouraging translation of contemporary works. (CK)
As a kind of ancillary translation tool, Machine Translation has been paid increasing attention to and received different kinds of study by a great deal of researchers and scholars for a long time. To know the definition of Machine Translation and to analyse its benefits and problems are significant for translators in order to make good use of Machine Translation, and helpful to develop and consummate Machine Translation Systems in the future.
Agrawal, G.K.; Pedreschi, R.; Barkla, B.J.; Bindschedler, L.V.; Cramer, R.; Sarkar, A.; Renaut, J.; Job, D.; Rakwal, R.
Translational proteomics is an emerging sub-discipline of the proteomics field in the biological sciences. Translational plant proteomics aims to integrate knowledge from basic sciences to translate it into field applications to solve issues related but not limited to the recreational and economic v
根据当代红学家的研究。现存《红楼梦》文本，和作者原本有一段距离。这种文本间的衍变，是在同一种文化中进行的，与译者经周详考虑而作出的调整不可混为一谈。翻译问题是在另一时空进行的"文本衍义"活动。%The research undertaken by contemporary scholars on Dream of the Red Chamber reveals thatthere is some distance between the existing texts of the novel and the author's original idea. As thechanges were produced in the source culture, they are not to be confused with adaptations made by thetranslator in the process of translation, for translation is an activity of textual adaptation in another cul-ture.
A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention is...... given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention. This...... creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...
Sardar, Sujit Kumar; Mandal, Manasi; Majumder, Samit Kumar
The notion of intuitionistic fuzzy sets was introduced by Atanassov as a generalization of the notion of fuzzy sets. S.K Sardar and S.K. Majumder unified the idea of fuzzy translation and fuzzy multiplication of Vasantha Kandasamy to introduce the concept of fuzzy magnified translation in groups and semigroups. The purpose of this paper is to intuitionistically fuzzify(by using Atanassov's idea) the concept of fuzzy magnified translation in semigroups. Here among other results we obtain some ...
The International Federation of Translators will hold its largest ever world congress in China on the eve of 2008 Olympic Games china’ s position as a powerhouse of the translation industry is to be cemented,
Europe thinks in many languages and Europe is a land of translation. Translation is a means of transmitting culture, a means of making it available to others and an invitation to share. It is a cement which binds Europe together.
Generative Linguistics can and should be engaged by those with an interest in Translation Studies while developing their own positions on literary theory in general, but translation theory in particular. Generative theory provides empirical evidence for a free, creative mind that can comprehend, read, speak and translate a language. What is being proposed here contrasts radically with the dominant position of this generation's Translation Studies specialists, who freely incorporate Post-struc...
In English teaching,poetry translation is a difficult point which confuses many teachers and students.Different from other translations,poetry translation needs more background information and methods.In this article,the author choose Byron’s Isles of Greece as an example to analyze two different translations.With the comparison,we will have a better idea how to improve poetry translation in our teaching.
照那木拉; 王梅; 肖吉日木图; 李学恩
This article study the principles and methods of evidence-based medicine, modern physiological psychology, and biomechanics were used in this study to explore the biological macrofeature and the technique criterion of the fracture immobilization, based on the view of nature and life that man is an integral part of nature (including a unity of body and mind) in Chinese Mongolian traditional osteopathy. Chinese Mongolian traditional osteopathy implies the biological macroscopic idea of the reduction of fracture, such as a man is an integral part of nature (including a unity of body and mind), and the technique criterion of 'strength to strength' and 'the harmonization between isotonic and isometric exercise'. The biological macroscopic idea and the technique criterion thereof that is implied in the reduction of fracture in Chinese Mongolian traditional osteopathy is not only the cause of its inheritance up to now, but also one of the development directions of the reduction of fracture in the world today.%文章基于“天人合一”(含“身心合一”)生命自然观,以循证医学和现代生理心理、生物力学原理及方法探究中国蒙医整骨术骨折复位宏观理念及其手法准则.中国蒙医整骨术蕴含的骨折复位“天人合一”(含“身心合一”)宏观理念及其“以力对力”与“动静合一”手法准则,是它传继与沿用至今的根本立足点,更是当今骨折复位理念、方法的一个发展方向.
Lenita Maria Rimoli Esteves
Full Text Available O trabalho sugere que existem pelo menos duas estratégias bastante distintas para abordar a tradução de textos religiosos: a primeira busca dar acesso ao leitor em termos de entendimento, aproximando o texto religioso da cultura para a qual ele está sendo traduzido. A segunda estratégia é nutrida por uma ênfase na iluminação, na revelação, numa clarividência que não necessariamente passa pelo raciocínio, mas que pode ser proporcionada pela transmissão de características da língua que não pertencem ao campo dos sentidos e têm a ver com a materialidade da língua: ritmo, assonâncias, aliterações. As duas estratégias, numa primeira análise, parecem não só se opor diametralmente, mas também reforçar uma dicotomia talvez tão ou mais antiga que os próprios textos em estudo: aquela que opõe espírito (ou conteúdo a letra (forma. No entanto, como já poderíamos suspeitar, as coisas não são tão simples assim... O trabalho apresentará algumas manifestações dessas duas tendências ao longo da história, problematizando a dicotomia e buscando delimitar que éticas informaram cada esforço de tradução.This paper suggests the existence of at least two very different strategies in the translation of religious texts: one is based on understanding and aims at accommodating the religious text to the culture into which it is translated. The second strategy is nourished by an emphasis on illumination, on revelation, on an insight that does not necessarily demand reasoning, but rather the transmission of certain linguistic characteristics not belonging to the realm of meaning: rhythm, assonances, alliterations. At first sight, the two strategies are radically different, stressing a dichotomy that is perhaps even older than the texts being studied " that opposing spirit to letter (or content to form. However, as one might expect, things are not so simple. The work will present some manifestations of these two tendencies along
Henderson, Terry J
A panel of 15 biological toxins ranging between approximately 60-28,000 g/mol was used to evaluate the feasibility of screening aqueous samples for toxin analytes based on their translational diffusion coefficients, D(t). Toxin D(t) values were measured by pulsed-field gradient (1)H NMR spectroscopy using a bipolar pulse pair, longitudinal eddy current delay pulse sequence incorporating water suppression to achieve the maximum dynamic range for toxin signals. To collect data for an effective screening protocol, reference D(t) values were determined from five independent measurements at both 25 and 37 degrees C for all toxins in the panel. In the protocol, D(t) values are measured at both temperatures for a suspected toxin target in a sample, and for assignment as a potential toxin analyte, the measurements are required to fall within +/-0.25 x 10(-6) cm(2)/s of both reference D(t) values for at least one toxin in the panel. Only solution viscosity was found to influence sample D(t) measurements appreciably; however, the measurements are easily corrected for viscosity effects by calculating the D(t) value of the suspected toxin at infinite dilution. In conclusion, the protocol provides a rapid and effective means for screening aqueous samples for all toxins in the panel, narrowing toxin identification to < or = 2 possibilities in virtually all cases.
Deconstruction theory is a translation theory which is worthy our great attention. This paper expounds the effects of deconstruction theory on translation theory and practice, points out the limitations of the theory, and puts forward the necessity to construct a new translation standard after deconstruction. The ideas and methods it illustrated bring us many new inspirations, which have important reference value and significance to reconstruct Chinese translation theory.
Halskov, Kim; Dalsgård, Peter
The development of new ideas is an essential concern for many design projects. There are, however, few in-depth studies of how such ideas emerge within these contexts. In this article we offer an analysis of the emergence of ideas from specific sources of inspiration, as they arise through...
The best idea to improve the environment in the last year comes from the Novaky Power Plant. Jozef Gajdusek participated in the Green Idea project and he won with his proposal for mazut collection during start up of the boilers into portable plastic containers. Sixteen employees with twenty-two proposals participated in the pilot year of the Green Idea project. (author)
Sardar, Sujit Kumar; Majumder, Samit Kumar
The notion of intuitionistic fuzzy sets was introduced by Atanassov as a generalization of the notion of fuzzy sets. S.K Sardar and S.K. Majumder unified the idea of fuzzy translation and fuzzy multiplication of Vasantha Kandasamy to introduce the concept of fuzzy magnified translation in groups and semigroups. The purpose of this paper is to intuitionistically fuzzify(by using Atanassov's idea) the concept of fuzzy magnified translation in semigroups. Here among other results we obtain some characterization theorems of regular, intra-regular, left(right) regular semigroups in terms of intuitionistic fuzzy magnified translation.
本文借助20世纪早期德国作家瓦尔特·本杰明在数篇文章中形成的观点,对翻译研究领域进行了梳理,认为翻译不应该仅仅被视为是从源语言到目标语的意义传递.本杰明引用通天塔倒塌的犹太-基督寓言,提出了第三原初语言的概念,这是一种能够成为诗歌翻译过程中所有的意义指涉物的理想语言,目标语和源语言的两个诗歌版本都可指向这种原初语言.这不是一种迎合于大众、或者强求大众认可的翻译观点,而是一个值得探讨的方向.本文对比了由印度马拉地语译为英语的两个诗歌版本(其中一个版本是由诗歌马拉地语的创作者翻译).通过分析,本文对两个版本诗歌的高低做出了评价,由此认为,领悟源语言精神的翻译方式优于小心谨慎的文学翻译方式.%The paper surveys the field of translation studies from the perspective developed in several essays from the early twentieth century by the German author Walter Benjamin to propose the argument that translation might be viewed not simply as the transference of meaning and significance from a source to a target language.Benjamin,invoking the Judaic-Christian fables of the Fall and the Tower of Babel,proposed the idea of a third ur-language,which captures the idea of an ideal language which might be the virtual referent in every act of poetic translation,such that both target and source versions of a poem might be said to refer to this ur-language.This is not a view of translation that is likely to appeal or persuade everyone; however it is interesting enough to be put to a test.The paper does that by comparing two translations into English of a poem in the Indian language Marathi,one of which is by the poet of the Marathi original.My analysis of the two translations leads to an assessment of one as better than the other,,for reasons which subsidize the conclusion that capturing the spirit of an original might sometimes prove more
长句的高频率使用导致句子结构非常复杂,这是《分子生物学》英语原版教材不同于其他科技文献的显著特点.要准确地理解和翻译《分子生物学》英语长句,除了掌握深厚的专业知识,还必须运用恰当的英语长句翻译方法.因此,需要从并列句、主语从句、宾语从句、定语从句、状语从句等方面探讨《分子生物学》英语长句的翻译策略.%Complicated sentence structures resulting from frequent use of long sentences are characteristic of Molecular biology textbooks in English.To have an exact understanding and translation of Molecular biology texts,it is essential for one to have a good command of the translation skills,as well as the solid foundation of the professional knoyledge.This paper discusses the translation skills for coordinate clause,subject clause,object clause,attributive clause,and adverbial clause in English Molecular biology texts.
Full Text Available This study investigates professionals on the field of quality, are responsible to give to customer honest clarification of fundamental ideas. Quality movement is losing credibility with suggesting that the idea of quality is replacing with the idea of excellence. Findings are based on more than 25 years of practice in professional promotion of quality: in consulting on private and public sector, from 1990 lead auditor at SIQ (Slovenian Institute of Quality, from 1998 lead assessor – commission for Slovenian Excellence Quality Award. Theory is developed based on: Noriaki Kano theory of Attractive quality, Tito Conti ideas on TQM and applications problems of Excellence model, Practical case of General Hospital Novo Mesto (in 1998 first attempt of using EM, than forced to build QMS based on ISO 9001 and then returned to practice EM. Findings: We really need to amplify and to understand the concept of quality in a much wider way. To treat excellence related activities separated from all others quality management activities is not god solution. The name of EFQM Excellence Model should be replaced with Quality Management Model. Research limitations/implications: This paper present findings mainly based on practice in Slovenia and especially in public sector where practicing of CAF is not giving expected benefits. Practical implications: The three styles of quality management (improvements to reach demands, improvements to reach expectations, improvements to react on new conditions and needs should be connected with personal development. Theory is developed based on: Noriaki Kano theory of Attractive quality, Tito Conti ideas on TQM and applications problems of Excellence model. We need integration moments. Integration is other word for creativity and health. It leads to integrity. Excellence is only one of three states of quality. If we ask: How? The answer is bad, good or excellent. All three are possible states of the same parameter.
Kauffman, L H
In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.
Glaser, John P
Partners Healthcare, and its affiliated hospitals, have a long track record of accomplishments in clinical information systems implementations and research. Seven ideas have shaped the information systems strategies and tactics at Partners; centrality of processes, organizational partnerships, progressive incrementalism, agility, architecture, embedded research, and engage the field. This article reviews the ideas and discusses the rationale and steps taken to put the ideas into practice.
Business Ideas Competition "The Rainbow Seed Fund is a UK fund, which provides finance to support the commercialization of good ideas founded on scientific research; it is for the benefit of the UK industry in particular. To encourage ideas from CERN the Rainbow Seed Fund is running a business ideas competition.The winner of this competition will receive an immediate cash prize of GBP £1,000. In addition the Rainbow Seed Fund may well provide finance for market research, for protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and for prototyping to take the idea forward. Further awards of GBP £750 will be made for ideas which gain investment from the Fund.Candidates will only be required to prepare a 2-4-page summary of their business idea, and not a full business plan. Full details and an entry form are available at www.rainbowseedfund.com ." ALL Members of the Personnel seeking participation in the business ideas competition are asked to submit their ideas via the CERN TT Unit (Jean-Marie.Le Goff@cern.ch) th...
Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex
An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.
Lilley, Kathleen; Barker, Michelle; Harris, Neil
Higher education emphasises training and skills for employment, yet while the "idea" of educating global citizens appears in university discourse, there is limited evidence demonstrating how the "idea" of the global citizen translates into practice. Recent research emphasises a desire for graduates to be local and global…
Odersky, Martin; Wadler, Philip
Pizza is a strict superset of Java that incorporates three ideas from the academic community: parametric polymorphism, higher-order functions, and algebraic data types. Pizza attempts to make these ideas accessible by translating them into Java. We mean that both figuratively and literally, because Pizza is defined by translation into Java. It turns out that these features integrate well: Pizza fits smoothly to Java, with only a few rough edges.
Reedy, Robert P.; Crawford, Daniel W.
A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.
Welcome to the new "Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship" column entitled "ERM Ideas and Innovations," which will appear in each issue of JERL for the next 2 years, and possibly more, beginning with this issue. The overall focus of each column will be to introduce and expand ideas, discuss innovations, and ultimately encourage and foster…
There is a rapid growth in the area of translation studies these years. Therefore, we can no longer understand the practice of translation from the traditional single perspective. This paper analyzes translation practice from perspectives of the nature, the presentation format, translation criteria, the people involved in translating, language and the culture, the intention and the requirements, the process of translation, the media, the times and the society. Thus prove that different ideas about practice of translation should be learned in order to broaden the view of translation.
Ulrich, Frank; Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Müller, Sune Dueholm
institutionalized technologies during their informal evaluation and sensemaking of these ideas. Moreover, we suggest that conflicts between competing frames of reference during this evaluation may result in the rejection, adoption, or multiplication of new technology ideas. Drawing on Information Systems (IS) based...... theories of creativity, Scandinavian institutionalism, and empirical data from two Danish organizations, this article investigates the interplay between creativity, technology, and human sensemaking in the process of translating and transforming technology ideas into full-fledged technological innovations....
Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard;
language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show......This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross...
Chekulaeva, Marina; Landthaler, Markus
Translation is a fundamental biological process by which ribosomes decode genetic information into proteins. The regulation of this process plays a key role in tuning protein levels, allowing cells to respond rapidly to changes in the environment and to synthesize proteins with precise timing and at specific subcellular locations. Despite detailed biochemical and structural insight into the mechanism of protein synthesis, translational dynamics and localization in a cellular context are less well understood. Here, we summarize recent efforts to quantify and visualize translation, focusing on four publications (Morisaki et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2016; Wu et al., 2016; Yan et al., 2016) describing novel approaches to imaging in real time the synthesis of nascent peptides from individual mRNAs in living cells. PMID:27635758
Antonella Del Rosso
Originally created in response to requests from experimentalists working in the collaborations, IdeaSquare has evolved into a place where innovative ideas meet established expertise. Although the project is still in its pilot phase, two EU-funded projects have found their home in the IdeaSquare building and 46 students have already participated in the Challenge-Based Innovation courses based there. More to come… IdeaSquare, which will be inaugurated on 9 December, is the name given to the B3179 refurbished building at LHC Point 1. More importantly, IdeaSquare is the name of a project designed to nurture innovation at CERN. “The scope of the project is to bring together researchers, engineers, people from industry and young students and encourage them to come up with new ideas that are useful for society, inspired by CERN’s ongoing detector R&D and upgrade projects,” explains Markus Nordberg who, together with Marzio Nessi, set up IdeaSquare withi...
Cho, KyungHyun; Esipova, Masha
We investigate the potential of attention-based neural machine translation in simultaneous translation. We introduce a novel decoding algorithm, called simultaneous greedy decoding, that allows an existing neural machine translation model to begin translating before a full source sentence is received. This approach is unique from previous works on simultaneous translation in that segmentation and translation are done jointly to maximize the translation quality and that translating each segmen...
Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Mathiassen, Lars; Newell, Sue
conceptualization based on the “traveling of ideas” metaphor that distinguishes between theorization of ideas about IT usage across an organizational field and translation of such ideas into practical use of IT within particular organizations. Drawing on these distinct analytical views, we posit...
Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…
modulation by subsidiary subunits. Improving our understanding of the regulation of ion channels is a critical future research direction. We must better determine how ion channels and other cardiac proteins are regulated in the native environment to construct a complete picture of electrical activity. In addition, we must reform our ideas and methods of the research on arrhythmia, integrate electrical activity and its biological substrate, and finally create the study system of electrocardio-biology. It is well-known that the occurrence and maintenance of AF involve tissue,cellular,molecular and genetic scales. Firstly we should integrate the complex relationship among these multiple scales, and systematically understand the mechanisms of AF.Secondly, multiple ionic currents simultaneously exist in myocytes, so we must synchronously observe the instantaneous changes and integrated effects of ionic currents. Finally,we should use the ideas and methods of electrocardio-biology, search for the upstream effective intervention targets, and ultimately achieve new breakthrough in the prevention and treatment of AF.%@@ 心房颤动(房颤)是临床上最常见的快速性心律失常,发病率高,危害极大.世界著名的心脏病学权威Braunwald教授将房颤列为21世纪心血管界首先要攻克的两大疾病之一.国内外对房颤的研究已超过100年,虽然在其发生机制及防治研究方面取得了一定的进步,但迄今为止仍未完全阐明其发生和维持机制,更缺乏真正有效的防治方法.
In 1980’s, the famous translator and scholar Bassnett proposes a new translation theory, namely cultural translation the-ory, in which Bassnett insists that culture should be taken as the basic unit of translation, which attracts the attentions all over the world. In the thesis, the translation of Ren, one of the main ideas of Confucianism, will be discussed from the perspective of Bassnett’s cultural translation theory. Ren, the essence of The Analects, also the symbol of Chinese traditional culture, is endowed with profound connotation and important status. There are more and more translations of Ren in contemporary era. After com-paring different kinds of translation and cultural translation theory, the most proper way of doing it may be transliterating it to Ren.
The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA paper no. 7 is devoted to the water quality and management in Gironde. The european framework directive on water and the humid zones are discussed. (A.L.B.)
Plagiarism is a crime against academy. It deceives readers, hurts plagiarized authors, and gets the plagiarist undeserved benefits. However, even though these arguments do show that copying other people's intellectual contribution is wrong, they do not apply to the copying of words. Copying a few sentences that contain no original idea (e.g. in the introduction) is of marginal importance compared to stealing the ideas of others. The two must be clearly distinguished, and the 'plagiarism' labe...
Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Zehir, Ahmet; Syed, Aijazuddin; Gao, JianJiong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cheng, Donavan T
Translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics are the primary domains related to informatics activities that support translational research. Translational bioinformatics focuses on computational techniques in genetics, molecular biology, and systems biology. Clinical research (biomedical) informatics involves the use of informatics in discovery and management of new knowledge relating to health and disease. This article details 3 projects that are hybrid applications of translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics: The Cancer Genome Atlas, the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center clinical variants and results database, all designed to facilitate insights into cancer biology and clinical/therapeutic correlations.
Espiritu, Michael J; Cabalteja, Chino C; Sugai, Christopher K; Bingham, Jon-Paul
Bioactive peptides from Conus venom contain a natural abundance of post-translational modifications that affect their chemical diversity, structural stability, and neuroactive properties. These modifications have continually presented hurdles in their identification and characterization. Early endeavors in their analysis relied on classical biochemical techniques that have led to the progressive development and use of novel proteomic-based approaches. The critical importance of these post-translationally modified amino acids and their specific assignment cannot be understated, having impact on their folding, pharmacological selectivity, and potency. Such modifications at an amino acid level may also provide additional insight into the advancement of conopeptide drugs in the quest for precise pharmacological targeting. To achieve this end, a concerted effort between the classical and novel approaches is needed to completely elucidate the role of post-translational modifications in conopeptide structure and dynamics. This paper provides a reflection in the advancements observed in dealing with numerous and multiple post-translationally modified amino acids within conotoxins and conopeptides and provides a summary of the current techniques used in their identification.
Vandepitte, Sonia; Mousten, Birthe; Maylath, Bruce;
After Kiraly (2000) introduced the collaborative form of translation in classrooms, Pavlovic (2007), Kenny (2008), and Huertas Barros (2011) provided empirical evidence that testifies to the impact of collaborative learning. This chapter sets out to describe the collaborative forms of learning at...
Applications of Recombinant DNA Technology in Gastrointestinal Medicine and Hepatology: Basic Paradigms of Molecular Cell Biology. Part C: Protein Synthesis and Post-Translational Processing in Eukaryotic Cells
Gary E Wild
Full Text Available The translation of mRNA constitutes the first step in the synthesis of a functional protein. The polypeptide chain is subsequently folded into the appropriate three-dimensional configuration and undergoes a variety of processing steps before being converted into its active form. These processing steps are intimately related to the cellular events that occur in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi compartments, and determine the sorting and transport of different proteins to their appropriate destinations within the cell. While the regulation of gene expression occurs primarily at the level of transcription, the expression of many genes can also be controlled at the level of translation. Most proteins can be regulated in response to extracellular signals. In addition, intracellular protein levels can be controlled by differential rates of protein degradation. Thus, the regulation of both the amounts and activities of intracellular proteins ultimately determines all aspects of cell behaviour.
Since the 1960s translation has made great progress on the way to becoming a systematic and scientific discipline. The theory of deconstruction, originating in France, has made great impact on traditional translation. It has become more influential in recent days. Through the discussion of deconstruction and its idea of translation, this thesis clarifies people's skeptical attitudes towards deconstruction and explains radical changes it has brought for translation field, especially in explaining the relationship between the original text and the translated text in Derrida's deconstruction theory. At the end of this thesis, the application and limitations of deconstruction are discussed.
M. Endrizzi; Diemoz, P. C.; Szafraniec, M. B.; Hagen, C. K.; Millard, T. P.; Zapata, C. E.; Munro, P. R. T.; Ignatyev, K.; Marenzana, M.; Speller, R. D.; Olivo, A.
The edge illumination principle was first proposed at Elettra (Italy) in the late nineties, as an alternative method for achieving high phase sensitivity with a very simple and flexible set-up, and has since been under continuous development in the radiation physics group at UCL. Edge illumination allows overcoming most of the limitations of other phase-contrast techniques, enabling their translation into a laboratory environment. It is relatively insensitive to mechanical and thermal instabi...
Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan
policy. Corporate reporting for tax purposes is an area where the European Union, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, the United Nations, large global accountancy firms and non-governmental organizations have been active. The point of contention here is what form of financial...... reporting multinational corporations should provide to ensure they pay their fair share of tax. Ideas powered by expertise contain shared causal beliefs, as well as principled beliefs about value systems. We demonstrate that professionals can contest the established order when demonstrations of expertise......This contribution discusses how ideas are powered through expertise and moral authority. Professionals compete with each other to power ideas by linking claims to expertise, how things best work, to moral claims about how things should be. To show how, we draw on a case of battles over global tax...
Vera Aleksey Stupina
Full Text Available Isolation of biologically active cell components from multicellular eukaryotic organisms often poses difficult challenges such as low yields and inability to retain the integrity and functionality of the purified compound. We previously identified a cap-independent translation enhancer (3’CITE in the 3’UTR of Turnip crinkle virus (TCV that structurally mimics a tRNA and binds to yeast 80S ribosomes and 60S subunits in the P-site. Yeast ribosomes were used for these studies due to the lack of methods for isolation of plant ribosomes with high yields and integrity. To carry out studies with more natural components, a simple and efficient procedure has been developed for the isolation of large quantities of high quality ribosomes and ribosomal subunits from Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts prepared from seed-derived callus tissue. Attempts to isolate high quality ribosomes from wheat germ, bean sprouts and evacuolated protoplasts were unsuccessful. Addition of purified Arabidopsis 80S plant ribosomes to ribosome-depleted wheat germ lysates resulted in a greater than 1200-fold enhancement in in vitro translation of a luciferase reporter construct. The TCV 3’CITE bound to ribosomes with a 3 to 7-fold higher efficiency when using plant 80S ribosomes compared with yeast ribosomes, indicating that this viral translational enhancer is adapted to interact more efficiently with host plant ribosomes.
Discover the latest trends in web design! Looking for inspiration for your latest web design project? Expert Patrick McNeil, author of the popular Web Designer's Idea Book series, is back with all new examples of today's best website design. Featuring more than 650 examples of the latest trends, this fourth volume of The Web Designer's Idea Book is overflowing with visual inspiration. Arranged categorically, this fully illustrated guide puts important topics like design styles, elements, themes and responsive design at your fingertips. This new volume also includes a detailed discussion o
Full Text Available The term “Translational Genomics” reflects both title and mission of this new journal. “Translational” has traditionally been understood as “applied research” or “development”, different from or even opposed to “basic research”. Recent scientific and societal developments have triggered a re-assessment of the connotation that “translational” and “basic” are either/or activities: translational research nowadays aims at feeding the best science into applications and solutions for human society. We therefore argue here basic science to be challenged and leveraged for its relevance to human health and societal benefits. This more recent approach and attitude are catalyzed by four trends or developments: evidence-based solutions; large-scale, high dimensional data; consumer/patient empowerment; and systems-level understanding.
Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne
The paper explains the theoretical background and findings of an empirical study of revision policies, using Denmark as a case in point. After an overview of important definitions, types and parameters, the paper explains the methods and data gathered from a questionnaire survey and an interview...... survey. Results clearly show that most translation companies regard both unilingual and comparative revisions as essential components of professional quality assurance. Data indicate that revision is rarely fully comparative, as the preferred procedure seems to be a unilingual revision followed by a more...... or less comparative rereading. Though questionnaire data seem to indicate that translation companies use linguistic correctness and presentation as the only revision parameters, interview data reveal that textual and communicative aspects are also considered. Generally speaking, revision is not carried...
John R. Austin
Full Text Available Leaders regularly experience pressure to move innovation and change initiatives through their organizations. They face the challenge of transforming organizational changes and innovations from ideas into sustained behavior. In this commentary, I argue that successful implementation requires leaders to engage in a translation process that contains three key translation “moments”. The challenges presented by these translation moments are magnified by the difficulty leaders often have in shifting from one moment to the next. Techniques for handling each translation moment are discussed.
Mogahed, Mogahed M.
Learners occasionally complain that they lack ideas when sitting down to write a composition. Teachers complain that they do not want to spend half the class time telling students what to write. There is an answer. Teachers brainstorm words connected with the topic in class before setting the composition for homework. The question remains: how to…
Marginson, Simon; Sawir, Erlenawati
Written by a cross-cultural pair of authors, "Ideas for Intercultural Education" takes a critical look at present approaches to international education, focusing on the intercultural potential that it offers but mostly fails to deliver. The underlying premise of this profound, engaging book is that international education can be a transforming…
Crouse, Richard J.; And Others
The first idea concerns a board game similar to tic-tac-toe in which the strategy involves the knowledge of the factorization of quadratic polynomials. The second game uses the calculation of the surface areas of solid figures applying the specific examples of cigar boxes and cylindrical tin cans. (JJK)
"The Force of Ideas" describes a little-known aspect of both educational history and Viennese psychoanalysis during the interwar years: the movement for psychoanalytic pedagogy. The author traces her father's own story, beginning with his application to the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society for training as a psychoanalytic pedagogue, as a way to…
Mathematics Teacher, 1991
Presented are two ideas to improve instruction. The first celebrates the Christmas birthday of Isaac Newton with an essay assignment related to Newton and a party. The second suggests a more appropriate moment to introduce the technique of completing the square to promote greater flexibility in factoring problems. (MDH)
Van Reenen, John
In the last CentrePiece, John Van Reenen stressed the importance of competition and labour market flexibility for productivity growth. His latest in CEP's 'big ideas' series describes the impact of research on how policy-makers can influence innovation more directly - through tax credits for business spending on research and development.
This booklet is a project documentation of a short-term project titled ‘IDEAS ABOUT HOUSING Arkitektkonkurrencernes boligløsninger’. Architectural competitions have been used to develop new living concepts reacting on current political, economical and social flows. Participation in an architectural...... competition provides the architects a possibility to reflect on the current social patterns, and to propose suitable spaces. In this light, the competition proposals represent the visions and dreams of the architects to the contemporary society. “For most of the 20th century, design competitions have been...... an important part of the world of architecture and planning in Denmark. Competitions, sponsored by government organizations, housing associations, or private business, are usually requests to make proposals for a specific project, but they are also sometimes used to elicit ideas about a general project type...
Harrison, Dew; Ch'ng, Eugene; Mount, Sarah; Moore, Sam
Shrewsbury Museum Service invited Dew Harrison to create a work relating to Charles Darwin for the bicentenary of his birth in the UK town. Her research is practise-led and uses computer technology to interlink series of related thoughts and ideas, in multimedia form. Texts, images, animations and sounds are networked into one overarching ‘concept’. The complete concept is then exhibited as a looped projected film or interactive screen work offering a contemporary understanding of a complex i...
Challenge: to use basic-research technologies to enhance mobility. A group of Finnish students accepted this challenge in 2014 and now they have come back to CERN’s IdeaSquare to develop their idea: a smart hip protector to protect elderly people in the event of a fall. The smart hip protector protects elderly people if they fall. (Image: George Atanassov/Aalto University) The intelligent hip protector features two airbags and three different sensors – an accelerometer, a gyroscope and a magnetometer. When the three sensors simultaneously show that the person is falling, a CO2 cartridge releases gas into the airbags and quickly inflates them, thus softening the impact with the ground. “This idea came about during the Challenge-Based Innovation course in 2014, in which participants were asked to use technologies developed for basic research in new solutions to facilitate mobility,” explains Enna Rane, a member of the team. “Together with students...
Full Text Available This paper compares a translation of a global (more specifically, European regulation into two local contexts, setting this process in a broader context of the all-pervading risk management. The two countries are Sweden and Poland, both relatively untouched by the current financial crisis, and the regulation is Basel II Accord. In both countries, the translation is shaped by the past history, and the present circumstances. The results show that, in spite of local differences, there is a common belief in quantification of risks as the main remedy and therefore the main way of managing them. Abstract and vague formulations, combined with sophisticated calculation techniques, win over the complications of actual practices. The role of researchers in this process is also examined. A study illustrates also the advantages of translation theory versus diffusion theory of spreading of ideas.
Olwig, Mette Fog
This article contributes to the growing scholarship on local development practitioners by re-examining conceptualizations of practitioners as ‘brokers’ strategically translating between ‘travelling’ (development institution) rationalities and ‘placed’ (recipient area) rationalities in relation...... to the development ‘interface’. It argues that local development practitioners, as a result of unconscious dispositions linked to a growing ‘development legacy’, habitually employ a simultaneity of rationalities. Based on fieldwork in northern Ghana conducted in the context of changing development discourse, policy...... and practice spurred by new challenges deriving from climate change anxiety, the study shows how local practitioners often make local activities fit into travelling development rationalities as a matter of habit, rather than as a conscious strategy. They may therefore cease to ‘translate’ between different...
Feminist translation theory emerged in the late 70s and early 80s of 20th Century. It is the combination of the feminist movement and the“cultural turn”of translation. It was introduced to China in the 1980s, and with the development of the transla⁃tion theory and translation practice, more and more Chinese translators want to study the feminist translation theory from the deep levels.
Da Silva, Nancy; Oldham, Greg R.
This study examined the possibility that the relationship between the number of ideas an employee generated and the number of those ideas that were adopted by the organization was moderated by the general radicalness of the employee's ideas (i.e., the extent to which the ideas were breakthrough or groundbreaking), the employee's intention to stay,…
Ishlinskii, A. Iu.
The book contains the published articles and reports by academician Ishlinskii which deal with the concepts and ideas of modern mechanics, its role in providing a general understanding of the natural phenomena, and its applications to various problems in science and engineering. Attention is given to the methodological aspects of mechanics, to the history of the theories of plasticity, friction, gyroscopic and inertial systems, and inertial navigation, and to mathematical methods in mechanics. The book also contains essays on some famous scientists and engineers.
Sussman, Steve; Unger, Jennifer B; Palinkas, Lawrence A
This article introduces the topic of international translation of health programs. Different perspectives toward the study of national-level variables that are relevant to translation of evidence-based programming developed outside of or in a country are discussed. Concepts including national prototypes, national stereotypes, country clusters, knowledge incompatibility, and absorptive capacity are introduced. The ideas expressed in this article serve to provide direction when considering developing a health behavior program for a country, using previous programmatic knowledge from elsewhere.
Full Text Available The way how to learn multidisciplinary ideas has been discussed. Biomedical engineering is exemplified for a multidisciplinary field. "Biomedical Engineering" makes a multidisciplinary research area, which includes biology, medicine, engineering and others. The cross-cultural student seminars on biomedical engineering have been exemplified as the case studies. In the group fieldwork, students were divided into small groups. Each group visited the university hospital to find research topics related to biomedical engineering as the fieldwork by the cross cultural group. Students pointed out several topics related to the multidisciplinary field, which includes mechanics, informatics, and systemics. They have learned how to communicate with people, who has variety of cultural backgrounds. Through the training, students realized another way of thinking, which stands on another base of idea. The process is effective to master multidisciplinary ideas.
Widemann, Brigitte C; Acosta, Maria T; Ammoun, Sylvia; Belzberg, Allan J; Bernards, Andre; Blakeley, Jaishri; Bretscher, Antony; Cichowski, Karen; Clapp, D Wade; Dombi, Eva; Evans, Gareth D; Ferner, Rosalie; Fernandez-Valle, Cristina; Fisher, Michael J; Giovannini, Marco; Gutmann, David H; Hanemann, C Oliver; Hennigan, Robert; Huson, Susan; Ingram, David; Kissil, Joe; Korf, Bruce R; Legius, Eric; Packer, Roger J; McClatchey, Andrea I; McCormick, Frank; North, Kathryn; Pehrsson, Minja; Plotkin, Scott R; Ramesh, Vijaya; Ratner, Nancy; Schirmer, Susann; Sherman, Larry; Schorry, Elizabeth; Stevenson, David; Stewart, Douglas R; Ullrich, Nicole; Bakker, Annette C; Morrison, Helen
The neurofibromatoses (NF) are autosomal dominant genetic disorders that encompass the rare diseases NF1, NF2, and schwannomatosis. The NFs affect more people worldwide than Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Huntington's disease combined. NF1 and NF2 are caused by mutations of known tumor suppressor genes (NF1 and NF2, respectively). For schwannomatosis, although mutations in SMARCB1 were identified in a subpopulation of schwannomatosis patients, additional causative gene mutations are still to be discovered. Individuals with NF1 may demonstrate manifestations in multiple organ systems, including tumors of the nervous system, learning disabilities, and physical disfigurement. NF2 ultimately can cause deafness, cranial nerve deficits, and additional severe morbidities caused by tumors of the nervous system. Unmanageable pain is a key finding in patients with schwannomatosis. Although today there is no marketed treatment for NF-related tumors, a significant number of clinical trials have become available. In addition, significant preclinical efforts have led to a more rational selection of potential drug candidates for NF trials. An important element in fueling this progress is the sharing of knowledge. For over 20 years the Children's Tumor Foundation has convened an annual NF Conference, bringing together NF professionals to share novel findings, ideas, and build collaborations. The 2012 NF Conference held in New Orleans hosted over 350 NF researchers and clinicians. This article provides a synthesis of the highlights presented at the conference and as such, is a "state-of-the-field" for NF research in 2012. PMID:24443315
Mann, Matthias; Jensen, Ole N
Post-translational modifications modulate the activity of most eukaryote proteins. Analysis of these modifications presents formidable challenges but their determination generates indispensable insight into biological function. Strategies developed to characterize individual proteins are now syst...
Antonella Del Rosso
The EU-cofunded project ULICE (Union of Light Ion Centres in Europe) was launched in 2009 in response to the need to share clinical experience in hadron therapy treatment in Europe and knowledge of the associated complex technical aspects. After four successful years of activity the project is now over but the “transnational access” idea will survive thanks to an extension granted by the European Commission. A treatment room at CNAO, the Italian centre for hadron therapy. CNAO is participating in ULICE’s transnational access initiative. Image: CNAO. Until a few years ago, the landscape of hadron therapy in Europe was advancing in a fragmented way and facilities were being built without a common shared approach. EU-cofunded projects such as ENLIGHT, ULICE, PARTNER, ENVISION and ENTERVISION helped to build a unified platform where the different – private and public – stakeholders were able to share their views and practical experience in the ...
Full Text Available Stephanos Stephanides visited the Australian Studies Centre and gave a lecture and poetry reading to poetry undergraduate classes. The students were so impressed by his poetry that the idea of translating some of his work for this edition of Coolabah. For both the students and the journal this has been a great priviledge. Stephanos Stephanides, himself a Spanish speaker, worked with the students as they translated. A rare chance indeed to work with a poet while translating his work. We are grateful to Stephanos Stephanides for providing this wonderful opportunity for the students.
Douglas Robinson’s Becoming a Translator:An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation has been well received around the world.Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating,it is an essential resource for novice and practicing translators.
This paper is on the deconstructive reconsideration of the definition of translation, the relation of source text and translation, as well as the relation of translator and author. It also points out the differences between tranditioanal concepts of translation and deconstructive reconsideration of translation.
There are many researches about translation theories and methods in western translation history. Equivalence in transla⁃tion has always been the central issue for discussion. This paper gives a general review and comment on equivalence in translation in terms of three representative translation theorists and their views about equivalence in translation.
Douglas Robinson's Becoming a Translator:An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation has been well received around the world.Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating,it is an essential resource for novice and practicing translators.
The concern about translator has run for thousands of years on which many translators and translation scholars have made comments.A rough examination of the translator within translation studies at home and abroad is expounded in a loosely chronological way as follows.
Mehta, Pankaj; Lang, Alex H.; Schwab, David J.
A central goal of synthetic biology is to design sophisticated synthetic cellular circuits that can perform complex computations and information processing tasks in response to specific inputs. The tremendous advances in our ability to understand and manipulate cellular information processing networks raises several fundamental physics questions: How do the molecular components of cellular circuits exploit energy consumption to improve information processing? Can one utilize ideas from thermodynamics to improve the design of synthetic cellular circuits and modules? Here, we summarize recent theoretical work addressing these questions. Energy consumption in cellular circuits serves five basic purposes: (1) increasing specificity, (2) manipulating dynamics, (3) reducing variability, (4) amplifying signal, and (5) erasing memory. We demonstrate these ideas using several simple examples and discuss the implications of these theoretical ideas for the emerging field of synthetic biology. We conclude by discussing how it may be possible to overcome these limitations using "post-translational" synthetic biology that exploits reversible protein modification.
Lee, Charles T
Proven pathways for taking ideas to implementation We all have ideas—things we want to do or create—but only some of us will do what it takes to see those ideas come to pass. In Good Idea. Now What? readers will discover some of the essential values and principles that guide successful idea-makers, including the leveraging of mixed environments for creativity, working through resistance and setbacks, developing a practical plan for implementation that works, navigating collaborative opportunities, and communicating your idea to make it truly remarkable. Whether you're just a creati
The modern bathroom reflects Western ideas on the handling of bodily wastes, and consequently ideas of cleanliness. Taking a historical study as the point of departure, the purpose of this paper is to understand the extent to which the idea of cleanliness influences the possibility of converting the water closet to a more sustainable technology. An examination of historical changes demonstrates that our present ideas on cleanliness are distinct in their own way. It also demonstrates that our ...
The creation of innovative ideas is the initial step in entrepreneurial practice and venture management. As the management of technology is now on the priority agenda of higher education institutions, there is a need to develop pedagogic schemes for idea generation. Despite its importance, the idea generation process is hard to systematize or to…
The way how to learn multidisciplinary ideas has been discussed. Biomedical engineering is exemplified for a multidisciplinary field. "Biomedical Engineering" makes a multidisciplinary research area, which includes biology, medicine, engineering and others. The cross-cultural student seminars on biomedical engineering have been exemplified as the case studies. In the group fieldwork, students were divided into small groups. Each group visited the university hospital to find research topics re...
This dissertation is a comparative study of "translation theory" and "translation studies" in China and the West. Its focus is to investigate whether there is translation theory in the Chinese tradition. My study begins with an examination of the debate in China over whether there has already existed a system of translation…
The idea of causing the consciousness of the entire human race to jump into the future for about two minutes is an amusing one. However, in this case, imagination has nothing to do with what can really happen in our world and, in particular, nothing that can ever be caused by the LHC operation. John Ellis, from the Theory group, explains why."I like science fiction; when I was a teenager I had a lot of it and I think that it actually contributed to my decision to eventually become a researcher in science", says John Ellis, CERN theoretical physicist. In Robert Sawyer’s book, lead ion collisions at the LHC cause the whole of humankind to experience a flash-forward. However, although the LHC will be the first particle accelerator to collide heavy ions at an unprecedented (for experiments on Earth) energy, Nature does it every day and nothing terrible has ever happened. "It turns out that a large fraction of high energy cosmic rays is actually heavy nuclei", explains Ellis. "So, in fact, heavy ion experimen...
Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe
common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings....
Inspired by Friedrich Nietzsche's idea of philology and William Gass's concept of transreading, Huiwen (Helen) Zhang employs "transreader" to suggest the integration of four roles in one: reader, translator, writer, and scholar. "Transreader" recognizes that close reading, literary translation, creative writing, and…
The aim of the graduation thesis is to develop an application for smartphones with the Android operating system, which will enable translation of text from a selected language into a target language. The basic idea of the thesis it to transform the experience of the existing language translator (Bing Translator) into a functional smartphone application. The database contains 12,000 most commonly used words in everyday English. On application installation the users are limited to smaller nu...
“Ode on a Grecian Urn”was written by English writer John Keats, and was one of the most well-known poem. The Chinese translations of this poem each has their own merits and demerits. Two of the noted translators and poets, Zha Liangzheng and Tu’an, both presented their spiritual labor of this poem. By analyzing the image in this poem, the paper will show you some ideas about those two version of translations.
to idea work. Furthermore I look into what makes these initiatives ‘work’ or ‘not work’. The analysis builds on an in-depth case study made in Grundfos based on 40 interviews with R&D professionals and managers. The managerial implications of the study are that managers should be aware of what......In new product development a central activity is to provide new ideas. Over the last decades experiences with stimulating employee creativity and establishing idea promoting initiatives have been made in industrial practice. Such initiatives are often labeled Idea Management – a research field...... with a growing interest. In this paper I examine three different idea promoting initiatives carried out in Grundfos, a leading pump manufacturer. In the analysis I address what understandings of idea work are inscribed in the initiatives and what role these initiatives play in the organization with respect...
Nida's translation theories, especially for his "Dynamic equivalence theory", are highly praised and adopted in Chinese translation circle. Howev-er, there are a lot of criticism and misunderstanding at the same time. This paper explores the issue on translation equivalence so as to benefit our translation studies on both theory and practice level.
, be applied to translation and goes on to present a case study which involves a firm in the translation industry and which illustrates quality management in practice. The paper shows that applying quality management to translation is feasible and that doing so may translate into sustained growth....
Ding Zhitao; Chen Wen
IT is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.
@@ 1 Introduction Recent years have witnessed a significant growth of corpora heat. One of the many fields where corpora have a growing impact is translation, both at a descriptive and a practical level. Chesterman pointed out that the focus of Translation Studies shifted from translation itself to translators, from regulative to descriptive studies, from philosophical to empirical studies (Chesterman, 1998).
Gish, Liv; Clausen, Christian
of actor networks (Callon 1986), object worlds (Bucciarelli 2005) and political process theory (Dawson et al 2000) can inform the staging of innovative work with product ideas. The paper reports on an in-depth case study of the development of a new product, the so called “A” labelled Alpha Pro circulation...... pump presented in 2005 as the first energy labelled circulation pump on the market. It shows how a range of diverse ideas and perspectives have been developed, promoted, and tried out over a 20 year time span before a market was co-developed with the pump. The single case study is conducted...... and innovation. The paper contributes to the STS literature by the application of actor-network theory and the notion of object worlds in the study of innovative processes and the work with ideas. The constitution of ideas is here portrayed as an intricate and highly political process of translation...
Literal translation and liberal translation are two important methods and both play key roles in translation.However,some textbooks say that most translations are literal translations while others maintain most are liberal ones,besides,some others suggest a combination of the two.This paper focuses on the facts that regulate liberal translation.Because of the differences in culture,society,history,geography,and so on,there exists a great difference between Chinese language and English language,which does naturally lead to the liberal translation.
The past two decades have proven that bold, single-factor reform ideas have little power to change the face of education. Pundits and policymakers would have schools and school systems make grand changes to accommodate the reform idea du jour--and then profess the incompetence of schools and teachers when those changes prove less than effective.…
McMahon, Kibby; Ruggeri, Azzurra; Kämmer, Juliane E.; Katsikopoulos, Konstantinos V.
Brainstorming research has claimed that individuals are more creative than groups. However, these conclusions are largely based on measuring creativity by the number of ideas generated, and researchers have tended to neglect other important components of creativity, such as the quality of developed ideas. These studies aim to address this gap in…
Roth, James A; Tuggle, Christopher K
This issue of the ILAR Journal focuses on livestock models in translational medicine. Livestock models of selected human diseases present important advantages as compared with rodent models for translating fundamental breakthroughs in biology to useful preventatives and therapeutics for humans. Livestock reflect the complexity of applying medical advances in an outbred species. In many cases, the pathogenesis of infectious, metabolic, genetic, and neoplastic diseases in livestock species more closely resembles that in humans than does the pathogenesis of rodent models. Livestock models also provide the advantage of similar organ size and function and the ability to serially sample an animal throughout the study period. Research using livestock models for human disease often benefits not only human health but animal health and food production as well. This issue of the ILAR Journal presents information on translational research using livestock models in two broad areas: microbiology and infectious disease (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, mycobacterial infections, influenza A virus infection, vaccine development and testing, the human microbiota) and metabolic, neoplastic, and genetic disorders (stem cell therapy, male germ line cell biology, pulmonary adenocarcinoma, muscular dystrophy, wound healing). In addition, there is a manuscript devoted to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees' responsibilities for reviewing research using livestock models. Conducting translational research using livestock models requires special facilities and researchers with expertise in livestock. There are many institutions in the world with experienced researchers and facilities designed for livestock research; primarily associated with colleges of agriculture and veterinary medicine or government laboratories. PMID:25991694
Orozco Jutorán, Mariana; Hurtado Albir, Amparo
The following article describes the development of instruments for measuring the process of acquiring translation competence in written translation. Translation competence and its process of acquisition are firstly described, and then the lack of empirical research in our field is tackled. Thirdly, three measuring instruments especially developed to measure translation competence acquisition are presented: (i) to measure notions about translation, (ii) to measure students’ behaviour when face...
The relevance of, and justification for, translation quality assessment (TQA) is stronger than ever: professional translators, their clients, translatological researchers and trainee translators all rely on TQA for different reasons. Yet whereas there is general agreement about the need for a translation to be "good," "satisfactory" or "acceptable," the definition of acceptability and of the means of determining it are matters of ongoing debate. National and international translation standard...
cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.
Stylistic research is subordinate to language use research. The fast maturing modern stylistics has greatly boosted trans-lation studies. Translation has a close relationship with stylistics. Many problems can be solved in translation practice by stylis-tic theories and analysis methods. Based on a brief introduction of stylistics and the relationship between stylistics and transla-tion, this paper will give a specific analysis of the stylistic requirement for translation.
This paper will explore an alternative mode of thinking and language for higher education, centering on the idea of "philosophy as translation"--an idea drawn from the American philosopher, Stanley Cavell. This broader sense of translation is inseparable from our reengagement with cultures, language, self and others. From this…
Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel
Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.
THIS ARTICLE REPLACES THAT PUBLISHED IN BULLETIN 27/2003, PAGE 8. "The Rainbow Seed Fund is a UK fund, which provides finance to support the commercialization of good ideas founded on scientific research; it is for the benefit of the UK industry in particular. To encourage ideas from CERN the Rainbow Seed Fund is running a business ideas competition. The winner of this competition will receive an immediate cash prize of GBP £1,000. In addition the Rainbow Seed Fund may well provide finance for market research, for protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and for prototyping to take the idea forward. Further awards of GBP £750 will be made for ideas which gain investment from the Fund. Candidates will only be required to prepare a 2-4-page summary of their business idea, and not a full business plan. Full details and an entry form are available at http://www.rainbowseedfund.com." ALL Members of the Personnel seeking participation in the business ideas competition are asked to submit their ideas via ...
Cataldo, John W.
Teaching strategies for using calligraphic images are presented. Included are the pictograph, the calligram, pen ideas, the ideograph, expressive language, and calligraphic imagery. Ideas are appropriate for all age and grade levels, from elementary grades through college. Useful reference books are listed. (KC)
Advertisement language is a special practical writing with abundant imagination, great creativity and instigation. During translation the diversity in social culture, language and ethnic psychology, etc. will be directly reflected into its effect, presenting both the trouble in business of translators and also significant influences on the business brand. Starting from the features of adver⁃tisement language itself, this paper integrates translation situations and measures from several schools over the latest 20 years, gives typical examples in advertising translation and analyzes from varies perspectives and points out some problems in today ’s ad⁃vertisement translation,aiming to provide some constructive opinions for translation of advertisements.
<正>1.Introduction A good translation of the name should convey the information of the film and attract the audience’s desire for going to the cinema.Translation of film names should have business,information,culture,aesthetic features,while a short eye-catching name aims to leave the audience an unforgettable impression.This thesis discusses the translation of English film names from the aspects of the importance of English film name translation,principles for translating English film names and methods of English film name translation.
Idioms translation is of special importance both in English and Chinese languages. It is necessary to understand its implied meaning. This paper has made a summary of idioms translation techniques employed by the Yangs in The scholars, laying emphasis on the relationship between Functional Equivalence and idioms translation. Introducing six ways of idioms translation in The Scholars, the author explores the common ground between Yang Xianyi and Nida's translating ideas--the translation should consider both the readers and translators, be faithful to the original point of view and so on.
Celenza, Christopher S
This contribution to the symposium marking the publication of the 100th volume in the series Ideas in Context (Cambridge University Press) assesses the significance of the series for work on Renaissance philosophy.
Winter, Anja; Bartens, Anne
The idea of sustainability is widespread, but it often remains unclear how the idea travelled and how it is translated into practice. In this thesis it is analysed how public organizations translate sustainability into action through Sustainable Public Procurement (SPP). First, an overview of translation theory and previous research on SPP is given. Basing on an empirical analysis, two cases of public organizations in Sweden and Germany that integrated SPP in their strategies are described an...
Perry, William L
Nagy Imola Katalin
Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.
This is an article in a series illustrating the way scholars in communication have pursued translating their research into practice. The translational nature of communication accommodation theory and examples of its application are the focus of this contribution.
Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt
Exaugural presentation. A retrospect of my personal itinerary from literature, across translation studies to translation process research and a look ahead. In the retrospect, I range over diverse topics, all of which have sprung from my concern with the phenomenon of translation. I reflect on how......, as humans, we generate meaning, interpret meaning, and reformulate or translate meaning. I also reflect on the way computing has influenced research into these phenomena as seen e.g. in my creation of the Translog program and in projects I have been involved in, such as OFT (Translation of Professional...... for global communication purposes, and for improving research into translation, the phenomenon of translation and the world of translation in which we all live....
Dragsted, Barbara; Mees, Inger M.; Gorm Hansen, Inge
In this article we discuss the translation processes and products of 14 MA students who produced translations from Danish (L1) into English (L2) under different working conditions: (1) written translation, (2) sight translation, and (3) sight translation with a speech recognition (SR) tool. Audio...... output and keystrokes were recorded. Oral and written translation data were examined in order to investigate if task times and translation quality differed in the three modalities. Although task times were found to be highest in written translation, the quality was not consistently better. In addition......, since students were dictating in their L2, we looked into the number and types of error that occurred when using the SR software. Items that were misrecognised by the program could be divided into three categories: homophones, hesitations, and incorrectly pronounced words. Well over fifty per cent...
Granas, Anne Gerd; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark
OBJECTIVE: The "Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire" (BMQ) assess balance of necessity and concern of medicines. The BMQ has been translated from English to many languages. However, the original meaning of statements, such as "My medicine is a mystery to me", may be lost in translation. The aim...... IMPLICATIONS: Our findings are of relevance to other BMQ translations in non-English countries, as direct comparisons between different translations might not be reliable or valid....
This paper is talking about some general ideas on English reading in order to help teachers and learners foster some reading skills by seeing through its natures aiming at effective and productive English teaching and learning.
Embse, Charles Vonder
Presents three fundamental ideas of calculus and explains using the coordinate plane geometrically. Uses Cabri Geometry II to show how computer geometry systems can facilitate student understanding of general conic objects and its dynamic algebraic equations. (KHR)
In this paper, the author first analyzed the nature of metaphor and difficulties in metaphor translation, displayed the fac-tors that will influence the translation between English and Chinese metaphors, and then explored the metaphor translation strate-gies by taking some English and Chinese idioms as examples.
Translating process is coordination of the source language and target language. As the source language and translation language readers are in different cultural background, so their understanding of the environment is different. When the translator express their understanding in the receptor language, he must figure out the best relevance between source language and target language, which can achieve pragmatic equivalence.
Translation studies stem from comparative literature and contrastive analysis. It involves the transfer of messages between two different language systems and cultures, and Munday (2001, p.1) notes that translation "by its nature" "is multilingual and also interdisciplinary". Translation subjects are the texts in various…
Macdonald, Alastair A.; Leus, Kristin
Studies of the anatomy, behaviour, physiology, and veterinary medicine of the babirusa have contributed to our understanding of the biology of the animal. The first part of this paper seeks to illustrate by means of examples how studies of the babirusa are currently being carried out. The second part addresses the topic of reporting the results of research studies. The information generated by research can often be translated into ideas and suggestions for the im...
Marie Riegels Melchior
Full Text Available With their association to enterprise and innovation, creative industries have emerged as a legitimate concern in national cultural and economical policy in many countries across the world. In Denmark, the fashion business, in particular, has been hailed as a model for successful (postindustrial transformation. In this paper, we explore the birth of Danish fashion from the ashes of the country’s clothing manufacturing industry, suggesting that the very notion of Danish fashion is indicative of – and enabled by – a development towards a polycentric fashion system. The intriguing idea that fashion could emanate from Denmark and secure growth, jobs and exports even outside the fashion business has taken hold among policymakers, and compelled the government to embrace fashion as a national project. In investigating the emergence and rising stature of Danish fashion, particular at home, we first establish a theoretical frame for understanding the cultural economic policy and the motives, principles and strategies behind it. Then – drawing inspiration from Michel Callon’s “sociology of translation” with its moments of translation: problematization, interessement, enrolment and mobilization – we identify the actors and analyze their strategic roles and interrelationship through various phases of the development of Danish fashion. Callon’s actor network theory (ANT is based on the principle of “generalized symmetry” – originally using a single repertoire to analyze both society and nature. We adapt this principle to study the realms of market, culture and politics within a common analytical framework. In our analysis, the state responds to industry transformation, interprets it and develops its own agenda. But it can hardly be said to develop policies for the industry. On the contrary, we suggest, fashion is mobilized to lend its luster to the nation, its institutions and politicians.
Hedegaard, Steffen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue
translated texts. Our results suggest (i) that frame-based classifiers are usable for author attribution of both translated and untranslated texts; (ii) that framebased classifiers generally perform worse than the baseline classifiers for untranslated texts, but (iii) perform as well as, or superior to the...... baseline classifiers on translated texts; (iv) that—contrary to current belief—naïve classifiers based on lexical markers may perform tolerably on translated texts if the combination of author and translator is present in the training set of a classifier....
Keller, J. David
Presents five activities for multiple grade levels and family use that connect mathematics and football by using the Super Bowl. Mathematical concepts involved in the activities include number sense, geometry, measurement, statistics, estimation, and problem solving. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)
Presents 5 activities for the K-1, 2-3, 4-5, 6-8 grade levels and for in the home in which students explore the concept of combinations. Each activity includes a lesson plan to investigate a combinatorics problem appropriate for that grade level. Provides reproducible worksheets. (MDH)
Next year the oil industry will celebrate the hundredth anniversary of its birth at Titusville, Pennsylvania. Some industries have had humble beginnings, but not the oil industry. Its birth was spectacular, and its growth since that time has been marked by intermittent, extravagant booms, or waves of gushers which have often resulted in an acute oversupply. These periods have usually been followed by periods of low discovery rate during which it looked as if we were going to run out of oil. In this paper a review of the history of petroleum technology shows that each of these bursts of increased production was caused by a new idea. We usually find oil in new places with old ideas. Sometimes, also, we find oil in an old place with a new idea, but we seldom find much oil in an old place with an old idea. Several times in the past we have thought we were running out of oil whereas actually we were only running out of ideas. This principle can be illustrated most vividly by reviewing the story of the principal discoveries in each producing area of the world
Generally,the movie title translation strategy would be divided into two:domesticating translation strategy and foreignizing translation strategy.The movie title translation in Hong Kong is chosen to be the material for the analysis of the domesticating translation strategy and foreignizing translation strategy,compared with that of Mainland China.
Proper translation of the cultural connotation is necessary for the readers to understand the main ideas and artistic beauty of an article.By the analysis of different approaches chosen by different two translators to render some cultural elements and their different effects,this thesis focuses on the comparison between the two English translation versions of Lao She’s famous literarywork Luotuo Xiangzi and proposes some possible ways to transcend the cultural barrier during translation.
Davenport, Thomas H; Prusak, Laurence; Wilson, H James
There's an unsung hero in your organization. It's the person who's bringing in new ideas from the outside about how to manage better. These aren't your product and service innovators--those people are celebrated loudly and often. This is the manager who, for instance, first uttered the phrase "balance scorecard" in your hallways, or "real options," or "intellectual capital." Managerial innovation is an increasingly important source of competitive advantage--especially given the speed with which product innovations are copied--but it doesn't happen automatically. It takes a certain kind of person to welcome new management ideas and usher them into an organization. The authors recently studied 100 such people to find out how they translate new ideas into action in their organizations. They discovered that they are a distinct type of practitioner; that is to say, they resemble their counterparts in other organizations more than they resemble their own colleagues, and they share a common way of working. "Idea practitioners," as the authors call them, begin by scouting for ideas. All of them are avid readers of management literature and enthusiastic participants in business conferences; many are friendly with business gurus. Once they've identified an idea that seems to hold promise, they tailor it to fit their organizations' specific needs. Next, they actively sell the idea--to senior executives, to the rank and file, to middle managers. And finally, they get the ball rolling by participating in small-scale experiments. But when those take off, they get out of the way and let others execute. In this article, the authors identify the characteristics of idea practitioners and offer strategies for managing them wisely.
Translation strategy and translation standards are undoubtedly the core problems translators are confronted with in translation. There have arisen many kinds of translation strategies in translation history, among which the text type theory is considered an important breakthrough and a significant complement of traditional translation standards. This essay attempts to demonstrate the value of text typology (informative, expressive, and operative) to translation strategy, emphasizing the importance of text types and their communicative functions.
There is a gap between what we think and what we think we think about ethics. This gap appears when elements of our ethical reflection and our moral theories contradict each other. It also appears when something that is important in our ethical reflection is sidelined in our moral theories. The gap appears in both ways with the ethical idea glory. The present exploration of this idea is a case study of how far actual ethical reflection diverges from moral theory. This divergence tells against...
Full Text Available In the early phase of translation studies in Germany, contrastive linguistics played a major role. I shall briefly describe this approach so that the functional approach will become clearer by contrast. Influenced by the representatives of stylistique comparée, Vinay/Darbelnet (1968 Wolfram Wilss, for instance, in his early work (1971, 1977 makes frequent use of the notion transposition (German “Ausdrucksverschiebung“, cf. also Catford’s (1965 term shift. As a whole, of course, Wilss’ work has a much broader scope. More recently, he has investigated the role of cognition (1988 and the various factors in translator behaviour (1996. Nevertheless, transposition is still a very important and useful notion in describing the translation process. The need for transpositions arises when there is no possibility of formal one-to-one correspondence between source and target-language structures. The basic idea is that whenever there is a need for transposition, we are faced with a translation problem. In the early phase of translation studies in Germany, contrastive linguistics played a major role. I shall briefly describe this approach so that the functional approach will become clearer by contrast. Influenced by the representatives of stylistique comparée, Vinay/Darbelnet (1968 Wolfram Wilss, for instance, in his early work (1971, 1977 makes frequent use of the notion transposition (German “Ausdrucksverschiebung“, cf. also Catford’s (1965 term shift. As a whole, of course, Wilss’ work has a much broader scope. More recently, he has investigated the role of cognition (1988 and the various factors in translator behaviour (1996. Nevertheless, transposition is still a very important and useful notion in describing the translation process. The need for transpositions arises when there is no possibility of formal one-to-one correspondence between source and target-language structures. The basic idea is that whenever there is a need for
Hunziker, Ernst; Spector, Myron; Libera, Jeanette; Gertzman, Arthur; Woo, Savio L-Y; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Lysaght, Michael; Coury, Arthur; Kaplan, David; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana
The article summarizes the collective views expressed at the fourth session of the workshop Tissue Engineering--the Next Generation, which was devoted to the translation of results of tissue engineering research into applications. Ernst Hunziker described the paradigm of a dual translational approach, and argued that tissue engineering should be guided by the dimensions and physiological setting of the bodily compartment to be repaired. Myron Spector discussed collagen-glycosaminoglycan (GAG) scaffolds for musculoskeletal tissue engineering. Jeanette Libera focused on the biological and clinical aspects of cartilage tissue engineering, and described a completely autologous procedure for engineering cartilage using the patient's own chondrocytes and blood serum. Arthur Gertzman reviewed the applications of allograft tissues in orthopedic surgery, and outlined the potential of allograft tissues as models for biological and medical studies. Savio Woo discussed a list of functional tissue engineering approaches designed to restore the biochemical and biomechanical properties of injured ligaments and tendons to be closer to that of the normal tissues. Specific examples of using biological scaffolds that have chemoattractants as well as growth factors with unique contact guidance properties to improve their healing process were shown. Anthony Ratcliffe discussed the translation of the results of research into products that are profitable and meet regulatory requirements. Michael Lysaght challenged the proposition that commercial and clinical failures of early tissue engineering products demonstrate a need for more focus on basic research. Arthur Coury described the evolution of tissue engineering products based on the example of Genzyme, and how various definitions of success and failure can affect perceptions and policies relative to the status and advancement of the field of tissue engineering.
Full Text Available Driven by the growth of a global economy and developments in high technology, the process of creating and translating technical documentation has been evolving rapidly. In particular, machine translation (MT has shown increasing capabilities of efficaciously accomplishing the early stages of the eight stages of translation identified years ago by Robert Bly. As a consequence, translators have learned to use MT as a tool to accelerate their work, but they have also grown wary of MT’s potential for replacing them. To ensure steady employment, some translators have begun cross-training as technical writers; correspondingly, a few technical writers have begun cross-training as translators, as the two professions appear to be undergoing a gradual trend of convergence. Academic programs are urged to respond to the evolving trends.
Shao Jun; Jiang Min
In perspective of relevance theory, translation is regarded as communication. According to relevance theory, communication not only requires encoding, transfer and decoding processes, but also involves inference in addition. As communication, translation decision-making is also based on the human beings' inferential mental faculty. Concentrating on relevance theory, this paper tries to analyze and explain some translation phenomena in two English versions of Cai Gen Tan-My Crude Philosophy of Life.
Scholarships from the Florence Nightingale Foundation are providing nurses with the financial means to put innovative ideas into practice. Nurses from all four countries of the UK can apply for leadership, travel and research scholarships to support their career development and help improve patient care. PMID:26959448
Producers' Council, Inc., Washington, DC.
Present educators, architects, engineers, and building product manufacturers with a medium of common interest for discussion of mutual school construction problems, objectives, needs, ideas, capabilities and limitations. Contents include--(1) modern wood construction, (2) school room in a steel mill, (3) masonry in new school design, (4) the…
Presents eight winners of School Planning & Management's Community Relations Contest that produced ideas that other school districts can use to strengthen community/school coexistence. Papers cover such topics as improving communication between stakeholders, connecting with parents, and keeping the community informed during construction projects.…
Assumpção, Hudson Orsine
A practical, fast-paced guide with clear, step-by-step exercisesto help you understand the basics of IntelliJ Idea and develop a web application.This book will be ideal if you are a Java developer who has a little knowledge about IntelliJ and wants to get more information on using it to improve your development performance
National Gardening Association, Burlington, VT.
Growing Ideas, the National Gardening Association's series for elementary, middle, and junior high school educators, helps teachers engage students in using plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This volume's focus is on hydroponics. It presents basic hydroponics information along…
Palmer, W. P.; Wilks, Jamie
The main author of this paper (J.W.) wrote the original as two separate essays for a Bachelor of Education unit at Northern Territory University (The Teaching of Science: EBE 483) for the second author (B.P.). This unit contains as a major component student/teacher research on children's ideas (misconceptions) in science. This paper seems very…
WANG Jie; WANG Ping
Translations contribute to our knowledge and understanding in various fields of daily life, as they open us to a greater awareness of the world in which we live. The deeper we are delved into the meaning of the translation, the more questions are raised, among which, translatable/untranslatable argument strikes the most. In this article, factors including cultural vocabulary va⁃cancy and different image associations leading to temporary untranslatability are presented. Besides, the strategies to change this situation to relatively translatable are given as well.
Full Text Available The paper describes the text linguistic research of political texts in the field of Translation Studies and presents an overview of critical discourse analysis-based studies. First, the relationship between text, power and ideology and its implications on the role of translation are explored. This is followed by a review of a number of studies on the translation of political texts and on the power relations involved. The paper classifies such studies into the following six categories representing distinct research fields: translators' professional roles and politics; translators acting as mediators in situations of political conflict; translators' professional responsibilities and the strategies they apply; the inference of translators' own historical, social and cultural backgrounds; manipulation in the translation of literary texts and other text types; and critical discourse awareness in Translation Studies. The most recent studies in the above research fields and their results are also presented. It is concluded that these approaches exhibit quite varied research methods and their results are almost impossible to compare. With a view to the future development of this research field, it seems expedient to introduce a unified research theory, method and tool.
Nils Goran Skare
Full Text Available This article defends that the discourse of the translator is the inverse of the discourse of the capitalist. We present the theory of discourses of the psychoanalist Jacques Lacan: the discourse of the master, of the university, of the hysteric and of the analyst, as well as the capitalist. We develop the characteristics of the translator and his ethics of the Real, and we formally present his discourse. We oppose the discourses of the translator and of the capitalist. We conclude that the translator can question the hegemonic discourse
Atif, Yacine; Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Campbell, Piers; Mathew, Sujith Samuel
Administering multilingual Web sites and applications reliably, involves interconnected and multipart tasks, where trust in the involved parties and content translation sources is paramount. Published Web sites may reflect content from databases, content management systems and other repositories to manage related Web content. But a Web site mirrored wholly or selectively onto a target language version requires streamlined trusted processes. Traditionally, files are translated and transferred via FTP, e-mail, or other communication means. Similarly, translation instructions are communicated between involved parties through verbal instruction, e-mail, and instruction files lead to a variety of inconsistencies and lack of trust in the translation process. This paper proposes a Web service approach to streamline the translation processes and an integration of trust properties in the proposed translation Web services. Web Services have been instrumental in handling problems inherent to systems integration, allowing web-based systems to converse and communicate data automatically. The OASIS Translation Web Services Technical Committee has released a standard way for Web Services to serve the translation and localization business. This article proposes a framework to centralize translation services at a reputable source providing a workflow and a mechanism to quantify service trust. An implementation of the framework is also described in the context of a localization case study.
In this article I discuss the role of translated texts in different types of corpora. I first consider the role of translations in corpus-based monolingual linguistics, arguing that while translated texts are often excluded from corpora on the basis of a more or less implicit assumption that they “corrupt” the reference norm for a language, this assumption does not seem to be justified on theoretical grounds. For the same reason, translated texts should also be included in bi- and multi-lingu...
In recent years, many researchers study on the relation between culture and language, language and translation, or culture and translation. Indeed, the three subjects are inseparable. It's incomprehensive to look into just two of them for a linguist. It's more useful for us to study on the relation between them, because we can extend our eyesight and searching scope and propel our translation business. Moreover, studying on them provides a rich material for other fields, such as sociology, translation, cross-cultural communication as well as give other subjects a lead to deep further.
Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim;
Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research with...... without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom.......Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research...
Feminist translation studies have underg one rapid development in China in recent years.However,most of its research rema ins on the inquiry of the influence on the theoretical layer.In this thesis,I tr y to probe carefully into the translation of "Men and Women,Women and the City" done by Zhu Hong in an attempt to find out wh at is the difference that exits in the translation between the Chinese female tr anslators and the western feminist translators.
Beit-Hallahmi, B; Argyle, M
The evidence presented above points to the need for considering factors other than purely religious ones in determining the role of religious ideas in psychiatric disorders. The occurrence of religious ideas as part of the content of individual delusional systems in psychiatric patients can be explained on the basis of exposure to religious ideas through the social environment. It may be also related to the prominence of religion, vis-a-vis other belief systems, in the social envirnment. When considering psychopathological explanations for intense religious experiences, one has to be conscious again of the social factors involved. When an unusual experience having religious content becomes normative in a certain group (for whatever reasons), trying to explain its appearance on the basis of individual psychodynamics or psychopathology becomes very difficult. There seems to be an inverse relationship between the social nature of a religious experience and its psychopathological nature, i.e., there is more psychopathology in individuals reporting solitary religious experiences, or individual religious ideas. Thus the solitary experience seems to be more influenced by disturbed individual dynamics, but in other cases social factors seem to be crucial. Our overall conclusion is that a psychiatric analysis of the role of religious factors in psychopathology has to be first a social-psychiatric analysis. An individual presenting psychiatric symptoms and religious ideas has to be evaluated in light of his social background, since the specific content of psychiatric symptoms seems to be determined by social background factors. Individual psychodynamics determine the appearance of symptoms, but their particular form will be the result of these background factors, one of which is religion. PMID:863602
de Campos, Thana Cristina
It is generally accepted that patents are a driving force for innovation through research and development. But the university's involvement in patenting is problematic as well. In particular, it is in tension with the idea of a university itself. If patents entail a restriction on the accessibility of the scientific knowledge that has been patented, and if the main purpose of universities is to produce and disseminate knowledge to the public, then, there is a tension: when universities patent their research innovations, they are making the scientific knowledge they produce less accessible to the public. The paper argues that university patenting contradicts the very idea of a university as an institution whose mission is fundamentally to disseminate the knowledge it produces to the public. The practice of university patenting involves an un-academic attitude thus: by inciting an attitude towards knowledge that is not consistent with the proper attitudes and goals of a university, university patenting hurts university's integrity.
Liu, Zongbin; Han, Xin; Qin, Lidong
Microfluidics, featuring microfabricated structures, is a technology for manipulating fluids at the micrometer scale. The small dimension and flexibility of microfluidic systems are ideal for mimicking molecular and cellular microenvironment, and show great potential in translational research and development. Here, the recent progress of microfluidics in biological and biomedical applications, including molecular analysis, cellular analysis, and chip-based material delivery and biomimetic des...
Shoshan Maria C; Linder Stig
Abstract The term "translational research" is used to describe the transfer of basic biological knowledge into practical medicine, a process necessary for motivation of public spending. In the area of cancer therapeutics, it is becoming increasingly evident that results obtained in vitro and in animal models are difficult to translate into clinical medicine. We here argue that a number of factors contribute to making the translation process inefficient. These factors include the use of sensit...
Advertisement translation and trademark translation are becoming more and more prevailing and influential under the increasing development of internationalization of business. This paper attempts to analyze the influence of cultural differences on advertisement translation and trademark translation. It finds that advertisement translation and trademark translation are under the impressive influence of the differences between Chinese and Western cultures. This paper aims to stress the cultural differences in advertisement translation and trademark translation and reminds translators of the importance of noticing cultural differences and finding a proper point between foreign cultures and native cultures.
Babaee, Siamak; Wan Yahya, Wan Roselezam; Babaee, Ruzbeh
Some scholars (Bassnett-McGuire, Catford, Brislin) suggest that a good piece of translation should be a strict reflection of the style of the original text while some others (Gui, Newmark, Wilss) consider the original text untranslatable unless it is reproduced. Opposing views by different critics suggest that translation is still a challenging…
Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura
This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…
In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…
Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge;
On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have...
Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge;
On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have...
di Stefano, B. Follkart
It is proposed that literary translation is intrinsically an act of literary criticism. This theory is illustrated by discussion of specific problems in translating Sartre's "La Nausee" and Leonard Forest's "Le pays de la Sagouine," especially the use of verb tense. (MSE)
Rogowski, Wolf; John, Jürgen; IJzerman, Maarten; Scheffler, Richard M.
Translational health economics (THE) can be defined as the use of theoretical concepts and empirical methods in health economics to bridge the gap between the decision to fund and use a new health technology in clinical practice (the backend of translational medicine) and the decision to invest into
Lai Ming-Chih; Tarn Woan-Yuh
Abstract Regulation of cyclin levels is important for many cell cycle-related processes and can occur at several different steps of gene expression. Translational regulation of cyclins, which occurs by a variety of regulatory mechanisms, permits a prompt response to signal transduction pathways induced by environmental stimuli. This review will summarize translational control of cyclins and its influence on cell cycle progression.
Culture difference is necessary to be paid attention to during the process of translating.Culture difference is caused by different history,regions,customs,religions and the modes of thinking.Having the awareness of the culture difference will make translation more accurate and successful.
The challenges of intercultural communication are an integral part of many undergraduate business communication courses. Marketing gaffes clearly illustrate the pitfalls of translation and underscore the importance of a knowledge of the culture with which one is attempting to communicate. A good way to approach the topic of translation pitfalls in…
Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian
We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…
Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha
Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…
Danker, Stephanie; French, Kelley
Art can provide a vehicle for animating learning. Teachers bring ideas to life through curriculum, while artists realize their ideas through images, often translating between forms, media and spaces. This paper describes the context, content and format of a residential Summer Arts Academy for gifted and talented middle and high school students,…
Sánchez Gómez, Pedro J.
In this article, I study, from the point of view of the analytic philosophy of mind, the compatibility of students' ideas studies (SIS) with radical constructivism (RC). I demonstrate that RC is based on a psychology of narrow mental states; that is, the idea that the mental content of an individual can be fully characterised without any reference external to her or him. I show that this fact imposes some severe restrictions to SIS to be incorporated into RC. In particular, I argue that only qualitative studies can comply with the requirement of narrowness. Nevertheless, I propose that quantitative works can be employed as sources of types in order to study token actual students. I use this type-token dichotomy to put forward an outline of a theory of the relation between school contents and mental contents. In this view, token mental contents regarding a given topic can be defined, and probed, only by resorting to typical school contents.
of translation would be. To provide a backdrop against which the issue may be discussed, I present an overview of the two areas which seem most likely to hold potential answers, viz., that of translation theory and that of quality management. Section 1. gives a brief outline of some contributions to translation...... theory which would seem likely to be of interest in this connection and section 2. gives a linguist's introduction to the part of the area of quality management which I consider relevant for present purposes. Section 3. is devoted to the case study of a small translation firm which has been certified...... under the ISO 9001 standard, and section 4. discusses the implications which quality management seems to hold for the field of translation in a broad sense. Finally, section 5. concludes the article....
In this paper we discuss two different criticisms of liberal democracy. By analyzing the contemporary Slovenian (radical) political thought of Žižek and some of his followers, which recently are revitalizing the idea of Communism, we first critically reflect upon the emancipatory potential of this strand of contemporary Slovenian philosophy. The interlude focuses on the uses and logic of violence and pleads for a new politico-ethical culture of nonviolence. In the second part of the paper, by...
This paper argues that the English idea of empire in the reign of Elizabeth I was derivative, belated and incoherent. Its sources were classical and continental rather than indigenous. It arose more than a century after the Scottish monarchy had elaborated its own conception of empire. Moreover, it expressed a sense of backwardness, isolation and anxiety that mirrored the English failure to establish any permanent settlements in the Atlantic world. As a result, any balance sheet of empire dra...
Nick R. Anthonise
In this issue of the Canadian Respiratory Journal, Almirall and Bégin (pages 195 to 196) make a suggestion aimed at increasing the use of spirometry by primary care physicians, as well as family and general practitioners. The idea is that spirometry should be performed not necessarily to make specific diagnoses, but to rule in or out the possibility of a number of lung diseases, most notably, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). If the patient demonstrates normal forced vital capacit...
Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly
Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed misconceptions, among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists have described intuitive conceptual systems—teleological, essentialist, and anthropocentric thinking—that humans use to reason about biology. We hypothesize that...
Full Text Available Abstract. Translation strategy is closely-tied with the translation of ESTD (English Subtitle Television Drama. The research of translation strategy is to serve translations of ESTD in earlier days. The 21 S century is the information times. The development of science and technology is quick. Quantities of ESTD grow explosively. Translations of English Subtitle Television Dramas play a significant role in the progress of Chinese science and technology. Although the quality of traditional manual translations is very good, the speed of translation is too slow. Traditional manual translations can not meet the need of translations of ESTD day by day. It is a new topic to face the new stern challenge and follow the development's steps of the times for technical translators. The paper will discuss the transformation of translation idea, and suggest carrying on translation strategy, web page translation and software translation. Finally, the author states her views on the implementation of computer assistant translation, the managements of translation projects and information-shared platform.
Tinker, S. W.
There is no shortage of coal, oil, and natural gas in the world. What are sometimes in short supply are fresh ideas. Scientific innovation combined with continued advances in drilling and completion technology revitalized the natural gas industry in North America by making production from shale economic. Similar advances are now happening in shale oil. The convergence of ideas and technology has created a commercial environment in which unconventional reservoirs could supply natural gas to the North American consumer for 50 years or more. And, although not as far along in terms of resource development, oil from the Eagle Ford and Bakken Shales and the oil sands in Alberta could have a similar impact. Without advanced horizontal drilling, geosteering, staged hydraulic-fracture stimulation, synthetic and natural proppants, evolution of hydraulic fluid chemistry, and high-end monitoring and simulation, many of these plays would not exist. Yet drilling and completion technology cannot stand alone. Also required for success are creative thinking, favorable economics, and a tolerance for risk by operators. Current understanding and completion practices will leave upwards of 80% of oil and natural gas in the shale reservoirs. The opportunity to enhance recovery through advanced reservoir understanding and imaging, as well as through recompletions and infill drilling, is considerable. The path from ideas to commercialization will continue to provide economic results in unconventional reservoirs.
This article introduces the idea of philosophical sociology as an enquiry into the relationships between implicit notions of human nature and explicit conceptualizations of social life within sociology. Philosophical sociology is also an invitation to reflect on the role of the normative in social life by looking at it sociologically and philosophically at the same: normative self-reflection is a fundamental aspect of sociology's scientific tasks because key sociological questions are, in the last instance, also philosophical ones. For the normative to emerge, we need to move away from the reductionism of hedonistic, essentialist or cynical conceptions of human nature and be able to grasp the conceptions of the good life, justice, democracy or freedom whose normative contents depend on more or less articulated conceptions of our shared humanity. The idea of philosophical sociology is then sustained on three main pillars and I use them to structure this article: (1) a revalorization of the relationships between sociology and philosophy; (2) a universalistic principle of humanity that works as a major regulative idea of sociological research, and; (3) an argument on the social (immanent) and pre-social (transcendental) sources of the normative in social life. As invitations to embrace posthuman cyborgs, non-human actants and material cultures proliferate, philosophical sociology offers the reminder that we still have to understand more fully who are the human beings that populate the social world.
Cooper, Robert A.
This paper presents an activity that engages students in model-based reasoning, requiring them to predict the behavior of the trp and lac operons under different environmental conditions. Students are presented six scenarios for the "trp" operon and five for the "lac" operon. In most of the scenarios, specific mutations have…
Alexander C. Y. Huang
Full Text Available It has become de rigueur in scholarly inquiries to reconceptualize critical terms and to question commonplace ideas. However, the locality of performative translations of Shakespeare is a logical extension of the worn and hard-pressed question about the nature of Shakespeare’s text and its afterlife. There is indeed only one Mona Lisa, and its location can be precisely pin-pointed. The existence of canonical drama with an infinite range of (performative signification is a different story. It has become de rigueur in scholarly inquiries to reconceptualize critical terms and to question commonplace ideas. However, the locality of performative translations of Shakespeare is a logical extension of the worn and hard-pressed question about the nature of Shakespeare’s text and its afterlife. There is indeed only one Mona Lisa, and its location can be precisely pin-pointed. The existence of canonical drama with an infinite range of (performative signification is a different story.
The DOE Clean Energy Application Centers were launched with a goal of focusing on important aspects of our nation’s energy supply including Efficiency, Reliability and Resiliency. Clean Energy solutions based on Combined Heat & Power (CHP), District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery are at the core of ensuring a reliable and efficient energy infrastructure for campuses, communities, and industry and public enterprises across the country. IDEA members which include colleges and universities, hospitals, airports, downtown utilities as well as manufacturers, suppliers and service providers have long-standing expertise in the planning, design, construction and operations of Clean Energy systems. They represent an established base of successful projects and systems at scale and serve important and critical energy loads. They also offer experience, lessons learned and best practices which are of immense value to the sustained growth of the Clean Energy sector. IDEA has been able to leverage the funds from the project award to raise the visibility, improve the understanding and increase deployment CHP, District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery solutions across the regions of our nation, in collaboration with the regional CEAC’s. On August 30, 2012, President Obama signed an Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency (EE), including CHP and set a national goal of 40 GW of new CHP installation over the next decade IDEA is pleased to have been able to support this Executive Order in a variety of ways including raising awareness of the goal through educational workshops and Conferences and recognizing the installation of large scale CHP and district energy systems A supporting key area of collaboration has involved IDEA providing technical assistance on District Energy/CHP project screenings and feasibility to the CEAC’s for multi building, multi-use projects. The award was instrumental in the development of a first-order screening
Francisco Javier Montero Fernández
Full Text Available RESUMEN. El viaje es un acto de traslación que nos permite transgredir nuestra cotidianeidad y pautas diarias para descontextualizarnos, generando nuevas relaciones entre "nosotros" y las circunstancias de ese otro lugar. No intentamos convertirnos en especialistas del conocimiento sino mejorar lo que hacemos, desarrollar cambios cualitativos, organizar descubrimientos y aplicarlos a nuestro trabajo. Al reflexionar sobre esta idea surgen en nuestro papel en blanco ideas compañeras de los viajes que de una manera reiterativa nos acompañan en nuestros proyectos.Un objeto viajero, que se repite y deja una copia cada vez que es trasladado, nos permite valorar la relación entre el lugar y dicho objeto, entre la memoria y la arquitectura. La repetición surge como una sorpresa del viaje, como una situación descubierta en la traslación, un descubrimiento ocasional que nos permite descubrir una intención y por ello un criterio. Una pareja viajera, en este caso dos leones egipcios que viajaron a Roma en la Antigüedad desplazándose dentro de la ciudad hasta el Vaticano. El otro ejemplo es el del proyecto sin encargo que nace en la mente de su autor, Le Corbusier, como un manifiesto del Arte, y nos permite pensar que las ideas, los pensamientos, necesitan ser olvidados para ser reconstruidos, para poder ser repetidos de la manera mas creativa. El proyecto de arquitectura no es solo la génesis de prototipos sino que debe ser la formalización de una idea que madura en el tiempo ajustándose a la concreción exigida en cada lugar y circunstancias, persistiendo incluso más allá del propio autor.SUMMARY. Travel is an act of movement that allows us to break from our daily routines and guidelines and decontextualizes us, generating new relationships between "us" and the circumstances of some other place. We do not try to become specialists of the knowledge but to improve what we do, to develop qualitative changes, to organize discoveries and to apply
Hu Lu; He Yan-ni
With the deepening of economic globalization, business English plays an increasingly vital role. In order to better translate business English, the translator has to adopt some important translation techniques. Thus, emphasis is placed on business English translation skills, such as omission, supplement and word conversion, etc, which provides some practical advice to the translation of business English.
Ben Othman, Zeineb
The work is divided into two parts. The 1st part is the translation of Chapter One "Power language and translation" and the Chapter Four "Translation in Global News Agencies". The 2nd part is about the characteristics and theories of translation particularly in News Agencies and Institutions as well as the difficulties I found in the translation of a specialized book.
Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel
In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…
Hu; Lu; He; Yan-ni
With the deepening of economic globalization,business English plays an increasingly vital role.In order to better translate business English,the translator has to adopt some important translation techniques.Thus,emphasis is placed on business English translation skills,such as omission,supplement and word conversion,etc,which provides some practical advice to the translation of business English.
On the basis of Halliday' s theory, this paper makes it clear that clause as the translation unit is operational in Chinese to English translation and expounds the application of clause as the translation unit with some examples.
Korolkova Svetlana Azadovna
Full Text Available The article deals with the correlation between reflection and translation and proves the possibility to extrapolate the notion of "hermeneutic circle" into translation. Translation, which is understood as a specific speech activity, has a hermeneutic character as in its basis there is a "reflexive delay", a specific state of intelligence which occurs as a result of a language, ethnic or cultural barrier and demands a reflective action. At that, the circle is transformed into a spiral, which lets conceive the essence of every text fragment through its integration into the former comprehended layer. Interpretation, a reflexive action, which has a three-level structure, creates a unified image of a foreign text in the translator's consciousness and provides the integration of the text concept into the translator's pragmatic net, the representative of a foreign language community, and promotes the target text creation which conforms to the recipient's expectations. At that, the interpreter's personality, their ability to interpret, total existential competence and active position are of precedence for sense comprehension. Reflexive abilities refer to the category of the over-subjective; however, they provide adequate interpretation of the source text and creation of the so-called natural target text. The so-called des-objective reading, predicted synthesis and retrospective analysis are the key notions for the translator. Such abilities are the basis of the professional competence of the translator, who becomes not only a professional but also an intelligent personality that has existential and academic background.
Kristensen, Jens Erik
The chapter examines what has happened to ideas of the university in the light of current reforms and the implementation of performance management. Taking a retrospective view of the most central ideas of a university, focus will be on why even a modernized and corporatized university apparently...... cannot survive without reference to ideas and idealistic justifications, including a number of classical ideas, as well as on which new ideas may be delineated on the basis of the old....
Läubli, Samuel; Fishel, Mark; Volk, Martin; Weibel, Manuela
Since the emergence of translation memory software, translation companies and freelance translators have been accumulating translated text for various languages and domains. This data has the potential of being used for training domain-specific machine translation systems for corporate or even personal use. But while the resulting systems usually perform well in translating domain-specific language, their out-of-domain vocabulary coverage is often insufficient due to the limited size of the t...
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how linguistic and translation issues have always been Friel’s main concerns. First of all, the language question in Ireland will be investigated in its multi-faceted implications. In particular, Tom Paulin’s A New Look at the Language Question (1985, one of the earliest pamphlets produced within the Field Day activities, will be analysed as it deals with some language topics which Friel dramatises in Translations (1980. At the time when Translations was performed, in fact, translation issues were still a pretext for the social and political reflection on the question of language. In Friel’s play, therefore, language has a twofold value. Language not only allows us to dwell poetically in our world and recollect our past, but it is also a utilitarian weapon to establish a one-to-one correlation between words and objects. Translations is thus based on the idea that translation is only a part of a more general theory of communication, as Steiner claims in After Babel: Aspects of Language and Translation (1975. The second aspect is that will be dealt with in this paper is that Friel uses translation as a powerful means of intercultural exchange in drama. In fact, Friel in his earliest Russian play, Three Sisters (1981, becomes a drama translator, according to Aaltonen’s main tenets. In discussing various translation strategies, Aaltonen shows how theatre productions in translation are always tied to the time and place of the receiving audience. Aaltonen’s conviction is that the translation of a foreign dramatic text, as well as its entire production, unavoidably represents a reaction to the Other when it is chosen for a performance in another culture. Therefore, Friel’s Three Sisters and the strategies adopted in its translation will be seen as an ‘Irish reaction’ to Chekhov’s Russia.
Pathak, Ganesh R.; Godse, Sachin P.
Translation is one of the needs of global society for communicating thoughts and ideas of one country with other country. Translation is the process of interpretation of text meaning and subsequent production of equivalent text, also called as communicating same meaning (message) in another language. In this paper we gave detail information on how to convert source language text in to target language text using Transfer Based Approach for machine translation. Here we implemented English to Sanskrit machine translator using transfer based approach. English is global language used for business and communication but large amount of population in India is not using and understand the English. Sanskrit is ancient language of India most of the languages in India are derived from Sanskrit. Sanskrit can be act as an intermediate language for multilingual translation.
Language is the expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experi- enced, explained, and shared. It influences the way the speakers perceive the world. But as it has been long taken for granted, translation deals only with language. Cultural perspective, however, has never been brought into discussion. This paper first analyses the definitions of translation and culture, and then discusses why we should take culture into consideration and in the end, two translating strategies: domestication and foreignization are introduced.
Full Text Available Every translation is a second-order discourse, based on a first-order discourse, whose form is the result of negotiation between the discursive polysystems of the source and target cultures. Its dual role, representing the source-language discourse in the target culture as well as meeting the intended expectations of the target text receiver, inevitably entails the intervention of the translator as a second-order communicating subject, as will be illustrated using a French translation of a building design.
Language is the expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experi-enced, explained, and shared. It influences the way the speakers perceive the world. But as it has been long taken for granted, translation deals only with language. Cultural perspective, however, has never been brought into discussion. This paper first analyses the definitions of translation and culture, and then discusses why we should take culture into consideration and in the end, two translating strategies:domestication and foreignization are introduced.
Full Text Available This brief chapter problematizes the hegemonic position of the English language in Cultural Studies, which, in the author's view, can be understood as a moment that stands against a true internationalisation of the project. Following an argu-ment referring to the necessary 'translation' process (here seen as 're-articulation', 'transcoding' or 'transculturation' Stuart Hall has put forward almost two decades ago, the essay, firstly, turns to the notion of 'linguistic translations', and deals, secondly, with what has been coined 'cultural translation'. Discussing approaches developed by Walter Benjamin, Umberto Eco and Homi Bhabha, the complex relationship between the two terms is being investigated. Finally, in a modest attempt to throw some light on this hegemonic structure, central aspects of the output of three important journals (European Journal of Cultural Studies, International Journal of Cultural Studies, Cultural Studies, i. e. an analysis of the linguistic and institutional backgrounds of the authors of the ten most-read and most-cited essays, are presented. Based on these findings I argue that it is not simply the addition of the discursive field (language to the academic space (institution that defines the mecha-nism of exclusion and inclusion. Rather, it is the articulation of both moments, i.e. that of language and that of the institution, which - in various contexts (but in their own very definite ways - can help to develop that structure which at present is still hindering a further, more profound internationalisation of the project that is Cultural Studies.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing consensus that most valuable data source for biomedical discoveries is derived from human samples is clearly reflected in the growing number of translational medicine and translational sciences departments across pharma as well as academic and government supported initiatives such as Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA in the US and the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7 of EU with emphasis on translating research for human health. Methods The pharmaceutical companies of Johnson and Johnson have established translational and biomarker departments and implemented an effective knowledge management framework including building a data warehouse and the associated data mining applications. The implemented resource is built from open source systems such as i2b2 and GenePattern. Results The system has been deployed across multiple therapeutic areas within the pharmaceutical companies of Johnson and Johnsons and being used actively to integrate and mine internal and public data to support drug discovery and development decisions such as indication selection and trial design in a translational medicine setting. Our results show that the established system allows scientist to quickly re-validate hypotheses or generate new ones with the use of an intuitive graphical interface. Conclusions The implemented resource can serve as the basis of precompetitive sharing and mining of studies involving samples from human subjects thus enhancing our understanding of human biology and pathophysiology and ultimately leading to more effective treatment of diseases which represent unmet medical needs.
Background The growing consensus that most valuable data source for biomedical discoveries is derived from human samples is clearly reflected in the growing number of translational medicine and translational sciences departments across pharma as well as academic and government supported initiatives such as Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) in the US and the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) of EU with emphasis on translating research for human health. Methods The pharmaceutical companies of Johnson and Johnson have established translational and biomarker departments and implemented an effective knowledge management framework including building a data warehouse and the associated data mining applications. The implemented resource is built from open source systems such as i2b2 and GenePattern. Results The system has been deployed across multiple therapeutic areas within the pharmaceutical companies of Johnson and Johnsons and being used actively to integrate and mine internal and public data to support drug discovery and development decisions such as indication selection and trial design in a translational medicine setting. Our results show that the established system allows scientist to quickly re-validate hypotheses or generate new ones with the use of an intuitive graphical interface. Conclusions The implemented resource can serve as the basis of precompetitive sharing and mining of studies involving samples from human subjects thus enhancing our understanding of human biology and pathophysiology and ultimately leading to more effective treatment of diseases which represent unmet medical needs. PMID:20642836
Cummings, Jeffrey L; Banks, Sarah J; Gary, Ronald K; Kinney, Jefferson W; Lombardo, Joseph M; Walsh, Ryan R; Zhong, Kate
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an urgent public health challenge that is rapidly approaching epidemic proportions. New therapies that defer or prevent the onset, delay the decline, or improve the symptoms are urgently needed. All phase 3 drug development programs for disease-modifying agents have failed thus far. New approaches to drug development are needed. Translational neuroscience focuses on the linkages between basic neuroscience and the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic products that will improve the lives of patients or prevent the occurrence of brain disorders. Translational neuroscience includes new preclinical models that may better predict human efficacy and safety, improved clinical trial designs and outcomes that will accelerate drug development, and the use of biomarkers to more rapidly provide information regarding the effects of drugs on the underlying disease biology. Early translational research is complemented by later stage translational approaches regarding how best to use evidence to impact clinical practice and to assess the influence of new treatments on the public health. Funding of translational research is evolving with an increased emphasis on academic and NIH involvement in drug development. Translational neuroscience provides a framework for advancing development of new therapies for AD patients.
Rouquette, Nicolas; Dunphy, Julia; Feather, Martin S.
Many current-day software design tools offer some variant of statechart notation for system specification. We, like others, have built an automatic translator from (a subset of) statecharts to a model checker, for use to validate behavioral requirements. Our translator is designed to be flexible. This allows us to quickly adjust the translator to variants of statechart semantics, including problem-specific notational conventions that designers employ. Our system demonstration will be of interest to the following two communities: (1) Potential end-users: Our demonstration will show translation from statecharts created in a commercial UML tool (Rational Rose) to Promela, the input language of Holzmann's model checker SPIN. The translation is accomplished automatically. To accommodate the major variants of statechart semantics, our tool offers user-selectable choices among semantic alternatives. Options for customized semantic variants are also made available. The net result is an easy-to-use tool that operates on a wide range of statechart diagrams to automate the pathway to model-checking input. (2) Other researchers: Our translator embodies, in one tool, ideas and approaches drawn from several sources. Solutions to the major challenges of statechart-to-model-checker translation (e.g., determining which transition(s) will fire, handling of concurrent activities) are retired in a uniform, fully mechanized, setting. The way in which the underlying architecture of the translator itself facilitates flexible and customizable translation will also be evident.
Bos, J.E.; Correia Grácio, B.J.
BACKGROUND: Linear acceleration generally gives rise to translation perception. Centripetal acceleration during centrifugation, however, has never been reported giving rise to a radial, inward translation perception. OBJECTIVE: To study whether centrifugation can induce a radial translation percepti
Metaphor is one of the important and forceful figures of speech in English. In practice of translating English metaphors into Chinese, some approaches are available: literal translation, changing metaphor into sim/h, conversion, liberal translation and complement.
Annemarie De Villiers
Full Text Available A translation competition was initiated and sponsored by theClassical Association of South Africa in 2011. This translation wasjudged to be the best student translation submitted to CASA duringthis past year.
Inspiring Web Design at a GlanceThe Web Designer's Idea Book includes more than 700 websites arranged thematically, so you can find inspiration for layout, color, style and more. Author Patrick McNeil has cataloged more than 5,000 sites on his website, and showcased in this book are the very best examples.Sites are organized by type, design style, theme, color, element and structure. Each chapter is easy to use and reference again and again, whether you're talking with a coworker or discussing website design options with a client. As a handy desk reference for design layout, color and style, t
Matsler, Karen Jo; Restivo, Evelyn
If you are teaching physics for the first time or even if you are a veteran teacher, it is always good to look at new activities or renew ideas to inspire your students. As it is late in October, we are half way through first semester and it is time to look past Newton's Laws. Activities presented in this workshop will include methods for figuring physics, gaining just a little momentum, collisions, toying around with impulse and inverse square relationships. Each activity will be presented in a lesson cycle format, which can be easily transitioned into your classroom. Limited to 24 participants - 2 hours - Cost 5.00
Sumerians, The idea of rehabilitation began with th
of the long-lasting fight by PWD and their families and friends in the West (3), in this letter, we wanted to visualize that the human mind in Mesopotamia (3–4000 BC) has been simply enough to recognize real goodness (in Turkish, “erdem”) (5). Since Sumer was the first civilization to use a writing system and initiated many other contemporary social institutions, Kramer pronounced that history begins with the Sumerians (7). This legend shows that the contemporary rehabilitation idea a...
Garcia, Hernan G.; Kondev, Jane; Orme, Nigel; Theriot, Julie A.; Phillips, Rob
There is a long and rich tradition of using ideas from both equilibrium thermodynamics and its microscopic partner theory of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In this chapter, we provide some background on the origins of the seemingly unreasonable effectiveness of ideas from both thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in biology. After making a description of these foundational issues, we turn to a series of case studies primarily focused on binding that are intended to illustrate the broad biological reach of equilibrium thinking in biology. These case studies include ligand-gated ion channels, thermodynamic models of transcription, and recent applications to the problem of bacterial chemotaxis. As part of the description of these case studies, we explore a number of different uses of the famed Monod–Wyman–Changeux (MWC) model as a generic tool for providing a mathematical characterization of two-state systems. These case studies should provide a template for tailoring equilibrium ideas to other problems of biological interest. PMID:21333788
The publication of a book containing translations of our great writers should not leave anyone indifferent, even less the experienced translators. By using objective criticism and based on examples from translations, we have chosen in this study to examine the feat, as we say, the feat of Annie Bentoiu, for the translation of Eminescu, for the reason that his translation of the LAC is resumed in 4 covers. This poem is viewed under the microscope by the translator's experience of m...
In recent years, significant improvements have been achieved in statistical machine translation (MT), but still even the best machine translation technology is far from replacing or even competing with human translators. However, an MT system helps to increase the productivity of human translators. Usually, human translators edit the MT system output to correct the errors, or they may edit the source text to limit vocabulary. A way of increasing the productivity of the whole translation proce...
Tarp, Sven; Dam, Helle Vrønning
Translation, interpreting and lexicography represent three separate areas of human activity, each of them with its own theories, models and methods and, hence, with its own disciplinary underpinnings. At the same time, all three disciplines are characterized by a marked interdisciplinary dimension...... in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...... disciplines frequently come into touch with each other. This chapter discusses and explores some of the basic aspects of this interrelationship, focusing on the (potential) contribution of lexicography to translation and interpreting and on explaining the basic concepts and methods of the former discipline...
Full Text Available The article begins with the differences betweenscientific and fictional translations, and focus on the second.The fictional translation works with meanings, opens itselfto the plurissignification in the purpose to create a similarity of the dissimilarity; in this process, the translator does nottranslate a language, but what a creative individuality makeswith a language. At last there is an approach to the knowledgeand skills necessaries to a translator of literature: theknowledge of the theories of the literature and of thetranslation, the capacity to preserve the national color ofthe original text and at the same time to respect the arrivallanguage, and the sensibility to his national languagevariations present in the daily and in the literary spheres.
Chinese parody, as a traditional figure of speech, has captured more and more attention from scholars. The researches conducted up to date are inadequate in theorizing and exploring its translation. This paper, based on the comparative data analysis of Chinese parody translation examples in different types of texts, attempts to probe into the means about how to achieve the clos⁃est function equivalence in rendering Chinese parody under the guidance of Sociosemiotic Approach. It is found that the nature of Chinese parody translation is to achieve the closest natural equivalence or similarity in expressive function, informative func⁃tion, vocative function and aesthetic function in its equivalents in English. And it is suggested that borrowing, imitating, para⁃phrasing and adapting are effective strategies in translating Chinese parody.
Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz
Lost in Translation? Introducing Planetary Boundaries into Social Systems. Fritz Reusswig, Wiebke Lass Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries by interdisciplinary science efforts is a challenging task—and a risky one, as the 1972 Limits to Growth publication has shown. Even if we may be assured that scientific understanding of underlying processes of the Earth system has significantly improved since then, the challenge of translating these findings into the social systems of the planet remains crucial for any kind of action, and in many respects far more challenging. We would like to conceptualize what could also be termed a problem of coupling social and natural systems as a nested set of social translation processes, well aware of the limited applicability of the language-related translation metaphor. Societies must, first, perceive these boundaries, and they have to understand their relevance. This includes, among many other things, the organization of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation. They will then have to translate this understood perception into possible actions, i.e. strategies for different local bodies, actors, and institutional settings. This implies a lot of 'internal' translation processes, e.g. from the scientific subsystem to the mass media, the political and the economic subsystem. And it implies to develop subsystem-specific schemes of evaluation for these alternatives, e.g. convincing narratives, cost-benefit analyses, or ethical legitimacy considerations. And, finally, societies do have to translate chosen action alternatives into monitoring and evaluation schemes, e.g. for agricultural production or renewable energies. This process includes the continuation of observing and re-analyzing the planetary boundary concept itself, as a re-adjustment of these boundaries in the light of new scientific insights cannot be excluded. Taken all together, societies may well
Stefaniuk, Adam; Racle, Julien; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily
Translation lies at the heart of every living organism, it is the process synthesizing the proteins, a main component in the cells. Earlier studies have considered protein synthesis as mainly initiation limited, modeling it as a first-order reaction with respect to free ribosomes and mRNA. In such studies, the noise is therefore coming from initiation phase only. We have previously studied a continuous deterministic model for translation, taking into account the ribosome elongation and a poss...
Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John
Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.
Different nations have different or even opposite perception of color, which results in non-equivalence of color words in mutual translation between Chinese and English. This paper is to discuss non-equivalence of color words between Chinese and English on the two aspects and emphasizes the importance of transmitting cultural message accurately in the mutual translation between Chinese and English. Studying the cultural connotations of the words is of great importance for successful communication.
The paper describes the background, subjects, assumptions, procedure, and preliminary results of a small-scale experimental study of L2 translation (Danish into English) and picture verbalization in L2 (English).......The paper describes the background, subjects, assumptions, procedure, and preliminary results of a small-scale experimental study of L2 translation (Danish into English) and picture verbalization in L2 (English)....
Semantics is the study of the meanings of words and sentences. While word is the most basic unit in every language and the understanding of the word meaning is the most important problem in translation. Therefore, the analysis of semantics just provides a very direct approach to doing translation. In this paper, I’d like to focus on the three kinds of word meaning in transla- tion, the ambiguities caused by the word meaning and how to deal with such ambiguities.
<正>A translation criteria universally accepted is faithfulness, which can be examined from different dimensions of content, form and style.Among these three dimensions,faithfulness in content and form is easier to be noted,while the faithfulness in style is harder to judge.This paper will mainly focus on the study of stylistic features for the purpose of language providing methods to achieve stylistic adaptation in translation.
Full Text Available Abstract Regulation of cyclin levels is important for many cell cycle-related processes and can occur at several different steps of gene expression. Translational regulation of cyclins, which occurs by a variety of regulatory mechanisms, permits a prompt response to signal transduction pathways induced by environmental stimuli. This review will summarize translational control of cyclins and its influence on cell cycle progression.
ZHU; Yu; WANG; Jin
Abstract:Translation is an independent discipline(Jean Delisle,1988).With the deepening of translation studies,translation teaching aroused widespread concern among translation academia,and gradually separated from language teaching,being a subj ect with its own obj ectives and a special position.This paper,firstly introduces the obj ectives and content of translation teaching,then points out several common problems in translation teaching.Finally,associated with the basic principles of translation teaching,it analyzes the strategies of English translation teaching.
Cristina García de Toro
Full Text Available The article briefly outlines the main schools and approaches that make up the current landscape of Translation Studies. The purpose of this paper is to offer an introduction to translation theory for those who are beginning their studies in this field or whose knowledge of Translation Studies is tangential. The article starts with a few preliminary matters, such as the question of what Translation Studies is and how the discipline has been mapped out. Then it moves on to examine the theoretical considerations that have been developed since the second half of the 20th century, with special attention being paid to the most recent decades. In this section, which is devoted to theoretical considerations, I will review some of the fundamental issues from a theories of equivalence and comparisons between languages; b functionalist theories; c discursive approaches; d polysystem theory, descriptive studies and norms; e cultural studies; f philosophical theories; g latest contributions to the field of Translation Studies; and h interdisciplinary and integrating approaches. Keywords: translation studies, contemporary theories, linguistic approaches, descriptive studies, cultural studies.
Arribere, Joshua A; Cenik, Elif S; Jain, Nimit; Hess, Gaelen T; Lee, Cameron H; Bassik, Michael C; Fire, Andrew Z
A fraction of ribosomes engaged in translation will fail to terminate when reaching a stop codon, yielding nascent proteins inappropriately extended on their C termini. Although such extended proteins can interfere with normal cellular processes, known mechanisms of translational surveillance are insufficient to protect cells from potential dominant consequences. Here, through a combination of transgenics and CRISPR–Cas9 gene editing in Caenorhabditis elegans, we demonstrate a consistent ability of cells to block accumulation of C-terminal-extended proteins that result from failure to terminate at stop codons. Sequences encoded by the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) were sufficient to lower protein levels. Measurements of mRNA levels and translation suggested a co- or post-translational mechanism of action for these sequences in C. elegans. Similar mechanisms evidently operate in human cells, in which we observed a comparable tendency for translated human 3′ UTR sequences to reduce mature protein expression in tissue culture assays, including 3′ UTR sequences from the hypomorphic ‘Constant Spring’ haemoglobin stop codon variant. We suggest that 3′ UTRs may encode peptide sequences that destabilize the attached protein, providing mitigation of unwelcome and varied translation errors. PMID:27281202
Kim, E.H.; Cho, S.W.; Kim, J.M. [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea)
This paper presents a new matching algorithm for fingerprint recognition, which is robust to image translation. The basic idea of this paper is to estimate the translation vector of an input fingerprint image using N minutiae at which the gradient of the ridge direction field is large. Using the estimated translation vector we select minutiae irrelevant to the translation. We experimentally prove that the presented algorithm results in good performance even if there are large translation and pseudo-minutiae. (author). 10 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.
Yeong Yeh Lee
The primary deifnition of translational medicine is to develop new clinical therapeutic methods for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of diseases by the therapeutic mechanism and new pathological cognition obtained in laboratory. Since the 21st century, most developed countries worldwide have made great adjustment in the strategies of translational medicine, but so far, only a few basic research results have been successfully translated into clinical practice. Research of translational medicine requires the team work of interdisciplinary groups, including medical experts, molecular biologists, and epidemiologists. With the rapid development of biological techniques and extensive application of molecular biology, epidemiology has become a real interdisciplinary discipline from conventional population survey, and stepped into genetic and molecular era, an era of molecular epidemiology. Molecular epidemiology not only provides research ifndings to translational medicine, but also bridges between basic science and medical research, so as to improve the effective translation of basic scientiifc results. This article, focusing on molecular epidemiology and translational medicine, mainly summarized the history and current status of translational medicine and emphatically interpreted the importance of molecular epidemiology to translational medicine.
Yeh Lee Yeong
Full Text Available The primary definition of translational medicine is to develop new clinical therapeutic methods for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of diseases by the therapeutic mechanism and new pathological cognition obtained in laboratory. Since the 21st century, most developed countries worldwide have made great adjustment in the strategies of translational medicine, but so far, only a few basic research results have been successfully translated into clinical practice. Research of translational medicine requires the team work of interdisciplinary groups, including medical experts, molecular biologists, and epidemiologists. With the rapid development of biological techniques and extensive application of molecular biology, epidemiology has become a real interdisciplinary discipline from conventional population survey, and stepped into genetic and molecular era, an era of molecular epidemiology. Molecular epidemiology not only provides research findings to translational medicine, but also bridges between basic science and medical research, so as to improve the effective translation of basic scientific results. This article, focusing on molecular epidemiology and translational medicine, mainly summarized the history and current status of translational medicine and emphatically interpreted the importance of molecular epidemiology to translational medicine.
Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil
Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge, professional and psychological conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' Emotional Intelligence on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study," a sample of…
Wiesenthal, Volker; Leutz, Achim; Calkhoven, Cornelis F
The study of translational control has become increasingly important, as aberrant translation has been linked to the etiology of human diseases. Nevertheless, a convenient research tool to measure and quantify cellular translational activity has not been developed to date. Here we present a translat
Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil
Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge and professional conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' academic experience on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study", a sample of 100 male and…
Both language teaching experts and translation theorists have proposed detailed analyses of the advantages and disadvantages of using translation in language teaching. However, in order to make translation a useful teaching resource, they have provided new and challenging insights into the nature of translation itself. Some of the principles among these insights will be outlined and discussed in this paper.
Madrid, Hector P; Totterdell, Peter; Niven, Karen
Affective presence is a novel, emotion-related personality trait, supported in experimental studies, concerning the extent to which a person makes his or her interaction partners feel the same way (Eisenkraft & Elfenbein, 2010). Applying this concept to an applied teamwork context, we proposed that team-leader-affective presence would influence team members' communication of creative ideas. Multilevel modeling analysis of data from a survey study conducted with teams from a consultancy firm confirmed that team-leader-affective presence interacted with team-member creative idea generation to predict inhibition of voicing their ideas. Specifically, withholding of ideas was less likely when team members generated creative ideas and their team leader had higher positive affective presence or lower negative affective presence. These findings contribute to emotion research by showing affective presence as a trait with interpersonal meaning, which can shape how cognition is translated into social behavior in applied performance contexts, such as teamwork in organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record
Rice Michael D
Full Text Available Relative individual information is a measurement that scores the quality of DNA- and RNA-binding sites for biological machines. The development of analytical approaches to increase the power of this scoring method will improve its utility in evaluating the functions of motifs. In this study, the scoring method was applied to potential translation initiation sites in Drosophila to compute Translation Relative Individual Information (TRII scores. The weight matrix at the core of the scoring method was optimized based on high-confidence translation initiation sites identified by using a progressive partitioning approach. Comparing the distributions of TRII scores for sites of interest with those for high-confidence translation initiation sites and random sequences provides a new methodology for assessing the quality of translation initiation sites. The optimized weight matrices can also be used to describe the consensus at translation initiation sites, providing a quantitative measure of preferred and avoided nucleotides at each position.
Full Text Available This paper moves between two streets: Liverpool Road in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield and Via Sarpi in the Italian city of Milan. What connects these streets is that both have become important sites for businesses in the Chinese diaspora. Moreover, both are streets on which locals have expressed desires for Chinese signs to be translated into the national lingua franca. The paper argues that the cultural politics inherent in this demand for translation cannot be fully understood in the context of national debates about diversity and integration. It is also necessary to consider the emergence of the official Chinese Putonghua as global language, which competes with English but also colonizes dialects and minority languages. In the case of these dual language signs, the space between languages can neither be reduced to a contact zone of minority and majority cultures nor celebrated as a ‘third space’ where the power relations implied by such differences are subverted. At stake is rather a space characterised by what Naoki Sakai calls the schema of co-figuration, which allows the representation of translation as the passage between two equivalents that resemble each other and thus makes possible their determination as conceptually different and comparable. Drawing on arguments about translation and citizenship, the paper critically interrogates the ethos of interchangeability implied by this regime of translation. A closing argument is made for a vision of the common that implies neither civilisational harmony nor the translation of all values into a general equivalent. Primary sources include government reports, internet texts and media stories. These are analyzed using techniques of discourse analysis and interpreted with the help of secondary literature concerning globalisation, language and migration. The disciplinary matrix cuts and mixes between cultural studies, translation studies, citizenship studies, globalization studies and
Nick R. Anthonise
Full Text Available In this issue of the Canadian Respiratory Journal, Almirall and Bégin (pages 195 to 196 make a suggestion aimed at increasing the use of spirometry by primary care physicians, as well as family and general practitioners. The idea is that spirometry should be performed not necessarily to make specific diagnoses, but to rule in or out the possibility of a number of lung diseases, most notably, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. If the patient demonstrates normal forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s, then he or she does not have COPD; if the results are not normal, then COPD is a possibility that can be further investigated.
Science and technology labs are the ideal places for developing innovative solutions. However, inventors sometimes don’t realize that their ideas can find an application in industry, which can in turn have a technical and economic impact on society. Some researchers may think that disclosing an invention is a time-consuming process which is worth doing only in very special cases. But one thing is certain: it is always worth informing the Knowledge and Technology Transfer group, as they will give you the correct advice and support. Don’t be afraid of the paperwork… it can be highly rewarding! Why should researchers at CERN bother to disclose their inventions to the Knowledge and Technology Transfer Group first? “Because when inventors do so, a process to transfer the technology to industry is set in motion” explains Henning Huuse, Patent Portfolio Manager in the KTT Group. To facilitate this transfer, patent protection can be a useful tool. &...
Full Text Available The translation of proper nouns is not as easy as that of other parts of speech as this is more challenging for certain reasons. The present article presents a descriptive study of proper nouns in translation, scrutinizing the challenges and exploring the solutions. Building on some scholars’ approach and suggestions from other researchers, the article clarifies the nature and problems of proper nouns in translation; it seeks to answer three questions: 1 Should proper nouns be translated? 2 What are the problems on the way of translation of the proper nouns? 3 How can the translator overcome such problems? Moreover, strategies applied by the researchers to make their translation easier are also discussed. It follows that translating proper nouns is not simple and there is little flexibility about translating proper nouns.Keywords: proper nouns, translation, strategies
Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup
In an industrial company developing consumer products for the global marketplace, it is the management’s task to decide which product ideas shall be selected as a basis for developing new and innovative products. The company management has to allocate resources to a portfolio of product ideas...... for further development and to reject others. This is a risky task. If resources are allocated to wrong or wicket product ideas there will be no business for the company in the future. Allocating proper resources to the right product ideas is a first step towards a viable business, a task made difficult...... because many stakeholders, aspects and future events have to be predicted and taken into account. The aim of our research is to develop a product idea description, which enhances the creation of ideas. Hopefully strong ideas, but at least ideas, which has a rich and sound description, in the sense...
Rousseau is a famous man in the history of the education and philosophy over the whole world. His theory of education all based on his philosophy ideas. This paper mainly discusses Rousscau~ two philosophy ideas on education.
Strömblad, Maria; Cenusa, Cosmin; Johansson, Cecilia
This thesis puts focus on the points where organisations perceive, translate and implement a new organisational idea, and the implementation and translation of one specific efficiency method is studied. We have looked at how a group of small manufacturing companies have implemented an efficiency method (Efficient production/Lean Production) and how they have translated it to fit their own organisation. The authors were interested in finding out both about the challenges and the positive outco...
Translational Medicine is an evolutional concept that encompasses the rapid translation of basic research for use in clinical disease diagnosis, prevention, treatment and finally in public health promotion. It follows the idea "from bench to bedside and back" , and hence relies on cooperation between laboratory research and clinical care. Translation process is a complex process that requires both research and non-research activities. During the past ten years, there has been intense interest in the development of new clinical procedures, therapeutic molecules, and prototypes based on translational medicine concept including dentistry. Periodontitis is a globally prevalent inflammatory disease that causes the destruction of the tooth supporting apparatus. Current methods to reconstitute lost periodontal structures have been shown to have limited and variable outcomes. Stem cell therapy can be used for periodontal regeneration and it is also one of the hot topics in translational regenerative medicine. In this article, recent advances and current status of translational medicine in stem cell therapy in periodontal regeneration field were reviewed. However, a number of biological, technical and clinical hurdles must be overcome before stem cell therapy could be used in clinics.
This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience.Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.
This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience. Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.
Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)
The aim of this article is to reconstruct and pinpoint the peculiarities of Ismail Kadare’s idea of Europe. Kadare’s idea of Europe, it is argued, differs from the ideas of Europe embraced or presumed by intellectuals like Paul Valéry, Georg Simmel, Danilo Kiš, Václav Havel, Adam Michnik, or Milan K
Prestigious industry awards presented at IDEA10 in Miami Beach this week;special Entrepreneurial Award also presented at IDEA 10 CARY,NC April 28,2010-The IDEA10 Achievement Awards, which recognize the best new nonwoven and engineered fabric products introduced in the past three years,were presented in six different categories
Great opportunities together with great challenges are brought to the development of Chinese economy with the glo-balization of the world economy. Foreign businessmen want to share the market of China, while Chinese enterprisers with a broader sight have been thinking about selling products to international markets. Languages and cultures of different nations have their own characteristics. In order to communicate with each other, human beings must make use of the methods of translation. Thus, it shows that translation, which is a social activity of inter-language, inter-culture and inter-community, is linked closely to culture. Meanwhile, the features of translation represent similarly in advertising translation. Generally speaking, when doing ad-vertising translation, it can not only focus on language differences between the two sides, but also pay attention to cultural differ-ences. Or else it would be difficult to translate satisfying advertisements.By taking examples from Chinese-English and English-Chinese, this paper compares the different aspects between Chinese and Western thinking sets, traditional ideas and values in order to reflect differences of advertising translation based on different cultures. Finally, it will sum up some strategies of inter-cultural advertising translation.
Williams, Tom A.; Embley, T. Martin
The origin of eukaryotic cells is one of the most fascinating challenges in biology, and has inspired decades of controversy and debate. Recent work has led to major upheavals in our understanding of eukaryotic origins and has catalysed new debates about the roles of endosymbiosis and gene flow across the tree of life. Improved methods of phylogenetic analysis support scenarios in which the host cell for the mitochondrial endosymbiont was a member of the Archaea, and new technologies for samp...
Corpus-based translation studies belong to a new translation study paradigm which rose at the beginning of 1990s. The rise of corpus brings the update of research tools and research methods, and lead to the emerging of Corpus Translation Stud-ies. It is necessary to introduce the theory basis of Translational English Corpus and its application in the translation, especially in the science and technology translation. Besides, it makes an analysis and discussion about the potential of Corpus Translation Stud-ies.
This book covers a broad area of engineering research in translational medicine. Leaders in academic institutions around the world contributed focused chapters on a broad array of topics such as: cell and tissue engineering (6 chapters), genetic and protein engineering (10 chapters), nanoengineering (10 chapters), biomedical instrumentation (4 chapters), and theranostics and other novel approaches (4 chapters). Each chapter is a stand-alone review that summarizes the state-of-the-art of the specific research area. Engineering in Translational Medicine gives readers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of a broad array of related research areas, making this an excellent reference book for scientists and students both new to engineering/translational medicine and currently working in this area.
Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard;
This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross......-linguistic priming: items which have a similar word order in source and target texts are likely to have similar syntactic structures. These items are therefore more likely to prime structurally. Source items which have few translation alternatives are more likely to share a semantic representation and are hence more...
Full Text Available In this paper, we describe an automatic sign language to text translation system. This system consists of a glove that can be worn by a deaf to facilitate its conversation in real-time with hearing persons. The system translates the signs to the corresponding letters, using Bluetooth communication, to a PC that displays the result letters. The recognition of the sign is accomplished using five flex sensors and a 3-axis accelerometer; the signals are converted to digital data, which is compared with a lookup table to get the resulted letter. This system is suspected to help deaf people to communicate with other persons without the need of a human translator.
Full Text Available Umberto Eco’s novel The Name of the Rose as a postmodern literary work is extensively based on transtextuality. There are series of quotations from the Bible, Petrus Abelardus, St. Bernard, Petrarch, Conan Doyle, Agatha Christie, Jorge L. Borges, Nietzsche, and other classic authors interwoven into the novel’s narrative. The text is a result of multiple translations, a truly intercultural adventure: Adso, a 14th-century German monk from the Melk monastery provides a Northern Italian travel experience in Latin language, this memoir is translated by the publishing narrator into the Italian language of the 20th century. The characters of the story come from different areas of Europe, as there are monks from England, Spain, Norway, Germany, and other countries. This paper sheds light on the problems that occurred during the novel’s translation.
Full Text Available Given the incompatibility between aesthetic and economic approaches to literary translation, the A. perceives a lack of creative initiative in the international socialisation of Bulgarian literature within its literary field (and especially in the subfield of criticism. Together with a probable inability to (reintegrate ethnically Bulgarian emigré writers, this gives Bulgarian literature a “repellent capacity”. Pointing at non-mainstream developments in both literature and translation may offer a way out: Gorčeva recommends abundant analytical and not self-exoticising self-representation. She also stresses that not only interliterary ‘export’ but also ‘import’ forges a literature’s status, and suggests that “small” literatures can take part in interliterary communication as equals in so far as they have the opportunity to keep on translating not in an assimilative but in a foreignising manner.
Kurohashi, Sadao; Uchimoto, Kiyotaka
This paper describes the Senseval-2 Japanese translation task. In this task, word senses are defined according to distinct translations in a given target language. A translation memory (TM) was constructed which contains, for each Japanese head word, a list of typical Japanese expressions and their English translations. For each test word instance, participants were required to submit the TM record best approximating that usage, or alternatively, actual target word translations. There were 9 ...
This thesis analyses the position of translations in the work of the American writer and translator Lydia Davis. Davis has been publishing stories and translations since the early 1970s, and has translated works by Maurice Blanchot, Michel Leiris, and Marcel Proust among others. This thesis argues that her translations form a graft onto the body of her own fiction; they are both part of her work and retain their identity as being written by someone else. The first chapter builds on theory...
Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard
FLOWer is a case handling tool made by Pallas-Athena for process management in the service industry. BPEL on the other hand is a language for web service orchestration, and has become a de facto standard, because of its popularity, for specifying workflow processes even though that was not its...... original purpose. This paper describe an approach translating BPLE to FLOWer, or more precisely form BPEL to CHIP. where CHIP is the interchange language that FLOWer import from and export to. The aim of the translation scheme that I give is to derive a CHIP specification that is behaviorally equivalent...
Jos A Hageman
Full Text Available One of the new expanding areas in functional genomics is metabolomics: measuring the metabolome of an organism. Data being generated in metabolomics studies are very diverse in nature depending on the design underlying the experiment. Traditionally, variation in measurements is conceptually broken down in systematic variation and noise where the latter contains, e.g. technical variation. There is increasing evidence that this distinction does not hold (or is too simple for metabolomics data. A more useful distinction is in terms of informative and non-informative variation where informative relates to the problem being studied. In most common methods for analyzing metabolomics (or any other high-dimensional x-omics data this distinction is ignored thereby severely hampering the results of the analysis. This leads to poorly interpretable models and may even obscure the relevant biological information. We developed a framework from first data analysis principles by explicitly formulating the problem of analyzing metabolomics data in terms of informative and non-informative parts. This framework allows for flexible interactions with the biologists involved in formulating prior knowledge of underlying structures. The basic idea is that the informative parts of the complex metabolomics data are approximated by simple components with a biological meaning, e.g. in terms of metabolic pathways or their regulation. Hence, we termed the framework 'simplivariate models' which constitutes a new way of looking at metabolomics data. The framework is given in its full generality and exemplified with two methods, IDR analysis and plaid modeling, that fit into the framework. Using this strategy of 'divide and conquer', we show that meaningful simplivariate models can be obtained using a real-life microbial metabolomics data set. For instance, one of the simple components contained all the measured intermediates of the Krebs cycle of E. coli. Moreover, these
Scheuer, John Damm
interested in explaining how and why ideas travel in and out of organizations and become institutionalized in organizational fields. More specifically the paper focuses on the way actor-network theory and the concept of translation have been translated by researchers trying to understand institutionalization...... processes related to ideas that travel from one place in time and space to another. The paper suggests that combining the concept of translation and theories about institutional change will make it possible to ground macro-sociological claims about how ideas travel and become institutionalized...
Avital, Michel; Osch, Wietske van
Anyone who engages with ideas in the context of everyday work is engaged in idea work. Building on Jung’s psychological theory of types, we theorize about the fundamental processes underlying one’s generative capacity, and in turn, one’s ability to generate ideas and engage effectively in idea work....... Moreover, we provide further insights regarding creativity and innovation in everyday work practices as well as discuss considerations for the design of environments and tools that are conducive to idea work....
Qi Xie; Jing Chen; Zengqiang Yuan
The Forkhead box O (FOXO) family transcription factors play critical roles in a series of cellular processes,including the cell cycle,cell death,metabolism,and oxidative stress resistance.FOXO proteins are subject to several posttranslational modifications,which are closely related to their activity.In this paper,we review the post-translational modifications of FOXOs and their biological functions.
Full Text Available Meaningful learning is always one of the main aims to be reached in a teaching and learning process. A research with 40 undergraduate students of the last term of Physics and Biological Science Education was carried out. Students were asked to choose and describe a learning situation that involved a meaningful learning, which remained well known and characterized along their lives. The answers showed that the learning that they considered meaningful (that the so considered meaningful learning was not only cognitive learning, but also attitude and skill learning, and they were basically characterized by involving active participation of each student. Meaningful learning happened at different daily time and situations, and mostly outside classes. On a second moment, when asked about these results, the students answered that to some extent teaching has been inadequate, but there are frequent and strong reasons related with the importance of a real and active participation in terms of experiencing, feeling, interacting, applying, practicing, and doing. They also mentioned their pleasure, interest, stimulation (excitement, and enjoyment in having activities outside classes as reasons for happening meaningful learning. These are ideas about meaningful learning brought by students that may be similar or not to the ones of psychologists and professors.
Esra Birkan Baydan
Full Text Available This paper intends to explore challenges in translating terms and concepts of the social sciences within the frame of scholarly texts of translation studies translated into Turkish. Conceptual problems in the translation of scholarly texts in translation studies arise both from the “interdisciplinary” and “independent” nature of the field. Given the interdisciplinary nature of translation studies, key concepts of the influential movements of thought from adjacent fields pose challenges for the translator. Furthermore, terms which specifically belong to the field of translation studies require the translator to be familiar with the literature of the field in both source and target languages. Immanuel Wallerstein’s suggestions for translating concepts of the social sciences are evaluated within this context with certain reservations. The translator of the scholarly texts of translation studies encounters challenges both with regard to “commonly shared” and “specific” concepts. Already existent Turkish translations of “common” concepts shared with the other disciplines are often diverse and varied, while some of the “specific” concepts of the field have not yet been translated. Both instances bring to the fore the translator’s agency as the decision-maker who makes informed decisions among various alternatives. Examples[i] of two Derridean concepts and two terms specific to the field of translation studies are provided to illustrate the problem-solving and decision-making process of the translator.Keywords: Concept translation, Derridaen concepts, common concepts, specific concepts, translator’s agency[i] Examples are selected from my unpublished translations (completed for MA and PhD projects of Arrojo (1995, Arrojo (1998 and Hermans (2007.
Translational bioinformatics plays an indispensable role in transforming psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) into personalized medicine. It provides a powerful method to bridge the gaps between various knowledge domains in PNI and systems biology. Translational bioinformatics methods at various systems levels can facilitate pattern recognition, and expedite and validate the discovery of systemic biomarkers to allow their incorporation into clinical trials and outcome assessments. Analysis of the correlations between genotypes and phenotypes including the behavioral-based profiles will contribute to the transition from the disease-based medicine to human-centered medicine. Translational bioinformatics would also enable the establishment of predictive models for patient responses to diseases, vaccines, and drugs. In PNI research, the development of systems biology models such as those of the neurons would play a critical role. Methods based on data integration, data mining, and knowledge representation are essential elements in building health information systems such as electronic health records and computerized decision support systems. Data integration of genes, pathophysiology, and behaviors are needed for a broad range of PNI studies. Knowledge discovery approaches such as network-based systems biology methods are valuable in studying the cross-talks among pathways in various brain regions involved in disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.
<正>Translation is not easy and poetry translation is troublesome,while meter poetry translation is the most difficult. This paper will focus on the meter in translating English poetry into Chinese. From the review of translation history to
Thinking Translation is a comprehensive and revolutionary 20-week course in translation method. It has been fully and successfully piloted at the University of St. Andrews. The course offers a challenging and entertaining approach to the acquisition of translation skills.Translation is presented as a problem-solving discipline. Discussion, examples and a full range of exercise work allows students to acquire the skills necessary for a broad range of translation problems.Thinking Translation draws on a wide range of material from technical texts to poetry and song.
In ancient Chinese thoughts,de is a comparatively complicated idea.Most of the researchers translated it directly into,"virtue",but this translation is not accurate for our understanding of the idea of "de" in pre-Qin times.Generally speaking,in Pre-Qin times,the idea of "de" underwent three developmental periods.The first is the de of Heaven,the de of ancestors;the second the de of system;and the third the de of spirit and moral conducts.In a long period of history,the idea of "de" never cast off the influence of tian Dao (the way of Heaven).It was in Western Zhou Dynasty that the idea of "de" shook off the dense fog of the mandate of Heaven.However,it was the thinkers in Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States who made contributions to bring it deep into people's mind.The ancient Chinese thoughts were mainly concerned with people's recognition and development of their own abilities,with people's seeking harmony and balance between human-beings and nature,and with people's seeking harmonious and balanced human relations.The development of the idea of "de" played a very important role in this context.
Ray, Madhury; Farma, Jeffrey M; Hsu, Cary
Recent breakthroughs in the fundamental understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of melanoma have culminated in new therapies with unquestionable efficacy. Immunotherapy and targeted therapy strategies have completely transformed the contemporary management of advanced melanoma. The translational research behind these developments is discussed, with an emphasis on immune checkpoint blockade and inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.
Askehave, Inger; Zethsen, Karen Korning
This article deals with an aspect of patient information that differs somewhat from the traditional scope of this journal; namely the linguistic and translational aspects of Patient Information Leaflets (PILs). During the past decade much work has been dedicated to making the English PILs as info...
Jong, de Franciska; Appelo, Lisette
This paper is meant to give some insight into the interaction between on the one hand theoretical concepts in the field of formal semantics, and on the other hand linguistic research directed towards an application, more specifically, the research in the machine translation project Rosetta. The cent
Bordag, Denisa; Pechmann, Thomas
In three experiments native speakers of Czech translated bare nouns and gender-marked adjective + noun phrases into German, their second language (L2). In Experiments 1-3 we explored the so-called gender interference effect from first language (L1) as observed in previous picture naming studies (naming latencies were longer when the L1 noun and…
Salehin, Mohammad; Estelle, Mark
Ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. In the presence of ethylene, the C terminus of EIN2 (EIN2C) translocates into the nucleus and activates transcription. Li et al. and Merchante et al. show that EIN2C also regulates translation through an interaction with the 3' UTRs of transcripts. PMID:26496600
In his book "Physical Education Futures" (Routledge, London) David Kirk (2010) introduces the notion of the idea of the idea of physical education, which challenges all physical educators to think more deeply and broadly about physical education as a school subject. The notion of the idea of the idea enables a "big picture" conceptualisation of…
Rietzschel, Eric F.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; Stroebe, W.
It is commonly assumed that successful innovation depends on creative idea generation: the more ideas are generated, the higher the probability of selecting a very good idea should be. However, research has shown that people do not perform optimally at idea selection and that ideational output may n
The application of mathematics and computer science to biology is changing the nature of research. Philip Hunter explores the cross-fertilization of ideas between the disciplines and how it creates new job opportunities for biologists and mathematicians
Hao, Ning; Ku, Yixuan; Liu, Meigui; Hu, Yi; Bodner, Mark; Grabner, Roland H; Fink, Andreas
The present study aimed to explore the neural correlates underlying the effects of idea evaluation on idea generation in creative thinking. Participants were required to generate original uses of conventional objects (alternative uses task) during EEG recording. A reflection task (mentally evaluating the generated ideas) or a distraction task (object characteristics task) was inserted into the course of idea generation. Behavioral results revealed that participants generated ideas with higher originality after evaluating the generated ideas than after performing the distraction task. The EEG results revealed that idea evaluation was accompanied with upper alpha (10-13 Hz) synchronization, most prominent at frontal cortical sites. Moreover, upper alpha activity in frontal cortices during idea generation was enhanced after idea evaluation. These findings indicate that idea evaluation may elicit a state of heightened internal attention or top-down activity that facilitates efficient retrieval and integration of internal memory representations.
Hao, Ning; Ku, Yixuan; Liu, Meigui; Hu, Yi; Bodner, Mark; Grabner, Roland H; Fink, Andreas
The present study aimed to explore the neural correlates underlying the effects of idea evaluation on idea generation in creative thinking. Participants were required to generate original uses of conventional objects (alternative uses task) during EEG recording. A reflection task (mentally evaluating the generated ideas) or a distraction task (object characteristics task) was inserted into the course of idea generation. Behavioral results revealed that participants generated ideas with higher originality after evaluating the generated ideas than after performing the distraction task. The EEG results revealed that idea evaluation was accompanied with upper alpha (10-13 Hz) synchronization, most prominent at frontal cortical sites. Moreover, upper alpha activity in frontal cortices during idea generation was enhanced after idea evaluation. These findings indicate that idea evaluation may elicit a state of heightened internal attention or top-down activity that facilitates efficient retrieval and integration of internal memory representations. PMID:26808451
Full Text Available Contemporary biological cells are highly sophisticated dynamic compartment systems which separate an internal volume from the external medium through a boundary, which controls, in complex ways, the exchange of matter and energy between the cell’s interior and the environment. Since such compartmentalization is a fundamental principle of all forms of life, scenarios have been elaborated about the emergence of prebiological compartments on early Earth, in particular about their likely structural characteristics and dynamic features. Chemical systems that consist of potentially prebiological compartments and chemical reaction networks have been designed to model pre-cellular systems. These systems are often referred to as “protocells”. Past and current protocell model systems are presented and compared. Since the prebiotic formation of cell-like compartments is directly linked to the prebiotic availability of compartment building blocks, a few aspects on the likely chemical inventory on the early Earth are also summarized.
Lucia V Aranda
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2009v1n23p23This paper explores the creative constructs utilized by translators in the reformulation of texts. As translation studies realigns the definition of translation vis-à-vis the original, a number of factors inform translations: the agency and subjectivity of the translator, as well as questions of form, and the more obvious social factors. This discussion addresses the articulation of creativity as a response to specific cases and repositions translation as part of a greater creative project.
A representation schema called translation corresponding tree (TCT) has been applied to a Portuguese to Chinese example-based machine translation system. The translation examples are annotated by the representation of the TCT structure. Each TCT describes not only the syntactic structure of the source sentence (i.e., Portuguese in our system) but also the translation correspondences (i.e., Chinese translation). In addition, the TCT nodes describe the corresponding linguistic relationships between the source and target languages. The translation examples can be effectively represented with this annotation schema and organized in the bilingual knowledge database or example base. In the real machine translation process, the target language is synthesized with higher quality by referring to the TCT translation information.
After the reform and opening up to the outside world, great changes have taken place in many fields like economy, poli-tics, and culture in China. In the field of economy, a multitude of new phenomena, new ideas and new things spring up continu-ously. At the same time, many Chinese characteristic terms reflecting these new things have been emerging. The creation of these terms requires the translators to provide accurate and idiomatic translation of them in time. The English translation of Chi-nese characteristic terms plays an important role not only in promoting Chinese characteristic socialist economy but also in deep-ening the understanding of Chinese economy for English readers. Therefore, this paper will analyze the features and translation obstacles of Chinese characteristic terms, then point out some practical guidelines and methods to solve the problems in translat-ing Chinese characteristic terms into English. This paper aims to improve the translation of Chinese Characteristic terms.
This paper demonstrates the role of cultural schemata in the proce ss of dealing with cultural vacancy in translation,and then,it points out the criterion for the translation of cultural vacancy is to see whether the correspo nding cultural schema is fully transformed. On the basis of the ideas discussed,the paper proposed six translating methods to deal with cultural vacancy in tra nslation: transliteration,literal translation or transliteration with notes,li teral translation or transliteration plus proper explanation,compensation,borr owing and free translation. It is proposed that all this translating methods sho uld proceed from the perspective of cultural schemata so as to excavate the cult ural meaning from a deeper level
Most translation theorists today would like to see translation studies firmly established as an independent discipline which, although it draws on insights from other disciplines, should be subsumed under none, (Hatim and Mason, 1990; Snell-Hornby, 1988; Bassnett-McGuire, 1980). The discipline which the majority translation theorists draw on most heavily is linguistics — indeed many books on translation theory and/or practice take the form of expositions of their authors' favourite linguistic...
Metaphor is one of the most poetic forms of language.It is widely used in daily life and good translation of it is of great significance.In spite of the cultural and lingual hindrance,to some extent,good translation of metaphors can be achieved because of the similarities between two cultures and the overlaps of two languages.This paper explores translatability of metaphores from cultural and linguistic perspectives as well as specific techniques in terms of metaphor translation.
Carter, D; Rayner, M; Eklund, R; MacDermid, C; Wiren, M; Kirchmeier-Andersen, S; Philp, C; Carter, David; Becket, Ralph; Rayner, Manny; Dermid, Catriona Mac; Wiren, Mats; Philp, Christina
In this paper we describe how the translation methodology adopted for the Spoken Language Translator (SLT) addresses the characteristics of the speech translation task in a context where it is essential to achieve easy customization to new languages and new domains. We then discuss the issues that arise in any attempt to evaluate a speech translator, and present the results of such an evaluation carried out on SLT for several language pairs.
This paper focuses on the historic development of the stylistic study of translator in light of western translation theory,and analyzes its features on each phase and current emphasis of research,by which knowledge of the development of western theory and translators' style can be shown.After that,we can research its problems existing in the stylistic study of translator based on western theory so than we can provide a panoramic analysis in thisfield.
Full Text Available «The Translation Journal» is the oldest continuously published translation-oriented on-line journal in the U.S. Appearing on a quarterly basis, each issue contains 10 - 15 feature articles on different aspects of translation. The TJ is fully searchable by author or keyword. Its companion publication, the «Translation Journal Blog», launched in 2004, deals with topical issues of the translation industry. ------------------------------------------- «Translation Journal» y «Translation Journal Blog»: una publicación en línea para traductores, hecha por traductores y sobre traductores y traducción. «Translation Journal» es la más antigue de las revistas electrónicas sobre traducción publicadas ininterrumpidamente en los Estados Unidos. Cada número, de periodicidad trimestral, contiene entre diez y quince artículos sobre diversos aspectos de la traducción. La revista permite las búsquedas por autores o palabras clave. Su publicación hermana, la bitácora «Translation Journal Blog», nacida en 2004, aborda temas relacionados con el sector de la traducción.
Carstensen, Martin B.; Schmidt, Vivien A.
(whether individual or collective) to influence other actors’ normative and cognitive beliefs through the use of ideational elements, and – based on insights from the discursive institutionalist literature – suggests three different types of ideational power: power through ideas, understood as the capacity......Owing to the tendency of discursive institutionalists to conflate the notion that ‘ideas matter' for policy-making with the ‘power of ideas’, little has been done to explicitly theorize ideational power. To fill this lacuna, the contribution defines ideational power as the capacity of actors...... of actors to persuade other actors to accept and adopt their views through the use of ideational elements; power over ideas, meaning the imposition of ideas and the power to resist the inclusion of alternative ideas into the policy-making arena; and power in ideas, which takes place through the establishing...
Mason, Teresa Crowe
This article has four major sections: (a) general issues of assessment; (b) assessment of ethnic-group members, including those who are deaf; (c) translation of assessment tools, emphasizing translation into American Sign Language (ASL); and (d) statistical applications for translated instruments. The purpose of the article is to provide insight…
Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Stiff, Lee V.; Bosse, Michael J.
Translation errors and conceptual misunderstandings made by students translating among graphical, tabular, and symbolic representations of linear functions were examined. The study situated student errors in the context of the "Translation-Verification Model" developed specifically for the purpose of explaining student behavior during the process…
Carreres, Angeles; Noriega-Sanchez, Maria
The past three decades have seen vast changes in attitudes towards translation, both as an academic discipline and as a profession. The insights we have gained in recent years, in particular in the area of professional translator training, call for a reassessment of the role of translation in language teaching. Drawing on research and practices in…
Duncan, Jennings Ligon
This thesis argues that the covenant idea was more significant in the writings of particular ante-Nicene theologians than has generally been admitted in patristic research or general surveys of the history of the covenant idea in the Christian tradition. Indeed, this survey of the covenant idea in the ante-Nicene period demonstrates a significant usage, development, and modification of the covenant concept as it is found in the OT and NT writings and in early Judaism. This investigation revea...
Gibbs, Michael; Neckermann, Susanne; Siemroth, Christoph
markdownabstract__Abstract__ We study the effects of a field experiment designed to motivate employee ideas, at a large technology company. Employees were encouraged to submit ideas on process and product improvements via an online system. In the experiment, the company randomized 19 account teams into treatment and control groups. Employees in treatment teams received rewards if their ideas were approved. Nothing changed for employees in control teams. Our main finding is that rewards substa...
Miller, P E
Tips and case histories on computer use for idea and outline processing: Productivity software to solve problems of idea hierarchy, transitions, and developments is matched to solutions for communicators. One case is text that ranges from methods and procedures to histories and legal definitions of classification for the US Department of Energy. Applications of value to writers, editors, and managers are for research; calendars; creativity; prioritization; idea discovery and manipulation; file and time management; and contents, indexes, and glossaries. 6 refs., 7 figs.
Most people don't think about numbers, or take them for granted. For the average person numbers are looked upon as cold, clinical, inanimate objects. Math ideas are viewed as something to get a job done or a problem solved. Get ready for a big surprise with Numbers and Other Math Ideas Come Alive. Pappas explores mathematical ideas by looking behind the scenes of what numbers, points, lines, and other concepts are saying and thinking. In each story, properties and characteristics of math ideas are entertainingly uncovered and explained through the dialogues and actions of its math
This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index
Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.
This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.
Scheuer, John Damm
This paper takes it point of departure in actor-network-theory (ANT). It responds to the Next Management Theory tracks call for papers that address and further develops our understanding of organizational change as translation processes. It moreover addresses a critique of ANT researchers...... in organizational studies for making descriptions of studied empirical phenomena rather than developing theories and giving normative advice about how organizations or organizational change processes may be theorized, analyzed, managed and/or organized better. A new ANT-inspired theory about the characteristics...... of organizations, organizational change and change agents is therefore developed combining ANT with other theories. The relevance of this view is demonstrated in an analysis of a case where a nurse and the leader of a clinic for orthopedic surgery try to translate and thus implement a risk-management and deviation...
Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Christensen, Tina Paulsen
It is no exaggeration to say that the advent of translation-memory (TM) systems in the translation profession has led to drastic changes in translators' processes and workflow, and yet, though many professional translators nowadays depend on some form of TM system, this has not been the object...... of much research. Our paper attempts to find out what we know about the nature, applications and influences of TM technology, including translators' interaction with TMs, and also how we know it. An essential part of the analysis is based on a selection of empirical TM studies, which we assume...... to be representative of the research field as a whole. Our analysis suggests that, while considerable knowledge is available about the technical side of TMs, more research is needed to understand how translators interact with TM technology and how TMs influence translators' cognitive translation processes....
Traditional issues of hermeneutics on language, comprehension and interpretation are retaken here in their relation to translation studies, under the less common philosophical perspective of the late Wittgenstein, taking into account also some aspects of linguistic pragmatics. Main target is a prophylaxis of the dogmatism that emerges when properties of the theoretical model are projected into the object under examination. Two kinds of necessity are to be distinguished: on one hand, a necessi...
Pitts, E. R.
Program converts cell-net data into logic-gate models for use in test and simulation programs. Input consists of either Place, Route, and Fold (PRF) or Place-and-Route-in-Two-Dimensions (PR2D) layout data deck. Output consists of either Test Pattern Generator (TPG) or Logic-Simulation (LOGSIM) logic circuitry data deck. Designer needs to build only logic-gate-model circuit description since program acts as translator. Language is FORTRAN IV.
Full Text Available This paper describes some biologically-inspired processes that could be used to build the sort of networks that we associate with the human brain. New to this paper, a ‘refined’ neuron will be proposed. This is a group of neurons that by joining together can produce a more analogue system, but with the same level of control and reliability that a binary neuron would have. With this new structure, it will be possible to think of an essentially binary system in terms of a more variable set of values. The paper also shows how recent research can be combined with established theories, to produce a more complete picture.The propositions are largely in line with conventional thinking, but possibly with one or two more radical suggestions. An earlier cognitive model can be filled in with more specific details, based on the new research results, where the components appear to fit together almost seamlessly. The intention of the research has been to describe plausible ‘mechanical’ processes that can produce the appropriate brain structures and mechanisms, but that could be used without the magical ‘intelligence’ part that is still not fully understood.There are also some important updates from an earlier version of this paper.Keywords: neuron, neural network, cognitive model, self-organise, analogue, resonance.
Full Text Available The considerations which will be made in this paper can be located within the newly established field of translation process analysis (cf. Gerloff 1988; Jääskeläinen 1990; Krings 1986; Lörscher 1991; Séguinot 1989; Tirkkonen-Condit 1991. They are based on a research project which I have been carrying out since 1983. The aim of this project is to analyze psycholinguistically translation performance as contained in a corpus of orally produced translations from German into English and vice versa. This is done in order to reconstruct translation strategies. These underlie translation performance, operate within the translation process, and are thus not open to direct inspection. In the first stage of the project, translation processes of advanced foreign language learners were investigated. The results yielded are contained in my monograph Translation Performance, Translation Process, and Translation Strategies. A sycholinguistic Investigation. Tübingen 1991. The second stage of the project, in which professional translators’ and, later on, bilingual children’s translation processes are analyzed, is in progress (Lörscher in preparation. The considerations which will be made in this paper can be located within the newly established field of translation process analysis (cf. Gerloff 1988; Jääskeläinen 1990; Krings 1986; Lörscher 1991; Séguinot 1989; Tirkkonen-Condit 1991. They are based on a research project which I have been carrying out since 1983. The aim of this project is to analyze psycholinguistically translation performance as contained in a corpus of orally produced translations from German into English and vice versa. This is done in order to reconstruct translation strategies. These underlie translation performance, operate within the translation process, and are thus not open to direct inspection. In the first stage of the project, translation processes of advanced foreign language learners were investigated. The
Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.
Laura Rebeca PRECUP STIEGELBAUER
Full Text Available Cultural diversity has emerged as a key concern in recent years, however the implications to this term are very different. A number of people see cultural diversity as fundamentally important and positive, as it points to a sharing of the wealth embodied in each of the world’s cultures and, accordingly, to the links tying us all in processes of exchange and dialogue via translation. On the other hand, for many others, cultural differences are what cause us to lose sight of our shared humanity and as a result are the root of numerous conflicts, since we can get lost in translation. This second finding is today all the more plausible since globalisation has increased the points of interaction and friction between cultures, giving rise to identity-linked tensions, withdrawals and claims, particularly of each one and other, which can become potential sources of dispute. The essential challenge, therefore, would be to propose a coherent vision of cultural diversity, languages and translations and thereby to clarify how, far from being a threat, it can become beneficial to the action of the international community.
Full Text Available Rubens Camargo Siqueira1,2, Rodrigo Jorge21Rubens Siqueira Research Center, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Retina and Vitreous Section, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Clinical laboratories are strong, integral partners in personalized health care. Laboratory databases hold a vast amount of data on human phenotypes, genotypes, biomarkers, progression of disease, and response to therapy. These structured and unstructured free text data are critical for patient care and a resource for personalized medicine and translational research. Laboratory data are integrated into many electronic medical records that provide “summary reports” and “trending” to visualize longitudinal patient data. Recent advances in ophthalmology such as gene therapy, cell therapy using stem cells, and also retinal prosthesis explore the potential of translational research marking a new era in research into the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases.Keywords: translational, retinal diseases, stem cell, gene therapy
There are six translation tactics in translating English idioms into Chinese: literal translation, compensatory translation, free translation, explanational translation, borrowing, integrated approach. Each tactic should be reasonably employed in the process of translating, so as to keep the flavor of the original English idioms as well as to…
Mir Mohammad Khadem-Nabi; Elaheh Gharesoufloo
Translation Studies has moved from linguistically oriented approaches to a historicist one. This is evident in many recent publications, and has brought about new trends in Translation Studies as well as in Cultural Studies. This paper is an attempt at summarizing the influence of the historicist approaches on translation. Of specific importance for this paper is New Historicism, which has poststructuralist tendencies. Keywords: New Historicism, translation studies, cultural studies
Mir Mohammad Khadem-Nabi
Full Text Available Translation Studies has moved from linguistically oriented approaches to a historicist one. This is evident in many recent publications, and has brought about new trends in Translation Studies as well as in Cultural Studies. This paper is an attempt at summarizing the influence of the historicist approaches on translation. Of specific importance for this paper is New Historicism, which has poststructuralist tendencies. Keywords: New Historicism, translation studies, cultural studies
张金超; 胡毅; 余四旺; 高愈希; 张海松
Translational medicine is an emerging concept in the fields of biomedical research and healthcare since twenty-first century.It is a two-way process from the basic research to clinical application with direct feedbacks in between.It is not a new subject,but emphasizes a concept.It stems from an unmet need in clinical medicine.At present,translational medical research is mainly involved in the following areas:cancer,cardiovascular diseases,metabolic disorders,psychiatric disorders,diseases of the locomotor system,genetic diseases,organ transplantation,tissue engineering,disease diagnosis,drug research and development,personalized therapy,stem cell research,animal model studies and immunology etc.This article reviews the bioinorganic chemistry problems involved in the disease diagnosis,tissue engineering,individual therapy,drug research and development and disease mechanisms.Finally,the development of this new area and important issues to be studied are outlooked.%转化医学是进入21世纪以来国际生物医学及健康领域出现的新概念.它是基础研究到临床应用的双向过程,是临床实践与基础研究之间的循环式的研究体系,它不是一门新的学科,只是强调一种理念,是特定时代背景的产物.目前,转化医学研究主要涉及以下领域:肿瘤、心脑血管疾病、代谢疾病、精神疾病、运动系统疾病、遗传病、器官移植、组织工程、疾病诊断、药物研发、个体化治疗、干细胞研究、动物模型研究以及免疫学等.本文综述了在疾病诊断、组织工程领域、个体化治疗、新药研发以及发病机制中涉及到的生物无机化学问题.最后,展望了该新领域今后的发展方向和亟待研究的重要问题.
Translation (or MAHT). The strengths and weaknesses of the different types of tools are discussed and evaluated by means of a number of examples. The article aims at two things: at presenting a sort of state of the art of what is commonly referred to as “machine translation” as well as at providing the reader......In this article three of the more common types of translation tools are presented, discussed and critically evaluated. The types of translation tools dealt with in this article are: Fully Automated Machine Translation (or FAMT), Human Aided Machine Translation (or HAMT) and Machine Aided Human...
This paper attempts to provide a preliminary study of adaptation adopted in the translation of tourist publicity and ex-plore the main reasons behind the adaptive techniques on the basis of functionalist theories of translation. It is found that cultural blanks, different linguistic conventions and also the intended functions of tourist publicity may all contribute to adaptation in translation.
Lefevere's rewriting theory states that translation is a rewriting of the original text,all rewritings reflect a certain ideology and a poetics and as such manipulate literature to function in a given society.Based on this theory,some translation examples are illustrated and analyzed here to show that political and aesthetic ideology will inevitably manipulate translation in different aspects.
Noujaim, J; Payne, L S; Judson, I; Jones, R L; Huang, P H
Phosphoproteomics has been extensively used as a preclinical research tool to characterize the phosphorylated components of the cancer proteome. Advances in the field have yielded insights into new drug targets, mechanisms of disease progression and drug resistance, and biomarker discovery. However, application of this technology to clinical research has been challenging because of practical issues relating to specimen integrity and tumour heterogeneity. Beyond these limitations, phosphoproteomics has the potential to play a pivotal role in translational studies and contribute to advances in different tumour groups, including rare disease sites like sarcoma. In this review, we propose that deploying phosphoproteomic technologies in translational research may facilitate the identification of better defined predictive biomarkers for patient stratification, inform drug selection in umbrella trials and identify new combinations to overcome drug resistance. We provide an overview of current phosphoproteomic technologies, such as affinity-based assays and mass spectrometry-based approaches, and discuss their advantages and limitations. We use sarcoma as an example to illustrate the current challenges in evaluating targeted kinase therapies in clinical trials. We then highlight useful lessons from preclinical studies in sarcoma biology to demonstrate how phosphoproteomics may address some of these challenges. Finally, we conclude by offering a perspective and list the key measures required to translate and benchmark a largely preclinical technology into a useful tool for translational research. PMID:26802162
Chii, the Japanese term for 'lichen', is widely used in contemporary East Asia. However, precisely when and by whom this term was first used to refer to lichen is not known. In addition, Japanese botanists from the 1880s to the 1950s had doubts regarding whether Chii was an accurate translation of lichen, given that Chii originally referred to moss that grows on the ground, whereas most species of lichens grow on barks of trees or on rocks. In this paper, the author shows that Li Shanlan and A. Williamson et al., in the late Qing dynasty of China, first used the term Chii to refer to lichen in Zhiwuxue, published in 1858. In Japan, Tanaka Yoshio, who was influenced by Zhiwuxue, first used the term Chii in 1872. However, further investigations led to the discovery that ITO Keisuke translated lichen as Risen in 1829. In 1836, UDAGAWA Yoan also translated lichen as Risen by using a different kanji (Chinese character) to represent sen. In 1888, in his article, MIYOSHI Manabu suggested a new equivalent term, Kisoukin, to refer to lichen (algae-parasitized fungi). In the article, he proposed the term Kyosei as the Japanese translation of symbiosis. Ever since the late 1880s, Kyosei has been used as the Japanese biological term for symbiosis. PMID:19824315
Climate change has emerged as the significant environmental challenge of the 21st century. Therefore, understanding our changing world has forced researchers from many different fields of science to join together to tackle complicated research questions. The climate change resear...
Traditional studies on translation have generally been source-oriented. Since 1980s, translation theorists shifted their eyes on new areas, such as culture, history, and ideology. Andre Lefevere puts forward the theory of rewriting, including such three important factors as ideology, poetics and patronage. This paper focuses on the study of manipulation of ideology over trans-lation of In Liu Village by a famous writer-cum-translator Yu Lihua. Based on the data collected, the present paper argues that during the process of translation, ideology exerts constraints on the translator and influences her in such aspects as the choice of texts, the process of decoding and the choice of translation strategy.
The following pages contain a list of project ideas proposed by the scientific staff at the department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, and a number of companies. Most of the project ideas in this catalouge may form the basis for long and short candidate projects as well as regular 3rd s...
Lang, Matthew C.
The increasing use of social network websites may signal a change in the way the next generation of entrepreneurs identify entrepreneurial ideas. An important part of the entrepreneurship literature emphasizes how vital the use of social networks is to entrepreneurial idea identification, opportunity recognition, and ultimately new venture…
D. Deichmann (Dirk)
textabstractFor organisations to sustain success in their markets, and in order to survive, they need to utilise their workforce as effectively as possible. By stimulating and implementing employees’ ideas for improvement and innovation, idea management encourages people to participate in the organi
While "thinking outside the box" can be an over-used phase at times, in the world of grants it can provide the genesis of ideas. The "box" is the world of academia accepted by most educators, while "thinking outside" is the process that leads to grant ideas. In the grant world, "thinking outside the box" is a process of doing something that has…
Hispanic Heritage Month, celebrated September 15th through October 15th, is a great opportunity to kick off a whole year of cultural discovery. This article presents 25 great ideas for Hispanic heritage. These 25 fresh ideas--from Aztec math to Carnaval masks--are easy to put together, and they offer students the chance to celebrate their own…
Franke, Megan L.; Turrou, Angela C.; Webb, Noreen M.; Ing, Marsha; Wong, Jacqueline; Shin, Nami; Fernandez, Cecilia
Educators, researchers, and policy makers increasingly recognize that participation in classroom mathematics discussions, especially engaging with others' ideas, can promote students' mathematics understanding. How teachers can promote students' high-level engagement with others' ideas, and the challenges teachers face when trying to do so, have…
M. Gibbs (Michael); S. Neckermann (Susanne); C. Siemroth (Christoph)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ We study the effects of a field experiment designed to motivate employee ideas, at a large technology company. Employees were encouraged to submit ideas on process and product improvements via an online system. In the experiment, the company randomized 19 account teams
Campbell, John L.; Pedersen, Ove K.
In this article John Campbell and Ove Pedersen argue that the way policy ideas are generated by knowledge regimes varies considerably across countries; and the effect on national politics is significant. The article is adapted from The National Origins of Policy Ideas: Knowledge Regimes...
Fahrlander, Daniel C.
Presents a flow chart for turning good ideas into complete proposals before proposing them. The process involves clarifying the idea and assessing its current practicality, value for the program, compatibility with policy, implications, costs, funding sources, and implementation time requirements. (PGD)
This position paper outlines four types of design idea indicators that provide four starting points for exploration of the emergence of design ideas from a micro perspective. The results are derived from two empirical studies of design processes. The research builds on the assumption that we need...
Kilinc, Ahmet; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward
A questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas about global warming in Year 10 (age 15-16 years) school students in Turkey. The frequencies of individual scientific ideas and misconceptions about the causes, consequences and "cures" of global warming were identified. In addition, several general findings emerged from this study.…
@@ CARY, NC April 28, 2010 - The IDEA10 Achievement Awards, which recognize the best new nonwoven and engineered fabric products introduced in the past three years, were presented in six different categories during a special ceremony on the second day of IDEA10 International Engineered Fabrics Conference and Exposition, April 28, 2010, in Miami Beach, Florida.
Palumbo, Anthony; Sanacore, Joseph
With support, young adolescents crave the challenge of learning about serious ideas through serious literature. Middle-level learners also enjoy opportunities to become immersed in activities that foster a deeper understanding of serious ideas. After discussing the value of using serious narrative literature, a rationale is provided for supporting…
-terms and the relations between these terms, a set of design principles, and a model of the elements of a product idea. Thus, the result of our research work shall not be seen as a trial to develop new theory regarding the product idea as such, but must be seen as a step towards consolidation and clarification...
Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup
-terms and the relations between these terms, a set of design principles, and a model of the elements of a product idea. Thus, the result of our research work shall not be seen as a trial to develop new theory regarding the product idea as such, but must be seen as a step towards consolidation and clarification...
Cătălin George ALEXE
Full Text Available The employees of a company often want to make themselves useful and to make life easier at work by providing potentially useful ideas, aimed at eliminating problems or to exploit the opportunities. Without the ability to obtain new ideas, an organization stagnates, declines and eventually is eliminated by the competitors who have new ideas. To materialize the idea into an innovative product, it is desirable that it corresponds to the company's goals to be achieved with the existing technology and resources in order to reduce the investments. Thus, it appeared the need for an idea management to bring order in the set of ideas and to create a transparent and effective mode in attracting and management of these ideas. This paper proposes, starting from a number of scientific approaches in the literature, to address to the idea management as a complex model and to identify which are those dedicated IT solutions that could help going over various phases and sub-phases of such a complex model, particularly useful for the management of a company.
Smith Richard D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete and accurate genome annotation is crucial for comprehensive and systematic studies of biological systems. However, determining protein-coding genes for most new genomes is almost completely performed by inference using computational predictions with significant documented error rates (> 15%. Furthermore, gene prediction programs provide no information on biologically important post-translational processing events critical for protein function. Results We experimentally annotated the bacterial pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium 14028, using "shotgun" proteomics to accurately uncover the translational landscape and post-translational features. The data provide protein-level experimental validation for approximately half of the predicted protein-coding genes in Salmonella and suggest revisions to several genes that appear to have incorrectly assigned translational start sites, including a potential novel alternate start codon. Additionally, we uncovered 12 non-annotated genes missed by gene prediction programs, as well as evidence suggesting a role for one of these novel ORFs in Salmonella pathogenesis. We also characterized post-translational features in the Salmonella genome, including chemical modifications and proteolytic cleavages. We find that bacteria have a much larger and more complex repertoire of chemical modifications than previously thought including several novel modifications. Our in vivo proteolysis data identified more than 130 signal peptide and N-terminal methionine cleavage events critical for protein function. Conclusion This work highlights several ways in which application of proteomics data can improve the quality of genome annotations to facilitate novel biological insights and provides a comprehensive proteome map of Salmonella as a resource for systems analysis.
Zapata Campos, Maria José; Zapata, Patrik
. These projects supported or created cooperatives or microenterprises of waste pickers collecting household solid waste in barrios inaccessible to modern waste trucks. The projects also created three waste transfer stations, on barrio fringes, where the collected waste could be disposed and transported...... by municipal truck to the municipal landfill. New institutionalism theory and the “travel metaphor” illuminate how the “waste transfer station” idea travelled to Managua from various international organizations. New urban infrastructure and waste management models introduced by donors were decoupled from....... The introduced waste transfer stations and associated waste collection practices were translated, and sometimes contested, in some informal settlements through protests, occupations, and other defiance strategies enacted by municipal waste collectors, squatters, and residents....
Full Text Available Over the past decades, Iran has had such a sharp increase in science production that it was placed among the 31 countries of the world that published the so-called "top 1% most cited publications" (1. I believe such a surge in science production by Iran has several reasons including allocation of a larger budget to the scientific research sector, increased number of graduates and assistant professors over the recent years, and the requirement for junior professors and postgraduate students to publish scientific articles in recognized journals to obtain academic career promotion, and to graduate, respectively (2.Expectedly, as scientific research and pressure over researchers increase, science misconduct also comes to the surface (3. "Plagiarism" as one of the most frequent science misconducts observed in daily practice of an Editor, means "to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another as one's own" (4 and is strongly condemned universally by scientific community (5. However, there is yet no consensus as to how many words or statements or what portion of a Table or Figure from another work would be re-used to be referred to as plagiarism. The situation becomes a little bit more perplexing with "self-plagiarism;" using portions of our own published articles, as this often violates the copyright that has been assigned to the publisher (6. There are not so many ways to present the same thing in several occasions. This is particularly true for some methodologies used in science research. Therefore, it is not surprising that self-plagiarism is widespread particularly among prolific authors and sometimes unintentional. And, that is why many authorities do not treat self-plagiarism in the same light as plagiarism (6.My experience with editing of hundreds of manuscripts has led me to believe that many researchers, at least in Iran, plagiarize because they simply do not know that it is an illegitimate act. Sometimes a non-native English speaking
St Johnston, Daniel
Since its heyday in the 1980s and 90s, the field of developmental biology has gone into decline; in part because it has been eclipsed by the rise of genomics and stem cell biology, and in part because it has seemed less pertinent in an era with so much focus on translational impact. In this essay, I argue that recent progress in genome-wide analyses and stem cell research, coupled with technological advances in imaging and genome editing, have created the conditions for the renaissance of a new wave of developmental biology with greater translational relevance.
Balling, Laura Winther
Translation process research or TPR, the study of the cognitive processes involved in translation, is a relatively new field characterised by small-scale studies with few participants and variables. However, the translation process is characterised by much variation between different translators......, texts, tasks and languages, and larger-scale investigations are therefore highly desirable. To that end, we have publicly released the CRITT TPR database which currently contains data from 845 translation sessions but is continually extended. The database includes information about the source and target...
Sociologists have increasingly come to recognize that the discipline has unduly privileged textual representations, but efforts to incorporate visual and other media are still only in their beginning. This paper develops an analysis of the ways objects of knowledge are translated into other media, in order to understand the visual practices of sociology and to point out unused possibilities. I argue that the discourse on visual sociology, by assuming that photographs are less objective than text, is based on an asymmetric media-determinism and on a misleading notion of objectivity. Instead, I suggest to analyse media with the concept of translations. I introduce several kinds of translations, most centrally the distinction between tight and loose ones. I show that many sciences, such as biology, focus on tight translations, using a variety of media and manipulating both research objects and representations. Sociology, in contrast, uses both tight and loose translations, but uses the latter only for texts. For visuals, sociology restricts itself to what I call 'the documentary': focusing on mechanical recording technologies without manipulating either the object of research or the representation. I conclude by discussing three rare examples of what is largely excluded in sociology: visual loose translations, visual tight translations based on non-mechanical recording technologies, and visual tight translations based on mechanical recording technologies that include the manipulation of both object and representation.
Full Text Available Translate Shakespeare for the theatre? The question is not purely rhetorical. In his Memoires, Jean Vilar, speaking of his work as an actor, raises the question of whether it is even possible to translate dramatic texts: Macbeth. Whilst learning my part alone at home in the morning, I keep on saying to myself , ‘Never again will I perform translated plays, not even those of Shakespeare.’ Translations either emasculate the original so that the actors may ‘utter’ a French which is straightforward, or at least authentic, or force us to chew up and spit out a stodgy French, weighed down by the burden of the English. My friend Curtis, the translator, can’t help it. Remaining faithful to the original text makes the French prose heavy, but to stray from the original is a crime. So what can we do? (131 This dilemma, so accurately put into words by Vilar, brings us to the question: when translating a Shakespeare play for performance, must we incorporate into our work aims which curtail the usual demands of translation? What is specific about translating for the theatre? Or rather, what demands must a French translation of a dramatic text meet if it is to make performance possible? Translate Shakespeare for the theatre? The question is not purely rhetorical. In his Memoires, Jean Vilar, speaking of his work as an actor, raises the question of whether it is even possible to translate dramatic texts: Macbeth. Whilst learning my part alone at home in the morning, I keep on saying to myself , ‘Never again will I perform translated plays, not even those of Shakespeare.’ Translations either emasculate the original so that the actors may ‘utter’ a French which is straightforward, or at least authentic, or force us to chew up and spit out a stodgy French, weighed down by the burden of the English. My friend Curtis, the translator, can’t help it. Remaining faithful to the original text makes the French prose heavy
Beger, Richard D; Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Yang, Xi; Gill, Pritmohinder S; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Sun, Jinchun; James, Laura P
Acetaminophen (APAP) is a commonly used analgesic drug that can cause liver injury, liver necrosis and liver failure. APAP-induced liver injury is associated with glutathione depletion, the formation of APAP protein adducts, the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and mitochondrial injury. The systems biology omics technologies (transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) have been used to discover potential translational biomarkers of liver injury. The following review provides a summary of the systems biology discovery process, analytical validation of biomarkers and translation of omics biomarkers from the nonclinical to clinical setting in APAP-induced liver injury.
Chiappelli, Francesco; Bakhordarian, Andre; Thames, April D; Du, Angela M; Jan, Allison L; Nahcivan, Melissa; Nguyen, Mia T; Sama, Nateli; Manfrini, Ercolano; Piva, Francesco; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; Maida, Carl A
We are currently in the midst of the most aggressive and fulminating outbreak of Ebola-related disease, commonly referred to as "Ebola", ever recorded. In less than a year, the Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire ebolavirus species) has infected over 10,000 people, indiscriminately of gender or age, with a fatality rate of about 50%. Whereas at its onset this Ebola outbreak was limited to three countries in West Africa (Guinea, where it was first reported in late March 2014, Liberia, where it has been most rampant in its capital city, Monrovia and other metropolitan cities, and Sierra Leone), cases were later reported in Nigeria, Mali and Senegal, as well as in Western Europe (i.e., Madrid, Spain) and the US (i.e., Dallas, Texas; New York City) by late October 2014. World and US health agencies declared that the current Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has a strong likelihood of growing exponentially across the world before an effective vaccine, treatment or cure can be developed, tested, validated and distributed widely. In the meantime, the spread of the disease may rapidly evolve from an epidemics to a full-blown pandemic. The scientific and healthcare communities actively research and define an emerging kaleidoscope of knowledge about critical translational research parameters, including the virology of EBOV, the molecular biomarkers of the pathological manifestations of EVD, putative central nervous system involvement in EVD, and the cellular immune surveillance to EBOV, patient-centered anthropological and societal parameters of EVD, as well as translational effectiveness about novel putative patient-targeted vaccine and pharmaceutical interventions, which hold strong promise, if not hope, to curb this and future Ebola outbreaks. This work reviews and discusses the principal known facts about EBOV and EVD, and certain among the most interesting ongoing or future avenues of research in the field, including vaccination programs for the wild animal vectors of the virus
Melita Koletnik Korošec
Full Text Available During the last decade, translation as well as translator training have experienced a significant change. This change has been significantly influenced by the development of the Internet and the successive availability of web-based translation resources, such as Google Translate. Their introduction into the translation didactic process and training is no longer a matter of a teacher’s personal preference and IT skills, but a necessity imposed by the ever-swifter advancement of technology. This article presents the experimental results of an ongoing broader research study focusing on the modes and frequency of use of the Internet, Google Translate and Google Translator Toolkit among translation students at the undergraduate level. The preliminary results, presented in this article, are based on a questionnaire which was prepared in relation to the use of Google Translate while considering the latest professional findings. The article concludes with the author’s observations as to the applicability of these resources in translator training and the challenges thereof.
Veronika Rot Gabrovec
Full Text Available The article explores various representations of culture(s found in contemporary English children’s literature and discusses how they were rendered into Slovene. In the first part, some introductory definitions of culture and approaches to the translation of children’s literature are presented. In the second part, excerpts from selected literary works (for instance, Mary Poppins, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, Matilda, The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time are examined, both from the source and the target texts, with more attention paid to the cultural contexts, and the social changes that possibly influenced the translator’s decisions.
Wu, Bin; Eliscovich, Carolina; Yoon, Young J; Singer, Robert H
Translation is the fundamental biological process converting mRNA information into proteins. Single-molecule imaging in live cells has illuminated the dynamics of RNA transcription; however, it is not yet applicable to translation. Here, we report single-molecule imaging of nascent peptides (SINAPS) to assess translation in live cells. The approach provides direct readout of initiation, elongation, and location of translation. We show that mRNAs coding for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins are translated when they encounter the ER membrane. Single-molecule fluorescence recovery after photobleaching provides direct measurement of elongation speed (5 amino acids per second). In primary neurons, mRNAs are translated in proximal dendrites but repressed in distal dendrites and display "bursting" translation. This technology provides a tool with which to address the spatiotemporal translation mechanism of single mRNAs in living cells. PMID:27313041
@@ In his book In Search of a Theory of Translation (1980), Gideon Toury suggested that scholars keep an open mind when defining the object of study for their field. He suggested that scholars study translation phenomena wherever they occur and that the definition for the field include any text "that is regarded as a translation from the intrinsic point of view of the target system" (1980: 73). Because the field had yet to collect a corpus of texts for study, Toury cautioned against preconceived notions of translation and the exclusion of texts because of differing definitions and national traditions. Toury's idea was quite radical at the time, for it challenged traditional definitions and opened the field to many types of texts not considered by the discipline. I want to go even one step further: I suggest there are many texts that some cultures often do not consider as translations but which also need be included in the field's definitions. China and the United States may be two countries where such "hidden"translations occur.
Valdeón Roberto A.
Full Text Available Terminological issues are problematic in the analysis of translation processes in news production. In the 1980s, Stetting coined the term “transediting”, which has been widely used in the translation studies literature, but “translation” itself becomes contentious in communication studies, a discipline closely related to news translation research. Only a few communication scholars have specifically dealt with the linguistic and cultural transformations of source texts, but they tend to regard translation as word-for-word transfer, unusual news production. More productive for the study of news translation seems to be the application of the concept of framing, widely used in communication studies. Framing considers the linguistic and paralinguistic elements of news texts in the promotion of certain organizing ideas that the target audience can identify with. In news translation, this entails the adaptation of a text for the target readership, a process can lead to appropriation of source material. Two examples are mentioned to illustrate this point: the appropriation of the US Department of State cables by the Wikileak organisation, and the pro-Romanian slogans produced by the Gandul newspaper as a response to Britain’s anti-immigration campaigns. The final section relates news adaptation to adaptation of other text types, such as literary and historical works.
In order to deeply understanding the translation methods and further improving translation skil s, the article provides notions of Translation methods with examples form the translating version by Mr.Rong from shanghai.
, namely the question of how otherwise differentiated forms of being interact and continuously adapt to each other. It presents two theories, Niklas Luhmann’s systems theory and Bruno Latour’s actor-network theory in regard to the question. They are outlined as theories that in two very different ways...... of structural couplings between psychic and social systems (Luhmann 2002: 275, Tække 2011). In this way media are seen as a necessary third, making it possible for two different kinds of systems to process, using complexity from one another - leaving out the idea of direct transmission. In actor-network theory...
Hockney, Richard L. (Inventor); Downer, James R. (Inventor); Eisenhaure, David B. (Inventor); Hawkey, Timothy J. (Inventor); Johnson, Bruce G. (Inventor)
A magnetic bearing system for enabling translational motion includes a carriage and a shaft for movably supporting the carriage; a first magnetic bearing fixed to one of the carriage and shaft and slidably received in a first channel of the other of the carriage and shaft. The first channel is generally U shaped with two side walls and a back wall. The magnetic bearing includes a pair of spaced magnetic pole pieces, each pole piece having a pair of electromagnetic coils mounted on poles on opposite ends of the pole piece proximate the side walls, and a third electromagnetic coil mounted on a pole of the pole piece proximate the backwall; a motion sensor for sensing translational motion along two axes and rotationally about three axes of the carriage and shaft relative to each other; and a correction circuit responsive to the sensor for generating a correction signal to drive the coils to compensate for any misalignment sensed between the carriage and the shaft.
The trademark propaganda is an important means of sel ing goods and way of competition in international market. Cultivating famous brand serves as an important links in opening up the international market. So the importance of a good trademark translation is evident. Through discussing the importance of the Chinese-English trademark translation, the translation of the principles, tactics, errors and trademark translation of cultural taboos, this paper studies initial y several aspects about how to translate the Chinese trademark into English, which is in order to make the translation of the original brand names and the products match perfectly in the sound, shape, meaning, and beauty. Thus, commodity exchanges and cultural exchanges both can be achieved.
Masa Moreno, S
Full Text Available With this text it is tried to make an approach to thoughts, that we create we have in common most of the occupational therapists, in which to our work and our daily practice one talks about. These ideas that we have in common if they are analyzed carefully, and following Ellis, A. and Grieger, R. (1977, are irrational ideas. In order to base this one has compared some of the thoughts that with more frequency we shared the occupational therapists with some of the irrational ideas that east author explains. From this comparison, the opinion arises from which often our way to think is not correct or rational.
Gravengaard, Gitte; Rimestad, Lene
. Our aim is to study how this building of expertise takes place at meetings with a particular focus on the decision-making process concerning ideas for new news stories. In order to do this, we perform linguistic analysis of news production practices, as we investigate how the journalists' ideas...... for potential news stories are eliminated by the editor at the daily newsroom meetings. The elimination of ideas for news stories are not just eliminations; they are also corrections of culturally undesirable behaviour producing and reproducing the proper perception of an important object of knowledge...
Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn
The objective of the paper is primarily to conduct a state-of-the-art literature review of Idea Management and secondary to point out unanswered questions which are left behind in the reviewed literature. Scientific knowledge is primarily represented in innovation management literature but also...... considerably in literature on software and IT. On the background of the literature review, there are some weaknesses in the literature to be considered. These weaknesses concern the understanding of how people interact with idea management in their daily work practices and how different types of ideas...
Campbell, John L.; Pedersen, Ove K.
countries. The National Origins of Policy Ideas provides the first comparative analysis of how "knowledge regimes" communities of policy research organizations like think tanks, political party foundations, ad hoc commissions, and state research offices, and the institutions that govern them generate ideas...... and communicate them to policymakers. John Campbell and Ove Pedersen examine how knowledge regimes are organized, operate, and have changed over the last thirty years in the United States, France, Germany, and Denmark. They show how there are persistent national differences in how policy ideas are produced. Some...
Around 1970th, translation theory comes across feminism, thus the feminist translation theory emerged as the times required. The appearance of feminist translation enriches the modern translation theory, and extends the horizon of translation theory. At the same time, feminist translation has its shortcomings, especially in its exaggeration and arbitrariness. This paper explores the similarities between feminism and translation, the contributions and limitations of feminist translation theory.
Kenny, Dorothy; Way, Andy
The Machine Translation course at Dublin City University is taught to undergraduate students in Applied Computational Linguistics, while Computer-Assisted Translation is taught on two translator-training programmes, one undergraduate and one postgraduate. Given the differing backgrounds of these sets of students, the course material, methods of teaching and assessment all differ. We report here on our experiences of teaching these courses over a number of years, which we hope will be of...
马亚丽; 王亚荣; 李静莹
In 2012,Moyan won the Nobel Prize for literature to which the media and the scholars paid great attention.The transla-tions of his works by Howard Goldblatt were also caught great attention.Howard Goldblatt was believed to help Moyan win the No-bel Prize.Based on this,it is necessary to study translation thoughts of Howard Goldblatt,which will provide some references for Chinese literature translations.
This paper focuses on the historic development of the stylistic study of translator in light of western translation theory,and analyzes its features on each phase and current emphasis of research,by which knowledge of the development of western theory and translators’ style can be shown.After that,we can research its problems existing in the stylistic study of translator based on western theory so than we can provide a panoramic analysis in this field.
The interpretation of pun is a branch of applied linguistics,at the mean time; it is a rhetorical approach in our daily communication.Sometimes it is compared to an art and varies from one another.Meanwhile it brings the charming of language into full play,which can demonstrate the complicated meanings with the simple language.Pun is humorous and vivid; sometimes it looks like a puzzle and makes people feel confused with blurry color.My thesis mainly focuses on lexical pun,homograph homophony pun and imitation pun.In terms of literal translation and free translation by idea.I sincerely hope it can help people to better understand the pans translation to attain our expectations.
This paper describes the present translation theories and standards especially in journalism English translation and imply these theories in my issue. Moreover, I will explain how to apply the translation aesthetics and communication theory of translation in the course of journalism English translation activities. So that translation will achieve elegance in English news text and its Chinese version as well.
Cramer-Petersen, Claus Lundgaard; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema
performance of ideas developed. Understanding reasoning in design and its relationship to the performance of ideas generated is important to understand design activity, which can be used to develop tools or methods that can improve the effectiveness of design teams. Protocol analyses were conducted...... to investigate idea generation sessions of two industry cases. Reasoning was found to appear in sequences of alternating reasoning types where the initiating reasoning type was decisive. The study found that abductive reasoning led to more radical ideas, whereas deductive reasoning led to ideas being for project...... reasoning and idea performance. Findings of the study further allows for a way to analyse and improve the performance of idea generation in design teams....
Full Text Available A translation is generally regarded as a transportation of the message from one text into another such that, in prototypical cases, the content of the original or source text is preserved in the target text. Any translation reflects language and cultural contact. It is the effect of a mapping of one language onto another and of one culture onto another. In both cases, it involves a selection of counterparts. Traditionally, translation is thought of as establishing equivalence between the original text and the translated one. This article explores the notion of equivalence and the closely linked but conflicting principles of fidelity and freedom in translation theory and practice. The issues involved in practical translation stem from a critical selective combination of freedom or fidelity on the part of the translator. Manipulation of either may lead to certain problems. Kipling’s poem ‘If’ is a didactic poem meant to give encouragement. It serves as a motivation as manifest in several traits of a good leader. Maphalla took the initiative to translate Kipling’s poem ‘If’ into Sesotho. This article addresses the idea that the translator’s task is not only to convey Kipling’s ideas but also to render his style in such a way as to make the translation road smooth to a native speaker of the target language, which in this case is Sesotho. This article also advocates greater freedom for the translator, based on Derridean theory that offers the translator more freedom.
Khovratovich, D.; Leurent, G.; Rechberger, C.
We apply and extend the recently introduced biclique framework to IDEA and for the first time describe an approach to noticeably speed-up key-recovery for the full 8.5 round IDEA.We also show that the biclique approach to block cipher cryptanalysis not only obtains results on more rounds, but also...... improves time and data complexities over existing attacks. We consider the first 7.5 rounds of IDEA and demonstrate a variant of the approach that works with practical data complexity. The conceptual contribution is the narrow-bicliques technique: the recently introduced independent-biclique approach...... the practical use of IDEA in any way, yet the techniques are practically verified to a large extent....
Mathai, A. M.; Haubold, H. J.
The pathway idea is a way of going from one family of functions to another family of functions and yet another family of functions through a parameter in the mode l so that a switching mechanism is introduced into the model through a parameter. The advantage of the idea is that the model can cover the ideal or stable situation in a physical situation as well as cover the unstable neighborhoods or move from unstable neighborhoods to the stable situation. The basic idea is illustrated for the real scalar case here and its connections to topics in astrophysics and non-extens ive statistical mechanics, namely superstatistics and Tsallis statistics, Mittag-Leffler models, hypergeometric functions and generalized special functions such as the H-function etc are pointed out. The pathway idea is available for the real and complex rectangular matrix variate cases but only the real scalar case is illustrated here.
Several eminent science authors have recently claimed that bad scientific ideas "held back" good ones throughout human history, delaying the progress of science. But as Philip Ball argues, it just isn't that simple.
Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Christensen, Brian; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian
Translational science deals with the dilemma between basic research and the practical application of scientific results. In translational plant science, focus is on the relationship between agricultural crop production and basic science in various research fields, but primarily in the basic plant...... to the same problems. By theuse of examples where translational plant science has either been successfully or not successfully applied we describe an approach for advancing translational plant science.......Translational science deals with the dilemma between basic research and the practical application of scientific results. In translational plant science, focus is on the relationship between agricultural crop production and basic science in various research fields, but primarily in the basic plant...... science. Scientific and technological developments have allowed great progress in our understanding of plant genetics and molecular physiology, with potentials for improving agricultural production. However, this development has led to a separation of the laboratory-based research from the crop production...
Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne
The paper reports on a questionnaire survey from 2013 of the uptake and use of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools by Danish translation service providers (TSPs) and discusses how these tools appear to have impacted on the Danish translation industry. According to our results, the uptake...... in Denmark is rather high in general, but limited in the case of machine translation (MT) tools: While most TSPs use translation-memory (TM) software, often in combination with a terminology management system (TMS), only very few have implemented MT, which is criticised for its low quality output, especially...... when Danish is one of the languages, though some also express willingness to consider using MT (more) when output quality improves. Most respondents report that CAT has changed the translation industry, mentioning that the technology facilitates improved productivity and consistency, but also...
Biographical information is provided about Hausdorff and Besicovitch, the two mathematical pioneers on whose work Mandelbrot's development of fractals is based. A number of examples are given of abstract mathematical ideas which subsequently found practical applications. It is suggested that the crisis in mathematics discussed by Mandelbrot which arose from Cantor's introductions of Mengenlehre is paralleled in the history of mathematics by other new ideas which encountered opposition but ultimately became part of the general body of mathematics.
Elsbach, Kimberly D
Coming up with creative ideas is easy; selling them to strangers is hard. Entrepreneurs, sales executives, and marketing managers often go to great lengths to demonstrate how their new concepts are practical and profitable--only to be rejected by corporate decision makers who don't seem to understand the value of the ideas. Why does this happen? Having studied Hollywood executives who assess screenplay pitches, the author says the person on the receiving end--the "catcher"--tends to gauge the pitcher's creativity as well as the proposal itself. An impression of the pitcher's ability to come up with workable ideas can quickly and permanently overshadow the catcher's feelings about an idea's worth. To determine whether these observations apply to business settings beyond Hollywood, the author attended product design, marketing, and venture-capital pitch sessions and conducted interviews with executives responsible for judging new ideas. The results in those environments were similar to her observations in Hollywood, she says. Catchers subconsciously categorize successful pitchers as showrunners (smooth and professional), artists (quirky and unpolished), or neophytes (inexperienced and naive). The research also reveals that catchers tend to respond well when they believe they are participating in an idea's development. As Oscar-winning writer, director, and producer Oliver Stone puts it, screen-writers pitching an idea should "pull back and project what he needs onto your idea in order to make the story whole for him." To become a successful pitcher, portray yourself as one of the three creative types and engage your catchers in the creative process. By finding ways to give your catchers a chance to shine, you sell yourself as a likable collaborator. PMID:12964399
Interis, Matthew G.
Environmental valuation is the branch of environmental economics in which researchers estimate the economic value of environmental goods and services. Environmental valuation has been practiced for decades. However, there are some ideas in the field of environmental valuation held by many environmental economists and nonenvironmental economists that appear to be outdated. This article discusses three such ideas: 1) that it is better to estimate willingness-to-pay values than willingness-to-ac...
Full Text Available Measuring customer satisfaction provides an indication of how successful the organization is at providing products and/or services to the marketplace. Customer satisfaction is a collective outcome of perception, evaluation, and psychological reactions to the consumption experience with a product or service. This researcharticle investigated the attitude of Idea cellular customers to Idea services. All the customers of Idea cellular in Hyderabad city (Andhra Pradesh constituted the population. The sample of the study is 2000 customers that randomly selected. A questionnaire was developed and validated through pilot testing and administered to thesample for the collection of data. The researcher personally visited respondents, thus 100% data were collected.The collected data were tabulated and analyzed by SPSS. Results showed that majority of the respondents of Idea prefer post-paid service than to pre paid and largest segment of respondents are of idea then comes Cell one, Airtel and Vodafone. this study showed that most of the respondents need improvement in service. Majority of respondents gave an excellent rate for “Idea Cellular” services.
Specialised translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain discourse in a foreign language in connection with translation. The most common type is the business dictionary covering several more or less related subject fields. However, business dictionaries....... The result is that the traditional focus on language system will be extended to usage because the central unit of translation is not the word but the text....
Janaina Rocha de Paula
From the essay "Die Aufgabe des Übersetzers" by Walter Benjamin, and its connection with the book Des tours de Babel by Jacques Derrida, we seek to address translations done by Maria Gabriela Llansol from the concepts of resignation and free giving. Surrending to a translation method within the melancholic/maniac tradition, Llansol’s translation task approaches a poetic practice, having love as its opening element
Riegels Melchior, Marie; Skov, Lise; Csaba, Fabian
With their association to enterprise and innovation, creative industries have emerged as a legitimate concern in national cultural and economical policy in many countries across the world. In Denmark, the fashion business, in particular, has been hailed as a model for successful (post...... emanate from Denmark and secure growth, jobs and exports even outside the fashion business has taken hold among policymakers, and compelled the government to embrace fashion as a national project. In investigating the emergence and rising stature of Danish fashion, particular at home, we first establish...... a theoretical frame for understanding the cultural economic policy and the motives, principles and strategies behind it. Then – drawing inspiration from Michel Callon’s “sociology of translation” with its moments of translation: problematization, interessement, enrolment and mobilization – we identify...
This essay deals with my Chinese translation of a tour brochure and highlights some issues in translation. The translation strategies semantic translation and communicative translation are famous approaches proposed by Peter Newmark in his book Approaches to Translation. He puts forward his text typology and categorizes all text types into three types, i.e. expressive text, informative text and vocative text. In order to solve problems emerging in different types, he presents two dominant translation approaches, namely, semantic translation and communicative translation (Newmark, 2001). These translation methods are regarded as a milestone in translation theory and highly quoted by many scholars. Semantic translation emphasizes the thinking process of the author and represents the origin meanings of the source text. In this case, translator makes little interference with the harmony of the source text. Semantic translation can preserve the characteristics and expression patterns of the source language, forcing readers to follow the thinking pattern of the author. While communicative translation indicates that the influence of translation on target readers should be identical to the effect of original article on source readers. Communicative translation is target-language-orientated and focuses on transference of information. This translation strategy allows translator to reorganize sentences with classical phrases in the target language to make his translation accessible to target readers. Of course, these different translation strategies often com⁃plement with each other, and should be combined together in translation.
The 1970s saw a development of the Functionalism, with its three representative scholars Katharina Reiss, Hans. Vermeer and Justa Holz Manttari. Katharina Reiss proposed the text type theory; Vermeer brought up the skopostheory and Mantarri translational action theory. The Functional theories are very useful for the translators to adopt a fight translation strategy. In these years, various kinds of advertisement have appeared in people's daily life. They are becoming one important part in our culture. The companies need advertisements to sell their products and the consumers need the advertisement to decide which brand to buy after comparison. This paper will discuss how they are ap-plied to the advertisement translation.
This thesis,aiming to investigate the process of English-Chinese translation of humor from the perspective of RT theory(relevance translation theory),endeavors to apply its principles and methods to the re-construction of humor in the target language.
This paper, based on the development and history of thick translation, is intended to carry out a comparative critic of the interpretations of“thick translation”proposed by different scholars so as to explore the profound meanings and significance of“thick translation”as a new strategy, which has reflected and predicted the new trend of translation studies.
Audiovisual Translation (AVT), and in particular subtitling, has been recognised as an area that could potentially benefit from the introduction of machine translation (followed by post-editing). In recent years the demands on subtitlers have increased, while the payment to subtitlers and time...
Tully, Eric J.
This comprehensive examination of the Syriac Peshitta of Hosea (P-Hosea) is the first study of the Peshitta conducted via insights and methods from the discipline of Translation Studies. It uses in particular Andrew Chesterman's Causal Model and Gideon Toury's descriptive approach. Every translator leaves residue of his or her…
Saranummi, Niilo; Beuscart, Regis; Black, Norman; Maglaveras, Nicos; Strano, Chiara; Karavidopoulou, Youla
Although Europe 'produces' excellent science, it has not been equally successful in translating scientific results into commercially successful companies in spite of European and national efforts invested in supporting the translation process. The Idea-to-Market process is highly complex due to the large number of actors and stakeholders. ITECH was launched to propose recommendations which would accelerate the Idea-to-Market process of health technologies leading to improvements in the competitiveness of the European health technology industry in the global markets. The project went through the following steps: defining the Idea-to-Market process model; collection and analysis of funding opportunities; identification of 12 gaps and barriers in the Idea-to-Market process; a detailed analysis of these supported by interviews; a prioritization process to select the most important issues; construction of roadmaps for the prioritized issues; and finally generating recommendations and associated action plans. Seven issues were classified as in need of actions. Three of these are part of the ongoing Medical Device Directive Reform (MDR), namely health technology assessment, post-market surveillance and regulatory process, and therefore not within the scope of ITECH. Recommendations were made for eHealth taxonomy; Education and training; Clinical trials and Adoption space and Human Factors Engineering (HFE).
Saranummi, Niilo; Beuscart, Regis; Black, Norman; Maglaveras, Nicos; Strano, Chiara; Karavidopoulou, Youla
Although Europe 'produces' excellent science, it has not been equally successful in translating scientific results into commercially successful companies in spite of European and national efforts invested in supporting the translation process. The Idea-to-Market process is highly complex due to the large number of actors and stakeholders. ITECH was launched to propose recommendations which would accelerate the Idea-to-Market process of health technologies leading to improvements in the competitiveness of the European health technology industry in the global markets. The project went through the following steps: defining the Idea-to-Market process model; collection and analysis of funding opportunities; identification of 12 gaps and barriers in the Idea-to-Market process; a detailed analysis of these supported by interviews; a prioritization process to select the most important issues; construction of roadmaps for the prioritized issues; and finally generating recommendations and associated action plans. Seven issues were classified as in need of actions. Three of these are part of the ongoing Medical Device Directive Reform (MDR), namely health technology assessment, post-market surveillance and regulatory process, and therefore not within the scope of ITECH. Recommendations were made for eHealth taxonomy; Education and training; Clinical trials and Adoption space and Human Factors Engineering (HFE). PMID:27225546
Business is shaped by ideas. But how do you separate enduring ideas from passing fancies? In this, the first edition of the annual HBR List, our editors spotlight five break-through ideas that are truly shaping the future of business. EVEN A GREAT BUSINESS MODEL IS NOT ENOUGH: The rise and fall of dot-coms left markets reeling and CEOs scratching their heads. The most important lesson of the debacle: squishy thinking about "business models" is no substitute for a distinctive strategy. CHANGE IS CHANGING: In recent years, pundits have urged executives to incite revolutions within their companies. But a growing group of experts now suggests that the best companies actually evolve through incremental change--change that builds on rather than subverts their heritage. EGO MAKES THE LEADER: By looking deeply into executives' psyches, we are beginning to unlock the enigma of leadership. While there will never be a single recipe for successful corporate stewardship, an understanding of the human ego can shed light on leadership's most fundamental components. ONLY CONNECT: In business organizations, what's really important about people is not their individual skills but the relationships they form with one another. By investing in "social capital," companies can often push their performance to a whole new level. THE BIOLOGY CENTURY DAWNS: In the twentieth century, product innovations tended to spring from physics. But in the new century, biology may be the central source of innovation. From genomics to biomimicry, the study of life promises to change what companies sell and even how they operate. PMID:11299688
The main goal for this master’s thesis was to improve Avanade’s capability to manage translation of multilingual web applications. For this purpose I created translation process, synchronization tool, and translation list. The translation process helps Avanade to reduce the time used for managing translation. The synchronization tool automates the process of copying words manually and the translation list provides real time access to all translated items for the customer. The customer can tra...
Translator's subjectivity is closely related to the choice of the style of the translated texts and translation strategies.This paper presents an analytical study of translation strategies of non-literary texts.It introduces different non-literary texts,and then generalizes some factors influencing the selection of translation strategies.Take these Influencing factors into account,Translators should adopt different translation strategies
Jiménez Ivars, María Amparo
This paper presents a comparative empirical exploratory study of some cognitive aspects of the oral and written translation process within the translation competence construct. This research has a twofold objective: finding some evidence of specific translation competence skills in translation tasks and comparing these data in sight translation and written translation in order to empirically check if sight translation can really be considered an interpreting modality. A sample ...
Cramer-Petersen, Claus Lundgaard; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema
Reasoning is at the core of design activity and thinking. Thus, understanding and explaining reasoning in design is fundamental to understand and support design practice. This paper investigates reasoning in design and its relationship to varying foci at the stage of idea generation and subsequent performance of ideas developed. Understanding reasoning in design and its relationship to the performance of ideas generated is important to understand design activity, which can be used to develop ...
Deffur, Armin; Wilkinson, Robert J; Coussens, Anna K
Transcriptomics and other high-throughput methods are increasingly applied to questions relating to tuberculosis (TB) pathogenesis. Whole blood transcriptomics has repeatedly been applied to define correlates of TB risk and has produced new insight into the late stage of disease pathogenesis. In a novel approach, authors of a recently published study in Science Translational Medicine applied complex data analysis of existing TB transcriptomic datasets, and in vitro models, in an attempt to identify correlates of protection in TB, which are crucially required for the development of novel TB diagnostics and therapeutics to halt this global epidemic. Utilizing latent TB infection (LTBI) as a surrogate of protection, they identified IL-32 as a mediator of interferon gamma (IFNγ)-vitamin D dependent antimicrobial immunity and a marker of LTBI. Here, we provide a review of all TB whole-blood transcriptomic studies to date in the context of identifying correlates of protection, discuss potential pitfalls of combining complex analyses originating from such studies, the importance of detailed metadata to interpret differential patient classification algorithms, the effect of differing circulating cell populations between patient groups on the interpretation of resulting biomarkers and we decipher weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), a recently developed systems biology tool which holds promise of identifying novel pathway interactions in disease pathogenesis. In conclusion, we propose the development of an integrated OMICS platform and open access to detailed metadata, in order for the TB research community to leverage the vast array of OMICS data being generated with the aim of unraveling the holy grail of TB research: correlates of protection. PMID:26046091
Gehr, Sinje; Garner, Craig C
The translation of medically relevant academic inventions that could transform public health has been notoriously difficult, stemming largely from cultural differences been academia and industry. New initiatives to kindle academic entrepreneurship and establish stronger public/private partnerships are helping to align these differences and accelerating the translation of promising new therapies. PMID:27153487
According to cognitive linguistics, human language is a process of cognition. Because of the different culture in Eastern and Western, the translation form must adapt to the cultural contexts. This article mainly deals with the differences in intercultural, and discusses the relationship between cultural contexts and language translation.
News language is formal,especially the high register vocabulary it employed to deliver the message unveiled by culturally and politically stamped style which challenges the translator a lot.Nida's formal and dynamic equivalence theory,Bielsa and Bassnett news translation theories and other methods and strategies are introduced to cope with these challenges and get the message across without distortion.
A a computer program used to translate PATRAN finite element model data into Structural Analysis of General Shells (STAGS) input data is presented. The program supports translation of nodal, nodal constraints, element, force, and pressure data. The subroutine UPRESS required for the readings of live pressure data into STAGS is also presented.
The article sketches the outlines of a theoretical framework for the analysis of translation of literary texts, viewed as psycho-semiotic phenomenon and based on evaluation of earlier attempts in this direction, and on the results of a psycholinguistic empirical study of translations. Central to this framework is the recent insight that the human…
Nisbeth Jensen, Matilde
. Action requires understanding, and these texts consequently need to be optimally comprehensible. The aim of this paper is therefore to provide a framework for optimising comprehensibility in translation. In order to do so, the concept of intralingual translation is argued for as a useful starting point...... information on medication and tax information. Such texts are often written by experts and received by lay people, and, in today’s globalised world, they are often translated as well. In these functional texts, the receiver is not a mere recipient of information, but s/he needs to be able to act upon it....... It is argued that Plain Language writing is a type of intralingual translation as it involves rewriting or translating a complex monolingual text into comprehensible language. Based on Plain Language literature, a comprehensibility framework is elaborated, which is subsequently exemplified through...
Revising and Editing for Translators provides guidance and learning materials for translation students learning to edit texts written by others, and professional translators wishing to improve their self-revision ability or learning to revise the work of others. Editing is understood as making corrections and improvements to texts, with particular attention to tailoring them to the given readership. Revising is this same task applied to draft translations. The linguistic work of editors and revisers is related to the professional situations in which they work. Mossop offers in-depth coverage of a wide range of topics, including copyediting, style editing, structural editing, checking for consistency, revising procedures and principles, and translation quality assessment. This third edition provides extended coverage of computer aids for revisers, and of the different degrees of revision suited to different texts. The inclusion of suggested activities and exercises, numerous real-world examples, a proposed gra...
Translational Research (TR) appears to be developing into the key health research issue of the beginning of this century. Initially proposed in the United States, TR is spread rapidly throughout both the developed and the developing world. This article discusses the main topics it covers, such as its definition and scope and the reasons why it has emerged in the USA and in this century. It examines the relationship between TR and the basic principles of US scientific policy established at the end of World War II. It sees the demands of a mighty pharmaceutical industry, currently facing a major crisis, linked to scientific genomic and post-genomic output impairments in terms of real innovative products and processes as being the explanation for US government intervention in biomedical research via the NIH. It realizes that it is not easy to predict the future of TR and suggests that it is not sustained by a solid conceptual and theoretical framework. It also discusses the opportunities and possibilities of TR in countries with nascent national innovative systems, such as Brazil. Lastly, it suggests that the existence of a universal health system can be an important tool to provide potential research answers tin health for the demands of innovation on the part of society. PMID:23752539
Agoguè, Marine; Boxenbaum, Eva
the different nature of the conscious (deliberate) and subconscious (implicit) systems involved in ideation. We further elaborate on how these two systems relate to four streams of research that management scholars evoke to model microprocesses of generating new ideas, namely metaphors, conceptual blending......, bricolage and innovative design reasoning. We identify metaphors and bricolage as central to the subconscious system, which play an important role in maintaining the field frame, whereas conceptual blending and innovative design reasoning can be instrumental in generating ideas in the conscious system......, thereby potentially enabling actors to generate innovative ideas that break with the field frame. Hence, this paper clarifies processes that unfold at the individual level of analysis during innovation activities and proposes leverages for actors to innovate within highly institutionalized fields....
Bandrova, T.; Konecny, M.
The authors are experienced in working with children and students in the field of early warning and crises management and cartography. All these topics are closely connected to Digital Earth (DE) ideas. On the basis of a questionnaire, the young generation's comprehension of DE concept is clarified. Students from different age groups (from 19 to 36) from different countries and with different social, cultural, economical and political backgrounds are asked to provide definition of DE and describe their basic ideas about meaning, methodology and applications of the concept. The questions aim to discover the young generation's comprehension of DE ideas. They partially cover the newest trends of DE development like social, cultural and environmental issues as well as the styles of new communications (Google Earth, Facebook, LinkedIn, etc.). In order to assure the future development of the DE science, it is important to take into account the young generation's expectations. Some aspects of DE development are considered in the Conclusions.
Murah, Mohd Zamri; Abdullah, Zuraidah; Hassan, Rosilah; Bakar, Marini Abu; Mohamed, Ibrahim; Amin, Hazilah Mohd
An idea management system is where ideas are stored and then can be evaluated and analyzed. It provides the structure and the platform for users to contribute ideas for innovation and creativity. Designing and developing an idea management system is a complex task because it involves many users and lot of ideas. Some of the critical features for…
A. F. ZAYTSEVA
Full Text Available The author of this article considers advertising as an example of artistic communication with a focus on the aesthetic characteristics of the creative idea which is one of basic components of an advertising product. The article describes basic principles of aesthetics analysis in advertising communications, their strong and weak points, motives and features of historical transformation of advertising messages, the changed role of the creative idea and the artistic image. The author reviews the main stages of advertising product creation from the perspective of aesthetic function actualization in advertising and makes a special emphasis on the differences of value characteristics and evaluation criteria of the creative idea and the final advertising product. This allows to separate the concepts of advertising and an advertising idea in the aesthetic perspective and to consider the creative component as a phenomenon that has its own aesthetic value and potential. On this basis, the author attempts to identify the features of aesthetic concept of a creative idea and to determine its internal potential for further artistic implementation. Aesthetic concept of a creative idea is regarded by the author as the starting point of artistic communication in advertising, which was considered earlier from the perspective of the genre and stylistic features of the implementation itself.
Kis, Zoltán; Pereira, Hugo Sant'Ana; Homma, Takayuki; Pedrigi, Ryan M.; Krams, Rob
In this review, we discuss new emerging medical applications of the rapidly evolving field of mammalian synthetic biology. We start with simple mammalian synthetic biological components and move towards more complex and therapy-oriented gene circuits. A comprehensive list of ON–OFF switches, categorized into transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and post-translational, is presented in the first sections. Subsequently, Boolean logic gates, synthetic mammalian oscillators and tog...
A. F. ZAYTSEVA
The author of this article considers advertising as an example of artistic communication with a focus on the aesthetic characteristics of the creative idea which is one of basic components of an advertising product. The article describes basic principles of aesthetics analysis in advertising communications, their strong and weak points, motives and features of historical transformation of advertising messages, the changed role of the creative idea and the artistic image. The author reviews th...
Fonda, Carlo; Canessa, Enrique
Creativity, together with the making of ideas into fruition, is essential for progress. Today the evolution from an idea to its application can be facilitated by the implementation of Fabrication Laboratories, or FabLabs, having affordable digital tools for prototyping. FabLabs aiming at scientific research and invention are now starting to be established inside Universities, Research Centers and Schools. We review the setting up of the ICTP Scientific FabLab in Trieste, Italy, give concrete examples on the use in physics, and propose to replicate world-wide this class of multi-purpose workplaces within academia as a support for physics and math education and for community development.
Creativity, together with the making of ideas into fruition, is essential for progress. Today the evolution from an idea to its application can be facilitated by the implementation of Fabrication Laboratories, or FabLabs, having affordable digital tools for prototyping. FabLabs aiming at scientific research and invention are now starting to be established inside Universities and Research Centers. We review the setting up of the ICTP Scientific FabLab in Trieste, Italy and propose to replicate this class of multi-purpose workplaces within academia as a support for science, education and development world-wide.
Gabora, Liane M
An idea is not a replicator because it does not consist of coded self-assembly instructions. It may retain structure as it passes from one individual to another, but does not replicate it. The cultural replicator is not an idea but an associatively-structured network of them that together form an internal model of the world, or worldview. A worldview is a primitive, uncoded replicator, like the autocatalytic sets of polymers widely believed to be the earliest form of life. Primitive replicato...
It is known today that crowdfunding is a very popular approach that simultaneously assists in rapidly disseminating creative ideas, performing worldwide market survey, getting the fund, and eventually starting the business. Hence, this article highlights some of the photonics-related ideas that are explored through the promising crowdfunding approach. These include microlenses for mobile devices, specially designed lenses for helmets and solar cells, three-dimensional optical scanners, optical spectrometers, and surface plasmon resonance-based optical sensors. Most of them looks simple and yet are very creative backing up with interesting stories behind them to persuade the target customers to participate.
Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard
The present study is an empirical investigation of translators' allocation of cognitive resources during the translation process, and it aims at investigating how translators' mental processing resources are put to use during translation. The study bases ts analyses on quantitative eye-tracking a......The present study is an empirical investigation of translators' allocation of cognitive resources during the translation process, and it aims at investigating how translators' mental processing resources are put to use during translation. The study bases ts analyses on quantitative eye......-tracking and key-logging data collected from translation experiments....
Barillot, Emmanuel; Calzone, Laurence; Zinovyev, Andrei
Cancer Systems Biology is now accepted and recognized as a promising field both in biological and clinical research. It relies on a rigorous formalization of regulation networks into precise and unambiguous languages. It provides both detailed and modular views of the complex biological system of interest (which in cancer research is typically an interaction network governing essential cellular events such as proliferation, differentiation, cell death...) in order to facilitate the interpretation of molecular profiles of tumors. The translation of these networks into mathematical models allows prediction of the evolution of the system in time and under certain perturbations. As a result, it can not only propose specific target points for pharmaceutical purposes, but also anticipate the evolution of tumors as well as their classifications. These characteristics emphasize the important role of Systems Biology of Cancer in the future of biomedical research.
Translation theory has faced criticism from professional translators for adopting an ivory tower stance to the "real world" challenges of translation. This article argues that a case can be made for considering the challenges of translation as it takes place in the school classroom. In support of such an argument the pedagogue as translator is…
The information age has put forward higher demand for the translator not only to possess sound grounding in basic skills of translation, but also to grasp the advanced equipment and modern information technology to assist in their translation work. This paper explores the problems in automatic translation and proposes solutions in translation teaching.
Rajagopal Krishnamoorthy; Octavio Fernandes; Arturo Chiti
Disease markers are defined as the biomarkers with specific characteristics during the general physical, pathological or therapeutic process, the detection of which can inform the progression of present biological process of organisms. However, the exploration of disease markers is complicated and difficult, and only a few markers can be used in clinical practice and there is no significant difference in the mortality of cancers before and after biomarker exploration. Translational medicine focuses on breaking the blockage between basic medicine and clinical practice. In addition, it also establishes an effective association between researchers engaged on basic scientific discovery and clinical physicians well informed of patients’ requirements, and gives particular attentions on how to translate the basic molecular biological research to the most effective and appropriate methods for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases, hoping to translate basic research into the new therapeutic methods in clinic. Therefore, this study mainly summarized the exploration of disease markers under translational medicine model so as to provide a basis for the translation of basic research results into clinical application.
Nishiura, Hiroshi; Rietman, Edward A.; Wu, Rongling
Theoretical biology encompasses a broad range of biological disciplines ranging from mathematical biology and biomathematics to philosophy of biology. Adopting a broad definition of "biology", Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling, an open access journal, considers original research studies that focus on theoretical ideas and models associated with developments in biology and medicine.
Full Text Available The paper deals with the linguistic and cultural elements of vocative texts and the techniques used in translating them by giving some examples of texts that are typically vocative (i.e. advertisements and instructions for use. Semantic and communicative strategies are popular in translation studies and each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages in translating vocative texts. The advantage of semantic translation is that it takes more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text, while communicative translation attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original text in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership. Focus is laid on the strategies used in translating vocative texts, strategies that highlight and introduce a cultural context to the target audience, in order to achieve their overall purpose, that is to sell or persuade the reader to behave in a certain way. Thus, in order to do that, a number of advertisements from the field of cosmetics industry and electronic gadgets were selected for analysis. The aim is to gather insights into vocative text translation and to create new perspectives on this field of research, now considered a process of innovation and diversion, especially in areas as important as economy and marketing.
A.B. du Toit
Full Text Available Translating Romans: some persistent headaches Gone are the days when it was axiomatic that expertise in biblical languages automatically qualified one as a Bible translator. In 1949, Ronald Knox, who for nine years conscientiously struggled with translating the Bible for his generation, published a booklet under the title The trials of a translator. At that stage Bible translation as the subject of scientific study was still in its infancy. Since then, research into the intricacies of communicating the biblical message in an authentic but understandable manner, has made significant progress (cf. Roberts, 2009. However, the frustrations of Bible translators, first of all to really understand what the biblical authors wanted to convey to their original addressees, and then to commu-nicate that message to their own targeted readers in a meaningful way, have not disappeared. In fact, the challenge to meet the vary-ing requirements of the multiple kinds of translation that are present-ly in vogue, has only increased.
Hutchinson, Alisa; Tracey, Monica W.
Within design thinking, designers are responsible for generating, testing, and refining design ideas as a means to refine the design problem and arrive at an effective solution. Thus, understanding one's individual idea generation experiences and processes can be seen as a component of professional identity for designers, which involves the…
Reinig, B.A.; Briggs, R.O.
A great deal of research has been conducted to develop methods and techniques to improve group ideation. Most of this research focuses on techniques for increasing the quantity of ideas generated during ideation; less attention has been given to the quality of the ideas produced. This focus stems fr
Perfect, Timothy J; Stark, Louisa-Jayne
Groups of individuals often work together to generate solutions to a problem. Subsequently, one member of the group can plagiarise another either by recalling that person's idea as their own (recall-own plagiarism), or by generating a novel solution that duplicates a previous idea (generate-new plagiarism). The current study examines the extent to which these forms of plagiarism are influenced by the quality of the ideas. Groups of participants initially generated ideas, prior to an elaboration phase in which idea quality was manipulated in two ways: participants received feedback on the quality of the ideas as rated by independent judges, and they generated improvements to a subset of the ideas. Unconscious plagiarism was measured in recall-own and generate-new tasks. For recall, idea improvement led to increased plagiarism, while for the generate-new task, the independent ratings influenced plagiarism. These data indicate that different source-judgement processes underlie the two forms of plagiarism, neither of which can be reduced simply to memory strength.
Hopkins, David B.
Exclusion of ideas from copyright protection is an antiquated and indefensible notion. Traditional infringement tests do not provide adequate incentive or protection to idea creators. Innovations such as limited duration monopoly or own/sell option are reasonable. (AVAIL: Albany Law School of Union University, 80 New Scotland Ave., Albany, NY…
... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Asteroid Initiative Idea Synthesis Workshop AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Continuation of public conference to examine ideas in response... Administration announces that the agency will resume the NASA Asteroid Initiative Idea Synthesis...
This paper, as its title suggests, will mainly focus on the translation of address term from the perspective of interperson-al metafunction proposed by Halliday to shed some light on the everlasting headache in translating, which is caused by culture dif-ference. With examples taken from A Dream of Red Mansions translated by Yang Xian-yi, the author came up with the idea that, in order to achieve equivalence in translating the address term which differs greatly from culture to culture, region to region, even group to group, we should carefully analyze the interpersonal meaning conveyed by the address term in source language, and then translate it into the corresponding one which may bare similar meaning in target language.
Leahy, Brian; Ong, Desmond; Cheng, Xiang; Cohen, Itai
The idea of Taylor dispersion - enhancement of translational diffusion under shear - has found applications in fields from pharmacology to chemical engineering. Here, in a combination of experiment and simulations, we study the translational and rotational diffusion of colloidal dimers under triangle-wave oscillatory shear. We find that the rotational diffusion is enhanced, in addition to the enhanced translational diffusion. This ``rotational Taylor dispersion'' depends strongly on the strain rate (Peclet number), aspect ratio, and the shear strain, in contradistinction to translational Taylor dispersion in a shear flow, which depends only weakly on strain rate and aspect ratio. This separate tunability of translations and orientations promises important applications in mixing and self-assembly of solutions of anisometric colloids. We discuss the corresponding effect on the structure and rheology of denser suspensions of rod-like particles. B. L. acknowledges supported by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program.
Steurs, Frieda; Segers, Winibert; Kockaert, Hendrik
Translation Expert (TranslationQ & RevisionQ): Automated translation process with real-time feedback & evaluation/ revision with PIE Winibert Segers, Hendrik Kockaert & Frieda Steurs KU Leuven This paper reports on an experiment working with a new evaluation technique for translator training. Organizing high level translation classes in a master in translation involves intensive assessment of the work delivered by the students. The evaluation has to be precise, professional, and at...
Alpert, M S
If the terms "skill-building," "idea generation" and "rewards programming system" are not part of your vocabulary or strategy to motivate employees in your medical record department, this article will provide some valuable insights. A successful motivation program based on these elements will benefit both employee and employer by providing stronger employee participation, more job satisfaction, enhanced productivity and overall increased success.
Stansfield, Charles W.
The IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test (IPT II), an individually-administered measure of speaking and listening proficiency in English as a Second Language designed for secondary school students, is described and discussed. The test consists of 91 items and requires 5-25 minutes to administer. Raw scores are converted to one of seven proficiency…
Banks, Aaron; Reed, Julian
This article offers readers ideas for using mass media to enhance their physical education program. Generally, media is the term used to define the way in communicating with a large number of people. Technically, media is divided into two categories: print and film (electronic). Print (journals, newspapers, books, etc.) is "put to paper" to create…
Heikkinen, Henry W.
"To confess the truth, Mrs. B., I am not disposed to form a very favorable idea of chemistry, nor do I expect to derive much entertainment from it." That 200-year-old statement by Caroline to Mrs. Bryan, her teacher, appeared on the first page of Jane Marcet's pioneering secondary school textbook, "Conversations on Chemistry". It was published 17…