WorldWideScience

Sample records for biology topics include

  1. Topics in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Hadeler, Karl Peter

    2017-01-01

    This book analyzes the impact of quiescent phases on biological models. Quiescence arises, for example, when moving individuals stop moving, hunting predators take a rest, infected individuals are isolated, or cells enter the quiescent compartment of the cell cycle. In the first chapter of Topics in Mathematical Biology general principles about coupled and quiescent systems are derived, including results on shrinking periodic orbits and stabilization of oscillations via quiescence. In subsequent chapters classical biological models are presented in detail and challenged by the introduction of quiescence. These models include delay equations, demographic models, age structured models, Lotka-Volterra systems, replicator systems, genetic models, game theory, Nash equilibria, evolutionary stable strategies, ecological models, epidemiological models, random walks and reaction-diffusion models. In each case we find new and interesting results such as stability of fixed points and/or periodic orbits, excitability...

  2. Influence of number of topics, topic duration, and curricular focus on biology achievement of Population 3 TIMSS countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Eddie Louis

    The purposes of this study were to determine if a relationship exists between biology achievement and (1) number of topics, (2) topic duration, (3) curricular focus, and (4) science achievement using TIMSS data from Population 3---the final year of secondary school. Students included in this study were subsets of the 55,675 students from 22 countries who participated in the science literacy portion of TIMSS at the Population 3 level (IEA, 1997). The sample included in this study for the four research questions were comprised of between (1) 17,769 and 37,794 students from 15 countries, (2) 17,769 and 37,794 students from 15 countries, (3) 21,715 and 46,458 students from 18 countries, and (4) 19,518 and 46,458 students from 18 countries, respectively. A Pearson's product moment correlation was used to determine whether a relationship exists between the number of biology topics addressed by intended national science curricula and mean student achievement on selected items by country. No statistically significant correlation was found by country between biology achievement and number of topics. To determine whether a relationship exists between the topic duration of biology topics addressed by released, biology-oriented, Population 3 Science Literacy items and student achievement on those items, a Pearson's product moment correlation was also used. A statistically significant correlation between biology achievement and topic duration for only one topic (Interdependence of Life) was found at the .05 level of significance. A possible relationship between the degree of curricular focus of Population 3 TIMSS countries and student achievement on selected items by country was evaluated using a Pearson's product moment correlation. No statistically significant correlation by country between biology achievement and degree of curricular focus was found. A Pearson's product moment correlation was used to determine whether a relationship exists between science literacy

  3. Topical Day on Biological Effects of Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baatout, S.; Jacquet, P.

    1997-05-15

    The topical day has been focussed on the potential effects of ionizing radiation on human health. A general overview on molecular and biophysical aspects of radiation, its effects on cells and organisms, and the contribution of radiobiology to radiation protection and risk assessment is given. The genetic effects of radiation and its effects on the developing organism, the effects of radiation on the cell cycle and the mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis were also discussed.

  4. Topical Day on Biological Effects of Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baatout, S.; Jacquet, P.

    1997-01-01

    The topical day has been focussed on the potential effects of ionizing radiation on human health. A general overview on molecular and biophysical aspects of radiation, its effects on cells and organisms, and the contribution of radiobiology to radiation protection and risk assessment is given. The genetic effects of radiation and its effects on the developing organism, the effects of radiation on the cell cycle and the mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis were also discussed

  5. BIOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF INCLUDING DIFFERENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biologic and economic effects of including three agro-industrial by-products as ingredients in turkey poult diets were investigated using 48 turkey poults in a completely randomised design experiment. Diets were formulated to contain the three by-products – wheat offal, rice husk and palm kernel meal, each at 20% level ...

  6. Diffusion processes and related topics in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Ricciardi, Luigi M

    1977-01-01

    These notes are based on a one-quarter course given at the Department of Biophysics and Theoretical Biology of the University of Chicago in 1916. The course was directed to graduate students in the Division of Biological Sciences with interests in population biology and neurobiology. Only a slight acquaintance with probability and differential equations is required of the reader. Exercises are interwoven with the text to encourage the reader to play a more active role and thus facilitate his digestion of the material. One aim of these notes is to provide a heuristic approach, using as little mathematics as possible, to certain aspects of the theory of stochastic processes that are being increasingly employed in some of the population biol­ ogy and neurobiology literature. While the subject may be classical, the nov­ elty here lies in the approach and point of view, particularly in the applica­ tions such as the approach to the neuronal firing problem and its related dif­ fusion approximations. It is a ple...

  7. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-01-01

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  8. Topical Conference on Oportunities in Biology for Physicists II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, Judy R.

    2004-02-01

    In 2002, the American Physical Society (APS) organized and held the first topical conference in Boston, MA, as a way of informing physicists, particularly those just entering the field, of opportunities emerging at the interface of physics and biology. Because of the tremendous success of the first conference, it was decided to organize a second conference, similar in nature and focus, but with different presentation topic areas. Again the intended audience would be graduate students and postdocs considering applying methods of physics to biological research, and those who advise others on such opportunities.

  9. Mathematical Topics in Population Biology, Morphogenesis and Neurosciences

    CERN Document Server

    Yumaguti, Masaya

    1987-01-01

    This volume represents the edited proceedings of the International Symposium on Mathematical Biology held in Kyoto, November 10-15, 1985. The symposium was or­ ganized by an international committee whose members are: E. Teramoto, M. Yamaguti, S. Amari, S.A. Levin, H. Matsuda, A. Okubo, L.M. Ricciardi, R. Rosen, and L.A. Segel. The symposium included technical sessions with a total of 11 invited papers, 49 contributed papers and a poster session where 40 papers were displayed. These Proceedings consist of selected papers from this symposium. This symposium was the second Kyoto meeting on mathematical topics in biology. The first was held in conjunction with the Sixth International Biophysics Congress in 1978. Since then this field of science has grown enormously, and the number of scientists in the field has rapidly increased. This is also the case in Japan. About 80 young japanese scientists and graduate students participated this time. . The sessions were divided into 4 ; , categories: 1) Mathematical Ecolo...

  10. Correlation between MCAT Biology Content Specifications and Topic Scope and Sequence of General Education College Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissing, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Most American colleges and universities offer gateway biology courses to meet the needs of three undergraduate audiences: biology and related science majors, many of whom will become biomedical researchers; premedical students meeting medical school requirements and preparing for the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT); and students completing general education (GE) graduation requirements. Biology textbooks for these three audiences present a topic scope and sequence that correlates with the topic scope and importance ratings of the biology content specifications for the MCAT regardless of the intended audience. Texts for “nonmajors,” GE courses appear derived directly from their publisher's majors text. Topic scope and sequence of GE texts reflect those of “their” majors text and, indirectly, the MCAT. MCAT term density of GE texts equals or exceeds that of their corresponding majors text. Most American universities require a GE curriculum to promote a core level of academic understanding among their graduates. This includes civic scientific literacy, recognized as an essential competence for the development of public policies in an increasingly scientific and technological world. Deriving GE biology and related science texts from majors texts designed to meet very different learning objectives may defeat the scientific literacy goals of most schools’ GE curricula. PMID:24006392

  11. Correlation between MCAT biology content specifications and topic scope and sequence of general education college biology textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissing, Steven W

    2013-01-01

    Most American colleges and universities offer gateway biology courses to meet the needs of three undergraduate audiences: biology and related science majors, many of whom will become biomedical researchers; premedical students meeting medical school requirements and preparing for the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT); and students completing general education (GE) graduation requirements. Biology textbooks for these three audiences present a topic scope and sequence that correlates with the topic scope and importance ratings of the biology content specifications for the MCAT regardless of the intended audience. Texts for "nonmajors," GE courses appear derived directly from their publisher's majors text. Topic scope and sequence of GE texts reflect those of "their" majors text and, indirectly, the MCAT. MCAT term density of GE texts equals or exceeds that of their corresponding majors text. Most American universities require a GE curriculum to promote a core level of academic understanding among their graduates. This includes civic scientific literacy, recognized as an essential competence for the development of public policies in an increasingly scientific and technological world. Deriving GE biology and related science texts from majors texts designed to meet very different learning objectives may defeat the scientific literacy goals of most schools' GE curricula.

  12. Topical conference: Opportunities in biology for physicists. Conference summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-12-16

    The conference was aimed at early career physicists who were interested in exploring the possibilities of working at the interface between physics and biology, in particular, graduate students and postdocs considering applying the methods of physics to biological research. Areas of major importance were genomics and evolution, biological networks, biomolecular dynamics, high-resolution imaging of living cells, and technologies for biological investigation. A total of 205 persons attended the conference.

  13. Knowledge base and functionality of concepts of some Filipino biology teachers in five biology topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquilla, Manuel B.

    2018-01-01

    This mixed research, is a snapshot of some Filipino Biology teachers' knowledge structure and how their concepts of the five topics in Biology (Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration, human reproductive system, Mendelian genetics and NonMendelian genetics) functions and develops inside a biology classroom. The study focuses on the six biology teachers and a total of 222 students in their respective classes. Of the Six (6) teachers, three (3) are under the Science curriculum and the other three (3) are under regular curriculum in both public and private schools in Iligan city and Lanao del Norte, Philippines. The study utilized classroom discourses, concept maps, interpretative case-study method, bracketing method, and concept analysis for qualitative part; the quantitative part uses a nonparametric statistical tool, Kendall's tau Coefficient for determining relationship and congruency while measures of central tendencies and dispersion (mean, and standard deviation) for concept maps scores interpretation. Knowledge Base of Biology teachers were evaluated by experts in field of specialization having a doctorate program (e.g. PhD in Genetics) and PhD Biology candidates. The data collection entailed seven (7) months immersion: one (1) month for preliminary phase for the researcher to gain teachers' and students' confidence and the succeeding six (6) months for main observation and data collection. The evaluation of teachers' knowledge base by experts indicated that teachers' knowledge of (65%) is lower than the minimum (75%) recommended by ABD-el-Khalick and Boujaoude (1997). Thus, the experts believe that content knowledge of the teachers is hardly adequate for their teaching assignment. Moreover, the teachers in this study do not systematically use reallife situation to apply the concepts they teach. They can identify concepts too abstract for their student; however, they seldom use innovative ways to bring the discussion to their students' level of readiness and

  14. Including plasma and fusion topics in the science education in school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Shinichiro

    2015-01-01

    Yutori education (more relaxed education policy) started with the revision of the Courses of Study to introduce 'five-day week system' in 1989, continued with the reduction of the content of school lessons by 30% in 1998, and ended with the introduction of the New Courses of Study in 2011. Focusing on science education, especially in the topics of plasma and nuclear fusion, the modality of the education system in Japan is discussed considering the transition of academic performance based on the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) in comparison with the examples in other countries. Particularly, the issues with high school textbooks are pointed out from the assessment of current textbooks, and the significance and the need for including the topic of 'plasma' in them are stated. Lastly, in order to make the general public acknowledged with plasma and nuclear fusion, it is suggested to include them also in junior high school textbooks, by briefly mentioning the terms related to plasma, solar wind, aurora phenomenon, and nuclear fusion energy. (S.K.)

  15. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge in the Physics, Chemistry, and Biology Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas, Oktay

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated pre-service science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in the physics, chemistry, and biology topics. These topics were the light and sound, the physical and chemical changes, and reproduction, growth, and evolution. Qualitative research design was utilized. Data were collected from 33 pre-service science teachers…

  16. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. Topical report: Economic evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the proposed research is to develop a technically and economically feasible process for biologically producing H{sub 2} from synthesis gas while, at the same time, removing harmful sulfur gas compounds. Six major tasks are being studied: culture development, where the best cultures are selected and conditions optimized for simultaneous hydrogen production and sulfur gas removal; mass transfer and kinetic studies in which equations necessary for process design are developed; bioreactor design studies, where the cultures chosen in Task 1 are utilized in continuous reaction vessels to demonstrate process feasibility and define operating conditions; evaluation of biological synthesis gas conversion under limiting conditions in preparation for industrial demonstration studies; process scale-up where laboratory data are scaled to larger-size units in preparation for process demonstration in a pilot-scale unit; and economic evaluation, where process simulations are used to project process economics and identify high cost areas during sensitivity analyses. The purpose of this report is to present economic evaluations for H{sub 2} production from synthesis gone by Rhodospirillum rubrum. Cases are presented with and without light requirements and in stirred tank and immobilized cell reactors. In addition, economic information is presented for isolate ERIH{sub 2} (from Engineering Resources, Inc.) in the two reactors with and without H{sub 2} recovery.

  17. Topic modeling for cluster analysis of large biological and medical datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weizhong; Zou, Wen; Chen, James J

    2014-01-01

    The big data moniker is nowhere better deserved than to describe the ever-increasing prodigiousness and complexity of biological and medical datasets. New methods are needed to generate and test hypotheses, foster biological interpretation, and build validated predictors. Although multivariate techniques such as cluster analysis may allow researchers to identify groups, or clusters, of related variables, the accuracies and effectiveness of traditional clustering methods diminish for large and hyper dimensional datasets. Topic modeling is an active research field in machine learning and has been mainly used as an analytical tool to structure large textual corpora for data mining. Its ability to reduce high dimensionality to a small number of latent variables makes it suitable as a means for clustering or overcoming clustering difficulties in large biological and medical datasets. In this study, three topic model-derived clustering methods, highest probable topic assignment, feature selection and feature extraction, are proposed and tested on the cluster analysis of three large datasets: Salmonella pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) dataset, lung cancer dataset, and breast cancer dataset, which represent various types of large biological or medical datasets. All three various methods are shown to improve the efficacy/effectiveness of clustering results on the three datasets in comparison to traditional methods. A preferable cluster analysis method emerged for each of the three datasets on the basis of replicating known biological truths. Topic modeling could be advantageously applied to the large datasets of biological or medical research. The three proposed topic model-derived clustering methods, highest probable topic assignment, feature selection and feature extraction, yield clustering improvements for the three different data types. Clusters more efficaciously represent truthful groupings and subgroupings in the data than traditional methods, suggesting

  18. Identifying biological concepts from a protein-related corpus with a probabilistic topic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xinghua

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical literature, e.g., MEDLINE, contains a wealth of knowledge regarding functions of proteins. Major recurring biological concepts within such text corpora represent the domains of this body of knowledge. The goal of this research is to identify the major biological topics/concepts from a corpus of protein-related MEDLINE© titles and abstracts by applying a probabilistic topic model. Results The latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA model was applied to the corpus. Based on the Bayesian model selection, 300 major topics were extracted from the corpus. The majority of identified topics/concepts was found to be semantically coherent and most represented biological objects or concepts. The identified topics/concepts were further mapped to the controlled vocabulary of the Gene Ontology (GO terms based on mutual information. Conclusion The major and recurring biological concepts within a collection of MEDLINE documents can be extracted by the LDA model. The identified topics/concepts provide parsimonious and semantically-enriched representation of the texts in a semantic space with reduced dimensionality and can be used to index text.

  19. TOPICAL REVIEW: Biological and chemical sensors for cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Elfriede

    2010-11-01

    The great challenge for sensor systems to be accepted as a relevant diagnostic and therapeutic tool for cancer detection is the ability to determine the presence of relevant biomarkers or biomarker patterns comparably to or even better than the traditional analytical systems. Biosensor and chemical sensor technologies are already used for several clinical applications such as blood glucose or blood gas measurements. However, up to now not many sensors have been developed for cancer-related tests because only a few of the biomarkers have shown clinical relevance and the performance of the sensor systems is not always satisfactory. New genomic and proteomic tools are used to detect new molecular signatures and identify which combinations of biomarkers may detect best the presence or risk of cancer or monitor cancer therapies. These molecular signatures include genetic and epigenetic signatures, changes in gene expressions, protein biomarker profiles and other metabolite profile changes. They provide new changes in using different sensor technologies for cancer detection especially when complex biomarker patterns have to be analyzed. To address requirements for this complex analysis, there have been recent efforts to develop sensor arrays and new solutions (e.g. lab on a chip) in which sampling, preparation, high-throughput analysis and reporting are integrated. The ability of parallelization, miniaturization and the degree of automation are the focus of new developments and will be supported by nanotechnology approaches. This review recaps some scientific considerations about cancer diagnosis and cancer-related biomarkers, relevant biosensor and chemical sensor technologies, their application as cancer sensors and consideration about future challenges.

  20. Pre-Service Science Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge in The Physics, Chemistry, and Biology Topics

    OpenAIRE

    Bektas, Oktay

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated pre-service science teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge in the physics, chemistry, and biology topics. These topics were the light and sound, the physical and chemical changes, and reproduction, growth, and evolution. Qualitative research design was utilized. Data were collected from 33 pre-service science teachers (PSTs) by using open-ended questions. Data analysis was performed using descriptive analysis. The results indicated that some PCTs have sufficient infor...

  1. Modelling topical photodynamic therapy treatment including the continuous production of Protoporphyrin IX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C. L.; Brown, C. T. A.; Wood, K.; Moseley, H.

    2016-11-01

    Most existing theoretical models of photodynamic therapy (PDT) assume a uniform initial distribution of the photosensitive molecule, Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). This is an adequate assumption when the prodrug is systematically administered; however for topical PDT this is no longer a valid assumption. Topical application and subsequent diffusion of the prodrug results in an inhomogeneous distribution of PpIX, especially after short incubation times, prior to light illumination. In this work a theoretical simulation of PDT where the PpIX distribution depends on the incubation time and the treatment modality is described. Three steps of the PpIX production are considered. The first is the distribution of the topically applied prodrug, the second in the conversion from the prodrug to PpIX and the third is the light distribution which affects the PpIX distribution through photobleaching. The light distribution is modelled using a Monte Carlo radiation transfer model and indicates treatment depths of around 2 mm during daylight PDT and approximately 3 mm during conventional PDT. The results suggest that treatment depths are not only limited by the light penetration but also by the PpIX distribution.

  2. The human heart and the circulatory system as an interesting interdisciplinary topic in lessons of physics and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volná, M; Látal, F; Kubínek, R; Richterek, L

    2014-01-01

    Many topics which are closely related can be found in the national curriculum of the Czech Republic for physics and biology. One of them is the heart and the circulatory system in the human body. This topic was examined cross curriculum, a teaching module was created and the topic was chosen for our research. The task was to determine if the students of bachelor study are aware of connections between physics and biology within this topic and whether we can help them effectively to describe the corresponding physics phenomena in the human body connected, for example, with a heart attack or with the measurement of blood pressure. In this paper, the heart and the circulatory system are presented as suitable topics for an interdisciplinary teaching module which includes both theoretical and experimental parts. The module was evaluated by a group of first-year undergraduate students of physics at the Faculty of Science, Palacký University. The acquired knowledge was compared with another control group through a test. The highest efficiency of the module was evaluated on the basis of questions that covered the calculation problems. (paper)

  3. Biological treatment of inorganic ion contamination including radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Microorganisms and plants are capable of a broad range of activities useful in treating inorganic contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface runoff water Among the advantages of biological processes for this purpose are relatively low costs (related to their mild conditions) and the practicality of letting them run unattended. This talk will review both kinds of treatment chemistry that can be done biologically as well as present data from INEEL projects on bioremediation of specific elements. Biological processes can either solubilize or immobilize metals and other ions depending on the need. Uranium ions are solubilized from soil by the local bioproduction of organic acids as chelating agents, allowing removal of this ion as part of an ex-situ treatment process. Further, the microbial production of sulfuric acid can be used to solubilize Cs contamination in concrete surfaces. More usual though is the need to control metal movement in soil or water. Various metals such as Se and Cd are taken up from soil by hyper-accumulating plants, where they can be harvested in concentrated form in the leaves and stems. Excess acidity and a broad variety of toxic metals in acid rock drainage, such as Hg, Cd, Zn and others, can be removed by the production of sulfide ion in an easily fielded biological reactor which may be useful on phosphate processing runoff water contaminated with naturally occuring radioactive materials. Soluble Co, Cu, and Cd can be treated by sorption onto immobilized algae. Inorganic ions can also be directly reduced by bacteria as part of treatment, for example the conversion of soluble selenate ion to insoluble elemental selenium and the conversion of highly toxic CR(VI) to the far less soluble and less toxic Cr(III)

  4. Risk concepts in various fields including radiation protection. A historical review and some recent topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Michiaki

    2000-01-01

    This is a review by the expert group concerning risks in radiation protection and in chemical management, recent state of protection and of health-risk assessment of low dose radiation, and risk concepts in other fields. Risk concepts in radiation protection are described mainly on ICRP: Its history leading to its Publication 1 (1958), Pub. 9 (1965), Pub. 26 (1977) and Pub. 60 (1990). In that recent publication, the term, risk, is used only for the established one like estimated risk or excess relative risk. Risk management of chemicals involves that against pollution from environmental and ecological aspects, and assessment of dioxin and chemicals from toxicology and carcinogenicity aspects. Recently, risks of low dose radiation have been actively discussed conceivably because of possible reduction of the exposure limit in ICRP Recommendation 1990, Chernobyl accident, advances of radiation biology and radiation protection problem in the radioactive waste disposition. Globally, many academic societies such as American Health-Physics Society published Position Statements and Reports and there are activities like the Research program plan for the risk and an international conference of bridging radiation policy and science. Risk concepts involve technological and ecological ones, insurance ones and health ones. Risk assessment or analysis is done through recognition, measurement and prediction, thus through the scientific process based on objective facts. (K.H.)

  5. Integrating pharmacology topics in high school biology and chemistry classes improves performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D.; Halpin, Myra J.

    2003-11-01

    Although numerous programs have been developed for Grade Kindergarten through 12 science education, evaluation has been difficult owing to the inherent problems conducting controlled experiments in the typical classroom. Using a rigorous experimental design, we developed and tested a novel program containing a series of pharmacology modules (e.g., drug abuse) to help high school students learn basic principles in biology and chemistry. High school biology and chemistry teachers were recruited for the study and they attended a 1-week workshop to learn how to integrate pharmacology into their teaching. Working with university pharmacology faculty, they also developed classroom activities. The following year, teachers field-tested the pharmacology modules in their classrooms. Students in classrooms using the pharmacology topics scored significantly higher on a multiple choice test of basic biology and chemistry concepts compared with controls. Very large effect sizes (up to 1.27 standard deviations) were obtained when teachers used as many as four modules. In addition, biology students increased performance on chemistry questions and chemistry students increased performance on biology questions. Substantial gains in achievement may be made when high school students are taught science using topics that are interesting and relevant to their own lives.

  6. Modification of TOUGH2 to Include the Dusty Gas Model for Gas Diffusion; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, STEPHEN W.

    2001-01-01

    The GEO-SEQ Project is investigating methods for geological sequestration of CO(sub 2). This project, which is directed by LBNL and includes a number of other industrial, university, and national laboratory partners, is evaluating computer simulation methods including TOUGH2 for this problem. The TOUGH2 code, which is a widely used code for flow and transport in porous and fractured media, includes simplified methods for gas diffusion based on a direct application of Fick's law. As shown by Webb (1998) and others, the Dusty Gas Model (DGM) is better than Fick's Law for modeling gas-phase diffusion in porous media. In order to improve gas-phase diffusion modeling for the GEO-SEQ Project, the EOS7R module in the TOUGH2 code has been modified to include the Dusty Gas Model as documented in this report. In addition, the liquid diffusion model has been changed from a mass-based formulation to a mole-based model. Modifications for separate and coupled diffusion in the gas and liquid phases have also been completed. The results from the DGM are compared to the Fick's law behavior for TCE and PCE diffusion across a capillary fringe. The differences are small due to the relatively high permeability (k= 10(sup -11) m(sup 2)) of the problem and the small mole fraction of the gases. Additional comparisons for lower permeabilities and higher mole fractions may be useful

  7. BIOLOGY OF HUMAN MALARIA PLASMODIA INCLUDING PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinello Antinori

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a vector-borne infection caused by unicellular parasite of the genus Plasmodium. Plasmodia are obligate intracellular parasites that in humans after a clinically silent replication phase in the liver are able to infect and replicate within the erythrocytes. Four species (P.falciparum, P.malariae, P.ovale and P.vivax are traditionally recognized as responsible of natural infection in human beings but the recent upsurge of P.knowlesi malaria in South-East Asia has led clinicians to consider it as the fifth human malaria parasite. Recent studies in wild-living apes in Africa have revealed that P.falciparum, the most deadly form of human malaria, is not only human-host restricted as previously believed and its phylogenetic lineage is much more complex with new species identified in gorilla, bonobo and chimpanzee. Although less impressive, new data on biology of P.malariae, P.ovale and P.vivax are also emerging and will be briefly discussed in this review.

  8. Design, Development, and Psychometric Analysis of a General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Topic Inventory Based on the Identified Main Chemistry Topics Relevant to Nursing Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Corina E.

    2013-01-01

    This two-stage study focused on the undergraduate nursing course that covers topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry. In the first stage, the central objective was to identify the main concepts of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was based on open-ended interviews of both nursing…

  9. WHO standards for biotherapeutics, including biosimilars: an example of the evaluation of complex biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Ivana; Griffiths, Elwyn

    2017-11-01

    The most advanced regulatory processes for complex biological products have been put in place in many countries to provide appropriate regulatory oversight of biotherapeutic products in general, and similar biotherapeutics in particular. This process is still ongoing and requires regular updates to national regulatory requirements in line with scientific developments and up-to-date standards. For this purpose, strong knowledge of and expertise in evaluating biotherapeutics in general and similar biotherapeutic products, also called biosimilars, in particular is essential. Here, we discuss the World Health Organization's international standard-setting role in the regulatory evaluation of recombinant DNA-derived biotherapeutic products, including biosimilars, and provide examples that may serve as models for moving forward with nonbiological complex medicinal products. A number of scientific challenges and regulatory considerations imposed by the advent of biosimilars are described, together with the lessons learned, to stimulate future discussions on this topic. In addition, the experiences of facilitating the implementation of guiding principles for evaluation of similar biotherapeutic products into regulatory and manufacturers' practices in various countries over the past 10 years are briefly explained, with the aim of promoting further developments and regulatory convergence of complex biological and nonbiological products. © 2017 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  10. Tactile Models and Games as Learning Tools for Topics of Molecular and Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelma Regina Segnini Bossolan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The cell structure and the dynamics of its functioning are basic topics for the understanding of phenomena on a larger scale in living organisms and for which research in science teaching has suggested several strategies based on the use of images, games, computational simulations and tactile models, among other types of external representations. Our science education research group, over the last 17 years, has developed and evaluated educational materials for teaching these topics, aimed at all levels of school. Among these materials, we highlight the tactile models for the assembly of nucleic acid, amino acids and proteins molecules, as well as a board game that deals with the process of protein synthesis. These materials were evaluated with students from the final grades of elementary and high school, in the context of the Natural Sciences Curriculum of the State of São Paulo, as well as students from two higher level courses, one of them Licentiate’s program in Exact Sciences. Activities were planned with a problem-solving approach and carried out in small groups. Tactile models of nucleic acid aided elementary students in understanding the role of these molecules in the transmission of hereditary traits. The game of protein synthesis, which depicts this process in a schematic eukaryotic cell where the participants aim to synthesize a particular protein, promoted the development of skills such as “decision making” and “making anticipations” among high school students, in addition of expanding their knowledge about the biological functions of these molecules. The tactile models of amino acids and proteins used by students of higher education promoted their spatial perception of these molecules, allowing the prediction of intra- and intermolecular interactions. It is important to emphasize the importance of these educational resources in the construction of more functional mental models of cells and of intracellular processes.

  11. Thinking processes of Filipino teachers representation of schema of some biology topics: Its effects to the students conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquilla, Manuel B.

    2018-01-01

    This study is a qualitative-quantitative research, where the main concern is to investigate Content knowledge representation of Filipino Teachers in their schema (proposition, linear ordering and imagery) of some biology topics. The five biology topics includes: Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration, human reproductive system, Mendelian genetics and NonMendelian genetics. The study focuses on the six (6) biology teachers and a total of 222 students in their respective classes. Of the Six (6) teachers, three (3) are under the Science curriculum and three (3) under regular curriculum in both public and private schools in Iligan city and Lanao del Norte, Philippines. The study utilizes interpretative case-study method, bracketing method, and concept analysis for qualitative part. For quantitative, it uses a nonparametric statistical tool, Kendall's Tau to determine congruence of students and teachers' concept maps and paired t-test for testing the significant differences of pre-and post-instruction concept maps to determine the effects of students' conceptual understanding before and after the teacher's representation of their schema that requires the teachers' thinking processes. The data were cross-validated with two or more techniques used in the study. The data collection entailed seven (7) months immersion: one (1) month for preliminary phase for the researcher to gain teachers' and students' confidence and the succeeding six (6) months for main observation and data collection. Results indicate that the teacher utilize six methods to construct meaning of concepts, three methods of representing classification, four methods to represent relationships, seven methods to represent transformation and three methods to represent causation in planning and implementing the lessons. They often modify definitions in the textbook and express these in lingua franca to be better understood by the students. Furthermore, the teachers' analogs given to student are sometimes far

  12. WWW.Cell Biology Education: Using the World Wide Web to Develop a New Teaching Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blystone, Robert V.; MacAlpine, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    "Cell Biology Education" calls attention each quarter to several Web sites of educational interest to the biology community. The Internet provides access to an enormous array of potential teaching materials. In this article, the authors describe one approach for using the World Wide Web to develop a new college biology laboratory exercise. As a…

  13. Novel alginate-based nanocarriers as a strategy to include high concentrations of hydrophobic compounds in hydrogels for topical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H. T. P.; Munnier, E.; Souce, M.; Perse, X.; David, S.; Bonnier, F.; Vial, F.; Yvergnaux, F.; Perrier, T.; Cohen-Jonathan, S.; Chourpa, I.

    2015-06-01

    The cutaneous penetration of hydrophobic active molecules is of foremost concern in the dermatology and cosmetic formulation fields. The poor solubility in water of those molecules limits their use in hydrophilic forms such as gels, which are favored by patients with chronic skin disease. The aim of this work is to design a novel nanocarrier of hydrophobic active molecules and to determine its potential as an ingredient of a topical form. The nanocarrier consists of an oily core surrounded by a protective shell of alginate, a natural polysaccharide isolated from brown algae. These calcium alginate-based nanocarriers (CaANCs) were prepared at room temperature and without the use of organic solvent by an accelerated nanoemulsification-polymer crosslinking method. The size (hydrodynamic diameter ˜200 nm) and surface charge (zeta potential ˜ - 30 mV) of the CaANCs are both compatible with their application on skin. CaANCs loaded with a fluorescent label were stable in model hydrophilic galenic forms under different storage conditions. Curcumin was encapsulated in CaANCs with an efficiency of ˜95%, fully retaining its antioxidant activity. The application of the curcumin-loaded CaANCs on excised human skin led to a significant accumulation of the active molecules in the upper layers of the skin, asserting the potential of these nanocarriers in active pharmaceutical and cosmetic ingredients topical delivery.

  14. Novel alginate-based nanocarriers as a strategy to include high concentrations of hydrophobic compounds in hydrogels for topical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, H T P; Munnier, E; Souce, M; Perse, X; David, S; Bonnier, F; Cohen-Jonathan, S; Chourpa, I; Vial, F; Yvergnaux, F; Perrier, T

    2015-01-01

    The cutaneous penetration of hydrophobic active molecules is of foremost concern in the dermatology and cosmetic formulation fields. The poor solubility in water of those molecules limits their use in hydrophilic forms such as gels, which are favored by patients with chronic skin disease. The aim of this work is to design a novel nanocarrier of hydrophobic active molecules and to determine its potential as an ingredient of a topical form. The nanocarrier consists of an oily core surrounded by a protective shell of alginate, a natural polysaccharide isolated from brown algae. These calcium alginate-based nanocarriers (CaANCs) were prepared at room temperature and without the use of organic solvent by an accelerated nanoemulsification-polymer crosslinking method. The size (hydrodynamic diameter ∼200 nm) and surface charge (zeta potential ∼ − 30 mV) of the CaANCs are both compatible with their application on skin. CaANCs loaded with a fluorescent label were stable in model hydrophilic galenic forms under different storage conditions. Curcumin was encapsulated in CaANCs with an efficiency of ∼95%, fully retaining its antioxidant activity. The application of the curcumin-loaded CaANCs on excised human skin led to a significant accumulation of the active molecules in the upper layers of the skin, asserting the potential of these nanocarriers in active pharmaceutical and cosmetic ingredients topical delivery. (paper)

  15. Preliminary Data on the Safety of Phytoene- and Phytofluene-Rich Products for Human Use including Topical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Havas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The colorless carotenoids phytoene and phytofluene are comparatively understudied compounds found in common foods (e.g., tomatoes and in human plasma, internal tissues, and skin. Being naturally present in common foods, their intake at dietary levels is not expected to present a safety concern. However, since the interest in these compounds in the context of many applications is expanding, it is important to conduct studies aimed at assessing their safety. We present here results of in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies, revealing no significant cytotoxic or genotoxic potential and of short- and long-term human in vivo skin compatibility studies with phytoene- and phytofluene-rich tomato and Dunaliella salina alga extracts, showing a lack of irritancy or sensitization reactions. These results support the safe use of phytoene- and phytofluene-rich products in human topical applications.

  16. Integrative Biological Chemistry Program Includes the Use of Informatics Tools, GIS and SAS Software Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Malcolm J.; Kashmar, Richard J.; Hurst, Kent; Fiedler, Frank; Gross, Catherine E.; Deol, Jasbir K.; Wilson, Alora

    2015-01-01

    Wesley College is a private, primarily undergraduate minority-serving institution located in the historic district of Dover, Delaware (DE). The College recently revised its baccalaureate biological chemistry program requirements to include a one-semester Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences course and project-based experiential learning…

  17. Topics in space gerontology: Effects of altered gravity and the problem of biological age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economos, A. C.

    1982-01-01

    The use of altered gravity experimentation as a gerontological research tool is examined and a rationale for a systems approach to the adaptation to spaceflight is presented. The dependence of adaptation capacity on biological age is also discussed.

  18. Topical, Biological and Clinical Challenges in the Management of Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hammadi, Anwar; Al-Ismaily, Abla; Al-Ali, Sameer; Ramadurai, Rajesh; Jain, Rishi; McKinley-Grant, Lynn; Mughal, Tariq I.

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin disorders among adolescents and young adults. It is associated with substantial morbidity and, rarely, with mortality. The exact worldwide incidence and prevalence are currently unknown. Current challenges involve improving understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of acne vulgaris and developing a practical treatment consensus. Expert panel discussions were held in 2013 and 2014 among a group of scientists and clinicians from the Omani and United Arab Emirate Dermatology Societies to ascertain the current optimal management of acne vulgaris, identify clinically relevant end-points and construct suitable methodology for future clinical trial designs. This article reviews the discussions of these sessions and recent literature on this topic. PMID:27226905

  19. Topical, Biological and Clinical Challenges in the Management of Patients with Acne Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Al-Hammadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin disorders among adolescents and young adults. It is associated with substantial morbidity and, rarely, with mortality. The exact worldwide incidence and prevalence are currently unknown. Current challenges involve improving understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of acne vulgaris and developing a practical treatment consensus. Expert panel discussions were held in 2013 and 2014 among a group of scientists and clinicians from the Omani and United Arab Emirate Dermatology Societies to ascertain the current optimal management of acne vulgaris, identify clinically relevant end-points and construct suitable methodology for future clinical trial designs. This article reviews the discussions of these sessions and recent literature on this topic.

  20. Teaching Methods in Biology Education and Sustainability Education Including Outdoor Education for Promoting Sustainability--A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeronen, Eila; Palmberg, Irmeli; Yli-Panula, Eija

    2017-01-01

    There are very few studies concerning the importance of teaching methods in biology education and environmental education including outdoor education for promoting sustainability at the levels of primary and secondary schools and pre-service teacher education. The material was selected using special keywords from biology and sustainable education…

  1. Ulcerated hemosiderinic dyschromia and iron deposits within lower limbs treated with a topical application of biological chelator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Brizzio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ulcerative haemosiderinic dyschromia of chronic venous insufficiency is difficult to heal and presents a high accumulation of iron. Lactoferrin, a potent natural iron chelator, could help to scar this ulcerative haemosi - derinic dyschromia. The objective of this study was to determine whether the topical application of a liposomal gel with Lactoferrin favors scarring/degradation of the brown colored spot typical of ulcerative haemosiderinic dyschromia. Nine patients with severe chronic venous insufficiency and ulcerative haemosiderinic dyschromia (CEAP-C6, with a natural evolution of over 12 months, were included in the study. Hemo chromatosis gene mutations were investigated. The levels of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation and blood cell counts were analyzed. The presence of hemosiderin was investigated through periulcerous and ulcer fundus biopsies carried out at baseline and 30 days after treatment with Lactoferrin. The severity of the injuries (CEAP classification was evaluated at the beginning of and throughout the whole 3-month treatment period. No patient had received compression treatment during the three months previous to this therapy. Significant improvement in these injuries, with a reduction in the dimensions of the brown spot (9 of 9 at Day 90, and complete scarring with a closure time ranging from 15 to 180 days (7 of 9 were observed. The use of topical lactoferrin is a non-invasive therapeutic tool that favors clearance of hemosiderinic dyschromia and scarring of the ulcer. The success of this study was not influenced either by the hemochromatosis genetics or the iron metabolism profile observed.

  2. Mechanical–biological treatment: Performance and potentials. An LCA of 8 MBT plants including waste characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montejo, Cristina; Tonini, Davide; Márquez, María del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    In the endeavour of avoiding presence of biodegradable waste in landfills and increasing recycling, mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) plants have seen a significant increase in number and capacity in the last two decades. The aim of these plants is separating and stabilizing the quickly...... of the MBT plants. These widely differed in type of biological treatment and recovery efficiencies. The results indicated that the performance is strongly connected with energy and materials recovery efficiency. The recommendation for upgrading and/or commissioning of future plants is to optimize materials...... recovery through increased automation of the selection and to prioritize biogas-electricity production from the organic fraction over direct composting. The optimal strategy for refuse derived fuel (RDF) management depends upon the environmental compartment to be prioritized and the type of marginal...

  3. Preparation, Characterization, and Biological Activities of Topical Anti-Aging Ingredients in a Citrus junos Callus Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Adhikari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we prepared and characterized a callus extract from Citrus junos and assessed its utility as a source of topical anti-aging ingredients. Callus extract was produced by aqueous extraction from Citrus junos grown on Murashige and Skoog medium with picloram as a growth regulator. After measuring the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, the major phenolic compound in calli was identified as p-hydroxycinnamoylmalic acid (1 by spectroscopic analysis. The total phenol content in the extract was determined to be 24.50 ± 0.43 mg/g of gallic acid equivalents; however, the total flavonoid content of the extract was not determined. The biological activities of the callus extract, in terms of skin anti-aging, were assessed by measuring the anti-tyrosinase activity in, and melanogenesis by, melanoma cells; and proliferation of, and procollagen synthesis by, human fibroblasts. The callus extract was incorporated into nanoliposomes (NLs to improve its percutaneous absorption. Addition of the callus extract resulted in a 1.85-fold decrease in the melanin content of melanocytes compared with that with arbutin. The extract (500 μg/mL significantly promoted the proliferation of, and procollagen synthesis by, fibroblasts (by 154% and 176%, respectively. In addition, the flux through the human epidermis of Citrus junos callus extract incorporated into NLs was 17.67-fold higher than that of the callus extract alone. These findings suggest that Citrus junos callus extract-loaded NLs have promise as an anti-aging cosmetic, as well as having a skin-lightening effect.

  4. Biological review of 82 species of coral petitioned to be included in the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Russell E.; Birkeland, Charles; Eakin, C. Mark; McElhany, Paul; Miller, Margaret W.; Patterson, Matt; Piniak, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    list 83 coral species as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The petition was based on a predicted decline in available habitat for the species, citing anthropogenic climate change and ocean acidification as the lead factors among the various stressors responsible for the potential decline. The NMFS identified 82 of the corals as candidate species, finding that the petition provided substantive information for a potential listing of these species. The NMFS established a Biological Review Team (BRT) to prepare this Status Review Report that examines the status of these 82 candidate coral species and evaluates extinction risk for each of them. This document makes no recommendations for listing, as that is a separate evaluation to be conducted by the NMFS.

  5. Deliverable 4.2: Methodology for including specific biological effects and pathogen aspects into LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Olsen, Stig Irving; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2009-01-01

    .e. endocrine disruptors) and the possibilities and relevance of including impact categories on land use and site-specific assessments have been addressed. Further, the special problems on how to deal with land fill and how to do normalization and weighting of impact potentials are also dealt with. The problem...

  6. Explorations: A Research-Based Program Introducing Undergraduates to Diverse Biology Research Topics Taught by Grad Students and Postdocs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sara E.; Khalfan, Waheeda; Bergmann, Dominique; Simoni, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate biology majors are often overwhelmed by and underinformed about the diversity and complexity of biological research that is conducted on research-intensive campuses. We present a program that introduces undergraduates to the diversity and scope of biological research and also provides unique teaching opportunities for graduate…

  7. Controlled Carbon Source Addition to an Alternating Nitrification-Denitrification Wastewater Treatment Process Including Biological P Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Henze, Mogens

    1995-01-01

    The paper investigates the effect of adding an external carbon source on the rate of denitrification in an alternating activated sludge process including biological P removal. Two carbon sources were examined, acetate and hydrolysate derived from biologically hydrolyzed sludge. Preliminary batch...... that external carbon source addition may serve as a suitable control variable to improve process performance....... process, the addition of either carbon source to the anoxic zone also resulted in an instantaneous and fairly reproducible increase in the denitrification rate. Some release of phosphate associated with the carbon source addition was observed. With respect to nitrogen removal, these results indicate...

  8. Diflorasone Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... area, do not use tight-fitting diapers or plastic pants. Such use may increase side effects.Do not apply other skin preparations or products ... doctor.if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are using betamethasone topical.

  9. Betamethasone Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... area, do not use tight-fitting diapers or plastic pants. Such use may increase side effects.Do not apply other skin preparations or products ... immediately.if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are using betamethasone topical.

  10. Halcinonide Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... area, do not use tight-fitting diapers or plastic pants. Such use may increase side effects.Do not wrap or bandage the treated area ... doctor.if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are using halcinonide topical.

  11. Fluocinonide Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... area, do not use tight-fitting diapers or plastic pants. Such use may increase side effects.Do not apply other skin preparations or products ... immediately.if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are using fluocinonide topical.

  12. Water Relations and the Vacuolated Plant Cell: A Brief Study of the Topic at Advanced Level in School Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayford, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses concepts needed to understand plant water relations and results of a study designed to examine the understanding of these concepts by students preparing for A-level examinations. Focuses on students who have learned the topic using the old terminology compared with students adopting the new suggested terms. (Author/JN)

  13. Preformulation and stability in biological fluids of the retrocyclin RC-101, a potential anti-HIV topical microbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrads Thomas P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RC-101, a cationic peptide retrocyclin analog, has in vitro activity against HIV-1. Peptide drugs are commonly prone to conformational changes, oxidation and hydrolysis when exposed to excipients in a formulation or biological fluids in the body, this can affect product efficacy. We aimed to investigate RC-101 stability under several conditions including the presence of human vaginal fluids (HVF, enabling the efficient design of a safe and effective microbicide product. Stability studies (temperature, pH, and oxidation were performed by HPLC, Circular Dichroism, and Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Additionally, the effect of HVF on formulated RC-101 was evaluated with fluids collected from healthy volunteers, or from subjects with bacterial vaginosis (BV. RC-101 was monitored by LC-MS/MS for up to 72 h. Results RC-101 was stable at pH 3, 4, and 7, at 25 and 37°C. High concentrations of hydrogen peroxide resulted in less than 10% RC-101 reduction over 24 h. RC-101 was detected 48 h after incubation with normal HVF; however, not following incubation with HVF from BV subjects. Conclusions Our results emphasize the importance of preformulation evaluations and highlight the impact of HVF on microbicide product stability and efficacy. RC-101 was stable in normal HVF for at least 48 h, indicating that it is a promising candidate for microbicide product development. However, RC-101 stability appears compromised in individuals with BV, requiring more advanced formulation strategies for stabilization in this environment.

  14. Preformulation and stability in biological fluids of the retrocyclin RC-101, a potential anti-HIV topical microbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Alexandra B; Bunge, Katherine E; Hood, Brian L; Conrads, Thomas P; Cole, Alexander M; Gupta, Phalguni; Rohan, Lisa C

    2011-07-29

    RC-101, a cationic peptide retrocyclin analog, has in vitro activity against HIV-1. Peptide drugs are commonly prone to conformational changes, oxidation and hydrolysis when exposed to excipients in a formulation or biological fluids in the body, this can affect product efficacy. We aimed to investigate RC-101 stability under several conditions including the presence of human vaginal fluids (HVF), enabling the efficient design of a safe and effective microbicide product. Stability studies (temperature, pH, and oxidation) were performed by HPLC, Circular Dichroism, and Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Additionally, the effect of HVF on formulated RC-101 was evaluated with fluids collected from healthy volunteers, or from subjects with bacterial vaginosis (BV). RC-101 was monitored by LC-MS/MS for up to 72 h. RC-101 was stable at pH 3, 4, and 7, at 25 and 37°C. High concentrations of hydrogen peroxide resulted in less than 10% RC-101 reduction over 24 h. RC-101 was detected 48 h after incubation with normal HVF; however, not following incubation with HVF from BV subjects. Our results emphasize the importance of preformulation evaluations and highlight the impact of HVF on microbicide product stability and efficacy. RC-101 was stable in normal HVF for at least 48 h, indicating that it is a promising candidate for microbicide product development. However, RC-101 stability appears compromised in individuals with BV, requiring more advanced formulation strategies for stabilization in this environment.

  15. Multi trace element analysis of dry biological materials by neutron activation analysis including a chemical group separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weers, C.A.

    1980-07-01

    Multi-element analysis of dry biological material by neutron activation analysis has to include radiochemical separation. The evaporation process is described in terms of the half-volume. The pretreatment of the samples and the development of the destruction-evaporation apparatus are described. The successive adsorption steps with active charcoal, Al 2 O 3 and coprecipitation with Fe(OH) 3 are described. Results obtained for standard reference materials are summarized. (G.T.H.)

  16. Controlled Carbon Source Addition to an Alternating Nitrification-Denitrification Wastewater Treatment Process Including Biological P Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Henze, Mogens

    1995-01-01

    The paper investigates the effect of adding an external carbon source on the rate of denitrification in an alternating activated sludge process including biological P removal. Two carbon sources were examined, acetate and hydrolysate derived from biologically hydrolyzed sludge. Preliminary batch...... experiments performed in 5 liter bottles indicated that the denitrification rate can be instantaneously increased through the addition of either carbon source. The amount by which the rate was increased depended on the amount of carbon added. In the main experiments performed in a pilot scale alternating...... process, the addition of either carbon source to the anoxic zone also resulted in an instantaneous and fairly reproducible increase in the denitrification rate. Some release of phosphate associated with the carbon source addition was observed. With respect to nitrogen removal, these results indicate...

  17. Teaching Methods in Biology Education and Sustainability Education Including Outdoor Education for Promoting Sustainability—A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eila Jeronen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are very few studies concerning the importance of teaching methods in biology education and environmental education including outdoor education for promoting sustainability at the levels of primary and secondary schools and pre-service teacher education. The material was selected using special keywords from biology and sustainable education in several scientific databases. The article provides an overview of 24 selected articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals from 2006–2016. The data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Altogether, 16 journals were selected and 24 articles were analyzed in detail. The foci of the analyses were teaching methods, learning environments, knowledge and thinking skills, psychomotor skills, emotions and attitudes, and evaluation methods. Additionally, features of good methods were investigated and their implications for teaching were emphasized. In total, 22 different teaching methods were found to improve sustainability education in different ways. The most emphasized teaching methods were those in which students worked in groups and participated actively in learning processes. Research points toward the value of teaching methods that provide a good introduction and supportive guidelines and include active participation and interactivity.

  18. Development, Characterization, and In Vitro Biological Performance of Fluconazole-Loaded Microemulsions for the Topical Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graminha, Márcia; Cerecetto, Hugo; González, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a resistant form of leishmaniasis that is caused by a parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. FLU-loaded microemulsions (MEs) were developed by phase diagram for topical administration of fluconazole (FLU) as prominent alternative to combat CL. Three MEs called F1, F2, and F3 (F1—60% 50 M phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 (PB) as aqueous phase, 10% cholesterol (CHO) as oil phase, and 30% soy phosphatidylcholine/oil polyoxyl-60 hydrogenated castor oil/sodium oleate (3/8/6) (S) as surfactant; F2—50% PB, 10% CHO, and 40% S; F3—40% PB, 10% CHO, and 50 % S) were characterized by droplet size analysis, zeta potential analysis, X-ray diffraction, continuous flow, texture profile analysis, and in vitro bioadhesion. MEs presented pseudoplastic flow and thixotropy was dependent on surfactant concentration. Droplet size was not affected by FLU. FLU-loaded MEs improved the FLU safety profile that was evaluated using red cell haemolysis and in vitro cytotoxicity assays with J-774 mouse macrophages. FLU-unloaded MEs did not exhibit leishmanicidal activity that was performed using MTT colourimetric assays; however, FLU-loaded MEs exhibited activity. Therefore, these MEs have potential to modulate FLU action, being a promising platform for drug delivery systems to treat CL. PMID:25650054

  19. Development, Characterization, and In Vitro Biological Performance of Fluconazole-Loaded Microemulsions for the Topical Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Brito Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a resistant form of leishmaniasis that is caused by a parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. FLU-loaded microemulsions (MEs were developed by phase diagram for topical administration of fluconazole (FLU as prominent alternative to combat CL. Three MEs called F1, F2, and F3 (F1—60% 50 M phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 (PB as aqueous phase, 10% cholesterol (CHO as oil phase, and 30% soy phosphatidylcholine/oil polyoxyl-60 hydrogenated castor oil/sodium oleate (3/8/6 (S as surfactant; F2—50% PB, 10% CHO, and 40% S; F3—40% PB, 10% CHO, and 50 % S were characterized by droplet size analysis, zeta potential analysis, X-ray diffraction, continuous flow, texture profile analysis, and in vitro bioadhesion. MEs presented pseudoplastic flow and thixotropy was dependent on surfactant concentration. Droplet size was not affected by FLU. FLU-loaded MEs improved the FLU safety profile that was evaluated using red cell haemolysis and in vitro cytotoxicity assays with J-774 mouse macrophages. FLU-unloaded MEs did not exhibit leishmanicidal activity that was performed using MTT colourimetric assays; however, FLU-loaded MEs exhibited activity. Therefore, these MEs have potential to modulate FLU action, being a promising platform for drug delivery systems to treat CL.

  20. Planar optical waveguide based sandwich assay sensors and processes for the detection of biological targets including early detection of cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jennifer S [Santa Fe, NM; Swanson, Basil I [Los Alamos, NM; Shively, John E [Arcadia, CA; Li, Lin [Monrovia, CA

    2009-06-02

    An assay element is described including recognition ligands adapted for binding to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) bound to a film on a single mode planar optical waveguide, the film from the group of a membrane, a polymerized bilayer membrane, and a self-assembled monolayer containing polyethylene glycol or polypropylene glycol groups therein and an assay process for detecting the presence of CEA is described including injecting a possible CEA-containing sample into a sensor cell including the assay element, maintaining the sample within the sensor cell for time sufficient for binding to occur between CEA present within the sample and the recognition ligands, injecting a solution including a reporter ligand into the sensor cell; and, interrogating the sample within the sensor cell with excitation light from the waveguide, the excitation light provided by an evanescent field of the single mode penetrating into the biological target-containing sample to a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide thereby exciting any bound reporter ligand within a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide and resulting in a detectable signal.

  1. Topicality of identification of free fatty acids pattern in biologic substrates in the diagnosis of gastroenterological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Didenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the role of free fatty acids in the pathogenesis of metabolic and gastroenterological disorders. An expediency of gas chromatography method for determination of free fatty acids pattern in biologic samples (blood serum, urine, feces and other was substantiated. The role of free fatty acids in the cell structure components formation, energetic homeostasis and signal molecules or their precursor production was shown. So, disorders of regulation of free fatty acids metabolism lead to systemic fails of insulin action, such as glucose metabolism in adipocytes, muscles and liver. Increase in several fractions of lipid pattern takes place in different pathologic states. These changes occur earlier than changes of enzymes activity or other protein markers. For example, short chain fatty acids can be used for identification of syndrome of bacterial overgrowth in the intestines. Increasе in polyunsaturated fatty acid fraction activates inflammation process, immune reactions, blood hypercoagulation, activation of lipid peroxidation. Also, arachidonic (C20:0, dodecanoic (C12:0 and linoleic (C18:3 acids are markers of inflammation processes. In addition, deficiency of free fatty acids is very important aspect of diagnois. It can’t be uncertified by standard laboratory methods. Proven fact is that essential fatty acids can be a cause of metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease formation such as other diseases associated with metabolism. So, only chromatography today is a method for determination fatty acid pattern. The advantages of gas chromatography are rapid realization and high accuracy. Thus, identification of trace concentrations (about 10–12 mole is possible. Implementation of this method into the clinical practice of gastroenterology specialists allows the early diagnosis of pathologies and choice of correct treatment.

  2. Tavaborole Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavaborole topical solution is used to treat fungal toenail infections (infections that may cause nail discoloration, splitting, or pain). Tavaborole topical solution is in a class of medications called antifungals. It works by stopping the growth of nail ...

  3. Efinaconazole Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efinaconazole topical solution is used to treat fungal toenail infections (infections that may cause nail discoloration, splitting, or pain). Efinaconazole topical solution is in a class of medications called antifungals. It works by stopping the growth of nail ...

  4. Health Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Carpal tunnel syndrome Depression Irritable bowel syndrome Migraine Thyroid disease Urinary tract infections All A-Z health topics ... Carpal tunnel syndrome Depression Irritable bowel syndrome Migraine Thyroid disease Urinary tract infections All A-Z health topics ...

  5. Current topics in red cell biology: report on the Red Cell Special Interest Group meeting held at NHS Blood and Transplant Bristol on 30 October 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, T; Bruce, L J; Ridgwell, K

    2016-08-01

    The Red Cell Special Interest Group (SIG) meeting, hosted by the British Blood Transfusion Society, provides an annual forum for the presentation of UK- and European-based red cell research. The 2015 meeting was held on Friday 30 October at the National Health Service Blood & Transplant (NHSBT) facility in Filton, Bristol and provided an exciting and varied programme on the themes of erythropoiesis, malaria biology and pathophysiology and red cells properties in stress and disease. Ten speakers presented on these topics over the course of one day. The meeting was well attended by over 90 delegates. Posters were presented during the lunch break, and abstracts from the posters are published at the end of this issue. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  6. Freshman Health Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovde, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a cluster of health topics that are frequently selected by students in lower division classes. Topics address issues relating to addictive substances, including alcohol and tobacco, eating disorders, obesity, and dieting. Analysis of the topics examines their interrelationships and organization in the reference literature.…

  7. The Biology of Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses topics to aid in understanding animal behavior, including the value of the biological approach to psychology, functional systems, optimality and fitness, universality of environmental effects on behavior, and evolution of social behavior. (DS)

  8. Extended automated separation techniques in destructive neutron activation analysis; application to various biological materials, including human tissues and blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjioe, P.S.; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Houtman, J.P.W.

    1976-09-01

    Neutron activation analysis may be performed as a multi-element and low-level technique for many important trace elements in biological materials, provided that post-irradiation chemical separations are applied. This paper describes a chemical separation consisting of automated procedures for destruction, distillation, and anion-chromatography. The system developed enables the determination of 14 trace elements in biological materials, viz. antimony, arsenic, bromine, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gold, iron, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc. The aspects of sample preparation, neutron irradiation, gamma-spectrum evaluation, and blank-value contribution are also discussed

  9. Including a Service Learning Educational Research Project in a Biology Course-I: Assessing Community Awareness of Childhood Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Shakra, Amal; Saliim, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A university course project was developed and implemented in a biology course, focusing on environmental problems, to assess community awareness of childhood lead poisoning. A set of 385 questionnaires was generated and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The completed questionnaires were sorted first into yes and no sets…

  10. Including a service learning educational research project in a biology course-I: Assessing community awareness of childhood lead poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Shakra, Amal; Saliim, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A university course project was developed and implemented in a biology course, focusing on environmental problems, to assess community awareness of childhood lead poisoning. A set of 385 questionnaires was generated and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The completed questionnaires were sorted fırst into yes and no sets based on the responses obtained for the fırst question, which gauged the participants' awareness of lead as an indoor pollutant at 71% (n=273)...

  11. Bimatoprost Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not use a cotton swab or any other brush or applicator to apply topical bimatoprost.To use the solution, follow these steps: Wash your hands and face thoroughly with soap and water. Be sure that ...

  12. Ciclopirox Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciclopirox topical solution is used along with regular nail trimming to treat fungal infections of the fingernails and toenails (an infection that may cause nail discoloration, splitting and pain). Ciclopirox is in a ...

  13. A Qualitative Study Examining the Exclusive Use of Primary Literature in a Special Topics Biology Course: Improving Conceptions about the Nature of Science and Boosting Confidence in Approaching Original Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B. Elijah; Wiles, Jason R.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the experiences of six students enrolled in a special topics biology class that exclusively used primary literature as course material. Nature of science (NOS) conceptions have been linked to students' attitudes toward scientific subjects, but there has been little research specifically exploring the effects of…

  14. A Study of the Information Literacy of Biomedical Graduate Students: Based on the Thesis Topic Discovery Process in Molecular Biology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhao-Yen Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The biomedical information environment is in a state of constant and rapid change due to the increase in research data and rapid technological advances. In Taiwan, few research has investigated the information literacy of biomedical graduate students. This exploratory study examined the information literacy abilities and training of biomedical graduate students in Taiwan. Semi-structured interviews based on the Association of College and Research Libraries Information Literacy Competency Standards for Science and Engineering/Technology were conducted with 20 molecular biological graduate students. The interview inquired about their information-seeking channels and information literacy education. The findings show that the biomedical graduate students developed a workable thesis topic with their advisors. Through various information-seeking channels and retrieval strategies, they obtained and critically evaluated information to address different information needs for their thesis research. Through seminars, annual conferences and papers, the interviewees were informed of current developments in their field. Subsequently, through written or oral communications, they were able to integrate and exchange the information. Most interviewees cared about the social, economic, legal, and ethical issues surrounding the use of information. College courses and labs were the main information literacy education environment for them to learn about research skills and knowledge. The study concludes four areas to address for the information literacy of biomedical graduate students, i.e., using professional information, using the current information, efficiency in assessing the domain information, and utilization of diverse information channels. Currently, the interviewees showed rather low usage of library resources, which is a concern for biomedical educators and libraries. [Article content in Chinese

  15. Planar optical waveguide based sandwich assay sensors and processes for the detection of biological targets including protein markers, pathogens and cellular debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jennifer S [Santa Fe, NM; Swanson, Basil I [Los Alamos, NM; Grace, Karen M [Los Alamos, NM; Grace, Wynne K [Los Alamos, NM; Shreve, Andrew P [Santa Fe, NM

    2009-06-02

    An assay element is described including recognition ligands bound to a film on a single mode planar optical waveguide, the film from the group of a membrane, a polymerized bilayer membrane, and a self-assembled monolayer containing polyethylene glycol or polypropylene glycol groups therein and an assay process for detecting the presence of a biological target is described including injecting a biological target-containing sample into a sensor cell including the assay element, with the recognition ligands adapted for binding to selected biological targets, maintaining the sample within the sensor cell for time sufficient for binding to occur between selected biological targets within the sample and the recognition ligands, injecting a solution including a reporter ligand into the sensor cell; and, interrogating the sample within the sensor cell with excitation light from the waveguide, the excitation light provided by an evanescent field of the single mode penetrating into the biological target-containing sample to a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide thereby exciting the fluorescent-label in any bound reporter ligand within a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide and resulting in a detectable signal.

  16. The Molecular Revolution in Cutaneous Biology: The Era of Genome-Wide Association Studies and Statistical, Big Data, and Computational Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbunathan, Hima; Bowcock, Anne M

    2017-05-01

    The investigation of biological systems involving all organs of the body including the skin is in era of big data. This requires heavy-duty computational tools, and novel statistical methods. Microarrays have allowed the interrogation of thousands of common genetic markers in thousands of individuals from the same population (termed genome wide association studies or GWAS) to reveal common variation associated with disease or phenotype. These markers are usually single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are relatively common in the population. In the case of dermatological diseases such as alopecia areata, vitiligo, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, common variants have been identified that are associated with disease, and these provide insights into biological pathways and reveal possible novel drug targets. Other skin phenotypes such as acne, color and skin cancers are also being investigated with GWAS. Analyses of such large GWAS datasets require a consideration of a number of statistical issues including the testing of multiple markers, population substructure, and ultimately a requirement for replication. There are also issues regarding the missing heritability of disease that cannot be entirely explained with current GWAS approaches. Next generation sequencing technologies such as exome and genome sequencing of similar patient cohorts will reveal additional variants contributing to disease susceptibility. However, the data generated with these approaches will be orders of magnitude greater than that those generated with arrays, with concomitant challenges in the identification of disease causing variants. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Convex reformulation of biologically-based multi-criteria intensity-modulated radiation therapy optimization including fractionation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Aswin L; den Hertog, Dick; Siem, Alex Y D; Kaanders, Johannes H A M; Huizenga, Henk

    2008-11-21

    Finding fluence maps for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be formulated as a multi-criteria optimization problem for which Pareto optimal treatment plans exist. To account for the dose-per-fraction effect of fractionated IMRT, it is desirable to exploit radiobiological treatment plan evaluation criteria based on the linear-quadratic (LQ) cell survival model as a means to balance the radiation benefits and risks in terms of biologic response. Unfortunately, the LQ-model-based radiobiological criteria are nonconvex functions, which make the optimization problem hard to solve. We apply the framework proposed by Romeijn et al (2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 1991-2013) to find transformations of LQ-model-based radiobiological functions and establish conditions under which transformed functions result in equivalent convex criteria that do not change the set of Pareto optimal treatment plans. The functions analysed are: the LQ-Poisson-based model for tumour control probability (TCP) with and without inter-patient heterogeneity in radiation sensitivity, the LQ-Poisson-based relative seriality s-model for normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) under the LQ-Poisson model and the fractionation-corrected Probit-based model for NTCP according to Lyman, Kutcher and Burman. These functions differ from those analysed before in that they cannot be decomposed into elementary EUD or generalized-EUD functions. In addition, we show that applying increasing and concave transformations to the convexified functions is beneficial for the piecewise approximation of the Pareto efficient frontier.

  18. Dapsone Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... go away: skin redness or burning skin drying skin oiliness and peeling itching Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of these symptoms, stop using dapsone and call ... yellow or pale skin Dapsone topical may cause other side effects. Call ...

  19. Mometasone Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a few drops on the affected areas and massage lightly until it disappears.This medication is only for use on the skin. Do not let mometasone topical get into your eyes or mouth and do not swallow it. Avoid use on the face, in the genital and rectal areas, and in ...

  20. Learning Biology with Plant Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Juliet E.

    This monograph contains 10 plant pathology experiments that were written to correspond to portions of a biology curriculum. Each experiment is suitable to a biology topic and designed to encourage exploration of those biological concepts being taught. Experiments include: (1) The Symptoms and Signs of Disease; (2) Koch's Postulates; (3)…

  1. Topical anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mritunjay; Chawla, Rajiv; Goyal, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects. PMID:26702198

  2. Topical anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mritunjay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects.

  3. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  4. Topical treatment of melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma.

  5. Mathematical modeling of biological processes

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2014-01-01

    This book on mathematical modeling of biological processes includes a wide selection of biological topics that demonstrate the power of mathematics and computational codes in setting up biological processes with a rigorous and predictive framework. Topics include: enzyme dynamics, spread of disease, harvesting bacteria, competition among live species, neuronal oscillations, transport of neurofilaments in axon, cancer and cancer therapy, and granulomas. Complete with a description of the biological background and biological question that requires the use of mathematics, this book is developed for graduate students and advanced undergraduate students with only basic knowledge of ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations; background in biology is not required. Students will gain knowledge on how to program with MATLAB without previous programming experience and how to use codes in order to test biological hypothesis.

  6. The Frontlines of Medicine Project: a proposal for the standardized communication of emergency department data for public health uses including syndromic surveillance for biological and chemical terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthell, Edward N; Cordell, William H; Moorhead, John C; Handler, Jonathan; Feied, Craig; Smith, Mark S; Cochrane, Dennis G; Felton, Christopher W; Collins, Michael A

    2002-04-01

    The Frontlines of Medicine Project is a collaborative effort of emergency medicine (including emergency medical services and clinical toxicology), public health, emergency government, law enforcement, and informatics. This collaboration proposes to develop a nonproprietary, "open systems" approach for reporting emergency department patient data. The common element is a standard approach to sending messages from individual EDs to regional oversight entities that could then analyze the data received. ED encounter data could be used for various public health initiatives, including syndromic surveillance for chemical and biological terrorism. The interlinking of these regional systems could also permit public health surveillance at a national level based on ED patient encounter data. Advancements in the Internet and Web-based technologies could allow the deployment of these standardized tools in a rapid time frame.

  7. Marine Biology and Human Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, F. S.

    1976-01-01

    Marine biology has become an important area for study throughout the world. The author of this article discusses some of the important discoveries and fields of research in marine biology that are useful for mankind. Topics include food from the sea, fish farming, pesticides, pollution, and conservation. (MA)

  8. topics revised

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    bicarbonate concentration of 8 mmol/l or lower. Major adverse consequences of severe acidaemia include decreased cardiac output, decreased arterial blood pressure, reduction in the threshold for cardiac dysrhythmias, and a decrease in hepatic and renal blood flow. Acidaemia causes potassium to leave cells, resulting ...

  9. Nematodes that associate with terrestrial molluscs as definitive hosts, including Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Rhabditida: Rhabditidae) and its development as a biological molluscicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, A; Malan, A P; Ross, J L

    2017-09-01

    Terrestrial molluscs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) are important economic pests worldwide, causing extensive damage to a variety of crop types, and posing a health risk to both humans and wildlife. Current knowledge indicates that there are eight nematode families that associate with molluscs as definitive hosts, including Agfidae, Alaninematidae, Alloionematidae, Angiostomatidae, Cosmocercidae, Diplogastridae, Mermithidae and Rhabditidae. To date, Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Schneider, 1859) Andrássy, 1983 (Rhabditida: Rhabditidae) is the only nematode that has been developed as a biological molluscicide. The nematode, which was commercially released in 1994 by MicroBio Ltd, Littlehampton, UK (formally Becker Underwood, now BASF) under the tradename Nemaslug®, is now sold in 15 different European countries. This paper reviews nematodes isolated from molluscs, with specially detailed information on the life cycle, host range, commercialization, natural distribution, mass production and field application of P. hermaphrodita.

  10. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-01-01

    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  11. Optimization of biological and instrumental detection of explosives and ignitable liquid residues including canines, SPME/ITMS and GC/MSn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furton, Kenneth G.; Harper, Ross J.; Perr, Jeannette M.; Almirall, Jose R.

    2003-09-01

    A comprehensive study and comparison is underway using biological detectors and instrumental methods for the rapid detection of ignitable liquid residues (ILR) and high explosives. Headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) has been demonstrated to be an effective sampling method helping to identify active odor signature chemicals used by detector dogs to locate forensic specimens as well as a rapid pre-concentration technique prior to instrumental detection. Common ignitable liquids and common military and industrial explosives have been studied including trinitrotoluene, tetryl, RDX, HMX, EGDN, PETN and nitroglycerine. This study focuses on identifying volatile odor signature chemicals present, which can be used to enhance the level and reliability of detection of ILR and explosives by canines and instrumental methods. While most instrumental methods currently in use focus on particles and on parent organic compounds, which are often involatile, characteristic volatile organics are generally also present and can be exploited to enhance detection particularly for well-concealed devices. Specific examples include the volatile odor chemicals 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and cyclohexanone, which are readily available in the headspace of the high explosive composition C-4; whereas, the active chemical cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene-2,4,6-trinitramine (RDX) is not. The analysis and identification of these headspace 'fingerprint' organics is followed by double-blind dog trials of the individual components using certified teams in an attempt to isolate and understand the target compounds to which dogs are sensitive. Studies to compare commonly used training aids with the actual target explosive have also been undertaken to determine their suitability and effectiveness. The optimization of solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with ion trap mobility spectrometry (ITMS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (GC/MSn) is detailed including interface development

  12. Wetland Biomass Production: emergent aquatic management options and evaluations. A final subcontract report. [Includes a bibliography containing 686 references on Typha from biological abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, D.C.; Dubbe, D.R.; Garver, E.G.; Linton, P.J.

    1984-07-01

    The high yield potential and attractive chemical composition of Typha make it a particularly viable energy crop. The Minnesota research effort has demonstrated that total annual biomass yields equivalent to 30 dry tonnes/ha (13 tons/acre) are possible in planted stands. This compares with yields of total plant material between 9 and 16 dry tonnes/ha (4 to 7 tons/acre) in a typical Minnesota corn field. At least 50% of the Typha plant is comprised of a belowground rhizome system containing 40% starch and sugar. This high level of easily fermentable carbohydrate makes rhizomes an attractive feedstock for alcohol production. The aboveground portion of the plant is largely cellulose, and although it is not easily fermentable, it can be gasified or burned. This report is organized in a manner that focuses on the evaluation of the management options task. Results from stand management research performed at the University of Minnesota during 1982 and 1983 are integrated with findings from an extensive survey of relevant emergent aquatic plant research and utilization. These results and findings are then arranged in sections dealing with key steps and issues that need to be dealt with in the development of a managed emergent aquatic bio-energy system. A brief section evaluating the current status of rhizome harvesting is also included along with an indexed bibliography of the biology, ecology, and utilization of Typha which was completed with support from this SERI subcontract. 686 references, 11 figures, 17 tables.

  13. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles for topical applications: effect of surface coating and loading into hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekkawy AI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aml I Mekkawy,1 Mohamed A El-Mokhtar,2 Nivien A Nafady,3 Naeima Yousef,3 Mostafa A Hamad,4 Sohair M El-Shanawany,5 Ehsan H Ibrahim,5 Mahmoud Elsabahy5–8 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sohag University, Sohag, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, 3Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, 4Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, 5Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, 6Assiut International Center of Nanomedicine, Al-Rajhi Liver Hospital, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; 7Laboratory for Synthetic-Biologic Interactions, Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 8Misr University for Science and Technology, 6th of October, Egypt Abstract: In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were synthesized via biological reduction of silver nitrate using extract of the fungus Fusarium verticillioides (green chemistry principle. The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical and homogenous in size. AgNPs were coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD. The averaged diameters of AgNPs were 19.2±3.6, 13±4, 14±4.4, and 15.7±4.8 nm, for PEG-, SDS-, and ß-CD-coated and uncoated AgNPs, respectively. PEG-coated AgNPs showed greater stability as indicated by a decreased sedimentation rate of particles in their water dispersions. The antibacterial activities of different AgNPs dispersions were investigated against Gram-positive bacteria (methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs. MIC and MBC values were in the range of 0.93–7.5 and 3.75–15 µg/mL, respectively, which were superior to the reported values in literature. AgNPs-loaded hydrogels were prepared from the coated

  14. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles for topical applications: effect of surface coating and loading into hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekkawy, Aml I; El-Mokhtar, Mohamed A; Nafady, Nivien A; Yousef, Naeima; Hamad, Mostafa A; El-Shanawany, Sohair M; Ibrahim, Ehsan H; Elsabahy, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized via biological reduction of silver nitrate using extract of the fungus Fusarium verticillioides (green chemistry principle). The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical and homogenous in size. AgNPs were coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The averaged diameters of AgNPs were 19.2±3.6, 13±4, 14±4.4, and 15.7±4.8 nm, for PEG-, SDS-, and β-CD-coated and uncoated AgNPs, respectively. PEG-coated AgNPs showed greater stability as indicated by a decreased sedimentation rate of particles in their water dispersions. The antibacterial activities of different AgNPs dispersions were investigated against Gram-positive bacteria (methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ) and Gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia coli ) by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). MIC and MBC values were in the range of 0.93-7.5 and 3.75-15 µg/mL, respectively, which were superior to the reported values in literature. AgNPs-loaded hydrogels were prepared from the coated-AgNPs dispersions using several gelling agents (sodium carboxymethyl cellulose [Na CMC], sodium alginate, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, Pluronic F-127, and chitosan). The prepared formulations were evaluated for their viscosity, spreadability, in vitro drug release, and antibacterial activity, and the combined effect of the type of surface coating and the polymers utilized to form the gel was studied. The in vivo wound-healing activity and antibacterial efficacy of Na CMC hydrogel loaded with PEG-coated AgNPs in comparison to the commercially available silver sulfadiazine cream (Dermazin ® ) were evaluated. Superior antibacterial activity and wound-healing capability, with normal skin appearance and hair growth, were demonstrated for the hydrogel formulations, as compared to the silver

  15. Systematic evaluation program review of NRC Safety Topic VI-10.A associated with the electrical, instrumentation and control portions of the testing of reactor trip system and engineered safety features, including response time for the Dresden station, Unit II nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Leger-Barter, G.

    1980-11-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation and review of NRC Safety Topic VI-10.A, associated with the electrical, instrumentation, and control portions of the testing of reactor trip systems and engineered safety features including response time for the Dresden II nuclear power plant, using current licensing criteria

  16. Life sciences and space research 24 (4): Planetary biology and origins of life; Topical Meeting of the COSPAR Interdisciplinary Scientific Commission F (Meeting F3) of the COSPAR Plenary Meeting, 29th, Washington, DC, Aug. 28-Sep. 5, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J. M. (Editor); Oro, J. (Editor); Brack, A. (Editor); Devincenzi, D. L. (Editor); Banin, A. (Editor); Friedmann, E. I. (Editor); Rummel, J. D. (Editor); Raulin, F. (Editor); Mckay, C. P. (Editor); Baltscheffsky, H. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings include sessions on extraterrestrial organic chemistry and the origins of life; life on Mars: past, present and future; planetary protection of Mars missions; chemical evolution on Titan; origins and early evolution of biological (a) energy transduction and membranes (b) information and catalysis; and carbon chemistry and isotopic fractionations in astrophysical environments.

  17. Uganda; Financial System Stability Assessment, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes on the following topics: Monetary and Financial Policy Transparency, Banking Supervision, Securities Regulation, and Payment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents findings of Uganda’s Financial System Stability Assessment, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes on Monetary and Financial Policy Transparency, Banking Supervision, Securities Regulation, Insurance Regulation, Corporate Governance, and Payment Systems. The banking system in Uganda, which dominates the financial system, is fundamentally sound, more resilient than in the past, and currently poses no threat to macroeconomic stability. A major disruption ...

  18. A comprehensive assessment protocol including patient reported outcomes, physical tests, and biological sampling in newly diagnosed patients with head and neck cancer: is it feasible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuizen, A.J.; Buffart, L.M.; Smit, J.H.; Brakenhoff, R.H.; Braakhuis, B.J.; de Bree, R.; Leemans, C.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Large cohort studies are needed taking into account cancer-related, personal, biological, psychobehavioral, and lifestyle-related factors, to guide future research to improve treatment and supportive care. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a comprehensive baseline assessment of a

  19. Estimation of biological chromophores using diffuse optical spectroscopy: benefit of extending the UV-VIS wavelength range to include 1000 to 1600 nm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nachabé, Rami; Hendriks, Benno H. W.; van der Voort, Marjolein; Desjardins, Adrien E.; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.

    2010-01-01

    With an optical fiber probe, we acquired spectra from swine tissue between 500 and 1600 nm by combining a silicon and an InGaAs spectrometer. The concentrations of the biological chromophores were estimated by fitting a mathematical model derived from diffusion theory. The advantage of our technique

  20. Estimation of biological chromophores using diffuse optical spectroscopy: Benefit of extending the UV-VIS wavelength range to include 1000 to 1600 nm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Nachabé (Rami); B.H.W. Hendriks (Benno); M. van der Voort (Marjolein); A.E. Desjardins (Adrien); H.J.C.M. Sterenborg (Dick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWith an optical fiber probe, we acquired spectra from swine tissue between 500 and 1600 nm by combining a silicon and an InGaAs spectrometer. The concentrations of the biological chromophores were estimated by fitting a mathematical model derived from diffusion theory. The advantage of

  1. Teaching the Middle East: Topics and Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Charlotte F.

    1982-01-01

    Topics and resources for a discussion of the Middle East in a secondary social studies classroom are presented. The topics include geography and world resources, ethnic groups, religions, and case studies of specific countries. (AM)

  2. Ninth International Workshop on Plant Membrane Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This report is a compilation of abstracts from papers which were discussed at a workshop on plant membrane biology. Topics include: plasma membrane ATP-ases; plant-environment interactions, membrane receptors; signal transduction; ion channel physiology; biophysics and molecular biology; vaculor H+ pumps; sugar carriers; membrane transport; and cellular structure and function.

  3. Key Topics in Sports Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...

  4. Topics in modern differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Verstraelen, Leopold

    2017-01-01

    A variety of introductory articles is provided on a wide range of topics, including variational problems on curves and surfaces with anisotropic curvature. Experts in the fields of Riemannian, Lorentzian and contact geometry present state-of-the-art reviews of their topics. The contributions are written on a graduate level and contain extended bibliographies. The ten chapters are the result of various doctoral courses which were held in 2009 and 2010 at universities in Leuven, Serbia, Romania and Spain.

  5. Biological and medical sensor technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Iniewski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Biological and Medical Sensor Technologies presents contributions from top experts who explore the development and implementation of sensors for various applications used in medicine and biology. Edited by a pioneer in the area of advanced semiconductor materials, the book is divided into two sections. The first part covers sensors for biological applications. Topics include: Advanced sensing and communication in the biological world DNA-derivative architectures for long-wavelength bio-sensing Label-free silicon photonics Quartz crystal microbalance-based biosensors Lab-on-chip technologies fo

  6. Diclofenac Topical (osteoarthritis pain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diclofenac topical gel (Voltaren) is used to relieve pain from osteoarthritis (arthritis caused by a breakdown of ... the knees, ankles, feet, elbows, wrists, and hands. Diclofenac topical liquid (Pennsaid) is used to relieve osteoarthritis ...

  7. Women's Health Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women's Health Topics Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home Latest ...

  8. Child Development & Behavior Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child Topics Commentaries Featured Links Contact Us Child Development & Behavior Topics A B C D E F ... Seat Safety Carbon Monoxide Chewing Tobacco Child Care Child Development Milestones Child Development, What Do Grown-Ups Know ...

  9. Genetically-Based Biologic Technologies. Biology and Human Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, William V.; McInerney, Joseph D.

    The purpose of this six-part booklet is to review the current status of genetically-based biologic technologies and to suggest how information about these technologies can be inserted into existing educational programs. Topic areas included in the six parts are: (1) genetically-based technologies in the curriculum; (2) genetic technologies…

  10. The aesthetics of chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Glenn

    2012-12-01

    Scientists and philosophers have long reflected on the place of aesthetics in science. In this essay, I review these discussions, identifying work of relevance to chemistry and, in particular, to the field of chemical biology. Topics discussed include the role of aesthetics in scientific theory choice, the aesthetics of molecular images, the beauty-making features of molecules, and the relation between the aesthetics of chemical biology and the aesthetics of industrial design. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Learning Activity Package, Biology, LAPs 20, 30, 31, 32, and 33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoden, Bruce

    Included is a set of five teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in topics in biology. The units cover the topics of genetic continuity, methods of investigation, cell biology, genetics, and animal physiology. Each unit contains a rationale for the material; a list of behavioral objectives for the unit; a…

  12. THE EFFECTS OF READING TOPIC AND TOPIC PREFERENCE ON READING COMPREHENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesty Widiastuty

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at investigating the interaction effect of reading topic and topic preference, the effect of reading topic, and the effect of topic preference on Physics score, Biology score, and Chemistry score of single cause-multiple effects text. The population of this study was the eleventh grade of IPA students of SMA Negeri 2 Kuala Kapuas in Academic Year 2008/2009. There were 64 students of two classes (XI IA1 and IX IA2 as the sample of this study chosen by using cluster random sampling. It was used experimental research with factorial experimental design. The data were processed and analyzed through these steps: taking the data, coding scoring, tabulating, analyzing the data by using statistic technique of ANOVA processed by using SPSS 15 and taking the conclusion based on the statistical result. The results show that: (1 there was significant interaction effect among reading topic and topic preference on Physics score, Biology score, and Chemistry score of single cause-multiple effects text, (2 there was no significance effect of reading topic of single cause-multiple effects text, and (3 there was no significance effect of topic preference on Physics score, Biology score, and Chemistry score of single cause-multiple effects text. Keywords: reading topic, topic preference, reading comprehension

  13. The Physics of Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen

    1992-01-01

    Discusses ways in which marine biology can be integrated into the physics classroom. Topics suggested for incorporation include the harmonic motion of ocean waves, ocean currents, the interaction of visible light with ocean water, pressure, light absorption, and sound transfer in water. (MDH)

  14. Studies of the reproductive biology of deep-sea megabenthos. 7: The Porcellanasteridae (Asteroidea: Echinodermata) including material collected at Great Meteor East, during Discovery cruise 156

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, P.A.; Muirhead, A.

    1986-07-01

    The reproductive biology of Porcellanaster ceruleus, Hyphalaster inermis and Styrachaster horridus is described. P. ceruleus was collected as part of the time series study in the rockall Trough, N.E. Atlantic. This species had a maximum size of 7.0mm arm radius although maximum size known is 36.0mm arm radius. Relatively few eggs are produced and in these samples grow to a maximum size of 230μm. There was no evidence of reproductive seasonality. In Hyphalaster inermis and Styrachaster horridus the eggs grow to 600μm diameter. At this size the cytoplasm is reticulate and filled with neutral fat whilst the periphery is an amorphous layer. Development of the testes in all three species appears typical of deep-sea asteroids. (author)

  15. Life sciences and space research XXIII(2): Planetary biology and origins of life; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting and Workshops XX, XXI and XXIII of the 27th COSPAR Plenary Meeting, Espoo, Finland, July 18-29, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, A. W. (Editor); Dose, K. (Editor); Raup, D. M. (Editor); Klein, H. P. (Editor); Devincenzi, D. L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This volume includes chapters on exobiology in space, chemical and early biochemical evolution, life without oxygen, potential for chemical evolution in the early environment of Mars, planetary protection issues and sample return missions, and the modulation of biological evolution by astrophysical phenomena. Papers are presented on the results of spaceflight missions, the action of some factors of space medium on the abiogenic synthesis of nucleotides, early peptidic enzymes, microbiology and biochemistry of the methanogenic archaeobacteria, and present-day biogeochemical activities of anaerobic bacteria and their relevance to future exobiological investigations. Consideration is also given to the development of the Alba Patera volcano on Mars, biological nitrogen fixation under primordial Martian partial pressures of dinitrogen, the planetary protection issues in advance of human exploration of Mars, and the difficulty with astronomical explanations of periodic mass extinctions.

  16. Topics in orbit equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Kechris, Alexander S

    2004-01-01

    This volume provides a self-contained introduction to some topics in orbit equivalence theory, a branch of ergodic theory. The first two chapters focus on hyperfiniteness and amenability. Included here are proofs of Dye's theorem that probability measure-preserving, ergodic actions of the integers are orbit equivalent and of the theorem of Connes-Feldman-Weiss identifying amenability and hyperfiniteness for non-singular equivalence relations. The presentation here is often influenced by descriptive set theory, and Borel and generic analogs of various results are discussed. The final chapter is a detailed account of Gaboriau's recent results on the theory of costs for equivalence relations and groups and its applications to proving rigidity theorems for actions of free groups.

  17. Topics in atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhardt, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    The study of atomic physics propelled us into the quantum age in the early twentieth century and carried us into the twenty-first century with a wealth of new and, in some cases, unexplained phenomena. Topics in Atomic Physics provides a foundation for students to begin research in modern atomic physics. It can also serve as a reference because it contains material that is not easily located in other sources. A distinguishing feature is the thorough exposition of the quantum mechanical hydrogen atom using both the traditional formulation and an alternative treatment not usually found in textbooks. The alternative treatment exploits the preeminent nature of the pure Coulomb potential and places the Lenz vector operator on an equal footing with other operators corresponding to classically conserved quantities. A number of difficult to find proofs and derivations are included as is development of operator formalism that permits facile solution of the Stark effect in hydrogen. Discussion of the classical hydrogen...

  18. Endothelin-2/Vasoactive Intestinal Contractor: Regulation of Expression via Reactive Oxygen Species Induced by CoCl22, and Biological Activities Including Neurite Outgrowth in PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Kotake-Nara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the local hormone endothelin-2 (ET-2, or vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC, a member of the vasoconstrictor ET peptide family, where ET-2 is the human orthologous peptide of the murine VIC. While ET-2/VIC gene expression has been observed in some normal tissues, ET-2 recently has been reported to act as a tumor marker and as a hypoxia-induced autocrine survival factor in tumor cells. A recently published study reported that the hypoxic mimetic agent CoCl2 at 200 µM increased expression of the ET-2/VIC gene, decreased expression of the ET-1 gene, and induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS increase and neurite outgrowth in neuronal model PC12 cells. The ROS was generated by addition of CoCl2 to the culture medium, and the CoCl2-induced effects were completely inhibited by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine. Furthermore, interleukin-6 (IL-6 gene expression was up-regulated upon the differentiation induced by CoCl2. These results suggest that expression of ET-2/VIC and ET-1 mediated by CoCl2-induced ROS may be associated with neuronal differentiation through the regulation of IL-6 expression. CoCl2 acts as a pro-oxidant, as do Fe(II, III and Cu(II. However, some biological activities have been reported for CoCl2 that have not been observed for other metal salts such as FeCl3, CuSO4, and NiCl2. The characteristic actions of CoCl2 may be associated with the differentiation of PC12 cells. Further elucidation of the mechanism of neurite outgrowth and regulation of ET-2/VIC expression by CoCl2 may lead to the development of treatments for neuronal disorders.

  19. Importance of Sex Education Topics: Correlates with Teacher Characteristics and Inclusion of Topics in Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarber, William L.; McCabe, George P., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This article examines school sex educators' views toward selected topics and their importance to the sex education curriculum. Findings indicate that teachers feel the topics were necessary, with biological aspects and sexual health care being most important. Details of the methodology used in the study are discussed. (DF)

  20. Examination of the regulatory frameworks applicable to biologic drugs (including stem cells and their progeny) in Europe, the U.S., and Australia: part I--a method of manual documentary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Nina; Savic, Snezana; Siegel, Evan; Atkinson, Kerry; Tasic, Ljiljana

    2012-12-01

    Recent development of a wide range of regulatory standards applicable to production and use of tissues, cells, and other biologics (or biologicals), as advanced therapies, indicates considerable interest in the regulation of these products. The objective of this study was to analyze and compare high-tier documents within the Australian, European, and U.S. biologic drug regulatory environments using qualitative methodology. Cohort 1 of the selected 18 high-tier regulatory documents from the European Medicines Agency (EMA), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) regulatory frameworks were subject to a manual documentary analysis. These documents were consistent with the legal requirements for manufacturing and use of biologic drugs in humans and fall into six different categories. Manual analysis included a terminology search. The occurrence, frequency, and interchangeable use of different terms and phrases were recorded in the manual documentary analysis. Despite obvious differences, manual documentary analysis revealed certain consistency in use of terminology across analyzed frameworks. Phrase search frequencies have shown less uniformity than the search of terms. Overall, the EMA framework's documents referred to "medicinal products" and "marketing authorization(s)," the FDA documents discussed "drug(s)" or "biologic(s)," and the TGA documents referred to "biological(s)." Although high-tier documents often use different terminology they share concepts and themes. Documents originating from the same source have more conjunction in their terminology although they belong to different frameworks (i.e., Good Clinical Practice requirements based on the Declaration of Helsinki, 1964). Automated (software-based) documentary analysis should be obtained for the conceptual and relational analysis.

  1. Abstracts of the 29. annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Several aspects concerning biochemistry and molecular biology of either animals (including man), plants and microorganisms are studied. Topics such as cell membrane structures (including receptors), enzymatic assays, biological pathways, structural chemical analysis, metabolism, biological functions are focused. The use of radiolabelled compounds (radioassay, radioenzymatic assay, radioreceptor assay and nuclear magnetic resonance are the most applied techniques

  2. Abstracts of the 28. Annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Biochemistry, genetic and molecular biology aspects of either animals (including man), plants and microorganisms are studied. Topics such as cell membrane structures (including receptors), enzymatic assays, biological pathways, structural chemical analysis, metabolism, biological functions are focused. The use of radiolabelled compounds (radioassay, radioenzymatic assay, radioreceptor assay) and nuclear magnetic resonance are the most applied techniques

  3. TopicPanorama: A Full Picture of Relevant Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiting; Liu, Shixia; Liu, Junlin; Chen, Jianfei; Zhu, Jun; Guo, Baining

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a visual analytics approach to analyzing a full picture of relevant topics discussed in multiple sources, such as news, blogs, or micro-blogs. The full picture consists of a number of common topics covered by multiple sources, as well as distinctive topics from each source. Our approach models each textual corpus as a topic graph. These graphs are then matched using a consistent graph matching method. Next, we develop a level-of-detail (LOD) visualization that balances both readability and stability. Accordingly, the resulting visualization enhances the ability of users to understand and analyze the matched graph from multiple perspectives. By incorporating metric learning and feature selection into the graph matching algorithm, we allow users to interactively modify the graph matching result based on their information needs. We have applied our approach to various types of data, including news articles, tweets, and blog data. Quantitative evaluation and real-world case studies demonstrate the promise of our approach, especially in support of examining a topic-graph-based full picture at different levels of detail.

  4. Topics in modelling of clustered data

    CERN Document Server

    Aerts, Marc; Ryan, Louise M; Geys, Helena

    2002-01-01

    Many methods for analyzing clustered data exist, all with advantages and limitations in particular applications. Compiled from the contributions of leading specialists in the field, Topics in Modelling of Clustered Data describes the tools and techniques for modelling the clustered data often encountered in medical, biological, environmental, and social science studies. It focuses on providing a comprehensive treatment of marginal, conditional, and random effects models using, among others, likelihood, pseudo-likelihood, and generalized estimating equations methods. The authors motivate and illustrate all aspects of these models in a variety of real applications. They discuss several variations and extensions, including individual-level covariates and combined continuous and discrete outcomes. Flexible modelling with fractional and local polynomials, omnibus lack-of-fit tests, robustification against misspecification, exact, and bootstrap inferential procedures all receive extensive treatment. The application...

  5. Vocational Education Today: Topical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenway, Jane, Ed.; Tregenza, Karen, Ed.; Watkins, Peter, Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers examining topical issues in vocational education and training (VET) in Victoria, Australia. The following papers are included: "Vocational Education and Schooling: The Changing Scene" (Jane Kenway, Sue Willis, Peter Watkins, Karen Tregenza); "The Enterprise Approach" (James Mulraney); "VET…

  6. Topics in advanced quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Holstein, Barry R

    1992-01-01

    This graduate-level text is based on a course in advanced quantum mechanics, taught many times at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Topics include propagator methods, scattering theory, charged particle interactions, alternate approximate methods, and Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations. Problems appear in the flow of the discussion, rather than at the end of chapters.

  7. Syntacticized topics in Kurmuk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that Kurmuk, a little-described Western Nilotic language, is characterized by a syntacticized topic whose grammatical relation is variable. In this language, declarative clauses have as topic an obligatory preverbal NP which is either a subject, an object or an adjunct. The gr...

  8. Topics in millimeter wave technology

    CERN Document Server

    Button, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Topics in Millimeter Wave Technology, Volume 1 presents topics related to millimeter wave technology, including fin-lines and passive components realized in fin-lines, suspended striplines, suspended substrate microstrips, and modal power exchange in multimode fibers. A miniaturized monopulse assembly constructed in planar waveguide with multimode scalar horn feeds is also described. This volume is comprised of five chapters; the first of which deals with the analysis and synthesis techniques for fin-lines as well as the various passive components realized in fin-line. Tapers, discontinuities,

  9. Advanced verification topics

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Bishnupriya; Hall, Gary; Heaton, Nick; Kashai, Yaron; Khan Neyaz; Kirshenbaum, Zeev; Shneydor, Efrat

    2011-01-01

    The Accellera Universal Verification Methodology (UVM) standard is architected to scale, but verification is growing and in more than just the digital design dimension. It is growing in the SoC dimension to include low-power and mixed-signal and the system integration dimension to include multi-language support and acceleration. These items and others all contribute to the quality of the SOC so the Metric-Driven Verification (MDV) methodology is needed to unify it all into a coherent verification plan. This book is for verification engineers and managers familiar with the UVM and the benefits it brings to digital verification but who also need to tackle specialized tasks. It is also written for the SoC project manager that is tasked with building an efficient worldwide team. While the task continues to become more complex, Advanced Verification Topics describes methodologies outside of the Accellera UVM standard, but that build on it, to provide a way for SoC teams to stay productive and profitable.

  10. Quantum mechanics II advanced topics

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, S

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Mechanics II: Advanced Topics uses more than a decade of research and the authors’ own teaching experience to expound on some of the more advanced topics and current research in quantum mechanics. A follow-up to the authors introductory book Quantum Mechanics I: The Fundamentals, this book begins with a chapter on quantum field theory, and goes on to present basic principles, key features, and applications. It outlines recent quantum technologies and phenomena, and introduces growing topics of interest in quantum mechanics. The authors describe promising applications that include ghost imaging, detection of weak amplitude objects, entangled two-photon microscopy, detection of small displacements, lithography, metrology, and teleportation of optical images. They also present worked-out examples and provide numerous problems at the end of each chapter.

  11. Programme Biology - Health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The scientific results for 1975, of the five-year Biology-Health Protection programme adopted in 1971, are presented in two volumes. In volume one, Research in Radiation Protection are developed exclusively, including the following topics: measurement and interpretation of radiation (dosimetry); transfer of radioactive nuclides in the constituents of the environment; hereditary effects of radiation; short-term effects (acute irradiation syndrome and its treatment); long-term effects and toxicology of radioactive elements. In volume, two Research on applications in Agriculture and Medicine are developed. It includes: mutagenesis; soil-plant relations; radiation analysis; food conservation; cell culture; radioentomology. Research on applications in Medicine include: Nuclear Medicine and Neutron Dosimetry

  12. Basic radiotherapy physics and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, David S; Das, Indra J; Mendonca, Marc S; Dynlacht, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    This book is a concise and well-illustrated review of the physics and biology of radiation therapy intended for radiation oncology residents, radiation therapists, dosimetrists, and physicists. It presents topics that are included on the Radiation Therapy Physics and Biology examinations and is designed with the intent of presenting information in an easily digestible format with maximum retention in mind. The inclusion of mnemonics, rules of thumb, and reader-friendly illustrations throughout the book help to make difficult concepts easier to grasp. Basic Radiotherapy Physics and Biology is a

  13. Review of Biological Network Data and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghyeon Yu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying biological networks, such as protein-protein interactions, is key to understanding complex biological activities. Various types of large-scale biological datasets have been collected and analyzed with high-throughput technologies, including DNA microarray, next-generation sequencing, and the two-hybrid screening system, for this purpose. In this review, we focus on network-based approaches that help in understanding biological systems and identifying biological functions. Accordingly, this paper covers two major topics in network biology: reconstruction of gene regulatory networks and network-based applications, including protein function prediction, disease gene prioritization, and network-based genome-wide association study.

  14. Recent Advances In Topical Therapy In Dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Thappa Devinder

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available With changing times various newer topical agents are introduced in the field of dermatology. Tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are immunisuppressants, which are effective topically and are tried in the management of atopic dermatitis as well as other disorders including allergic contact dermatitis, atrophic lichen planus, pyoderma gangrenosum. Imiquimod, an immune response modifier, is presently in use for genital warts but has potentials as anti- tumour agent and in various other dermatological conditions when used topically. Tazarotene is a newer addition to the list of topical reginoids, which is effective in psoriasis and has better effect in combination with calcipotriene, phototherapy and topical costicosteroids. Tazarotene and adapelene are also effective in inflammatory acne. Calcipotriol, a vitamin D analogue has been introduced as a topical agent in the treatment of psoriasis. Steroid components are also developed recently which will be devoid of the side effects but having adequate anti-inflammatory effect. Topical photodynamic therapy has also a wide range of use in dermatology. Newer topical agents including cidofovir, capsaicin, topical sensitizers, topical antifungal agents for onychomycosis are also of use in clinical practice. Other promising developments include skin substitutes and growth factors for wound care.

  15. A biological method of including mineralized human liquid and solid wastes into the mass exchange of bio-technical life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakova, S. A.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Tikhomirova, N. A.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Litovka, Yu. A.; Anishchenko, O. V.

    2012-10-01

    The main obstacle to using mineralized human solid and liquid wastes as a source of mineral elements for plants cultivated in bio-technical life support systems (BLSS) is that they contain NaCl. The purpose of this study is to determine whether mineralized human wastes can be used to prepare the nutrient solution for long-duration conveyor cultivation of uneven-aged wheat and Salicornia europaea L. plant community. Human solid and liquid wastes were mineralized by the method of "wet incineration" developed by Yu. Kudenko. They served as a basis for preparing the solutions that were used for conveyor-type cultivation of wheat community represented by 5 age groups, planted with a time interval of 14 days. Wheat was cultivated hydroponically on expanded clay particles. To reduce salt content of the nutrient solution, every two weeks, after wheat was harvested, 12 L of solution was removed from the wheat irrigation tank and used for Salicornia europaea cultivation in water culture in a conveyor mode. The Salicornia community was represented by 2 age groups, planted with a time interval of 14 days. As some portion of the nutrient solution used for wheat cultivation was regularly removed, sodium concentration in the wheat irrigation solution did not exceed 400 mg/L, and mineral elements contained in the removed portion were used for Salicornia cultivation. The experiment lasted 4 months. The total wheat biomass productivity averaged 30.1 g · m-2 · day-1, and the harvest index amounted to 36.8%. The average productivity of Salicornia edible biomass on a dry weight basis was 39.3 g · m-2 · day-1, and its aboveground mass contained at least 20% of NaCl. Thus, the proposed technology of cultivation of wheat and halophyte plant community enables using mineralized human wastes as a basis for preparing nutrient solutions and including NaCl in the mass exchange of the BLSS; moreover, humans are supplied with additional amounts of leafy vegetables.

  16. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    This topical issue of Physica Scripta collects selected peer-reviewed contributions based on invited and contributed talks and posters presented at the 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) which took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu, cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community of the workshop, we thank the referees for their careful reading and useful suggestions which helped to improve all of the submitted papers. A brief description of CEWQO The Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics is a series of conferences started informally in Budapest in 1992. Sometimes small events transform into important conferences, as in the case of CEWQO. Professor Jozsef Janszky, from the Research Institute of Solid State Physics and Optics, is the founder of this series. Margarita Man'ko obtained the following information from Jozsef Janszky during her visit to Budapest, within the framework of cooperation between the Russian and Hungarian Academies of Sciences in 2005. He organized a small workshop on quantum optics in Budapest in 1992 with John Klauder as a main speaker. Then, bearing in mind that a year before Janszky himself was invited by Vladimir Buzek to give a seminar on the same topic in Bratislava, he decided to assign the name 'Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics', considering the seminar in Bratislava to be the first workshop and the one in Budapest the second. The third formal workshop took place in Bratislava in 1993 organized by Vladimir Buzek, then in 1994 (Budapest, by Jozsef Janszky), 1995 and 1996 (Budmerice, Slovakia, by Vladimir Buzek), 1997 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 1999 (Olomouc, Czech Republic, by Zdenek Hradil), 2000 (Balatonfüred, Hungary, by Jozsef Janszky ), 2001 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 2002 (Szeged, Hungary, by Mihaly Benedict), 2003 (Rostock,Germany, by Werner Vogel and

  17. Topics in inflationary cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis examines several topics in the theory of inflationary cosmology. It first proves the existence of Hawking Radiation during the slow-rolling period of a new inflationary universe. It then derives and somewhat extends Bardeen's gauge invariant formalism for calculating the growth of linear gravitational perturbations in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological background. This formalism is then applied, first to several new inflationary universe models all of which show a Zel'dovich spectrum of fluctuations, but with amplitude sigma(100 4 ) above observational limits. The general formalism is next applied to models that exhibit primordial inflation. Fluctuations in these models also exhibit a Zel'dovich spectrum here with an acceptable amplitude. Finally the thesis presents the results of new, numerical calculations. A classical, (2 + 1) dimensional computer model is developed that includes a Higgs field (which drives inflation) along with enough auxiliary fields to generate dynamically not only a thermal bath, but also the fluctuations that naturally accompany that bath. The thesis ends with a discussion of future prospects

  18. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  19. Topical Pain Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin Learn about the various types of topical pain medications available for pain relief. Can they ease your ... hurt even though you take your usual arthritis pain medication. Reluctant to pop another pill, you might wonder ...

  20. Topics in Nuclear Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.C.

    1982-01-01

    Some topics in nuclear astrophysics are discussed, e.g.: highly evolved stellar cores, stellar evolution (through the temperature analysis of stellar surface), nucleosynthesis and finally the solar neutrino problem. (L.C.) [pt

  1. Topical approaches to cellulite

    OpenAIRE

    ALĞIN YAPAR, Evren

    2017-01-01

    Today, topical application of pharmacologically active chemicals and local application of physical, mechanical and thermal methods are available in order to eliminate cellulite which is an aesthetic problem that affects the majority of women. Many products on natural or synthetic originated anti-cellulite active ingredients have been developed with topical application studies performed on cellulite developed parts. Formulations developed against cellulite are usually in the form of gel...

  2. Ensemble Topic Modeling via Matrix Factorization

    OpenAIRE

    Belford, Mark; MacNamee, Brian; Greene, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Topic models can provide us with an insight into the underlying latent structure of a large corpus of documents, facilitating knowledge discovery and information summarization. A range of methods have been proposed in the literature, including probabilistic topic models and techniques based on matrix factorization. However, these methods tend to have stochastic elements in their initialization, which can lead to their output being unstable. That is, if a topic modeling algorithm is applied to...

  3. Biology, Ordinary and Higher Grades, Syllabuses and Specimen Question Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scottish Certificate of Education Examination Board, Edinburgh.

    Included is the prescribed syllabus in biology for the Scottish Certificate of Education. In two separate sections, the syllabus topics and specimen questions for final examinations are explained. This syllabus is intended to present biology as knowledge about living organisms without making the conventional division between plants and animals.…

  4. Abstracts of the 30. Annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Several aspects concerning biochemistry and molecular biology of either animals, plants and microorganisms are studied. Topics such as cell membrane structures (including receptors), enzymatic assays, biological pathways, structural chemical analysis, metabolism, biological functions are focused. The use of radiolabelled compounds (radioassay, radioreceptor assay) and nuclear magnetic resonance are the most applied techniques

  5. Retapamulin: A newer topical antibiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Dhingra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Impetigo is a common childhood skin infection. There are reports of increasing drug resistance to the currently used topical antibiotics including fusidic acid and mupirocin. Retapamulin is a newer topical agent of pleuromutilin class approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of impetigo in children and has been recently made available in the Indian market. It has been demonstrated to have low potential for the development of antibacterial resistance and a high degree of potency against poly drug resistant Gram-positive bacteria found in skin infections including Staphylococcus aureus strains. The drug is safe owing to low systemic absorption and has only minimal side-effect of local irritation at the site of application.

  6. Aerodynamics of wind turbines emerging topics

    CERN Document Server

    Amano, R S

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines with topics ranging from Fundamental to Application of horizontal axis wind turbines, this book presents advanced topics including: Basic Theory for Wind turbine Blade Aerodynamics, Computational Methods, and Special Structural Reinforcement Technique for Wind Turbine Blades.

  7. Electromagnetic fields in biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, James C

    2016-01-01

    As wireless technology becomes more sophisticated and accessible to more users, the interactions of electromagnetic fields with biological systems have captured the interest not only of the scientific community but also the general public. Unintended or deleterious biological effects of electromagnetic fields and radiation may indicate grounds for health and safety precautions in their use. Spanning static fields to terahertz waves, Electromagnetic Fields in Biological Systems explores the range of consequences these fields have on the human body. With contributions by an array of experts, topics discussed include: Essential interactions and field coupling phenomena, highlighting their importance in research on biological effects and in scientific, industrial, and medical applications Electric field interactions in cells, focusing on ultrashort, pulsed high-intensity fields The effect of exposure to naturally occurring and human-made static, low-frequency, and pulsed magnetic fields in biological systems Dosi...

  8. Probabilistic analysis and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Bharucha-Reid, A T

    1983-01-01

    Probabilistic Analysis and Related Topics, Volume 3 focuses on the continuity, integrability, and differentiability of random functions, including operator theory, measure theory, and functional and numerical analysis. The selection first offers information on the qualitative theory of stochastic systems and Langevin equations with multiplicative noise. Discussions focus on phase-space evolution via direct integration, phase-space evolution, linear and nonlinear systems, linearization, and generalizations. The text then ponders on the stability theory of stochastic difference systems and Marko

  9. Hot topics in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Maximillian S; Patel, Sanjay; Openshaw, Peter

    2011-03-01

    The 7th International Respiratory Syncytial Virus Symposium took place in Hotel Blijdorp, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The series has been running since 1996; this meeting took place after a 3-year gap, and was attended by approximately 200 clinicians, scientists and industry representatives from all over the world. The conference covered all aspects of respiratory syncytial virus disease, including virology, cell biology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, immunology, vaccines, antivirals and other therapeutic approaches. Reviews by invited keynote speakers were accompanied by oral and poster presentations, with ample opportunity for discussion of unpublished work. This article summarizes a small selection of hot topics from the meeting, focused on pathogenesis, therapeutics and vaccine development.

  10. Atopic dermatitis: skin care and topical therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, David M; Udkoff, Jeremy; Borok, Jenna; Friedman, Adam; Nicol, Noreen; Bienstock, Jeffrey; Lio, Peter; Tollefson, Megha M; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2017-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) pathogenesis is strongly influenced by Type 2 innate lymphoid cell and T-helper cell type 2 lymphocyte-driven inflammation and skin barrier dysfunction. AD therapies attempt to correct this pathology, and guidelines suggest suggest basics of AD therapy, which include repair of the skin barrier through bathing practices and moisturizers, infection control, and further lifestyle modifications to avoid and reduce AD triggers.While some patients' AD may be controlled using these measures, inflammatory eczema including acute flares and maintenance therapy in more severe patients are treated with topical pharmacologic agents such as topical corticosteroids, topical calcineurin inhibitors, and, more recently, topical PDE-4 inhibitors. This model of basic skin therapy and, as needed, topical pharmacologic agents may be used to treat the vast majority of patients with AD and remains the staple of AD therapy. ©2017 Frontline Medical Communications.

  11. Salicylic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the package label for more information.Apply a small amount of the salicylic acid product to one or two small areas you want to treat for 3 days ... know that children and teenagers who have chicken pox or the flu should not use topical salicylic ...

  12. Conditionals Are Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiman, John

    1978-01-01

    A review of analyses of conditionals (in the philosophical literature) and of topics (primarily in linguistics) reveals that their definitions are very similar. This paper justifies the method of basing semantic analysis of a construction on a cross-linguistic examination of its superficial form. (Author/NCR)

  13. Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippone, Antonino

    1999-01-01

    "Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics" is a comprehensive electronic guide to aerodynamics,computational fluid dynamics, aeronautics, aerospace propulsion systems, design and relatedtechnology. We report data, tables, graphics, sketches,examples, results, photos, technical andscientific literature......, for higher education, learning, reference, research and engineering services....

  14. Characters and Topical Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Rune

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to our understanding of the difference between the bestseller and the non-bestseller in nonfiction. It is noticed that many bestsellers in nonfiction belongs to the sub-genre of creative nonfiction, but also that the topics in this kind of literature i...

  15. Topical immunomodulators in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandpur Sujay

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Topical immunomodulators are agents that regulate the local immune response of the skin. They are now emerging as the therapy of choice for several immune-mediated dermatoses such as atopic dermatitis, contact allergic dermatitis, alopecia areata, psoriasis, vitiligo, connective tissue disorders such as morphea and lupus erythematosus, disorders of keratinization and several benign and malignant skin tumours, because of their comparable efficacy, ease of application and greater safety than their systemic counterparts. They can be used on a domiciliary basis for longer periods without aggressive monitoring. In this article, we have discussed the mechanism of action, common indications and side-effects of the commonly used topical immunomodulators, excluding topical steroids. Moreover, newer agents, which are still in the experimental stages, have also been described. A MEDLINE search was undertaken using the key words "topical immunomodulators, dermatology" and related articles were also searched. In addition, a manual search for many Indian articles, which are not indexed, was also carried out. Wherever possible, the full article was reviewed. If the full article could not be traced, the abstract was used.

  16. Synergetics introduction and advanced topics

    CERN Document Server

    Haken, Hermann

    2004-01-01

    This book is an often-requested reprint of two classic texts by H. Haken: "Synergetics. An Introduction" and "Advanced Synergetics". Synergetics, an interdisciplinary research program initiated by H. Haken in 1969, deals with the systematic and methodological approach to the rapidly growing field of complexity. Going well beyond qualitative analogies between complex systems in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, biology, sociology and economics, Synergetics uses tools from theoretical physics and mathematics to construct an unifying framework within which quantitative descriptions of complex, self-organizing systems can be made. This may well explain the timelessness of H. Haken's original texts on this topic, which are now recognized as landmarks in the field of complex systems. They provide both the beginning graduate student and the seasoned researcher with solid knowledge of the basic concepts and mathematical tools. Moreover, they admirably convey the spirit of the pioneering work by the founder of ...

  17. Hot topics in functional neuroradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, S H; Mohamed, F B; Helpern, J A; Jensen, J H; Thulborn, K R; Atkinson, I C; Sair, H I; Mikulis, D J

    2013-12-01

    Functional neuroradiology represents a relatively new and ever-growing subspecialty in the field of neuroradiology. Neuroradiology has evolved beyond anatomy and basic tissue signal characteristics and strives to understand the underlying physiologic processes of central nervous system disease. The American Society of Functional Neuroradiology sponsors a yearly educational and scientific meeting, and the educational committee was asked to suggest a few cutting-edge functional neuroradiology techniques (hot topics). The following is a review of several of these topics and includes "Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Pediatric Spinal Cord"; "Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging"; "From Standardization to Quantification: Beyond Biomarkers toward Bioscales as Neuro MR Imaging Surrogates of Clinical End Points"; Resting-State Functional MR Imaging"; and "Current Use of Cerebrovascular Reserve Imaging."

  18. Satellite DNA: An Evolving Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A

    2017-09-18

    Satellite DNA represents one of the most fascinating parts of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genome. Since the discovery of highly repetitive tandem DNA in the 1960s, a lot of literature has extensively covered various topics related to the structure, organization, function, and evolution of such sequences. Today, with the advent of genomic tools, the study of satellite DNA has regained a great interest. Thus, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), together with high-throughput in silico analysis of the information contained in NGS reads, has revolutionized the analysis of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genomes. The whole of the historical and current approaches to the topic gives us a broad view of the function and evolution of satellite DNA and its role in chromosomal evolution. Currently, we have extensive information on the molecular, chromosomal, biological, and population factors that affect the evolutionary fate of satellite DNA, knowledge that gives rise to a series of hypotheses that get on well with each other about the origin, spreading, and evolution of satellite DNA. In this paper, I review these hypotheses from a methodological, conceptual, and historical perspective and frame them in the context of chromosomal organization and evolution.

  19. Neutron transport simulation (selected topics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, P.

    2009-10-01

    Neutron transport simulation is usually performed for criticality, power distribution, activation, scattering, dosimetry and shielding problems, among others. During the last fifteen years, innovative technological applications have been proposed (Accelerator Driven Systems, Energy Amplifiers, Spallation Neutron Sources, etc.), involving the utilization of intermediate energies (hundreds of MeV) and high-intensity (tens of mA) proton accelerators impinging in targets of high Z elements. Additionally, the use of protons, neutrons and light ions for medical applications (hadrontherapy) impose requirements on neutron dosimetry-related quantities (such as kerma factors) for biologically relevant materials, in the energy range starting at several tens of MeV. Shielding and activation related problems associated to the operation of high-energy proton accelerators, emerging space-related applications and aircrew dosimetry-related topics are also fields of intense activity requiring as accurate as possible medium- and high-energy neutron (and other hadrons) transport simulation. These applications impose specific requirements on cross-section data for structural materials, targets, actinides and biologically relevant materials. Emerging nuclear energy systems and next generation nuclear reactors also impose requirements on accurate neutron transport calculations and on cross-section data needs for structural materials, coolants and nuclear fuel materials, aiming at improved safety and detailed thermal-hydraulics and radiation damage studies. In this review paper, the state-of-the-art in the computational tools and methodologies available to perform neutron transport simulation is presented. Proton- and neutron-induced cross-section data needs and requirements are discussed. Hot topics are pinpointed, prospective views are provided and future trends identified.

  20. An overview of topic modeling and its current applications in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Tang, Lin; Dong, Wen; Yao, Shaowen; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid accumulation of biological datasets, machine learning methods designed to automate data analysis are urgently needed. In recent years, so-called topic models that originated from the field of natural language processing have been receiving much attention in bioinformatics because of their interpretability. Our aim was to review the application and development of topic models for bioinformatics. This paper starts with the description of a topic model, with a focus on the understanding of topic modeling. A general outline is provided on how to build an application in a topic model and how to develop a topic model. Meanwhile, the literature on application of topic models to biological data was searched and analyzed in depth. According to the types of models and the analogy between the concept of document-topic-word and a biological object (as well as the tasks of a topic model), we categorized the related studies and provided an outlook on the use of topic models for the development of bioinformatics applications. Topic modeling is a useful method (in contrast to the traditional means of data reduction in bioinformatics) and enhances researchers' ability to interpret biological information. Nevertheless, due to the lack of topic models optimized for specific biological data, the studies on topic modeling in biological data still have a long and challenging road ahead. We believe that topic models are a promising method for various applications in bioinformatics research.

  1. Topics in industrial mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatsya, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    Mathematical methods are widely used to solve practical problems arising in modern industry. This article outlines some of the topics relevant to AECL programmes. This covers the applications of transmission and neutron transport tomography to determine density distributions in rocks and two phase flow situations. Another example covered is the use of variational methods to solve the problems of aerosol migration and control theory. (author). 7 refs

  2. Topical glycopyrrolate reduces axillary hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D M

    2016-12-01

    Oral anti-cholinergic medications reduce generalized hyperhidrosis, but the effectiveness of topical anticholinergic solutions on axillary hyperhidrosis is unclear. This study determines the initial effectiveness of 1% and 2% topical glycopyrrolate spray and compares this with Botulinum toxin type A injections for the management of axillary hyperhidrosis. In a non-randomized, consecutive patient, prospective questionnaire, treatment comparison study, 40 patients with axillary hyperhidrosis were allocated to one of four study groups (10 patients to each group): (a) 1% glycopyrrolate spray, (b) 2% glycopyrrolate spray, (c) subcutaneous Botulinum toxin type A injections, (d) no treatment. Clinical outcomes were measured by comparing a prospectively administered questionnaire, completed both pre-treatment and 6 weeks after starting treatment. Forty healthy volunteers without axillary hyperhidrosis completed the same questionnaire. The three treatment groups showed a significant (P hyperhidrosis scores following treatment. The degree of improvement was less for the 1% glycopyrrolate group when compared with the Botulinum toxin type A group (P hyperhidrosis to a level similar to those without hyperhidrosis. Patients in both, the 2% glycopyrrolate and Botulinum toxin type A groups reported a significant improvement in axillary hyperhidrosis symptoms. These included reduction in psychologically precipitating factors (e.g. public speaking) and axillary hyperhidrosis-specific physical effects (e.g. limitation of clothing choice). Topical glycopyrrolate spray could provide a further treatment modality to manage axillary hyperhidrosis. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  3. Topic Visualization and Survival Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping Jr

    2017-01-01

    Latent semantic structure in a text collection is called a topic. In this thesis, we aim to visualize topics in the scientific literature and detect active or inactive research areas based on their lifetime. Topics were extracted from over 1 million abstracts from the arXiv.org database using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). Hellinger distance measures similarity between two topics. Topics are determined to be relevant if their pairwise distances are smaller than the threshold of Hellinger ...

  4. Biological therapeutics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenstein, Ben; Brook, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    This introductory textbook covers all the main categories of biological medicines, including vaccines, hormonal preparations, drugs for rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases, drugs...

  5. Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik

    Through a significant number of detailed and realistic examples this book illustrates how the insights gained over the past couple of decades in the fields of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory can be applied in practice. Aomng the topics considered are microbiological reaction systems, ecological...... food-web systems, nephron pressure and flow regulation, pulsatile secretion of hormones, thermostatically controlled radiator systems, post-stall maneuvering of aircrafts, transfer electron devices for microwave generation, economic long waves, human decision making behavior, and pattern formation...... in chemical reaction-diffusion systems....

  6. Topics in CP violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, H.R.

    1993-02-01

    Given the varied backgrounds of the members of this audience this talk will be a grab bag of topics related to the general theme of CP Violation. I do not have time to dwell in detail on any of them. First, for the astronomers and astrophysicists among you, I want to begin by reviewing the experimental status of evidence for CP violation in particle processes. There is only one system where this has been observed, and that is in the decays of neutral K mesons.

  7. Topics in Operator Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Joseph A; Helton, JWilliam; Rodman, Leiba; Spitkovsky, Iiya

    2010-01-01

    This is the first volume of a collection of original and review articles on recent advances and new directions in a multifaceted and interconnected area of mathematics and its applications. It encompasses many topics in theoretical developments in operator theory and its diverse applications in applied mathematics, physics, engineering, and other disciplines. The purpose is to bring in one volume many important original results of cutting edge research as well as authoritative review of recent achievements, challenges, and future directions in the area of operator theory and its applications.

  8. The Biological Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.

    1999-12-01

    Throughout the twentieth century, from the furor over Percival Lowell's claim of canals on Mars to the sophisticated Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, otherworldly life has often intrigued and occasionally consumed science and the public. The Biological Universe provides a rich and colorful history of the attempts during the twentieth century to answer questions such as whether "biological law" reigns throughout the universe and whether there are other histories, religions, and philosophies outside those on Earth. Covering a broad range of topics, including the search for life in the solar system, the origins of life, UFOs, and aliens in science fiction, Steven J. Dick shows how the concept of extraterrestrial intelligence is a world view of its own, a "biophysical cosmology" that seeks confirmation no less than physical views of the universe. This book will fascinate astronomers, historians of science, biochemists, and science fiction readers.

  9. Quantification and Measurement of Internal Electromagnetic Fields Induced in Finite Biological Bodies by Nonuniform Electromagnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-15

    implantable EM field probes which can be used to measure the internal EM fields induced in simulated biological bod ies. Major topics of this program include...be used to measure the internal EM fields induced in simulated biological bodies with a high degree of accuracy. Most of the originally planned topics...following papers: (1) "Focal hyperthermia as induced by RF radiation of simulacra with embedded tumors and as induced by EM fields in a model of a human

  10. Topics on continua

    CERN Document Server

    Macias, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Specialized as it might be, continuum theory is one of the most intriguing areas in mathematics. However, despite being popular journal fare, few books have thoroughly explored this interesting aspect of topology. In Topics on Continua, Sergio Macías, one of the field's leading scholars, presents four of his favorite continuum topics: inverse limits, Jones's set function T, homogenous continua, and n-fold hyperspaces, and in doing so, presents the most complete set of theorems and proofs ever contained in a single topology volume. Many of the results presented have previously appeared only in research papers, and some appear here for the first time. After building the requisite background and exploring the inverse limits of continua, the discussions focus on Professor Jones''s set function T and continua for which T is continuous. An introduction to topological groups and group actions lead to a proof of Effros''s Theorem, followed by a presentation of two decomposition theorems. The author then offers an...

  11. Research Collaboration Workshop for Women in Mathematical Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by the Research Collaboration Workshop for Women in Mathematical Biology, this volume contains research and review articles that cover topics ranging from models of animal movement to the flow of blood cells in the embryonic heart. Hosted by the National Institute for Mathematics and Biological Synthesis (NIMBioS), the workshop brought together women working in biology and mathematics to form four research groups that encouraged multidisciplinary collaboration and lifetime connections in the STEM field. This volume introduces many of the topics from the workshop, including the aerodynamics of spider ballooning; sleep, circadian rhythms, and pain; blood flow regulation in the kidney; and the effects of antimicrobial therapy on gut microbiota and microbiota and Clostridium difficile. Perfect for students and researchers in mathematics and biology, the papers included in this volume offer an introductory glimpse at recent research in mathematical biology. .

  12. Selected topics in e+e- physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sau Lan Wu

    1981-01-01

    Selected topics of recent experimental results from the high-energy electron-positron storage rings are presented. The topics include some of the tau and charm physics from SPEAR, the upsilon physics from DORIS and CESR, and the γγ physics and quark and gluon physics from the PLUTO and TASSO Collaborations at PETRA. Related data from the JADE and MARK J Collaborations at PETRA are discussed in separated papers at this school. (orig.)

  13. Statistics for Sleep and Biological Rhythms Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerman, Elizabeth B; Wang, Wei; Phillips, Andrew J K; Bianchi, Matt T

    2017-02-01

    This article is part of a Journal of Biological Rhythms series exploring analysis and statistical topics relevant to researchers in biological rhythms and sleep research. The goal is to provide an overview of the most common issues that arise in the analysis and interpretation of data in these fields. In this article, we address issues related to the collection of multiple data points from the same organism or system at different times, since such longitudinal data collection is fundamental to the assessment of biological rhythms. Rhythmic longitudinal data require additional specific statistical considerations, ranging from curve fitting to threshold definitions to accounting for correlation structure. We discuss statistical analyses of longitudinal data including issues of correlational structure and stationarity, markers of biological rhythms, demasking of biological rhythms, and determining phase, waveform, and amplitude of biological rhythms.

  14. Topic and Topic-Comment Constructions in Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dingxu

    2000-01-01

    Attempts to provide a precise definition for topic and to derive most of the properties of topic from this definition. The main assumption is that the topic-comment construction is a syntactic device employed to fulfill certain discourse functions. (Author/VWL)

  15. Activated Sludge. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Owen K.; Klopping, Paul H.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. Topic areas addressed in the lessons include: (1) activated sludge concepts and components (including aeration tanks, aeration systems, clarifiers, and sludge pumping systems); (2) activated sludge variations and modes; (3) biological nature of activated…

  16. Topical Acne Treatments and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topical Acne Treatments and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to topical acne treatments may increase the risk for birth defects ...

  17. DNA Microarray Technology; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WERNER-WASHBURNE, MARGARET; DAVIDSON, GEORGE S.

    2002-01-01

    Collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and the University of New Mexico Biology Department resulted in the capability to train students in microarray techniques and the interpretation of data from microarray experiments. These studies provide for a better understanding of the role of stationary phase and the gene regulation involved in exit from stationary phase, which may eventually have important clinical implications. Importantly, this research trained numerous students and is the basis for three new Ph.D. projects

  18. Topics and Signs: Defensive Control of Emotional Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Mardi J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Single-case study examined frank disclosure of important topics in brief exploratory psychotherapy, including topics closely related to recent, unintegrated stressor life event. Quantitative measures of emotion and control variables showed heightened levels of both emotionality and defensive control during discourse on topic of stressor event.…

  19. Recent developments in topical thrombins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Craig M; Ortel, Thomas L

    2009-07-01

    Managing blood loss is part of the surgeon's responsibility during surgical procedures, and a variety of therapeutic strategies are available to help accomplish this. Topical haemostatic agents are among the agents used to control surgical bleeding and locally arrest blood flow. Bovine thrombin is a commonly used topical haemostatic agent; however, its use has been associated with potential risks, including well-documented cases of antibody-mediated coagulopathy. This coagulopathy develops as a consequence of antibody formation directed against bovine thrombin, other bovine coagulation proteins, and their human orthologs. The fact that a coagulopathy can result in association with the use of bovine plasma-derived thrombin preparations prompted the FDA to require pharmaceutical companies to place a black-box warning in their prescribing information for products containing bovine plasma-derived thrombin. Recently, human plasma-derived thrombin and recombinant human thrombin have been approved by the FDA with the expectation that they will be less immunogenic than the bovine-derived product. In clinical studies, purified human plasma-derived thrombin and recombinant thrombin have demonstrated equivalent efficacy and safety, with improved immunogenicity profiles compared with bovine-derived thrombin agents. Well-designed and adequately powered clinical trials should be conducted to indicate whether human thrombin products would improve the risk-benefit and cost-benefit profiles for surgeries complicated by excessive bleeding.

  20. Automated cloning methods.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collart, F.

    2001-01-01

    Argonne has developed a series of automated protocols to generate bacterial expression clones by using a robotic system designed to be used in procedures associated with molecular biology. The system provides plate storage, temperature control from 4 to 37 C at various locations, and Biomek and Multimek pipetting stations. The automated system consists of a robot that transports sources from the active station on the automation system. Protocols for the automated generation of bacterial expression clones can be grouped into three categories (Figure 1). Fragment generation protocols are initiated on day one of the expression cloning procedure and encompass those protocols involved in generating purified coding region (PCR)

  1. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  2. Chemistry {ampersand} Materials Science progress report summary of selected research and development topics, FY97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains summaries of research performed in the Chemistry and Materials Science division. Topics include Metals and Ceramics, High Explosives, Organic Synthesis, Instrument Development, and other topics.

  3. Similar effects of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, glucocorticoids, and biologic agents on radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis: meta-analysis of 70 randomized placebo-controlled or drug-controlled studies, including 112 comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche

    2010-01-01

    To define the differences in effects on joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients between therapy with single and combination disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), glucocorticoids, and biologic agents.......To define the differences in effects on joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients between therapy with single and combination disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), glucocorticoids, and biologic agents....

  4. Superconcentration and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    A certain curious feature of random objects, introduced by the author as “super concentration,” and two related topics, “chaos” and “multiple valleys,” are highlighted in this book. Although super concentration has established itself as a recognized feature in a number of areas of probability theory in the last twenty years (under a variety of names), the author was the first to discover and explore its connections with chaos and multiple valleys. He achieves a substantial degree of simplification and clarity in the presentation of these findings by using the spectral approach. Understanding the fluctuations of random objects is one of the major goals of probability theory and a whole subfield of probability and analysis, called concentration of measure, is devoted to understanding these fluctuations. This subfield offers a range of tools for computing upper bounds on the orders of fluctuations of very complicated random variables. Usually, concentration of measure is useful when more direct prob...

  5. Topics in statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elser, V.

    1984-05-01

    This thesis deals with four independent topics in statistical mechanics: (1) the dimer problem is solved exactly for a hexagonal lattice with general boundary using a known generating function from the theory of partitions. It is shown that the leading term in the entropy depends on the shape of the boundary; (2) continuum models of percolation and self-avoiding walks are introduced with the property that their series expansions are sums over linear graphs with intrinsic combinatorial weights and explicit dimension dependence; (3) a constrained SOS model is used to describe the edge of a simple cubic crystal. Low and high temperature results are derived as well as the detailed behavior near the crystal facet; (4) the microscopic model of the lambda-transition involving atomic permutation cycles is reexamined. In particular, a new derivation of the two-component field theory model of the critical behavior is presented. Results for a lattice model originally proposed by Kikuchi are extended with a high temperature series expansion and Monte Carlo simulation. 30 references

  6. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  7. Ways to Bring a "Far Out" Subject SPACE BIOLOGY Into the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Janice

    This document describes a grade 10-12 biology course designed to increase student interest by introducing topics in space biology including: the book "Andromeda Strain"; weightlessness; centrifuge; cosmic radiation; space research; origins of life; extraterrestrial life; and the Mars Viking Mission. (SL)

  8. Topics in Banach space theory

    CERN Document Server

    Albiac, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This text provides the reader with the necessary technical tools and background to reach the frontiers of research without the introduction of too many extraneous concepts. Detailed and accessible proofs are included, as are a variety of exercises and problems. The two new chapters in this second edition are devoted to two topics of much current interest amongst functional analysts: Greedy approximation with respect to bases in Banach spaces and nonlinear geometry of Banach spaces. This new material is intended to present these two directions of research for their intrinsic importance within Banach space theory, and to motivate graduate students interested in learning more about them. This textbook assumes only a basic knowledge of functional analysis, giving the reader a self-contained overview of the ideas and techniques in the development of modern Banach space theory. Special emphasis is placed on the study of the classical Lebesgue spaces Lp (and their sequence space analogues) and spaces of continuous f...

  9. Discovering health topics in social media using topic models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Paul

    Full Text Available By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM, as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689 and allergies (r = 0.810 temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r =  .534 and obesity (r =  -.631 related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media.

  10. Hot Topics/New Initiatives | Drinking Water in New England ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-06

    Information on Drinking Water in New England. Major Topics covered include: Conservation, Private Wells, Preventing Contamination, Drinking Water Sources, Consumer Confidence Reports, and Drinking Water Awards.

  11. EDITORIAL: Physical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Jane

    2004-06-01

    Physical Biology is a new peer-reviewed publication from Institute of Physics Publishing. Launched in 2004, the journal will foster the integration of biology with the traditionally more quantitative fields of physics, chemistry, computer science and other math-based disciplines. Its primary aim is to further the understanding of biological systems at all levels of complexity, ranging from the role of structure and dynamics of a single molecule to cellular networks and organisms. The journal encourages the development of a new biology-driven physics based on the extraordinary and increasingly rich data arising in biology, and provides research directions for those involved in the creation of novel bio-engineered systems. Physical Biology will publish a stimulating combination of full length research articles, communications, perspectives, reviews and tutorials from a wide range of disciplines covering topics such as: Single-molecule studies and nanobiotechnology Molecular interactions and protein folding Charge transfer and photobiology Ion channels; structure, function and ion regulation Molecular motors and force generation Subcellular processes Biological networks and neural systems Modeling aspects of molecular and cell biology Cell-cell signaling and interaction Biological patterns and development Evolutionary processes Novel tools and methods in physical biology Experts in the areas encompassed by the journal's scope have been appointed to the Editorial Scientific Committee and the composition of the Committee will be updated regularly to reflect the developments in this new and exciting field. Physical Biology is free online to everyone in 2004; you are invited to take advantage of this offer by visiting the journal homepage at http://physbio.iop.org This special print edition of Physical Biology is a combination of issues 1 and 2 of this electronic-only journal and it brings together an impressive range of articles in the fields covered, including a popular

  12. Topics in Bethe Ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunguang

    Integrable quantum spin chains have close connections to integrable quantum field. theories, modern condensed matter physics, string and Yang-Mills theories. Bethe. ansatz is one of the most important approaches for solving quantum integrable spin. chains. At the heart of the algebraic structure of integrable quantum spin chains is. the quantum Yang-Baxter equation and the boundary Yang-Baxter equation. This. thesis focuses on four topics in Bethe ansatz. The Bethe equations for the isotropic periodic spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain with N. sites have solutions containing ±i/2 that are singular: both the corresponding energy and the algebraic Bethe ansatz vector are divergent. Such solutions must be carefully regularized. We consider a regularization involving a parameter that can be. determined using a generalization of the Bethe equations. These generalized Bethe. equations provide a practical way of determining which singular solutions correspond. to eigenvectors of the model. The Bethe equations for the periodic XXX and XXZ spin chains admit singular. solutions, for which the corresponding eigenvalues and eigenvectors are ill-defined. We use a twist regularization to derive conditions for such singular solutions to bephysical, in which case they correspond to genuine eigenvalues and eigenvectors of. the Hamiltonian. We analyze the ground state of the open spin-1/2 isotropic quantum spin chain. with a non-diagonal boundary term using a recently proposed Bethe ansatz solution. As the coefficient of the non-diagonal boundary term tends to zero, the Bethe roots. split evenly into two sets: those that remain finite, and those that become infinite. We. argue that the former satisfy conventional Bethe equations, while the latter satisfy a. generalization of the Richardson-Gaudin equations. We derive an expression for the. leading correction to the boundary energy in terms of the boundary parameters. We argue that the Hamiltonians for A(2) 2n open quantum spin chains

  13. KEY TOPICS IN SPORTS MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Narvani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1 Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2 Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3 Drugs in sport, 4 Exercise and health promotion, 5 Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6 The psychology of performance and injury. PURPOSE The Key Topics format provides extensive, concise information in an accessible, easy-to-follow manner. AUDIENCE The book is targeted the students and specialists in sports medicine and rehabilitation, athletic training, physiotherapy and orthopaedic surgery. The editors are authorities in their respective fields and this handbook depends on their extensive experience and knowledge accumulated over the years. FEATURES The book contains the information for clinical guidance, rapid access to concise details and facts. It is composed of 99 topics which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Functional Anatomy, 2. Training Principles / Development of Strength and Power, 3. Biomechanical Principles, 4. Biomechanical Analysis, 5. Physiology of Training, 6. Monitoring of Training Progress, 7. Nutrition, 8. Hot and Cold Climates, 9. Altitude, 10. Sport and Travelling, 11. Principles of Sport Injury Diagnosis, 12. Principles of Sport and Soft Tissue Management, 13. Principles of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 14. Principles of Sport Injury Prevention, 15. Sports Psychology, 16. Team Sports, 17. Psychological Aspects of Injury in Sport, 18. Injury Repair Process, 19. Basic Biomechanics of Tissue Injury, 20. Plain Film Radiography in Sport, 21. Nuclear Medicine, 22. Diagnostic Ultrasound, 23. MRI Scan, 24. Other Imaging, 5. Head Injury, 26. Eye

  14. Development and Evaluation of Topical Gabapentin Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Martin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Topical delivery of gabapentin is desirable to treat peripheral neuropathic pain conditions whilst avoiding systemic side effects. To date, reports of topical gabapentin delivery in vitro have been variable and dependent on the skin model employed, primarily involving rodent and porcine models. In this study a variety of topical gabapentin formulations were investigated, including Carbopol® hydrogels containing various permeation enhancers, and a range of proprietary bases including a compounded Lipoderm® formulation; furthermore microneedle facilitated delivery was used as a positive control. Critically, permeation of gabapentin across a human epidermal membrane in vitro was assessed using Franz-type diffusion cells. Subsequently this data was contextualised within the wider scope of the literature. Although reports of topical gabapentin delivery have been shown to vary, largely dependent upon the skin model used, this study demonstrated that 6% (w/w gabapentin 0.75% (w/w Carbopol® hydrogels containing 5% (w/w DMSO or 70% (w/w ethanol and a compounded 10% (w/w gabapentin Lipoderm® formulation were able to facilitate permeation of the molecule across human skin. Further pre-clinical and clinical studies are required to investigate the topical delivery performance and pharmacodynamic actions of prospective formulations.

  15. Development and Evaluation of Topical Gabapentin Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Natalie; Hiom, Sarah; Birchall, James C.

    2017-01-01

    Topical delivery of gabapentin is desirable to treat peripheral neuropathic pain conditions whilst avoiding systemic side effects. To date, reports of topical gabapentin delivery in vitro have been variable and dependent on the skin model employed, primarily involving rodent and porcine models. In this study a variety of topical gabapentin formulations were investigated, including Carbopol® hydrogels containing various permeation enhancers, and a range of proprietary bases including a compounded Lipoderm® formulation; furthermore microneedle facilitated delivery was used as a positive control. Critically, permeation of gabapentin across a human epidermal membrane in vitro was assessed using Franz-type diffusion cells. Subsequently this data was contextualised within the wider scope of the literature. Although reports of topical gabapentin delivery have been shown to vary, largely dependent upon the skin model used, this study demonstrated that 6% (w/w) gabapentin 0.75% (w/w) Carbopol® hydrogels containing 5% (w/w) DMSO or 70% (w/w) ethanol and a compounded 10% (w/w) gabapentin Lipoderm® formulation were able to facilitate permeation of the molecule across human skin. Further pre-clinical and clinical studies are required to investigate the topical delivery performance and pharmacodynamic actions of prospective formulations. PMID:28867811

  16. New Approaches in Cancer Biology Can Inform the Biology Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lynda; Gordon, Diana; Zelinski, Mary

    2018-03-01

    Students tend to be very interested in medical issues that affect them and their friends and family. Using cancer as a hook, the ART of Reproductive Medicine: Oncofertility curriculum (free, online, and NIH sponsored) has been developed to supplement the teaching of basic biological concepts and to connect biology and biomedical research. This approach allows integration of up-to-date information on cancer and cancer treatment, cell division, male and female reproductive anatomy and physiology, cryopreservation, fertility preservation, stem cells, ethics, and epigenetics into an existing biology curriculum. Many of the topics covered in the curriculum relate to other scientific disciplines, such as the latest developments in stem cell research including tissue bioengineering and gene therapy for inherited mitochondrial disease, how epigenetics occurs chemically to affect gene expression or suppression and how it can be passed down through the generations, and the variety of biomedical careers students could pursue. The labs are designed to be open-ended and inquiry-based, and extensions to the experiments are provided so that students can explore questions further. Case studies and ethical dilemmas are provided to encourage thoughtful discussion. In addition, each chapter of the curriculum includes links to scientific papers, additional resources on each topic, and NGSS alignment.

  17. European Society for Radiaton Biology - 19th annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings contain 313 abstracts of papers. The topics covered include: biological radiation effects on lipids, hormones, fibroblasts, on bone healing, DNA repair, DNA synthesis, tumor cells, giant cell formation, on the lymphatic system, central nervous system and the hematopoietic system; determination of RBE; radioprotective agents; radiotherapy; dosimetry; radiation induced mutations; oxygen effects; radiosensitivity of tumor cells; hyperthermia and hypoxia effects on radiosensitivity; biological radiation effects on the growth of plants. (J.P.)

  18. Topics in number theory

    CERN Document Server

    LeVeque, William J

    2002-01-01

    Classic two-part work now available in a single volume assumes no prior theoretical knowledge on reader's part and develops the subject fully. Volume I is a suitable first course text for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Volume II requires a much higher level of mathematical maturity, including a working knowledge of the theory of analytic functions. Contents range from chapters on binary quadratic forms to the Thue-Siegel-Roth Theorem and the Prime Number Theorem. Includes numerous problems and hints for their solutions. 1956 edition. Supplementary Reading. List of Symb

  19. Miscellaneous Topics in Computer-Aided Drug Design: Synthetic Accessibility and GPU Computing, and Other Topics

    OpenAIRE

    Fukunishi, Yoshifumi; Mashimo, Tadaaki; Misoo, Kiyotaka; Wakabayashi, Yoshinori; Miyaki, Toshiaki; Ohta, Seiji; Nakamura, Mayu; Ikeda, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background Computer-aided drug design is still a state-of-the-art process in medicinal chemistry, and the main topics in this field have been extensively studied and well reviewed. These topics include compound databases, ligand-binding pocket prediction, protein-compound docking, virtual screening, target/off-target prediction, physical property prediction, molecular simulation and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) prediction. Message and Conclusion: However, there are also...

  20. Organic solvent topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel

  1. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-04-30

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  2. Topical Antibacterials and Global Challenges on Resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ingredient or are in combination with other antibiotics or corticosteroids. Community pharmacy have a variety of topical antibacterial agents which are available for potential use in; acne vulgaris, pyoderma including impetigo, folliculitis, rosacea, infected eczema, secondarily infected traumatic skin lesions, prevention of.

  3. Selected papers on analysis and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    This volume contains translations of papers that originally appeared in the Japanese journal Sūgaku. The papers range over a variety of topics, including operator algebras, analysis, and statistics. This volume is suitable for graduate students and research mathematicians interested in analysis and its applications.

  4. Topics of Evolutionary Computation 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursem, Rasmus Kjær

    This booklet contains the student reports from the course: Topics of Evolutionary Computation, Fall 2001, given by Thiemo Krink, Rene Thomsen and Rasmus K. Ursem......This booklet contains the student reports from the course: Topics of Evolutionary Computation, Fall 2001, given by Thiemo Krink, Rene Thomsen and Rasmus K. Ursem...

  5. Conference on Stochastic Analysis and Related Topics

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Jonathon

    2017-01-01

    The articles in this collection are a sampling of some of the research presented during the conference “Stochastic Analysis and Related Topics”, held in May of 2015 at Purdue University in honor of the 60th birthday of Rodrigo Bañuelos. A wide variety of topics in probability theory is covered in these proceedings, including heat kernel estimates, Malliavin calculus, rough paths differential equations, Lévy processes, Brownian motion on manifolds, and spin glasses, among other topics.

  6. Applications of dynamical systems in biology and medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Radunskaya, Ami

    2015-01-01

    This volume highlights problems from a range of biological and medical applications that can be interpreted as questions about system behavior or control.  Topics include drug resistance in cancer and malaria, biological fluid dynamics, auto-regulation in the kidney, anti-coagulation therapy, evolutionary diversification and photo-transduction.  Mathematical techniques used to describe and investigate these biological and medical problems include ordinary, partial and stochastic differentiation equations, hybrid discrete-continuous approaches, as well as 2 and 3D numerical simulation. .

  7. Topic modelling in the information warfare domain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Waal, A

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors provide context to Topic Modelling as an Information Warfare technique. Topic modelling is a technique that discovers latent topics in unstructured and unlabelled collection of documents. The topic structure can be searched...

  8. Topical tacrolimus for atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury Martins, Jade; Martins, Ciro; Aoki, Valeria; Gois, Aecio F T; Ishii, Henrique A; da Silva, Edina M K

    2015-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) (or atopic eczema) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that affects children and adults and has an important impact on quality of life. Topical corticosteroids (TCS) are the first-line therapy for this condition; however, they can be associated with significant adverse effects when used chronically. Tacrolimus ointment (in its 2 manufactured strengths of 0.1% and 0.03%) might be an alternative treatment. Tacrolimus, together with pimecrolimus, are drugs called topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs). To assess the efficacy and safety of topical tacrolimus for moderate and severe atopic dermatitis compared with other active treatments. We searched the following databases up to 3 June 2015: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library (Issue 5, 2015), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), LILACS (from 1982), and the Global Resource of Eczema Trials (GREAT database). We searched six trials registers and checked the bibliographies of included studies for further references to relevant trials. We contacted specialists in the field for unpublished data.A separate search for adverse effects of topical tacrolimus was undertaken in MEDLINE and EMBASE on 30 July 2013. We also scrutinised the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) websites for adverse effects information. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of participants with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (both children and adults) using topical tacrolimus at any dose, course duration, and follow-up time compared with other active treatments. Two authors independently screened and examined the full text of selected studies for compliance with eligibility criteria, risk of bias, and data extraction. Our three prespecified primary outcomes were physician's assessment, participant's self-assessment of improvement, and adverse effects. Our secondary outcomes included assessment of improvement of the disease by validated or objective measures, such as

  9. Physics of biological membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.

    The biological membrane is a complex system consisting of an aqueous biomolecular planar aggregate of predominantly lipid and protein molecules. At physiological temperatures, the membrane may be considered a thin (˜50Å) slab of anisotropic fluid characterized by a high lateral mobility of the various molecular components. A substantial fraction of biological activity takes place in association with membranes. As a very lively piece of condensed matter, the biological membrane is a challenging research topic for both the experimental and theoretical physicists who are facing a number of fundamental physical problems including molecular self-organization, macromolecular structure and dynamics, inter-macromolecular interactions, structure-function relationships, transport of energy and matter, and interfacial forces. This paper will present a brief review of recent theoretical and experimental progress on such problems, with special emphasis on lipid bilayer structure and dynamics, lipid phase transitions, lipid-protein and lipid-cholesterol interactions, intermembrane forces, and the physical constraints imposed on biomembrane function and evolution. The paper advocates the dual point of view that there are a number of interesting physics problems in membranology and, at the same time, that the physical properties of biomembranes are important regulators of membrane function.

  10. Mental Mechanisms for Topics Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Massey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Topics identification (TI is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM. We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly.

  11. A Study of Topic and Topic Change in Conversational Threads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    ture or content of a relationship changes. The ability to detect topic change would support investigations of sexual predators, where a conversation...often starts out platonic and then turns sexual [21], as well as investigations into the techniques of recruitment for criminal or religious activity. If...conditions such as Autism or Attention Deficit Disorder be detected via long term studies of topics in individuals’ personal communications? 62 CHAPTER 6

  12. Topical treatments for cutaneous warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Chun Shing; Gibbs, Sam; Bennett, Cathy; Holland, Richard; Abbott, Rachel

    2012-09-12

    Viral warts are a common skin condition, which can range in severity from a minor nuisance that resolve spontaneously to a troublesome, chronic condition. Many different topical treatments are available. To evaluate the efficacy of local treatments for cutaneous non-genital warts in healthy, immunocompetent adults and children. We updated our searches of the following databases to May 2011: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 2005), EMBASE (from 2010), AMED (from 1985), LILACS (from 1982), and CINAHL (from 1981). We searched reference lists of articles and online trials registries for ongoing trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of topical treatments for cutaneous non-genital warts. Two authors independently selected trials and extracted data; a third author resolved any disagreements. We included 85 trials involving a total of 8815 randomised participants (26 new studies were included in this update). There was a wide range of different treatments and a variety of trial designs. Many of the studies were judged to be at high risk of bias in one or more areas of trial design.Trials of salicylic acid (SA) versus placebo showed that the former significantly increased the chance of clearance of warts at all sites (RR (risk ratio) 1.56, 95% CI (confidence interval) 1.20 to 2.03). Subgroup analysis for different sites, hands (RR 2.67, 95% CI 1.43 to 5.01) and feet (RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.55), suggested it might be more effective for hands than feet.A meta-analysis of cryotherapy versus placebo for warts at all sites favoured neither intervention nor control (RR 1.45, 95% CI 0.65 to 3.23). Subgroup analysis for different sites, hands (RR 2.63, 95% CI 0.43 to 15.94) and feet (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.26 to 3.07), again suggested better outcomes for hands than feet. One trial showed cryotherapy to be better than both placebo and SA, but only for hand warts.There was no significant difference in cure rates between

  13. Topical clonidine for neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzosek, Anna; Woron, Jaroslaw; Dobrogowski, Jan; Jakowicka-Wordliczek, Joanna; Wordliczek, Jerzy

    2015-08-31

    Clonidine is a presynaptic alpha-2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for many years to treat hypertension and other conditions, including chronic pain. Adverse events associated with systemic use of the drug have limited its application. Topical use of drugs is currently gaining interest, as it may limit adverse events without loss of analgesic efficacy. Topical clonidine (TC) formulations have been investigated recently in clinical trials. The objectives of this review were to assess the analgesic efficacy of TC for chronic neuropathic pain in adults and to assess the frequency of adverse events associated with clinical use of TC for chronic neuropathic pain. We searched the Cochrane Register of Studies (CRS) Online (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL)), MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, reference lists of retrieved papers and trial registries, and we contacted experts in the field. We performed the most recent search on 17 September 2014. We included randomised, double-blind studies of at least two weeks' duration comparing TC versus placebo or other active treatment in patients with chronic neuropathic pain. Two review authors extracted data from the studies and assessed bias. We planned three tiers of evidence analysis. The first tier was designed to analyse data meeting current best standards, by which studies reported the outcome of at least 50% pain intensity reduction over baseline (or its equivalent) without use of the last observation carried forward or other imputation method for dropouts, reported an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, lasted eight weeks or longer, had a parallel-group design and included at least 200 participants (preferably at least 400) in the comparison. The second tier was designed to use data from at least 200 participants but in cases in which one of the above conditions was not met. The third tier of evidence was assumed in other situations. We included two studies in the review, with a total of 344 participants

  14. Gravitational biology on the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, J. R.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of gravitational biology is summarized, future areas of required basic research in earth-based and spaceflight projects are presented, and potential applications of gravitational biology on a space station are demonstrated. Topics covered include vertebrate reproduction, prenatal/postnatal development, a review of plant space experiments, the facilities needed for growing plants, gravimorphogenesis, thigmomorphogenesis, centrifuges, maintaining a vivarium, tissue culture, and artificial human organ generation. It is proposed that space stations carrying out these types of long-term research be called the National Space Research Facility.

  15. Topical steroid-damaged skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder.

  16. Topics in lightwave transmission systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tingye

    1991-01-01

    Topics in Lightwave Transmission Systems is a second volume of a treatise on optical fiber communications that is devoted to the science, engineering, and application of information transmission via optical fibers. The first volume, published in 1985, dealt exclusively with fiber fabrication. The present volume contains topics that pertain to subsystems and systems. The book contains five chapters and begins with discussions of transmitters and receivers, which are basic to systems now operating in the field. Subsequent chapters cover topics relating to coherent systems: frequency and phase m

  17. Selected Translated Abstracts of Chinese-Language Climate Change Publications; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushman, R.M.; Burtis, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains English-translated abstracts of important Chinese-language literature concerning global climate change for the years 1995-1998. This body of literature includes the topics of adaptation, ancient climate change, climate variation, the East Asia monsoon, historical climate change, impacts, modeling, and radiation and trace-gas emissions. In addition to the biological citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Chinese. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest

  18. Radiation damage and repair in cells and cell components. Part 2. Physical radiations and biological significance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluke, D.J.

    1984-08-01

    The report comprises a teaching text, encompassing all physical radiations likely to be of biological interest, and the relevant biological effects and their significance. Topics include human radiobiology, delayed effects, radiation absorption in organisms, aqueous radiation chemistry, cell radiobiology, mutagenesis, and photobiology

  19. [Experience of the development special medical technical laboratory for studies of effects caused by potent electromagnetic radiation in biologic objects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodetsky, B N; Kalyada, T V; Petrov, S V

    2015-01-01

    This article covers topics of creating special medical technical laboratory for medial and biologic studies concerning influence of potent high-frequency elecromagnetic radiation on various biologic objects. The authors gave example of such laboratory, described its construction features, purpose and main characteristics of the included devices.

  20. Internet addiction neuroscientific approaches and therapeutical implications including smartphone addiction

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The second edition of this successful book provides further and in-depth insight into theoretical models dealing with Internet addiction, as well as includes new therapeutical approaches. The editors also broach the emerging topic of smartphone addiction. This book combines a scholarly introduction with state-of-the-art research in the characterization of Internet addiction. It is intended for a broad audience including scientists, students and practitioners. The first part of the book contains an introduction to Internet addiction and their pathogenesis. The second part of the book is dedicated to an in-depth review of neuroscientific findings which cover studies using a variety of biological techniques including brain imaging and molecular genetics. The third part of the book focuses on therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction. The fourth part of the present book is an extension to the first edition and deals with a new emerging potential disorder related to Internet addiction – smartphone addicti...

  1. Topic structure for information retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, J.; Sanderson, M.; Zhai, C.; Zobel, J.; Allan, J.; Aslam, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In my research, I propose a coherence measure, with the goal of discovering and using topic structures within and between documents, of which I explore its extensions and applications in information retrieval.

  2. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The collection of abstracts on selected topics in nuclear structure are given. Special attention pays to collective excitations and high-spin states of nuclei, giant resonance structure, nuclear reaction mechanisms and so on

  3. Conversational topics in transsexual persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Borsel, John; Cayzeele, Miet; Heirman, Eva; T'sjoen, Guy

    2014-06-01

    Abstract In general, speech language therapy for transsexual persons focuses on pitch and pitch variation and more recently also on resonance. Other communicative aspects are dealt with far less often, especially language. This study investigated to what extent conversational topics might need attention in therapy for transsexual persons. A total of 111 males, 116 females, 28 male-to-female and 18 female-to-male transsexuals were asked to indicate on a list with 34 topics how often they speak about each topic (never, sometimes, often) in conversations with males, with females and in a gender mixed group. Results showed that transsexual persons behave in accordance with the desired gender. However, they also tend to adopt a position depending on the gender of their conversational partner. It can be concluded that in general it is not necessary to pay attention to conversational topics in therapy for transsexual persons.

  4. Special topics in spectral distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    We discuss two problems which relate to the foundations of the subject, and a third about asymptotic properties of spectral distributions. We give also a brief list of topics which should be further explored

  5. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyhrman, Sonya

    2004-10-01

    The ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. As a testament to this diversity and its importance, the discipline of biological oceanography spans studies of all levels of biological organization, from that of single genes, to organisms, to their population dynamics. Biological oceanography also includes studies on how organisms interact with, and contribute to, essential global processes. Students of biological oceanography are often as comfortable looking at satellite images as they are electron micrographs. This diversity of perspective begins the textbook Biological Oceanography, with cover graphics including a Coastal Zone Color Scanner image representing chlorophyll concentration, an electron micrograph of a dinoflagellate, and a photograph of a copepod. These images instantly capture the reader's attention and illustrate some of the different scales on which budding oceanographers are required to think. Having taught a core graduate course in biological oceanography for many years, Charlie Miller has used his lecture notes as the genesis for this book. The text covers the subject of biological oceanography in a manner that is targeted to introductory graduate students, but it would also be appropriate for advanced undergraduates.

  6. Topics in Theoretical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Andrew [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Schmaltz, Martin [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Katz, Emmanuel [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Rebbi, Claudio [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Glashow, Sheldon [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Brower, Richard [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Pi, So-Young [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This award supported a broadly based research effort in theoretical particle physics, including research aimed at uncovering the laws of nature at short (subatomic) and long (cosmological) distances. These theoretical developments apply to experiments in laboratories such as CERN, the facility that operates the Large Hadron Collider outside Geneva, as well as to cosmological investigations done using telescopes and satellites. The results reported here apply to physics beyond the so-called Standard Model of particle physics; physics of high energy collisions such as those observed at the Large Hadron Collider; theoretical and mathematical tools and frameworks for describing the laws of nature at short distances; cosmology and astrophysics; and analytic and computational methods to solve theories of short distance physics. Some specific research accomplishments include + Theories of the electroweak interactions, the forces that give rise to many forms of radioactive decay; + Physics of the recently discovered Higgs boson. + Models and phenomenology of dark matter, the mysterious component of the universe, that has so far been detected only by its gravitational effects. + High energy particles in astrophysics and cosmology. + Algorithmic research and Computational methods for physics of and beyond the Standard Model. + Theory and applications of relativity and its possible limitations. + Topological effects in field theory and cosmology. + Conformally invariant systems and AdS/CFT. This award also supported significant training of students and postdoctoral fellows to lead the research effort in particle theory for the coming decades. These students and fellows worked closely with other members of the group as well as theoretical and experimental colleagues throughout the physics community. Many of the research projects funded by this grant arose in response to recently obtained experimental results in the areas of particle physics and cosmology. We describe a few of

  7. Topics of Bioengineering in Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassia Atanassova

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present report aims to give a snapshot of how topics from the field of bioengineering (bioinformatics, bioprocess systems, biomedical engineering, biotechnology, etc. are currently covered in the free electronic encyclopedia Wikipedia. It also offers insights and information about what Wikipedia is, how it functions, how and when to cite Wikipedian articles, if necessary. Several external wikis, devoted to topics of bioengineering, are also listed and reviewed.

  8. Radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeister, K.

    1977-01-01

    This chapter is included in a textbook which is primarily intended for medical students. The following topics are dealt with: radiation effects on molecules; chemical and biochemical radiation effects; modification of radiation effects and radiosensitivity; radiation-induced pathomorphological and pathophysiological effects in organs and organ systems; radiation syndrome; radiation effects in embryos and fetuses; genetic radiation effects; carcinogenesis and leukemogenesis after irradiation; and radiation effects after intake of radionuclides

  9. Topics on electricity trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skytte, K.

    2001-01-01

    The first chapter in this thesis is a survey of studies on electricity trade, which has been included in order to show how subjects in this thesis fit into this aspect of energy research. Transitions from centralised monopolies to liberalised electricity markets have been inaugurated in the northern European countries during the last decade. The backgrounds and speed of transitions differ within the countries. Where Norway liberalised its electricity market in order to stabilise the prices, EU urged a liberalisation in order to make the electricity supply industry more effective. Together with national liberalisation, the opening of the cross border trade between the countries is also urged. The first paper in this thesis describes those different liberalisation processes within northern Europe and discusses problems that may arise in a transition period for integrating the countries into a common electricity market with efficient cross-border competition. Before the liberalisation process started, the electricity generation was determined by a central load dispatch at known prices. The introduction of competition has necessitated the creation of new competitive markets, power exchanges and financial markets where generation and prices are determined by demand and supply on the markets. One implication of this is that investments in new plants shall be made under levels of uncertainty about future prices. The second paper in this thesis analyses the importance of introducing uncertainty in energy-economic modelling of the electricity supply sector. Another implication, which arises on introducing a new market structure and power exchanges, is that the design of the power exchanges influences the price setting on the markets. The third paper of this thesis analyses the price setting on the regulating power market on the Nordic power exchange Nord Pool. More precisely, the paper reveals the pattern of the prices on the regulating power market by analysing the cost of

  10. Topics on electricity trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytte, K.

    2001-07-01

    The first chapter in this thesis is a survey of studies on electricity trade, which has been included in order to show how subjects in this thesis fit into this aspect of energy research. Transitions from centralised monopolies to liberalised electricity markets have been inaugurated in the northern European countries during the last decade. The backgrounds and speed of transitions differ within the countries. Where Norway liberalised its electricity market in order to stabilise the prices, EU urged a liberalisation in order to make the electricity supply industry more effective. Together with national liberalisation, the opening of the cross border trade between the countries is also urged. The first paper in this thesis describes those different liberalisation processes within northern Europe and discusses problems that may arise in a transition period for integrating the countries into a common electricity market with efficient cross-border competition. Before the liberalisation process started, the electricity generation was determined by a central load dispatch at known prices. The introduction of competition has necessitated the creation of new competitive markets, power exchanges and financial markets where generation and prices are determined by demand and supply on the markets. One implication of this is that investments in new plants shall be made under levels of uncertainty about future prices. The second paper in this thesis analyses the importance of introducing uncertainty in energy-economic modelling of the electricity supply sector. Another implication, which arises on introducing a new market structure and power exchanges, is that the design of the power exchanges influences the price setting on the markets. The third paper of this thesis analyses the price setting on the regulating power market on the Nordic power exchange Nord Pool. More precisely, the paper reveals the pattern of the prices on the regulating power market by analysing the cost of

  11. Actinides: why are they important biologically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, P.W.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: actinide elements in energy systems; biological hazards of the actinides; radiation protection standards; and purposes of actinide biological research with regard to toxicity, metabolism, and therapeutic regimens

  12. Topical treatments of skin pain: a general review with a focus on hidradenitis suppurativa with topical agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2014-07-15

    Hidradenitis Supprurativa (HS) is a painful chronic follicular disease. Few papers have addressed pain control for this debilitating condition. Possible topical agents include tricyclic antidepressants, opioids, anticonvulsants, NSAIDs, NMDA receptor antagonists, local anesthetics and other agents. The first line agents for the topical treatment of the cutaneous pain of HS are diclonefac gel 1% and liposomal xylocaine 4% and 5% cream or 5% ointment. The chief advantage of topical xylocaine is that is quick acting i.e. immediate however with a limited duration of effect 1-2 hours. The use of topical ketamine, which blocks n-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in a non-competitive fashion, might be a useful tool for the treatment of HS pain. Topical doxepin, which available in a 5% commercially preparation (Zonalon®) , makes patients drowsy and is not useful for controlling the pain of HS . Doxepin is available in a 3% or 3.3% concentration (which causes less drowsiness) from compounding pharmacies and can be used in compounded analgesic preparations with positive effect. Topical doxepin is preferred over use of topical amitriptyline because topical doxepin is more effective. Nevertheless, topical amitriptyline increase of the tactile and mechanical nociceptive thresholds and can be used for topical pain control in compound mixture of analgesics . Gabapentin and pregablin can also be used compounded with other agents in topical analgesic preparations with positive topical anesthetic effect. Capsaicin is not useful for topical treatment of the pain of HS. Sometimes compounded of anesthetics medications such as ketamine 10%, bupivacaine 1%, diclofenac 3%, doxepin 3% or 3.3%, and gabapentin 6% can extend the duration of effect so that medication only needs to be used 2 or 3 times a day. Still in my experience the easiest to get and most patient requested agent is topical diclonefac 1% gel.

  13. Structural Biology: Practical NMR Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Teng, Quincy

    2005-01-01

    This textbook begins with an overview of NMR development and applications in biological systems. It describes recent developments in instrument hardware and methodology. Chapters highlight the scope and limitation of NMR methods. While detailed math and quantum mechanics dealing with NMR theory have been addressed in several well-known NMR volumes, chapter two of this volume illustrates the fundamental principles and concepts of NMR spectroscopy in a more descriptive manner. Topics such as instrument setup, data acquisition, and data processing using a variety of offline software are discussed. Chapters further discuss several routine stategies for preparing samples, especially for macromolecules and complexes. The target market for such a volume includes researchers in the field of biochemistry, chemistry, structural biology and biophysics.

  14. Stochastic processes in cell biology

    CERN Document Server

    Bressloff, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    This book develops the theory of continuous and discrete stochastic processes within the context of cell biology.  A wide range of biological topics are covered including normal and anomalous diffusion in complex cellular environments, stochastic ion channels and excitable systems, stochastic calcium signaling, molecular motors, intracellular transport, signal transduction, bacterial chemotaxis, robustness in gene networks, genetic switches and oscillators, cell polarization, polymerization, cellular length control, and branching processes. The book also provides a pedagogical introduction to the theory of stochastic process – Fokker Planck equations, stochastic differential equations, master equations and jump Markov processes, diffusion approximations and the system size expansion, first passage time problems, stochastic hybrid systems, reaction-diffusion equations, exclusion processes, WKB methods, martingales and branching processes, stochastic calculus, and numerical methods.   This text is primarily...

  15. Nonlinear dynamics in biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carballido-Landeira, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent research results relating to applications of nonlinear dynamics, focusing specifically on four topics of wide interest: heart dynamics, DNA/RNA, cell mobility, and proteins. The book derives from the First BCAM Workshop on Nonlinear Dynamics in Biological Systems, held in June 2014 at the Basque Center of Applied Mathematics (BCAM). At this international meeting, researchers from different but complementary backgrounds, including molecular dynamics, physical chemistry, bio-informatics and biophysics, presented their most recent results and discussed the future direction of their studies using theoretical, mathematical modeling and experimental approaches. Such was the level of interest stimulated that the decision was taken to produce this publication, with the organizers of the event acting as editors. All of the contributing authors are researchers working on diverse biological problems that can be approached using nonlinear dynamics. The book will appeal especially to applied math...

  16. An "enactive" approach to integrative and comparative biology: Thoughts on the table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIAN G. PALACIOS

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the concept of Enaction as originally proposed by Varela. We attempt to exemplify through two specific topics, sensory ecology and behavior, as well as physiological and behavioral ecology, on which the enactive approach is based. We argue that sensory physiology allows us to explore the biological and cognitive meaning of animal 'private' sensory channels, beyond the scope of our own sensory capacity. Furthermore, after analyzing the interplay between factors that may impose limits upon an animal's use of time and energy, we call for a program of research in integrative and comparative biology that simultaneously considers evolutionary ecology (including physiological and behavioral ecology and neurobiology (including cognitive mechanisms as well structural design. We believe that this approach represents a shift in scientific attitude among biologists concerning the place of biological and ecological topics in studies of integrative and comparative biology and biological diversity and vice versa

  17. topicmodels: An R Package for Fitting Topic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Grun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Topic models allow the probabilistic modeling of term frequency occurrences in documents. The fitted model can be used to estimate the similarity between documents as well as between a set of specified keywords using an additional layer of latent variables which are referred to as topics. The R package topicmodels provides basic infrastructure for fitting topic models based on data structures from the text mining package tm. The package includes interfaces to two algorithms for fitting topic models: the variational expectation-maximization algorithm provided by David M. Blei and co-authors and an algorithm using Gibbs sampling by Xuan-Hieu Phan and co-authors.

  18. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  19. A novel hybrid clustering algorithm for microblog topic detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiao; Zhang, Yanmei; Jiao, Yuhang; Mei, Yinan

    2017-10-01

    Microblog has the characteristics of large scale, various topics and too much topic-unrelated texts included. So we propose a three -layer hybrid clustering algorithm to replace the original ones used in the topic detection models which can hardly handle microblog. We apply the K-means algorithm in clustering the microblog texts by their topics in the first layer. And in the second layer, we use the agglomerative nesting algorithm to merge the small clusters consisting of texts of the same topic. The first two layers also remove most noise, reducing their further impact on the K-means in the third layer, which reassigns the texts assigned to the wrong cluster. Experiments show our algorithm outperforms some related traditional algorithms on the clustering of real dataset and functions perfectly in the topic detection.

  20. Topical Pimecrolimus 1% Cream in the Treatment of Seborrheic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Grace K.

    2013-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a multifactorial skin disease characterized by a chronic course with periods of exacerbation and remission. Although topical corticosteroids have been the mainstay of treatment, alternative therapies are often needed to avoid protracted use of topical corticosteroid therapy in order to avert side effects and to sustain control of the disorder. Topical pimecrolimus, a calcinuerin inhibitor, is a safe alternative for seborrheic dermatitis and is more ideal for long-term use. More specifically, topical pimecrolimus not only has an attractive safety profile with no risk of many of the potential side effects seen with topical corticosteroids, but also has favorable efficacy data, including more data on long-term use. This is a review of literature evaluating the efficacy and safety profile of topical pimecrolimus 1% cream for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. PMID:23441238

  1. Topical and Applied Interests of Introductory Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Daniel R.; Stec, Deborah A.

    2007-01-01

    Using forced-choice and continuous measures, introductory psychology students reported highest interest for the topical areas of clinical and social psychology (over biological, cognitive, and developmental) and for the applied areas of education and health (over business, environment, and law) at both the beginning and end of semesters. Among…

  2. An overview of topical treatment for atopic eczema | Motswaledi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... on the elbows and knees in younger children, and the cubital and popliteal fossae in older children and adults. Treatment modalities include emollients, topical corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, phototherapy and immunosuppressive therapy. This article provides a brief overview of topical treatments for atopic eczema.

  3. Topics in theoretical and applied statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Giommi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the latest research findings from the 46th International Meeting of the Italian Statistical Society (SIS) in Rome, during which both methodological and applied statistical research was discussed. This selection of fully peer-reviewed papers, originally presented at the meeting, addresses a broad range of topics, including the theory of statistical inference; data mining and multivariate statistical analysis; survey methodologies; analysis of social, demographic and health data; and economic statistics and econometrics.

  4. Topics on tournaments in graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, John W

    2015-01-01

    Tournaments, in this context, are directed graphs ― an important and interesting topic in graph theory. This concise volume collects a substantial amount of information on tournaments from throughout the mathematical literature. Suitable for advanced undergraduate students of mathematics, the straightforward treatment requires a basic familiarity with finite mathematics. The fundamental definitions and results appear in the earlier sections, and most of the later sections can be read independently of each other. Subjects include irreducible and strong tournaments, cycles and strong subtourname

  5. Transport phenomena an introduction to advanced topics

    CERN Document Server

    Glasgow, Larry A

    2010-01-01

    Enables readers to apply transport phenomena principles to solve advanced problems in all areas of engineering and science This book helps readers elevate their understanding of, and their ability to apply, transport phenomena by introducing a broad range of advanced topics as well as analytical and numerical solution techniques. Readers gain the ability to solve complex problems generally not addressed in undergraduate-level courses, including nonlinear, multidimensional transport, and transient molecular and convective transport scenarios. Avoiding rote memorization, the author em

  6. Topical application of hemostatic paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mizanur Rahman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As a measure to control minor surgical bleeding, surgeons usually depend on a number of hemostatic aids. Topical use of bovine thrombin is a widely used procedure to arrest such minor bleeding. A 35 year old male sergeant of Bangladesh Air Force presented with repeated development of hematoma in his left thigh without any history of trauma or previous history of bleeding. Critical analysis of the patient’s history, routine and sophisticated hematological investigations revealed that the patient developed anti-thrombin antibody following the application of hemostatic paste in the tooth socket five years back during minor dental procedure to stop ignorable bleeding episodes. Therefore, topical use of hemostatic glue/paste or bovine thrombin should be avoided to desist minor bleeding as recombinant human thrombin is now available for topical use.

  7. Topics in current aerosol research

    CERN Document Server

    Hidy, G M

    1971-01-01

    Topics in Current Aerosol Research deals with the fundamental aspects of aerosol science, with emphasis on experiment and theory describing highly dispersed aerosols (HDAs) as well as the dynamics of charged suspensions. Topics covered range from the basic properties of HDAs to their formation and methods of generation; sources of electric charges; interactions between fluid and aerosol particles; and one-dimensional motion of charged cloud of particles. This volume is comprised of 13 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic properties of HDAs, followed by a discussion on the form

  8. Topical therapies in hyperhidrosis care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariser, David M; Ballard, Angela

    2014-10-01

    Primary focal hyperhidrosis affects 3% of the US population; about the same number as psoriasis. More than half of these patients have primary focal axillary hyperhidrosis: sweating that is beyond what is anticipated or necessary for thermoregulation. Most topical therapies are based on aluminum salts, which work by a chemical reaction that forms plugs in the eccrine sweat ducts. Topical anticholinergics may also be used. Instruction on proper methods and timing of antiperspirants enhances effect and may be effective alone or in combination with other treatments in patients with hyperhidrosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, V.G.; Gromov, K.Ya.; Malov, L.A.; Shilov, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Fourth International Conference on selected topics in nuclear structure was held at Dubna in July 1994 on recent experimental and theoretical investigations in nuclear structure. Topics discussed were the following: nuclear structure at low-energy excitations (collective quasiparticle phenomena, proton-neutron interactions, microscopic and phenomenological theories of nuclear structure; nuclear structure studies with charged particles. heavy ions, neutrons and photons; nuclei at high angular momenta and superdeformation, structure and decay properties of giant resonances, charge-exchange resonances and β-decay; semiclassical approach of large amplitude collective motion and structure of hot nuclei

  10. Topics in elementary particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiang

    The author of this thesis discusses two topics in elementary particle physics: n-ary algebras and their applications to M-theory (Part I), and functional evolution and Renormalization Group flows (Part II). In part I, Lie algebra is extended to four different n-ary algebraic structure: generalized Lie algebra, Filippov algebra, Nambu algebra and Nambu-Poisson tensor; though there are still many other n-ary algebras. A natural property of Generalized Lie algebras — the Bremner identity, is studied, and proved with a totally different method from its original version. We extend Bremner identity to n-bracket cases, where n is an arbitrary odd integer. Filippov algebras do not focus on associativity, and are defined by the Fundamental identity. We add associativity to Filippov algebras, and give examples of how to construct Filippov algebras from su(2), bosonic oscillator, Virasoro algebra. We try to include fermionic charges into the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebra, but the attempt fails because fermionic charges keep generating new charges that make the algebra not closed. We also study the Bremner identity restriction on Nambu algebras and Nambu-Poisson tensors. So far, the only example 3-algebra being used in physics is the BLG model with 3-algebra A4, describing two M2-branes interactions. Its extension with Nambu algebra, BLG-NB model, is believed to describe infinite M2-branes condensation. Also, there is another propose for M2-brane interactions, the ABJM model, which is constructed by ordinary Lie algebra. We compare the symmetry properties between them, and discuss the possible approaches to include these three models into a grand unification theory. In Part II, we give an approximate solution for Schroeder's equations, based on series and conjugation methods. We use the logistic map as an example, and demonstrate that this approximate solution converges to known analytical solutions around the fixed point, around which the approximate solution is constructed

  11. A framework for evolutionary systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewe, Laurence

    2009-02-24

    Many difficult problems in evolutionary genomics are related to mutations that have weak effects on fitness, as the consequences of mutations with large effects are often simple to predict. Current systems biology has accumulated much data on mutations with large effects and can predict the properties of knockout mutants in some systems. However experimental methods are too insensitive to observe small effects. Here I propose a novel framework that brings together evolutionary theory and current systems biology approaches in order to quantify small effects of mutations and their epistatic interactions in silico. Central to this approach is the definition of fitness correlates that can be computed in some current systems biology models employing the rigorous algorithms that are at the core of much work in computational systems biology. The framework exploits synergies between the realism of such models and the need to understand real systems in evolutionary theory. This framework can address many longstanding topics in evolutionary biology by defining various 'levels' of the adaptive landscape. Addressed topics include the distribution of mutational effects on fitness, as well as the nature of advantageous mutations, epistasis and robustness. Combining corresponding parameter estimates with population genetics models raises the possibility of testing evolutionary hypotheses at a new level of realism. EvoSysBio is expected to lead to a more detailed understanding of the fundamental principles of life by combining knowledge about well-known biological systems from several disciplines. This will benefit both evolutionary theory and current systems biology. Understanding robustness by analysing distributions of mutational effects and epistasis is pivotal for drug design, cancer research, responsible genetic engineering in synthetic biology and many other practical applications.

  12. Environmental Health Topics from A to Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help. Explore Brochures & Fact Sheets Environmental Health Topics Environmental Health Topics Explore Environmental Health Topics A to ... Sessions Speakers Bureau Kids Environment | Kids Health Kids Environment | Kids Health A resource for kids, parents, and ...

  13. Two topics in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1989-12-01

    The two topics are (1) estimates of perturbation theory coefficients for R(e + e - → hadrons), and (2) the virtual-photon structure function, with emphasis on the analytic behavior in its squared mass. 20 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachura, Z.

    1984-09-01

    19. winter school in Zakopane was devoted to selected topics in nuclear structure such as: production of spin resonances, heavy ions reactions and their applications to the investigation of high spin states, octupole deformations, excited states and production of new elements etc. The experimental data are ofen compared with theoretical predictions. Report contains 28 papers. (M.F.W.)

  15. Evaluating topic models with stability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Waal, A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available on unlabelled data, so that a ground truth does not exist and (b) "soft" (probabilistic) document clusters are created by state-of-the-art topic models, which complicates comparisons even when ground truth labels are available. Perplexity has often been used...

  16. Topical bevacizumab treatment in aniridia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth; Santana, Nathalie T. Y.; Nieuwendaal, Carla P.; Mourits, Maarten P.; van der Meulen, Ivanka J. E.

    2017-01-01

    To report the results of long-term topical treatment with bevacizumab (Avastin) 5 mg/mL eyedrops in a case of aniridia-related neovacularization of the cornea. Interventional case report. A female patient with aniridia had a decrease in the best corrected visual acuity from 0.32 to 0.02 in the OS

  17. Lattice quantum chromodynamics: Some topics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For reasons of both time and interest, I have chosen to limit this review to some se- lected topics. I will begin with a lightning quick overview of the basic lattice gauge theory and then go on to discuss the recent results on the QCD phase diagram, quark number susceptibility and the screening lengths. A short summary is ...

  18. Topic Map for Authentic Travel

    OpenAIRE

    Wandsvik, Atle; Zare, Mehdi

    2007-01-01

    E-business is a new trend in Internet use. Authentic travel is an approach to travel and travel business which helps the traveler experience what is authentic in the travel destination. But how can the traveler find those small authentic spots and organize them together to compose a vacation? E-business techniques, combined withTopic Maps, can help.

  19. Hot Topics in Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2018-01-01

    There are vital topics in science teaching and learning which are mentioned frequently in the literature. Specialists advocate their importance in the curriculum as well as science teachers stress their saliency. Inservice education might well assist new and veteran teachers in knowledge and skills. The very best science lessons and units of…

  20. Systems biology at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Damborsky, J.

    2010-01-01

    In his editorial overview for the 2008 Special Issue on this topic, the late Jaroslav Stark pointedly noted that systems biology is no longer a niche pursuit, but a recognized discipline in its own right “noisily” coming of age [1]. Whilst general underlying principles and basic techniques are now

  1. The pharmacology of topical analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Robert L

    2013-07-01

    Pain management of patients continues to pose challenges to clinicians. Given the multiple dimensions of pain--whether acute or chronic, mild, moderate, or severe, nociceptive or neuropathic--a multimodal approach may be needed. Fortunately, clinicians have an array of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment choices; however, each modality must be chosen carefully, because some often used oral agents are associated with safety and tolerability issues that restrict their use in certain patients. In particular, orally administered nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, opioids, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants are known to cause systemic adverse effects in some patients. To address this problem, a number of topical therapies in various therapeutic classes have been developed to reduce systemic exposure and minimize the risks of patients developing adverse events. For example, topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug formulations produce a site-specific effect (ie, cyclo-oxygenase inhibition) while decreasing the systemic exposure that may lead to undesired effects in patients. Similarly, derivatives of acetylsalicylic acid (ie, salicylates) are used in topical analgesic formulations that do not significantly enter the patient's systemic circulation. Salicylates, along with capsaicin, menthol, and camphor, compose the counterirritant class of topical analgesics, which produce analgesia by activating and then desensitizing epidermal nociceptors. Additionally, patches and creams that contain the local anesthetic lidocaine, alone or co-formulated with other local anesthetics, are also used to manage patients with select acute and chronic pain states. Perhaps the most common topical analgesic modality is the cautious application of cutaneous cold and heat. Such treatments may decrease pain not by reaching the target tissue through systemic distribution, but by acting more directly on the affected tissue. Despite the tolerability benefits associated with avoiding

  2. Topics of nuclear medicine research in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inubushi, Masayuki; Kaneta, Tomohiro; Ishimori, Takayoshi; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Okizaki, Atsutaka; Oku, Naohiko

    2017-10-01

    Last year in the European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, we introduced some recent nuclear medicine research conducted in Japan. This was favorably received by European readers in the main. This year we wish to focus on the Annals of Nuclear Medicine on some of the fine nuclear medicine research work executed in Europe recently. In the current review article, we take up five topics: prostate-specific membrane antigen imaging, recent advances in radionuclide therapy, [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (PET) for dementia, quantitative PET assessment of myocardial perfusion, and iodine-124 ( 124 I). Just at the most recent annual meeting of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine 2016, Kyoto was selected as the host city for the 2022 Congress of the World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology. We hope that our continuous efforts to strengthen scientific cooperation between Europe and Japan will bring many European friends and a great success to the Kyoto meeting.

  3. Topics from the theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Grosswald, Emil

    1984-01-01

    Many of the important and creative developments in modern mathematics resulted from attempts to solve questions that originate in number theory. The publication of Emil Grosswald’s classic text presents an illuminating introduction to number theory. Combining the historical developments with the analytical approach, Topics from the Theory of Numbers offers the reader a diverse range of subjects to investigate, including: * divisibility * congruences * the Riemann zeta function * Diophantine equations and Fermat’s conjecture * the theory of partitions Comprehensive in nature, Topics from the Theory of Numbers is an ideal text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students alike. "In my opinion it is excellent. It is carefully written and represents clearly a work of a scholar who loves and understands his subject. One can only wish more authors would take such pains and would be as good and honest expositors as Grosswald." — Marc Kac "This book is designed for use in a first course in number theory at...

  4. Topics in Extended Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavatula, Ravi S.

    This thesis consists of three chapters. Each chapter is self-contained and is devoted to the investigation of a particular topic in extended dynamical systems. In the first chapter, an approach based on Langevin equations is implemented to understand the non-Gaussian nature of the probability distribution function (PDF) of local diffusive variables in extended dynamical systems, e.g., a passive scalar advected by turbulent velocity fluctuations. Two mechanisms are proposed for the origin of non-Gaussian tails: One relies on the nature of temporal correlations of the fluctuations that couple additively to the diffusive field, leading to exponential and stretched exponential tails in the PDF; the other depends on multiplicative coupling between the diffusive field and the fluctuations, producing algebraic tails in the PDF. The mechanisms are illustrated using models for a passive scalar and also a current driven Josephson junction array. This study indicates that shapes of local PDFs in turbulent states are non-universal and crucially depend on local couplings and time scales. The second chapter establishes the existence of a class of locally conserving chaotic (deterministic) systems that exhibit Generic Scale Invariance--algebraic decay of spatial and temporal correlations without tuning parameters. This study also reveals the similarity between noise and chaos in extended systems as far as long-wavelength and long -time behavior is concerned. Specifically, a two dimensional coupled-map lattice model with a conserved density is numerically shown to exhibit, in agreement with heuristic arguments, algebraic decay of spatio-temporal correlations in chaotic states with simple predictable exponents. The third chapter investigates scaling behavior of earthquakes in seismic zone models in which an earthquake is modeled by a quasi-static description that ignores short -time dynamics during an earthquake. The models incorporate the essential feature of long-ranged stress

  5. 2007 Microbial Population Biology (July 22-26, 2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony M. Dean

    2008-04-01

    Microbial Population Biology covers a diverse range of cutting edge issues in the microbial sciences and beyond. Firmly founded in evolutionary biology and with a strongly integrative approach, past meetings have covered topics ranging from the dynamics and genetics of adaptation to the evolution of mutation rate, community ecology, evolutionary genomics, altruism, and epidemiology. This meeting is never dull: some of the most significant and contentious issues in biology have been thrashed out here. We anticipate the 2007 meeting being no exception. The final form of the 2007 meeting is yet to be decided, but the following topics are likely to be included: evolutionary emergence of infectious disease and antibiotic resistance, genetic architecture and implications for the evolution of microbial populations, ageing in bacteria, biogeography, evolution of symbioses, the role of microbes in ecosystem function, and ecological genomics.

  6. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  7. 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology, Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, Judith [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2012-06-22

    The Gordon Research Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology was held at Holderness School, Holderness New Hampshire, June 17 - 22, 2012. The 2012 Gordon Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology (CMFB) will present the latest, cutting-edge research on the exciting and growing field of molecular and cellular aspects of fungal biology. Topics will range from yeast to filamentous fungi, from model systems to economically important organisms, and from saprophytes and commensals to pathogens of plants and animals. The CMFB conference will feature a wide range of topics including systems biology, cell biology and morphogenesis, organismal interactions, genome organisation and regulation, pathogenesis, energy metabolism, biomass production and population genomics. The Conference was well-attended with 136 participants. Gordon Research Conferences does not permit publication of meeting proceedings.

  8. Biotic prognostications: Global warming and biological diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.L.; Lovejoy, T.E. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    This book focuses on the impacts of the greenhouse effect on biological diversity and on natural ecosystems. Included are chapters which include the following topics: government attitudes to climate change problems; general conclusions and deficiencies of general circulation models; impacts of past climate changes on global biota; effects of climate on vegetation, soils, wildlife diversity, animal physiology, ecology, behavior, migration, and parasites and diseases; arctic mariene ecosystems and coasta marine zones; tropical forests; arctic tundra; western North American forests, etc.; indirect linkages and snyergisms among climate change, biodiversity, geosphere, and anthropogenic stresses.

  9. Topical and transdermal drug delivery: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benson, Heather A. E; Watkinson, Adam C

    2012-01-01

    .... Providing an overview of the current science in drug and cosmetic application to and through the skin, Topical and Transdermal Drug Delivery includes treatment of skin conditions, skin permeation...

  10. EMaCC: FY-1978 topical area report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    Materials research and development in the energy program are briefly described. Topics reviewed include joining of materials, elastomers, catalysts and catalytic effect, radiation effects, superconductivity, cement, concrete, and alternate materials

  11. Topical material prepared for agenda: E. J. Block meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilson, R. [ed.

    1959-06-29

    The material covered are R and D, 2000 reactor and metallurgy program (production reactors, N-Reactor). Topics covered include operating schedules and production, fuel, engineering, safety, control, physics, etc.

  12. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-07-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.

  13. Structured population models in biology and epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Ruan, Shigui

    2008-01-01

    This book consists of six chapters written by leading researchers in mathematical biology. These chapters present recent and important developments in the study of structured population models in biology and epidemiology. Topics include population models structured by age, size, and spatial position; size-structured models for metapopulations, macroparasitc diseases, and prion proliferation; models for transmission of microparasites between host populations living on non-coincident spatial domains; spatiotemporal patterns of disease spread; method of aggregation of variables in population dynamics; and biofilm models. It is suitable as a textbook for a mathematical biology course or a summer school at the advanced undergraduate and graduate level. It can also serve as a reference book for researchers looking for either interesting and specific problems to work on or useful techniques and discussions of some particular problems.

  14. Intermediate Physics for Medicine and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbie, Russell K

    2007-01-01

    Intended for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in biophysics, physiology, medical physics, cell biology, and biomedical engineering, this wide-ranging text bridges the gap between introductory physics and its application to the life and biomedical sciences. This extensively revised and updated fourth edition reflects new developments at the burgeoning interface between physics and biomedicine. Among the many topics treated are: forces in the skeletal system; fluid flow, with examples from the circulatory system; the logistic equation; scaling; transport of neutral particles by diffusion and by solvent drag; membranes and osmosis; equipartition of energy in statistical mechanics; the chemical potential and free energy; biological magnetic fields; membranes and gated channels in membranes; linear and nonlinear feedback systems; nonlinear phenomena, including biological clocks and chaotic behavior; signal analysis, noise and stochastic resonance detection of weak signals; image formation and...

  15. Stochastic Analysis and Related Topics

    CERN Document Server

    Ustunel, Ali

    1988-01-01

    The Silvri Workshop was divided into a short summer school and a working conference, producing lectures and research papers on recent developments in stochastic analysis on Wiener space. The topics treated in the lectures relate to the Malliavin calculus, the Skorohod integral and nonlinear functionals of white noise. Most of the research papers are applications of these subjects. This volume addresses researchers and graduate students in stochastic processes and theoretical physics.

  16. Topics in clinical oncology. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepcek, P.

    1987-12-01

    The monograph comprising primarily papers on topical subjects of oncology and cancer research, contains also a selection of papers presented at the 2. Congress of the Czechoslovak Society of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Hygiene. Seven papers were selected on behalf of their subject related to clinical oncology. All of them were iputted in INIS; five of them deal with the scintiscanning of the skeleton of cancer patients, one with radioimmunodetection of tumors, and one with radionuclide lymphography. (A.K.)

  17. [Topical anesthesia in flexible nasofibrolaryngoscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa Estomba, Carlos Miguel; Ossa Echeverri, Carla Cristina; Araujo da Costa, Ana Sofía; Rivera Schmitz, Teresa; Castro Ruiz, Pilar; Santidrián Hidalgo, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of flexible nasofibrolaryngoscopy in recent decades has facilitated the development of Otolaryngology and the nasofibrolaryngoscope has become an essential diagnostic tool for the otolaryngologist. However, its use is not without discomfort for the patient, which is why various options for topical anaesthesia have been proposed during the development of the technique. This was a prospective, double blind, crossover study in patients with no history of nasal disease, through which we compared the use of topical anaesthetic (Lidocaine) + epinephrine, oxymetazoline and placebo. Using a visual analogue scale, the degree of discomfort was assessed during each scan. We evaluated 18 patients, 10 women (55.6%) and 8 men (44.4%), with a mean age of 28±4 years. The degree of disturbance generated by the scan with the application of lidocaine-epinephrine was 1.94; with oxymetazoline it was 3.78, and with placebo, 4.61. When the lidocaine-epinephrine solution was compared with oxymetazoline, there was a statistical significance in favour of lidocaine-epinephrine (P<0.05). When we compared the use of lidocaine-epinephrine with the placebo, the result was also statistically significant in favour of lidocaine-epinephrine (P<0.05). In this study we demonstrated that using lidocaine associated with epinephrine as a topical anaesthetic prior to flexible nasofibrolaryngoscopy decreases pain and feeling of discomfort for the patient. Consequently, we can recommend the use of topical nasal anaesthesia when performing this exploration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  18. Teaching of interdisciplinary and core curriculum topics using alternative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Janelle L; Yun, Heather C; Murray, Clinton K

    2009-11-01

    In the San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium Infectious Diseases Fellowship program, didactic lecture formats were previously used to present training in interdisciplinary topics, journal discussions, and core curriculum topics, but herein is described the recent modification of the fellowship's teaching techniques along with a satisfaction survey. The initial modification to the curriculum included the institution of debates covering controversial core curriculum topics in parliamentary fashion. The second change was the teaching of interdisciplinary topics utilizing a conference moderator. To evaluate the impact of the new teaching strategies, an anonymous Likert-based survey was distributed to the staff and fellows. The staff and fellows were uniformly satisfied with the changes in the curriculum and new strategies are preferred over the traditional teaching methods. Creating innovative forums to enhance the education of trainees has improved fellow and staff satisfaction with the teaching of these topics.

  19. Mathematical models in biology bringing mathematics to life

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, Maria; Guarracino, Mario

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an exciting collection of contributions based on the workshop “Bringing Maths to Life” held October 27-29, 2014 in Naples, Italy.  The state-of-the art research in biology and the statistical and analytical challenges facing huge masses of data collection are treated in this Work. Specific topics explored in depth surround the sessions and special invited sessions of the workshop and include genetic variability via differential expression, molecular dynamics and modeling, complex biological systems viewed from quantitative models, and microscopy images processing, to name several. In depth discussions of the mathematical analysis required to extract insights from complex bodies of biological datasets, to aid development in the field novel algorithms, methods and software tools for genetic variability, molecular dynamics, and complex biological systems are presented in this book. Researchers and graduate students in biology, life science, and mathematics/statistics will find the content...

  20. Biological variation of total prostate-specific antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söletormos, Georg; Semjonow, Axel; Sibley, Paul E C

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to determine whether a single result for total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) can be used confidently to guide the need for prostate biopsy and by how much serial tPSA measurements must differ to be significant. tPSA measurements include both...... analytical and biological components of variation. The European Group on Tumor Markers conducted a literature survey to determine both the magnitude and impact of biological variation on single, the mean of replicate, and serial tPSA measurements. METHODS: The survey yielded 27 studies addressing the topic......, and estimates for the biological variation of tPSA could be derived from 12 of these studies. RESULTS: The mean biological variation was 20% in the concentration range 0.1-20 microg/L for men over 50 years. The biological variation means that the one-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) of the dispersion...

  1. Skin penetration and tissue permeation after topical administration of diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Martina; Baker, Mark

    2017-09-01

    Topical delivery of drugs is an alternative to oral administration, often with similar efficacy but potentially a more favorable tolerability profile. However, topical formulations need to be able to penetrate the skin and permeate to the target areas in quantities sufficient to exert a therapeutic effect. Many factors can affect this process, including the physicochemical properties of the drug, the formulation used, and the site and mode of application. It is believed that measurement of drug concentrations at the sites of action may be an indicator of their likely efficacy. This review addresses these issues, with reference to topically administered diclofenac in osteoarthritis. Articles relevant to this review were identified after a systematic search of Medline and Embase, using the key words "diclofenac", "topical administration" and "osteoarthritis" in the search strategy. The sparse data available indicate that topical diclofenac can penetrate and permeate to deeper tissues, with a lower plasma to tissue ratio than oral diclofenac. The tissue diclofenac levels after topical delivery are sustained over time (at least several hours). However, there is not enough data to establish how diclofenac levels in the joint compare with IC 50 levels (50% of the maximum inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis) established following oral administration. After topical application, diclofenac can penetrate the skin and permeate to deeper tissues, where it reaches a concentration that appears to be sufficient to exert a therapeutic effect. More robust methods are required for in vivo characterization to better estimate the clinical efficacy of topically applied drugs.

  2. Hyaluronic acid: a unique topical vehicle for the localized delivery of drugs to the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M B; Jones, S A

    2005-05-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a naturally occurring polyanionic, polysaccharide that consists of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and beta-glucoronic acid. It is present in the intercellular matrix of most vertebrate connective tissues especially skin where it has a protective, structure stabilizing and shock-absorbing role. The unique viscoelastic nature of HA along with its biocompatibility and non-immunogenicity has led to its use in a number of clinical applications, which include: the supplementation of joint fluid in arthritis; as a surgical aid in eye surgery; and to facilitate the healing and regeneration of surgical wounds. More recently, HA has been investigated as a drug delivery agent for various routes of administration, including ophthalmic, nasal, pulmonary, parenteral and topical. In fact, regulatory approval in the USA, Canada and Europe was granted recently for 3% diclofenac in 2.5% HA gel, Solaraze, for the topical treatment of actinic keratoses, which is the third most common skin complaint in the USA. The gel is well tolerated, safe and efficacious and provides an attractive, cost-effective alternative to cryoablation, curettage or dermabrasion, or treatment with 5-fluorouracil. The purpose of this review is to describe briefly the physical, chemical and biological properties of HA together with some details of its medical and pharmaceutical uses with emphasis on this more recent topical application.

  3. Fundamentals of bioinformatics and computational biology methods and exercises in matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Gautam B

    2015-01-01

    This book offers comprehensive coverage of all the core topics of bioinformatics, and includes practical examples completed using the MATLAB bioinformatics toolbox™. It is primarily intended as a textbook for engineering and computer science students attending advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in bioinformatics and computational biology. The book develops bioinformatics concepts from the ground up, starting with an introductory chapter on molecular biology and genetics. This chapter will enable physical science students to fully understand and appreciate the ultimate goals of applying the principles of information technology to challenges in biological data management, sequence analysis, and systems biology. The first part of the book also includes a survey of existing biological databases, tools that have become essential in today’s biotechnology research. The second part of the book covers methodologies for retrieving biological information, including fundamental algorithms for sequence compar...

  4. "The Strawberry Caper": Using Scenario-Based Problem Solving to Integrate Middle School Science Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Rebecca L.; DeHart, Kyle; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Legg, Alison Slinskey

    2015-01-01

    Achieving a deep understanding of the many topics covered in middle school biology classes is difficult for many students. One way to help students learn these topics is through scenario-based learning, which enhances students' performance. The scenario-based problem-solving module presented here, "The Strawberry Caper," not only…

  5. Abstracts of the 27. Annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This meeting was about biochemistry and molecular biology. It was discussed topics related to bio energetic, channels, transports, biotechnology, metabolism, cellular biology, immunology, toxicology, photobiology and pharmacology

  6. Abstracts of the 26. Annual meeting of the Brazilian Society on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This meeting was about biochemistry and molecular biology. It was discussed topics related to bio energetic, channels, transports, biotechnology, metabolism, cellular biology, immunology, toxicology, photobiology and pharmacology

  7. Quantum mechanics new approaches to selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Lipkin, Harry Jeannot

    1973-01-01

    Acclaimed as ""excellent"" (Nature) and ""very original and refreshing"" (Physics Today), this collection of self-contained studies is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Its broad selection of topics includes the Mössbauer effect, many-body quantum mechanics, scattering theory, Feynman diagrams, and relativistic quantum mechanics.Author Harry J. Lipkin, a well-known teacher at Israel's Weizmann Institute, takes an unusual approach by introducing many interesting physical problems and mathematical techniques at a much earlier point than in conventional texts. This meth

  8. Topics in Bayesian statistics and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Cicuttin, A.; Cerdeira, A.; Stanciulescu, C.

    1998-12-01

    Notions of Bayesian decision theory and maximum entropy methods are reviewed with particular emphasis on probabilistic inference and Bayesian modeling. The axiomatic approach is considered as the best justification of Bayesian analysis and maximum entropy principle applied in natural sciences. Particular emphasis is put on solving the inverse problem in digital image restoration and Bayesian modeling of neural networks. Further topics addressed briefly include language modeling, neutron scattering, multiuser detection and channel equalization in digital communications, genetic information, and Bayesian court decision-making. (author)

  9. Advances in Biological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews major developments in areas that are at the cutting edge of biological research. Areas include: human anti-cancer gene, recombinant DNA techniques for the detection of Huntington disease carriers, and marine biology. (CW)

  10. Biology of ionizing radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferradini, C.; Pucheault, J.

    1983-01-01

    The present trends in biology of ionizing radiation are reviewed. The following topics are investigated: interaction of ionizing radiations with matter; the radiolysis of water and aqueous solutions; properties of the free radicals intervening in the couples O 2 /H 2 O and H 2 O/H 2 ; radiation chemistry of biological compounds; biological effects of ionizing radiations; biochemical mechanisms involving free radicals as intermediates; applications (biotechnological applications, origins of life) [fr

  11. Topic extraction from adverbial clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rubio Alcalá

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers new data to support findings about Topic extraction from adverbial clauses. Since such clauses are strong islands, they should not allow extraction of any kind, but we show here that if the appropriate conditions are met, Topics of the CLLD kind in Romance can move out of them. We propose that two conditions must be met for such movement to be possible: the first is that the adverbial clause must have undergone topicalisation in the first place; the second is that the adverbial clause is inherently topical from a semantic viewpoint. Contrast with other language families (Germanic, Quechua and Japanese is provided and the semantic implications of the proposal are briefly discussed. Keywords: topicalisation; Clitic Left Dislocation; syntactic islands; adverbial clauses Este artículo ofrece nuevos datos sobre la extracción de Tópicos desde oraciones subordinadas adverbiales. Dado que dichas oraciones son islas fuertes, no deberían permitir extracción de ningún tipo, pero mostramos que si se dan las condiciones apropiadas, los Tópicos del tipo CLLD en lenguas románicas pueden desplazarse fuera de ellas. Proponemos que se deben cumplir dos condiciones para que ese movimiento sea posible: la primera es que la propia subordinada adverbial se haya topicalizado en primer lugar; la segunda es que la subordinada adverbial sea inherentemente un Tópico desde el punto de vista semántico. Proporcionamos también algunos contrastes con otras familias lingüísticas (germánica, quechua y japonés y se discuten brevemente las implicaciones semánticas de la propuesta. Palabras clave: topicalización; dislocación a la izquierda con clítico; islas sintácticas; oraciones adverbiales

  12. Tactile friction of topical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedung, L; Buraczewska-Norin, I; Dawood, N; Rutland, M W; Ringstad, L

    2016-02-01

    The tactile perception is essential for all types of topical formulations (cosmetic, pharmaceutical, medical device) and the possibility to predict the sensorial response by using instrumental methods instead of sensory testing would save time and cost at an early stage product development. Here, we report on an instrumental evaluation method using tactile friction measurements to estimate perceptual attributes of topical formulations. Friction was measured between an index finger and an artificial skin substrate after application of formulations using a force sensor. Both model formulations of liquid crystalline phase structures with significantly different tactile properties, as well as commercial pharmaceutical moisturizing creams being more tactile-similar, were investigated. Friction coefficients were calculated as the ratio of the friction force to the applied load. The structures of the model formulations and phase transitions as a result of water evaporation were identified using optical microscopy. The friction device could distinguish friction coefficients between the phase structures, as well as the commercial creams after spreading and absorption into the substrate. In addition, phase transitions resulting in alterations in the feel of the formulations could be detected. A correlation was established between skin hydration and friction coefficient, where hydrated skin gave rise to higher friction. Also a link between skin smoothening and finger friction was established for the commercial moisturizing creams, although further investigations are needed to analyse this and correlations with other sensorial attributes in more detail. The present investigation shows that tactile friction measurements have potential as an alternative or complement in the evaluation of perception of topical formulations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Topics in atomic collision theory

    CERN Document Server

    Geltman, Sydney; Brueckner, Keith A

    1969-01-01

    Topics in Atomic Collision Theory originated in a course of graduate lectures given at the University of Colorado and at University College in London. It is recommended for students in physics and related fields who are interested in the application of quantum scattering theory to low-energy atomic collision phenomena. No attention is given to the electromagnetic, nuclear, or elementary particle domains. The book is organized into three parts: static field scattering, electron-atom collisions, and atom-atom collisions. These are in the order of increasing physical complexity and hence necessar

  14. Cutaneous hidradenocarcinoma: a clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular biologic study of 14 cases, including Her2/neu gene expression/amplification, TP53 gene mutation analysis, and t(11;19) translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, Dmitry V; Ivan, Doina; Kutzner, Heinz; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Grossmann, Petr; Vanecek, Tomas; Sima, Radek; Kacerovska, Denisa; Shelekhova, Ksenia V; Denisjuk, Natalja; Hillen, Uwe; Kuroda, Naoto; Mukensnabl, Petr; Danis, Dusan; Michal, Michal

    2009-05-01

    We present a series of 14 cases of cutaneous hidradenocarcinomas. The patients included 6 women and 8 men ranging in age at diagnosis from 34 to 93 years. All but 1 patient presented with a solitary nodule. There was no predilection site. One patient presented with multiple lesions representing metastatic nodules. Of 12 patients with available follow-up, 2 died of disease, whereas the remaining 10 patients were alive but 3 of them experienced a local recurrence in the course of the disease. Grossly, the tumors ranged in size from 1.2 to 6 cm. Microscopically, of the 14 primary tumors, 9 showed low-grade cytomorphology, whereas the remaining 5 neoplasms were high-grade lesions. The residuum of a hidradenoma was present in 5 of the 14 primaries. The mitotic rate was highly variable, ranging from 2 to 64 mitoses per 10 high-power field. The cellular composition of the tumors varied slightly, with clear cells, epidermoid cells, and transitional forms being present in each case. In 1 case, there was metaplastic transformation into sarcomatoid carcinoma. Glandular differentiation varied from case to case and appeared most commonly as simple round glands or as cells with intracytoplasmic lumens. Necrosis en masse was detected in 8 specimens. One specimen represented a reexcision and was unusual as it showed a well-demarcated intradermal proliferation of relatively bland clear cells accompanied by an overlying intraepidermal growth of clear cells resembling hidradenoacanthoma simplex. Despite the bland appearance, the tumor metastasized to a lymph node. Immunohistochemically, 5 of the 8 specimens studied for Her2/neu expression were negative, whereas 3 specimens from 2 cases yielded score +2, but all the 3 specimens with score 2+ subsequently proved negative for Her2/neu gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of 10 primaries studied, 4 tumors showed positive p53 immunoreaction in more than 25% of the cells comprising the malignant portion of the lesions

  15. Environmental philosophy 2.0: ethics and conservation biology for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenbaugh, Jay

    2014-03-01

    In this essay, I critically engage Sahotra Sarkar's Environmental Philosophy. The several topics include the conceptual foundations of conservation biology and traditional philosophy of science, naturalism and its implications, and ethical theory and specifically the status of human welfare. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. More Ideas for Monitoring Biological Experiments with the BBC Computer: Absorption Spectra, Yeast Growth, Enzyme Reactions and Animal Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Presented are five ideas for A-level biology experiments using a laboratory computer interface. Topics investigated include photosynthesis, yeast growth, animal movements, pulse rates, and oxygen consumption and production by organisms. Includes instructions specific to the BBC computer system. (CW)

  17. Traditional Persian topical medications for gastrointestinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Dehghani Tafti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug delivery across the skin is used for several millennia to ease gastrointestinal (GI ailments in Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM. TPM topical remedies are generally being applied on the stomach, lower abdomen, lower back and liver to alleviate GI illnesses such as dyspepsia, gastritis, GI ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal worms and infections. The aim of the present study is to survey the topical GI remedies and plant species used as ingredients for these remedies in TPM. In addition, pharmacological activities of the mentioned plants have been discussed. For this, we searched major TPM textbooks to find plants used to cure GI problems in topical use. Additionally, scientific databases were searched to obtain pharmacological data supporting the use of TPM plants in GI diseases. Rosa × damascena, Pistacia lentiscus, Malus domestica, Olea europaea and Artemisia absinthium are among the most frequently mentioned ingredients of TPM remedies. β-asarone, amygdalin, boswellic acids, guggulsterone, crocin, crocetin, isomasticadienolic acid, and cyclotides are the most important phytochemicals present in TPM plants with GI-protective activities. Pharmacological studies demonstrated GI activities for TPM plants supporting their extensive traditional use. These plants play pivotal role in alleviating GI disorders through exhibiting numerous activities including antispasmodic, anti-ulcer, anti-secretory, anti-colitis, anti-diarrheal, antibacterial and anthelmintic properties. Several mechanisms underlie these activities including the alleviation of oxidative stress, exhibiting cytoprotective activity, down-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines, suppression of the cellular signaling pathways of inflammatory responses, improving re-epithelialization and angiogenesis, down-regulation of anti-angiogenic factors, blocking activity of acetylcholine, etc.

  18. Opportunities in the Fusion Energy Sciences Program [Includes Appendix C: Topical Areas Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-06-01

    Recent years have brought dramatic advances in the scientific understanding of fusion plasmas and in the generation of fusion power in the laboratory. Today, there is little doubt that fusion energy production is feasible. The challenge is to make fusion energy practical. As a result of the advances of the last few years, there are now exciting opportunities to optimize fusion systems so that an attractive new energy source will be available when it may be needed in the middle of the next century. The risk of conflicts arising from energy shortages and supply cutoffs, as well as the risk of severe environmental impacts from existing methods of energy production, are among the reasons to pursue these opportunities.

  19. Topics in recent studies with high-voltage electron microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hirotaro

    2011-01-01

    In this article, topics in recent studies with high-voltage electron microscopes (HVEMs) are reviewed. High-voltage electron microscopy possesses a number of advantages that cannot be afforded by conventional electron microscopy, thus providing a unique microscopy technique in both materials science and biological science. One of these advantages is the capability of continuously observing phenomena using a variety of electron microscopy techniques simultaneously with the introduction of the displacement of atoms from lattice points. This has enabled in-depth studies on such fundamental subjects as the crystalline-to-amorphous-to-crystalline transition, the motion properties of point defects and the one-dimensional diffusion of dislocation loops. Electron tomography studies using HVEMs take advantage of the large observable thickness of a specimen. In addition, by combining different advantages, a number of advanced applications in materials science have been carried out, including analyses of the atomic structure of a reduction-induced reconstructed surface and the atomic mechanism behind the self-catalytic vapor-liquid-solid growth of an oxide nanowire. As long as excellent and invaluable studies that cannot be carried out without HVEMs appear in succession, it is necessary to make the utmost efforts to improve these microscopes.

  20. Periorbital muscle atrophy associated with topical bimatoprost therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Priscilla Xinhui; Koh, Victor Teck Chang; Cheng, Jin Fong

    2014-01-01

    Priscilla Xinhui Wang, Victor Teck Chang Koh, Jin Fong ChengDepartment of Ophthalmology, National University Health System, SingaporeAbstract: Topical Bimatoprost is a common and popular prostaglandin analog used as an ocular hypotensive agent in the treatment of glaucoma. Side effects include ocular hyperaemia, ocular pruritus, and periocular and iris pigmentary changes. Perioribital lipodystrophy is another well-documented outcome associated with chronic use of topical bimatoprost, which re...

  1. Interdisciplinary Dialogue for Education, Collaboration, and Innovation: Intelligent Biology and Medicine In and Beyond 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bing; Huang, Yufei; McDermott, Jason E.; Posey, Rebecca H.; Xu, Hua; Zhao, Zhongming

    2013-12-09

    The 2013 International Conference on Intelligent Biology and Medicine (ICIBM 2013) was held on August 11-13, 2013 in Nashville, Tennessee, USA. The conference included six scientific sessions, two tutorial sessions, one workshop, two poster sessions, and four keynote presentations that covered cutting-edge research topics in bioinformatics, systems biology, computational medicine, and intelligent computing. Here, we present a summary of the conference and an editorial report of the supplements to BMC Genomics and BMC Systems Biology that include 19 research papers selected from ICIBM 2013.

  2. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  3. Dense module enumeration in biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Koji; Georgii, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of large networks is a central topic in various research fields including biology, sociology, and web mining. Detection of dense modules (a.k.a. clusters) is an important step to analyze the networks. Though numerous methods have been proposed to this aim, they often lack mathematical rigorousness. Namely, there is no guarantee that all dense modules are detected. Here, we present a novel reverse-search-based method for enumerating all dense modules. Furthermore, constraints from additional data sources such as gene expression profiles or customer profiles can be integrated, so that we can systematically detect dense modules with interesting profiles. We report successful applications in human protein interaction network analyses.

  4. Biological pathways and toxicity of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, H.

    1982-01-01

    After a brief description of the sources of plutonium in the environment and its physical and chemical characteristics, the following topics were studied: 1) biological pathway of plutonium leading to man by ingestion of contaminated food, by inhalation, by skin absorption and wounds in case of occupational exposure, and finally transport in organism and tissue distribution; 2) toxicity of plutonium; 3) treatment of internal contamination; 4) human exposure and its consequences including population exposure and personnel exposure, health risk. Limits on plutonium intake are discussed in the light of ICRP recommendations. (117 references) [fr

  5. Cutaneous dermatomyositis in the era of biologicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Natalie A; Vleugels, Ruth Ann; Callen, Jeffrey P

    2016-01-01

    Dermatomyositis (DM) is a systemic inflammatory condition characterized by cutaneous and muscle findings, in addition to potential involvement of other organ systems. A distinct subtype of DM exists that is categorized by cutaneous findings with absent or minimal muscle involvement, referred to as clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis or dermatomyositis sine myositis. A variety of topical, immunosuppressive, and immunomodulatory therapies have been utilized to treat cutaneous DM. The advent of biological agents including tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists, intravenous immunoglobulin, rituximab, and others has allowed for the use of these agents with varying degrees of success for the treatment of cutaneous DM.

  6. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleholm, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved...

  7. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  8. Antibiotic Resistance: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Health Topics → Antibiotic Resistance URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/antibioticresistance. ...

  9. Child Safety: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... safety (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Preventing head injuries in children (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus ... Safety Seats Cribs and crib safety Preventing head injuries in children Related Health Topics Infant and Newborn Care Internet ...

  10. Diets: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Claims? (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) DASH Diet: MedlinePlus Health Topic (National Library of Medicine) Also ... foods Mediterranean diet Related Health Topics Child Nutrition DASH Eating Plan Diabetic Diet Nutrition Nutrition for Seniors Vegetarian Diet ...

  11. Human-competitive automatic topic indexing

    CERN Document Server

    Medelyan, Olena

    2009-01-01

    Topic indexing is the task of identifying the main topics covered by a document. These are useful for many purposes: as subject headings in libraries, as keywords in academic publications and as tags on the web. Knowing a document’s topics helps people judge its relevance quickly. However, assigning topics manually is labor intensive. This thesis shows how to generate them automatically in a way that competes with human performance. Three kinds of indexing are investigated: term assignment, a task commonly performed by librarians, who select topics from a controlled vocabulary; tagging, a popular activity of web users, who choose topics freely; and a new method of keyphrase extraction, where topics are equated to Wikipedia article names. A general two-stage algorithm is introduced that first selects candidate topics and then ranks them by significance based on their properties. These properties draw on statistical, semantic, domain-specific and encyclopedic knowledge. They are combined using a machine learn...

  12. [Regulatory requirements for topical preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlrab, J; Klauck, D; Savtcheva, E

    2014-03-01

    Professional use of topical treatment in dermatological practice requires not only knowledge about the pharmacological properties, efficacy, safety and pharmaceutical quality of a preparation, but also about its regulatory classification. The latter essentially determines the physician's prescription practice and therapeutic freedom. The regulatory framework with which one is confronted unfortunately lacks transparency. It regulates not only the prescribability and reimbursability of proprietary medicinal products and extemporaneous preparations, but also the obligation to give information as well as the details of liability of both the prescriber (physician) and the manufacturer (pharmaceutical company or pharmacist). The prescriber needs to be aware of to what extent the pharmacist has the possibility and even obligation to change the prescribed preparation. In some cases this can directly affect the therapeutic concept of the physician and even impair the effectiveness and safety of the chosen therapy.

  13. Efficacy of topical cysteamine in nephropathic cystinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hemidan, Amal; Shoughy, Samir S; Kozak, Igor; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of topical cysteamine 0.55% eye drops in the treatment of corneal cystine crystal deposits in patients with nephropathic cystinosis. Thirty-two patients with nephropathic cystinosis were prospectively included in the study. Patients with corneal cystinosis were treated with topical cysteamine 0.55% eye drops. They were examined before treatment, on each monthly visit and after treatment at the last follow-up. Photophobia was classified as grade 0 (none) for no photophobia, grade 1 (mild) for photophobia in bright light, grade 2 (moderate) for photophobia in room light and grade 3 (severe) for photophobia in dim light. Corneal cystine crystals were graded as grade 0=none, grade 1=1-10 crystals/mm 2 , grade 2=11-50 crystals/mm 2 , grade 3=more than 50 crystals/mm 2 . The main outcome measure was evaluation of photophobia and resolution of corneal cystine crystals. There were 13 male and 19 female patients. The mean age was 8 years with an age range of 8 months to 19 years. The mean follow-up period was 4.1 years with a range of 2-8 years. Improvement of photophobia was not clinically significant in symptomatic patients. Patients displayed statistically significant worsening of corneal cystine deposits during the follow-up period. This study has shown that topical 0.55% cysteamine eye drops may have limited effects in decreasing the corneal cystine deposits in patients with severe forms of nephropathic cystinosis. NCT02766855, Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Dynamical systems in population biology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xiao-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    This research monograph provides an introduction to the theory of nonautonomous semiflows with applications to population dynamics. It develops dynamical system approaches to various evolutionary equations such as difference, ordinary, functional, and partial differential equations, and pays more attention to periodic and almost periodic phenomena. The presentation includes persistence theory, monotone dynamics, periodic and almost periodic semiflows, basic reproduction ratios, traveling waves, and global analysis of prototypical population models in ecology and epidemiology. Research mathematicians working with nonlinear dynamics, particularly those interested in applications to biology, will find this book useful. It may also be used as a textbook or as supplementary reading for a graduate special topics course on the theory and applications of dynamical systems. Dr. Xiao-Qiang Zhao is a University Research Professor at Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada. His main research interests involve applied...

  15. Topic supervised non-negative matrix factorization

    OpenAIRE

    MacMillan, Kelsey; Wilson, James D.

    2017-01-01

    Topic models have been extensively used to organize and interpret the contents of large, unstructured corpora of text documents. Although topic models often perform well on traditional training vs. test set evaluations, it is often the case that the results of a topic model do not align with human interpretation. This interpretability fallacy is largely due to the unsupervised nature of topic models, which prohibits any user guidance on the results of a model. In this paper, we introduce a se...

  16. Topical negative pressure therapy: mechanisms and indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Paul E; Musgrave, Melinda

    2004-06-01

    Topical negative pressure (TNP) therapy has emerged as a high-technology, microprocessor-controlled physical wound-healing modality. Complex effects at the wound-dressing interface following application of a controlled vacuum force have been documented. These include changes on a microscopic, molecular level and on a macroscopic, tissue level: interstitial fluid flow and exudate management, oedema reduction, effects on wound perfusion, protease profiles, growth factor and cytokine expression and cellular activity, all leading to enhanced granulation tissue formation and improved wound-healing parameters. Primary indications for clinical use have been documented and include traumatic wounds, open abdominal wounds, infected sternotomy wounds, wound bed preparation, complex diabetic wounds and skin-graft fixation. Whilst this therapy now forms an essential part of the wound healing armamentarium, extensive clinical trials are recommended to confirm efficacy and delineate its optimum use.

  17. Topical medication instillation techniques for glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Wang, Xuemei; Wu, Meijing

    2017-02-20

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide and the second most common cause of blindness after cataracts. The primary treatment for glaucoma aims to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) with the use of topical medicines. Topical medication instillation techniques, such as eyelid closure and nasolacrimal occlusion when instilling drops, have been proposed as potential methods to increase ocular absorption and decrease systemic absorption of the drops. To investigate the effectiveness of topical medication instillation techniques compared with usual care or another method of instillation of topical medication in the management of glaucoma or ocular hypertension. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 12), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 8 December 2016), Embase Ovid (1947 to 8 December 2016), PubMed (1948 to 8 December 2016), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database) (1982 to 8 December 2016), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts Database (1970 to 8 December 2016), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) (last searched 13 May 2013), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) (searched 8 December 2016) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en) (searched 8 December 2016). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We included randomized controlled trials which had compared any topical medication instillation technique with usual care or a different method of instillation of topical medication. Two review authors independently screened records from the searches for eligibility, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted data. We followed methods recommended by Cochrane. We identified two trials (122 eyes of 61 participants) that had evaluated a topical medication instillation technique. We

  18. Credibility improves topical blog post retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Topical blog post retrieval is the task of ranking blog posts with respect to their relevance for a given topic. To improve topical blog post retrieval we incorporate textual credibility indicators in the retrieval process. We consider two groups of indicators: post level (determined using

  19. Topical report review status: Volume 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This report provides industry with procedures for submitting topical reports, guidance on how the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) processes and responds to topical report submittals, and an accounting, with review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review by the NRC. This report is published annually

  20. Introduction to radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gensicke, F.

    1977-01-01

    The textbook is written with special regard to radiation protection of man. It shall enable the reader to assess the potential radiation risks to living organisms and lead him to an insight into radiation protection measures. The following topics are covered: physical fundamentals of ionizing radiations; physical and chemical fundamentals of biological radiation effects; radiation effects on cells, organs, organ systems, and whole animal organisms focussing on mammals and man; modification of radiation effects; chemical radiation protection; therapy of radiation injuries; radionuclide kinetics; biological radiation effects in connection with radiation hazards and with the limitation of radiation exposure. It is intended for vocational education of medical personnel

  1. Efficacy of Topical Estradiol Compared to Topical Glycolic Acid for Skin Aging Treatment in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannaz Nadia Yusharyahya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin aging is a complex biological process in human being, as a result from intrinsic factors (genetic, hormonal, metabolism and extrinsic factors (UV exposure, pollution, smoking, life style. In postmenopausal women, physiologically, the amount of estrogen are decreased, causing deterioration of their skin’s appearance. Along with the changes that occur, skin care require more attention. A holistic approach can increase epidermal thickness, therefore, reducing the depth of wrinkles, as well as improving skin texture and moisture. There are various treatments available to improve skin appearance due to aging. This EBCR is aimed to compare the efficacy of topical estradiol and topical glycolic acid as skin treatment in postmenopausal women. Articles were searched through Pubmed/MEDLINE, EBSCO, and Cochrane. One randomized-controlled trial by Fuchs KO, et al was obtained and critically appraised. Based on the appraisal, study by Fuchs KO, et al is considered valid, important, and applicable. Both estradiol and glycolic acid show good efficacy and safety for postmenopausal women with signs of skin aging, however estradiol is not considered to have better efficacy than glycolic acid.

  2. Biologic Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Alessandra; Naranjo, Juan Diego; Londono, Ricardo; Badylak, Stephen F

    2017-09-01

    Biologic scaffold materials composed of allogeneic or xenogeneic extracellular matrix are commonly used for the repair and functional reconstruction of injured and missing tissues. These naturally occurring bioscaffolds are manufactured by the removal of the cellular content from source tissues while preserving the structural and functional molecular units of the remaining extracellular matrix (ECM). The mechanisms by which these bioscaffolds facilitate constructive remodeling and favorable clinical outcomes include release or creation of effector molecules that recruit endogenous stem/progenitor cells to the site of scaffold placement and modulation of the innate immune response, specifically the activation of an anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype. The methods by which ECM biologic scaffolds are prepared, the current understanding of in vivo scaffold remodeling, and the associated clinical outcomes are discussed in this article. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  3. Biologic Therapy in Inflammatory Eye Conditions (Ophtalmology): Safety Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Piergiorgio; Arapi, Ilir; Nicolai, Michele; Pirani, Vittorio; Saitta, Andrea; Luchetti, Michele M; Giovannini, Alfonso; Mariotti, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Non-infectious uveitis can be a potentially sight threatening disease. Very recently, therapeutic strategies have turned towards a new methodology, which includes biologic agents. The introduction of biologic drugs has started a Copernican revolution in ophthalmology: biologic therapies represent a revolutionary option for those patients who present non-responder, sight threatening uveitis. The availability of these therapies has improved the uveitis outcome. The present review shows the most relevant medical literature on biologic agents in ophthalmology, such as tumor necrosis factor blockers, anti-interleukins and other related biologics. Several papers reported the efficacy of biologic agents in a large number of refractory uveitides, which suggest a promising role of biologic drugs for selected cases. On the other hand, the medical literature does not have consistent numbers yet, which hopefully will validate the promising preliminary results. Biologic agents are not only promising drugs for the treatment of nonresponder uveitis, but also they show an apparently favourable safety profile, although several topics remain unsolved: it is still not clear when commencing the treatment, which agent to choose, and the length of biologic therapy. Moreover, the high costs and the still not clear safety profile have very often limited their use only for severe, non-responder uveitis in highly specialized uveitis centres.

  4. Biological Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page contains links to Technical Documents pertaining to Biological Water Quality Criteria, including, technical assistance documents for states, tribes and territories, program overviews, and case studies.

  5. Analysis of Nonstationary Time Series for Biological Rhythms Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leise, Tanya L

    2017-06-01

    This article is part of a Journal of Biological Rhythms series exploring analysis and statistics topics relevant to researchers in biological rhythms and sleep research. The goal is to provide an overview of the most common issues that arise in the analysis and interpretation of data in these fields. In this article on time series analysis for biological rhythms, we describe some methods for assessing the rhythmic properties of time series, including tests of whether a time series is indeed rhythmic. Because biological rhythms can exhibit significant fluctuations in their period, phase, and amplitude, their analysis may require methods appropriate for nonstationary time series, such as wavelet transforms, which can measure how these rhythmic parameters change over time. We illustrate these methods using simulated and real time series.

  6. 2012 Gordon Research Conference, Plant molecular biology, July 15-20 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussman, Michael R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-07-20

    The 2012 Gordon Conference on Plant Molecular Biology will present cutting-edge research on molecular aspects of plant growth and development, with particular emphasis on recent discoveries in molecular mechanisms involved with plant signaling systems. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics in plant molecular biology including hormone receptors and early events in hormone signaling, plant perception of and response to plant pathogen and symbionts, as well as technological and biological aspects of epigenomics particularly as it relates to signaling systems that regulate plant growth and development. Genomic approaches to plant signaling will be emphasized, including genomic profiling technologies for quantifying various biological subsystems, such as the epigenome, transcriptome, phosphorylome, and metabolome. The meeting will include an important session devoted to answering the question, "What are the biological and technological limits of plant breeding/genetics, and how can they be solved"?

  7. Main technical topics in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Safety Authority annual report strives to present current organizational provisions and future trends in nuclear safety supervision in France and to describe the most outstanding occurrences during the past year. A first part presents nine documents concerning the main topics of 1999: aging of nuclear installations, the Offsite Emergency Plans (PPI), the impact of nuclear activities on man and the environment, the criticality hazards, EDF in 1999, the EPR project, the Andra in 1999, the transport incidents, the nuclear safety in eastern Europe. The second part presents the missions and actions of the Nuclear Installations Safety in the domains of the liabilities, the organization of the nuclear safety control, the regulations of the INB, the public information, the international relations, the crisis management, the radioactive materials transportation, the radioactive wastes. The equipment, the radiation protection and the exploitation of the pressurized water reactors are also treated just as the experimental reactors, the fuel cycle installations and the the nuclear installations dismantling. (A.L.B.)

  8. Topics in theoretical surface science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, R.

    1991-10-25

    The energetics and structures of clean and adsorbate covered surfaces are investigated in this dissertation. First, the formalism, within the Corrected Effective Medium (CEM) method, for calculating the surface energy of a clean surface is derived. The surface energies for many different metals and their low index surfaces are presented. The minimization of the surface energy is then used to predict the multilayer relaxation of the Al(111), (100), Ni(100), (110) and Fe(100) surfaces. Extensions of the surface CEM formalism to calculate the binding energies of ordered adsorbates on metals surfaces are also derived. The minimization of the binding energy allowed determination of the binding heights, sites and the extent of induced multilayer relaxation for H and N atoms on the Fe(110), (100) and W(110) surfaces. The last topic deals with the dynamics of the epitaxial growth of metals on metal surfaces. The CEM method was first modified by making approximations to enable faster evaluations of the potential and its corresponding forces for molecular dynamics simulations. The goal of these simulations was to identify the important steps in the formation of equilibrium epitaxial structures. 180 refs., 31 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Topical absorption and systemic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikhan, Fatima Sasha; Maibach, Howard

    2011-09-01

    Dermal absorption of some chemicals and drugs can cause systemic toxicity. We evaluated several case reports from the past decade, which discuss the dermal absorption of a specific chemical and potential local and systemic effects. We focused on herbicide and pesticide exposure along with exposure to cutaneous medication, occupational contact, and cosmeceutical exposure. Although causality cannot be established in most cases, it is critical to be aware of the possible effects of topical absorption that may not be immediately apparent. We recommended further studies on specific chemicals to ascertain causality and determine the highest exposure level with no observed adverse affect level (NOAEL) and the reference dose (RfD). Post-marketing epidemiology data in most geographical areas are markedly limited. A weak link in public health resides in the inadequate reporting and workup of alleged chemically related adverse effects. This arena mandates a re-thinking of how to increase this reporting, and workup, as a backup to our preclinical and clinical studies. Public awareness and funding will be rewarded by increased evidence to backup pre-approval pre-marketing studies.

  10. Decision Point 1 Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablonsky, Al; Barsoumian, Shant; Legere, David

    2013-05-01

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2a of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to elaborate proven SkyMine® process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of the current Phase (2a) is to complete the detailed design of the pilot plant to be built in Phase 2b.

  11. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, R.L.; Love, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics. but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his/her students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations

  12. Topics in Number Theory Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George; Ono, Ken

    1999-01-01

    From July 31 through August 3,1997, the Pennsylvania State University hosted the Topics in Number Theory Conference. The conference was organized by Ken Ono and myself. By writing the preface, I am afforded the opportunity to express my gratitude to Ken for beng the inspiring and driving force behind the whole conference. Without his energy, enthusiasm and skill the entire event would never have occurred. We are extremely grateful to the sponsors of the conference: The National Sci­ ence Foundation, The Penn State Conference Center and the Penn State Depart­ ment of Mathematics. The object in this conference was to provide a variety of presentations giving a current picture of recent, significant work in number theory. There were eight plenary lectures: H. Darmon (McGill University), "Non-vanishing of L-functions and their derivatives modulo p. " A. Granville (University of Georgia), "Mean values of multiplicative functions. " C. Pomerance (University of Georgia), "Recent results in primality testing. " C. ...

  13. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yıldırım

    Full Text Available Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA, propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision and other observations from the study are discussed in detail.

  14. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail.

  15. Selected topical agents used in Traditional Chinese Medicine in the treatment of minor injuries- a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Chung eLEUNG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Topical medicinal patches have been popular for the treatment of minor injuries like sprains and avulsions. Other inflammatory conditions like chronic musculo-tendinous pain and or fasciitis are also taken care of by local ointments or rubs. In the oriental communities, medicinal herbs frequently form the major components of the patches.In spite of the lack of scientific evidence of efficacy, the popularity of such traditional application persists for centuries.In this era of evidence-based clinical treatment, there is an urgent need to look into this traditional practice. The purpose should include a scientific verification of the efficacy of the practice, and once proven, further explorations would be indicated to bring the practice to a higher level.A system of comprehensive exploration was proposed and practiced in the past years to fulfill the aspiration. The research consisted of four areas:(1Identification of the suitable medicinal herbs for the topical study;(2Study of the biological activities of the selected herbs, concentrating on the areas of anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, angiogenesis and cellular proliferation;(3Study on the transcutaneous transport of the chemicals of the selected herbs to deeper tissues; and(4Pilot clinical studies on common superficial inflammatory musculo-skeletal conditions to give objective clinical evidences to the topical applications.Five herbs were identified as suitable candidates of study. They were put into relevant laboratory platforms and were proven to be anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic. Three of the herbs were prepared as topical patches with an enhancer and used to treat three common ailments in pilot clinical trials, viz., plantar fasciitis, undisplaced metatarsal fracture and tendonitis of the wrist (de-Quervain’s disease and the elbow (Tennis elbow. The clinical results of the pilot studies were very positive.It is therefore concluded that further explorations are

  16. Intermediate physics for medicine and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbie, Russell K

    2015-01-01

    This classic text has been used in over 20 countries by advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in biophysics, physiology, medical physics, neuroscience, and biomedical engineering. It bridges the gap between an introductory physics course and the application of physics to the life and biomedical sciences. Extensively revised and updated, the fifth edition incorporates new developments at the interface between physics and biomedicine. New coverage includes cyclotrons, photodynamic therapy, color vision, x-ray crystallography, the electron microscope, cochlear implants, deep brain stimulation, nanomedicine, and other topics highlighted in the National Research Council report BIO2010. As with the previous edition, the first half of the text is primarily biological physics, emphasizing the use of ideas from physics to understand biology and physiology, and the second half is primarily medical physics, describing the use of physics in medicine for diagnosis (mainly imaging) and therapy. Among the m...

  17. Organic Optoelectronic Materials: A Topical Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The topics covered include the following: Introduction to Nonlinear Optics of Organics and the Use of Second Harmonic Generation as a Polymer Probe; Experimental Characterization of Second Order Nonlinear Optical Chromophores; Chi(2) Structure-Property Relationship on the Colligative Scale; The Stability of the Poled Order in Crosslinked Systems; Corona Electric Filed Poling of Nonlinear Polymers and Femtosecond Optical Applications; Synthesis and Characterization of Photosensitive Polymers for Optical Waveguide Definition; Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Conjugated Polymers; The Relationship Between Chemical Structure and Second-Order Optical Nonlinearities or Organic Molecules; Theory and Structure/Property of chi(3) Materials; Synthesis of Well-Defined Thiophene Oligomers and Planar Conjugated Polymers for chi(3) Studies; and Spectroscopy as a Probe of chi(3) in Conjugated Materials.

  18. Developments in functional equations and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Ciepliński, Krzysztof; Rassias, Themistocles

    2017-01-01

    This book presents current research on Ulam stability for functional equations and inequalities. Contributions from renowned scientists emphasize fundamental and new results, methods and techniques. Detailed examples are given to theories to further understanding at the graduate level for students in mathematics, physics, and engineering. Key topics covered in this book include: Quasi means Approximate isometries Functional equations in hypergroups Stability of functional equations Fischer-Muszély equation Haar meager sets and Haar null sets Dynamical systems Functional equations in probability theory Stochastic convex ordering Dhombres functional equation Nonstandard analysis and Ulam stability This book is dedicated in memory of Staniłsaw Marcin Ulam, who posed the fundamental problem concerning approximate homomorphisms of groups in 1940; which has provided the stimulus for studies in the stability of functional equations and inequalities.

  19. Topics in string theory and quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Gaume, Luis

    1992-01-01

    These are the lecture notes for the Les Houches Summer School on Quantum Gravity held in July 1992. The notes present some general critical assessment of other (non-string) approaches to quantum gravity, and a selected set of topics concerning what we have learned so far about the subject from string theory. Since these lectures are long (133 A4 pages), we include in this abstract the table of contents, which should help the user of the bulletin board in deciding whether to latex and print the full file. 1-FIELD THEORETICAL APPROACH TO QUANTUM GRAVITY: Linearized gravity; Supergravity; Kaluza-Klein theories; Quantum field theory and classical gravity; Euclidean approach to Quantum Gravity; Canonical quantization of gravity; Gravitational Instantons. 2-CONSISTENCY CONDITIONS: ANOMALIES: Generalities about anomalies; Spinors in 2n dimensions; When can we expect to find anomalies?; The Atiyah-Singer Index Theorem and the computation of anomalies; Examples: Green-Schwarz cancellation mechanism and Witten's SU(2) ...

  20. Selected topics of fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindsvater, Carl E.

    1958-01-01

    the Euler, Froude, Reynolds, Weber, and Cauchy numbers are defined as essential tools for interpreting and using experimental data. The derivations of the energy and momentum equations are treated in detail. One-dimensional equations for steady nonuniform flow are developed, and the restrictions applicable to the equations are emphasized. Conditions of uniform and gradually varied flow are discussed, and the origin of the Chezy equation is examined in relation to both the energy and the momentum equations. The inadequacy of all uniform-flow equations as a means of describing gradually varied flow is explained. Thus, one of the definitive problems of river hydraulics is analyzed in the light of present knowledge. This report is the outgrowth of a series of short schools conducted during the spring and summer of 1953 for engineers of the Surface Water Branch, Water Resources Division, U. S. Geological Survey. The topics considered are essentially the same as the topics selected for inclusion in the schools. However, in order that they might serve better as a guide and outline for informal study, the arrangement of the writer's original lecture notes has been considerably altered. The purpose of the report, like the purpose of the schools which inspired it, is to build a simple but strong framework of the fundamentals of fluid mechanics. It is believed that this framework is capable of supporting a detailed analysis of most of the practical problems met by the engineers of the Geological Survey. It is hoped that the least accomplishment of this work will be to inspire the reader with the confidence and desire to read more of the recent and current technical literature of modern fluid mechanics.

  1. The International Conference on Intelligent Biology and Medicine (ICIBM) 2016: from big data to big analytical tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhandong; Zheng, W Jim; Allen, Genevera I; Liu, Yin; Ruan, Jianhua; Zhao, Zhongming

    2017-10-03

    The 2016 International Conference on Intelligent Biology and Medicine (ICIBM 2016) was held on December 8-10, 2016 in Houston, Texas, USA. ICIBM included eight scientific sessions, four tutorials, one poster session, four highlighted talks and four keynotes that covered topics on 3D genomics structural analysis, next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis, computational drug discovery, medical informatics, cancer genomics, and systems biology. Here, we present a summary of the nine research articles selected from ICIBM 2016 program for publishing in BMC Bioinformatics.

  2. 2013 Gordon Research Conference on metals in biology and seminar on bioinorganic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenzweig, Amy C. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2013-01-25

    Typical topics for lectures and posters include: biochemical and biophysical characterization of new metal containing proteins, enzymes, nucleic acids, factors, and chelators from all forms of life; synthesis, detailed characterization, and reaction chemistry of biomimetic compounds; novel crystal and solution structures of biological molecules and synthetic metal-chelates; discussions of the roles that metals play in medicine, maintenance of the environment, and biogeochemical processes; metal homeostasis; application of theory and computations to the structure and mechanism of metal-containing biological systems; and novel applications of spectroscopy to metals in biological systems.

  3. 75 FR 8968 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Adaptive Design Clinical Trials for Drugs and Biologics; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Drugs and Biologics.'' The draft guidance provides sponsors and the review staff in FDA's Center for... guidance gives advice on various topics, such as what aspects of adaptive design clinical trials (i.e... and conducting adaptive design studies, what information to include in the adaptive design for FDA...

  4. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Systems biology seeks to study biological systems as a whole, contrary to the reductionist approach that has dominated biology. Such a view of biological systems emanating from strong foundations of molecular level understanding of the individual components in terms of their form, function and interactions is promising to ...

  5. Topical herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2013-05-31

    Before extraction and synthetic chemistry were invented, musculoskeletal complaints were treated with preparations from medicinal plants. They were either administered orally or topically. In contrast to the oral medicinal plant products, topicals act in part as counterirritants or are toxic when given orally. To update the previous Cochrane review of herbal therapy for osteoarthritis from 2000 by evaluating the evidence on effectiveness for topical medicinal plant products. Databases for mainstream and complementary medicine were searched using terms to include all forms of arthritis combined with medicinal plant products. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to February 2013, unrestricted by language. We also searched the reference lists from retrieved trials. Randomised controlled trials of herbal interventions used topically, compared with inert (placebo) or active controls, in people with osteoarthritis were included. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted data. Seven studies (six different medicinal plant interventions; 785 participants) were included. Single studies (five studies) and non-comparable studies (two studies) precluded pooling of results.Moderate evidence from a single study of 174 people with hand osteoarthritis indicated that treatment with Arnica extract gel probably results in similar benefits as treatment with ibuprofen (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) with a similar number of adverse events. Mean pain in the ibuprofen group was 44.2 points on a 100 point scale; treatment with Arnica gel reduced the pain by 4 points after three weeks: mean difference (MD) -3.8 points (95% confidence intervals (CI) -10.1 to 2.5), absolute reduction 4% (10% reduction to 3% increase). Hand function was 7

  6. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of pain due to soft tissue injury: diclofenac epolamine topical patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Lionberger

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available David R Lionberger1, Michael J Brennan21Southwest Orthopedic Group, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT, USAAbstract: The objective of this article is to review published clinical data on diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries, such as strains, sprains, and contusions. Review of published literature on topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, diclofenac, and DETP in patients with acute soft tissue injuries was included. Relevant literature was identified on MEDLINE using the search terms topical NSAIDs, diclofenac, diclofenac epolamine, acute pain, sports injury, soft tissue injury, strain, sprain, and contusion, and from citations in retrieved articles covering the years 1978–2008. Review of published, randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses shows that topical NSAIDs are significantly more effective than placebo in relieving acute pain; the pooled average relative benefit was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.5–1.9. In a limited number of comparisons, topical and oral NSAIDs provided comparable pain relief, but the use of topical agents produced lower plasma drug concentrations and fewer systemic adverse events (AEs. The physical–chemical properties of diclofenac epolamine make it well suited for topical use. In patients with acute soft tissue injuries treated with DETP, clinical data report an analgesic benefit within hours of the first application, and significant pain relief relative to placebo within 3 days. Moreover, DETP displayed tolerability comparable with placebo; the most common AEs were pruritus and other application site reactions. Review of published literature suggests that DETP is generally safe and well tolerated, clinically efficacious, and a rational treatment option for patients experiencing acute pain associated with strains, sprains, and contusions, and other localized painful conditions

  7. Topical ganciclovir in the treatment of acute herpetic keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F; Al Balushi, Noorjehan

    2010-08-19

    Herpetic keratitis is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) and is a common cause of corneal blindness. Following a primary ocular herpetic infection, latency of the virus occurs, followed by subsequent recurrences of herpetic keratitis. Such recurrences may lead to structural damage of the cornea. Recurrent herpetic keratitis is a common indication for corneal transplantation. Recurrences of herpetic keratitis in the corneal graft may lead to corneal graft rejection. Several antiviral agents for HSV are available, including the thymidine analogs. Prolonged use of thymidine analogs may lead to toxicity of the ocular surface, including epithelial keratitis, corneal ulcers, follicular conjunctivitis, and punctal occlusions. Availability of topical antiviral agents that are safe and effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of herpetic keratitis is highly desirable. Ganciclovir is a potent inhibitor of members of the herpes virus family. The drug has been used systemically for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. Its hematologic toxicity secondary to systemic administration led to its limited use in herpetic infections. On the other hand, topical ganciclovir has been shown to be as safe and effective as acyclovir in the treatment of herpetic epithelial keratitis. Furthermore, topical ganciclovir can reach therapeutic levels in the cornea and aqueous humor following topical application. Several clinical trials have shown that topical ganciclovir 0.15% ophthalmic gel is safe and effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of herpetic epithelial disease. Long-term use of ganciclovir ophthalmic gel in patients with penetrating keratoplasty following herpetic keratitis has prevented recurrences of the disease. Topical ganciclovir ophthalmic gel is well tolerated, does not cause toxic effects on the ocular surface, and does not cause hematologic abnormalities. Clinical studies have underscored the potential role of ganciclovir ophthalmic gel in the treatment and

  8. Introduction to mathematical biology modeling, analysis, and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Ching Shan

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on a one semester course that the authors have been teaching for several years, and includes two sets of case studies. The first includes chemostat models, predator-prey interaction, competition among species, the spread of infectious diseases, and oscillations arising from bifurcations. In developing these topics, readers will also be introduced to the basic theory of ordinary differential equations, and how to work with MATLAB without having any prior programming experience. The second set of case studies were adapted from recent and current research papers to the level of the students. Topics have been selected based on public health interest. This includes the risk of atherosclerosis associated with high cholesterol levels, cancer and immune interactions, cancer therapy, and tuberculosis. Readers will experience how mathematical models and their numerical simulations can provide explanations that guide biological and biomedical research. Considered to be the undergraduate companion to t...

  9. Selected Topics in MicroNano-robotics for Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Selected Topics in Micro/Nano-robotics for Biomedical Applications features a system approach and incorporates modern methodologies in autonomous mobile robots for programmable and controllable micro/nano-robots aiming at biomedical applications. The book provides chapters of instructional materials and cutting-edge research results in micro/nanorobotics for biomedical applications. The book presents new sensing technology on nanofibers, new power supply techniques including miniature fuel cells and energy harvesting devices, and manipulation techniques including AFM-based nano-robotic manipulation, robot-aided optical tweezers, and robot-assisted catheter surgery systems. It also contains case studies on using micro/nano-robots in biomedical environments and in biomedicine, as well as a design example to conceptually develop a Vitamin-pill sized robot to enter human’s gastrointestinal tract. Each chapter covers a different topic of the highly interdisciplinary area. Bring together the selected topics into ...

  10. Topic Signatures in Political Campaign Speeches

    OpenAIRE

    Gautrais , Clément; Cellier , Peggy; Quiniou , René; Termier , Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Highlighting the recurrence of topics usage in candidates speeches is a key feature to identify the main ideas of each candidate during a political campaign. In this paper, we present a method combining standard topic modeling with signature mining for analyzing topic recurrence in speeches of Clinton and Trump during the 2016 American presidential campaign. The results show that the method extracts automatically the main ideas of each candidate and, in addition, provi...

  11. Tracking topic birth and death in LDA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Andrew T.; Robinson, David Gerald

    2011-09-01

    Most topic modeling algorithms that address the evolution of documents over time use the same number of topics at all times. This obscures the common occurrence in the data where new subjects arise and old ones diminish or disappear entirely. We propose an algorithm to model the birth and death of topics within an LDA-like framework. The user selects an initial number of topics, after which new topics are created and retired without further supervision. Our approach also accommodates many of the acceleration and parallelization schemes developed in recent years for standard LDA. In recent years, topic modeling algorithms such as latent semantic analysis (LSA)[17], latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA)[10] and their descendants have offered a powerful way to explore and interrogate corpora far too large for any human to grasp without assistance. Using such algorithms we are able to search for similar documents, model and track the volume of topics over time, search for correlated topics or model them with a hierarchy. Most of these algorithms are intended for use with static corpora where the number of documents and the size of the vocabulary are known in advance. Moreover, almost all current topic modeling algorithms fix the number of topics as one of the input parameters and keep it fixed across the entire corpus. While this is appropriate for static corpora, it becomes a serious handicap when analyzing time-varying data sets where topics come and go as a matter of course. This is doubly true for online algorithms that may not have the option of revising earlier results in light of new data. To be sure, these algorithms will account for changing data one way or another, but without the ability to adapt to structural changes such as entirely new topics they may do so in counterintuitive ways.

  12. Health Screening: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for You (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) TB Screening Tests (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Genetics Genetic Testing: MedlinePlus Health Topic (National Library ...

  13. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  14. Topical Day on Site Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, H. [ed.

    1996-09-18

    Ongoing activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre relating to site remediation and restoration are summarized. Special attention has been paid to the different phases of remediation including characterization, impact assessment, evaluation of remediation actions, and execution of remediation actions.

  15. Topical Day on Site Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, H.

    1996-01-01

    Ongoing activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre relating to site remediation and restoration are summarized. Special attention has been paid to the different phases of remediation including characterization, impact assessment, evaluation of remediation actions, and execution of remediation actions

  16. Topical tacrolimus solution in autoimmune polyglandular syndrome-1-associated keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoughy, Samir S; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of topical tacrloimus eye drops in the treatment of keratitis associated with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS)-1. This is a retrospective review of 10 patients with APS-1. The patients were treated with topical tacrolimus 0.01% solution at The Eye Center, between 1 March 2012 and 30 April 2016. The outcome measures included improvement in visual acuity, photophobia and keratitis following treatment. Clinical assessment was carried out before, during and on the last visit following initiation of therapy. A total of 10 patients were included. There were five male and five female patients. The mean age was 11 years with age range of 3-42 years. The mean duration of treatment with topical tacrolimus was 26 months (range 8-46 months). There was improvement of photophobia in 7 out of 10 patients following therapy with topical tacrolimus. In three patients, the photophobia was persistent. There was no clinically detectable improvement in the severity of keratitis in all patients. The mean best corrected visual acuity was 0.1 before and following therapy. Topical tacrolimus is effective in reducing the photophobia in patients with APS-1-associated keratitis, but showed no effects on the severity of keratitis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Preformulation, formulation, and in vivo efficacy of topically applied apomine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Philip J; Stratton, Steven P; Powell, Marianne B; Myrdal, Paul B

    2009-12-01

    Apomine is a novel compound that inhibits the mevalonate/isoprenoid pathway of cholesterol synthesis and may prove effective as a skin cancer chemoprevention therapy. This research was focused on the development of a new delivery approach for chemoprevention of melanoma using topically delivered apomine. This included evaluating the effect of several factors on the stability of apomine in solution, utilizing these to develop a topical formulation, and conducting efficacy studies with the developed topical formulation in the TPras mouse model. Preformulation included the influence of pH, buffer species, ionic strength, and organic solvents on the stability of apomine at four different temperatures. Apomine was determined to undergo apparent first-order degradation kinetics for all conditions evaluated. Apomine undergoes base-catalyzed degradation. Less than 15% degradation is observed after >200 days under acidic conditions. Long-term stability studies were performed on two different topical cream formulations and indicate that both formulations are chemically stable for over 1 year at both 4 and 23 degrees C. The efficacy of topically applied apomine, from ethanol and developed 1% cream, was evaluated in vivo against the incidence of melanoma. Regardless of delivery vehicle apomine treatment caused a significant reduction in tumor incidence. Ethyl alcohol application of apomine resulted in a greater tumor incidence reduction when compared to the development cream formulation; however, this difference was not significant.

  18. Developmental biology, the stem cell of biological disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Scott F

    2017-12-01

    Developmental biology (including embryology) is proposed as "the stem cell of biological disciplines." Genetics, cell biology, oncology, immunology, evolutionary mechanisms, neurobiology, and systems biology each has its ancestry in developmental biology. Moreover, developmental biology continues to roll on, budding off more disciplines, while retaining its own identity. While its descendant disciplines differentiate into sciences with a restricted set of paradigms, examples, and techniques, developmental biology remains vigorous, pluripotent, and relatively undifferentiated. In many disciplines, especially in evolutionary biology and oncology, the developmental perspective is being reasserted as an important research program.

  19. Students' perceptions of difficult concepts in biology in senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to find out the biological topics in the National Curriculum that students in Senior Secondary School Two (SSII) have difficulties in learning, the reasons why students have difficulties in learning such topics in biology, and to suggest ways of improving the effectiveness of the teachinglearning process of ...

  20. Keeping Up with Modern Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Stuart J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the origins, objectives, and benefits resulting from "State-of-the-Art-in-Biology" (SOTAB) Symposia for professional biologists and college professors. Provides examples of the topics addressed in the sessions and outlines the impacts of the program for education. (ML)

  1. Evaluation of anti-cellulite efficacy: a topical cosmetic treatment for cellulite blemishes - a multifunctional formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparavigna, Adele; Guglielmini, Giancarlo; Togni, Stefano; Cristoni, Aldo; Maramaldi, Giada

    2011-01-01

    Cellulite is thought to affect 80-90% of postpubertal women, and is considered much of a cosmetic concern by the large majority of them. In this study, the objective was to assess the efficacy of a topical cosmetic product containing various active ingredients of botanical origin on cellulite blemishes on female volunteers affected by fat accumulations, as well as by slight-to-moderate cellulite in the lower limbs. The assessment was performed by means of various objective evaluations, including contact thermography, morphometric measures of thigh circumference, and microcirculation evaluation. The obtained results indicate that the use of synergistic botanical standardized extracts, through the exploitation of different mechanisms of action and acting on different biological targets, provides visible and measurable results in the improvement of cellulite signs and symptoms.

  2. Mapping biological systems to network systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rathore, Heena

    2016-01-01

    The book presents the challenges inherent in the paradigm shift of network systems from static to highly dynamic distributed systems – it proposes solutions that the symbiotic nature of biological systems can provide into altering networking systems to adapt to these changes. The author discuss how biological systems – which have the inherent capabilities of evolving, self-organizing, self-repairing and flourishing with time – are inspiring researchers to take opportunities from the biology domain and map them with the problems faced in network domain. The book revolves around the central idea of bio-inspired systems -- it begins by exploring why biology and computer network research are such a natural match. This is followed by presenting a broad overview of biologically inspired research in network systems -- it is classified by the biological field that inspired each topic and by the area of networking in which that topic lies. Each case elucidates how biological concepts have been most successfully ...

  3. Cellular respiration: replicating in vivo systems biology for in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This editorial develops a philosophy for expanding the scope of Journal of Breath Research (JBR) into the realm of cellular level study, and links certain topics back to more traditional systemic research for understanding human health based on exhaled breath constituents. The express purpose is to provide a publication outlet for novel breath related research that includes in vitro studies, especially those that explore the biological origin and expression of compounds that may ultimately influence the constituents of exhaled breath. The new topics include all manner of methods and instrumentations for making in vivo and in vitro measurements, the use of different biological media (blood, urine saliva, swabs) including human and microbial cell-lines, in vitro kinetic studies of metabolism, and advances in ex vivo methods for maintaining metabolic competency and viability of biological samples. Traditionally, JBR has published articles on human breath analysis for diagnosing disease, tracking health state, assessing the dose and effect of exogenous chemicals, and contributions of malodorous compounds from the oral/nasal cavity. These have also included research describing novel sampling and analytical technologies, most notably those implementing mass spectrometry, chemical sensors and optical measurement instrumentation (Amann and Smith 2013). The journal’s original scope has also embraced animal models as surrogates for human sampling, new mathematical and

  4. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  5. Selected topics in image science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalcioglu, O.; Cho, Z.H.

    1984-01-01

    A review of the state of the art in diagnostic imaging via computers. Applications covered include emission tomography, digital radiography, and ultrasound and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Contents, abridged: Direct Fourier reconstruction techniques. Radiation detectors for CT instrumentation. Single photon emission computed tomography: potentials and limitations. Matched filtering for digital subtraction angiography

  6. Topics in Finance: Part II--Financial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The second article in a series designed to supplement the introductory financial management course, this essay addresses financial statement analysis, including its impact on stock valuation, disclosure, and managerial behavior. [For "Topics in Finance Part I--Introduction and Stockholder Wealth Maximization," see EJ1060345.

  7. "Two Cultures" Topics for General Studies Science Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.

    1982-01-01

    Theses proposed in C. P. Snow's book "The Two Cultures," including uncommunicative scientific and literary groups, gap between rich and poor, overpopulation, and nuclear war remain viable topics. Discusses the scientific and literary cultural gap and what can be done in general studies science courses to ameliorate the condition.…

  8. Selected topics in thermal and resonance neutron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.

    1981-01-01

    Several topics of current interest are discussed including energy and intensity standards, direct thermal neutron capture, primary E2 transitions in (n,γ) reactions, nonstatistical effects in resonance neutron capture, transmission measurements of Sc employed in 2-keV facilities, and tests of Axel-Brink predictions of γ-ray strength functions via average resonance capture

  9. Fifth topical meeting on the technology of fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    Abstracts are presented of the approximately 250 papers that were presented at the conference. Some of the main topics included the following: (1) next-generation devices, (2) tritium, (3) hybrids, (4) alternate fuels, (5) materials engineering, (6) blanket and first wall engineering, and (7) inertial confinement

  10. Evaluation of Topical Gel Bases Formulated with Various Essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Topical Gel Bases Formulated with Various Essential Oils for Antibacterial Activity against Methicillin- Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus. ... Lemon grass and thyme oils were chosen for further studies, including analysis of their composition by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Gels were ...

  11. Topical cholesterol in clofazimine induced ichthyosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey S

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical application of 10% cholesterol in petrolatum significantly (P< 0.05 controlled the development of ichthyosis in 62 patients taking 100 mg clofazimine daily for a period of 3 months. However, topical cholesterol application did not affect the lowering of serum cholesterol induced by oral clofazimine. Probable mechanism of action is being discussed.

  12. Topical silver for treating infected wounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, H.; van Hattem, J. M.; Storm-Versloot, M. N.; Ubbink, D. T.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Topical silver treatments and silver dressings are increasingly used for the local treatment of contaminated or infected wounds, however, there is a lack of clarity regarding the evidence for their effectiveness. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects on wound healing of topical silver and

  13. Torpedo: topic periodicity discovery from text data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Deng, Hongbo; Han, Jiawei

    2015-05-01

    Although history may not repeat itself, many human activities are inherently periodic, recurring daily, weekly, monthly, yearly or following some other periods. Such recurring activities may not repeat the same set of keywords, but they do share similar topics. Thus it is interesting to mine topic periodicity from text data instead of just looking at the temporal behavior of a single keyword/phrase. Some previous preliminary studies in this direction prespecify a periodic temporal template for each topic. In this paper, we remove this restriction and propose a simple yet effective framework Torpedo to mine periodic/recurrent patterns from text, such as news articles, search query logs, research papers, and web blogs. We first transform text data into topic-specific time series by a time dependent topic modeling module, where each of the time series characterizes the temporal behavior of a topic. Then we use time series techniques to detect periodicity. Hence we both obtain a clear view of how topics distribute over time and enable the automatic discovery of periods that are inherent in each topic. Theoretical and experimental analyses demonstrate the advantage of Torpedo over existing work.

  14. Topical treatment options for allergic conjunctivitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of topical dual-acting agents which have mast cell stabilising properties and act as antihistamines. Although corticosteroids are among the most effective agents in the treatment of .... diclofenac, has been shown to reduce ocular inflammation in VKC, and to reduce topical steroid use in these patients.9. Although ketorolac ...

  15. Anesthesia: A Topic for Interdisciplinary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labianca, Dominick A.; Reeves, William J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary approach for teaching the topic of anesthesia as one aspect of a chemistry-oriented course for nonscience majors which focuses on timely topics such as the energy crisis and drugs. Historical treatment with the examination of literature is emphasized in teaching. (HM)

  16. Croup: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Health Topics → Croup URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/croup.html Croup Also called: Spasmodic croup, Viral croup Summary Croup is an inflammation of the ...

  17. Behavior Analysis of Elderly using Topic Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieping, K.; Englebienne, G.; Kröse, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes two new topic models for the analysis of human behavior in homes that are equipped with sensor networks. The models are based on Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic models and can detect patterns in sensor data in an unsupervised manner. LDA-Gaussian, the first variation of

  18. Fostering Topic Knowledge: Essential for Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proske, Antje; Kapp, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers emphasize the role of the writer's topic knowledge for writing. In academic writing topic knowledge is often constructed by studying source texts. One possibility to support that essential phase of the writing process is to provide interactive learning questions which facilitate the construction of an adequate situation…

  19. Exploring Topic Structure: Coherence, Diversity and Relatedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. He (Jiyin)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThe use of topical information has long been studied in the context of information retrieval. For example, grouping search results into topical categories enables more effective information presentation to users, while grouping documents in a collection can lead to efficient information

  20. Corneal staining after treatment with topical tetracycline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth; Nieuwendaal, Carla P.; Slomovic, Allan R.; Spanjaard, Lodewijk

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to report a case of corneal staining after treatment with topical tetracycline. METHODS: A patient with crystalline keratopathy caused by Streptococcus viridans after corneal transplantation was treated topically with tetracycline eye drops, based on results of

  1. Topic Time Series Analysis of Microblogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    of residence. Topic 158, Distance: 3.7809 Top words: 1. tracking 2. graffiti 3. station 4. plaza 5. mariachi Analysis: This topic describes Tweets by a... graffiti tracking service hired by the LA Metro Link. On the righthand side are the locations of the Metro Link stations in the area, which

  2. Infantile generalized hypertrichosis caused by topical minoxidil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampon, Greice; Henkin, Caroline; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Almeida, Hiram Larangeira de

    2016-01-01

    Rare cases of hypertrichosis have been associated with topically applied minoxidil. We present the first reported case in the Brazilian literature of generalized hypertrichosis affecting a 5-year-old child, following use of minoxidil 5%, 20 drops a day, for hair loss. The laboratory investigation excluded hyperandrogenism and thyroid dysfunction. Topical minoxidil should be used with caution in children.

  3. Infantile generalized hypertrichosis caused by topical minoxidil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampon, Greice; Henkin, Caroline; de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; de Almeida Jr, Hiram Larangeira

    2016-01-01

    Rare cases of hypertrichosis have been associated with topically applied minoxidil. We present the first reported case in the Brazilian literature of generalized hypertrichosis affecting a 5-year-old child, following use of minoxidil 5%, 20 drops a day, for hair loss. The laboratory investigation excluded hyperandrogenism and thyroid dysfunction. Topical minoxidil should be used with caution in children. PMID:26982785

  4. Correlated Topic Vector for Scene Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pengxu; Qin, Fei; Wan, Fang; Zhu, Yi; Jiao, Jianbin; Ye, Qixiang

    2017-07-01

    Scene images usually involve semantic correlations, particularly when considering large-scale image data sets. This paper proposes a novel generative image representation, correlated topic vector, to model such semantic correlations. Oriented from the correlated topic model, correlated topic vector intends to naturally utilize the correlations among topics, which are seldom considered in the conventional feature encoding, e.g., Fisher vector, but do exist in scene images. It is expected that the involvement of correlations can increase the discriminative capability of the learned generative model and consequently improve the recognition accuracy. Incorporated with the Fisher kernel method, correlated topic vector inherits the advantages of Fisher vector. The contributions to the topics of visual words have been further employed by incorporating the Fisher kernel framework to indicate the differences among scenes. Combined with the deep convolutional neural network (CNN) features and Gibbs sampling solution, correlated topic vector shows great potential when processing large-scale and complex scene image data sets. Experiments on two scene image data sets demonstrate that correlated topic vector improves significantly the deep CNN features, and outperforms existing Fisher kernel-based features.

  5. Preface: Special Topic on Single-Molecule Biophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Dmitrii E; Schuler, Benjamin

    2018-03-28

    Single-molecule measurements are now almost routinely used to study biological systems and processes. The scope of this special topic emphasizes the physics side of single-molecule observations, with the goal of highlighting new developments in physical techniques as well as conceptual insights that single-molecule measurements bring to biophysics. This issue also comprises recent advances in theoretical physical models of single-molecule phenomena, interpretation of single-molecule signals, and fundamental areas of statistical mechanics that are related to single-molecule observations. A particular goal is to illustrate the increasing synergy between theory, simulation, and experiment in single-molecule biophysics.

  6. Topics on Japanese aseismic design for nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Masahiko

    2002-01-01

    Major items of of Japanese anti-seismic design for nuclear installations involve three topics: earthquakes and ground motion; seismic design and safety evaluation. The first topic deal with: improvement of geological survey technology, evaluation of ground motion from active faults, and characterisation of earthquake from individual faults. Seismic design involves: evaluation of design ground motion (spectra), classification of structures, systems and components (SSCs) based on the seismic importance, and seismic design criteria and critical loads. Safety evaluation of seismic PSA is dependent on the consistency of the the two previous items. Seismic hazard evaluation methodology, database and examples of analysis are described. Analysis method using fault model is included

  7. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation. Lecture 1. Introductory topics. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1986-02-01

    Various fundamental topics are considered which underlie the design and use of optical systems for synchrotron radiation. The point of view of linear system theory is chosen which acts as a unifying concept throughout the series. In this context the important optical quantities usually appear as either impulse response functions (Green's functions) or frequency transfer functions (Fourier Transforms of the Green's functions). Topics include the damped harmonic oscillator, free-space optical field propagation, optical properties of materials, dispersion, and the Kramers-Kronig relations

  8. Solid-State Lighting 2017 Suggested Research Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-09-29

    A 2017 update to the Solid-State Lighting R&D Plan that is divided into two documents. The first document describes a list of suggested SSL priority research topics and the second document provides context and background, including information drawn from technical, market, and economic studies. Widely referenced by industry and government both here and abroad, these documents reflect SSL stakeholder inputs on key R&D topics that will improve efficacy, reduce cost, remove barriers to adoption, and add value for LED and OLED lighting solutions over the next three to five years, and discuss those applications that drive and prioritize the specific R&D.

  9. Lattice theory special topics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wehrung, Friedrich

    George Grätzer's Lattice Theory: Foundation is his third book on lattice theory (General Lattice Theory, 1978, second edition, 1998). In 2009, Grätzer considered updating the second edition to reflect some exciting and deep developments. He soon realized that to lay the foundation, to survey the contemporary field, to pose research problems, would require more than one volume and more than one person. So Lattice Theory: Foundation provided the foundation. Now we complete this project with Lattice Theory: Special Topics and Applications, written by a distinguished group of experts, to cover some of the vast areas not in Foundation. This first volume is divided into three parts. Part I. Topology and Lattices includes two chapters by Klaus Keimel, Jimmie Lawson and Ales Pultr, Jiri Sichler. Part II. Special Classes of Finite Lattices comprises four chapters by Gabor Czedli, George Grätzer and Joseph P. S. Kung. Part III. Congruence Lattices of Infinite Lattices and Beyond includes four chapters by Friedrich W...

  10. Topics on Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Directorate (NVE). To prevent cross-subsidization, the largest state-owned firm was split to form Statkraft SF, Norway's largest generation company, and Statnett SF, the major transmission company. Statnett is also the system operator of the entire Norwegian power system. Many distribution companies, usually publicly owned, are still part of vertically integrated companies, but there is strict separation of the financial accounts for transmission/distribution and generation/marketing. Trading is accomplished through several channels. The largest organized market is the common Norwegian-Swedish pool, NordPool. NordPool ASA is owned by Statnett Marked (which is a subsidiary of Statnett) and the Swedish grid-company, Svenska Kraftnaet. NordPool also supports the Finnish and Danish markets, thus through cooperation with the grid-companies of Denmark (Eltra) and Finland (Fingrid), locational markets are provided in these countries as well. Unlike England and Wales, only part of actual production is traded on this market. In addition, independent brokers offer various energy-contracts and facilitate bilateral contracts. In 1998 22% of the energy was traded on the hourly day-ahead (spot) market of NordPool. NordPool also organizes a forward and futures market and settles contracts from the regulation market organized by Statnett. The regulation market is a realtime market used to settle imbalances in real time. In total, close to 30% of the energy traded is organized through NordPool, and this share is increasing year by year. The efficiency of the market is heavily affected by the operation and pricing of the transmission system, and the topic of this thesis concerns the interaction of the transmission network and the energy markets. Throughout, the findings are illustrated by means of simple examples. This is to enhance readability and intuition. Chapter 2 is devoted to power flow models, whereas chapter 3 provides an overview of models developed to efficiently coordinate the

  11. Topics on Electricity Transmission Pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    -subsidization, the largest state-owned firm was split to form Statkraft SF, Norway's largest generation company, and Statnett SF, the major transmission company. Statnett is also the system operator of the entire Norwegian power system. Many distribution companies, usually publicly owned, are still part of vertically integrated companies, but there is strict separation of the financial accounts for transmission/distribution and generation/marketing. Trading is accomplished through several channels. The largest organized market is the common Norwegian-Swedish pool, NordPool. NordPool ASA is owned by Statnett Marked (which is a subsidiary of Statnett) and the Swedish grid-company, Svenska Kraftnaet. NordPool also supports the Finnish and Danish markets, thus through cooperation with the grid-companies of Denmark (Eltra) and Finland (Fingrid), locational markets are provided in these countries as well. Unlike England and Wales, only part of actual production is traded on this market. In addition, independent brokers offer various energy-contracts and facilitate bilateral contracts. In 1998 22% of the energy was traded on the hourly day-ahead (spot) market of NordPool. NordPool also organizes a forward and futures market and settles contracts from the regulation market organized by Statnett. The regulation market is a realtime market used to settle imbalances in real time. In total, close to 30% of the energy traded is organized through NordPool, and this share is increasing year by year. The efficiency of the market is heavily affected by the operation and pricing of the transmission system, and the topic of this thesis concerns the interaction of the transmission network and the energy markets. Throughout, the findings are illustrated by means of simple examples. This is to enhance readability and intuition. To start with, chapter 2 is devoted to power flow models, whereas chapter 3 provides an overview of models developed to efficiently coordinate the allocation of transmission

  12. Topics in Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Directorate (NVE). To prevent cross-subsidization, the largest state-owned firm was split to form Statkraft SF, Norway's largest generation company, and Statnett SF, the major transmission company. Statnett is also the system operator of the entire Norwegian power system. Many distribution companies, usually publicly owned, are still part of vertically integrated companies, but there is strict separation of the financial accounts for transmission/distribution and generation/marketing. Trading is accomplished through several channels. The largest organized market is the common Norwegian-Swedish pool, NordPool. NordPool ASA is owned by Statnett Marked (which is a subsidiary of Statnett) and the Swedish grid-company, Svenska Kraftnaet. NordPool also supports the Finnish and Danish markets, thus through cooperation with the grid-companies of Denmark (Eltra) and Finland (Fingrid), locational markets are provided in these countries as well. Unlike England and Wales, only part of actual production is traded on this market. In addition, independent brokers offer various energy-contracts and facilitate bilateral contracts. In 1998 22% of the energy was traded on the hourly day-ahead (spot) market of NordPool. NordPool also organizes a forward and futures market and settles contracts from the regulation market organized by Statnett. The regulation market is a realtime market used to settle imbalances in real time. In total, close to 30% of the energy traded is organized through NordPool, and this share is increasing year by year. The efficiency of the market is heavily affected by the operation and pricing of the transmission system, and the topic of this thesis concerns the interaction of the transmission network and the energy markets. Throughout, the findings are illustrated by means of simple examples. This is to enhance readability and intuition. To start with, chapter 2 is devoted to power flow models, whereas chapter 3 provides an overview of models developed to efficiently

  13. 76 FR 81806 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    .... FDA-2011-N-0003] Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution... solution of ivermectin. DATES: This rule is effective December 29, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... ANADA 200-318 for [[Page 81807

  14. Comment Topic Evolution on a Cancer Institution's Facebook Page.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chunlei; Zhou, Li; Plasek, Joseph; Rozenblum, Ronen; Bates, David

    2017-08-23

    Our goal was to identify and track the evolution of the topics discussed in free-text comments on a cancer institution's social media page. We utilized the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model to extract ten topics from free-text comments on a cancer research institution's Facebook™ page between January 1, 2009, and June 30, 2014. We calculated Pearson correlation coefficients between the comment categories to demonstrate topic intensity evolution. A total of 4,335 comments were included in this study, from which ten topics were identified: greetings (17.3%), comments about the cancer institution (16.7%), blessings (10.9%), time (10.7%), treatment (9.3%), expressions of optimism (7.9%), tumor (7.5%), father figure (6.3%), and other family members & friends (8.2%), leaving 5.1% of comments unclassified. The comment distributions reveal an overall increasing trend during the study period. We discovered a strong positive correlation between greetings and other family members & friends (r=0.88; p<0.001), a positive correlation between blessings and the cancer institution (r=0.65; p<0.05), and a negative correlation between blessings and greetings (r=-0.70; p<0.05). A cancer institution's social media platform can provide emotional support to patients and family members. Topic analysis may help institutions better identify and support the needs (emotional, instrumental, and social) of their community and influence their social media strategy.

  15. Safety of warfarin therapy during cataract surgery under topical anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Kara-Junior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze the safety of warfarin therapy during cataract surgery under topical anesthesia. Methods: This was a prospective nonrandomized comparative study of 60 eyes of 60 patients treated with or without concurrent oral warfarin anticoagulant therapy, referred for cataract surgery under topical anesthesia. The sample included a treatment (n=30 and a control (n=30 group. Results: There were no records of intraoperative or postoperative intracameral bleeding complications in both the groups. At 1-month postoperative follow-up, 90.0% of patients presented spectacle-corrected visual acuity of at least 20/40. Conclusion: Cataract surgery by phacoemulsification with topical anesthesia can be successfully conducted without discontinuing warfarin.

  16. Use of Topical Insulin to Treat Refractory Neurotrophic Corneal Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Angeline L; Weinlander, Eric; Metcalf, Brandon M; Barney, Neal P; Gamm, David M; Nehls, Sarah M; Struck, Michael C

    2017-11-01

    To report the clinical course of 6 patients with refractory neurotrophic corneal ulcers that were treated with topical insulin drops. Retrospective chart review of patients who had neurotrophic corneal ulcers or epithelial defects refractory to standard medical and surgical treatment. Insulin drops, prepared by mixing regular insulin in artificial tears with a polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol base at a concentration of 1 unit per milliliter, were prescribed 2 to 3 times daily. Six patients, aged 2 to 73 years, developed neurotrophic corneal ulcers refractory to a range of medical and surgical treatments, including bandage contact lens, amniotic membrane grafting, and permanent tarsorrhaphy. Each patient was administered topical insulin drops with complete corneal reepithelialization within 7 to 25 days. Topical insulin may be a simple and effective treatment for refractory neurotrophic corneal ulcers. Further study is required to determine the clinical efficacy and side effect profile of insulin drops.

  17. Comparison of topical capsaicin and topical turpentine oil for treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musharraf, M.U.; Ahmed, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus is a pandemic of the modern era owing to our rapidly deteriorating lifestyle. Painful diabetic neuropathy is one of the costliest and disabling complications of diabetes mellitus. No single treatment exists to prevent or reverse neuropathic changes or to provide total pain relief. Topical Capsaicin and Turpentine Oil are found to be effective in treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. Methods: Patients of either gender with ages between 18 and 70 years having painful diabetic neuropathy already taking one oral drug for painful neuropathy and treatment for diabetes mellitus and an HbA1C less than 8.5% were included while Pregnant or lactating mothers, patients with chronic liver disease and patients with renal insufficiency (creatinine >3.0 mg/dl) and peripheral arterial disease were excluded from study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups (A and B) using computer generated random number table. Group A was given topical application of capsaicin while Group B was given topical application of commercially available turpentine oil over painful site on feet. Results: 300 patients were equally divided in two groups. The patients in group A had a Visual Analog Pain Score of 7.91±5.10 at baseline and 5.10±1.343 after 3 months of treatment (p-value 0.0001). The patients in group B had a Visual Analog Pain Score of 7.83±1.012 at baseline and 5.20±1.187 after 3 months of treatment (p-value 0.0001). Chi Square test was applied to compare efficacy of both groups. It was noted that 71 (53%) had efficacy in group A and 63 (47%) had efficacy in the group B but the difference was not statistically significant. (p-value=0.399). Conclusion: It has been concluded that turpentine oil is effective in managing diabetic neuropathic pain similar to capsaicin cream.

  18. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of pain due to soft tissue injury: diclofenac epolamine topical patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionberger, David R; Brennan, Michael J

    2010-11-10

    The objective of this article is to review published clinical data on diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries, such as strains, sprains, and contusions. Review of published literature on topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diclofenac, and DETP in patients with acute soft tissue injuries was included. Relevant literature was identified on MEDLINE using the search terms topical NSAIDs, diclofenac, diclofenac epolamine, acute pain, sports injury, soft tissue injury, strain, sprain, and contusion, and from citations in retrieved articles covering the years 1978-2008. Review of published, randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses shows that topical NSAIDs are significantly more effective than placebo in relieving acute pain; the pooled average relative benefit was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.5-1.9). In a limited number of comparisons, topical and oral NSAIDs provided comparable pain relief, but the use of topical agents produced lower plasma drug concentrations and fewer systemic adverse events (AEs). The physical-chemical properties of diclofenac epolamine make it well suited for topical use. In patients with acute soft tissue injuries treated with DETP, clinical data report an analgesic benefit within hours of the first application, and significant pain relief relative to placebo within 3 days. Moreover, DETP displayed tolerability comparable with placebo; the most common AEs were pruritus and other application site reactions. Review of published literature suggests that DETP is generally safe and well tolerated, clinically efficacious, and a rational treatment option for patients experiencing acute pain associated with strains, sprains, and contusions, and other localized painful conditions.

  19. Topical erythromycin-zinc acetate complex lotion versus topical erythromycin gel in treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder R. Al-Hamamy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Topical antibiotics are the main step in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. Erythromycin is one of the effective topical therapies for this disease. Zinc sulfate 5% solution was reported to be effective in treatment of acne vulgaris and rosacea. Aim: To compare the effectiveness and side effects of topical erythromycin in combination with zinc and erythromycin alone in treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. Material and Methods: This single, blind, therapeutic, comparative study was done in the Department of Dermatology – Baghdad Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq; from May 2012 – August 2013.Scoring of acne was carried out and the patients were examined every two weeks for 10 weeks of treatment. One month after stopping drugs, patients were evaluated for drug complications and disease recurrence. Eighty patients fulfilling enrollment criteria were included in this study. Patients were divided into two groups: Group A (40 patients treated twice daily with topical erythromycin-zinc complex lotion and Group B (40 patients treated twice daily with topical 2% erythromycin gel. Results: Both topical erythromycin-zinc lotion and erythromycin gel were statistically an effective therapy starting after 6 weeks treatment and up to 4 weeks after stopping treatment. Erythromycin-zinc lotion was more effective and act earlier than erythromycin gel starting from 4 weeks of therapy till the end of treatment (after 10 week and even after 4 weeks after stopping the treatment (p value <0.0001. Conclusions: Erythromycin-zinc complex lotion was an effective and well tolerated topical therapy for mild to moderate inflammatory acne vulgaris and was more effective than erythromycin gel alone.

  20. Biological detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2013-02-26

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  1. Surface treatments for biological, chemical and physical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Karaman, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    A step-by-step guide to the topic with a mix of theory and practice in the fields of biology, chemistry and physics. Straightforward and well-structured, the first chapter introduces fundamental aspects of surface treatments, after which examples from nature are given. Subsequent chapters discuss various methods to surface modification, including chemical and physical approaches, followed by the characterization of the functionalized surfaces. Applications discussed include the lotus effect, diffusion barriers, enzyme immobilization and catalysis. Finally, the book concludes with a look at future technology advances. Throughout the text, tutorials and case studies are used for training purposes to grant a deeper understanding of the topic, resulting in an essential reference for students as well as for experienced engineers in R&D.

  2. Exploring supervised and unsupervised methods to detect topics in biomedical text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minsuk; Wang, Weiqing; Yu, Hong

    2006-03-16

    Topic detection is a task that automatically identifies topics (e.g., "biochemistry" and "protein structure") in scientific articles based on information content. Topic detection will benefit many other natural language processing tasks including information retrieval, text summarization and question answering; and is a necessary step towards the building of an information system that provides an efficient way for biologists to seek information from an ocean of literature. We have explored the methods of Topic Spotting, a task of text categorization that applies the supervised machine-learning technique naïve Bayes to assign automatically a document into one or more predefined topics; and Topic Clustering, which apply unsupervised hierarchical clustering algorithms to aggregate documents into clusters such that each cluster represents a topic. We have applied our methods to detect topics of more than fifteen thousand of articles that represent over sixteen thousand entries in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. We have explored bag of words as the features. Additionally, we have explored semantic features; namely, the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) that are assigned to the MEDLINE records, and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) semantic types that correspond to the MeSH terms, in addition to bag of words, to facilitate the tasks of topic detection. Our results indicate that incorporating the MeSH terms and the UMLS semantic types as additional features enhances the performance of topic detection and the naïve Bayes has the highest accuracy, 66.4%, for predicting the topic of an OMIM article as one of the total twenty-five topics. Our results indicate that the supervised topic spotting methods outperformed the unsupervised topic clustering; on the other hand, the unsupervised topic clustering methods have the advantages of being robust and applicable in real world settings.

  3. Exploring supervised and unsupervised methods to detect topics in biomedical text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hong

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Topic detection is a task that automatically identifies topics (e.g., "biochemistry" and "protein structure" in scientific articles based on information content. Topic detection will benefit many other natural language processing tasks including information retrieval, text summarization and question answering; and is a necessary step towards the building of an information system that provides an efficient way for biologists to seek information from an ocean of literature. Results We have explored the methods of Topic Spotting, a task of text categorization that applies the supervised machine-learning technique naïve Bayes to assign automatically a document into one or more predefined topics; and Topic Clustering, which apply unsupervised hierarchical clustering algorithms to aggregate documents into clusters such that each cluster represents a topic. We have applied our methods to detect topics of more than fifteen thousand of articles that represent over sixteen thousand entries in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM database. We have explored bag of words as the features. Additionally, we have explored semantic features; namely, the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH that are assigned to the MEDLINE records, and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS semantic types that correspond to the MeSH terms, in addition to bag of words, to facilitate the tasks of topic detection. Our results indicate that incorporating the MeSH terms and the UMLS semantic types as additional features enhances the performance of topic detection and the naïve Bayes has the highest accuracy, 66.4%, for predicting the topic of an OMIM article as one of the total twenty-five topics. Conclusion Our results indicate that the supervised topic spotting methods outperformed the unsupervised topic clustering; on the other hand, the unsupervised topic clustering methods have the advantages of being robust and applicable in real world settings.

  4. Integrating Concepts in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckie, Douglas B; Hoskinson, Anne-Marie; Griffin, Caleigh E; Hess, Andrea L; Price, Katrina J; Tawa, Alex; Thacker, Samantha M

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the educational impact of an intervention, the inquiry-focused textbook Integrating Concepts in Biology ( ICB ), when used in a yearlong introductory biology course sequence. Student learning was evaluated using three published instruments: 1) The Biology Concept Inventory probed depth of student mastery of fundamental concepts in organismal and cellular topics when confronting misconceptions as distractors. ICB students had higher gains in all six topic categories (+43% vs. peers overall, p concepts, like experts. The frequency with which ICB students connected deep-concept pairs, or triplets, was similar to peers; but deep understanding of structure/function was much higher (for pairs: 77% vs. 25%, p < 0.01). 3) A content-focused Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) posttest compared ICB student content knowledge with that of peers from 15 prior years. Historically, MCAT performance for each semester ranged from 53% to 64%; the ICB cohort scored 62%, in the top quintile. Longitudinal tracking in five upper-level science courses the following year found ICB students outperformed peers in physiology (85% vs. 80%, p < 0.01). © 2017 D. B. Luckie et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  5. Literature survey results: Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willson, W.G.; Ness, R.O.; Hendrikson, J.G.; Entzminger, J.A.; Jha, M.; Sinor, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This report reviews mild gasification processes with respect to processing conditions and configurations. Special emphasis was placed on processes which could be commercialized within five years. Detailed market information was provided by J.E. Sinor concerning markets and economic considerations of the various processing steps. Processing areas studied include coal cleaning; mild gasification; and upgrading of the char, condensables, and hydrocarbon gases. Pros and cons in the different processing areas as well as ''gaps'' in pertinent data were identified and integrated into a detailed process development program. The report begins with a summary of the market assessment and an evaluation of the co-product. The impacts of feed materials and operating parameters--including coal rank, heating rate, pressure, agglomeration, temperature, and feed gas composition--on the co- products and processes were evaluated through a literature survey. Recommendations were made as to the preferred product specifications and operating parameters for a commercial plant. A literature review of mild gasification processes was conducted and evaluated with regard to product specification and operating parameters. Two candidate processes were chosen and discussed in detail with respect to scale-up feasibility. Recommendations were then made to process development needs to further consideration of the two processes. 129 refs., 33 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lett, J.T.; Altman, K.I.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation.

  7. Radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with the use of radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in the various aspects of biological research. The following topics were presented: labelled compounds; conformation-function relationships of hormonal polypeptides and their spectroscopic study; neutron scattering and neutron diffraction for biological studies; high resolution autoradiography; radioimmunoassay; nuclear medicine; transfer of excitation energy in photosynthesis; radioagronomy; radiation preservation of food [fr

  8. Topical Session on the Decommissioning and Dismantling Safety Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Set up by the Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC), the WPDD brings together senior representatives of national organisations who have a broad overview of Decommissioning and Dismantling (D and D) issues through their work as regulators, implementers, R and D experts or policy makers. These include representatives from regulatory authorities, industrial decommissioners from the NEA Cooperative Programme on Exchange of Scientific and Technical Information on Nuclear Installation Decommissioning Projects (CPD), and cross-representation from the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities, the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health, and the RWMC. The EC is a member of the WPDD and the IAEA also participates. This ensures co-ordination amongst activities in these international programmes. Participation from civil society organisations is considered on a case by case basis, and has already taken place through the active involvement of the Group of Municipalities with Nuclear Installations at the first meeting of the WPDD At its second meeting, in Paris, 5-7 December 2001, the WPDD held two topical sessions on the D and D Safety Case and on the Management of Materials from D and D, respectively. This report documents the topical session on the safety case. The topical session was meant to provide an exchange of information and experience on the following issues: What topics should be included in a safety case? Of what should it consist? Is there sufficient and complete guidance nationally and internationally? How do practices differ internationally? Main boundary condition to this session was that it would deal with plants where spent fuel has been removed. Also the topical sessions was kept at a level that makes the most of the varied constituency of the WPDD. Namely, interface issues are important, and issue-identification and discussion was the immediate goal. There was less interest in examining areas where variability amongst national

  9. iBiology: communicating the process of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah S

    2014-08-01

    The Internet hosts an abundance of science video resources aimed at communicating scientific knowledge, including webinars, massive open online courses, and TED talks. Although these videos are efficient at disseminating information for diverse types of users, they often do not demonstrate the process of doing science, the excitement of scientific discovery, or how new scientific knowledge is developed. iBiology (www.ibiology.org), a project that creates open-access science videos about biology research and science-related topics, seeks to fill this need by producing videos by science leaders that make their ideas, stories, and experiences available to anyone with an Internet connection. © 2014 Goodwin. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. Bibliographical review on the teaching of Biology and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Luz Rodríguez Palmero

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This review complements another one done by the same author, in 1997, regarding the role of comprehending the concept of cell in the learning of Biology. In addition, some general papers on science education that provide a better understanding of research approaches used in the investigation of this topic have been included. The reviewed papers have been organized into categories according to the object of study, the relevance assigned to the cell concept, and the framework of analysis. The review shows that the concept of cell is very important in the biological conceptualization, however, it also shows the need of additional research on this matter, from theoretical frameworks that pay more attention to the psychological level, in order to provide some guidance to improve the teaching and learning processes of the biological content that presupose the comprehension of living beings.

  11. Topics in quaternion linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Rodman, Leiba

    2014-01-01

    Quaternions are a number system that has become increasingly useful for representing the rotations of objects in three-dimensional space and has important applications in theoretical and applied mathematics, physics, computer science, and engineering. This is the first book to provide a systematic, accessible, and self-contained exposition of quaternion linear algebra. It features previously unpublished research results with complete proofs and many open problems at various levels, as well as more than 200 exercises to facilitate use by students and instructors. Applications presented in the book include numerical ranges, invariant semidefinite subspaces, differential equations with symmetries, and matrix equations. Designed for researchers and students across a variety of disciplines, the book can be read by anyone with a background in linear algebra, rudimentary complex analysis, and some multivariable calculus. Instructors will find it useful as a complementary text for undergraduate linear algebra courses...

  12. Plant invasions in China: an emerging hot topic in invasion science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available China has shown a rapid economic development in recent decades, and several drivers of this change are known to enhance biological invasions, a major cause of biodiversity loss. Here we review the current state of research on plant invasions in China by analyzing papers referenced in the ISI Web of Knowledge. Since 2001, the number of papers has increased exponentially, indicating that plant invasions in China are an emerging hot topic in invasion science. The analyzed papers cover a broad range of methodological approaches and research topics. While more that 250 invasive plant species with negative impacts have been reported from China, only a few species have been considered in more than a handful of papers (in order of decreasing number of references: Spartina alterniflora, Ageratina adenophora, Mikania micrantha, Alternanthera philoxeroides, Solidago canadensis, Eichhornia crassipes. Yet this selection might rather reflect the location of research teams than the most invasive plant species in China. Considering the previous achievements in China found in our analysis research in plant invasions could be expanded by (1 compiling comprehensive lists of non-native plant species at the provincial and national scales and to include species that are native to one part of China but non-native to others in these lists; (2 strengthening pathways studies (primary introduction to the country, secondary releases within the country to enhance prevention and management; and (3 assessing impacts of invasive species at different spatial scales (habitats, regions and in relation to conservation resources.

  13. Digital Social Network Mining for Topic Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradianzadeh, Pooya; Mohi, Maryam; Sadighi Moshkenani, Mohsen

    Networked computers are expanding more and more around the world, and digital social networks becoming of great importance for many people's work and leisure. This paper mainly focused on discovering the topic of exchanging information in digital social network. In brief, our method is to use a hierarchical dictionary of related topics and words that mapped to a graph. Then, with comparing the extracted keywords from the context of social network with graph nodes, probability of relation between context and desired topics will be computed. This model can be used in many applications such as advertising, viral marketing and high-risk group detection.

  14. Advances in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lett, J.T.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    The classical period of radiation biology is coming to a close. Such change always occurs at a time when the ideas and concepts that promoted the burgeoning of an infant science are no longer adequate. This volume covers a number of areas in which new ideas and research are playing a vital role, including cellular radiation sensitivity, radioactive waste disposal, and space radiation biology

  15. Experimenting with Mathematical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanft, Rebecca; Walter, Anne

    2016-01-01

    St. Olaf College recently added a Mathematical Biology concentration to its curriculum. The core course, Mathematics of Biology, was redesigned to include a wet laboratory. The lab classes required students to collect data and implement the essential modeling techniques of formulation, implementation, validation, and analysis. The four labs…

  16. Preface for Special Topic: Ionotronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillon D. Fong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ionotronics is an emerging technology that exploits the coupled ionic and electronic character of materials, including the profound modifications of structure, composition, and properties achievable through external fields. While the geometry of the device and the medium of the electric field can vary, a key commonality is the importance of interfaces and the ability of ions to move along and across them. As the electronic conductivity of many metal oxides can change significantly with the oxygen vacancy concentration, understanding defect formation and migration in such materials has been the focus of many recent studies, particularly for correlated electron systems. However, the incorporation of small ions such as hydrogen or lithium can be equally or more effective depending on the material and its interface: the key is whether or not the process can be fully reversed over many cycles without interfacial degradation (much like for energy storage systems. For most device applications, the switching process should require low power and take place at high speeds, even at room temperature.

  17. Flammable gas project topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.D.

    1997-01-29

    The flammable gas safety issue was recognized in 1990 with the declaration of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) by the U. S. Department of Energy as a result of the behavior of the Hanford Site high-level waste tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gas that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years there has been a considerable amount of knowledge gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-1 01 and other tanks associated with the flammable gas safety issue. This report was prepared to provide an overview of that knowledge and to provide a description of the key information still needed to resolve the issue. Items covered by this report include summaries of the understanding of gas generation, retention and release mechanisms, the composition and flammability behavior of the gas mixture, the amounts of stored gas, and estimated gas release fractions for spontaneous releases. `Me report also discusses methods being developed for evaluating the 177 tanks at the Hanford Site and the problems associated with these methods. Means for measuring the gases emitted from the waste are described along with laboratory experiments designed to gain more information regarding rates of generation, species of gases emitted and modes of gas storage and release. Finally, the process for closing the USQ is outlined as are the information requirements to understand and resolve the flammable gas issue.

  18. [Amusia and its topic specification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buklina, S B; Skvortsova, V B

    2007-01-01

    A historical development of views on amusia and its clinical phenomenology is reviewed. The authors present a case of atypical amusia in a patient aged 32 years with glioma of the right temporal lobe including the upper temporal gyrus. Amusia was combined with euphoria and disturbances of evaluation of speech intonation. It has been assumed that different mechanisms implicated with different regions of both brain hemispheres may underlie amusia. Sometimes these mechanisms appear to be universal, e.g. disorders of symbolic gnosis in posterior hemisphere lesions, being comorbid with amusia as disturbances in reading music and letter agnosia. In our case, the right temporal lobe lesion, especially with involvement of the upper temporal gyrus, caused specific music agnosia with disturbances of perception of some notes and duration of their phonation or a musical contour of the whole melody. Motor amusia is developed due to additional disturbances of motor and premotor brain functions, with significant contribution of the Broca's speech area. Music may be a model for investigation into processes of multimodal integration and hemisphere interaction.

  19. Topics in the structure of hadronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebed, R.F.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1994-04-01

    In this dissertation the author examines a variety of different problems in the physics of strongly-bound systems. Each is elucidated by a different standard method of analysis developed to probe the properties of such systems. He begins with an examination of the properties and consequences of the current algebra of weak currents in the limit of heavy quark spin-flavor symmetry. In particular, he examines the assumptions in the proof of the Ademollo-Gatto theorem in general and for spin-flavor symmetry, and exhibit the constraints imposed upon matrix elements by this theorem. Then he utilizes the renormalization-group method to create composite fermions in a three-generation electroweak model. Such a model is found to reproduce the same low energy behavior as the top-condensate electroweak model, although in general it may have strong constraints upon its Higgs sector. Next he uncovers subtleties in the nonrelativistic quark model that drastically alter the picture of the physical origins of meson electromagnetic and hyperfine mass splittings; in particular, the explicit contributions due to (m d -m u ) and electrostatic potentials may be overwhelmed by other effects. Such novel effects are used to explain the anomalous pattern of mass splittings recently measured in bottom mesons. Finally, he considers the topic of baryon masses in heavy fermion chiral perturbation theory, including both tree-level and loop effects

  20. Analysis of undergraduate cell biology contents in Brazilian public universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermelstein, Claudia; Costa, Manoel Luis

    2017-04-01

    The enormous amount of information available in cell biology has created a challenge in selecting the core concepts we should be teaching our undergraduates. One way to define a set of essential core ideas in cell biology is to analyze what a specific cell biology community is teaching their students. Our main objective was to analyze the cell biology content currently being taught in Brazilian universities. We collected the syllabi of cell biology courses from public universities in Brazil and analyzed the frequency of cell biology topics in each course. We also compared the Brazilian data with the contents of a major cell biology textbook. Our analysis showed that while some cell biology topics such as plasma membrane and cytoskeleton was present in ∼100% of the Brazilian curricula analyzed others such as cell signaling and cell differentiation were present in only ∼35%. The average cell biology content taught in the Brazilian universities is quite different from what is presented in the textbook. We discuss several possible explanations for these observations. We also suggest a list with essential cell biology topics for any biological or biomedical undergraduate course. The comparative discussion of cell biology topics presented here could be valuable in other educational contexts. © 2017 The Authors. Cell Biology International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Cell Biology.

  1. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  2. Systems Biology of Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jens

    2017-06-20

    Metabolism is highly complex and involves thousands of different connected reactions; it is therefore necessary to use mathematical models for holistic studies. The use of mathematical models in biology is referred to as systems biology. In this review, the principles of systems biology are described, and two different types of mathematical models used for studying metabolism are discussed: kinetic models and genome-scale metabolic models. The use of different omics technologies, including transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and fluxomics, for studying metabolism is presented. Finally, the application of systems biology for analyzing global regulatory structures, engineering the metabolism of cell factories, and analyzing human diseases is discussed.

  3. Recent advances and perspectives in topical oral anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz-Montan, Michelle; Ribeiro, Lígia Nunes de Morais; Volpato, Maria Cristina; Cereda, Cintia Maria Saia; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Tofoli, Giovana Randomille; de Araújo, Daniele Ribeiro; Santi, Patrizia; Padula, Cristina; de Paula, Eneida

    2017-05-01

    Topical anesthesia is widely used in dentistry to reduce pain caused by needle insertion and injection of the anesthetic. However, successful anesthesia is not always achieved using the formulations that are currently commercially available. As a result, local anesthesia is still one of the procedures that is most feared by dental patients. Drug delivery systems (DDSs) provide ways of improving the efficacy of topical agents. Areas covered: An overview of the structure and permeability of oral mucosa is given, followed by a review of DDSs designed for dental topical anesthesia and their related clinical trials. Chemical approaches to enhance permeation and anesthesia efficacy, or to promote superficial anesthesia, include nanostructured carriers (liposomes, cyclodextrins, polymeric nanoparticle systems, solid lipid nanoparticles, and nanostructured lipid carriers) and different pharmaceutical dosage forms (patches, bio- and mucoadhesive systems, and hydrogels). Physical methods include pre-cooling, vibration, iontophoresis, and microneedle arrays. Expert opinion: The combination of different chemical and physical methods is an attractive option for effective topical anesthesia in oral mucosa. This comprehensive review should provide the readers with the most relevant options currently available to assist pain-free dental anesthesia. The findings should be considered for future clinical trials.

  4. Redesigning Introductory Biology: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Gregory

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing complexity and expansion of the biological sciences, there has been a corresponding increase in content in the first-year introductory biology course sequence for majors. In general this has resulted in courses that introduce students to large amounts of material and leave little time for practicing investigative science or skill development. Based on our analysis of data compiled from 742 biology faculty at a variety of institutions across the United States, we verified that there is strong agreement on the content appropriate for introductory biology courses for majors. Therefore, we propose that faculty teaching these courses focus primarily on the topics identified in this study, and redesign their courses to incorporate active learning strategies that emphasize the investigative nature of biology and provide opportunities for skill development.

  5. Web Enabled DROLS Verity TopicSets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tong, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this effort has been the design and development of automatically generated TopicSets and HTML pages that provide the basis of the required search and browsing capability for DTIC's Web Enabled DROLS System...

  6. Heroin: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overdose (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Opiate and opioid withdrawal (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Tips for Teens: ... this? GO MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA Heroin overdose Opiate and opioid withdrawal Opioid intoxication Related Health Topics Drug Abuse Opioid ...

  7. Stability and solubility improvement of Sompoi (Acacia concinna Linn. pod extract by topical microemulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worrapan Poomanee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to enhance the solubility and stability of Acacia concinna extract by loading in a microemulsion for topical application. Both physical appearance and biological activities of the extract-loaded microemulsion were determined in comparison with the extract solution. Pseudoternary phase diagrams of three oil types including tea seed oil, grape seed oil, and sesame oil, together with polysorbate 85 or the mixture of polysorbate 85 and sorbitan oleate as surfactants, and absolute ethanol as a co-surfactant were constructed to optimize the microemulsion area. The selected microemulsion was then characterized for droplet size, polydispersity index, and viscosity. Tea seed oil exhibited the highest microemulsion area in the phase diagram because it had the highest unsaturated fatty acid content. The microemulsion composed of tea seed oil (5%, polysorbate 85 (40%, ethanol (20%, and water (35% exhibited Newtonian flow behavior with the droplet size and polydispersity index of 68.03 ± 1.09 nm and 0.44 ± 0.04, respectively. After 4% w/w of the extract was incorporated into the microemulsion, larger droplets size was observed (239.77 ± 12.69 nm with a lower polydispersity index (0.37 ± 0.02. After storage in various conditions, both physical appearances and the stability of biological activity of the extract-loaded microemulsion were improved compared to the solution. Therefore, the A. concinna loaded microemulsion may be a promising carrier for further development into a topical formulation and clinical trials for pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical applications are also suggested.

  8. Topical Melatonin for Treatment of Androgenetic Alopecia

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Tobias W; Tr?eb, Ralph M; H?nggi, Gabriella; Innocenti, Marcello; Elsner, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the search for alternative agents to oral finasteride and topical minoxidil for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA), melatonin, a potent antioxidant and growth modulator, was identified as a promising candidate based on in vitro and in vivo studies. Materials and Methods: One pharmacodynamic study on topical application of melatonin and four clinical pre-post studies were performed in patients with androgenetic alopecia or general hair loss and evaluated by standardise...

  9. Emerging topics in translation: Audio description

    OpenAIRE

    Perego, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    The volume deals with several aspects of audio description for the blind and sight impaired which came to the surface during the AD session of the conference Emerging topics in translation and interpreting held at the Department of Language, Translation and Interpreting Studies of the University of Trieste, 16-18 June 2010. The topics dealt with in the volume range from the more established (linguistic analysis of ADs in various languages, strategies to overcome possible obs...

  10. Systemic side-effects of topical corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipan Dhar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of topical corticosteroids, a milestone has been achieved in dermatologic therapy; owing to its potent anti-inflammatory and ant proliferative effects, it became possible to treat some hitherto resistant dermatoses. But this magic drug can cause enough mischief if used inappropriately. Children are more susceptible to the systemic adverse effects because of enhanced percutaneous absorption through their tender skin. So, systemic side effects should be kept in mind while prescribing this therapeutically valuable topical medicament.

  11. Dyneins: structure, biology and disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    ... . Chapters written by world experts in their topics . Numerous well-illustrated figures and tables included to complement the text, imparting comprehensive information on dynein composition, interactions, and other fundamental features.

  12. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M; Gennari, John H

    2011-02-24

    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org). The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org). SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  13. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Galdzicki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology (sbolstandard.org. The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (partsregistry.org. SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL, a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  14. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Topical steroid addiction in atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukaya M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mototsugu Fukaya,1 Kenji Sato,2 Mitsuko Sato,3 Hajime Kimata,4 Shigeki Fujisawa,5 Haruhiko Dozono,6 Jun Yoshizawa,7 Satoko Minaguchi8 1Tsurumai Kouen Clinic, Nagoya, 2Department of Dermatology, Hannan Chuo Hospital, Osaka, 3Sato Pediatric Clinic, Osaka, 4Kimata Hajime Clinic, Osaka, 5Fujisawa Dermatology Clinic, Tokyo, 6Dozono Medical House, Kagoshima, 7Yoshizawa Dermatology Clinic, Yokohama, 8Department of Dermatology, Kounosu Kyousei Hospital, Saitama, Japan Abstract: The American Academy of Dermatology published a new guideline regarding topical therapy in atopic dermatitis in May 2014. Although topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome had been mentioned as possible side effects of topical steroids in a 2006 review article in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, no statement was made regarding this illness in the new guidelines. This suggests that there are still controversies regarding this illness. Here, we describe the clinical features of topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome, based on the treatment of many cases of the illness. Because there have been few articles in the medical literature regarding this illness, the description in this article will be of some benefit to better understand the illness and to spur discussion regarding topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome. Keywords: topical steroid addiction, atopic dermatitis, red burning skin syndrome, rebound, corticosteroid, eczema

  16. Managing biological diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    viewing issues across biological, spatial, and temporal scales (Knopf and Smith 1992), natural resource managers find much conflicting information in the literature on strategies and programs for the conservation of biological diversity (Ehrlich 1992). Moreover, recommendations provided in much of the published information available for planning or decisions not only can be debated but may prove counterproductive if implemented. Current operational efforts beg for clearer focus on fundamental concepts central to daily decisions that impact native biological diversity. Recognizing that many biologists would provide different council and at the risk of oversimplification, we offer the following 4 topical issues as fundamental guidance to wise conservation action. These recommendations are based on our collective experiences working within conservation agencies since our original, collaborative essay (Samson and Knopf 1982). They are offered as initial, rather than authoritative, steps to better align research and management decisions with what we perceive as the critical issues in conserving biological diversity at the landscape and ecosystem levels of resolution.

  17. In touch with psoriasis: topical treatments and current guidelines.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, G

    2011-06-01

    This article describes topical therapies and treatment guidelines for psoriasis and is based on a presentation given by the authors at a satellite symposium held during the 19th Congress of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 6-10 October, 2010, in Gothenburg, Sweden. The highly variable nature of psoriasis and its individual presentation in patients can make it difficult to choose the most appropriate treatment. There are many treatment options, from topical treatment with emollients for very mild psoriasis, to systemic therapy with fumaric acid esters, methotrexate or biologics for severe disease. For the treatment of mild-to-moderate psoriasis, topical therapy is generally the most appropriate and a variety of options, both historical and recent, are available. Newer therapies offer greater convenience and fewer side-effects. Of the more recently available therapies, vitamin D analogues and topical corticosteroids are the two with the greatest proven efficacy in randomized clinical trials. A recent Cochrane review showed the highest efficacy overall with the fixed combination vitamin D analogue (calcipotriol) and corticosteroid (betamethasone dipropionate). Indeed, clinical trials have shown that two-compound calcipotriol\\/betamethasone dipropionate ointment has higher efficacy than calcipotriol or betamethasone dipropionate alone. With regard to safety, two-compound calcipotriol\\/betamethasone dipropionate was shown to be suitable for intermittent long-term treatment of mild-to-moderate psoriasis. The findings of the Cochrane review are reflected in the current treatment guidelines from the USA and Germany regarding the treatment of mild-to-moderate psoriasis. In both these guidelines, which will be discussed in this article, the recommended treatments for this patient group are vitamin D analogues and corticosteroids, particularly when used in combination.

  18. In touch with psoriasis: topical treatments and current guidelines.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, G

    2012-02-01

    This article describes topical therapies and treatment guidelines for psoriasis and is based on a presentation given by the authors at a satellite symposium held during the 19th Congress of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 6-10 October, 2010, in Gothenburg, Sweden. The highly variable nature of psoriasis and its individual presentation in patients can make it difficult to choose the most appropriate treatment. There are many treatment options, from topical treatment with emollients for very mild psoriasis, to systemic therapy with fumaric acid esters, methotrexate or biologics for severe disease. For the treatment of mild-to-moderate psoriasis, topical therapy is generally the most appropriate and a variety of options, both historical and recent, are available. Newer therapies offer greater convenience and fewer side-effects. Of the more recently available therapies, vitamin D analogues and topical corticosteroids are the two with the greatest proven efficacy in randomized clinical trials. A recent Cochrane review showed the highest efficacy overall with the fixed combination vitamin D analogue (calcipotriol) and corticosteroid (betamethasone dipropionate). Indeed, clinical trials have shown that two-compound calcipotriol\\/betamethasone dipropionate ointment has higher efficacy than calcipotriol or betamethasone dipropionate alone. With regard to safety, two-compound calcipotriol\\/betamethasone dipropionate was shown to be suitable for intermittent long-term treatment of mild-to-moderate psoriasis. The findings of the Cochrane review are reflected in the current treatment guidelines from the USA and Germany regarding the treatment of mild-to-moderate psoriasis. In both these guidelines, which will be discussed in this article, the recommended treatments for this patient group are vitamin D analogues and corticosteroids, particularly when used in combination.

  19. Biological treatment of polluted lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Brun, S.

    2005-01-01

    Several techniques of lands cleansing exist; they include the thermal techniques, the biological treatment or the disposal. The Biogenie firm is specialized in the biological cleansing of soils on and outside site. (O.M.)

  20. Decision Making in Biological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Chengzhe

    -dormancy transition is primarily mediated by (p)ppGpp fluctuation. In the second topic, we discuss the transition paths between two stable steady states. We construct a simple model of coupled bistable gene circuits and demonstrate the possibility of bifurcation of transition path in biology. We then construct...... a theory to predict whether a general coupled bistable system exhibits bifurcated path or not and verify the theory through numerical simulation. We also show that a primary function of bifurcated paths is to facilitate transition by lowering the associated action. In the third topic, we discuss...

  1. ERLN Biological Focus Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Response Laboratory Network supports the goal to increase national capacity for biological analysis of environmental samples. This includes methods development and verification, technology transfer, and collaboration with USDA, FERN, CDC.

  2. Fishery Biology Database (AGDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basic biological data are the foundation on which all assessments of fisheries resources are built. These include parameters such as the size and age composition of...

  3. Incorporating Topic Assignment Constraint and Topic Correlation Limitation into Clinical Goal Discovering for Clinical Pathway Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical pathways are widely used around the world for providing quality medical treatment and controlling healthcare cost. However, the expert-designed clinical pathways can hardly deal with the variances among hospitals and patients. It calls for more dynamic and adaptive process, which is derived from various clinical data. Topic-based clinical pathway mining is an effective approach to discover a concise process model. Through this approach, the latent topics found by latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA represent the clinical goals. And process mining methods are used to extract the temporal relations between these topics. However, the topic quality is usually not desirable due to the low performance of the LDA in clinical data. In this paper, we incorporate topic assignment constraint and topic correlation limitation into the LDA to enhance the ability of discovering high-quality topics. Two real-world datasets are used to evaluate the proposed method. The results show that the topics discovered by our method are with higher coherence, informativeness, and coverage than the original LDA. These quality topics are suitable to represent the clinical goals. Also, we illustrate that our method is effective in generating a comprehensive topic-based clinical pathway model.

  4. Systems Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H S.

    2006-06-01

    The biology revolution over the last 50 years has been driven by the ascendancy of molecular biology. This was enthusiastically embraced by most biologists because it took us into increasingly familiar territory. It took mysterious processes, such as the replication of genetic material and assigned them parts that could be readily understood by the human mind. When we think of ''molecular machines'' as being the underlying basis of life, we are using a paradigm derived from everyday experience. However, the price that we paid was a relentless drive towards reductionism and the attendant balkanization of biology. Now along comes ''systems biology'' that promises us a solution to the problem of ''knowing more and more about less and less''. Unlike molecular biology, systems biology appears to be taking us into unfamiliar intellectual territory, such as statistics, mathematics and computer modeling. Not surprisingly, systems biology has met with widespread skepticism and resistance. Why do we need systems biology anyway and how does this new area of research promise to change the face of biology in the next couple of decades?

  5. Telomerases: chemistry, biology, and clinical applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lue, Neal F; Autexier, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    .... Other topics include telomerase biogenesis, transcriptional and post-translational regulation, off-telomere functions of telomerase and the role of telomerase in cellular senescence, aging and cancer...

  6. A Topical Trajectory on Survival: an Analysis of Link-Making in a Sequence of Lessons on Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocksén, Miranda; Olander, Clas

    2017-04-01

    This study explores the concept of link-making in relation to communicative strategies applied in the teaching and studying of biological evolution. The analysis focused on video recordings of 11 lessons on biological evolution conducted in a Swedish 9th grade class of students aged 15 years. It reveals how the teacher and students connected classroom conversations, the frequency of references to conversations in whole-class settings, and the development of a theme focusing on species survival and extinction. Detailed examples from the data illustrate how this theme developed from its initiation during the first lesson, through discussion and clarification, to its wrapping up during the last lesson. They further illustrate how students made sense of what the teacher said and wrote, and how the teacher postponed issues, explained and developed topics, provided opportunities for link-making, organised the class, motivated students, and checked their understanding. The study's methodological approach offers a way of including several time dimensions within research. Based on our findings, we conclude that the excerpts examined here did succeed in building `islands of coherence' in the co-construction of curricular content. Moreover, the topical trajectory in relation to species survival provided opportunities for constructing a `scientific story' in the classroom.

  7. Molecular Biology Database List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, C

    1999-01-01

    Molecular Biology Database List (MBDL) includes brief descriptions and pointers to Web sites for the various databases described in this issue as well as other Web sites presenting data sets relevant to molecular biology. This information is compiled into a list (http://www.oup.co.uk/nar/Volume_27/Issue_01/summary/ gkc105_gml.html) which includes links both to source Web sites and to on-line versions of articles describing the databases. PMID:9847130

  8. Topical ganciclovir in the treatment of acute herpetic keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid F Tabbara

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Khalid F Tabbara1,2,3, Noorjehan Al Balushi11The Eye Center and The Eye Foundation for Research in Ophthalmology, Riyadh, 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3The Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute of The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USAAbstract: Herpetic keratitis is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV and is a common cause of corneal blindness. Following a primary ocular herpetic infection, latency of the virus occurs, followed by subsequent recurrences of herpetic keratitis. Such recurrences may lead to structural damage of the cornea. Recurrent herpetic keratitis is a common indication for corneal transplantation. Recurrences of herpetic keratitis in the corneal graft may lead to corneal graft rejection. Several antiviral agents for HSV are available, including the thymidine analogs. Prolonged use of thymidine analogs may lead to toxicity of the ocular surface, including epithelial keratitis, corneal ulcers, follicular conjunctivitis, and punctal occlusions. Availability of topical antiviral agents that are safe and effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of herpetic keratitis is highly desirable. Ganciclovir is a potent inhibitor of members of the herpes virus family. The drug has been used systemically for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis. Its hematologic toxicity secondary to systemic administration led to its limited use in herpetic infections. On the other hand, topical ganciclovir has been shown to be as safe and effective as acyclovir in the treatment of herpetic epithelial keratitis. Furthermore, topical ganciclovir can reach therapeutic levels in the cornea and aqueous humor following topical application. Several clinical trials have shown that topical ganciclovir 0.15% ophthalmic gel is safe and effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of herpetic epithelial disease. Long-term use of ganciclovir ophthalmic

  9. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  10. Topical cyclosporine a for mustard gas induced ocular surface disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadidi, Khosrow; Ebrahimi, Ali; Panahi, Yunes; Alishiri, Ali; Hosseini, Bagher; Heydarzadeh, Sepideh; Akbarikia, Sona; Mafi, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of topical cyclosporine A 0.05% for treatment of mustard gas-induced ocular surface disorders with special attention to conjunctival goblet cell density in patients with severe dry eye. This prospective clinical study included 20 eyes of 20 patients previously exposed to mustard gas with dry eye syndrome unresponsive to artificial tears. Before and after treatment with topical cyclosporine A 0.05% twice daily for 3 months, subjects were evaluated for improvement in symptoms using the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) and signs by tear breakup time (TBUT), Schirmer test and measurement of superior bulbar conjunctival goblet cell density. Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) and the degree of corneal squamous cell metaplasia were also assessed before and after treatment. Before treatment, mean OSDI score, Schirmer test I value and mean TBUT were 42.8 ± 6.1, 4.2 ± 1.2 mm and 2.5 ± 1.3 s, respectively. After 3 months of treatment with topical cyclosporine A, these scores reached 36.4 ± 5.2, 5.8 ± 1.6 mm and 4.9 ± 2.1 s, respectively showing a statistically significant improvement (P 0.05). Treatment with topical cyclosporine A 0.05% in patients with severe dry eye due to mustard gas injury increases goblet cell density in the bulbar conjunctiva and improves symptoms of the disease.

  11. Topical cyclosporine A for mustard gas induced ocular surface disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosrow Jadidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of topical cyclosporine A 0.05% for treatment of mustard gas-induced ocular surface disorders with special attention to conjunctival goblet cell density in patients with severe dry eye. Methods: This prospective clinical study included 20 eyes of 20 patients previously exposed to mustard gas with dry eye syndrome unresponsive to artificial tears. Before and after treatment with topical cyclosporine A 0.05% twice daily for 3 months, subjects were evaluated for improvement in symptoms using the ocular surface disease index (OSDI and signs by tear breakup time (TBUT, Schirmer test and measurement of superior bulbar conjunctival goblet cell density. Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD and the degree of corneal squamous cell metaplasia were also assessed before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, mean OSDI score, Schirmer test I value and mean TBUT were 42.8 ± 6.1, 4.2 ± 1.2 mm and 2.5 ± 1.3 s, respectively. After 3 months of treatment with topical cyclosporine A, these scores reached 36.4 ± 5.2, 5.8 ± 1.6 mm and 4.9 ± 2.1 s, respectively showing a statistically significant improvement (P 0.05. Conclusion: Treatment with topical cyclosporine A 0.05% in patients with severe dry eye due to mustard gas injury increases goblet cell density in the bulbar conjunctiva and improves symptoms of the disease.

  12. Role of Topical Oxymetazoline for Management of Erythematotelangiectatic Rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Rebecca M; Erramouspe, John

    2018-03-01

    To review and summarize topical oxymetazoline's pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, cost, and place in therapy for persistent redness associated with erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. Literature searches of MEDLINE (1975 to September 2017), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1975 to September 2017), and Cochrane Database (publications through September 2017) using the terms rosacea, persistent redness, α -agonist, and oxymetazoline. Results were limited to studies of human subjects, English-language publications, and topical use of oxymetazoline. Relevant materials from government sources, industry, and reviews were also included. Data support the efficacy of oxymetazoline for persistent facial redness. Little study beyond clinical trials cited in the drug approval process has been conducted. Current data suggest that oxymetazoline is similar in safety and efficacy to brimonidine. Head-to-head comparisons of topical α-agonists for erythema caused by rosacea are needed. The topical α-agonist, oxymetazoline, is safe and effective for reducing persistent facial redness associated with erythematotelangiectatic subtype of rosacea. Health care practitioners selecting among treatments should consider not only the subtype of rosacea but also individual patient response, preference, and cost.

  13. Topical amitriptyline and ketamine for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    A neuropathy is a disturbance of function or pathological change in nerves. In some cases, peripheral neuropathic pain may occur due to a lesion or disease of the peripheral somatosensory nervous system. Efficacy of different agents for peripheral neuropathic pain conditions is less than optimal. The administration of topical analgesics might be an option, due to the potential of reduced adverse effects and increased patient compliance. There is major interest in compounding topical analgesics for peripheral neuropathic pain, but several challenges remain for this approach. Topical analgesics have the potential to be a valuable additional approach for the management of peripheral neuropathic pain. Topical amitriptyline-ketamine combination (AK) is a promising agent for peripheral neuropathic pain conditions. Some studies have shown its efficacy in neuropathic pain conditions. However, this data was not uniformely obtained and its role remains still controversial. Efficacy may depend on many factors, including the choice of the vehicle, the concentration, the pain site, and specific diseases. More studies are necessary to support the use of AK in clinical practice.

  14. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. ... National Center for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, UAS-GKVK Campus, Bangalore 560 065, India ...

  15. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  16. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological ...

  17. Determining the Roles of Inositol Trisphosphate Receptors in Neurodegeneration: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on a Complex Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Silvia Honda; Ikebara, Juliane Midori; de Sousa, Erica; Cardoso, Débora Sterzeck; Resende, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Ulrich, Henning; Rückl, Martin; Rüdiger, Sten; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki

    2017-11-01

    It is well known that calcium (Ca 2+ ) is involved in the triggering of neuronal death. Ca 2+ cytosolic levels are regulated by Ca 2+ release from internal stores located in organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum. Indeed, Ca 2+ transit from distinct cell compartments follows complex dynamics that are mediated by specific receptors, notably inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs). Ca 2+ release by IP3Rs plays essential roles in several neurological disorders; however, details of these processes are poorly understood. Moreover, recent studies have shown that subcellular location, molecular identity, and density of IP3Rs profoundly affect Ca 2+ transit in neurons. Therefore, regulation of IP3R gene products in specific cellular vicinities seems to be crucial in a wide range of cellular processes from neuroprotection to neurodegeneration. In this regard, microRNAs seem to govern not only IP3Rs translation levels but also subcellular accumulation. Combining new data from molecular cell biology with mathematical modelling, we were able to summarize the state of the art on this topic. In addition to presenting how Ca 2+ dynamics mediated by IP3R activation follow a stochastic regimen, we integrated a theoretical approach in an easy-to-apply, cell biology-coherent fashion. Following the presented premises and in contrast to previously tested hypotheses, Ca 2+ released by IP3Rs may play different roles in specific neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.

  18. Actinides and Rare Earths Topical Conference (Code AC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Actinide and the Rare Earth materials exhibit many unique and diverse physical, chemical and magnetic properties, in large part because of the complexity of their f electronic structure. This Topical Conference will focus upon the chemistry, physics and materials science in Lanthanide and Actinide materials, driven by 4f and 5f electronic structure. Particular emphasis will be placed upon 4f/5f magnetic structure, surface science and thin film properties. For the actinides, fundamental actinide science and its role in resolving technical challenges posed by actinide materials will be stressed. Both basic and applied experimental approaches, including synchrotron-radiation-based investigations, as well as theoretical modeling and computational simulations, are planned to be part of the Topical Conference. Of particular importance are the issues related to the potential renaissance in Nuclear Fuels, including synthesis, oxidation, corrosion, intermixing, stability in extreme environments, prediction of properties via benchmarked simulations, separation science, environmental impact and disposal of waste products.

  19. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The present report lists the technical reviews and comments made during the fiscal year 1988 and summarizes the technical progress of the topical studies. In the area of technical assistance, there were numerous activities detailed in the next section. These included 24 geotechnical support activities, including reviews of 6 Study Plans (SP) and participation in 6 SP Review Workshops, review of one whole document Site Characterization Plan (SCP) and participation in the Assembled Document SCP Review Workshops by 6 LBL reviewers; the hosting of a DOE program review, the rewriting of the project statement of work, 2 trips to technical and planning meetings; preparation of proposed work statements for two new topics for DOE, and 5 instances of technical assistance to DOE. These activities are described in a Table in the following section entitled ''Geoscience Technical Support for Nuclear Waste Geologic Repositories.''

  20. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The present report lists the technical reviews and comments made during the fiscal year 1988 and summarizes the technical progress of the topical studies. In the area of technical assistance, there were numerous activities detailed in the next section. These included 24 geotechnical support activities, including reviews of 6 Study Plans (SP) and participation in 6 SP Review Workshops, review of one whole document Site Characterization Plan (SCP) and participation in the Assembled Document SCP Review Workshops by 6 LBL reviewers; the hosting of a DOE program review, the rewriting of the project statement of work, 2 trips to technical and planning meetings; preparation of proposed work statements for two new topics for DOE, and 5 instances of technical assistance to DOE. These activities are described in a Table in the following section entitled Geoscience Technical Support for Nuclear Waste Geologic Repositories.''

  1. Topical vs. systemic treatments for acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Kathy; Parrish, Francie; Swords, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common condition in children that is often treated with systemic antibiotic therapy; however, research suggests that non-complicated AOM will resolve spontaneously using only eardrops. To determine best practice for the use of systematic antibiotics compared to topical treatment of AOM, a systematic review of evidence was conducted. Cochrane, Medline, CINAHL, and other databases were searched. Inclusion criteria were studies published from 1995-2010 that included children with AOM and were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Five systematic reviews and five RCTs were included in the review. Current evidence recommends using topical and other alternative approaches for treating non-complicated AOM in children 2 years of age or older; however, many practitioners are not currently following these recommendations for various reasons. Additional research to address these reasons may help determine how to improve practitioner adherence to best practice evidence and guidelines to help reduce the unnecessary use of systemic antibiotics.

  2. Topical verapamil as a scar modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggio, Ricardo Frota; Boggio, Leonardo Frota; Galvão, Bruno Luiz; Machado-Santelli, Glaucia Maria

    2014-10-01

    Skin injuries and the consequent loss of tissue integrity triggers a sequence of cellular and biochemical events that lead to a healed wound. Any failure during this rather sophisticated process may result in pathological scarring. To evaluate the efficacy of topical verapamil as a modulator of the healing process, a group of five observers (plastic surgeon, dermatologist, physiotherapist, biologist, and layman) analyzed pictures of 120 patients 3 months after abdominoplasty (60 patients) and mammoplasty (60 patients). Half of each group of patients used the topical verapamil scar modulator. Pictures were rated using the Stony Brook Scale. According to the classification established by us, the scars in patients who used topical verapamil scar modulator showed better results than those who did not (p modulators showed 48 and 51.2 % satisfaction for mammoplasty and abdominoplasty scars, respectively. No adverse reactions were observed or reported after the use of topical verapamil. This is the first clinical trial that reports the use of topical verapamil as a modulator in the healing process in the postoperative period. Based on clinical results and on the high level of reliability and statistical significance, we concluded that verapamil at a concentration of 50 µM is an excellent choice as a scar modulator; its use avoids the development of keloids and hypertrophic scars after plastic surgery.

  3. Integrated Biological Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects; and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (apriori) or in response to existing contamination spread (aposteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and apriori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, aposteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response

  4. Analyses of Research Topics in the Field of Informetrics Based on the Method of Topic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Chien Lin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used the approach of topic modeling to uncover the possible structure of research topics in the field of Informetrics, to explore the distribution of the topics over years, and to compare the core journals. In order to infer the structure of the topics in the field, the data of the papers published in the Journal of Informetricsand Scientometrics during 2007 to 2013 are retrieved from the database of the Web of Science as input of the approach of topic modeling. The results of this study show that when the number of topics was set to 10, the topic model has the smallest perplexity. Although data scopes and analysis methodsare different to previous studies, the generating topics of this study are consistent with those results produced by analyses of experts. Empirical case studies and measurements of bibliometric indicators were concerned important in every year during the whole analytic period, and the field was increasing stability. Both the two core journals broadly paid more attention to all of the topics in the field of Informetrics. The Journal of Informetricsput particular emphasis on construction and applications ofbibliometric indicators and Scientometrics focused on the evaluation and the factors of productivity of countries, institutions, domains, and journals.

  5. Capture gamma-ray spectroscopy and related topics, 1984. AIP conference proceedings No. 125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.

    1985-01-01

    The main topics discussed at the symposium were nuclear models and theory, photon-induced reactions, neutron-induced reactions, charged-particle-induced reactions, applications, including nucleosynthesis, and related topics. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the papers presented

  6. Topics in programmable automation. [for materials handling, inspection, and assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    Topics explored in the development of integrated programmable automation systems include: numerically controlled and computer controlled machining; machine intelligence and the emulation of human-like capabilities; large scale semiconductor integration technology applications; and sensor technology for asynchronous local computation without burdening the executive minicomputer which controls the whole system. The role and development of training aids, and the potential application of these aids to augmented teleoperator systems are discussed.

  7. Proceedings of a meeting on radiation shielding and related topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This is a proceedings of a meeting on radiation shielding and related topics held on Feb. 22 and 23 in 1978 at Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory of University of Tokyo. The reports includes the following items (1) studies on neutronics with accelerators (2) radiation damage (3) shielding design (4) radiation streaming (5) shielding experiments from a point of view of radiation measurements (6) shielding benchmark experiments (7) prospects on the study of neutronics. All items are written in Japanese. (auth.)

  8. Wound Healing Activity of Topical Application Forms Based on Ayurveda

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Hema Sharma; Mitra, Shankar Kumar; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2011-01-01

    The traditional Indian medicine—Ayurveda, describes various herbs, fats, oils and minerals with anti-aging as well as wound healing properties. With aging, numerous changes occur in skin, including decrease in tissue cell regeneration, decrease in collagen content, loss of skin elasticity and mechanical strength. We prepared five topical anti-aging formulations using cow ghee, flax seed oil, Phyllanthus emblica fruits, Shorea robusta resin, Yashada bhasma as study materials. For preliminary e...

  9. Fifteenmile Basin habitat enhancement project.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, Thomas C.; Hutchinson, Corey Sue; MacDonald, Ken; United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Division of Fish and Wildlife.

    1989-01-01

    The Fifteenmile Basin Habitat Improvement Project is an ongoing multi-agency effort to improve habitat in the Fifteenmile drainage and increase production of the depressed wild, winter steelhead run. Cooperating agencies include the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, USDA Forest Service. USDA Soil Conservation Service and Bonneville Power Administration. in consultation with the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs. The Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife is administering project work on state and private lands and the U.S.D.A. Forest Service is administering project work on National Forest land. Project work on the Forest has been sub-divided into four components; (1) Ramsey Creek, (2) Eightmile Creek, (3) Fifteenmile Creek, and (4) Fivemile Creek. Forest Service activities in the Fifteenmile basin during 1988 involved habitat improvement work on Ramsey Creek, continuation of physical and biological monitoring, collection of spawning survey information, and macroinvertebrate sampling. The primary project objective on Ramsey Creek was to increase juvenile rearing habitat for 1+ steelhead. A total of 48 log structures including sills, diggers, wings and diagonal series were constructed in two project areas

  10. THE DEVELOPMENT OF BIOLOGY MATERIAL RESOURCES BY METACOGNITIVE STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Susantini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Development of Biology Material Resources by Metacognitive Strategy The study was aimed at finding out the suitability of Biology Materials using the metacognitive strategy. The materials were textbooks, self-understanding Evaluation Sheet and the key, lesson plan, and tests including the answer key. The criteria of appropriateness included the relevance of the resources with the content validity, face va­lidity and the language. This research and development study was carried out employing a 3D model, namely define, design and develop. At the define stage, three topics were selected for analysis, they were virus, Endocrine System, and Genetic material. During the design phase, the physical appearance of the materials was suited with the Metacognitive Strategy. At the develop phase, the material resources were examined and validated by two Biology experts and senior teachers of Biology. The results showed that the Biology material Resources using Metacognitive Strategy developed in the study has fell into the category of very good ( score > 3.31 and was therefore considered suitable.

  11. Systemic and topical antibiotics for chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Karen; Chong, Lee Yee; Piromchai, Patorn; Hopkins, Claire; Philpott, Carl; Schilder, Anne G M; Burton, Martin J

    2016-04-26

    This review is one of six looking at the primary medical management options for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.Chronic rhinosinusitis is common and is characterised by inflammation of the lining of the nose and paranasal sinuses leading to nasal blockage, nasal discharge, facial pressure/pain and loss of sense of smell. The condition can occur with or without nasal polyps. Systemic and topical antibiotics are used with the aim of eliminating infection in the short term (and some to reduce inflammation in the long term), in order to normalise nasal mucus and improve symptoms. To assess the effects of systemic and topical antibiotics in people with chronic rhinosinusitis. The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the Cochrane ENT Trials Register; CENTRAL (2015, Issue 8); MEDLINE; EMBASE; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 29 September 2015. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with a follow-up period of at least three months comparing systemic or topical antibiotic treatment to (a) placebo or (b) no treatment or (c) other pharmacological interventions. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Our primary outcomes were disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL), patient-reported disease severity and the commonest adverse event - gastrointestinal disturbance. Secondary outcomes included general HRQL, endoscopic nasal polyp score, computerised tomography (CT) scan score and the adverse events of suspected allergic reaction (rash or skin irritation) and anaphylaxis or other very serious reactions. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome; this is indicated in italics. We included five RCTs (293 participants), all of which compared systemic antibiotics with placebo or another pharmacological intervention.The varying study characteristics made comparison difficult. Four studies recruited only adults and one only

  12. History of biological warfare and bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barras, V; Greub, G

    2014-06-01

    Bioterrorism literally means using microorganisms or infected samples to cause terror and panic in populations. Bioterrorism had already started 14 centuries before Christ, when the Hittites sent infected rams to their enemies. However, apart from some rare well-documented events, it is often very difficult for historians and microbiologists to differentiate natural epidemics from alleged biological attacks, because: (i) little information is available for times before the advent of modern microbiology; (ii) truth may be manipulated for political reasons, especially for a hot topic such as a biological attack; and (iii) the passage of time may also have distorted the reality of the past. Nevertheless, we have tried to provide to clinical microbiologists an overview of some likely biological warfare that occurred before the 18th century and that included the intentional spread of epidemic diseases such as tularaemia, plague, malaria, smallpox, yellow fever, and leprosy. We also summarize the main events that occurred during the modern microbiology era, from World War I to the recent 'anthrax letters' that followed the World Trade Center attack of September 2001. Again, the political polemic surrounding the use of infectious agents as a weapon may distort the truth. This is nicely exemplified by the Sverdlovsk accident, which was initially attributed by the authorities to a natural foodborne outbreak, and was officially recognized as having a military cause only 13 years later. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  13. Lecture Notes on Topics in Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alex W.

    2002-11-15

    These are lecture notes that cover a selection of topics, some of them under current research, in accelerator physics. I try to derive the results from first principles, although the students are assumed to have an introductory knowledge of the basics. The topics covered are: (1) Panofsky-Wenzel and Planar Wake Theorems; (2) Echo Effect; (3) Crystalline Beam; (4) Fast Ion Instability; (5) Lawson-Woodward Theorem and Laser Acceleration in Free Space; (6) Spin Dynamics and Siberian Snakes; (7) Symplectic Approximation of Maps; (8) Truncated Power Series Algebra; and (9) Lie Algebra Technique for nonlinear Dynamics. The purpose of these lectures is not to elaborate, but to prepare the students so that they can do their own research. Each topic can be read independently of the others.

  14. Topical thrombin-related corneal calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiratli, Hayyam; Irkeç, Murat; Alaçal, Sibel; Söylemezoğlu, Figen

    2006-09-01

    To report a highly unusual case of corneal calcification after brief intraoperative use of topical thrombin. A 44-year-old man underwent sclerouvectomy for ciliochoroidal leiomyoma, during which 35 UNIH/mL lyophilized bovine thrombin mixed with 9 mL of diluent containing 1500 mmol/mL calcium chloride was used. From the first postoperative day, corneal and anterior lenticular capsule calcifications developed, and corneal involvement slightly enlarged thereafter. A year later, 2 corneal punch biopsies confirmed calcification mainly in the Bowman layer. Topical treatment with 1.5% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid significantly restored corneal clarity. Six months later, a standard extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens placement improved visual acuity to 20/60. This case suggests that topical thrombin drops with elevated calcium concentrations may cause acute corneal calcification in Bowman layer and on the anterior lens capsule.

  15. Getting Started with Topic Modeling and MALLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Graham

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this lesson you will first learn what topic modeling is and why you might want to employ it in your research. You will then learn how to install and work with the MALLET natural language processing toolkit to do so. MALLET involves modifying an environment variable (essentially, setting up a short-cut so that your computer always knows where to find the MALLET program and working with the command line (ie, by typing in commands manually, rather than clicking on icons or menus. We will run the topic modeller on some example files, and look at the kinds of outputs that MALLET installed. This will give us a good idea of how it can be used on a corpus of texts to identify topics found in the documents without reading them individually.

  16. Topical minoxidil: cardiac effects in bald man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenen, F H; Smith, D L; Unger, W P

    1988-01-01

    Systemic cardiovascular effects during chronic treatment with topical minoxidil vs placebo were evaluated using a double-blind, randomized design for two parallel groups (n = 20 for minoxidil, n = 15 for placebo). During 6 months of follow-up, blood pressure did not change, whereas minoxidil increased heart rate by 3-5 beats min-1. Compared with placebo, topical minoxidil caused significant increases in LV end-diastolic volume, in cardiac output (by 0.751 min-1) and in LV mass (by 5 g m-2). We conclude that in healthy subjects short-term use of topical minoxidil is likely not to be detrimental. However, safety needs to be established regarding ischaemic symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease as well as for the possible development of LV hypertrophy in healthy subjects during years of therapy. PMID:3191000

  17. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Instructions to Authors The Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology (Cameroon J. Exp. Biol.) welcomes contributions in all fields of experimental biology including biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, toxicology, pathology, environmental biology, microbiology, parasitology, phytochemistry, food ...

  18. Third workshop on heavy charged particles in biology and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, G.; Grundinger, U.

    1987-07-01

    The book of abstracts contains 67 papers presented at the workshop. Main topics are: Physics, chemistry, DNA, cell biology, cellular and molecular repair, space biology, tumor and tissue biology, predictive assays, cancer therapy, and new projects. Separate entries in the database are prepared for all of these papers. (MG)

  19. Inspiring Integration in College Students Reading Multiple Biology Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firetto, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Introductory biology courses typically present topics on related biological systems across separate chapters and lectures. A complete foundational understanding requires that students understand how these biological systems are related. Unfortunately, spontaneous generation of these connections is rare for novice learners. These experiments focus…

  20. Peer Learning and Support of Technology in an Undergraduate Biology Course to Enhance Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaushu, Masha; Tal, Tali; Sagy, Ornit; Kali, Yael; Gepstein, Shimon; Zilberstein, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This study offers an innovative and sustainable instructional model for an introductory undergraduate course. The model was gradually implemented during 3 yr in a research university in a large-lecture biology course that enrolled biology majors and nonmajors. It gives priority to sources not used enough to enhance active learning in higher education: technology and the students themselves. Most of the lectures were replaced with continuous individual learning and 1-mo group learning of one topic, both supported by an interactive online tutorial. Assessment included open-ended complex questions requiring higher-order thinking skills that were added to the traditional multiple-choice (MC) exam. Analysis of students’ outcomes indicates no significant difference among the three intervention versions in the MC questions of the exam, while students who took part in active-learning groups at the advanced version of the model had significantly higher scores in the more demanding open-ended questions compared with their counterparts. We believe that social-constructivist learning of one topic during 1 mo has significantly contributed to student deep learning across topics. It developed a biological discourse, which is more typical to advanced stages of learning biology, and changed the image of instructors from “knowledge transmitters” to “role model scientists.” PMID:23222836

  1. Peer learning and support of technology in an undergraduate biology course to enhance deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaushu, Masha; Tal, Tali; Sagy, Ornit; Kali, Yael; Gepstein, Shimon; Zilberstein, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This study offers an innovative and sustainable instructional model for an introductory undergraduate course. The model was gradually implemented during 3 yr in a research university in a large-lecture biology course that enrolled biology majors and nonmajors. It gives priority to sources not used enough to enhance active learning in higher education: technology and the students themselves. Most of the lectures were replaced with continuous individual learning and 1-mo group learning of one topic, both supported by an interactive online tutorial. Assessment included open-ended complex questions requiring higher-order thinking skills that were added to the traditional multiple-choice (MC) exam. Analysis of students' outcomes indicates no significant difference among the three intervention versions in the MC questions of the exam, while students who took part in active-learning groups at the advanced version of the model had significantly higher scores in the more demanding open-ended questions compared with their counterparts. We believe that social-constructivist learning of one topic during 1 mo has significantly contributed to student deep learning across topics. It developed a biological discourse, which is more typical to advanced stages of learning biology, and changed the image of instructors from "knowledge transmitters" to "role model scientists."

  2. Topical antimicrobial agents in ophthalmology. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Dovgan’

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The data on different antimicrobial agents (fluoroquinolones, minoglycosides, macrolides, fusidic acid, chloramphenicol and their activity against various microorganisms are reviewed. The findings from different researchers are analyzed. Considerable attention is devoted to the problem of antimicrobial resistance in ophthalmology. Pharmacokinetics of topical antimicrobial agents applied in ophthalmology, their safety and tolerability are described. The indications for topical antimicrobial agents use in ophthalmology approved in Russian Federation are presented. With regard for pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, safety profile and good tolerability, it is concluded that fluoroquinolones are medication of choice for empirical antimicrobial treatment in ophthalmology.

  3. Applied atomic and collision physics special topics

    CERN Document Server

    Massey, H S W; Bederson, Benjamin

    1982-01-01

    Applied Atomic Collision Physics, Volume 5: Special Topics deals with topics on applications of atomic collisions that were not covered in the first four volumes of the treatise. The book opens with a chapter on ultrasensitive chemical detectors. This is followed by separate chapters on lighting, magnetohydrodynamic electrical power generation, gas breakdown and high voltage insulating gases, thermionic energy converters, and charged particle detectors. Subsequent chapters deal with the operation of multiwire drift and proportional chambers and streamer chambers and their use in high energy p

  4. Topics in current aerosol research (part2)

    CERN Document Server

    Hidy, G M

    1972-01-01

    Topics in Current Aerosol Research, Part 2 contains some selected articles in the field of aerosol study. The chosen topics deal extensively with the theory of diffusiophoresis and thermophoresis. Also covered in the book is the mathematical treatment of integrodifferential equations originating from the theory of aerosol coagulation. The book is the third volume of the series entitled International Reviews in Aerosol Physics and Chemistry. The text offers significant understanding of the methods employed to develop a theory for thermophoretic and diffusiophoretic forces acting on spheres in t

  5. Topical anesthetic versus lidocaine infiltration in arteriovenous fistula cannulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha George

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: End stage renal disease (ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis undergo arterio-venous fistula (AVF cannulation prior to each hemodialysis session for blood access. Prior to cannulation lidocaine infiltration is done, which is often perceived as painful. Eutectic mixture of local anesthetic (EMLA has been found to significantly reduce pain associated with radial artery cannulation compared with lidocaine infiltration. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of EMLA compared to infiltration of lidocaine in hemodialysis patients for AVF cannulation. Materials and Methods: A single-centre, crossover study of patients with an AVF on regular maintenance hemodialysis was performed in the dialysis unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital. The site of AVF, number of attempts for AVF cannulation and cannula insertion time were recorded. The patients were asked about the acceptability of application of the anesthetic, delay between anesthetic and cannulation and to score the pain on cannulation. Results: Fifty patients were included in the study. With the visual analog scale, pain score on infiltration was 4.8. Pain score on cannulation after topical application was 2.9 and after infiltration, 2.0. The number of attempts for cannulation and the cannula insertion time were similar. Anesthesia was more stressful in the injectable group rather than the topical group (P < 0.001. Delay between anesthetic and cannulation was unacceptable in the topical group (P < 0.001. Patient compliance was better during infiltration compared to topical (P < 0.005. Mean pain score during infiltration of anesthetic was significantly higher than cannulation pain after either anesthetic, although pain on cannulation was higher in the topical group (P < 0.001. Conclusions: EMLA offers a suitable alternative to lidocaine infiltration for patients using AVF for blood access.

  6. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1991-05-01

    Research at the Radiological Research Laboratory is a blend of physics, chemistry, and biology, involving research at the basic level with the admixture of a small proportion of pragmatic or applied research in support of radiation protection and/or radiotherapy. Current research topics include: oncogenic transformation assays, mutation studies involving interactions between radiation and environmental contaminants, isolation, characterization and sequencing of a human repair gene, characterization of a dominant transforming gene found in C3H 10T1/2 cells, characterize ab initio the interaction of DNA and radiation, refine estimates of the radiation quality factor Q, a new mechanistic model of oncogenesis showing the role of long-term low dose medium LET radiation, and time dependent modeling of radiation induced chromosome damage and subsequent repair or misrepair

  7. Aging and cancer cell biology, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Judith

    2007-06-01

    This Hot Topics review, the second in a new Aging Cell series, discusses articles published in the last year that have stimulated new ideas about the tangled relationship of aging to cancer cell biology. The year's highlights include reports on the ability of Mdm2 mutations to diminish risks of cancer in aging mice, on proliferative competition between oncogenic cells and bone marrow stem cells, and on the role of metalloproteinases in overcoming age-associated barriers to tumor invasion. Of particular interest were three articles showing that diminished activity of the tumor-suppressor gene p16/INK4a, while increasing the risk of cancer mortality, can lead to improved function in several varieties of age-sensitive stem cells.

  8. Microbial stress tolerance for biofuels. Systems biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zonglin Lewis (ed.) [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA-ARS, Peoria, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The development of sustainable and renewable biofuels is attracting growing interest. It is vital to develop robust microbial strains for biocatalysts that are able to function under multiple stress conditions. This Microbiology Monograph provides an overview of methods for studying microbial stress tolerance for biofuels applications using a systems biology approach. Topics covered range from mechanisms to methodology for yeast and bacteria, including the genomics of yeast tolerance and detoxification; genetics and regulation of glycogen and trehalose metabolism; programmed cell death; high gravity fermentations; ethanol tolerance; improving biomass sugar utilization by engineered Saccharomyces; the genomics on tolerance of Zymomonas mobilis; microbial solvent tolerance; control of stress tolerance in bacterial host organisms; metabolomics for ethanologenic yeast; automated proteomics work cell systems for strain improvement; and unification of gene expression data for comparable analyses under stress conditions. (orig.)

  9. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology is the official journal of the Cameroon Forum for Biological Sciences (CAFOBIOS). It is an interdisciplinary journal for the publication of original research papers, short communications and review articles in all fields of experimental biology including biochemistry, physiology, ...

  10. Biological Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Biological Pathways Fact Sheet Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features ...

  11. Physics and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frauenfelder, H.

    1988-01-01

    The author points out that the coupling between physics and biology is becoming closer as time goes on. He tries to show that physical studies on biological systems not only yield insight into biology but also provide results of interest to physics. Biological systems are extremly complex system. Ideally one would like to understand the behavior of such systems in terms of the behavior of its constituent atoms. Since in small organisms this may be 10 20 atoms, it is clear these are not simple many-body systems. He reviews the basic elements of cells and then considers the broader questions of structure, complexity, and function, which must be looked at on levels from the cell to the organism. Despite the vast amount of observational material already in existence, biophysics and biological physics are only at a beginning. We can expect that physics will continue to interact strongly with biology. Actually, the connection also includes chemistry and mathematics. New tools that become available in physics will continue to be applied to biological problems. We can expect that the flow of information will not be one way; biological systems will provide new information on many old and new parts of physics, from reaction theory and transport phenomena to complexity, cooperativity, and nonlinear processes

  12. Atopic dermatitis: tacrolimus vs. topical corticosteroid use

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, concerns over adverse drug reactions associated with their long-term application limit their use. Tacrolimus, on the other hand, has been shown to be effective in stabilising the symptoms of AD in the long-term setting, without the side-effects that hamper the use of topical corticosteroids. Long-term safety data up to ...

  13. Dexmedetomidine premedication in cataract surgery under topical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: cataract surgery, dexmedetomidine, intraocular pressure, patient and surgeon satisfaction, topical anesthesia. Introduction. Traditionally, cataract surgeries are performed under regional anaesthesia with either a peribulbar or retrobulbar block. With the anaesthesia has also evolved from painful regional blocks to ...

  14. Topics in cement and concrete research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Jos; Russel, M.I.; Basheer, P.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper addresses several topics in regard to the sustainable design and use of concrete. First, major features concerning the sustainable aspects of the material concrete are summarised. Then the major constituent, from an environmental point of view, cement is discussed in detail,

  15. Colorimetric analysis of hexachlorophene in topical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, W N; Matsui, F; Smith, S J; Wood, R J

    1975-01-01

    The commonly used 4-aminoantipyrine dye formation procedure for hexachlorophene analysis in topical formulations was modified to overcome interference due to other components. Bar soaps and nonemulsion formulations are analyzed directly, employing a chloroform back-extraction stage of the dye prior to quantitation. Hexachlorophene in emulsions and liquid soaps is determined using a TLC separation prior to dye formation.

  16. Common Core: Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karge, Belinda Dunnick; Moore, Roxane Kushner

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core has become a household term and yet many educators do not understand what it means. This article explains the historical perspectives of the Common Core and gives guidance to teachers in application of Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE) necessary for full implementation of the Common Core State Standards. An effective…

  17. Chlorhexidine allergy due to topical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita N Keni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine is commonly used in dentistry in various forms. Allergic reactions to chlorhexidine of both immediate and delayed type have been reported. Although the incidence is low there may be severe manifestations in some patients. This report presents a case of allergy to chlorhexidine following topical application.

  18. Topics in the Nez Perce Verb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Amy Rose

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates several topics in the morphology, syntax and semantics of the Nez Perce verb and verbal clause. The first part of the dissertation focuses on the morphological segmentation of the Nez Perce verb and on the semantic description of the verb and clause. Chapter 1 provides a grammar sketch. Chapter 2 discusses the…

  19. Hot topics in flavor physics at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Soon Yung; /Carnegie Mellon U.

    2005-01-01

    Hot topics in flavor physics at CDF are reviewed. Selected results of top, beauty, charm physics and exotic states in about 200 pb{sup -1} data collected by the CDF II detector in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron are presented.

  20. Shock wave dynamics derivatives and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Emanuel, George

    2012-01-01

    "...this monograph develops an esoteric niche within shock wave theory. …treats shock waves from an analytical approach assuming perfect gas. Emanuel has made significant contributions to the theory of shock waves and has selected a number of topics that reflect those contributions."-Shock Waves, 2013.