This book covers latest development in theory and experiments of unconventional radiation production. Specifically, the generation of Tera-Hertz and X-ray radiation from low energy electron beams in the form of Channeling, Transition, Diffraction, Cherenkov, Smith-Purcell, PXR and Crystalline Undulator Radiation are presented. Material characteristics like thin targets, curved or bend crystals, inhomogeneous and left handed materials, multilayers as well as stimulation by external radiation are covered to demonstrate their influence in these processes. Novel ideas are offered on the use of such radiation in detectors and particle beam monitor development with improved energy or time resolution. The book assumes some familiarity of the reader with theoretical concepts underlying these phenomena and is therefore of primary use to the practicing scientist. More fundamental discussions of these phenomena can be found in the 2002 monograph "Electron-Photon Interaction in Dense Media" within the NATO Science Series...
Broadhead, J; Steele, B
The idea of a NATO Science Committee Institute on "Materials for Advanced Batteries" was suggested to JB and DWM by Dr. A. G. Chynoweth. His idea was to bring together experts in the field over the entire spectrum of pure research to applied research in order to familiarize everyone with potentially interesting new systems and the problems involved in their development. Dr. M. C. B. Hotz and Professor M. N. Ozdas were instrumental in helping organize this meeting as a NATO Advanced Science Institute. An organlzlng committee consisting of the three of us along with W. A. Adams, U. v Alpen, J. Casey and J. Rouxel organized the program. The program consisted of plenary talks and poster papers which are included in this volume. Nearly half the time of the conference was spent in study groups. The aim of these groups was to assess the status of several key aspects of batteries and prospects for research opportunities in each. The study groups and their chairmen were: Current status and new systems J. Broadhead Hig...
It has been a decade since two seminal reviews demonstrated that mixed-valence compounds share many unique and fascinating features. The insight pro vided by those early works has promoted a great deal of both experimental and theoretical study. As a result of extensive efforts, our understanding of the bonding and properties of mixed-valence compounds has advanced substantially. There has been no compre hensive treatment of mixed-valence compounds since 1967, and the meeting convened at Oxford in September, 1979, provided a unique opportunity to examine the subject and its many ramifications. Mixed-valence compounds play an important role in many fields. Although the major impact of the subject has been in chemistry, its importance has become increasingly clear in solid state physics, geology, and biology. Extensive interest and effort in the field of molecular metals has demonstrated that mixed-valency is a prerequisite for high elec trical conductivity. The intense colors of many minerals have been s...
Nisenhoff, Martin; Superconducting Electronics
The genesis of the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) upon which this volume is based, occurred during the summer of 1986 when we came to the realization that there had been significant progress during the early 1980's in the field of superconducting electronics and in applications of this technology. Despite this progress, there was a perception among many engineers and scientists that, with the possible exception of a limited number of esoteric fundamental studies and applications (e.g., the Josephson voltage standard or the SQUID magnetometer), there was no significant future for electronic systems incorporating superconducting elements. One of the major reasons for this perception was the aversion to handling liquid helium or including a closed-cycle helium liquefier. In addition, many critics felt that IBM's cancellation of its superconducting computer project in 1983 was "proof" that superconductors could not possibly compete with semiconductors in high-speed signal processing. From our persp...
This book is a direct result of the NATO Advanced Study Institute held in Banyuls-sur-mer, France, June 1985. The Institute had the same title as this book. It was held at Laboratoire Arago. Eighty lecturers and students from almost all NATO countries attended. The purpose was to review the state of the art of physical oceanographic numerical modelling including the parameterization of physical processes. This book represents a cross-section of the lectures presented at the ASI. It covers elementary mathematical aspects through large scale practical aspects of ocean circulation calculations. It does not encompass every facet of the science of oceanographic modelling. We have, however, captured most of the essence of mesoscale and large-scale ocean modelling for blue water and shallow seas. There have been considerable advances in modelling coastal circulation which are not included. The methods section does not include important material on phase and group velocity errors, selection of grid structures, advanc...
Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.
After Ukraine, conventional deterrence will be the main purpose of NATO’s armed forces. NATO contingency planning, operational training and defense planning will all revolve around conventional deterrence. Russia’s ready use of force in Ukraine, Georgia and beyond shows that its non-NATO neighbors....... Could Moscow apply the same measures in a NATO country with a significant Russian minority population, such as Latvia? This question should keep NATO leaders up at night and by the morning they should realize that the solution is conventional deterrence....
In the last five years, the study of metal hydrides has ex panded enormously due to the potential technological importance of this class of materials in hydrogen based energy conversion schemes. The scope of this activity has been worldwide among the industrially advanced nations. There has been a consensus among researchers in both fundamental and applied areas that a more basic understanding of the properties of metal/hydrogen syster;,s is required in order to provide a rational basis for the selection of materials for specific applications. The current worldwide need for and interest in research in metal hydrides indicated the timeliness of an Advanced Study Insti tute to provide an in-depth view of the field for those active in its various aspects. The inclusion of speakers from non-NATO coun tries provided the opportunity for cross-fertilization of ideas for future research. While the emphasis of the Institute was on basic properties, there was a conscious effort to stimulate interest in the applic...
This book contains the formal lectures and contributed papers presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on. the Advances in Chemical Reaction Dynamics. The meeting convened at the city of Iraklion, Crete, Greece on 25 August 1985 and continued to 7 September 1985. The material presented describes the fundamental and recent advances in experimental and theoretical aspects of, reaction dynamics. A large section is devoted to electronically excited states, ionic species, and free radicals, relevant to chemical sys tems. In addition recent advances in gas phase polymerization, formation of clusters, and energy release processes in energetic materials were presented. Selected papers deal with topics such as the dynamics of electric field effects in low polar solutions, high electric field perturbations and relaxation of dipole equilibria, correlation in picosecond/laser pulse scattering, and applications to fast reaction dynamics. Picosecond transient Raman spectroscopy which has been used for the elucidati...
The 1985 Castel vecchio-Pas coli NATO Advanced Study Institute is aimed to complete the trilogy with the two former institutes I organized : "Boundary Value Problem for Evolution Partial Differential Operators", Liege, 1976 and "Singularities in Boundary Value Problems", Maratea, 1980. It was indeed necessary to record the considerable progress realized in the field of the propagation of singularities of Schwartz Distri butions which led recently to the birth of a new branch of Mathema tical Analysis called Microlocal Analysis. Most of this theory was mainly built to be applied to distribution solutions of linear partial differential problems. A large part of this institute still went in this direction. But, on the other hand, it was also time to explore the new trend to use microlocal analysis In non linear differential problems. I hope that the Castelvecchio NATO ASI reached its purposes with the help of the more famous authorities in the field. The meeting was held in Tuscany (Italy) at Castelvecchio-P...
Brattberg, Erik; Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.
historia. Idag har Sverige en möjlighet att fatta ett beslut som inte bara skulle stärka vår egen säkerhet, utan även hela Östersjöregionens. Nordiskt försvarssamarbete skulle ha stor nytta av ett svenskt (och finskt) Natomedlemskap liksom det skulle förbättra Natos möjligheter att skydda Baltikum....
Berg, C; French, D
The Advanced Research Institute (A.R. 1.) on "the efficiency of Manufacturing Systems" was held under the auspices of the NATO Special Programm~ Panel on Systems Science as a part of the NATO Science Committee's continuous effort to promote the advancement of science through international co-operation. Advanced Research Institutes are organised for the purpose of bringing together experts in a particular field of interest to identify and make known the present state of knowledge in that area and, through informed debate, to make recommendations for directions for future research that would benefit the community at large. To this end two kinds of contribution were obtained by invitation. There were those papers which were about the current state of work in the area of manufacturing systems and its organisation; in addition three theme papers were presented to provide a stimulus to the discussion in terms of ways of thinking, both about the area and about the kind of research needed.
This volume records the lectures given at a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Methods in Computational Molecular Physics held in Bad Windsheim, Germany, from 22nd July until 2nd. August, 1991. This NATO Advanced Study Institute sought to bridge the quite considerable gap which exist between the presentation of molecular electronic structure theory found in contemporary monographs such as, for example, McWeeny's Methods 0/ Molecular Quantum Mechanics (Academic Press, London, 1989) or Wilson's Electron correlation in moleeules (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1984) and the realization of the sophisticated computational algorithms required for their practical application. It sought to underline the relation between the electronic structure problem and the study of nuc1ear motion. Software for performing molecular electronic structure calculations is now being applied in an increasingly wide range of fields in both the academic and the commercial sectors. Numerous applications are reported in areas as diverse as catalysi...
Villareal, Claro William.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Today, we are attempting to manage chaos. With the end of the Cold War, a number of troubling developments in the world have been unleashed, especially the proliferation of WMD. Biological weapons are an increasing threat to world security. Nations and non-state actors are willing to sell or buy the necessary technologies for the production of biological weapons which can have disastrous effects on a military, an economy, and the envir...
The NATO Advanced Research Institute on Search Theory and Appli cations was held at the Hotel Algarve in Praia Da Rocha, Portugal, from March 26 through March 30, 1979, and was sponsored by the NATO Special Programme Panel on Systems Science. There were forty-one participants representing a wide range of backgrounds and interests. The purpose of the institute was to bring together people working in search theory and applications with potential users of search techniques to stimulate the increased application of recent ly developed search technology to civilian problems such as search and rescue, mineral exploration, surveillance, and fishing. Con versely, it was felt that by exposing search analysts to potential applications and new problems, they would be stimulated to develop new techniques for these applications and problems. The exchange of ideas and problems necessary to accomplish these goals was provided in the meeting workshops. There were three workshops, Search and Rescue, Exploration, and Sur...
DiBartolo, Baldassare; Barnes, James (Technical Monitor)
This booklet presents an account of the course 'Spectroscopy of Systems with Spatially Confined Structures' held in Erice-Sicily, Italy, from June 15 to June 30, 2001. This meeting was organized by the International School of Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy of the 'Ettore Majorana' Centre for Scientific Culture. The purpose of this course was to present and discuss nanometer-scale physics, a rapidly progressing field. The top-down approach of semiconductor technology will soon meet the scales of the bottom-up approaches of supramolecular chemistry and of spatially localized excitations in ionic crystals. This course dealt with the fabrication, measurement and understanding of the relevant structures and brought together the scientific communities responsible for these development. The advances in this area of physics have already let to applications in optoelectronics and will likely lead to many more. The subjects of the course included spatially resolved structures such as quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots, single atoms and molecules, clusters, fractal systems, and the development of related techniques like near-field spectroscopy and confocal microscopy to study such systems.
Werff, Albert; Hirsch, Gary; Barnard, Keith
The Advanced Research Institute on "Health Services Systems" was held under the auspices of the NATO Special Programme Panel on Systems Science as a part of the NATO Science Committee's continuous effort to promote the advancement of science through international cooperation. A special word is said in this respect supra by Pro fessor Checkland, Chairman of the Systems Science Panel. The Advanced Research Institute (ARI) was organized for the purpose of bringing together senior scientists to seek a consensus on the assessment of the present state of knowledge on the specific topic of "health services systems" and to present views and recom mendations for future health services research directions, which should be of value to both the scientific community and the people in charge of reorienting health services. The conference was structured so as to permit the assembly of a variety of complementary viewpoints through intensive group discussions to be the basis of this final report. Invitees were selected fr...
Phonons are always present in the solid state even at an absolute temperature of 0 K where zero point vibrations still abound. Moreover, phonons interact with all other excitations of the solid state and, thereby, influence most of its properties. Historically experimental information on phonon transport came from measurements of thermal conductivity. Over the past two decades much more, and much more detailed, information on phonon transport and on many of the inherent phonon interaction processes have come to light from experiments which use nonequilibrium phonons to study their dynamics. The resultant research field has most recently blossomed with the development of ever more sophisticated experimental and theoretical methods which can be applied to it. In fact, the field is moving so rapidly that new members of the research community have difficulties in keeping up to date. This NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) was organized with the objective of overcoming the information barrier between those expert...
Physical laws are for the most part expressed in terms of differential equations, and natural classes of these are in the form of conservation laws or of problems of the calculus of variations for an action functional. These problems can generally be posed as Hamiltonian systems, whether dynamical systems on finite dimensional phase space as in classical mechanics, or partial differential equations (PDE) which are naturally of infinitely many degrees of freedom. This volume is the collected and extended notes from the lectures on Hamiltonian dynamical systems and their applications that were given at the NATO Advanced Study Institute in Montreal in 2007. Many aspects of the modern theory of the subject were covered at this event, including low dimensional problems as well as the theory of Hamiltonian systems in infinite dimensional phase space; these are described in depth in this volume. Applications are also presented to several important areas of research, including problems in classical mechanics, continu...
Modeling of the rainfall-runoff process is of both scientific and practical significance. Many of the currently used mathematical models of hydrologic systems were developed a genera tion ago. Much of the effort since then has focused on refining these models rather than on developing new models based on improved scientific understanding. In the past few years, however, a renewed effort has been made to improve both our fundamental understanding of hydrologic processes and to exploit technological advances in computing and remote sensing. It is against this background that the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Recent Advances in the Modeling of Hydrologic Systems was organized. The idea for holding a NATO ASI on this topic grew out of an informal discussion between one of the co-directors and Professor Francisco Nunes-Correia at a previous NATO ASI held at Tucson, Arizona in 1985. The Special Program Panel on Global Transport Mechanisms in the Geo-Sciences of the NATO Scientific Affairs Division agreed to sp...
Helgesen, G. ed.
The goal of this ASI was to bring together a group of disparate sciences to discuss areas of research related to competition between interactions of different ranges, for it is this that creates local structure on which complexity depends in soft condensed matter, biological systems and their synthetic models. The starting point, and the underlying theme throughout the ASI, was thus a thorough discussion of the relative role of the various fundamental interactions in such systems (electrostatic, hydrophobic, steric, conformational, van der Waals, etc.). The next focus was on how these competing interactions influence the form and topology of soft and biological matter, like polymers and proteins, leading to hierarchical structures in self-assembling systems and folding patterns sometimes described in terms of chirality, braids and knots. Finally, focus was on how the competing interactions influence various bio processes like genetic regulation and biological evolution taking place in systems like biopolymers, macromolecules and cell membranes. The report includes the abstracts of the posters presented, two of which are given in this database: (1) Precise characterisation of nano channels in track etched membranes by SAXS and SANS, and (2) Cisplatin binding to DNA: Structure, bonding and NMR properties from CarParrinello/Classical MD simulations.
Arecchi, F; Mooradian, Aram; Sona, Alberto
This volume contains the lectures and seminars presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Physics of New Laser Sources", the twelfth course of the Europhysics School of Quantum Electronics, held under the supervision of the Quantum Electronics Division of the European Physical Society. The Institute was held at Centro "I Cappuccini" San Miniato, Tuscany, July 11-21, 1984. The Europhysics School of Quantum Electronics was started in 1970 with the aim of providing instruction for young researchers and advanced students already engaged in the area of quantum electronics or for those wishing to switch into this area after working previously in other areas. From the outset, the School has been under the direction of Prof. F. T. Arecchi, then at the University of Pavia, now at the University of Florence, and Dr. D. Roess of Heraeus, Hanau. In 1981, Prof. H. Walther, University of Munich and Max-Planck Institut fur Quantenoptik joined as co-director. Each year the Directors choose a subj~ct of particular int...
The present volume comprises the contributions of some of the participants of the NATO Advance Studies Institute "Turbulence, Weak and Strong", held in Cargese, in August 1994. More than 70 scientists, from seniors to young students, have joined to gether to discuss and review new (and not so new) ideas and developments in the study of turbulence. One of the objectives of the School was to incorporate, in the same meeting, two aspects of turbulence, which are obviously linked, and which are often treated sep arately: fully developed turbulence (in two and three dimensions) and weak turbulence (essentially one and two-dimensional systems). The idea of preparing a dictionary rather than ordinary proceedings started from the feeling that the terminology of turbulence includes many long, technical, poorly evocative words, which are usually not understood by people exterior to the field, and which might be worth explaining. Students who start working in the field of turbulence face a sort of curious situation:...
As indicated on the title page, this book is an outgrowth of the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on Chemical Transport in Metasomatic Processes, which was held in Greece, June 3-16, 1985. The ASI consisted of five days of invited lectures, poster sessions, and discussion at the Club Poseidon near Loutraki, Corinthia, followed by a two-day field trip in Corinthia and Attica. The second week of the ASI consisted of an excursion aboard M/S Zeus, M/Y Dimitrios II, and the M/S Irini to four of the Cycladic Islands to visit, study, and sample outstanding exposures of metasomatic activity on Syros, Siphnos, Seriphos, and Naxos. Nine teen invited lectures and 10 session chairmen/discussion leaders participated in the ASI, which was attended by a total of 92 professional scientists and graduate stu dents from 15 countries. Seventeen of the invited lectures and the Field Excursion Guide are included in this volume, together with 10 papers and six abstracts representing contributed poster sessions. Although more...
Clark, Charles; Nayfeh, Munir
This book collects the lectures given at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Atoms in Strong Fields", which took place on the island of Kos, Greece, during the two weeks of October 9-21,1988. The designation "strong field" applies here to an external electromagnetic field that is sufficiently strong to cause highly nonlinear alterations in atomic or molecular struc ture and dynamics. The specific topics treated in this volume fall into two general cater gories, which are those for which strong field effects can be studied in detail in terrestrial laboratories: the dynamics of excited states in static or quasi-static electric and magnetic fields; and the interaction of atoms and molecules with intense laser radiation. In both areas there exist promising opportunities for research of a fundamental nature. An electric field of even a few volts per centimeter can be very strong on the atom ic scale, if it acts upon a weakly bound state. The study of Rydberg states with high reso lution laser spectroscop...
An important aspect of molecular engineering is the `property directed' synthesis of large molecules and molecular assemblies. Synthetic expertise has advanced to a state which allows the assembly of supramolecules containing thousands of atoms using a `construction kit' of molecular building blocks. Expansion in the field is driven by the appearance of new building blocks and by an improved understanding of the rules for joining them in the design of nanometer-sized devices. Another aspect is the transition from supramolecules to materials. At present no single molecule (however large) has been demonstrated to function as a device, but this appears to be only a matter of time. In all of this research, which has a strongly multidisciplinary character, both existing and yet to be developed analytical techniques are and will remain indispensable. All this and more is discussed in Molecular Engineering for Advanced Materials, which provides a masterly and up to date summary of one of the most challenging researc...
In 1980 the New York Academy of Sciences sponsored a three-day conference on luminescence in biological and synthetic macromolecules. After that meeting, Professor Frans DeSchryver and I began to discuss the possibility of organizing a different kind of meeting, with time for both informal and in-depth discussions, to examine certain aspects of the application of fluorescence and phosphorescence spectroscopy to polymers. Our ideas developed through discussions with many others, particularly Professor Lucien Monnerie. By 1983, when we submitted our proposal to NATO for an Advanced Study Institute, the area had grown enormous ly. It is interesting in retrospect to look back on the points which emerged from these discussions as the basis around which the scientific program would be organized and the speakers chosen. We decided early on to focus on applications of these methods to provide information about polymer molecules and polymer systems: The topics would all relate to the conformation and dynamics of macro...
Cherniavsky, E; Laughton, M; Ruff, L
The Advanced Research Institute (ARI) on "The Application of Systems Science to Energy Policy Planning" was held under the auspices of the NATO Special Programme Panel on Systems Science in collaboration with the National Center for Analysis of Energy Sys tems, Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, as a part of the NATO Science Committee's continuous effort to promote the advancement of science through international cooperation. Advanced Research Institutes are sponsored by the NATO Science Committee for the purposes of bringing together senior scientists to seek consensus on an assessment of the present state of knowl edge on a specific topic and to make recommendations for future research directions. Meetings are structured to encourage inten sive group discussion. Invitees are carefully selected so that the group as a whole will contain the experience and expertise neces sary to make the conclusions valid and significant. A final report is published presenting the various viewpoints and conclusions....
Ferry, David; Jacoboni, C
The papers contained in the volume represent lectures delivered as a 1983 NATO ASI, held at Urbino, Italy. The lecture series was designed to identify the key submicron and ultrasubmicron device physics, transport, materials and contact issues. Nonequilibrium transport, quantum transport, interfacial and size constraints issues were also highlighted. The ASI was supported by NATO and the European Research Office. H. L. Grubin D. K. Ferry C. Jacoboni v CONTENTS MODELLING OF SUB-MICRON DEVICES.................. .......... 1 E. Constant BOLTZMANN TRANSPORT EQUATION... ... ...... .................... 33 K. Hess TRANSPORT AND MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR SUBMICRON DEVICES. . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . .... ... .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 45 H. L. Grubin EPITAXIAL GROWTH FOR SUB MICRON STRUCTURES.................. 179 C. E. C. Wood INSULATOR/SEMICONDUCTOR INTERFACES.......................... 195 C. W. Wilms en THEORY OF THE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF SEMICONDUCTOR SURFACES AND INTERFACES...................
The NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on "R@lativistic and Electron Correlation Effects in Molecules and Solids", co-sponsored by Simon Fraser University (SFU) and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) was held Aug 10- 21, 1992 at the University of British Columbia (UBC), Vancouver, Canada. A total of 90 lecturers and students with backgrounds in Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and various interdisciplinary subjects attended the ASI. In my proposal submitted to NATO for financial support for this ASI, I pointed out that a NATO ASI on the effects of relativity in many-electron systems was held ten years ago, [See G.L. Malli, (ed) Relativistic Effects in Atoms, Molecules and Solids, Plenum Press, Vol B87, New York, 1983]. Moreover, at a NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on advanced methods for molecular electronic structure "an assessment of state-of the-art of Electron Correlation ... " was carried out [see C.E. Dykstra, (ed), Advanced Theories and Computational Approa...
Biological effects and physics of solar and galactic cosmic radiation, Part B; Proceedings of a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Biological Effects and Physics of Solar and Galactic Cosmic Radiation, Algarve, Portugal, Oct. 13-23, 1991
Swenberg, Charles E. (Editor); Horneck, Gerda (Editor); Stassinopoulos, E. G. (Editor)
Since there is an increasing interest in establishing lunar bases and exploring Mars by manned missions, it is important to develop appropriate risk estimates and radiation protection guidelines. The biological effects and physics of solar and galactic cosmic radiation are examined with respect to the following: the radiation environment of interplanetary space, the biological responses to radiation in space, and the risk estimates for deep space missions. There is a need for a long-term program where ground-based studies can be augmented by flight experiments and an international standardization with respect to data collection, protocol comparison, and formulation of guidelines for future missions.
A NATO Advanced Research Workshop on the "Mechanisms of Reactions of Organometallic Compounds with Surfaces" was held in St. Andrews, Scotland in June 1988. Many of the leading international researchers in this area were present at the workshop and all made oral presentations of their results. In addition, significant amounts of time were set aside for Round Table discussions, in which smaller groups considered the current status of mechanistic knowledge, identified areas of dispute or disagreement, and proposed experiments that need to be carried out to resolve such disputes so as to advance our understanding of this important research area. All the papers presented at the workshop are collected in this volume, together with summaries of the conclusions reached at the Round Table discussions. The workshop could not have taken place without financial support from NATO, and donations were also received from Associated Octel, Ltd., STC Ltd., and Epichem Ltd., for which the organisers are very grateful. The orga...
Due to their specific properties, polymers with well-defined structures have been receiving increasing attention over the last several years. Owing to the wide variability of their properties, these specialty polymers have been used in various areas from biomedical engineering to electronics or energy applications. The synthesis of such polymers necessi tates the use of new methods of polymerization which derived from an insight into the mechanism of polymerization reactions. A NATO Advanced Research Workshop on "Frontiers in Polymerization Catalysis and Polymer Synthesis" was held in BANDOl (FRANCE) in February 1987. Its aim was to assess the new polymerization methods, as well as the latest advances in the mechanisms of conventional polymerization reactions together with their applications to the synthesis of new macromolecular structures. The financial support from the NATO Scientific Affairs Division which covered the "lecturers' accomodation and travel expenses as well as the organization charges of th...
The NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Electronic Structure of Polymers and Molecular Crystals" was held at the Facultes Universi taires de Namur (F.U.N.) from September 1st till September 14th, 1974. We wish to express our appreciation to the NATO Scientific Affairs Division whose generous support made this Institute possible and to the Facultes Universitaires de Namur and the Societe Chimique de Belgique which provided fellowships and travel grants to a number of students. This volume contains the main lectures about the basic principles of the field and about different recent developments of the theory of the electronic structure of polymers and molecular crystals. The school started with the presentation of the basic SCF-LCAO theory of the electronic structure of periodic polymers and molecular crystals (contributions by Ladik, Andre & Delhalle) showing how a combination of quantum chemical and solid state physical methods can provide band structures for these systems. The numerical aspects of these ...
This volume is based on the lectures presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute: (ASI) «Pollutants Formation from Combustion. Formation Mechanisms and Impact on th th Atmospheric Chemistry» held in Maratea, Italy, from 13 to 26 september 1998. Preservation of the environment is of increasing concern in individual countries but also at continental or world scales. The structure of a NATO ASI which involve lecturers and participants of different nationalities was thought as especially well suited to address environmental issues. As combustion is known to substantially contribute to the damaging of the atmosphere, it was natural to concentrate the ASI program on reviewing the currently available knowledge of the formation mechanisms of the main pollutants liberated by combustion systems. In most situations, pollutants are present as trace components and their formation and removal is strongly conditioned by the chemical reactions initiated by fuel consumption. Therefore specific lectures were aimed at defi...
The purpose of this NATO workshop is to contribute to the critical assessment of how to prepare for a new national nuclear energy program, and to make recommendations for future action. In addition, our goal is to promote close working relationships between technical people from different countries and with different professional expertise. In particular, the countries that are involved in this workshop are those from NATO and those from the Partner countries such as those in the Commonwealth of Independent States. A NATO workshop is not an international conference or symposium but rather a forum for advanced level, intensive discussions. The presentations are part of the growing font of knowledge on the subject of how to develop a national nuclear energy program. It is heard about the infrastructure that is needed and how the IAEA and countries with existing experience are helping to provide that infrastructure to those working toward a nuclear energy program. It is heard about the experiences of several countries embarking on new nuclear development, with an emphasis on how progress is being made in Armenia. It is also heard about the potential for using small and medium size reactors; something not being pursued by the countries with large nuclear programs
Molecular spectroscopy has achieved rapid and significant progress in recent years, the low temperature techniques in particular having proved very useful for the study of reactive species, phase transitions, molecular clusters and crystals, superconductors and semiconductors, biochemical systems, astrophysical problems, etc. The widening range of applications has been accompanied by significant improvements in experimental methods, and low temperature molecular spectroscopy has been revealed as the best technique, in many cases, to establish the connection between experiment and theoretical calculations. This, in turn, has led to a rapidly increasing ability to predict molecular spectroscopic properties. The combination of an advanced tutorial standpoint with an emphasis on recent advances and new perspectives in both experimental and theoretical molecular spectroscopy contained in this book offers the reader insight into a wide range of techniques, particular emphasis being given to supersonic jet and matri...
Many conferences, meetings, workshops, summer schools and symposia on nonlinear dynamical systems are being organized these days, dealing with a great variety of topics and themes -classical and quantum, theoretical and experimental. Some focus on integrability, or discuss the mathematical foundations of chaos. Others explore the beauty of fractals, or examine endless possibilities of applications to problems of physics, chemistry, biology and other sciences. A new scientific discipline has thus emerged, with its own distinct philosophical viewpoint and an impressive arsenal of new methods and techniques, which may be called Chaotic Dynamics. Perhaps its most outstanding achievement so far has been to shed new light on many long standing issues involving complicated, irregular or "chaotic" nonlinear phenomena. The concepts of randomness, complexity and unpredictability have been critically re-examined and the fundamental importance of scaling, self-similarity and sensitive dependence on parameters a...
Ever since the oil crisis of 1973, researchers in various fields of chemistry have proposed various schemes to conserve energy, as well to convert the sun's abundant and limitless supply of energy to produce chemical fuels (e. g. , hydrogen from water, . •. ). The enthusiasm had no previous parallel in the mid-1970's. Unfortunately, despite the several good proposals, the results have proven - in retrospect - somewhat disappointing from an economic viable point of view. The reasons for the meagre results are manyfold not the least of which are the experimental difficulties encountered in storage systems. Moreover, the lack of a concerted, well orchestrated interdisciplinary approach has been significant. By contrast, the chemical advances made in the understanding of the processes involved in such schemes have been phenomenal. A recent book on this issue ( M. Gratzel, Energy Resources through Photochemistry and Catalysis, 1983) is witness to the various efforts and approaches taken by researchers. In the re...
Fedorovich, E; Viegas, D; Wyngaard, J
Studies of convection in geophysical flows constitute an advanced and rapidly developing area of research that is relevant to problems of the natural environment. During the last decade, significant progress has been achieved in the field as a result of both experimental studies and numerical modelling. This led to the principal revision of the widely held view on buoyancy-driven turbulent flows comprising an organised mean component with superimposed chaotic turbulence. An intermediate type of motion, represented by coherent structures, has been found to play a key role in geophysical boundary layers and in larger scale atmospheric and hydrospheric circulations driven by buoyant forcing. New aspects of the interaction between convective motions and rotation have recently been discovered and investigated. Extensive experimental data have also been collected on the role of convection in cloud dynamics and microphysics. New theoretical concepts and approaches have been outlined regarding scaling and parameteriz...
Several important developments in our understanding of the chemistry of weathering have occurred in the last few years: 1. There has been a major breakthrough in our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the kinetics of sil icate dissolution, and there have been major advances in computer modeling of weathering processes. 2. There has been a growing recognition of the importance of organic solutes in the weathering process, and hence of the inter-relationships between mineral weathering and the terrestrial ecosystem. 3. The impact of acid deposition ("acid rain") has been widely recognized. The processes by which acid deposition is neutral ized are closely related to the processes of normal chemical weathering; an understanding of the chemistry of weathering is thus essential for predicting the effects of acid deposition. 4. More high-qual ity data have become available on the chemical dynamics of smal I watersheds and large river systems, which represent the integrated effects of chemical weathering.
This book contains the texts of the main lectures presented at the NATO Advanced Studies Institute on "Advances in Preparation and Properties of Stereoregular Polymers" held at Tirrenia near Pisa, Italy, from October 3 to 14, 1978. A few contributed papers have also been included because they were concerned with topics not included in the main lectures. The primary objective of the Institute was to assist in the further development of stereoregular polymers because of the ever-increasing demand for new products with exceptional chemical and physical properties. This need has reawakened interest in the field. Indeed there is now a rapidly increasing activity in the study of stereoregular polymerization and the preparation of structurally-ordered polymers with the aim of achieving apprecia ble improvements in existing polymeric materials through new developments in synthesis and properties as well as in discovering new polymeric structures. In order to achieve these objectives, a broad interdiscipli nary co...
Forgács-Dajka, E.; Petrovay, K.; Erdélyi, R.
This volume contains focus reviews, oral contributions and poster papers presented at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop ``Turbulence, Waves, and Instabilities in the Solar Plasma'', held at Hotel Normafa, Budapest, 16-20 September, 2002. The more exensive invited reviews presented at the same meeting are published by Kluwer in a companion volume, with the same title as that of the meeting. The purpose of the workshop was to facilitate interchange and communication between diverse groups studying different layers and regions of the Sun but from the same aspect, concentrating on the study of small-scale motions. While the emphasis was on the common theoretical roots of these phenomena, observational aspects were not excluded either. The selection of invited speakers concentrated on the researchers currently most active in the field, mostly on a post-doctoral/tenure/fresh faculty position level. A number of senior experts and PhD students were also invited. Scientists from NATO partner countries were especially encouraged to apply. Altogether, 50 scientists from 11 different countries participated in the workshop. The relative isolation of the venue, as well as the fact that the participants all lived at the same place, where the conference was also held, contributed to the success of the meeting, offering plenty of opportunities to meet and exchange ideas. We are convinced that many of the papers in the present volume will prove to be a very useful reference for some rarely discussed chapters of solar physics.
The first NATO Advanced Study Institute on Olefin Metathesis and Polymerization Catalysts was held on September 10-22, 1989 in Akcay, Turkey. Based on the fundamental research of RRSchrock, RGrubbs and K.B.Wagener in the field of ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) and alkyne polymerization, these areas gained growing interest within the last years. Therefore the second NATO-ASI held on metathesis reactions was on Ring Opening Metathesis Po lymerization of Olefins and Polymerization of Alkynes on September 3-16, 1995 in Akcay, Turkey. The course joined inorganic, organic and polymer chemists to exchange their knowledge in this field. This volume contains the main and short lectures held in Akcay. To include ADMET reactions better into the title of this volume we changed it into: Metathesis Polymerization of Olefins and Alkyne Polymerization. This volume is addressed to research scientists, but also to those who start to work in the area of olefin metathesis and al...
[Lectures from the tutorial courses at NATO--Advanced Study Institute pt. "Human biomonitoring after environmental and occupational exposure to chemical and physical agents" (Turkey, 9/23-10/3/1999)].
Dobrzyńska, M M
The NATO Science Programme joining in the celebration of 50th Anniversary of Founding of the NATO by organisation of NATO Advanced Study Institute "Human Monitoring after Environmental and Occupational Exposure to Chemical and Physical Agents", which was held in Tekirova-Antalya (Turkey), September 23-October 3, 1999. The director of ASI was dr Diana Anderson from TNO-BIBRA (UK). The members of Scientific Organizing Committee were also dr R. Sram (Czech Republik), dr A. Karakaya (Turkey), Dr P. O'Neill (USA), dr R. Bos (Netherlands), dr M. Lotti (Italy). It was a high-level tutorial course for scientists at the post-doctoral level from NATO countries and from NATO Cooperation Partner countries. NATO-ASI attended about 100 scientists from about 30 countries. There were 40 lectures, 20 oral presentations and 43 posters presented, 19 authors of posters were invited to additional short oral presentations. Subject of course concerned undesirable effects of chemical and physical agents on human health. The aim of NATO-Advanced Study Institute was the meeting of scientists working in different fields of science to present and discuss the knowledge and recent developments in the field of human monitoring. The majority of lectures concerned about biomonitoring of people exposed to genotoxic agents at work place and environment. Dr A. Autio (Switzerland) presented definitions of different kinds of bimarkers proposed by the Committee on Biological Markers in Environmental Health of USA Academy of Science/National Research Council. Dr D. Anderson (UK) introduced history of biomonitoring. The main lecturers on this topic were dr W. Au (USA), dr R. Sram (Czech Republik), dr M. Lotti (Italy), dr J. Timbell (USA), Dr E. Moustacchi (France). The following group of lectures presented by dr D. Anderson (UK), dr A. Wyrobek (USA), dr J. Bonde (Dennmark), dr H. Norppa (Finland) was regarded to male-mediated mutagenic effect in offspring induced by genotoxic physical and chemical agents
The aim of this study is to prepare a suggested syllabus in accordance with NATO Stanag 6001 Level 3 perspective for the Advanced Level English Course at Gendarmerie Schools Command which is subordinate to Gendarmerie General Command. It is believed that this study will contribute to other studies in the context of NATO Stanag 6001 language…
The advent of fast and sophisticated computer graphics has brought dynamic and interactive images under the control of professional mathematicians and mathematics teachers. This volume in the NATO Special Programme on Advanced Educational Technology takes a comprehensive and critical look at how the computer can support the use of visual images in mathematical problem solving. The contributions are written by researchers and teachers from a variety of disciplines including computer science, mathematics, mathematics education, psychology, and design. Some focus on the use of external visual images and others on the development of individual mental imagery. The book is the first collected volume in a research area that is developing rapidly, and the authors pose some challenging new questions.
In this NATO-sponsored Advanced Research Workshop we succeeded in bringing together approximately forty scientists working in the three main areas of structurally incommensurate materials: incommensurate crystals (primarily ferroelectric insulators), incommensurate liquid crystals, and metallic quasi-crystals. Although these three classes of materials are quite distinct, the commonality of the physics of the origin and descrip tion of these incommensurate structures is striking and evident in these proceedings. A measure of the success of this conference was the degree to which interaction among the three subgroups occurred; this was facili tated by approximately equal amounts of theory and experiment in the papers presented. We thank the University of Colorado for providing pleasant housing and conference facilities at a modest cost, and we are especially grate ful to Ann Underwood, who retyped all the manuscripts into camera-ready form. J. F. Scott Boulder, Colorado N. A. Clark v CONTENTS PART I: INCO...
This publication is the Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on the Dynamics of Polyatomic Van der Waals Molecules held at the Chateau de Bonas, Castera-Verduzan, France, from August 21 through August 26, 1989. Van der Waals complexes provide important model problems for understanding energy transfer and dissipation. These processes can be described in great detail for Van der Waals complexes, and the insight gained from such studies can be applied to more complicated chemical problems that are not amenable to detailed study. The workshop concentrated on the current questions and future prospects for extend ing our highly detailed knowledge of triatomic Van der Waals molecule dynamics to polyatomic molecules and clusters (one molecule surrounded by several, or up to sev eral tens of, atoms). Both experimental and theoretical studies were discussed, with particular emphasis on the dynamical behavior of dissociation as observed in the dis tributions of quantum states of the dissociatio...
This book collects the papers presented at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on "Ionization of Solids by Heavy Particles", held in Giardini-Naxos (Taormina), Italy, on June 1 -5, 1992. The meeting was the first to gather scientists to discuss the physics of electron emission and other ionization effects occurring during the interaction of heavy particles with condensed matter. The central problem in the field is how to use observations of electron emission and final radiation damage to understand what happens inside the solid, like excitation mechanisms, the propagation of the electronic excitation along different pathways, and surface effects. The ARW began with a brief survey of the field, stressing the unknowns. It was pointed out that ionization theories can only address the very particular case of weak perturbations. For this problem, this meant high speed, low-charged projectiles (a perturbation treatment of interactions with slow, highly charged ions was later presented). Only semi-empirical ...
The development and computational implementation of analytical expres sions for the low-order derivatives of electronic energy surfaces and other molecular properties has undergone rapid growth in recent years. It is now fairly routine for chemists to make use of energy gradient information in locating and identifying stable geometries and transition states. The use of second analytical derivative (Hessian or curvature) expressions is not yet routine, and third and higher energy derivatives as well as property (e.g., dipole moment, polarizability) derivatives are just beginning to be applied to chemical problems. This NATO Advanced Research Workshop focused on analyzing the re lative merits of various strategies for deriving the requisite analyti cal expressions, for computing necessary integral derivatives and wave function parameter derivatives, and for efficiently coding these expres sions on conventional scalar machines and vector-oriented computers. The participant list contained many scientist...
This volume contains the proceedings of a NATO Advanced Study Institute which was held in Alghero, Sardinia, in July 1991. The development of computers in the recent years has lead to the emergence of unconventional ideas aiming at solving old problems. Among these, the possibility of computing directly fluid flows from the trajectories of constituent particles has been much exploited in the last few years: lattice gases cellular automata and more generally Molecular Dynamics have been used to reproduce and study complex flows. Whether or not these methods may someday compete with more traditional approaches is a question which cannot be answered at the present time: it will depend on the new computer architectures as well as on the possibility to develop very simple models to reproduce the most complex phenomena taking place in the approach of fully developed turbulence or plastic flows. In any event, these molecular methods are already used, and sometimes in an applied engineering context, to study strong s...
Fabbri, A; Sinding-Larsen, R
This volume contains the edited papers prepared by lecturers and participants of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Statistical Treatments for Estimation of Mineral and Energy Resources" held at II Ciocco (Lucca), Italy, June 22 - July 4, 1986. During the past twenty years, tremendous efforts have been made to acquire quantitative geoscience information from ore deposits, geochemical, geophys ical and remotely-sensed measurements. In October 1981, a two-day symposium on "Quantitative Resource Evaluation" and a three-day workshop on "Interactive Systems for Multivariate Analysis and Image Processing for Resource Evaluation" were held in Ottawa, jointly sponsored by the Geological Survey of Canada, the International Association for Mathematical Geology, and the International Geological Correlation Programme. Thirty scientists from different countries in Europe and North America were invited to form a forum for the discussion of quantitative methods for mineral and energy resource assessment. Since then, not ...
From March 30th to April 3rd, 1992, a NATO Advanced Research workshop entitled "Time Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics: Theory and Experiment" was held at Snowbird, Utah. The organizing committee consisted of J. BROECKHOVE (Antwerp, Belgium), L. CEDERBAUM (Heidelberg, Germany), L. LATHOUWERS (Antwerp, Belgium), N. OHRN (Gainesville, Florida) and J. SIMONS (Salt Lake City, Utah). Fifty-two participants from eleven different countries attended the meeting at which thirty-three talks and one poster session were held. Twenty-eight participants submitted contributions to the proceedings of the meeting, which are reproduced in this volume. The workshop brought together experts in different areas 0 f molecular quantum dynamics, all adhering to the time dependent approach. The aim was to discuss and compare methods and applications. The ~amiliarityo~ the aUdience with the concepts o~ time dependent approaches greatly facilitated topical discussions and probing towards new applications. A broad area of subject matt...
Lonsdale, H; Pinho, M
The chapters in this book are based upon lectures given at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Synthetic Membranes (June 26-July 8, 1983, Alcabideche, Portugal), which provided an integrated presentation of syn thetic membrane science and technology in three broad areas. Currently available membrane formation mechanisms are reviewed, as well as the manner in which synthesis conditions can be controlled to achieve desired membrane structures. Membrane performance in a specific separa tionprocess involves complex phenomena, the understanding of which re quires a multidisciplinary approach encompassing polymer chemistry, phys ical chemistry, and chemical engineering. Progress toward a global understanding of membrane phenomena is described in chapters on the principles of membrane transport. The chapters on membrane processes and applications highlight both established and emerging membrane processes, and elucidate their myriad applications. It is our hope that this book will be an enduring, comprehensi...
The nuclear crisis in Fukushima and growing threats of nuclear terrorism must serve as a wake-up call, prompting greater action to prepare ourselves for nuclear and radiological disasters. Our strategy to prepare for these threats is multi-layered and the events of these past years have proved the necessity to re-evaluate the national and international preparedness goals on a scale never before considered. The programme of NATO Advanced Research Workshop on “Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats” has been focused on science and technology challenges associated with our need to improve the national and international capacity and capability to prevent, protect against, mitigate the effects of, respond to, and recover from the nuclear and radiological disasters, including nuclear and radiological accident, terrorist attack by Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or by “Dirty Bomb”-Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD), that pose the greatest risk to the national and international security and safety...
Nuclear weapons are for NATO both the primary instrument for deterring a nuclear attack and the fall-back option if, in the event of a conventional assault, NATO's non-nuclear defence forces cannot hold. The dilemma of depending upon potentially self-destructive nuclear responses if deterrence fails and defence falters has always haunted NATO strategy, but after the Soviets achieved nuclear parity with the United States, this dilemma became more intensely perceived. Now the credibility, viability, acceptability, sensibility and morality of nuclear weapons for deterrence and defence are increasingly at issue. As a result, an increasing variety of non-nuclear (conventional) alternatives are being advanced to replace or supplement nuclear deterrence for the Alliance. The thrust of the author of this paper remarks is to attempt to apply the definitions, requirements, and other key conceptual distinctions of nuclear deterrence found in the body of western strategic literature to three categories of non-nuclear alternatives currently in vogue: strengthened conventional forces; deployment of new, high-technology non-nuclear weapons; and adoption of an offensive manoeuvre strategy. Let me, therefore, begin by listing the basic definitions, concepts and apparent requirements of deterrence which the deterrence theory literature offers
Parkin, S; Dobson, P; Neave, J; Arrott, A
This work represents the account of a NATO Advanced Research Workshop on "Thin Film Growth Techniques for Low Dimensional Structures", held at the University of Sussex, Brighton, England from 15-19 Sept. 1986. The objective of the workshop was to review the problems of the growth and characterisation of thin semiconductor and metal layers. Recent advances in deposition techniques have made it possible to design new material which is based on ultra-thin layers and this is now posing challenges for scientists, technologists and engineers in the assessment and utilisation of such new material. Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has become well established as a method for growing thin single crystal layers of semiconductors. Until recently, MBE was confined to the growth of III-V compounds and alloys, but now it is being used for group IV semiconductors and II-VI compounds. Examples of such work are given in this volume. MBE has one major advantage over other crystal growth techniques in that the structure of the growi...
The idea for organl.zl.ng an Advanced Research Workshop entirely devoted to the Earth rotation was born in 1983 when Professor Raymond Hide suggested this topic to the special NATO panel of global transport mechanism in the Geosciences. Such a specialized meeting did not take place since the GEOP research conference on the rotation of the Earth and polar motion which was held at the Ohio State University (USA) in 1973. In the last ten years, highly precise measurements of the Earth's rotation parameters and new global geophysical data have become available allowing major advance to be made in the under standing of the various irregularities affecting the Earth's rotation. The aim of the workshop was to bring together scientists who have made important contributions in this field during the last decade both at the observational and geophysical interpretation levels. The confe rence was divided into four main topics. The first session was dedicated to the definition, implementation and maintenance of the te...
Charlson, Robert; Andreae, Meinrat; Rodhe, Henning
Viewed from space, the Earth appears as a globe without a beginning or an end. Encompassing the globe is the atmosphere with its three phases- gaseous, liquid, and solid--moving in directions influenced by sunlight, gravity, and rotation. The chemical compositions of these phases are determined by biogeochemical cycles. Over the past hundred years, the processes governing the rates and reactions in the atmospheric biogeochemical cycles have typically been studied in regions where scientists lived. Hence, as time has gone by, the advances in our knowledge of atmospheric chemical cycles in remote areas have lagged substantially behind those for more populated areas. Not only are the data less abundant, they are also scattered. Therefore, we felt a workshop would be an excellent mechanism to assess the state of-knowledge of the atmospheric cycles of sulfur and nitrogen in remote areas and to make recommendations for future research. Thus, a NATO Advanced Research Workshop '~he Biogeochemical Cycling of Sulfu...
Reviews the history of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and describes the debate over expanding its membership. Includes a discussion of the process for adding NATO members and a copy of the treaty. Suggests several exercises to help students better understand the NATO-expansion debate. (DSK)
On March 14-18, 1983 a workshop on "Chemical Instabilities: Applications in Chemistry, Engineering, Geology, and Materials Science" was held in Austin, Texas, U.S.A. It was organized jointly by the University of Texas at Austin and the Universite Libre de Bruxelles and sponsored qy NATO, NSF, the University of Texas at Austin, the International Solvay Institutes and the Ex xon Corporation. The present Volume includes most of the material of the in vited lectures delivered in the workshop as well as material from some posters, whose content was directly related to the themes of the invited lectures. In ,recent years, problems related to the stability and the nonlinear dynamics of nonequilibrium systems invaded a great num ber of fields ranging from abstract mathematics to biology. One of the most striking aspects of this development is that subjects reputed to be "classical" and "well-established" like chemistry, turned out to give rise to a rich variety of phenomena leading to multiple steady states and...
As the role of the modern engineer is markedly different from that of even a decade ago, the theme of engineering mathematics educa tion (EME) is an important one. The need for mathematical model ling (MM) courses and consideration of the educational impact of computer-based technology environments merit special attention. This book contains the proceeding of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop held on this theme in July 1993. We have left the industrial age behind and have entered the in formation age. Computers and other emerging technologies are penetrating society in depth and gaining a strong influence in de termining how in future society will be organised, while the rapid change of information requires a more qualified work force. This work force is vital to high technology and economic competitive ness in many industrialised countries throughout the world. Within this framework, the quality of EME has become an issue. It is expected that the content of mathematics courses taught in schools o...
Pike, E; Squeezed and Non-classical Light
The recent generation in the laboratory of phase squeezed and intensity squeezed light beams has brought to fruition the theoretical predictions of such non-classical phenomena which have been made and developed in recent years by a number of workers in the field of quantum optics. A vigorous development is now underway of both theory and experiment and the first measurements have been coi:Jfirmed and extended already in some half dozen laboratories. Although the fields of application of these novellight sources are as yet somewhat hazy in our minds and some inspired thinking is required along these lines, the pace and excitement of the research is very clear. It is to he hoped that the new possibilities of: making measurements below the quantum shot noise lirnit which is made possible by these squeezed states of light willlead to further fundamental advances in the near future. In this NATO ARW a number of the leaders in the field met in the extremely pleasant surroundings of Cortina d'Ampezzo and th...
Arecchi, F; Lugiato, L; Instabilities and Chaos in Quantum Optics II
This volume contains tutorial papers from the lectures and seminars presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Instabilities and Chaos in Quantum Optics", held at the "Il Ciocco" Conference Center, Castelvecchio Pascoli, Lucca, Italy, June 28-July 7, 1987. The title of the volume is designated Instabilities and Chaos in Quantum Optics II, because of the nearly coincident publication of a collection of articles on research in this field edited by F.T. Arecchi and R.G. Harrison [Instabilities and Chaos in Quantum Optics, (Springer, Berlin, 1987) 1. That volume provides more detailed information about some of these topics. Together they will serve as a comprehensive and tutorial pair of companion volumes. This school was directed by Prof. Massimo Inguscio, of the Department of Physics, University of Naples, Naples, Italy to whom we express our gratitude on behalf of all lecturers and students. The Scientific Advisory Committee consisted of N.B. Abraham of Bryn Mawr College; F.T. Arecchi of the National I...
The aim of this NATO Advanced Study Institute was to bring together scientists and students working in the field of laser matter interactions in order to review and stimulate developmentoffundamental science with ultra-short pulse lasers. New techniques of pulse compression and colliding-pulse mode-locking have made possible the construction of lasers with pulse lengths in the femtosecond range. Such lasers are now in operation at several research laboratories in Europe and the United States. These laser facilities present a new and exciting research direction with both pure and applied science components. In this ASI the emphasis is on fundamental processes occurring in the interaction of short laser pulses with atoms, molecules, solids, and plasmas. In the case of laser-atom (molecule) interactions, high power lasers provide the first access to extreme high-intensity conditions above 10'8 Watts/em', a new frontier for nonlinear interaction of photons with atoms and molecules. New phenomena observed include ...
These proceedings are based upon introductory talks, research reports and discussions from the NATO Advanced Workshop on the "Morphology and Dynamics of the Polar Cusp", held at Lillehammer, Norway, 7-12 May, 1984. The upper atmosphere at high latitudes is called the "Earth's win dow to outer space". Through various electrodynamic coupling process es as well as through direct transfer of particles many geophysical effects displayed there are direct manifestations of phenomena occurring in the deep space. The high latitude ionosphere will also exert a feedback on the regions of the magnetosphere and atmosphere to which it is coupled, acting as a momentum and energy source and sink, and a source of particles. Of particular interest are the sections of the near space known as the Polar Cusp. A vast portion of the earth's magnetic field envelope is electrically connected to these regions. This geometry results in a spatial mapping of the magnetospheric pro cesses and a focusing on to the ionosphere. In the ...
A NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Methods and Mechanisms for Producing Ions from Large Molecules was held at Minaki Lodge, Minaki, Ontario, Canada, from 24 to 28 June 1990. The workshop was hosted by the time-of-flight group of the Department of Physics at the University of Manitoba, and was attended by 64 invited participants from around the world. Twenty-nine invited talks were given and 19 papers were presented as posters. Of the 48 contributions, 38 are included in these proceedings. The conference was organized to study the rapidly changing field of mass spectrometry of biomolecules. Particle-induced desorption (especially with MeV particles) has been the most effective method of producing molecular ions from biomolecules. An important part of the workshop was devoted to recent developments in this field, particularly to progress in understanding the fundamentals of the desorption process. In this respect, the meeting was similar to previous conferences in Marburg, FRG (1978); Paris, F (1980); Uppsala...
Day, Peter; Papavassiliou, George
This volume represents the written account of the NATO Advanced Study Institute "Lower-Dimensional Systems and Molecular Electronics" held at Hotel Spetses, Spetses Island, Greece from 12 June to 23 June 1989. The goal of the Institute was to demonstrate the breadth of chemical and physical knowledge that has been acquired in the last 20 years in inorganic and organic crystals, polymers, and thin films, which exhibit phenomena of reduced dimensionality. The interest in these systems started in the late 1960's with lower-dimensional inorganic conductors, in the early 1970's with quasi-one-dimensional crystalline organic conductors. which by 1979 led to the first organic superconductors, and, in 1977, to the fITSt conducting polymers. The study of monolayer films (Langmuir-Blodgett films) had progressed since the 1930's, but reached a great upsurge in . the early 1980's. The pursuit of non-linear optical phenomena became increasingly popular in the early 1980's, as the attention turned from inorganic crystals t...
That there have been remarkable advances in the field of molecular electronic structure during the last decade is clear not only to those working in the field but also to anyone else who has used quantum chemical results to guide their own investiga tions. The progress in calculating the electronic structures of molecules has occurred through the truly ingenious theoretical and methodological developments that have made computationally tractable the underlying physics of electron distributions around a collection of nuclei. At the same time there has been consider able benefit from the great advances in computer technology. The growing sophistication, declining costs and increasing accessibi lity of computers have let theorists apply their methods to prob lems in virtually all areas of molecular science. Consequently, each year witnesses calculations on larger molecules than in the year before and calculations with greater accuracy and more com plete information on molecular properties. We can surel...
Computer simulations provide an essential set of tools for understanding the macroscopic properties of liquid crystals and of their phase transitions in terms of molecular models. While simulations of liquid crystals are based on the same general Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics techniques as are used for other fluids, they present a number of specific problems and peculiarities connected to the intrinsic properties of these mesophases. The field of computer simulations of anisotropic fluids is interdisciplinary and is evolving very rapidly. The present volume covers a variety of techniques and model systems, from lattices to hard particle and Gay-Berne to atomistic, for thermotropics, lyotropics, and some biologically interesting liquid crystals. Contributions are written by an excellent panel of international lecturers and provides a timely account of the techniques and problems in the field.
This volume contains the lectures presented at an Advanced Study Institute on "Magnetic Resonance Techniques in Fossil Energy Problems," which was held at the village of Maleme, Crete, in July of 1983. As of this writing, a different popular attitude prevails from that when the ASI was proposed as far as how critical the world energy picture is. In the popular press, a panglossian attitude (the "petroleum glut" of the 80's) has replaced the jeremiads of the 70's ( a catastrophic "energy crisis"). Yet, there are certain important constants: (a) for the foreseeable future, fossil energy sources (petroleum, coal, oil shale, etc. ) will continue to be of paramount importance; and (b) science and technology of the highest order are needed to extend the fossil ener~y resource base and to utilize it in a cost-effective manner that is also environmentally acceptable. It is precisely this second item that this volume addresses. The volume introduces the phenomenology of magnetic resonance ~n a unified and detailed man...
Christophorou, L; Luessen, L
As the various disciplines of science advance, they proliferate and tend to become more esoteric. Barriers of specialized terminologies form, which cause scientists to lose contact with their colleagues, and differences in points-of-view emerge which hinder the unification of knowledge among the various disciplines, and even within a given discipline. As a result, the scientist, and especially the student, is in many instances offered fragmented glimpses of subjects that are funda mentally synthetic and that should be treated in their own right. Such seems to be the case of the liquid state. Unlike the other states of matter -- gases, solids, and plasmas -- the liquid state has not yet received unified treatment, probably because it has been the least explored and remains the least understood state of matter. Occasionally, events occur which help remove some of the barriers that separate scientists and disciplines alike. Such an event was the ASI on The Liquid State held this past July at the lovely Hotel T...
Full text: A NATO Advanced Research Workshop was held in Almaty, Kazakhstan, in September 2005. The Workshop was co-sponsored by the IAEA and was concerned with the safety issues associated with spent fuel and waste from three types of reactor: research reactors with Al alloy-clad dispersion fuels, fast reactors with stainless steel-clad UO2, and commercial light-water reactors with Zr alloy-clad UO2. Fifteen presentations dealt with research reactors, five with the BN-350 fast reactor in Kazakhstan-shut down and in decommissioning, and two with commercial reactors in the U.S. and Ukraine. With 657 research reactors built and 274 still operational, corrosion of Al-clad research reactor spent fuel during wet storage was a major subject for discussion. Programs at the IAEA, in the U.S., and elsewhere, have actively studied corrosion of Al-clad fuel since the 1980s and the major mechanisms for aqueous corrosion of both spent fuel and of spent-fuel-pool structural components appear to be now well understood, as are the procedures required to limit corrosion. Nonetheless, avoiding corrosion requires vigilance in monitoring and controlling water quality. Measures to ensure water quality are now being taken at operating research reactors, but are difficult to impose at reactors that are shutdown, where there is less funding (or staff) for the task. It was noted there are about 62,000 spent research reactor fuel assemblies-most of them in wet storage-at many reactor sites around the world, three-quarters in industrialized nations, the remainder in developing countries. Dry storage of research reactor fuel is also being used or actively considered in France, Poland, Russia and the U.S. A variant of simple dry storage-the 'melt-and-dilute' option-casts the spent research reactor fuel with natural U into steel canisters to produce a corrosion-resistant low-enrichment fuel configuration which is suitable for safe long-term storage. The main safety issue of spent fast reactor
Galvin, K.E.; Gouweleeuw, R.G.W.
The Urban Combat Advanced Training Technology (UCATT) was established within the NATO Modelling and Simulation Group (NMSG) in 2003 as MSG 032. UCATT was tasked to exchange and assess information on Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) facilities and training/simulation systems with a view to
Three of the 50 people receiving North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Postdoctoral Fellowships in Science will study geophysics or a geophysics-related discipline. The fellowships, announced by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of State, are awarded to young scientists for full-time postgraduate study abroad at institutions and laboratories in NATO countries or in countries that cooperate with NATO.Gordon N. Shudofsky, currently studying at Princeton University, plans to do geophysics research at the State University at Utrecht in The Netherlands. Hsueh-tze Lee, currently at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, will study biological oceanography at the Station Zoologique, France (Villefranch-surmer). Charles D. Whiteman, now at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, will study atmospheric sciences at the University of Innsbruck in Austria.
Oppenheimer, Steven B.; And Others
Reviews major developments in areas that are at the cutting edge of biological research. Areas include: human anti-cancer gene, recombinant DNA techniques for the detection of Huntington disease carriers, and marine biology. (CW)
With the development of lasers that can generate light 11 14 pulses ranging from 10- - 10- sec duration, and capable of 13 peak powers in excess of 10 watts scientists have been able to investigate the interactions of light with matter in a time and power domain not previously possible. These ultrashort laser pulses provide a powerful tool for the study of chemical phenomena at the most fundamental level. Many of the elementary processes of importance in chemistry including energy dissipa tion, molecular motions, structural and chemical changes occur on a very short time scale and thus require special approaches. Th~ use of ultrashort laser pulses to perturb and to probe systems of interest affords a direct approach to the time reso lution of very rapid chemical phenomena. It was recognition of the impact of these relatively new approaches to chemical phenomena that motivated NATO to sponsor a meeting on the applications of picosecond spectroscopy in chemistry. The primary aim of the NATO workshop was to ...
Goldstein, M; Haussmann, W; Hayman, W; Rogge, L
This volume consists of the proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Approximation by Solutions of Partial Differential Equations, Quadrature Formulae, and Related Topics, which was held at Hanstholm, Denmark. These proceedings include the main invited talks and contributed papers given during the workshop. The aim of these lectures was to present a selection of results of the latest research in the field. In addition to covering topics in approximation by solutions of partial differential equations and quadrature formulae, this volume is also concerned with related areas, such as Gaussian quadratures, the Pompelu problem, rational approximation to the Fresnel integral, boundary correspondence of univalent harmonic mappings, the application of the Hilbert transform in two dimensional aerodynamics, finely open sets in the limit set of a finitely generated Kleinian group, scattering theory, harmonic and maximal measures for rational functions and the solution of the classical Dirichlet problem. In ...
Rosenberg, Ivo; Goldstein, Martin
Several of the contributions to this volume bring forward many mutually beneficial interactions and connections between the three domains of the title. Developing them was the main purpose of the NATO ASI summerschool held in Montreal in 2003. Although some connections, for example between semigroups and automata, were known for a long time, developing them and surveying them in one volume is novel and hopefully stimulating for the future. Another aspect is the emphasis on the structural theory of automata that studies ways to contstruct big automata from small ones. The volume also has contributions on top current research or surveys in the three domains. One contribution even links clones of universal algebra with the computational complexity of computer science. Three contributions introduce the reader to research in the former East block.
This is the second volume in the NATO ASI series dealing with the topic of hydrogen in solids. The first (V. B76, Metal Hydrides) appeared five years ago and focussed primarily on crystalline phases of hydrided metallic systems. In the intervening period, the amorphous solid state has become an area of intense research activity, encompassing both metallic and non-metallic, e.g. semiconducting, systems. At the same time the problem of storage of hydrogen, which motivated the first ASI, continues to be important. In the case of metallic systems, there were early indications that metallic glasses and disordered alloys may be more corrosion resistant, less susceptible to embrittlement by hydrogen and have a higher hydrogen mobility than ordered metals or intermetallics. All of these properties are desirable for hydrogen storage. Subsequent research has shown that thermodynamic instability is a severe problem in many amorphous metal hydrides. The present ASI has provided an appropriate forum to focus on these issu...
This book contains all the papers presented at the NATO workshop on "Optical Switching in Low Dimensional Systems" held in Marbella, Spain from October 6th to 8th, 1988. Optical switching is a basic function for optical data processing, which is of technological interest because of its potential parallelism and its potential speed. Semiconductors which exhibit resonance enhanced optical nonlinearities in the frequency range close to the band edge are the most intensively studied materials for optical bistability and fast gate operation. Modern crystal growth techniques, particularly molecular beam epitaxy, allow the manufacture of semiconductor microstructures such as quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots in which the electrons are only free to move in two, one or zero dimensions, of the optically excited electron-hole pairs in these low respectively. The spatial confinement dimensional structures gives rise to an enhancement of the excitonic nonlinearities. Furthermore, the variations of the microstr...
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Brussels (Belgium). Information Service.
This booklet outlines the aims and activities of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and describes the structure of the organization. It is presented in five sections. Section one presents the text of the treaty, which was ratified in 1949. Section two briefly analyzes the most significant articles in the treaty. In general, the treaty…
In this proceedings About 80 people from Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Greece, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain, U.K., Turkey, Ukraine, U.S.A. and Slovakia took part in the workshop. 56 reports had been presented. from which 19 reports deals with the scope of INIS. The purpose of the workshop was the critical assessment of the current developments in the field of utilization of natural microporous materials (zeolites, clays, oxides) for the solution of problems related to the toxic and nuclear waste management, the water pollution control and decontamination, the environmental catalysis associated to the atmospheric pollution, the creation of new materials for energy storage and agricultural management including the development of artificial soils for plant growth in the space. Of especial importance for this meeting was the exchange of information and know-how among specialists working in institutions of NATO and Cooperation Partner countries aiming in the development of common strategies for the solution of environmental problems and the promotion of the further scientific and technological collaboration. Nineteen papers deals with the using of microporous materials for separation of radionuclides
International terrorism remains a significant threat to the peace of the world. Weapons using various materials and delivery systems have been directed against cities and infrastructure, and other materials are postulated to be usable within the near future. Some of these materials are unusual or exotic, while some are modifications of materials used daily for other purposes: biological, chemical, radiological, nuclear and explosive. These materials pose a safety challenge for first responders, slowing the response and potentially killing scarce trained personnel. This book provides information about how leading agencies across the NATO membership are preparing to confront and respond to terrorists deploying Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), Weapons of Mass Killing (WMK) and Weapons of Mass Disruption (WMDi). Based on contributions by experts from NATO member states, Israel and the Russian Federation, this book offers information on fourth generation warfare as a new challenge to first responders. It also pr...
Azzerboni, Bruno; Pareti, Luigi; Ghidini, Massimo
Proposes a synergic junction between the characteristic expertise of the engineering and the knowledge of the basic scienceThe main effect should be a cross-cultural fertilization favoring an interdisciplinary enrichment for the readers and their research perspectivesCovers the most advanced fields of modern magnetic nano-technologiesA unique source of up to date information for the young physicist, chemist or engineer as well as a crucial reference for the expert scientist and the teacher of advanced university coursesDeals with the most important topics in the field of modern magnetism in fu
The contents of this volume involve selection, emendation and up-dating of papers presented at the NATO Conference "Mathe matical Analysis of Decision problems in Ecology" in Istanbul, Turkey, July 9-13, 1973. It was sponsored by the System Sciences Division of NATO directed by Dr. B. Bayraktar with local arrange ments administered by Dr. Ilhami Karayalcin, professor of the Department of Industrial Engineering at the Technical University of Istanbul. It was organized by A. Charnes, University professor across the University of Texas System, and Walter R.Lynn, Di rector of the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Cornell Unjversity. The objective of the conference was to bring together a group of leading researchers from the major sciences involved in eco logical problems and to present the current state of progress in research of a mathematical nature which might assist in the solu tion of these problems. Although their presentations are not herein recorded, the key note address of Dr....
Ojuland, Kristiina, 1966-
NATO on pärast alliansi-siseseid pingeid edasi arenenud, ta on võtnud üle Afganistani operatsiooni, räägitakse ka NATO-le suurema rolli andmisest stabiilsuse tagamisel Iraagis. Välisministri sõnul on tähtsaim alus NATO elujõule transatlantiliste suhete vastupidavus. Eesti rollist NATO liikmena. Vt. samas: NATO sõjaline juhtimisstruktuur
In the broad field of supramolecular chemistry, the design and hence the use of chemosensors for ion and molecule recognition have developed at an extroardinary rate. This imaginative and creative area which involves the interface of different disciplines, e.g. organic and inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, biology, medicine, environmental science, is not only fundamental in nature. It is also clear that progress is most rewarding for several new sensor applications deriving from the specific signal delivered by the analyte-probe interaction. Indeed, if calcium sensing in real time for biological purposes is actually possible, owing to the emergence of efficient fluorescent receptors, other elements can also be specifically detected, identified and finally titrated using tailored chemosensors. Pollutants such as heavy metals or radionuclides are among the main targets since their detection and removal could be envisioned at very low concentrations with, in addition, sensors displaying specific and stron...
McGowan, J; Shinozaki, Douglas
An Institute like ours cannot help but lend credence to the notion of the late Derek J. de Solla Price of Yale University that "the scientific revolution was largely the improvement, invention and use of a series of instruments . . . . that expanded the reach of science in innumerable directions". Most of science today and in years gone by depends on the experimental observation of struc ture on the small scale with microscopes, and on the large scale with telescopes. The first instruments to expand the observational range of the human eye were simple optical systems, designed in the case of microscopes and telescopes to magnify the image. The big breakthrough in the 17th century was not when Galileo first turned his telescope to the heavens, but when improvements in lens-grinding techniques allowed eyeglass makers to make the first telescope. Early microscopy revealed new and previously unsuspected microstruc tures in biological and non-biological materials and thus helped to enlarge on the understanding...
Matrasulov, Davron; Rakhimov, Khamdam; Low-Dimensional F unctional Materials
Maintaining and improving energy security is one of the biggest challenges worldwide. The NATO ARW conference in Tashkent, October 2012, was devoted to discussing visions and concepts that are currently discussed in different research fields. Leading scientists have written concise contributions to introduce the reader to this exciting topic. The present volume summarizes the discussions at the conference.
The calculation of cross sections and rate constants for chemical reactions in the gas phase has long been a major problem in theoretical chemistry. The need for reliable and applicable theories in this field is evident when one considers the significant recent advances that have been made in developing experimental techniques, such as lasers and molecular beams, to probe the microscopic details of chemical reactions. For example, it is now becoming possible to measure cross sections for chemical reactions state selected in the vibrational rotational states of both reactants and products. Furthermore, in areas such as atmospheric, combustion and interstellar chemistry, there is an urgent need for reliable reaction rate constant data over a range of temperatures, and this information is often difficult to obtain in experiments. The classical trajectory method can be applied routinely to simple reactions, but this approach neglects important quantum mechanical effects such as tunnelling and resonances. For al...
Balkanski, Minko; 15th Course on Solid State Microbatteries
This Advanced Study Institute on the topic of SOLID STATE MICROBATTERIES is the third and final institute on the general theme of a field of study now termed "SOLID STATE IONICS". The institute was held in Erice, Sicily, Italy, 3 - 15 July 1988. The objective was to assemble in one location individuals from industry and academia expert in the fields of microelectronics and solid state ionics to determine the feasibility of merging a solid state microbattery with microelectronic memory. Solid electrolytes are in principle amenable to vapor deposition, RF or DC sputtering, and other techniques used to fabricate microelectronic components. A solid state microbattery 1 1 mated on the same chip carrier as the chip can provide on board memory backup power. A solid state microbattery assembled from properly selected anode/solid electrolyte/cathode materials could have environmental endurance properties equal or superior to semiconductor memory chips. Lectures covering microelectronics, present state-of-art solid sta...
Thomas J. Albert, Jon R. Armstrong, Raymond K. Auerback, W. Brad Barbazuk, et al.
This year's meeting focused on the latest advances in new DNA sequencing technologies and the applications of genomics to disease areas in biology and biomedicine. Daytime plenary sessions highlighted cutting-edge research in areas such as complex genetic diseases, comparative genomics, medical sequencing, massively parallel DNA sequencing, and synthetic biology. Technical approaches being developed and utilized in contemporary genomics research were presented during evening concurrent sessions. Also, as in previous years, poster sessions bridged the morning and afternoon plenary sessions. In addition, for the third year in a row, the Advances in Genome Biology and Technology (AGBT) meeting was preceded by a pre-meeting workshop that aimed to provide an introductory overview for trainees and other meeting attendees. This year, speakers at the workshop focused on next-generation sequencing technologies, including their experiences, findings, and helpful advise for others contemplating using these platforms in their research. Speakers from genome centers and core sequencing facilities were featured and the workshop ended with a roundtable discussion, during which speakers fielded questions from the audience.
Apikyan, Samuel A; Nuclear Power and Energy Security
World energy consumption has grown dramatically over the past few decades. This growth in energy demand will be driven by large increases in both economic growth and world population coupled with rising living standards in rapidly growing countries. The last years, we routinely hear about a "renaissance" of nuclear energy. The recognition that nuclear power is vital to global energy security in the 21st century has been growing for some time. "The more we look to the future, the more we can expect countries to be considering the potential benefits that expanding nuclear power has to offer for the global environment and for economic growth," IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei said in advance of a gathering of 500 nuclear power experts assembled in Moscow for the "International Conference on Fifty Years of Nuclear Power - the Next Fifty Years". But such a renaissance is not a single-valued and sure thing. Legitimate four unresolved questions remain about high relative costs; perceived adverse safety, envir...
X-ray and neutron crystallography have played an increasingly impor tant role in the chemical and biochemical sciences over the past fifty years. The principal obstacles in this methodology, the phase problem and com puting, have been overcome. The former by the methods developed in the 1960's and just recognised by the 1985 Chemistry Nobel Prize award to Karle and Hauptman, the latter by the dramatic advances that have taken place in computer technology in the past twenty years. Within the last decade, two new radiation sources have been added to the crystallographer's tools. One is synchrotron X-rays and the other is spallation neutrons. Both have much more powerful fluxes than the pre vious sources and they are pulsed rather than continuos. New techniques are necessary to fully exploit the intense continuos radiation spectrum and its pulsed property. Both radiations are only available from particular National Laboratories on a guest-user basis for scientists outside these Na tional Laboratories. Hi...
"With the 60th Anniversary of the alliance at hand, its fate seems to be more uncertain and unpredictable than ever. While some commentaries already foresee the end of NATO, there are others that rather portray a revitalization of the old transatlantic alliance due to the new US-administration and the return of France into NATO's military command structures. But people tend to look too closely at NATO's institutional and conceptual framework and the future risks it is – at least theoretically...
Nissen, Thomas Elkjer
, implementation structures, and capabilities can be used to inform the construction of strategic narratives in NATO. Using Libya as a case study he explains that the formulation and implementation of strategic narratives in NATO currently is a fragmented process that rarely takes into account the grand strategic...... objectives formulated in NATO headquarters. Consequently, the future construction of strategic narratives in NATO must be based on the strategic variables....
Young, Harry F.
This atlas provides basic information about the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Formed in response to growing concern for the security of Western Europe after World War II, NATO is a vehicle for Western efforts to reduce East-West tensions and the level of armaments. NATO promotes political and economic collaboration as well as military…
Chen, Yvonne Yu-Hsuan; Galloway, Kate E.; Smolke, Christina D.
Advances in synthetic biology are contributing to diverse research areas, from basic biology to biomanufacturing and disease therapy. We discuss the theoretical foundation, applications, and potential of this emerging field.
Bruusgaard, Kristin Ven
Hovedpunkter: Russland og Nato har i dag ingen felles forståelse av hva et stabilt og sikkert Europa innebærer: dette forhindrer konstruktivt samarbeid. Russland vil bruke militære og ikkemilitære virkemidler for å avskrekke Nato i årene fremover, for å påvirke Natos oppfatning av kostnadene knyttet til å utfordre Russland. Sannsynligheten for konfrontasjon mellom Russland og Nato avhenger av partenes evne til å unngå misforståelser, men også av Russlands ambisjoner ovenfor Nato....
Braga, Dario; Addadi, Lia
This volume collects the lecture notes (ordered alphabetically according to the first author surname) of the talks delivered by the main speakers at the Erice 2007 International School of Crystallography, generously selected by NATO as an Advanced Study Institute (# 982582). The aim of the school was to discuss the state-of-the-art in molecular materials design, that is, the rational analysis and fabrication of crystalline solids showing a predefined structural organization of their component molecules and ions, which results in the manifestation of a specific collective property of technological interest. The School was held on June 7–17, 2007, in Erice (an old town, over 3000 years, located on the top of a Sicilian hill that oversees the sea near Trapani). The school developed following two parallel lines. First we established “where we are” in terms of modelling, design, synthesis and applications of crystalline solids with predefined properties. Second, we attempted to define current and possible fu...
President Toomas Hendrik Ilves lendas Brüsselisse kohtuma NATO tippametnike ja sõjaväelastega. Eesti riigipea kohtub NATO peasekretäri Jaap de Hoop Schefferiga, esineb Põhja-Atlandi Nõukogu (NAC) ees, külastab NATO sõjalist peakorterit Euroopas (SHAPE) ja kohtub seal liitlasvägede kõrgeima sõjalise juhiga Euroopas, kindral John Craddockiga. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Brüsselis 3.-5.02.2008
Kozyrev, Sergey; Vaseashta, Ashok
Even though there is no generally accepted definition of nanotechnologies to be defined as distinct discipline there is an emerging consensus that their advent and development is a growing in importance factor of the contemporary and future technological civilization. One of these most fundamental issues we are confronted with is the compatibility with life itself. From single cell organisms to humans, carbon is a key building block of all molecular structures of life. In contrast the man created electronic industry to build on other elements, of which silicon is the most common. Both carbon and silicon create molecular chains, although different in their internal structure. All life is built from carbon-based chains. As long as the man built technological products do not directly interfere with the physiology of life the associated risks from them are relatively easy to identify. They are primarily in the environmental pollution and the possibility of upsetting the natural balance of biocoenosis, on a planet...
Reiss, Michael J.
Of all the sciences, biology has probably made the most rapid progress in recent years and the need for this to be reflected in a new Advanced Level biology course has long been recognised in the UK. After wide-ranging consultation and successful piloting in over 50 schools and colleges in England and Wales, the new Salters-Nuffield Advanced…
"NATO needs to define its global purpose if it wishes to address global threats. What is the prospect of NATO going global and how will it affect NATO's future course? In the run-up to the NATO Summit in Riga in November 2006, a debate on both sides of the Atlantic has now evolved over NATO's global engagement that touches on the very foundations of NATO's original purpose and definition. Critically, the debate is no longer about wether NATO should go 'out of area or out of business' but whet...
Nanomaterials and their associated technologies hold promising opportunities for the development of new materials and applications in a wide variety of disciplines, including medicine, environmental remediation, waste treatment, and energy conservation. However, current information regarding the environmental effects and health risks associated with nanomaterials is limited and sometimes contradictory. This article summarizes the conclusions of a 2008 NATO workshop designed to evaluate the wide-scale implications (e.g., benefits, risks, and costs) of the use of nanomaterials on human health and the environment. A unique feature of this workshop was its interdisciplinary nature and focus on the practical needs of policy decision makers. Workshop presentations and discussion panels were structured along four main themes: technology and benefits, human health risk, environmental risk, and policy implications. Four corresponding working groups (WGs) were formed to develop detailed summaries of the state-of-the-science in their respective areas and to discuss emerging gaps and research needs. The WGs identified gaps between the rapid advances in the types and applications of nanomaterials and the slower pace of human health and environmental risk science, along with strategies to reduce the uncertainties associated with calculating these risks.
Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko
Synthetic biology enables a new generation of microbial engineering for the biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals and other high-value chemicals. This review presents an overview of recent advances in the field, describing new computational and experimental tools for the discovery, optimization and production of bioactive molecules, and outlining progress towards the application of these tools to pharmaceutical production systems.
The work of the NATO Working Group on precise time and frequency (AC302/SG4/WG4), since its inception in 1988 to the end of 1993, is covered. The aim of the group was to produce STANAG 4430 detailing a standard interface for the transfer of precise time and frequency to assist the interoperability of NATO forces. The design of the interface is outlined together with the concepts leading to the design. The problem of providing and maintaining a traceable UTC in military user systems is described.
This is the third update of the NATO CD-ROM. 12,000 new summaries have been added, so that it now comprises the summaries of more than 62,000 contributions in over 1000 books published in the scientific NATO ASI book program in almost 30 years. For easy reference, all bibliographic information on these volumes are given. The AGARD AEROSPACE DATABASE is updated for the second time now. Over 20,000 summaries of contributions in more than one thousand AGARD-sponsored publications published between 1960 and 1997, generated in cooperation with NASA (USA) and AGARD (Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, France) are now included.
A. M. Akmataliyeva
Full Text Available Although cooperation between NATO and Central Asian countries dates back to the 1990s, significant presence of the Alliance in the region is visible throughout the last decade only. The cooperation advanced due to the NATO-led operation in Afghanistan. However, its planned conclusion in 2012 will not lead to the withdrawal of the Alliance from Central Asia. Throughout the last decade NATO developed a network of diversified partnerships with countries of the region. In this process Kazakhstan emerged as its most promising and active partner.
Leedu Kaitseministeeriumi poolt 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses korraldatud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" arutati, kas ja kuidas on Lõuna-Kaukaasia regioonis võimalik rakendada Balti riikide julgeolekualase koostöö kogemusi
This book introduces the fundamental aspects of Radiation Protection in Medical Physics and covers three main themes: General Radiation Protection Principles; Radiobiology Principles; Radiation Protection in Hospital Medical Physics. Each of these topics is developed by analysing the underlying physics principles and their implementation, quality and safety aspects, clinical performance and recent advances in the field. Some issues specific to the individual techniques are also treated, e.g. calculation of patient dose as well as that of workers in hospital, optimisation of equipment used, shielding design of radiation facilities, radiation in oncology such as use of brachytherapy in gynecology or interventional procedures. All topics are presented with didactical language and style, making this book an appropriate reference for students and professionals seeking a comprehensive introduction to the field as well as a reliable overview of the most recent developments.
This paper proposes that NATO should adopt, in a gradual and orderly fashion, a grand strategy and accompanying posture distinctly different from its present one. The strategy the author recommends has variously been termed non-provocative defence, defence-only defence, or defensive deterrence, employs the latter term here. By it the author means a militarily sound strategy relying solely on conventional weapons so long as the enemy uses only conventional weapons, and a posture that is unambiguously capable only of defence. Secure, second-strike nuclear forces would be retained for deterrence of any nuclear use by the opponent. This goal is consistent with the goal stated in Frank Barnaby's companion paper in this volume; here however the author lays the emphasis on political and politico-military rationales for a defensive deterrent. The paper begins with two brief arguments why a shift in NATO strategy is needed, advances some distinctions among the possible alternatives, and then presents some seven rationales for its recommended policy
Outlines the Third Dimension of NATO. Presses for increased efforts to overcome the disparity in the rate of scientific development among the countries of the alliance. Discusses scientific nobility, the rise of European science, science for stability, environmental protection, and the changed scientific climate. (CW)
Hall, Angela; Reiss, Michael J.; Rowell, Cathy; Scott, Anne
Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology is a new advanced level biology course, piloted from September 2002 in England with around 1200 students. This paper discusses the reasons for developing a new advanced biology course at this time, the philosophy of the project and how the materials are being written and the specification devised. The aim of the…
Bonde, Jesper; Hess, David A; Nolta, Jan A
made recently in the field of stem cell biology, researchers now have improved tools to define novel populations of stem cells, examine them ex vivo using conditions that promote self-renewal, track them into recipients, and determine whether they can contribute to the repair of damaged tissues......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exciting advances have been made in the field of hematopoietic stem cell biology during the past year. This review summarizes recent progress in the identification, culture, and in vivo tracking of hematopoietic stem cells. RECENT FINDINGS: The roles of Wnt and Notch proteins...... in regulating stem cell renewal in the microenvironment, and how these molecules can be exploited in ex vivo stem cell culture, are reviewed. The importance of identification of stem cells using functional as well as phenotypic markers is discussed. The novel field of nanotechnology is then discussed...
The paper rests on three premises that are sharply different from the assumptions that underlie most of the other chapters in this book. The first is that dramatic resolutions of the nuclear dilemma in Europe will not happen. Those resolutions are, for the foreseeable future, either unwise or impossible, or both. The solutions would be worse than the problem. It is not a case of NATO isn't broke, so why fix it? Rather, the questions are how broke? and how fixable? if fixable means susceptible to bold departures that would resolve the dilemma. In that spirit, it is worth drawing lessons, even at this range, from the NATO deployments of cruise and Pershing missiles - the Euromissile affair, which, after all, is not yet over
Kraker, J.K. de; Reading, R.
The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modelling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical activity encompasses data modeling, runtime simulation, and process aspects of virtual ship representation. SG61 is responsible for development of a formal NATO standards document (STANAG) to codify its...
Kraker, J.K. de; DUNCAN, J; Budde, E.W.; Reading, R.
The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modeling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical activity encompasses data modeling, runtime simulation, and process aspects of virtual ship representation. SG61 is responsible for development of a formal NATO standards document (STANAG) to codify its ...
This document describes functionality to be developed to support the NATO technical thesaurus. Described are the specificity of the thesaurus structure and function; the distinction between the thesaurus information and its representation in a given online, machine readable, or printed form; the enhancement of the thesaurus with the assignment of COSATI codes (fields and groups) to posting terms, the integration of DTIC DRIT and NASA thesauri related terminology, translation of posting terms into French; and the provision of a basis for system design.
Jenden, C. M.
During 1993, Canada, France, Germany and the United Kingdom will be participating in the Smoke and Obscurants Countermeasures Materials Evaluation Tests (SOCMET). The tests will be carried out under the auspices of the NATO Army Armaments Group, AC/225, Panel VI, Sub-Panel 7 whose interests include multispectral smoke screening systems. The tests will comprise two sets of trials; one under cold climate conditions in Quebec, Canada, during February/March 1993 and the other in temperate conditions in Bourges, France during September 1993. This paper provides an insight into the management and aims of SOCMET. The evaluations will be seeking to identify candidate materials which create effective obscurant screens in the visible, infrared and millimetric bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. These materials will be disseminated through a range area dispersal. A key element of the trials will be the evaluation of field test instrumentation which may eventually lead to the development of standardized evaluation techniques. Following the trials, a scientific workshop will be held to review the results. A final report will be presented to NATO which will form the basis of future collaborative developments on multispectral screening systems leading towards standard NATO documentation on smoke and obscurant systems.
Capulli, J. J.
The performance of the NATO-111-A and NATO 111-B satellite battery is reported. The electrical power subsystem is briefly described. The electrical characteristics and the reconditioning experience of the batteries is cited. The in-orbit experience is compared with results of preflight accelerated life tests.
”10 years after NATO Membership. An Anniversary in the Shadow of a Crisis”, indeholder artikler fra politiske aktører, diplomater og forskere, der alle bidrog til til konferencen af samme navn, hvor den 10-året for baltisk medlemskab af NATO var omdrejningspunktet. Udover den danske forsvarsminis...... for Estland, Letland og Litauen i Danmark....
Tiido, Harri, 1953-
Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 24. mai lk. 7. Eesti suursaadik NATO-s selgitab, et NATO ja Venemaa suhteid iseloomustab ratsionaalne koostöö, tasakaalukat õhkkonda suhetes aitab hoida ka NATO-Vene nõukogu alusdokument, mis välistab riikide sisepoliitikat puudutavad arutelud
... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NATO. 728.42 Section 728.42 National Defense... § 728.42 NATO. (a) NATO SOFA nations. Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, France... conditions set forth. (1) Members of NATO military services and their dependents. Military personnel of...
USA suursaadik NATO juures on seisukohal, et Ukrainal on veel pikk tee NATO liikmesuse saavutamiseks; ta ei usu, et Venemaa plaaniks rünnata ühtegi NATO liikmesriiki. Afganistani ja Iraagi julgeolekust
Mitte 1997 schloss die Ukraine wichtige Abkommen und Verträge, die ihre Staatlichkeit nach aussen gefestigt und ihre Stellung in Europa wesentlich untermauert haben. Dazu gehört auch die Charta über die besondere Partnerschaft zwischen der NATO und der Ukraine. Die Charta soll vor allem einen Rahmen für den Ausbau der herausgehobenen Beziehungen NATO-Ukraine schaffen. In ihr werden Bereiche der Konsultation und der Zusammenarbeit zwischen der NATO und der Ukraine sowie deren institutionellen ...
Lucas, William; Conrath, David
This book contains the proceedings of the first international symposium devoted to research on the evaluation and planning of new person-to-person telecommunication systems. It was sponsored by NATO's Special Programme Panel on Systems Science and took place, in September 1977, at the University of Bergamo in the north of Italy. Telecommunication systems which provide for communication be tween people, rather than computers or other instruments, are of two kinds. There are mass communication systems (broadcast radio and television) and interpersonal systems (for example, the telephone and Telex) which join together individuals or small groups. Here we have included in the interpersonal category certain systems for re trieving information from computers, essentially those systems in which the role of the computer 1s primarily to act as a store and to identify that information which best fits a user's request. (This excludes management information systems in which the computer performs important transformat...
@@ A NATO summit was held on April 2-4 of this year in Bucharest,the capital of Romania.It was the last meeting the U.S.President George W.Bush attended in his presidential term.The outgoing Russian President A.Putin, also took part in the "NATO-Russia Council" meeting.Therefore,this summit attracted particular attention.
In its intervention in Libya, not only did NATO fail to produce a military strategy and a campaign plan before commencing military operations, what is more worrisome was the lack of political guidance to and control of the Joint Task Force.......In its intervention in Libya, not only did NATO fail to produce a military strategy and a campaign plan before commencing military operations, what is more worrisome was the lack of political guidance to and control of the Joint Task Force....
During the past few years there has been intense research activity in the design, synthesis, and characterization of materials which are formed from molecular precursors, and which have high or metal-like electrical conductivities, i.e. dcr/dT < O. It has been widely supposed that these new materials, which are commonly called molecular metals, would be pressed into service, for example as devices. Up to now, widespread, practical applications of these sub stances have not developed. The NATO Advanced Research Institute on Molecular Metals at Les Arcs, France, September 10-16, 1978 was organized to discuss the scientific and technological potential of research and development in this field. The proceedings of the Institute constitute this book. Several lectures were devoted to the assessment of the present status of research on systems which serve to define major components of the field. The systems which were discussed included TTF-TCNQ, platinum chain compounds, (SN)x, polyacetylene, polydiacetylene, g...
Lunn, Simon [Royal United Services Institute for Defense and Security Studies - RUSI, Whitehall, London, SW1A 2ET (United Kingdom); Larsen, Jeffrey [Larsen Consulting Group, 3710 Woodland Dr Ste 2100, Anchorage, AK 99517 (United States); Yost, David [Naval Postgraduate School, 1 University Circle, Monterey, CA 93943 (United States); Kamp, Karl-Heinz [NATO Defense College, Via Giorgio Pelosi 1, 00143, Roma (Italy); Edelman, Eric [Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments - CSBA, 1667 K Sreet NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC, 20006 (United States); Valasek, Tomas [Centre for European Reform - CER, 14 Great College Street, Westminster, London, SW1P 3RX (United Kingdom); Garcia Cantalapiedra, David [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
NATO will shortly revisit the question of its nuclear policy and posture as part of the ongoing deterrence and defense posture review (DDPR). This assessment of its nuclear requirements will be take place against the background of two parallel and potentially competing commitments: first, the general support for the goal of reducing and eventually eliminating nuclear weapons with the related question of how NATO should contribute to this goal; second, the commitment that in considering the role of nuclear weapons the priority for NATO members is the maintenance of solidarity and cohesion and the consequent determination that decisions on nuclear policy will be taken by the Alliance collectively. There are forcefully expressed arguments on both sides of the debate over whether to maintain or eliminate the remaining arsenal of U.S. nuclear weapons assigned to NATO. On the one hand, they provide coupling, transatlantic links, military capabilities against an uncertain future, and risk and burden sharing. On the other, some allies see benefits to further reductions in the remaining arsenal in the cause of global disarmament. This study presents first the questions and issues for NATO and the future alternatives for NATO nuclear policy. Then, the views from United States, Germany, Turkey, Central and Eastern Europe, Italy and Spain are successively reviewed
NATO will shortly revisit the question of its nuclear policy and posture as part of the ongoing deterrence and defense posture review (DDPR). This assessment of its nuclear requirements will be take place against the background of two parallel and potentially competing commitments: first, the general support for the goal of reducing and eventually eliminating nuclear weapons with the related question of how NATO should contribute to this goal; second, the commitment that in considering the role of nuclear weapons the priority for NATO members is the maintenance of solidarity and cohesion and the consequent determination that decisions on nuclear policy will be taken by the Alliance collectively. There are forcefully expressed arguments on both sides of the debate over whether to maintain or eliminate the remaining arsenal of U.S. nuclear weapons assigned to NATO. On the one hand, they provide coupling, transatlantic links, military capabilities against an uncertain future, and risk and burden sharing. On the other, some allies see benefits to further reductions in the remaining arsenal in the cause of global disarmament. This study presents first the questions and issues for NATO and the future alternatives for NATO nuclear policy. Then, the views from United States, Germany, Turkey, Central and Eastern Europe, Italy and Spain are successively reviewed
Due to little information exchange between Irish freshwater biologists, a seminar was was held to help broaden and share the knowledge of those participating in professional or amateur freshwater biology in Ireland.
It is a pleasure to write a few words as an introduction to the proceedings of the 1980 NATO ASI on "Physical Processes in Laser Naterial Interaction." This ASI is the ninth course of a series devoted to lasers and their applications, held under the responsibility of the Quantum Electronics Division of the European Physical Society, and for this reason known as the "Europhysics School of Quantum Electronics." Since 1971 the School has been operating with the joint direc tion of myself as representative of the academic research, and Dr. D. Roess (formerly with Siemens AEG, Munich, and now with Sick, Optik und Electronik, GmbH, Munich) for the industrial applications. Indeed the aim of the School is to alternate fundamental and applied frontier topics in the area of quantum electronics and modern optics, in order to introduce young research people from universities and industrial R&D laboratories to the new aspects of research opened by the laser.
Abstract. NATO Comprehensive Approach (CA) has been visible on the NATO agenda since it was approved at the Riga summit in 2006. The experience from International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) has been one of the main drivers for NATO to develop CA. CA is described as the way to approach complex conflicts, covering the whole spectrum of political, military, economical, social, infrastructure and information (also known as PMESII) activities. NATO is a predominantly milita...
NATO tegevusest julgeoleku ja stabiilsuse tagamiseks Afganistanis, Balkanil, Iraagis. Autori arvates sõltub laienenud NATO tulevik poliitiliste ja sõjaliste reformide läbiviimisest ning partnerluse ja koostöö arendamisest rahvusvaheliste organisatsioonidega, sh Euroopa Liiduga
Young, Derek W.
Ukraine has a resume of achievements in its relations with NATO since 1991. However, at the 2008 Bucharest Summit, the NATO Allies chose not to offer Ukraine a Membership Action Plan. This thesis examines Ukraine's prospects for NATO membership, and investigates the hypothesis that Ukraine's membership aspirations are most affected by two sets of independent variables -- internal and external. The two key internal variables that affect the prospects for Ukraine's accession to NATO are public ...
Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-
Tallinnas toimunud NATO-Ukraina kõrgetasemelistel konsultatsioonidel arutati kaitsereforme, eelarveküsimusi, NATO tähenduse selgitamist ukrainlastele ja muid analoogseid teemasid. President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese kõnest konsultatsioonide avamisel. Vt. samas: NATO-Ukraina kohtumine
Helme, Mart, 1949-
Ilmunud ka: Hiiumaa 23. november lk. 5. Millisesse NATO-sse Eesti läheb ja kuidas mõjutab NATO laienemine Põhjala riike ning Venemaad. Vt. samas: Hinnang NATO laienemisele: George Robertson, George W. Bush, Sergei Ivanov (Venemaa kaitseminister), Gennadi Zjuganov
Andrea S Viczian
Full Text Available Tremendous progress has been made in recent years to generate retinal cells from pluripotent cell sources. These advances provide hope for those suffering from blindness due to lost retinal cells. Understanding the intrinsic genetic network in model organisms, like fly and frog, has led to a better understanding of the extrinsic signaling pathways necessary for retinal progenitor cell formation in mouse and human cell cultures. This review focuses on the culture methods used by different groups, which has culminated in the generation of laminated retinal tissue from both embryonic and induced pluripotent cells. The review also briefly describes advances made in transplantation studies using donor retinal progenitor and cultured retinal cells.
In the years after the Cold War NATO "operates in an environment of continuing change" and has undergone a deep rooted transformation concerning its strategy, membership and operations. Initially NATO was conceived as an alliance with the aim of protecting its members' territory from a large-scale aggression emanating from an "enemy" (after 1955 the Warsaw Pact became such an enemy). Its planning was based on the classical concept of war, i.e. confrontation of big military units on a broad th...
Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.
Russian actions in Ukraine have altered the security land- scape in Europe, highlighting a renewed emphasis on the differences between members and non-members. In this context, NATO must a) create a strategic understanding of partnerships as something that can be transformative, even if it will not...... lead to membership in the short or even long term, and b) build such a strategic relationship with Ukraine. In sum, the Russian-induced Ukraine crisis should spur the reform of NATO partnerships – with Ukraine as a case in point....
Pollination biology is the study of the various biological features in relation to the event of pollen transfer. It is one of the central concerns of plant reproductive ecology and evolutionary biology. In this paper, we attempt to introduce the main advances and some new interests in pollination biology and make a brief review of the research work that has been done in China in recent years. We also give some insights into the study that we intend to carry out in this field in the future.
Over the last twenty years increased attention has been focused on the military uses of Bacterial, Biological and Chemical agents (BBC weapons). This phenomenon can be attributed to a number of reasons. Firstly, BBC weapons are comparatively cheap and simple to produce, they are easy to use as conventional weapons and their effects are short-lived. The mutual deterrence effect of nuclear weapons, furthermore, has necessitated the exploration of other fields of warfare of which - BBC warfare i...
Advances in histochemical and cell biological techniques enable increasingly refined investigations into the cellular and subcellular distribution of specific molecules and into their role in dynamic processes; thus progress in these fields complements the growing knowledge in genomics and proteomics. The present review summarizes recent technical progress and novel applications. PMID:12483316
Suzanne Renick Gallagher
Full Text Available Computer science has become ubiquitous in many areas of biological research, yet most high school and even college students are unaware of this. As a result, many college biology majors graduate without adequate computational skills for contemporary fields of biology. The absence of a computational element in secondary school biology classrooms is of growing concern to the computational biology community and biology teachers who would like to acquaint their students with updated approaches in the discipline. We present a first attempt to correct this absence by introducing a computational biology element to teach genetic evolution into advanced biology classes in two local high schools. Our primary goal was to show students how computation is used in biology and why a basic understanding of computation is necessary for research in many fields of biology. This curriculum is intended to be taught by a computational biologist who has worked with a high school advanced biology teacher to adapt the unit for his/her classroom, but a motivated high school teacher comfortable with mathematics and computing may be able to teach this alone. In this paper, we present our curriculum, which takes into consideration the constraints of the required curriculum, and discuss our experiences teaching it. We describe the successes and challenges we encountered while bringing this unit to high school students, discuss how we addressed these challenges, and make suggestions for future versions of this curriculum.We believe that our curriculum can be a valuable seed for further development of computational activities aimed at high school biology students. Further, our experiences may be of value to others teaching computational biology at this level. Our curriculum can be obtained at http://ecsite.cs.colorado.edu/?page_id=149#biology or by contacting the authors.
Full Text Available Over the last twenty years increased attention has been focused on the military uses of Bacterial, Biological and Chemical agents (BBC weapons. This phenomenon can be attributed to a number of reasons. Firstly, BBC weapons are comparatively cheap and simple to produce, they are easy to use as conventional weapons and their effects are short-lived. The mutual deterrence effect of nuclear weapons, furthermore, has necessitated the exploration of other fields of warfare of which - BBC warfare is a field. Another reason for this interest is the employment, on a limited scale, of such weapons in certain conflicts over this period.
Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-
NATO peakorteris Brüsselis Balti riikide ajakirjanikele esinenud Leedu suursaadik NATO juures Linas Linkevicius ei eitanud plaani asutada Leetu energeetikajulgeoleku keskus. Eesti suursaadiku Jüri Luige ja NATO peasekretäri Jaap de Hoop Schefferi arvamused
NATO rollist tuumarelvavaba maailma poole liikumisel. Kui rahvusvaheline isolatsioon ja sanktsioonid ei pane tuumariiki vastutustundlikult käituma, ei muuda tõenäoliselt asja ka NATO mis tahes samm ses küsimuses. NATO tuumaheidutusest
Since the end of the Cold War, NATO has attributed great importance to the development of cooperation with Russia. This thesis, first, evaluates the main developments in NATO - Russian relations since 1991. Although Moscow and the Alliance established a NATO - Russia Council (NRC) and asserted the initiation of a qualitatively new relationship, Russia still needs to fulfill some requirements for catching up the Western standards. Russia's external relations and political, economic and securit...
Mutt, Mihkel, 1953-
Ilmunud ka: Infopress 10. nov. nr. 45 lk. 149. Autor on seisukohal, et Iraagi stsenaarium ähvardab jätkuda Afganistanis ning ka NATO vägesid ootab suure tõenäosusega lüüasaamine. Kui NATO tulevane printsiip tähendab "soovijate koalitsioone", siis järeldub, et Eesti ei saa võimaliku ohu korral loota NATO automaatsele täisabile
S. White; Korosteleva, J.; Allison, R.
Relations between Russia, Ukraine and Belarus and NATO have placed more emphasis on cooperation than confrontation since the Cold War, and Ukraine has begun to move towards membership. At the popular level, on the evidence of national surveys in 2004 and 2005, NATO continues to be perceived as a significant threat, but in Russia and Ukraine it comes behind the United States (in Belarus the numbers are similar). There are few socioeconomic predictors of support for NATO membership that are ...
Imblum, Mark A.
NATO enlargement and the European Union's growing dependence on external energy supplies controlled by Russia have simultaneously developed into crucial security issues in Europe. The emerging interaction between Alliance enlargement and energy policies may yet affect Ukraine's future relationship with NATO as well as Russia and even determine which direction NATO takes regarding Ukraine's candidacy for membership. As the leading natural gas exporter with the largest proven gas reserves i...
Cataloged from PDF version of article. NATO, which has been throughout the Cold War a collective defense organization, was considered either useless or out of date with the end of the Cold War. However, as it did in the early years of the Cold War, habitually originating from its own dynamics, NATO transformed itself in order to meet the imperatives of the post-Cold War international environment. The geographical enlargement of NATO is the centerpiece of this whole transform...
Dai, Zongjie; Nielsen, Jens
resources. The objective of systems biology is to gain a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of living cells and can hereby enhance our ability to characterize and predict cellular behavior. Systems biology of industrial microorganisms is therefore valuable for metabolic engineering. Here we review...... the application of systems biology tools for the identification of metabolic engineering targets which may lead to reduced development time for efficient cell factories. Finally, we present some perspectives of systems biology for advancing metabolic engineering further.......Development of sustainable processes to produce bio-based compounds is necessary due to the severe environmental problems caused by the use of fossil resources. Metabolic engineering can facilitate the development of highly efficient cell factories to produce these compounds from renewable...
Full Text Available Most complementary medicine is distinguished by not being supported by underlying theory accepted by Western science. However, for those who accept their validity, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM modalities offer clues to understanding physiology and medicine more deeply. Ayurveda and vibrational medicine are stimulating new approaches to biological regulation. The new biophysics can be integrated to yield a single consistent theory, which may well underly much of CAM—a true ‘physics of physick’. The resulting theory seems to be a new, fundamental theory of health and etiology. It suggests that many CAM approaches to health care are scientifically in advance of those based on current Western biology. Such theories may well constitute the next steps in our scientific understanding of biology itself. If successfully developed, these ideas could result in a major paradigm shift in both biology and medicine, which will benefit all interested parties—consumers, health professionals, scientists, institutions and governments.
Most complementary medicine is distinguished by not being supported by underlying theory accepted by Western science. However, for those who accept their validity, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities offer clues to understanding physiology and medicine more deeply. Ayurveda and vibrational medicine are stimulating new approaches to biological regulation. The new biophysics can be integrated to yield a single consistent theory, which may well underly much of CAM-a true 'physics of physick'. The resulting theory seems to be a new, fundamental theory of health and etiology. It suggests that many CAM approaches to health care are scientifically in advance of those based on current Western biology. Such theories may well constitute the next steps in our scientific understanding of biology itself. If successfully developed, these ideas could result in a major paradigm shift in both biology and medicine, which will benefit all interested parties-consumers, health professionals, scientists, institutions and governments. PMID:15841271
After the end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, NATO and Russia concluded that «they no longer regarded each other as adversaries» (NATO, 1997).They also soon began a gradual rapprochement. In 1997, the Founding Act was created, and in 2002, the NATO-Russia Council (NRC) was established. The aim of the NRC was to treat the actors as equal partners, build trust, practical cooperation and become the main forum for crisis and security consultation between NATO and ...
This volume collects the lectures presented at the ninth ESI School held at Archamps (FR) in November 2006 and is dedicated to nuclear physics applications in molecular imaging. The lectures focus on the multiple facets of image reconstruction processing and management and illustrate the role of digital imaging in clinical practice. Medical computing and image reconstruction are introduced by analysing the underlying physics principles and their implementation, relevant quality aspects, clinical performance and recent advancements in the field. Several stages of the imaging process are specifically addressed, e.g. optimisation of data acquisition and storage, distributed computing, physiology and detector modelling, computer algorithms for image reconstruction and measurement in tomography applications, for both clinical and biomedical research applications. All topics are presented with didactical language and style, making this book an appropriate reference for students and professionals seeking a comprehen...
This ASI- which was also the 28th session of the Seminaire de mathematiques superieures of the Universite de Montreal - was devoted to Fractal Geometry and Analysis. The present volume is the fruit of the work of this Advanced Study Institute. We were fortunate to have with us Prof. Benoit Mandelbrot - the creator of numerous concepts in Fractal Geometry - who gave a series of lectures on multifractals, iteration of analytic functions, and various kinds of fractal stochastic processes. Different foundational contributions for Fractal Geometry like measure theory, dy namical systems, iteration theory, branching processes are recognized. The geometry of fractal sets and the analytical tools used to investigate them provide a unifying theme of this book. The main topics that are covered are then as follows. Dimension Theory. Many definitions of fractional dimension have been proposed, all of which coincide on "regular" objects, but often take different values for a given fractal set. There is ample discussion ...
Alloin, D. M.; Mariotti, J.-M.
Recent advances in optics and observation techniques for very large astronomical telescopes are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include Fourier optics and coherence, optical propagation and image formation through a turbulent atmosphere, radio telescopes, continuously deformable telescopes for optical interferometry (I), amplitude estimation from speckle I, noise calibration of speckle imagery, and amplitude estimation from diluted-array I. Consideration is given to first-order imaging methods, speckle imaging with the PAPA detector and the Knox-Thompson algorithm, phase-closure imaging, real-time wavefront sensing and adaptive optics, differential I, astrophysical programs for high-angular-resolution optical I, cophasing telescope arrays, aperture synthesis for space observatories, and lunar occultations for marcsec resolution.
Spent bleaching effluents (from chlorination (C) and extraction (E) stages) of a sulfate pulp mill were subjected to bench-scale biological and advanced treatment. Although > 90 % of the influent BOD5 could be removed in an activated sludge process, the effluent still contained high amounts of resistant substances. The maximum COD removal was about 50 %; the removal rates achieved in the parameters TOC, DOC, AOX, SAK (254 nm) were even lower. The biological treatment led to an increase in color (436 nm) up to 40 %. The biologically pretreated effluent was further treated by ozone or ozone/irradiation. The DOC, COD, color (436 nm), SAK (254 nm) and AOX removal rates amounted to 61 %, 81 %, 98 %, 92 % and 92 %, respectively. These methods led simultaneously to an increase in biological biodegradability as reflected by an increase in BOD5. A comparison of the results obtained for raw and biologically pretreated wastewaters showed that biodegradable substances should first be removed from the wastewater since otherwise the effectiveness of these methods decreased. The coagulation/flocculation of biologically pretreated effluent showed that FeCl3 was the most effective coagulant and that removal rates > 90 % could be achieved. The treatment with various powder activated carbons showed that a dosage of 10 g/l was required to achieve elimination rates > 90 % in the parameters DOC, COD, color (436 nm) and SAK (254 nm). Adsorption isotherms were developed for every activated carbon and adsorption constants were calculated. (author)
In comparison with other countries Yugoslavia is very rich by great genetic, species and ecosystem diversity. The territory of Yugoslavia is 102173 km2, it is only 0,07% of world's land and 2,1% of the European continent. We have 6 biomes, 5 of the 12 terrestrial biomes of the world and biome of the sea as sixth biome. According to the international criteria the territory of Yugoslavia is one of the six European and one of the 153 world's centers of biological diversity. In period from March 24. until June 10. 1999. NATO carried out more than 35000 assaults against the Yugoslavia. All these have lasting consequences on the health of the entire population and the environment with prominent transboundary effects. Many species have become extinct due to the NATO bombings, and wildlife has started migrating and abandoning its natural habitat. The necessity of future scientifically based monitoring is evident and also very strong protection of biodiversity. (author)
De Vos, Winnok H., E-mail: email@example.com [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Cell Systems and Imaging Research Group, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Beghuin, Didier [Lambda-X, Nivelles (Belgium); Schwarz, Christian J. [European Space Agency (ESA), ESTEC, TEC-MMG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Jones, David B. [Institute for Experimental Orthopaedics and Biomechanics, Philipps University, Marburg (Germany); Loon, Jack J. W. A. van [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, VU University Medical Center and Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K. [Physical Biology, BMLS (FB15, IZN), Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.
As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy
Lam, David M; Poropatich, Ronald K; Gilbert, Gary R
As the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) has evolved its doctrine from that of strictly national medical support during operations to that of multinational medical support, the importance of, and the need for, telemedicine standardization has become apparent. This article describes the efforts made by NATO in recent years to begin the process of telemedicine (TMED) standardization within the Alliance. PMID:15689651
Prahas 21.-22. novembrini 2002 toimunud NATO tippkohtumisest ja seal vastu võetud otsusest Balti riikide alliansiga ühinemise kohta. Vt. samas: Russia's attitude to the NATO enlargement; Bush in Vilnius; Baltic states' prime ministers' met; Supporting USA?
Kats, Josef, 1977-
Tallinnas toimunud NATO-Ukraina kõrgetasemelistel konsultatsioonidel, millest võtsid osa NATO peasekretär Jaap de Hoop Scheffer, Ameerika Ühendriikide kaitseminister Robert Gates, Ukraina kaitseminister Juri Jehhanurov ja Eesti Vabariigi president Toomas Hendrik Ilves, räägiti asjaoludest, mis takistavad Ukraina liitumist NATOga
NATO-3C, the third in a series of NATO defense-related communication satellites, is scheduled to be launched on a delta vehicle from the Eastern Test Range no earlier than November 15, 1978. NATO-3A and -3B were successfully launched by Delta vehicles in April 1976 and January 1977, respectively. The NATO-3C spacecraft will be capable of transmitting voice, data, facsimile, and telex messages among military ground stations. The launch vehicle for the NATO-3C mission will be the Delta 2914 configuration. The launch vehicle is to place the spacecraft in a synchronous transfer orbit. The spacecraft Apogee Kick motor is to be fired at fifth transfer orbit apogee to circularize its orbit at geosynchronous altitude of 35,900 km(22,260 miles) above the equator over the Atlantic Ocean somewhere between 45 and 50 degrees W longitude.
Aaviksoo, Jaak, 1954-
Albaania ja Horvaatia kirjutasid alla NATO liitumisprotokollidele. Kaitseminister tõstab esile nende pingutusi liitumiseks NATO-ga ning nende panust Afganistanis ning leiab, et NATO ja küllap tulevikus ka EL-i laienemisega Balkanile täidame oma auvõla. NATO laienemisest
Ameerika Ühendriikide välisminister Condoleezza Rice kritiseeris NATO tippkohtumisel Valgevene presidenti Aleksandr Lukashenkot, nimetades tema režiimi Euroopa viimaseks diktatuuriks. NATO tippkohtumisest Leedus. Lisad: NATO foorumi kultuuriline programm; NATO peasekretär Jaap de Hoop Scheffer
Boseman, Adam J.
This work investigates developmental and structural biology at the nanoscale using current advancements in particle beam microscopy. Typically the examination of micro- and nanoscale features is performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), but in order to decrease surface charging, and increase resolution, an obscuring conductive layer is applied to the sample surface. As magnification increases, this layer begins to limit the ability to identify nanoscale surface structures. A new technology, Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM), is used to examine uncoated surface structures on the cuticle of wild type and mutant fruit flies. Corneal nanostructures observed with HIM are further investigated by FIB/SEM to provide detailed three dimensional information about internal events occurring during early structural development. These techniques are also used to reconstruct a mosquito germarium in order to characterize unknown events in early oogenesis. Findings from these studies, and many more like them, will soon unravel many of the mysteries surrounding the world of developmental biology.
Moheimani, Navid Reza; de Boer, Karne; Bahri, Parisa
This comprehensive book details the most recent advances in the microalgae biological sciences and engineering technologies for biomass and biofuel production in order to meet the ongoing need for new and affordable sources of food, chemicals and energy for future generations. The chapters explore new microalgae cultivation techniques, including solid (biofilm) systems, and heterotrophic production methods, while also critically investigating topics such as combining wastewater as a source of nutrients, the effect of CO2 on growth, and converting biomass to methane through anaerobi
Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-
Bukarestis toimuvast NATO tippkohtumisest, kus Ukraina ja Gruusia ei saanud NATO liikmesuse tegevuskava, samuti ei saanud liitumiskutset Makedoonia. Eest poliitikute suhtumine NATO laienemisse. Vt. samas: Makedoonlased vastasid lahkumisega
NATO peasekretäri hinnangul on NATO tegevuses hetkel olulised neli elementi: Balkani kriisi reguleerimine, kaitseinvesteeringute edendamine, Euroopa tõhusa kaitsepotentsiaali loomine ning NATO laiendamine
The ongoing Ukraine crisis is believed to be the most significant geopolitical incident after the fall of Berlin Wall.It deeply influences,among others,the future development of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization),which is the world's largest military alliance and western countries'ace in the hole in case of security emergency.The crisis enhances the status and influence of NATO on the international arena,as well as impacts NATO's transition process since the end of Cold War.The old question of Where will NATO go again becomes a hot topic.%The ongoing Ukraine crisis is believed to be the most significant geopolitical incident after the fall of Berlin Wall．It deeply influences，among others，the future development of NATO （North Atlantic Treaty Organization），which is the world＇s largest military alliance and western countries＇ace in the hole in case of security emergency．The crisis enhances the status and influence of NATO on the international arena，as well as impacts NATO＇s transition process since the end of Cold War．The old question of Where will NATO go again becomes a hot topic．
Mišević, Petar; Lazibat, Tonći; JURČEVIĆ, Josip
Svrha ovog rada je ispitati utjecaj pristupanja NATO savezu i primjene NATO standarda na razvoj nacionalnog gospodarstva. Osim toga, prikazana je i usporedba NATO standarda za kvalitetu i ISO 9001 standarda i njihova važnost za gospodarstvo neke zemlje. Utjecaj pristupanja NATO savezu i primjene NATO standarda na gospodarsku situaciju države očituje se putem direktnih i indirektnih utjecaja. Direktne koristi uključuju smanjenje iznosa potrebnog za obranu zemlje, otvaranje novih poslovnih m...
Research Paper, Academic Research Branch, NATO Defense College, Rome - No. 25, December 2005. On 3-4 November 2005 the NATO Defense College hosted a seminar, co-sponsored by the Ministry of Defense of Finland, regarding NATO and European Union post-conflict reconstruction operations. The participants included officials from NATO and the EU, as well as experts and officials from NATO, EU, and Partnership for Peace nations. The seminar objectives included: – promoting mo...
This collection of papers is the result of a symposium sponsored by NATO's Defense Research Group Panel VIII in the Spring of 1985. The symposium came into being when it became obvious to the NATO countries that research, development and utilization of advanced technologies for training was the best means of increasing both training effectiveness and efficiency. This symposium was the second in a series of three devoted to training. The series was structured to cover all aspects of training. The first series addressed the value of training, the second one dealt with the application of training technologies and the third and last of the series focused on academic issues concerned with the effect of prior learning on subsequent learning. The fact that a major American publisher has determined that computer based instruction is the technology of greatest interest to the NATO community is not surprising. Advances in microprocessor technology have revolutionized both how and where we train. During this symposium t...
Full Text Available NATO answered a call for assistance from the African Union (AU in theirAMIS mission in the Darfur region of Sudan in April 2005, providing airlift andtraining in conjunction with the European Union until the end of the mission inDecember 2007. This was the first time that NATO entertained a task on the Africancontinent. NATO undertook the mission on humanitarian grounds without invokingany treaty and without any member state’s security being under any direct threat.This was a milestone in NATO’s history, and it provides a case to understandingregional alliances, regionalism and the development of trans-regionalism.
Keating, Vincent Charles
– particularly given the historical (and even current) animosities between some of the member states. How is it that so many states can work together given the structural bias towards distrust in the international system? Given the goal of the papers on this panel to investigate how NATO might in fact facilitate...... trust-building among its members, this paper represents an initial attempt to consider how the question of trust can be considered with respect to the existing literature on both alliances and NATO. In doing so, it brings together three literatures: trust theory, alliance theory, and NATO studies, in...... order to reveal the points of intersection that might help us to understand how and why trusting relationships can be formed within the NATO alliance....
Eestis investeerib enam kui 40 miljonit eurot, mis võimaldab võõrustada senisest suuremal hulgal liitlaste vägesid ning rajada Eestisse ka varustuse eelpaigutuse, tankide harjutusala ning NATO staabi
Kaitseväe juhataja kindralmajor Riho Terrase sõnul suureneb lähiaastatel NATO õppuste roll Euroopas, sest Afganistanis sõdides saadud kogemust on vaja säilitada ning kasutada seda kollektiivkaitse tugevdamiseks
In a special meeting of Foreign and Defense Ministers, the NATO alliance on 12 December 1979 decided to modernize its long range theater nuclear forces (LRTNF) through the deployment in Europe of 572 Pershing II and ground launched cruise missiles (GLCM). This decision was accompanied by an offer from the US to the U.S.S.R. to negotiate limitations on these LRTNF which would be global, equal, and verifiable. The story of NATO's dual-track decision as well as the INF Treaty is well chronicled. What is missing is a detailed study of the processes within the US government and the NATO alliance by which the LRTNF decisions were made. The role that analysis played, and the lessons that can be drawn for future policies on NATO's theater nuclear forces are discussed
According to the Clingendael Report – New Treats, New EU and NATO responses – from July 2015 issued by the Netherlands Institute of International Relations, the changes in the security environment of Europe ask for a prudent response from the part of EU and NATO member countries. Since the adoption of NATO’s new Strategic Concept at the Lisbon Summit in November 2010, which identifies the need for the Alliance to address emerging security challenges, several new areas of cooper...
Huiskamp, W.; Igarza, J.L.; Voiculet, A.
Open and common standards are essential enablers for simulation interoperability and re-use. This includes: Technical architecture standards - e.g. HLA - the High Level Architecture, Data interchange standards - e.g. SEDRIS - Synthetic Environment Data Representation and Interchange Specification, and Best practices - e.g. DSEEP – Distributed Simulation Engineering and Execution Process. The NATO Modelling and Simulation Group (NMSG), the NATO Delegated Tasking Authority for standardisa...
Teufert, John F.; Trabelsi, Mourad
An important element for the fielding of a viable, effective NATO Response Force (NRF) is access to meteorological, oceanographic, geospatial data (GEOMETOC) and imagery. Currently, the available GEOMETOC information suffers from being very fragmented. NATO defines the Recognised Environmental Picture as controlled information base for GEOMETOC data. The NATO REP proposes an architecture that is both flexible and open. The focus lies on enabling a network-centric approach. The key into achieving this is relying on using open, well recognized standards that apply to both the data exchange protocols and the data formats. Communication and information exchange based on open standards enables system interoperability. Diverse systems, each with unique, specialized contributions to an increased understanding of the battlespace, can now cooperate to a manageable information sphere. By clearly defining responsibilities in the generation of information, a reduction in data transfer overhead is achieved . REP identifies three main stages in the dissemination of GEOMETOC data. These are Collection, Fusion (and Analysis) and Publication. A REP architecture has been successfully deployed during the NATO Coalition Warrior Interoperability Demonstration (CWID) in Lillehammer, Norway during June 2005. CWID is an annual event to validate and improve the interoperability of NATO and national Consultation and command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems. With a test case success rate of 84%, it was able to provide relevant GEOMETOC support to the main NRF component headquarters. In 2006, the REP architecture will be deployed and validated during the NATO NRF Steadfast live exercises.
Malashchenko, Vitaliy B.
This thesis examines the evolution of post-Cold War U.S. policy towards NATO as a case study of the way in which domestic and international pressures interact to shape security policy. I argue that the expansion of U.S. commitments to post-Cold War Europe corresponds to the way key U.S. policymaking institutions have framed American national interests. President Clinton, his key advisers and Republican leaders of Congress emphasize that NATO enlargement advances American interests by accelera...
Full Text Available The marine environment is host to unparalleled biological and chemical diversity, making it an attractive resource for the discovery of new therapeutics for a plethora of diseases. Compounds that are extracted from cyanobacteria are of special interest due to their unique structural scaffolds and capacity to produce potent pharmaceutical and biotechnological traits. Calothrixins A and B are two cyanobacterial metabolites with a structural assembly of quinoline, quinone, and indole pharmacophores. This review surveys recent advances in the synthesis and evaluation of the biological activities of calothrixins. Due to the low isolation yields from the marine source and the promise this scaffold holds for anticancer and antimicrobial drugs, organic and medicinal chemists around the world have embarked on developing efficient synthetic routes to produce calothrixins. Since the first review appeared in 2009, 11 novel syntheses of calothrixins have been published in the efforts to develop methods that contain fewer steps and higher-yielding reactions. Calothrixins have shown their potential as topoisomerase I poisons for their cytotoxicity in cancer. They have also been observed to target various aspects of RNA synthesis in bacteria. Further investigation into the exact mechanism for their bioactivity is still required for many of its analogs.
Xu, Su; Nijampatnam, Bhavitavya; Dutta, Shilpa; Velu, Sadanandan E
The marine environment is host to unparalleled biological and chemical diversity, making it an attractive resource for the discovery of new therapeutics for a plethora of diseases. Compounds that are extracted from cyanobacteria are of special interest due to their unique structural scaffolds and capacity to produce potent pharmaceutical and biotechnological traits. Calothrixins A and B are two cyanobacterial metabolites with a structural assembly of quinoline, quinone, and indole pharmacophores. This review surveys recent advances in the synthesis and evaluation of the biological activities of calothrixins. Due to the low isolation yields from the marine source and the promise this scaffold holds for anticancer and antimicrobial drugs, organic and medicinal chemists around the world have embarked on developing efficient synthetic routes to produce calothrixins. Since the first review appeared in 2009, 11 novel syntheses of calothrixins have been published in the efforts to develop methods that contain fewer steps and higher-yielding reactions. Calothrixins have shown their potential as topoisomerase I poisons for their cytotoxicity in cancer. They have also been observed to target various aspects of RNA synthesis in bacteria. Further investigation into the exact mechanism for their bioactivity is still required for many of its analogs. PMID:26771620
Barberet, P; Seznec, H
Charged-particle microbeams (CPMs) allow the targeting of sub-cellular compartments with a counted number of energetic ions. While initially developed in the late 1990s to overcome the statistical fluctuation on the number of traversals per cell inevitably associated with broad beam irradiations, CPMs have generated a growing interest and are now used in a wide range of radiation biology studies. Besides the study of the low-dose cellular response that has prevailed in the applications of these facilities for many years, several new topics have appeared recently. By combining their ability to generate highly clustered damages in a micrometric volume with immunostaining or live-cell GFP labelling, a huge potential for monitoring radiation-induced DNA damage and repair has been introduced. This type of studies has pushed end-stations towards advanced fluorescence microscopy techniques, and several microbeam lines are currently equipped with the state-of-the-art time-lapse fluorescence imaging microscopes. In addition, CPMs are nowadays also used to irradiate multicellular models in a highly controlled way. This review presents the latest developments and applications of charged-particle microbeams to radiation biology. PMID:25911406
8. oktoobril Eestis visiidil viibinud NATO peasekretär Anders Fogh Rasmussen kohtus president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese ja välisminister Urmas Paetiga. Teemadeks oli Afganistanis toimuv, NATO ja viimase suhted Venemaaga
Tabrizi, Gelareh Bankian; Mehrvar, Mehrab
The greatest challenge of today's wastewater treatment technology is to optimize the use of biological and chemical wastewater treatment processes. The choice of the process and/or integration of the processes depend strongly on the wastewater characteristics, concentrations, and the desired efficiencies. It has been observed by many investigators that the coupling of a bioreactor and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) could reduce the final concentrations of the effluent to the desired values. However, optimizing the total cost of the treatment is a challenge, as AOPs are much more expensive than biological processes alone. Therefore, an appropriate design should not only consider the ability of this coupling to reduce the concentration of organic pollutants, but also try to obtain the desired results in a cost effective process. To consider the total cost of the treatment, the residence time in biological and photochemical reactors, the kinetic rates, and the capital and operating costs of the reactors play significant roles. In this study, recent developments and trends (1996-2003) on the integration of photochemical and biological processes for the degradation of problematic pollutants in wastewater have been reviewed. The conditions to get the optimum results from this integration have also been considered. In most of the studies, it has been shown that the integrated processes were more efficient than individual processes. However, slight changes in the configuration of the reactors, temperature, pH, treatment time, concentration of the oxidants, and microorganism's colonies could lead to a great deviation in results. It has also been demonstrated that the treatment cost in both reactors is a function of time, which changes by the flow rate. The minimum cost in the coupling of the processes cannot be achieved unless considering the best treatment time in chemical and biological reactors individually. PMID:15533022
Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.
Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-
NATO on demokraatlike riikide poliitiline ühendus, selle peaülesanne väljendub poliitilises julgeolekukoostöös. Koos EL-iga on NATO suutnud vähendada konflikte ja üritab laiendada julgeolekukoostööd Aasiasse ja Aafrikasse. NATO rakendas oma sõjajõudu esimest korda 1993-1996 Bosnias. NATO-ga liitunud riikidest. Graafikud
Raluca Iulia IULIAN
After the end of the Cold War, an important element of the European and international security structure is the cooperation between NATO and Russia in security and stability fields. NATO had the initiative to develop security organizations to approach Russia and create a partnership. The best security structure is represented by the NATO-Russia Council, a form of cooperation between a state, Russia and an international alliance, NATO. After being institutionalized a collaboration, with some i...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Major non-NATO ally. 120.32 Section 120.32... § 120.32 Major non-NATO ally. Major non-NATO ally means a country that is designated in accordance with § 517 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2321k) as a major non-NATO ally for purposes...
Jett, Andrew M.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited There is a critical shortfall in dedicated special operations aviation support for the North Atlantic Treaty Organizations (NATO) special operations forces (SOF). One way this shortfall can be addressed is through the procurement and sustainment of an organic NATO SOF Air Wing. In 2006, NATOs Heads of State and Governments endorsed the NATO Special Operations Forces Transformation Initiative, creating what would eventually become the N...
Bacteria separated from a mature filter bed of groundwater treatment plants were incubated in a culture media containing iron and manganese. A consortium of 5 strains of bacteria removing iron and manganese were obtained by repeated enrichment culturing. It was shown from the experiments of effect factors that ironmanganese removal bacteria in the culture media containing both Fe and Mn grew better than in that containing only Fe, however, they were unable to grow in the culture media containing only Mn. When comparing the bacteria biomass in the case ofρ (DO) =2.8 mg/L andρ (DO) =9.0 mg/L, no significant difference was found.The engineering bacteria removing the organic and the bacteria removing iron and manganese were simultaneously inoculated into activated carbon reactor to treat the effluent of distribution network. The experimental results showed that by using IBAC ( Immobilization Biological Activated Carbon) treatment, the removal efficiency of iron, manganese and permanganate index was more than 98% , 96% and 55% , respectively. After the influent with turbidity of 1.5 NTU, color of 25 degree and offensive odor was treated, the turbidity and color of effluence were less than 0.5 NTU and 15 degree, respectively, and it was odorless. It is determined that the cooperation function of engineering bacteria and activated carbon achieved advanced drinking water treatment.
Leonard, John P; Williams, Michael E; Goy, Andre; Grant, Steven; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Rosen, Steve T; Sweetenham, John W
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) exhibits considerable molecular heterogeneity and complexity, and is regarded as one of the most challenging lymphomas to treat. With increased understanding of the pathobiology of MCL, it is proposed that MCL is the result of 3 major converging factors, namely, deregulated cell cycle pathways, defects in DNA damage responses, and dysregulation of cell survival pathways. In the present era of targeted therapies, these biologic insights have resulted in the identification of several novel rational targets for therapeutic intervention in MCL that are undergoing active clinical testing. To date, there is no standard of care in MCL. Several approaches including conventional anthracycline-based therapies and intensive high-dose strategies with and without stem cell transplantation have failed to produce durable remissions for most patients. Moreover, considering the heterogeneity of MCL, it is increasingly being recognized that risk-adapted therapy might be a relevant therapeutic approach in this disease. At the first and second Global Workshops on Mantle Cell Lymphoma, questions addressing advances in the pathobiology of MCL, optimization of existing therapies, assessment of current data with novel therapeutic strategies, and the identification of molecular or phenotypic risk factors for utilization in risk-adapted therapies were discussed and will be summarized herein. PMID:19717376
Kunnas, Leo, 1967-
NATO-l puudub Baltikumi kaitse plaan. Eesti huvides on, et näiteks küberkaitse ja energiajulgeoleku küsimusi käsitletaks NATO laia julgeolekukäsitluse raames ega jäetaks iga liikmesriigi enda mureks. Samas ei vabasta NATO liikmesus kohustusest oma julgeoleku eest vastutada, ütleb autor
Tallinnas toimunud NATO-Ukraina kõrgetasemelistest konsultatsioonidest. Ukraina kaitseministri Juri Jehhanurovi sõnul on üks suurimaid takistusi teel NATO liikmes avalik arvamus, mis pole selgelt NATO-ga liitumise poolt ega vastu, muret teevad Venemaa katsed mõjutada Ukrainas elavaid venelasi
Fritzsche, K. Peter
When analyzing the degree to which a balanced presentation of NATO is achieved in West German history and civics textbooks, two standards may be used: first, inclusion of information on NATO's formation, aims, strategies and achievements; and, second, inclusion of the criticisms that have been leveled at NATO from various points of view. This…
Miles, Michael; Schuster, Heidi
In this high school U.S. government and U.S. history curriculum unit, students examine in depth the expansion of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Detailed activities are provided to teach students about the origins of NATO, its impact on U.S. foreign policy, and its future directions, particularly the enlargement of NATO in the…
Rupp, Richard E
NATO eesmärkidest läbi aegade, külma sõja järgse üleminekuaja mõjudest NATO arengule, laienemisega seonduvast temaatikast lähtuvalt Leedu, Rumeenia ja Venemaa seisukohtadest ning NATO tulevikuväljavaadetest
Oppgaven analyserer amerikansk utenrikspolitisks diskurs med tanke på utfordringer knyttet til NATO. Selv om NATO i utgangspunktet er ansett som en vellykket allianse har den, særlig siden slutten av den kalde krigen, vært et tema for flere debatter. Denne oppgaven tar for seg fire debatter som har vært sentrale rundt NATO og setter de i sammenheng med større spørsmål i amerikansk utenrikspolitikk. En av debattene er strukturelle og omhandler det transatlantiske forholdet, mens de andre er kn...
Full Text Available NATO (The North Atlantic Treaty Organization – OTAN (Organisation du Traité de l’Atlantique Nord has been, since its estabslishment, oustandingly receptive to the international security environment developments and has always altered its strategy and strategic concepts in order to meet the afferent challenges, with an emphasis on its purely defensive character. The most favorable moment of this kind have been its summits: Rome (1991, Washington (1999 and Lisbon (2010, on which our paper will focus. The greats mutations in the last decade have called for the creation of the new strategic concept NATO 2010, developed in the Lisbon summit declaration of 19-20 November 2010.
Steurs, Frieda; Kockaert, Hendrik
NATO Conference on Terminology Management 19-20 November 2015 Are ISO Terminology Standards Fit for Terminology Management at the NATO? Hendrik J. Kockaert1,2 & Frieda Steurs1,2,3 KU Leuven1, University of the Free State2, UCO3 Abstract The NATO Terminology Office (NTO) advocates clear and unambiguous communication among its members and partners, following the NATO Policy for Standardization: "NATO documents must contain NATO agreed terminology." It is the NATO Termino...
Turon Teixidor, Genis
The science of miniaturization has experienced revolutionary advances during the last decades, witnessing the development of the Integrated Circuit and the emergence of MEMS and Nanotechnology. Particularly, MEMS technology has pioneered the use of non-traditional materials in microfabrication by including polymers, ceramics and composites to the well known list of metals and semiconductors. One of the latest additions to this set of materials is carbon, which represents a very important inclusion given its significance in electrochemical energy conversion systems and in applications where it is used as sensor probe material. For these applications, carbon is optimal in several counts: It has a wide electrochemical stability window, good electrical and thermal conductivity, high corrosion resistance and mechanical stability, and is available in high purity at a low cost. Furthermore carbon is biocompatible. This thesis presents several microfabricated devices that take advantage of these properties. The thesis has two clearly differentiated parts. In the first one, applications of micromachined carbon in the field of energy conversion and energy storage are presented. These applications include lithium ion micro batteries and the development of new carbon electrodes with fractal geometries. In the second part, the focus shifts to biological applications. First, the study of the interaction of living cells with micromachined carbon is presented, followed by the description of a sensor based on interdigitated nano-electrode arrays, and finally the development of the new instrumentation needed to address arrays of carbon electrodes, a multiplexed potentiostat. The underlying theme that connects all these seemingly different topics is the use of carbon microfabrication techniques in electrochemical systems.
Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Lopilato, Jane
Two distinct courses, "Molecular Biology" taught by the Biology Department and "Advanced Biochemistry" taught by the Chemistry Department, complement each other and, when taught in a coordinated and integrated way, can enhance student learning and understanding of complex material. "Molecular Biology" is a comprehensive lecture-based course with a…
Gonzales, Beata I.
Ukraine's NATO ambitions form a controversial but vital international issue because they implicate the contradictory perspectives of Poland and Russia. The history and self-perceptions of all three states shape and reshape the question of Ukraine joining NATO, as a key step toward westernization, integration, and independence. The challenges of accommodating these competing visions of the past and future are relevant beyond the alliance to all practitioners and scholars of international ...
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The geopolitical change and emergence of new threats, notably terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, forced a reappraisal of the political and security roles of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The Alliance's post- Cold War development, operations in the Balkans, and differences across the Atlantic also provided grounds for a revision of NATO's purely self-defense dimension. The Alliance, after ha...
Suzanne Renick Gallagher; William Coon; Kristin Donley; Abby Scott; GOLDBERG, DEBRA S.
Computer science has become ubiquitous in many areas of biological research, yet most high school and even college students are unaware of this. As a result, many college biology majors graduate without adequate computational skills for contemporary fields of biology. The absence of a computational element in secondary school biology classrooms is of growing concern to the computational biology community and biology teachers who would like to acquaint their students with updated approaches in...
Tallinnas paiknev NATO küberkaitsekoostöö keskus korraldab sel nädalal õppuse «Locked Shields 2015», kus 400 osalejat ning 16 riigi meeskonnad võtavad mõõtu tehniliste küberjuhtumite lahendamises
Vandevanter, E., Jr.
A survey was made of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) coordination of training programs for allied military forces and its implications about collaboration among allies in peacetime. Three types of training were analyzed: (1) higher training, or the coordination of large military formations; (2) unit training of smaller teams; (3)…
Leo Kunnase sõnul on sügisene NATO kiirreageerimisõppus "Steadfast jazz 2013" suuresti mõjutatud septembris toimuvast Venemaa ja Valgevene korraldatud suurõppusest. Kui samaga ei vastataks, jääks alliansist nõrk ja liikmesriikidest hoolimatu mulje
Jun Zou; Ming-Wu Zheng; Gen Li; Zhi-Guang Su
Systems biology is in an exponential development stage in recent years and has been widely utilized in biomedicine to better understand the molecular basis of human disease and the mechanism of drug action. Here, we discuss the fundamental concept of systems biology and its two computational methods that have been commonly used, that is, network analysis and dynamical modeling. The applications of systems biology in elucidating human disease are highlighted, consisting of human disease networ...
NATO peasekretäri poliitikaplaneerimise juht dr. Jamie Shea ja USA Saksa Marshalli Keskuse direktor dr. Ronald Asmus räägivad NATO uuendamise tähtsusest ja selleteemalise avaliku debati vajalikkusest. NATO Riia tippkohtumise ülesandest, Eesti uutest väljakutsetest NATO-s
Ruffing, Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Travis J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Strickland, Lucas Marshall [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meserole, Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tallant, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Cyanobacteria have been shown to be capable of producing a variety of advanced biofuels; however, product yields remain well below those necessary for large scale production. New genetic tools and high throughput metabolic engineering techniques are needed to optimize cyanobacterial metabolisms for enhanced biofuel production. Towards this goal, this project advances the development of a multiple promoter replacement technique for systems-level optimization of gene expression in a model cyanobacterial host: Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. To realize this multiple-target approach, key capabilities were developed, including a high throughput detection method for advanced biofuels, enhanced transformation efficiency, and genetic tools for Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Moreover, several additional obstacles were identified for realization of this multiple promoter replacement technique. The techniques and tools developed in this project will help to enable future efforts in the advancement of cyanobacterial biofuels.
Radiation sterilization of tissues and biologics has become more common in recent years. As a result it has become critical to understand how to adapt the typical test methods and validation approaches to a tissue or biological product scenario. Also data evaluation sometimes becomes more critical than with traditional medical devices because for many tissues and biologics a low radiation dose is required. It is the intent behind this paper to provide information on adapting bioburden tests used in radiation validations such that the data can be most effectively used on tissues and biologics. In addition challenges with data evaluation are discussed, particularly the use of less-than values for bioburden results in radiation validation studies. - Highlights: • MPN testing can provide good bioburden results for tissue/biologics. • There are appropriate situations to pool products for bioburden testing. • Options on dealing with bioburden results of “less-than” the limit of detection. • Underestimation and overestimation of bioburden and the dangers of both
Møller, Hans Henrik
procedures to implement the alliance’s contribution to a comprehensive approach. Even though the “big three,” United States, Britain, and France, hold a predominant position, it is obvious by definition that an alliance cannot adopt a state-centric driven grand strategy. Quite simply, NATO has to literally......Since 2010, a comprehensive approach has been adopted and implemented in planning and conducting all the operations of NATO. It is built on the logic that military operations do not stand alone, but are inherently deep-rooted in the strategic context provided by other strategic instruments of power...... such as the political/diplomatic, economic, and civil society. As effects have to be generated within this multifaceted context, common sense dictated that effect-based thinking for military plans and operations has to become intrinsically tied to the comprehensive approach. Legitimacy is not directly...
Duduială Popescu Lorena
Full Text Available viewed in the context of geopolitical and geostrategic current and through the elements of distinction in terms of identity and cultural institutions, chart Romania - NATO / Israel - EU stands under the sign of the common interest channel, firstly, on common values and hence the collective interests of the partners involved in the two organizational structures. Noteworthy in this context is the extent of bilateral involvement of Romania in the bodies and the politico-military, represented by NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, which is primarily military values and the construction superstate permanent expansion and development - European Union , both generating as much for our country as obligations of a politico-military security, and economic, social, institutional, cultural.
Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-
Peasekretär Jaap de Hoop Schefferi sõnul peab NATO veel arutama, millal sulatada lahti suhted, mis külmutati 19. augustil Gruusia sõja tõttu kokku kutsutud alliansi välisministrite kohtumisel. NATO-Gruusia komisjon arutas Gruusia kaitsereformi. Gruusia ja Ukraina võimalused saada NATO-liikmesuse tegevuskava (MAP) näivad olevat minimaalsed
Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 8. nov. 2007, lk. 2. Hollandis Noordwijkis toimunud NATO kaitseministrite mitteametlikul kohtumisel anti põhimõtteline nõusolek vähendada osa NATO kiirreageerimisüksusesse NRF kuuluvate üksuste arvu. Eesti kaitseväe juhataja Ants Laaneotsa sõnul on see kärpimine Eestile problemaatiline. Lisa: NATO Responce Force
Raluca Iulia IULIAN
The Russian-Georgian conflict represented a turning point in the International Relations, putting on another basis the relation between Russia and Western countries, in general, and between Rusia and NATO, especially. Although it was a short war (8-13 August 2008), it became a key element in the future evolution of NATO to the East, influencing the Russian position towards the West and toward the near abroad. Russia’s military action completed its political action initiated at the NATO Summit...
Ringsmose, Jens; Rynning, Sten
This DIIS Report provides an overview of the political and military issues that are likely to shape the coming discussions about NATO's new Strategic Concept. NATO's current Strategic Concept dates back to 1999 and over the last couple years an increasing number of policy-makers have suggested that it is time to take stock of the transatlantic Alliance. The exercise is significant because the Strategic Concept represents the operational view of the Washington Treaty - the basic text of NATO -...
Smileski, Rose; Hadji-Janev, Metodi
Security challenges have proven that NATO cannot longer rely on sole Military Power. Ranging from Cyber attacks to failed states, from energy security to “Arab Spring’s” democratic transition and from fragile security in Afghanistan to the severe financial crisis NATO have realized that in order to be able effectively to cope with security threats it needs active civilian component. Strategic shift over the past years from geographical to functional security have tasted NATO legitimacy in sev...
Dietzel, Andrew J.
Today, with NATO incorporating policy and strategic changes amid the new perceived threat since September 11, 2001, France must again rethink and recalibrate its nuclear policy. At least since the end of World War II, France has wanted to play a larger role within European politics, financial affairs, defense, and, specifically, it has signified that Paris would offer regional nuclear deterrence for Europe. On the one hand, such an enhancement of Frances profile within European defense and de...
This paper reports that the most immediate threat to Western Europe during the cold ware was the specter of Soviet military superiority looming from the East, proscribing Western political and economic freedom. NATO and the link to U.S. military power deterred political intimidation as well as a less probable military thrust into Central Europe. But these threat have faded under Mikhail Gorbachev, replaced by revolutions in Eastern Europe, the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact, receding Soviet military power, German unification, and the stirring of political and economic freedom nurtured by the West. These events are linked directly to the Gorbachev domestic revolution, a revolution that depends not only on domestic change, but also on political-economic integration with the West and dramatic shifts from defense to domestic investment. New Soviet military thinking, arms control, and unilateral cuts in conventional force structure and dramatic in themselves. But when projected on a new map of Europe, these events call for a major reexamination of NATO military strategy and the future role of the U.S. armed forces in a revised organization. A new strategy for NATO has been quietly taking shape since 1989, the debate often muffled by more dramatic events in the Soviet Union and more recently by war in the Persian Gulf. By the spring of 1991, the broad outlines of a new NATO within a radically new European security regime began to emerge. This chapter assesses both the emerging new strategy and the larger European security environment in which it will evolve
This thesis examines developments in NATO from 1949 to 1999 and discusses NATO's future role in the European security system. The thesis further discusses how particular groups of the Czech society perceive NATO. Since 1949 NATO has developed into the most powerful and the most successful collective defense organization in the world. With the collapse of the communism, NATO had to adapt to the new situation to justify its existence. Since 1990 NATO has significantly changed and is quite diffe...
Carstensen, J.; Nielsen, M.K.; Harremoës, Poul
Advances in on-line monitoring of nutrient salt concentrations and computer technology has created a large potential for the implementation of advanced and complex control strategies in biological nutrient removal systems. The majority of wastewater treatment plants today are operated with very...
Rafael Calduch Cervera
Full Text Available The changes that followed the adoption of the previous NATO's strategic concept in 1999 forced a review of its goals, threats and risks, as well as a new look at the capabilities of the organization at a time dominated by the economic crisis and cuts in its members’ defence budgets.On this occasion, the development of a strategic concept begun with a proposal made by a commission of experts, and a public debate which transformed the final text into a diplomatic document, not into a true useful document capable of guiding strategic planning over the next decade.These differences between the goals established by the document and the actual resources available to NATO were noted immediately with regard to the crisis management system, for which the organization does not possess the structures and civil means. It is not clear either that this limitation can be solved through cooperation with the EU. The involvement of NATO in the international mission in Libya will be the first test to ascertain the validity and effectiveness of this new strategic concept.
Lamond, A.I.; Uhlen, M.; Horning, S.;
a range of sensitive and quantitative approaches for measuring protein structures and dynamics that promise to revolutionize our understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms in both human cells and model organisms. The Proteomics Specification in Time and Space (PROSPECTS) Network is a unique EU...
Full Text Available The design process of complex systems in all the fields of engineering requires a set of quantitatively characterized components and a method to predict the output of systems composed by such elements. This strategy relies on the modularity of the used components or the prediction of their context-dependent behaviour, when parts functioning depends on the specific context. Mathematical models usually support the whole process by guiding the selection of parts and by predicting the output of interconnected systems. Such bottom-up design process cannot be trivially adopted for biological systems engineering, since parts function is hard to predict when components are reused in different contexts. This issue and the intrinsic complexity of living systems limit the capability of synthetic biologists to predict the quantitative behaviour of biological systems. The high potential of synthetic biology strongly depends on the capability of mastering this issue. This review discusses the predictability issues of basic biological parts (promoters, ribosome binding sites, coding sequences, transcriptional terminators, and plasmids when used to engineer simple and complex gene expression systems in Escherichia coli. A comparison between bottom-up and trial-and-error approaches is performed for all the discussed elements and mathematical models supporting the prediction of parts behaviour are illustrated.
Lun Shan; Xiping Deng; Suiqi Zhang
Increasing the efficiency of water use by crops continues to escalate as a topic of concern because drought is a restrictive environmental factor for crop productivity worldwide. Greater yield per unit rainfall is one of the most important challenges in water-saving agriculture. Besides water-saving by irrigation engineering and conservation tillage, a good understanding of factors limiting and/or regulating yield now provides us with an opportunity to identify and then precisely select for physiological and breeding traits that increase the efficiency of water use and drought tolerance under water-limited conditions, biological water-saving is one means of achieving this goat. A definition of biological water-saving measures is proposed which embraces improvements in water-use efficiency (WUE) and drought tolerance, by genetic improvement and physiological regulation. The preponderance of biological water-saving measures is discussed and strategies identified for working within natural resource constraints. The technology and future perspectives of biological water saving could provide not only new water-saving techniques but also a scientific base for application of water-saving irrigation and conservation tillage.
Buron, F; Mérour, J Y; Akssira, M; Guillaumet, G; Routier, S
The interest in pyridopyrimidine cores for pharmaceutical products makes this scaffold a highly useful building block for organic chemistry. These derivatives have found applications in various areas of medicine such as anticancer, CNS, fungicidal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antibacterial therapies. This review mainly focuses on the progress achieved since 2004 in the chemistry and biological activity of pyridopyrimidines. PMID:25794791
Ingl. k. lk. 9, pealk.: Ilves visits Brussels. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kohtus Brüsselis NATO tippametnike ja sõjaväelastega. Eesti riigipea kohtus NATO peasekretäri Jaap de Hoop Schefferiga, esines Põhja-Atlandi Nõukogus (NAC), külastas NATO sõjalist peakorterit Euroopas (SHAPE) ja kohtus seal liitlasvägede kõrgeima sõjalise juhiga Euroopas, kindral John Craddockiga. President tegi visiidi ka Brüsseli Euroopa Kooli ning kohtus Eesti NATO-missiooni juures ja SHAPEis töötavate kaasmaalastega. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Brüsselis 3.-5.02.2008
Full Text Available The NATO Defence Planning Process (NDPP is the most important element affecting the Alliance's defence posture. Under the process states commit themselves to provide capabilities and forces required to fulfil NATO missions, defined in the NATO Strategic Concept. The NDPP directly affects national defence plans by harmonizing them with identified security and defence objectives as well by influencing development of the novel national defence capabilities. The emergence of new threats in the NATO environment, demands modifications in the defense planning process and establishing new goals for the Alliance. Enhancement of the NDPP should be priority during the time of unrest.
Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen of animal origin and a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. During the past decade, especially since the publication of the first C. jejuni genome sequence, major advances have been made in understanding the pathobiology and physiol...
Kalina, I.; Biroš, Erik
Poland: Institute of Nuclear Physics, 2002. s. 32. [NATO advanced research workshop. 23.06.2002-27.06.2002, Krakow - Poland] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : cancer Subject RIV: FH - Neurology
I denne oppgaven sammenlikner jeg EUs og NATOs strategier i kampen mot internasjonal terrorisme. Jeg tok utgangspunkt i problemstillingen: I hvilken grad, og hvorfor skiller EUs og NATOs strategier i kampen mot internasjonal terrorisme seg fra hverandre? De viktigste forskjellene er at EU vektlegger å forebygge årsakene til terrorisme og å bekjempe terroristers eller terroristgruppers kapasiteter. NATO fokuserer i større grad på å bekjempe terrorister, og straffe stater som opptrer som stø...
Anvelt, Kärt, 1973-
Kaitseväe juhataja Ants Laaneots ja kaitseminister Jaak Aaviksoo tõstatavad küberkaitse teema NATO ja EL-i sõjalise komitee istungil ja EL-i kaitseministrite kohtumisel. NATO, EL-i ja USA eksperdid uurivad Eestis küberrünnakute iseloomu. J. Aaviksoo hinnangul on rünnakud selgelt suunatud Eesti vastu. NATO kavatseb luua Eestisse küberturbe keskuse. Kommenteerib Eerik-Niiles Kross
Black, Helaina; Mele, Pauline
Our interests in soil change are moving away from soil properties and increasingly towards changes in the processes and functioning of soils. Soil organisms are fundamental to dynamics and change in soils through their fundamental role in soil processes . However it is only with recent technical and theoretical advances that we have started to establish quantitative relationships between soil biology and soil change (c.f. ). It is this predictive understanding that will enable us to fully integrate soil biology into the effective monitoring and sustainable management of soils. This paper outlines some of the recent advances in soil biology and discusses their relevance to monitoring and management.
Zhao, Li; Hao, Yan-Hui; Peng, Rui-Yun
The terahertz (THz) band lies between microwave and infrared rays in wavelength and consists of non-ionizing radiation. Both domestic and foreign research institutions, including the army, have attached considerable importance to the research and development of THz technology because this radiation exhibits both photon-like and electron-like properties, which grant it considerable application value and potential. With the rapid development of THz technology and related applications, studies of the biological effects of THz radiation have become a major focus in the field of life sciences. Research in this field has only just begun, both at home and abroad. In this paper, research progress with respect to THz radiation, including its biological effects, mechanisms and methods of protection, will be reviewed. PMID:25722878
Li Zhao; Yan-Hui Hao; Rui-Yun Peng
The terahertz (THz) band lies between microwave and infrared rays in wavelength and consists of non-ionizing radiation. Both domestic and foreign research institutions, including the army, have attached considerable importance to the research and development of THz technology because this radiation exhibits both photon-like and electron-like properties, which grant it considerable application value and potential. With the rapid development of THz technology and related applications, studies of the biological effects of THz radiation have become a major focus in the field of life sciences. Research in this field has only just begun, both at home and abroad. In this paper, research progress with respect to THz radiation, including its biological effects, mechanisms and methods of protection, will be reviewed.
This CRADA was established at the start of FY02 with $200 K from IBM and matching funds from DOE to support post-doctoral fellows in collaborative research between International Business Machines and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to explore effective use of emerging petascale computational architectures for the solution of computational biology problems. 'No cost' extensions of the CRADA were negotiated with IBM for FY03 and FY04.
Most complementary medicine is distinguished by not being supported by underlying theory accepted by Western science. However, for those who accept their validity, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities offer clues to understanding physiology and medicine more deeply. Ayurveda and vibrational medicine are stimulating new approaches to biological regulation. The new biophysics can be integrated to yield a single consistent theory, which may well underly much of CAM—a true ‘...
Lacombe, S.; Sech, C. Le
One fundamental goal of radiation biology is the evolution of concepts and methods for the elaboration of new approaches and protocols for the treatment of cancers. In this context, the use of fast ions as ionizing particles offers the advantage of optimizing cell killing inside the tumor whilst preserving the surrounding healthy tissues. One extremely promising strategy investigated recently is the addition of radiosensitizers in the targeted tissue. The optimization of radiotherapy with fast ions implies a multidisciplinary approach to ionizing radiation effects on complex living systems, ranging from studies on single molecules to investigations of entire organisms. In this article we review recent studies on ion induced damages in simple and complex biological systems, from DNA to living cells. The specific aspect of radiosensitization induced by metallic atoms is described. As a fundamental result, the addition of sensitizing compounds with ion irradiation may improve therapeutic index in cancer therapy. In conclusion, new perspectives are proposed based on the experience and contribution of different communities including Surface Sciences, to improve the development of radiation biology.
Porter, John R
Information literacy skills are critically important for the undergraduate biology student. The ability to find, understand, evaluate, and use information, whether from the scientific literature or from Web resources, is essential for a good understanding of a topic and for the conduct of research. A project in which students receive information literacy instruction and then proceed to select, update, and write about a current research topic in an upper-level cell biology course is described....
Salu, Mikk, 1975-
Poola ja Leedu üha halvenevad suhted on viinud niikaugele, et Poola ametiisikud ähvardavad kolme Balti riigi õhuturbeks mõeldud NATO lennubaasi, mis praegu asub Leedus Šiauliais, kolida hoopiski Eestisse. Eesti kaitseministeeriumi ametnikud suhtuvad NATO lennubaasi Eestisse kolimisse igati soosivalt
Nagay, John A.
The state of programed instruction utilization in military training within the separate North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) nations is briefly assessed in this report. Only the programs of NATO countries which have not been covered in detail elsewhere are included: Netherlands, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Canada, France, Belgium,…
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false NATO representatives, officials, and employees... UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Foreign Government Officials § 41.25 NATO representatives, officials, and employees. (a) Classification. An alien shall be classified under the symbol...
Brink, M. van den; Dobson, M.; Maclachlan, A.; Vermeulen, J.F.J.
Four years ago several NATO nations agreed to commence studies to develop tactics for ASW Area Search. The combined approach required agreement on the scope of the problem, tactical doctrine, modelling parameters and definition of terms. The NATO Area Search and Screening Working Group (AS2WG) is pr
A listing of papers is presented on the doctrine, studies, and exercises dealing with nuclear weapons and NATO operations for the period 1950-1983. The papers deal with studies on massive retaliation, sword and shield, and flexible response. Some of the enduring issues of nuclear weapons in NATO are listed
Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-
Novembris toimuvast NATO suurõppusest "Steadfast Jazz", kus harjutatakse Eesti kaitsmist. Lätis, Leedus ja Poolas toimuval õppusel osalejate põhijõu moodustavad 2014. aastal NATO kiirreageerimisjõududesse (NRF) panustavad maad. Eesti osaleb õppusel vähemalt ühe kompaniiga
Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-
NATO peasekretäri Jaap de Hoop Schefferi ajalehele Financial Times antud usutlusest, kus ta lubab, et NATO hakkab tsiviilelanike säästmiseks Afganistani islamiliikumise Taliban vastu võitlemisel kasutama väiksemaid pomme. Pantvangide võtmisest islamistide poolt Afganistanis
Tallinnas toimunud üheksa NATO-riigi ning Ukraina kaitseministri kohtumisest. NATO peasekretär Jaap de Hoop Scheffer ja Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves meenutasid, et liikmelisuse tegevuskava (Membership Action Plan, MAP) on üks vahend teiste hulgas ning see pole ainus viis, kuidas alliansi liikmeks pääseda
Rene Michele Davis
Full Text Available Quorum-sensing networks enable bacteria to sense and respond to chemical signals produced by neighboring bacteria. They are widespread: over one hundred morphologically and genetically distinct species of eubacteria are known to use quorum sensing to control gene expression. This diversity suggests the potential to use natural protein variants to engineer parallel, input-specific, cell-cell communication pathways. However, only three distinct signaling pathways, Lux, Las, and Rhl, have been adapted for and broadly used in engineered systems. The paucity of unique quorum-sensing systems and their propensity for crosstalk limits the usefulness of our current quorum-sensing toolkit. This review discusses the need for more signaling pathways, roadblocks to using multiple pathways in parallel, and strategies for expanding the quorum-sensing toolbox for synthetic biology.
Lowerre-Barbieri, Susan K.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Murua, Hilario;
Although incorporating detailed reproductive data into all stock assessments is not a practical goal, the need to understand how reproductive biology affects population productivity is being increasingly recognized.More research focused on reproductive biology—coupled with a shift towards a...... development, which is most accurately evaluated with histology. This special section of Marine and Coastal Fisheries contains contributions from a workshop on the gonadal histology of fishes that was held in Cadiz, Spain, during June 2009. These papers cover a wide range of species and reproductive topics...... while introducing improved and new histological techniques. In this introduction, we address the following needs: (1) to employ standardization, thereby improving our ability to conduct comparative studies; (2) to better understand patterns of gonadal development and spawning events over time; and (3...
At the beginning of the 21. century, radiation biology is at a major turning point in its history. It must meet the expectations of the radiation oncologists, radiologists and the general public, but its purpose remains the same: to understand the molecular, cellular and tissue levels of lethal and carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation in order to better protect healthy tissues and to develop treatments more effective against tumours. Four major aspects of radiobiology that marked this decade will be discussed: technological developments, the importance of signalling and repair of radiation-induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, the impact of individual factor in the response to radiation and the contribution of radiobiology to better choose innovative therapies such as proton-therapy or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). A translational radiobiology should emerge with the help of radiotherapists and radiation physicists and by facilitating access to the new radio and/or chemotherapy modalities. (authors)
Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng
Chlorella represents a group of eukaryotic green microalgae that has been receiving increasing scientific and commercial interest. It possesses high photosynthetic ability and is capable of growing robustly under mixotrophic and heterotrophic conditions as well. Chlorella has long been considered as a source of protein and is now industrially produced for human food and animal feed. Chlorella is also rich in oil, an ideal feedstock for biofuels. The exploration of biofuel production by Chlorella is underway. Chlorella has the ability to fix carbon dioxide efficiently and to remove nutrients of nitrogen and phosphorous, making it a good candidate for greenhouse gas biomitigation and wastewater bioremediation. In addition, Chlorella shows potential as an alternative expression host for recombinant protein production, though challenges remain to be addressed. Currently, omics analyses of certain Chlorella strains are being performed, which will help to unravel the biological implications of Chlorella and facilitate the future exploration of industrial applications. PMID:25537445
Rabbani, Naila; Ashour, Amal; Thornalley, Paul J
Protein glycation in biological systems occurs predominantly on lysine, arginine and N-terminal residues of proteins. Major quantitative glycation adducts are found at mean extents of modification of 1-5 mol percent of proteins. These are glucose-derived fructosamine on lysine and N-terminal residues of proteins, methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone on arginine residues and N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine residues mainly formed by the oxidative degradation of fructosamine. Total glycation adducts of different types are quantified by stable isotopic dilution analysis liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Metabolism of glycated proteins is followed by LC-MS/MS of glycation free adducts as minor components of the amino acid metabolome. Glycated proteins and sites of modification within them - amino acid residues modified by the glycating agent moiety - are identified and quantified by label-free and stable isotope labelling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) high resolution mass spectrometry. Sites of glycation by glucose and methylglyoxal in selected proteins are listed. Key issues in applying proteomics techniques to analysis of glycated proteins are: (i) avoiding compromise of analysis by formation, loss and relocation of glycation adducts in pre-analytic processing; (ii) specificity of immunoaffinity enrichment procedures, (iii) maximizing protein sequence coverage in mass spectrometric analysis for detection of glycation sites, and (iv) development of bioinformatics tools for prediction of protein glycation sites. Protein glycation studies have important applications in biology, ageing and translational medicine - particularly on studies of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, renal failure, neurological disorders and cancer. Mass spectrometric analysis of glycated proteins has yet to find widespread use clinically. Future use in health screening, disease diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring, and
Kurtovic, Jelica; Segal, Isidor
Immune system is a major determinant of pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and cytokines are well known mediators of immune system. Recently, informations on pro-inflammatory cytokines and their role in IBD have led to development of potential therapeutic approach to manipulate these cytokines and there by inhibiting inflammation in IBD. These therapeutic approaches include inhibitors of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha lymphocyte trafficking, type 1 T helper (Th1) cell polarization and nuclear factor type beta; immunoregulatory cytokines and various growth factors. Studies on these therapies have documented variable results and the outcomes of many clinical trials are awaited. However, these potential therapies, if become real may revolutionise approach in patients with IBD. Analysis of the inflammed mucosa from patients with Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) have shown increased expression of certain proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and TNF-alpha. The latter is important in the recruitment of neutrophils into inflammed tissue, a process which results from three physiological steps: (i) rolling, (ii) adhesion, and (iii) transendothelial migration. Understanding of the biology of chronic inflammation has expanded the therapies available for IBD and particularly CD. At present, the biological therapies that are being used in clinical practice or investigated for the treatment of IBD are predominantly proteins, usually delivered intravenously or subcutaneously. The therapies used include: 1. TNF-alpha inhibitors: infliximab, CDP 571, etanercept, onercept, CNI- 1493 and thalidomide. 2. Inhibitors of lymphocyte trafficking: natalizumab, LPD-02 and ICAM-1. 3. Inhibitors of Th1 polarization: monoclonal antibodies for IL-12, interferon (IFN)-gamma and anti IFN-gamma. 4. Immunoregulatory cytokines: IL-10 and IL-11. 5. Inhibitors of nuclear factor kappa (beta NF-kbeta.) 6. Growth factors
Banik, Gouri Rani; Stark, Damien; Rashid, Harunor; Ellis, John T
The numerous protozoa that can inhabit the human gastro-intestinal tract are known, yet little is understood of the viruses which infect these protozoa. The discovery, morphologic details, purification methods of virus-like particles, genome and proteome of the parasitic viruses, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Trichomonas vaginalis, and the Eimeria sp. are described in this review. The protozoan viruses share many common features: most of them are RNA or double-stranded RNA viruses, ranging between 5 and 8 kilobases, and are spherical or icosahedral in shape with an average diameter of 30-40 nm. These viruses may influence the function and pathogenicity of the protozoa which they infect, and may be important to investigate from a clinical perspective. The viruses may be used as specific genetic transfection vectors for the parasites and may represent a research tool. This review provides an overview on recent advances in the field of protozoan viruses. PMID:25019235
Reithmaier, Johann Peter; Kulisch, Wilhelm; Popov, Cyril; Petkov, Plamen
Bringing together experts from 15 countries, this book is based on the lectures and contributions of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on “Nanotechnological Basis for Advanced Sensors” held in Sozopol, Bulgaria, 30 May - 11 June, 2010. It gives a broad overview on this topic, and includes articles on: techniques for preparation and characterization of sensor materials; different types of nanoscaled materials for sensor applications, addressing both their structure (nanoparticles, nanocomposites, nanostructured films, etc.) and chemical nature (carbon-based, oxides, glasses, etc.); and on advanced sensors that exploit nanoscience and nanotechnology. In addition, the volume represents an interdisciplinary approach with authors coming from diverse fields such as physics, chemistry, engineering, materials science and biology. A particular strength of the book is its combination of longer papers, introducing the basic knowledge on a certain topic, and brief contributions highlighting special types of sensors a...
Miao, Zhengrui; King, S Bruce
Nitroxyl or azanone (HNO) represents the redox-related (one electron reduced and protonated) relative of the well-known biological signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO). Despite the close structural similarity to NO, defined biological roles and endogenous formation of HNO remain unclear due to the high reactivity of HNO with itself, soft nucleophiles and transition metals. While significant work has been accomplished in terms of the physiology, biology and chemistry of HNO, important and clarifying work regarding HNO detection and formation has occurred within the last 10 years. This review summarizes advances in the areas of HNO detection and donation and their application to normal and pathological biology. Such chemical biological tools allow a deeper understanding of biological HNO formation and the role that HNO plays in a variety of physiological systems. PMID:27108951
Yost, David S.
The NATO allies agreed at the Strasbourg/Kehl summit in April 2009 to prepare a new Strategic Concept for approval at their next summit. One of the issues in the Strategic Concept review will be the alliance’s nuclear deterrence posture and policy. While three members of the alliance (Britain, France and the United States) are nuclear powers, historically the greatest amount of attention has been focused on US ‘extended deterrence’—that is, the extension by Washington of an ...
Winfield, Daniel L.; Hering, Dean H.; Cole, David
The present study consisted of a literature survey, a survey of researchers, and a workshop on bionics. These tasks produced an extensive annotated bibliography of bionics research (282 citations), a directory of bionics researchers, and a workshop report on specific bionics research topics applicable to space technology. These deliverables are included as Appendix A, Appendix B, and Section 5.0, respectively. To provide organization to this highly interdisciplinary field and to serve as a guide for interested researchers, we have also prepared a taxonomy or classification of the various subelements of natural engineering systems. Finally, we have synthesized the results of the various components of this study into a discussion of the most promising opportunities for accelerated research, seeking solutions which apply engineering principles from natural systems to advanced aerospace problems. A discussion of opportunities within the areas of materials, structures, sensors, information processing, robotics, autonomous systems, life support systems, and aeronautics is given. Following the conclusions are six discipline summaries that highlight the potential benefits of research in these areas for NASA's space technology programs.
NATO luurekomitee esimeheks sai Ungari salateenistuse juht Sandor Laborc, kes on õppinud Moskvas KGB akadeemias. Mitme NATO diplomaadi hinnangul võib see tähendada seda, et liikmesriigid hoiduvad nii palju kui võimalik tundlike luureandmete vahetamisest seda kanalit kasutades
Reddy, Muppala P.
Increasing global demand for energy, the impending depletion of fossil fuels, and concern over global climate change have lead to a resurgence in the development of alternative energy sources. Bio-fuels and bio-energy encompass a wide range of alternative sources of energy of biological origin, and offer excellent, environmentally friendly opportunities to address these issues. The recognition that Jatropha oil can yield high quality biodiesel has led to a surge of interest in Jatropha across the globe, more so in view of the potential for avoiding the dilemma of food vs fuel. Hardiness, rapid growth, easy propagation, short gestation period, wide adaptation, and optimum plant size combine to make this species suitable for sustainable cultivation on wastelands. Besides biodiesel from the seed, the plant produces several useful products that also have commercial value. Large scale cultivation remains the single most important factor that will ultimately determine the success of Jatropha as a source of bio-fuel. The limited knowledge of the genetics of this species, low and inconsistent yields, the narrow genetic variability, and vulnerability to insects and diseases are major constraints in successful cultivation of Jatropha as a bio-fuel crop. Despite the optimal protein content and composition of the pressed cake, the presence of phorbol esters makes it unsuitable for consumption by livestock. A non-toxic variety with low or no phorbol ester content has been identified from Mexico, and the utility of pressed cake from this variety as livestock feed has been demonstrated successfully. In the absence of any morphological differences, identification of linked markers for toxic/non-toxic varieties will add value to the crop and facilitate further improvement. This chapter discusses current efforts towards assessing the diversity and phylogeny of Jatropha, identification of specific markers for toxic and non-toxic varieties, and aspects of micropropagation and genetic
Porter, John R.
Information literacy skills are critically important for the undergraduate biology student. The ability to find, understand, evaluate, and use information, whether from the scientific literature or from Web resources, is essential for a good understanding of a topic and for the conduct of research. A project in which students receive information…
Many micropollutants present in municipal wastewater, such as pharmaceuticals and pesticides, are poorly removed in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and may generate adverse effects on aquatic life. The objective of this thesis was to study and develop various options to improve micropollutant removal from municipal wastewaters. Various technologies were investigated, from conventional biological treatments to advanced physico-chemical and biological processes such as ozonati...
Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-
NATO kaitseministrite kohtumisel ütles peasekretär Jaap de Hoop Scheffer, et kaitsekulutused NATO-s ei vasta nõudmistele ning hoiatas, et kui olukord ei parane, satub ohtu NATO töö Afganistanis, Kosovos, Darfuris ja mujal. Raportis kaitsejõudude ümberkorraldamise kohta kritiseeriti Eestit liigse pühendumise pärast territoriaalkaitsele
Sagatsh, Ihor M.
Ukraina suursaadik NATO juures vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Ukraina huvi NATO-ga liitumise vastu, Gruusia sündmuste mõju, suhteid Venemaaga, EL-i, NATO ja USA abi Gruusiale, Venemaa Musta mere laevastiku viibimist Sevastoopoli sadamas. Lisa: Ihor M. Sagatsh. Vt. samas: Jushtshenko kutsus NATO jaoks pingutama
... Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application for NATO... Organization (NATO) Security Investment Program (NSIP) are only open to firms of member NATO countries. NSIP procedures for international competitive bidding (AC/4-D/2261) require that each NATO country certify...
Noah, Meg A.; Kristl, Joseph; Schroeder, John W.; Sandford, B. P.
NIRATAM (the NATO Infrared Air Target Model) was developed by the NATO AC 243, Panel IV, Research Study Group 6 (RSG-6). RSG-6 is composed of representatives from Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and Canada (as an observer). NIRATAM is based on theoretical studies, field measurements, and infrared data analysis performed over many years. The model encompasses all the major signature components required to simulate the infrared signature of an aircraft and the atmosphere. The vehicle fuselage, facet, model includes radiation due to aerodynamic heating, internal heat sources, reflected sky, earth, and solar radiation. Plume combustion gas emissions are calculated for H(subscript 2)O, CO(subscript 2), CO, and other gases as well as solid particles. Lowtran 7 is used for the atmospheric transmission and radiance. The software generates graphical outputs of the target wireframe, plume flowfield, atmospheric transmission, total signature, and plume signature. Imagery data can be used for system development and evaluation. NIRATAM can be used for many applications such as measurement planning, data analysis, systems design, and aircraft development. Ontar has agreed to assist the RSG-6 by being the NIRATAM distribution center in the United States for users approved by the national representatives. Arrangements have also been made to distribute a user-friendly NIRATAM interface. This paper describes the model, presents results, makes comparisons with measured field data, and describes the availability and procedure for obtaining the software.
This paper reports that spurred by the public controversy about the implementation of the NATO dual-track decision, the Western Alliance is currently in the third phase of its strategy debate. The first phase ended in 1967 with the official adoption of the doctrine of massive retaliation whose center-piece was NATO's threat to respond to a Soviet attack in Europe by an early and if need be massive use of nuclear weapons. Soon thereafter this concept was called in question in the US. The critics pointed out that at a time where its vulnerability to Soviet nuclear strikes was growing (the so-called Sputnik shock of 1957 played a special role in this context), it was too risky for the United States to stumble into a nuclear exchange with the USSR over any outbreak of an armed East-West confrontation in Europe. They therefore propounded that the over-reliance of the West's deterrence on nuclear arms be diminished in favor of a stronger conventional deterrent. With the advent of the Kennedy administration in January 1961, this stance became official American policy and was expounded to the European members of the Alliance by then Secretary of Defence McNamara. This second phase of the strategy debate was concluded in 1967 by promulgating the current strategy of Flexible Response
Handley, Holly A. H.; Houston, Nancy P.
The NATO Human View is a system architectural viewpoint that focuses on the human as part of a system. Its purpose is to capture the human requirements and to inform on how the human impacts the system design. The viewpoint contains seven static models that include different aspects of the human element, such as roles, tasks, constraints, training and metrics. It also includes a Human Dynamics component to perform simulations of the human system under design. One of the static models, termed Human Networks, focuses on the human-to-human communication patterns that occur as a result of ad hoc or deliberate team formation, especially teams distributed across space and time. Parameters of human teams that effect system performance can be captured in this model. Human centered aspects of networks, such as differences in operational tempo (sense of urgency), priorities (common goal), and team history (knowledge of the other team members), can be incorporated. The information captured in the Human Network static model can then be included in the Human Dynamics component so that the impact of distributed teams is represented in the simulation. As the NATO militaries transform to a more networked force, the Human View architecture is an important tool that can be used to make recommendations on the proper mix of technological innovations and human interactions.
@@ Ever since the September 11 terrorist attacks, the United States and NATO have sent large troops to Afghanistan and greatly strengthened partnership for peace (PfP) with Central Asian countries. The recent dramatic political changes in some Eurasian countries have also provided U. S. and NATO favorable conditions to expand their influence and to squeeze Russia-China's strategic space.While U. S. and NATO have steadily become established in Afghanistan and some Eurasian countries, their potential threat to China's security and energy supply from Central Asia is looming large. Therefore, how to cope with the expanding U. S. -NATO's influence in Central Asia and have dialogue and cooperation with NATO have become urgent tasks for China. This article tries to explore and analyze the U. S.-NATO new strategy toward Central Asia and its potential impacts on China's security and its other interests in the region. It also makes some tentative exploration on the possibilities of China-NATO cooperation in the future.
Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia
This paper reports on a Mixed Methods study involving an investigation into the attitudes of advanced level biology teachers towards assessment and describes the teachers' experiences while being engaged in Assessment for Learning (AfL) practices such as sharing of learning objectives and peer- and self-assessment. Quantitative data were collected…
Liu, Chao; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Qian-Jun; Kang, Wen-Yi; Zhang, Long; Zhou, Qing-Di
The chemical constituents isolated from Desmodium species (Leguminosae) included terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids compounds. Modem pharmacological studies have showed that the Desmodium species have antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, diuretic, antipyretic, analgesic and choleretic activity. This article mainly has reviewed the research advances of chemical constituents and biological activities of Desmodium species since 2003. PMID:24791478
This book results from a NATO Advanced Research Workshop titled “Technological Innovations in CBRNE Sensing and Detection for Safety, Security, and Sustainability” held in Yerevan, Armenia in 2012. The objective was to discuss and exchange views as to how fusion of advanced technologies can lead to improved sensors/detectors in support of defense, security, and situational awareness. The chapters range from policy and implementation, advanced sensor platforms using stand-off (THz and optical) and point-contact methods for detection of chemical, nuclear, biological, nuclear and explosive agents and contaminants in water, to synthesis methods for several materials used for sensors. In view of asymmetric, kinetic, and distributed nature of threat vectors, an emphasis is placed to examine new generation of sensors/detectors that utilize an ecosystems of innovation and advanced sciences convergence in support of effective counter-measures against CBRNE threats. The book will be of considerable interest and...
Full text: This short presentation will cover the alliance's response to chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) proliferation, placing this in the context of the dangers involved in the potential use of such devices by non-state actors. It will include the political measures taken by NATO, the ongoing work with Russia, activities underway within the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, as well as the concrete 'deliverables' for the Prague Summit in November 2002. NATO deals with these issues both from the point of view of deployed military forces, as well as civil emergency planning measures, and the overview covers both elements. The alliance has recognized since the early 1990s that it is important to strengthen efforts against proliferation. The principal goal remains that of preventing proliferation from taking place, or, should it take place, to reverse it through diplomatic means. Hand in hand with such an approach goes the important role of ensuring an appropriate defense posture against the possible use of WMD. It is very important to maintain the flexibility and effectiveness of alliance forces despite the presence, the threat or the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. In this context, the alliance draws upon a mix of means to address the challenges of proliferation, including deterrence and offensive and defensive means, and enhancing the effectiveness of arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation, as well as diplomatic and counter-proliferation measures. In the wake of 11 September, there is clearly an increased awareness of the potential use of WMD by non-state actors. As a result, NATO has adapted its work program to the evolving demands of the Committees we support. That said, there is a great deal of continuity in the work of a committee such as the senior defense group on proliferation - in terms of what it has been doing over recent years to enhance military readiness to operate in a WMD environment. Many of the
Jorgensen, Paul S.
A standardization agreement (STANAG) has been prepared for providing the Global Position System (GPS) to the other members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Two levels of navigation accuracy will be provided. A precise positioning service (PPS) and a standard positioning service (SPS). Authorized PPS users will use the P-code, and both L1 and L2 frequencies and will be able to remove the errors introduced by selective availability. The SPS users will use the C/A code, and only the L1 frequency and will be limited in accuracy by selective availability. This paper discusses how the STANAG might be impacted by the integrity issue and how these two types of users might be affected. Possible techniques that might be adopted by the NATO members are explored, such as a ground-based monitoring system or a self-contained user approach based on more satellites on orbit (24).
Vulcan, A.; Bloch, M.
A high performance 5 MHz distribution system is described which has extremely low phase noise and jitter characteristics and provides multiple buffered outputs. The system is completely redundant with automatic switchover and is self-testing. Since the 5 MHz reference signals distributed by the NATO III distribution system are used for up-conversion and multiplicative functions, a high degree of phase stability and isolation between outputs is necessary. Unique circuit design and packaging concepts insure that the isolation between outputs is sufficient to quarantee a phase perturbation of less than 0.0016 deg when other outputs are open circuited, short circuited or terminated in 50 ohms. Circuit design techniques include high isolation cascode amplifiers. Negative feedback stabilizes system gain and minimizes circuit phase noise contributions. Balanced lines, in lieu of single ended coaxial transmission media, minimize pickup.
Wagner, James M; Alper, Hal S
Coupling the tools of synthetic biology with traditional molecular genetic techniques can enable the rapid prototyping and optimization of yeast strains. While the era of yeast synthetic biology began in the well-characterized model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is swiftly expanding to include non-conventional yeast production systems such as Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. These yeasts already have roles in the manufacture of vaccines, therapeutic proteins, food additives, and biorenewable chemicals, but recent synthetic biology advances have the potential to greatly expand and diversify their impact on biotechnology. In this review, we summarize the development of synthetic biological tools (including promoters and terminators) and enabling molecular genetics approaches that have been applied in these four promising alternative biomanufacturing platforms. An emphasis is placed on synthetic parts and genome editing tools. Finally, we discuss examples of synthetic tools developed in other organisms that can be adapted or optimized for these hosts in the near future. PMID:26701310
NATO õhukaitseõppuse Bold Avenger 2009 raames korraldatud Balti IV õhukaitseharjutus kulmineerus 21. septembril Leedu kohal Saksa õhukaitselennukite Eurofighter Typhoon kaitsevalmiduse testimisega kaheksa hävitaja F-16 vastu
Moskva korrespondent Jeffrey Tayler kirjutas Ameerika ajalehes The Atlantic Monthly artikli venelaste diskrimineerimisest Balti riikides ja et sellepärast ei peaks Eestit, Leedut ja Lätit NATO-sse võtma
This annual report present the proceedings of the second annual NATO/CCMS pilot study meeting in Belfast, UK in March 1999. Guest speakers focused on efforts in the research arena of clean products, clean processes, and pollution prevention tools.
Venemaa Föderaalse Julgeolekuteenistuse (FSB) direktori Nikolai Patrushevi sõnul on NATO liikmesriikide eriteenistused Venemaal aktiivsed ning USA ja Briti eriteenistused kasutavad Venemaa suunal tegutsemiseks Gruusia, Poola ja Balti kolleegide abi
Afganistani provintsis Ghowr rahvusvaheliste suhete spetsialisti ja Kabulis NATO esindajana töötanud Tomas Urbonas räägib sealsest elust, kohalike elanike sõbralikkusest, oma tegevustest ja oma eluvaadetest
On October 7, 2010, The Foundation for Strategic Research (Fondation pour la Recherche Strategique) convened a day-long workshop in Paris to discuss the consequences for NATO of a nuclear-armed Iran, with support from the German Marshall Fund of the United States. The workshop involved around twenty experts from Alliance and non-Alliance countries, NATO officials, and French officials. This paper is a brief summary of the debate, focusing on the main ideas developed by the participants
Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.
After Ukraine, conventional deterrence will be the main purpose of NATO’s armed forces. NATO contingency planning, operational training and defense planning will all revolve around conventional deterrence. Russia’s ready use of force in Ukraine, Georgia and beyond shows that its non-NATO neighbors are very much at risk for military intervention. President Putin challenges the post-Cold War order by breaking the rules underlying its stability. His means include the use of covert agents to stag...
Irondelle, Bastien; Mérand, Frédéric
Our article focuses on the likely impact of France's return to NATO's integrated military command on the future of the European security and defense policy (ESDP). First, we describe the triangular relationship between France's defense, NATO and European defense policies that dominated the era of the Gaullist-Mitterrandist consensus (1958-95) and its gradual erosion under Jacques Chirac's tenure (1995-2007). Second, we explain the context in which President Sarkozy made the decision in 2007 t...
Johnsen, William T.; Young, Thomas-Durell
The authors of this report explain how French policy toward NATO has changed since 1992. Importantly, they discuss how these changes have been effected. However, certain key elements of French external policy have not changed. In effect, therefore, the authors argue that while France may wish to cooperate with NATO, this does not imply that there will be a more cooperative French attitude toward the Alliance.
Anderson, Craig A.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. On December 5, 1995, the French government announced its decision to increase its level of participation in NATO. Although France was not rejoining the Alliances integrated military structure, the French Foreign Minister would resume attending meetings of NATOs Military Committee in an official capacity. This decision broke with 30 years of French foreign policy begun by President Charles de Gaulle when he withdrew French forces from ...
von Weitershausen, Inez
"Global NATO and the Catastrophic Failure in Libya." Horace Campbell. Monthly Review Press. March 2013. --- Horace Campbell investigates the political and economic crises of the early twenty-first century through the prism of NATO’s intervention in Libya. He traces the origins of the conflict, situates it in the broader context of the Arab Spring uprisings, and explains the expanded role of a post-Cold War NATO. This military organization is the instrument through which the capitalist cla...
This dissertation has three objectives. The first is to describe the evolution of NATO's conventional force posture in greater detail than has previously been possible by drawing upon recently declassified government documents. The author's focus is on changes that have occurred in the role of conventional forces in NATO strategy as well as in the structure and actual capabilities of NATO's conventional forces. He examines five episodes in NATO history during which significant change in the alliance's conventional forces was seriously contemplated, attempted, or actually took place. The second objective is to explain this history. To this end, he examines several leading theories of international relations: balance of power and balance of threat, public goods, and regimes. By comparing the predictions of these theories with the historical record, he was able to identify the factors most important in shaping NATO's conventional force posture over the years. Since these factors are likely to continue to be important, this analysis allows assessing prospects for future change, the third objective. This study suggests that NATO's conventional force posture has become increasingly static over the years.
Muths, Erin L.
Reintroduction, and other forms of moving animals around the landscape, is an established action that has been used in the contexts of mitigation, conservation, and salvage. Advances in Reintroduction Biology of Australian and New Zealand Fauna is more than an update of its predecessor (Serena 1995). This book not only enumerates advances in reintroduction but also provides a cogent road map for understanding and applying current knowledge, and for developing future strategies.
Dauble, D. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deng, Z. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richmond, M. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moursund, R. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rakowski, C. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Duncan, J. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Three studies were conducted to evaluate the biological performance of an advanced design turbine installed at Unit 8 of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River in 2005 versus a conventional Kaplan turbine, Unit 9. The studies included an evaluation of blade-strike using deterministic and probabilistic models, integrated analysis of the response of the Sensor Fish to sever hydraulic events within the turbine system, and a novel dye technique to measure injury to juvenile salmonids in the field.
Herschlag, Daniel; Chu, Vincent B.
The rapid development of our understanding of the diverse biological roles fulfilled by non-coding RNA has motivated interest in the basic macromolecular behavior, structure, and function of RNA. We focus on two areas in the behavior of complex RNAs. First, we present advances in the understanding of how RNA folding is accomplished in vivo by presenting a mechanism for the action of DEAD-box proteins. Members of this family are intimately associated with almost all cellular processes involvin...
Xiu-lian SUN; Hui-yin PENG
Insect viruses are attractive as biological control agents and could be a feasible alternative to chemical insecticides in the management of insect infestations. This review describes recent advances in the development of wild-type and genetically modified viruses as insecticides. A new strategy of application of insect viruses in China is reviewed. Also, the assessment of biosafety of genetically modified Helicoverpa armigera Nucleopolyhedovirus (HearNPV) is emphasized as a case-study.
Oskay Kaya; Engin Olcucuoglu; Gaye Seker; Hakan Kulacoglu
We present a case of immediate abdominal wall reconstruction with biologic mesh following the resection of locally advanced colonic cancer. The tumor in the right colon did not respond to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Surgical enbloc excision, including excision of the invasion in the abdominal wall, was achieved, and the defect was reconstructed with porcine dermal collagen mesh. The patient was discharged with no complication, and adaptation of the mesh was excellent at the six-month followup.
Recent advances in knowledge of the morphology and biology of hair apparatuses are introduced. The hair apparatus morphologically shows a cyclic change "hair cycle" from anagen through catagen to telogen. In anagen, the hair apparatus is composed of eight epithelial cell layers, one of which has been very recently discovered: the innermost cell layer of the outer root sheath. When the ultrastructures of these cell layers are compared with each other, the cells of each layer reveal unique ultr...
Treatment of textile wastewater is challenging because the water contains toxic compounds that have low biodegradability. Dyes, detergents, surfactants, biocides and more are used to improve the textile process and to make the clothes resistant to physical, chemical and biological agents. New technologies have been developed in the last decades and in particular Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) have shown considerable potential for treatment of industrial effluents. These pr...
Wood, William B.
A recently released National Research Council (NRC) report, Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools, evaluated and recommended changes in the Advanced Placement (AP), International Baccalaureate (IB), and other advanced secondary school science programs. As part of this study, discipline-specific panels were formed to evaluate advanced programs in biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics. Among the conclusions of the Content Pan...
Full Text Available No contexto do ressurgimento da Rússia sob a liderança de Putin, a contestação recorrente da legitimidade da NATO passou do nível retórico para uma maior capacidade de oposição. Os contornos do novo Conceito Estratégico da Aliança Atlântica, delineado por um grupo de peritos, e as novas doutrinas russas para a sua acção externa, aprovadas nos últimos dois anos, não apontam para convergências políticas. A cimeira da NATO de Lisboa de Novembro de 2010 deverá acomodar um certo equilíbrio entre os seus problemas de legitimidade aos olhos do Kremlin, cristalizados na Europa, e as necessidades de cooperar com o gigante russo no ambiente estratégico global.Since the resurgence of Russia under Putin’s leadership the recurring contestation of NATO’s legitimacy has evolved from the rhetoric level to a greater oppositional capacity. The features of the New Strategic Concept of the Atlantic Alliance, being outlined by a group of experts, and the new Russian doctrines guiding its external actions that have been approved in the last two years, do not indicate political convergences. The forthcoming NATO Lisbon summit of November 2010 will have to manage a balance between its legitimacy issues towards the Kremlin that have crystallized in Europe, and the need to cooperate with the Russian giant in the global strategic environment.
Lepassalu, Virkko, 1971-
Juunis saabub Tallinna NATO õppusele BALTOPS 2016 mitu tuhat sõjalaevastiklast. Tallinna abilinnapea Kalle Klandorfi kohtumisest NATO 1. alalise mereväegrupi ülemakohusetäitja Jose Enricue Delgadoga
Autor analüüsib NATO laienemisprotsessi, sh Baltimaade liitumise mõju Venemaa välispoliitilistele seisukohtadele ja strateegiatele ning kirjeldab Venemaa ja NATO vahelise koostöö arendamise kolme võimalikku stsenaariumi
President Toomas Hendrik Ilves külastas Brüsselis asuvat NATO peakorterit ja kohtus NATO peasekretäri Jaap de Hoop Schefferiga. Kõne all oli Balti õhuruumi turvamine, küberkaitse, NATO missioonid Afganistanis. President T. H. Ilves on esimene Eesti riigipea, kes on külastanud NATO peakorterit pärast Eesti liitumist alliansiga. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Brüsselis 3.-5.02.2008
NATO põhjapiirkonna vägede endise juhi arvates võiks NATO olla endiselt peamine sõjalise jõu instrument, olgu tegemis siis NATO või EL-i juhitud sõjalise operatsiooniga, ta ei usu, et NATO ja EL muutuvad sõjaliselt ning poliitiliselt omavahel võistlevateks organisatsioonideks. Riigid peaksid tegutsema koos selliste sõjaliste võimete loomisel, milleks nad üksi suutelised ei ole
The Russia-Ukraine Crisis has been the second biggest crisis between NATO and Russia in five years. Russia occupied Georgia, a NATO candidate, in 2008 and officially recognized two breakaway regions threatening Georgia's territorial integrity. Five years later, Russia threatened the territorial integrity of Ukraine, another NATO candidate, illegaly annexing Crimea and supporting separatists in the Eastern part of the country. The Western World and NATO have been condemning Russia because of i...
Although, NATO has always taken into account public opinion in its member states, the emergence of new Information and Communication Technologies and the extension of its out-of- area operations have given NATO a new impetus to extend the space of communication beyond the Alliance countries.With regard to the NATO's partnership with Arab countries, the Arab spring uprisings have created a new political atmosphere in which many signs of a positive perception of NATO and its members states have...
Radiation dosimetry is a fundamental part of all radiation protection work. The measurements are made with a variety of instruments, and health physicists, after professional interpretation of the data, can assess the levels of exposure which might be encountered in a given area or the individual doses received by workers, visitors and others at places where the possibility of radiation exposure exists. The types of radiation concerned here are photon radiations, ranging from soft X-rays to gamma rays, and particulate radiations such as β-rays, α-particles, protons, neutrons and fission fragments. The type of technique used depends not only on the type of radiation but also on such factors as whether the radiation is from a source internal or external to the body. Radiation dosimetry is not only used at nuclear facilities; it has diverse applications, for example in determining doses when radiation sources are employed for medical diagnostics and therapy, in safeguarding workers in any industry where isotopes are used, and in assessing the effect of both naturally occurring and man-made radiations on the general public and the environment. The advances of modern technology have increased the variety of sources; an example can be given from colour television, where the high potential necessary in certain colour cathode-ray tubes generates a non-negligible amount of X-rays. The Symposium on New Developments in Physical and Biological Radiation Detectors was one of a continuing series of meetings in which the International Atomic Energy Agency furthers the exchange of information on all aspects of personnel and area dosimetry. The Symposium was devoted in particular to a study of the dose meters themselves - their radiation-sensitive elements (both physical and biological),their instrumentation, and calibration and standardization. Several speakers suggested that the situation in the standardization and calibration of measuring equipment and sources was
Krimmis protestiti plaanitavate NATO ühisõppuste vastu, Vene riigiduuma väljendas muret Ukraina plaani pärast ühineda NATO-ga. Samas toetab NATO-ga ühinemist vaid 20% küsitletud Ukraina elanikest
Koorits, Vahur, 1981-
Autori sõnul demonstreerivad Venemaa ja NATO oma jõudu, korraldades praegu Ida-Euroopas sõjaväeõppusi. Eestis toimunud NATO õppused. Kaart: Eesti lähistel toimub viimasel ajal järjest suuremaid NATO ja Venemaa sõjaväeõppusi
Soome kaitseminister Jyri Häkämies kutsus Soomet ja Rootsit ühinema NATO-ga, tema sõnul saaksid Soome ja Rootsi NATO liikmena osaleda aktiivselt Vene-Atlandi partnerlusnõukogus, NATO tervitaks nende kogemusi, oskusi ja suurt võrgustikku suhetes Venemaaga. Soome presidendi Tarja Haloneni ja välisminister Alexander Stubbi seisukoht
Olesk, Arko, 1981-
NATO peasekretär Jaap de Hoop Scheffer teatas alliansi välisministritega kohtumise järel toimunud pressikonverentsil, et NATO hakkab tegutsema kolmveerandil Afganistani territooriumist. NATO võib suurendada rahvusvaheliste julgeolekuabijõudude (ISAF) koosseisu kuni 15 000 meheni. Vt. samas: Paet: Eesti peab aitama Afganistani üles ehitada
Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-
Londonis peetud NATO kaitseministrite kokkusaamisel oli arutluse all NATO osalemine alliansist välja jäävates kriisikolletes ning enesekaitse osatähtsus. Samuti tõsteti päevakorrale küsimus NATO kiirreageerimisjõudude arendamisest
Baltimaad said 2002. aasta novembris toimunud Praha tippkohtumisel kutse NATO-ga liitumiseks. Autor analüüsib selle kutse tagamaid, võimalikku mõju NATO ja Venemaa suhetele ning leiab, et viimasega suhete parandamiseks peaks julgustama Venemaad samuti NATO-ga liituma
... Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application for NATO... Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Security Investment Program (NSIP) are only open to firms of member NATO countries. NSIP procedures for international competitive bidding (AC/4-D/2261) require that...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of contractor inventory for NATO cooperative projects. 245.603-71 Section 245.603-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations... inventory for NATO cooperative projects. (a) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cooperative...
... NATO, Australia, and Japan. 126.14 Section 126.14 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL... authorizations for NATO, Australia, and Japan. (a) Comprehensive authorizations. With respect to NATO members, Australia, Japan, and Sweden, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may provide the...
Brand, Hans; Cram, Leonard; Gjessing, Dag; Jordan, Arthur; Keydel, Wolfgang; Schwierz, Günther; Vogel, Martin
In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the use of polarization effects for radar and electromagnetic imaging problems (References 1, 2, and 3). The problem of electro magnetic imaging can be divided into the following areas: (1) Propagation of the Stokes' vector from the transmitter to the target region through various atmospheric conditions (rain, dust, fog, clouds, turbulence, etc.). (2) Scattering of the Stokes' vector from the object. (3) Scattering of the Stokes' vector from the rough surface, terrain, and the volume scattering. (4) Propagation of the Stokes' vector from the target region to the receiver. (5) The characteristics of the receiver relating the Stokes' vector to the output. The propagation characteristics of the Stokes' vector through various media can be described by the equation of transfer. Even though the scalar equation of transfer has been studied extensively in the past, the vector equation of transfer has not received as much attention. In recent years, however, a...
The 1988 Summer School on New Aspects of Nuclear Dynamics took place in the style that by now has become a tradition: a series of lectures by well known scientists on modem topics of nuclear physics, where special emphasis is placed on the didactic aspects of the lectures. In the past few years, we have witnessed a rapid evolution of the field of nuclear physics towards novel directions of research. This development is accompanied by the construction of some of the largest experimental facilities ever built for nuclear research. The subjects covered by the Summer School focussed on two main issues currently under active investigation and which will be pursued with the new facilities: the transition from nucleonic to quark degrees of freedom in the decription of nuclear reactions, and the behavior of nuclear matter as one approaches extreme densities and temperatures. These topics in many respects go beyond traditional nuclear physics and the speakers therefore also included high energy physicists. From the re...
Blanchard, Alain; Frontiers of Cosmology
The field of Cosmology is currently undergoing a revolution driven by dramatic observational progresses and by novel theoretical scenarios imported from particle physics. This book contains lectures by world experts in the various branches of this field corresponding to lectures presented during the School "Frontiers of the Universe" at the IESC, (Corsica,France). These pedagogical lectures cover major subjects relevant to the field ( inflation; CMB: anisotropies and polarization; quintessence/dark energy; inflation; CMB: anisotropies and polarization; clusters of galaxies; gravitational lensing; galaxy formation; dark matter; supernovae and the accelerating expansion of the Universe), providing invaluable introductory material appropriate to PhD students as well as to more senior scientists who wish to become familiar with the various domains of the modern developments in Cosmology
This book presents the most relevant and recent results in the study of “Nanoelectromagnetics”, a recently born fascinating research discipline, whose popularity is fast arising with the intensive penetration of nanotechnology in the world of electronics applications. Studying nanoelectromagnetics means describing the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and quantum mechanical low-dimensional systems: this requires a full interdisciplinary approach, the reason why this book hosts contributions from the fields of fundamental and applied electromagnetics, of chemistry and technology of nanostructures and nanocomposites, of physics of nano-structures systems, etc. The book is aimed at providing the reader with the state of the art in Nanoelectromagnetics, from theoretical modelling to experimental characterization, from design to synthesis, from DC to microwave and terahertz applications, from the study of fundamental material properties to the analysis of complex systems and devices, from commercia...
Mason, Timothy; Reisse, Jacques; Suslick, Kenneth
Sonochemistry is studied primarily by chemists and sonoluminescence mainly by physicists, but a single physical phenomenon - acoustic cavitation - unites the two areas. The physics of cavitation bubble collapse, is relatively well understood by acoustical physicists but remains practically unknown to the chemists. By contrast, the chemistry that gives rise to electromagnetic emissions and the acceleration of chemical reactions is familiar to chemists, but practically unknown to acoustical physicists. It is just this knowledge gap that the present volume addresses. The first section of the book addresses the fundamentals of cavitation, leading to a more extensive discussion of the fundamentals of cavitation bubble dynamics in section two. A section on single bubble sonoluminescence follows. The two following sections address the new scientific discipline of sonochemistry, and the volume concludes with a section giving detailed descriptions of the applications of sonochemistry. The mixture of tutorial lectures ...
Reif, B.M.; Wharton, W.D.; Gonzalez-Godoy, S.; McGlynn, L.; San Jose, A.; Elliot, R.; Franzen, S.; Lecinq, X.; Huiskamp, W.; Edmondson, D.
In many cases, the training and decision support needs of military users are urgent; operations can not wait and missions have to be accomplished. Simulators, wargames scenarios and experiments should be ready 'yesterday'. New kinds of operations, environments, tactics, equipment and force configura
Reif, B.M.; Wharton, W.D.; Gonzalez-Godoy, S.; McGlynn, L.; San Jose, A.; Elliot, R.; Franzen, S.; Lecenq, X.; Huiskamp, W.; Edmondson, D.
In many cases, the training and decision support needs of military users are urgent; operations cannot wait and missions have to be accomplished. Simulators, wargames scenarios and experiments should be ready 'yesterday'. New kinds of operations, environments, tactics, equipment and force configurat
Atomic Physics is certainly the oldest field in which Quantum Mechanics has been used and has provided the most significant proofs of this new theory. Most of the basic concepts, except those more recently developed in field quantization, have been understood for quite a time. Atomic Physics began to serve as a basis for other fields such as molecu lar, solid state or nuclear physics. A renewal of interest in Atomic Physics began in the sixties, after the discovery of Quantum Electro dynamics, and later when it provided some basic tests of fundamental questions like parity violation, time reversal or Dirac theory. More recently the development of new technologies led to the ex ploration of very extreme cases in which the most secrete aspects of atoms have been observed. - Rydberg states where the atoms are so big that they can be described by classical theories; - Heavy or super-heavy ions or exotic atoms where unknown QED or relativistic effects can be observed (very heavy hydrogenlike or heliu...
Vylder, F; Haezendonck, J
Canadian financial institutions have been in rapid change in the past five years. In response to these changes, the Department of Finance issued a discussion paper: The Regulation of Canadian Financial Institutions, in April 1985, and the government intends to introduce legislation in the fall. This paper studi.es the combinantion of financial institutions from the viewpoint of ruin probability. In risk theory developed to describe insurance companies [1,2,3,4,5J, the ruin probability of a company with initial reserve (capital) u is 6 1 -:;-7;;f3 u 1jJ(u) = H6 e H6 (1) Here,we assume that claims arrive as a Poisson process, and the claim amount is distributed as exponential distribution with expectation liS. 6 is the loading, i.e., premium charged is (1+6) times expected claims. Financial institutions are treated as "insurance companies": the difference between interest charged and interest paid is regarded as premiums, loan defaults are treated as claims.
Roux, S; Guyon, E
Fracture, and particularly brittle fracture, is a good example of an instability. For a homogeneous solid, subjected to a uniform stress field, a crack may appear anywhere in the structure once the threshold stress is reached. However, once a crack has been nucleated in some place, further damage in the solid will in most cases propagate from the initial crack, and not somewhere else in the solid. In this sense fracture is an unstable process. This property makes the process extremely sensitive to any heterogeneity present in the medium, which selects the location of the first crack nucleated. In particular, fracture appears to be very sensitive to disorder, which can favor or impede local cracks. Therefore, in most realistic cases, a good description of fracture mechanics should include the effect of disorder. Recently this need has motivated work in this direction starting from the usual description of fracture mechanics. Parallel with this first trend, statistical physics underwent a very important develop...
Molecular Physics and Hypersonic Flows bridges the gap between the fluid dynamics and molecular physics communities, emphasizing the role played by elementary processes in hypersonic flows. In particular, the work is primarily dedicated to filling the gap between microscopic and macroscopic treatments of the source terms to be inserted in the fluid dynamics codes. The first part of the book describes the molecular dynamics of elementary processes both in the gas phase and in the interaction with surfaces by using quantum mechanical and phenomenological approaches. A second group of contributions describes thermodynamics and transport properties of air components, with special attention to the transport of internal energy. A series of papers is devoted to the experimental and theoretical study of the flow of partially ionized gases. Subsequent contributions treat modern computational techniques for 3-D hypersonic flow. Non-equilibrium vibrational kinetics are then described, together with the coupling of vibra...
Serpico, D; Trama, A; Haspinger, E R; Agustoni, F; Botta, L; Berardi, R; Palmieri, G; Zucali, P; Gallucci, R; Broggini, M; Gatta, G; Pastorino, U; Pelosi, G; de Braud, F; Garassino, M C
Thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) are rare primary mediastinal tumors arising from thymic epithelium. Their rarity and complexity hinder investigations of their causes and therapy development. Here, we summarize the existing knowledge regarding medical treatment of these tumors, and thoroughly review the known genetic aberrations associated with TETs and the present status of potential biological treatments. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), stem-cell factor receptor, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R), and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF-A, VEGF-B, and VEGF-2) are overexpressed in TETs. EGFR overexpression in TETs is associated with higher stage, and IGF1R overexpression has poor prognostic value. Data indicate that anti-IGF1R monoclonal antibodies, and inhibitors of angiogenesis, somatostatin receptors, histone deacetylase, mammalian target of rapamycin, and cyclin-dependent kinases may be active against TETs. Continued investigations in this field could lead to advancement of targeted and biological therapies for TETs. PMID:25411417
Liguori, Rossana; Faraco, Vincenza
The actualization of a circular economy through the use of lignocellulosic wastes as renewable resources can lead to reduce the dependence from fossil-based resources and contribute to a sustainable waste management. The integrated biorefineries, exploiting the overall lignocellulosic waste components to generate fuels, chemicals and energy, are the pillar of the circular economy. The biological treatment is receiving great attention for the biorefinery development since it is considered an eco-friendly alternative to the physico-chemical strategies to increase the biobased product recovery from wastes and improve saccharification and fermentation yields. This paper reviews the last advances in the biological treatments aimed at upgrading lignocellulosic wastes, implementing the biorefinery concept and advocating circular economy. PMID:27131870
This volume is the proceedings of the Symposium entitled, "Work, Organizations and Technological Change" which was held in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, West Germany, 14-19 June 1981. The meeting was sponsored by the Special Panel on Systems Sciences of the NATO Scientific Affairs Division. In proposing this meeting the Symposium Directors built upon several preceding NATO conferences in the general area of personnel systems, manpower modelling, and organization. The most recent NATO Conference, entitled "Manpower Planning and Organization Design," was held in Stresa, Italy in 1977. That meeting was organized to foster research on the interrelationships between programmatic approaches to personnel planning within organizations and behavioral science approachs to organization design. From that context of corporate planning the total internal organizational perspective was the MACRO view, and the selection, assignment, care and feeding of the people was the MICRO view. Conceptually, this meant that an integrated appr...
Full Text Available Interoperability is not a new area of effort at NATO level. In fact, interoperability and more specifi cally standardization, has been a key element of the Alliance’s approach to fi elding forces for decades. But as the security and operational environment has been in a continuous change, the need to face the new threats and the current involvement in challenging operations in Afghanistan and elsewhere alongside with the necessity to interoperate at lower and lower levels of command with an increasing number of nations, including non-NATO ISAF partners, NGOs, and other organizations, have made the task even more challenging. In this respect Interoperability Integration within NATO Defense Planning Process will facilitate the timely identifi cation, development and delivery of required forces and capabilities that are interoperable and adequately prepared, equipped, trained and supported to undertake the Alliance’s full spectrum of missions.
Gheorghe BOARU, Ioan-Mihai ILIEŞ
Full Text Available There is a tight relationship between information assurance, the intelligence cycle and information superiority within NATO operations. The intelligence cycle has a discrete architecture and provides on-time and relevant intelligence products to the joint force commanders and to other authorized users in a specifi c joint area of operations. The intelligence cycle must follow the evolution of the operation. A permanent intelligence estimate will be performed during the military decision making process and operations execution. Information superiority is one of the most powerful intelligence cycle achievements. and decisively infuences the success of NATO joint operations. Information superiority must be preserved and enhanced through information assurance. Information assurance is an information operation that must be planned by the military in charge of operation security or by non-military experts, executed by all personnel during the entire intelligence cycle life time and employed during the planning and execution of NATO joint operations.
Ince, A. Nejat
The National Delegates Board of AGARD, upon recommendation by the Avionics Panel of AGARD, approved in March 1986 the establishment of WG-13 to study satellite communications for NATO under the direction of Prof. Dr. Nejat Ince of Turkey. Some 14 scientists/engineers, from research and industrial establishments of Canada, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Norway, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States of America as well as from International Military Staff of NATO and SHAPE Technical Centre, participated in the work of WG-13. This paper is a brief summary of the studies carried out by the group in the period 1988-1990 on the type of satellite communication systems which NATO can have in the post-2000 era including the critical techniques and technologies that need to be developed for this purpose.
Mays, Brian; Vu, Hao; Srour, Nino
NATO's Task Group (TG-25) on acoustic and seismic sensing is responsible for assessing the potential technologies that can be cooperatively developed and shared within NATO's countries to provide effective, robust and low-cost battlefield sensor systems. The primary applications will be detection and/or classification of ground troops, ground vehicles, airborne vehicles, artillery and sniper. TG-25 has 3 main objectives: (1) to establish acoustic and seismic standards and data exchange procedures, (2) to compare, analyze, exchange, and develop analytical techniques, computational models and signal processing algorithms, and (3) to plan and conduct joint field experiments. In this paper, we discuss participation in the joint NATO field experiment conducted in France in October 2002. The experiment's goal is to demonstrate interoperability of unattended ground sensors from various participating nations. Results of the experiments will be briefed and discussed. Keywords: TG-25, unattended ground sensor, vehicle tracking
Teufert, John F.
In order to enhance operational planning capabilities of the NATO Force Headquarters (KFOR, SFOR, ISAF), the NC3A Geo Team has developed a web-based interim geospatial intelligence support tool (IGEOSIT). The NC3A IGEOSIT displays geospatial data, such as digital topographic maps and satellite/air photo imagery, together with selectable overlay objects retrieved from distributed operational databases (DBs), for example minefields, bridges, culverts and military units. The NC3A IGEOSIT is a state-of-the-art web-based and Java-based multi-tier solution consisting of applications distributed over multiple servers within each Force HQ. The IGEOSIT provides advanced GIS terrain analysis capabilities based on the available Geo-data, including line-of-sight, 3-D perspective views, terrain profiles, and the definition of go/no-go areas. The system also performs vector-based route analysis and enhances the real-time tracking capabilities of mobile vehicles and troops. The IGEOSIT analyzes overlay data sets according to their attributes and dependencies in order to highlight otherwise hidden spatial relations that may be critical for mission planning. After performing geospatial analysis, the system compiles maps automatically to provide the user with immediate hard copy results, according to NATO standards, if necessary. The successful implementation of the IGEOSIT currently provides all NATO FORCE HQ staff members with a common operational picture of the theatre. This ensures that a common set of recently-updated information overlays forms the basis for all operational decisions. This paper describes the architecture, technology, performance tests (including test environment, analysis and measurement tools, hardware, selected test scenarios and results) and the lessons learned implementing advanced network and Java-based multi-tier solutions within the NATO Force Headquarters.
Türkay, Metin; Weber, Gerhard-Wilhelm; Blazewicz, Jacek; Rauner, Marion
CEJOR (2014) 22:427–430 DOI 10.1007/s10100-013-0327-2 EDITORIAL Recent advances in computational biology, bioinformatics, medicine, and healthcare by modern OR Gerhard-Wilhelm Weber · Jacek Blazewicz · Marion Rauner · Metin Türkay Published online: 7 September 2013 © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013 At the occasion of the 25th European Conference on Operational Research, EURO XXV 2012, July 8–11, 2012, in Vilnius, Lithuania (http://www.euro-2012.lt/), the ...
During the last decade, the lack of fresh water is becoming a major concern. Recently, the present of recalcitrant products such as pharmaceuticals has caused a special interest due to their undefined environmental impact. Among these antibiotics are one of the numerous recalcitrant pollutants present in surface waters that might not be completely removed in the biological stage of sewage treatment plants because of their antibacterial nature. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) have proved to be highly efficient for the degradation of most organic pollutants in wastewaters. (Author)
Lett, J.T.; Altman, K.I.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.
This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation.
This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation
Full Text Available Branding products and companies has always been associated with private enterprises and less, if ever, with international intergovernmental organizations. International organizations now have a long history behind them, a history often marked by contradictory events. In the last decade the international organizations developed their own public relations department in an attempt to communicate promptly and transmit the general audience their version of reality. Having this in mind we will try to briefly present in the current work the main reasons why we believe that the international organizations, NATO in particular, have started to see themselves as brand and to create a so called “commercial identity” by becoming a brand. By applying the conceptual and analytical framework used in analyzing the marketing strategies of the private companies we will try to see whether NATO is about to become a brand. Our starting point will be a 2008 statement of Jean-François Bureau, deputy general secretary responsible with NATO’s public diplomacy: “We have the green light to think about a branding policy for NATO”. Nowadays global society, perceptions tend to become more important than reality itself, and thus positive perceptions tend to become crucial. NATO has suffered an image decline in the last decade, therefore some new communication measures tend to impose themselves. The distinction between soft power and propaganda must be carefully analyzed when we speak about branding NATO. Thus we hope to bring some necessary clarifications in the area of NATO branding. Is there a brand? Is a brand going to be constructed? How does it differ from a commercial society? Does NATO need its own TV channel? Raising questions and offering a new perspective is, in the end, our primary goal, as a debate on this subject is a must that offers a new perspective in the area of theory of international organizations.
Pietsch, Renée B.; Bohland, Cynthia L.; Schmale, David G., III.
Biological flight mechanics is typically taught in graduate level college classes rather than in secondary school classes. We developed an interdisciplinary unit for advanced upper-level secondary school students (ages 15-18) to teach the principles of flight and applications to biological systems. This unit capitalised on the tremendous…
Boomgaardt, J.J.; Mojtahed, V.; Waite, B.
The NATO Research and Technology Agency has set up the Modeling and Simulation Group (MSG) 058 with title "Conceptual Modeling for M&S" to produce guidance on conceptual modeling for modeling and simulation (M&S) development within NATO. The Task Group is comprised of CAN, ESP, NOR, NLD, ROM, SWE, TUR and USA. This paper introduces the group's mandate and reviews the state-of-the-art of doing conceptual modeling. Current M&S standards, such as DIS and HLA, have provided the first steps to com...
Kindral, endine NATO sõjalise komitee esimees räägib alliansi tegevusest turvalisuse tagamisel Afganistanis, Eesti osalemisest NATO missioonil, NATO õhupatrullidest Baltimaades. Harald Kujati CV. Vt. samas: NATO võttis mässu summutamise oma õlule
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Ganzenko, Oleksandra; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A
As pollution becomes one of the biggest environmental challenges of the twenty-first century, pollution of water threatens the very existence of humanity, making immediate action a priority. The most persistent and hazardous pollutants come from industrial and agricultural activities; therefore, effective treatment of this wastewater prior to discharge into the natural environment is the solution. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have caused increased interest due to their ability to degrade hazardous substances in contrast to other methods, which mainly only transfer pollution from wastewater to sludge, a membrane filter, or an adsorbent. Among a great variety of different AOPs, a group of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), including electro-Fenton, is emerging as an environmental-friendly and effective treatment process for the destruction of persistent hazardous contaminants. The only concern that slows down a large-scale implementation is energy consumption and related investment and operational costs. A combination of EAOPs with biological treatment is an interesting solution. In such a synergetic way, removal efficiency is maximized, while minimizing operational costs. The goal of this review is to present cutting-edge research for treatment of three common and problematic pollutants and effluents: dyes and textile wastewater, olive processing wastewater, and pharmaceuticals and hospital wastewater. Each of these types is regarded in terms of recent scientific research on individual electrochemical, individual biological and a combined synergetic treatment. PMID:24965093
Dauble, Dennis D.; Deng, Zhiqun; Richmond, Marshall C.; Moursund, Russell A.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Duncan, Joanne P.
This report summarizes the results of studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate the biological performance (likelihood of injury to fish) from an advanced design turbine installed at Unit 8 of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River in Washington State in 2005. PNNL studies included a novel dye technique to measure injury to juvenile fish in the field, an evaluation of blade-strike using both deterministic and stochastic models, and extended analysis of the response of the Sensor Fish Device to strike, pressure, and turbulence within the turbine system. Fluorescein dye was used to evaluate injuries to live fish passed through the advanced turbine and an existing turbine at two spill discharges (15 and 17 kcfs). Under most treatments the results were not significantly different for the two turbines, however, eye injury occurred in nearly 30% of fish passing through Unit 9 but in less than 10% of those passing through Unit 8 at 15 kcfs. Both deterministic and stochastic blade-strike models were applied for the original and new AHTS turbines. The modeled probabilities were compared to the Sensor Fish results (Carlson et al. 2006) and the biological studies using juvenile fish (Normandeau et al. 2005) under the same operational parameters. The new AHTS turbine had slightly higher modeled injury rates than the original turbine, but no statistical evidence to suggest that there is significant difference in blade-strike injury probabilities between the two turbines, which is consistent with the experiment results using Sensor Fish and juvenile fish. PNNL also conducted Sensor Fish studies at Wanapum Dam in 2005 concurrent with live fish studies. The probablility of severe collision events was similar for both turbine. The advanced turbine had a slightly lower probability of severe shear events but a slightly higher probability of slight shear.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) joint operations, which reach across borders of countries that have different standards, could present a logistical nightmare were it not for standardization agreements, called STANAGs. STANAGs are established to provide uniform policies and procedures to insure international cooperation and to maintain the most effective levels of commonalty, compatibility, interchange-ability and inter-operability in military operations. Since signals produced by radar and communications equipment are not contained by national boundaries, a STANAG for Radiofrequency Radiation (RFR) is essential. The STANAG-2345 Control and Evaluation of Personnel Exposure to Radio Frequency Radiation. establishes criteria for the evaluation and control of personnel exposure to radio-frequency radiation within NATO forces. It defines hazard assessment, allows for control measures, indicates actions in case of accidental overexposures and establishes permissible exposure limits. The promulgation of this STANAG in 1979 was the culmination of deliberations among scientists and health professionals within the NATO community that began in May 1973. At the time of adoption it contained guidance based on the then state-of-knowledge. The standard has not been updated since it was issued, despite great advances in the knowledge-base defining health and safety aspects of RFR. Several standards setting groups recently updated their standards, including the American National Standards Institute revised safety guidance for RFR. This has left a large technology gap between the newer standards and STANAG 2345. (author)
This book includes all of the papers presented at the NATO Symposium on Human Detection and Diagnosis of System Failures held at Roskilde, Denmark on August 4-8, 1980. The Symposium was sponsored by the Scientific Affairs Division of NATO and the Rise National Laboratory of Denmark. The goal of the Symposium was to continue the tradition initiated by the NATO Symposium on Monitoring Behavior and Supervisory Control held in Berchtesgaden, F .R. Germany in 1976 and the NATO Symposium on Theory and Measurement of Mental Workload held in Mati, Greece in 1977. To this end, a group of 85 psychologists and engineers coming from industry, government, and academia convened to discuss, and to generate a "state-of-the-art" consensus of the problems and solutions associated with the human IS ability to cope with the increasing scale of consequences of failures within complex technical systems. The Introduction of this volume reviews their findings. The Symposium was organized to include brief formal presentations of pape...
Poola presidendi Lech Kaczynski ühepäevasest töövisiidist Eestisse. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves ja Poola riigipea kõnelesid kohtumisel Euroopa tulevikust, NATO laienemisest, Euroopa Liidu naabruspoliitikast ja energiajulgeolekust, võtsid vastu ühisdeklaratsiooni, milles kutsusid Euroopa riikide valitsusi arutama võimalust luua rahvusvaheline komisjon kommunismi inimsusevastaste kuritegude ja inimõiguste rikkumiste uurimiseks
Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-
NATO otsustas oma kaubamärgi värskendamiseks palgata viimased kaks aastat Coca-Cola mainet kujundanud Michael Stopfordi, kelle põhiülesandeks tõenäoliselt jääb tavakodanikele organisatsiooni tähtsuse ja rolli selgitamine
Vene kaitseminister Sergei Ivanov kutsus Müncheni rahvusvahelisel julgeolekufoorumil NATO-t hoiduma kohaloleku laiendamisest Poolasse ja Balti riikidesse. USA senaator John McCain ründas Venemaad reageeringute eest, mis esitavad väljakutse naabrite demokraatlikule ja territoriaalsele terviklikkusele
Článok analyzuje, ako vnímajú organizáciu NATO na Balkáne a objasňuje rozdiely medzi štátmi. Následne využíva poznatky teórie konštruktivizmu a odborníkov, ktorí vysvetľujú, že negatívne postoje k NATO sa menia k pozitívnemu vďaka dlhoročnej prítomnosti organizácie a EÚ na Balkáne. Autor síce súhlasí s daným tvrdením, argumentuje však, že vzhľadom na to, že verejná mienka o NATO na Balkáne je špecifická, NATO by vo svojej verejnej diplomacii nemalo zostávať len na úrovni informačnej kampane. ...
The proposed objective of the NATO/CCMS Pilot on clean products and processes is to facilitate further gains in pollution prevention, waste minimization, and design for the environment. It is anticipated that the free exchange of knowledge, experience, data, and models will fost...
Tracevskis, Rokas M.
NATO peasekretäri Anders Fogh Rasmusseni Läti visiidist, mille käigus külastas ta Šiauliai lähedal asuvat Zokniai õhubaasi ja kohtus Leedu presidendi Dalia Grybauskaite, peaminister Andrius Kubiliuse ja välisminister Vygaudas Usackasega
Kelam, Mari-Ann, 1946-
Seda, et NATO liitumisläbirääkimistele kutsutavate seas on ka Eesti, saab veel tänagi pidada üheks meie iseseisva riikluse suursaavutuseks, kui mitte imeks, kirjutab Riigikogu liige Mari-Ann Kelam. Autor: Isamaaliit. Parlamendisaadik
Endine NATO vägede ülemjuhataja Euroopas Wesley Clark pidas USA välispoliitikanõukogus kõne, milles tegi ettepaneku sõlmida uus Atlandi harta ning võrdles USA suhteid Euroopa riikidega raudeesriide-aegse olukorraga
Adler, A.B.; Delahaij, R.; Bailey, S.M.; Berge, C. van den; Parmak, M.; Tussenbroek, B. van; Puente, J.M.; Landratova, S.; Kral, P.; Kreim, G.; Rietdijk, D.; McGurk, D.; Castro, C.A.
To-date, there has been no international review of mental health resilience training during Basic Training nor an assessment of what service members perceive as useful from their perspective. In response to this knowledge gap, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Human Factors & Medicine Re
Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves ütles pärast Gruusiast naasmist, et Venemaa rünnak Gruusia vastu peaks NATOt veenma selles, et Gruusiale ja Ukrainale tuleks kiiresti anda NATO liikmelisus. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Gruusias 12.-13.08.2008
Eesti on tänavu ära kasutanud kõik NATO strateegilises õhutranspordiprogrammis (SAC) ette nähtud 35 lennutundi, millega Eesti sai kasutada transpordilennukit Boeing C-17 Globemaster. Lennutunnid kulusid Eesti jalaväeüksuse tagasitoomiseks Afganistanist
Wang, Xiaojun; Han, Jijun; Chen, Zhiwei; Jian, Lei; Gu, Xiaoyang; Lin, Che-Jen
There are numerous non-biodegradable organic materials in the mature landfill leachate. To meet the new discharge standard of China, additional advanced treatment is needed for the effluent from the biological treatment processes of leachate. In this study, a combined process including two stages of "Fenton-biological anaerobic filter (BANF)-biological aerated filter (BAF)" was evaluated to address the advanced treatment need. The Fenton oxidation was applied to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) and enhance biodegradability of refractory organics, and the BANF-BAF process was then applied to remove the total nitrogen (TN). The treatment achieved effluent concentrations of CODcost of these processes was about 36.1CHY/t (5.70USD/t). PMID:22841597
Galfo, Armand J.
Three research projects were conducted over a three year period among secondary school students in the United Kingdom, the United States (Virginia), and West Germany in order to determine students' understanding the 40-year confrontation between the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Warsaw Pact. These studies included 1991 students…
Nancharaiah, Y V; Venkata Mohan, S; Lens, P N L
Nitrogen and phosphorous are key pollutants in wastewater to be removed and recovered for sustainable development. Traditionally, nitrogen removal is practiced through energy intensive biological nitrification and denitrification entailing a major cost in wastewater treatment. Recent innovations in nitrogen removal aim at reducing energy requirements and recovering ammonium nitrogen. Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) are promising for recovering ammonium nitrogen from nitrogen rich waste streams (urine, digester liquor, swine liquor, and landfill leachate) profitably. Phosphorus is removed from the wastewater in the form of polyphosphate granules by polyphosphate accumulating organisms. Alternatively, phosphorous is removed/recovered as Fe-P or struvite through chemical precipitation (iron or magnesium dosing). In this article, recent advances in nutrients removal from wastewater coupled to recovery are presented by applying a waste biorefinery concept. Potential capabilities of BES in recovering nitrogen and phosphorous are reviewed to spur future investigations towards development of nutrient recovery biotechnologies. PMID:27053446
Friedman, Douglas C. [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)
The report stresses the need for efforts to inform the public of the nature of industrial biotechnology and of its societal benefits, and to make sure that concerns are communicated effectively between the public and other stakeholders. In addition to scientific advances, a number of governance and societal factors will influence the industrialization of biology. Industry norms and standards need to be established in areas such as read/write accuracy for DNA, data and machine technology specifications, and organism performance in terms of production rates and yields. An updated regulatory regime is also needed to accelerate the safe commercialization of new host organisms, metabolic pathways, and chemical products, and regulations should be coordinated across nations to enable rapid, safe, and global access to new technologies and products.
Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J. [eds.
The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.
Chiu, Joanne W; Wong, Hilda; Leung, Roland; Pang, Roberta; Cheung, Tan-To; Fan, Sheung-Tat; Poon, Ronnie; Yau, Thomas
The progress in the development of systemic treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer (APC) has been slow. The mainstream treatment remains using chemotherapy including gemcitabine, FOLFIRINOX, and nab-paclitaxel. Erlotinib is the only approved biological therapy with marginal benefit. Studies of agents targeting epidermal growth factor receptor, angiogenesis, and RAS signaling have not been satisfying, and the usefulness of targeted therapy in APC is uncertain. Understanding in molecular processes and tumor biology has opened the door for new treatment strategies such as targeting insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, transforming growth factor β, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, and Notch pathway. New directions also include the upcoming immunotherapy and many novel agents that act on the microenvironment. The practice of personalized medicine using predictive biomarkers and pharmacogenomics signatures may also enhance the effectiveness of existing treatment. Future treatment approaches may involve comprehensive genomic assessment of tumor and integrated combinations of multiple agents to overcome treatment resistance. PMID:25117068
Advanced oxidation processes were combined with biological treatment processes in this study to remove both pesticides and then the COD load from aqueous solutions. It was found that O3 and O3/UV oxidation systems were able to reach 90 and 100%, removal of the pesticide Deltamethrin, respectively, in a period of 210 min. The use of O3 combined with UV radiation enhances pesticides degradation and the residual pesticide reaches zero in the case of Deltamethrin. The combined O3/UV system can reduce COD up to 20% if the pH of the solution is above 4. Both pesticide degradation and COD removal in the combined O3/UV system follow the pseudo-first-order kinetics and the parameters of this model were evaluated. The application of the biological treatment to remove the bulk COD from different types of feed solution was investigated. More than 95% COD removal was achieved when treated wastewater by the O3/UV system was fed to the bioreactor. The parameters of the proposed Grau model were estimated
Oller, I; Malato, S; Sánchez-Pérez, J A
Nowadays there is a continuously increasing worldwide concern for development of alternative water reuse technologies, mainly focused on agriculture and industry. In this context, Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) are considered a highly competitive water treatment technology for the removal of those organic pollutants not treatable by conventional techniques due to their high chemical stability and/or low biodegradability. Although chemical oxidation for complete mineralization is usually expensive, its combination with a biological treatment is widely reported to reduce operating costs. This paper reviews recent research combining AOPs (as a pre-treatment or post-treatment stage) and bioremediation technologies for the decontamination of a wide range of synthetic and real industrial wastewater. Special emphasis is also placed on recent studies and large-scale combination schemes developed in Mediterranean countries for non-biodegradable wastewater treatment and reuse. The main conclusions arrived at from the overall assessment of the literature are that more work needs to be done on degradation kinetics and reactor modeling of the combined process, and also dynamics of the initial attack on primary contaminants and intermediate species generation. Furthermore, better economic models must be developed to estimate how the cost of this combined process varies with specific industrial wastewater characteristics, the overall decontamination efficiency and the relative cost of the AOP versus biological treatment. PMID:20956012
Nowadays there is a continuously increasing worldwide concern for development of alternative water reuse technologies, mainly focused on agriculture and industry. In this context, Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) are considered a highly competitive water treatment technology for the removal of those organic pollutants not treatable by conventional techniques due to their high chemical stability and/or low biodegradability. Although chemical oxidation for complete mineralization is usually expensive, its combination with a biological treatment is widely reported to reduce operating costs. This paper reviews recent research combining AOPs (as a pre-treatment or post-treatment stage) and bioremediation technologies for the decontamination of a wide range of synthetic and real industrial wastewater. Special emphasis is also placed on recent studies and large-scale combination schemes developed in Mediterranean countries for non-biodegradable wastewater treatment and reuse. The main conclusions arrived at from the overall assessment of the literature are that more work needs to be done on degradation kinetics and reactor modeling of the combined process, and also dynamics of the initial attack on primary contaminants and intermediate species generation. Furthermore, better economic models must be developed to estimate how the cost of this combined process varies with specific industrial wastewater characteristics, the overall decontamination efficiency and the relative cost of the AOP versus biological treatment.
Nunes, Ramom R; Bontempi, Rhaissa M; Mendonça, Giovane; Galetti, Gustavo; Rezende, Maria Olímpia O
The leather industry (tanneries) generates high amounts of toxic wastes, including solid and liquid effluents that are rich in organic matter and mineral content. Vermicomposting was studied as an alternative method of treating the wastes from tanneries. Vermicompost was produced from the following tannery residues: tanned chips of wet-blue leather, sludge from a liquid residue treatment station, and a mixture of both. Five hundred earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were added to each barrel. During the following 135 days the following parameters were evaluated: pH, total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter (OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), C:N ratio, and chromium content as Cr (III) and Cr (VI). The results for pH, TOC and OM contents showed decreases in their values during the composting process, whereas values for CEC and total nitrogen rose, indicating that the vermicompost reached maturity. For chromium, at 135 days, all values of Cr (VI) were below the detectable level. Therefore, the Cr (VI) content had probably been biologically transformed into Cr (III), confirming the use of this technique as an advanced biological treatment. The study reinforces the idea that vermicomposting could be introduced as an effective technology for the treatment of industrial tannery waste and the production of agricultural inputs. PMID:26828795
Zhang, Chunhui; Lin, Hui; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Wenwen
Electrochemical oxidation is a promising technology for the treatment ofbio-refractory wastewater. In this research, advanced treatment of coking wastewater which had previously undergone A/O (anaerobic-aerobic biological) treatment was investigated over Ti/RuO2 x IrO2 anode, stainless steel cathode and coke powder particle electrodes which were packed into the electrodes in a bipolar three-dimensional electrode reactor (BTDR). The results showed that the removal efficiency of COD and ammonia nitrogen increased with applied current density. The main influencing factors of BTDR were evaluated by an orthogonal test, including reaction time, plate distance, current density, plate amounts and aeration flow rate. With reaction time of 60 min, plate distance of 1.0 cm, current density of 20 mA/cm2 and plate amounts of four pairs, most of the contaminants in coking wastewater can be remediated by BTDR, which can then meet the discharge limit for coking wastewater in China. For organic pollutants, 12 kinds of organic pollutants can be completely removed, and the removal efficiencies of 11 kinds of organic pollutants are between 13.3 and 70.3% by advanced treatment with BTDR. We conclude that there is great potential for BTDR in engineering applications as a final treatment for coking wastewater. PMID:24350493
Andrea G. Capodaglio
Full Text Available The paper summarizes the state-of-the-art of the most recent advances in biological nitrogen removal, including process design criteria and technological innovations. With reference to the Modified Ludzck Ettinger (MLE process (pre-denitrification and nitrification in the activated sludge process, the most common nitrogen removal process used nowadays, a new design equation for the denitrification reactor based on specific denitrification rate (SDNR has been proposed. In addition, factors influencing SDNR (DO in the anoxic reactor; hydrodynamic behavior are analyzed, and technological solutions are proposed. Concerning technological advances, the paper presents a summary of various “deammonification” processes, better known by their patent names like ANAMMOX®, DEMON®, CANON®, ANITA® and others. These processes have already found applications in the treatment of high-strength wastewater such as digested sludge liquor and landfill leachate. Among other emerging denitrification technologies, consideration is given to the Membrane Biofilm Reactors (MBfRs that can be operated both in oxidation and reduction mode.
Yannas, I V; Tzeranis, D S; Harley, B A; So, P T C
A small number of type I collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds (collagen-GAG scaffolds; CGSs) have unusual biological activity consisting primarily in inducing partial regeneration of organs in the adult mammal. Two of these are currently in use in a variety of clinical settings. CGSs appear to induce regeneration by blocking the adult healing response, following trauma, consisting of wound contraction and scar formation. Several structural determinants of biological activity have been identified, including ligands for binding of fibroblasts to the collagen surface, the mean pore size (which affects ligand density) and the degradation rate (which affects the duration of the wound contraction-blocking activity by the scaffold). Processing variables that affect these determinants include the kinetics of swelling of collagen fibres in acetic acid, freezing of the collagen-GAG suspension and cross-linking of the freeze-dried scaffold. Recent developments in the processing of CGSs include fabrication of scaffolds that are paucidisperse in pore size, scaffolds with gradients in physicochemical properties (and therefore biological activity) and scaffolds that incorporate a mineral component. Advances in the characterization of the pore structure of CGSs have been made using confocal and nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM). The mechanical behaviour of CGSs, as well as the resistance to degradative enzymes, have been studied. Following seeding with cells (typically fibroblasts), contractile forces in the range 26-450 nN per cell are generated by the cells, leading to buckling of scaffold struts. Ongoing studies of cell-seeded CGSs with NLOM have shown an advantage over the use of confocal microscopy due to the ability of the former method to image the CGS surfaces without staining (which alters its surface ligands), reduced cell photodamage, reduced fluorophore photobleaching and the ability to image deeper inside the scaffold. PMID:20308118
Rapid evolution of trade, cultural and human relations provides the qualitative and quantitative enhancement of international collaborations, linking the countries with different economical and technological level. Delocalization of High-Tech industry inevitably leads to development of the material science and engineering researches in emergent countries, requiring transfer of know-how, restructuration of basic research and educational networks. This book presents the contributions of participants of the Advanced Research Workshop “Smart Materials for Energy, Communications and Security” (ARW SMECS; www.smecs.ferroix.net), organized in December 2007 in Marrakech in frame of the “NATO - Science for Peace” program. The objective of this event was the attempt to overview several hot topics of material physics related with problems of modern society: transformation and storage of energy, treatment and transmission of information, environmental security issues etc., with the focus of their implementation i...
Full Text Available At Chicago NATO Summit, held on the 20th –the 21st of May 2012, it was declared the end of the first operational phase of the NATO missile shield in Europe. There are two NATO countries, Romania and Turkey, countries located in the Black Sea region which will host the NATO missile shield elements, this project is to be operationalized by 2020. The Russian Federation did not sign an agreement with the U.S. about the missile shield and I consider that the NATO missile shield affects its strategic and security interests. The existence of several frozen conflicts in the Black Sea region, the U.S., NATO, EU and the Russian Federation interests at the regional level, plus the arrival of the first military capabilities of the missile shield, will generate a new dynamics of the military security in Black Sea Region.
This volume is the proceedings of the conference entitled "Manpower Planning and Organization Design" which was held in Stresa, Italy, 20-24 June 1977. The Conference was sponsored by the NATO Scientific Affairs Division and organized jointly through the Special Programs Panels on Human Factors and on Systems Science. Two Conference Directors were appointed with overall responsibilities for the programme and for policy, and they were assisted in their tasks by a small advisory panel consisting of Professor A. Charnes (University of Texas), Professor W.W. Cooper (Carnegie Mellon University, now at Harvard University) and Dr. F.A. Heller (TavistQck Institute of Human Relations). Professor R. Florio of Bergamo kindly agreed to become Administrative Director and, as such, was responsible for all the local arrangements. The Conference Directors were further assisted by "national points of contact" appointed from each of the member countries of NATO. These national representatives played a substantial part in the s...
Full Text Available In addressing the working relationships among the three institutions responsible for European and transatlantic relations in the field of security, it is necessary to examine why they were relatively separate until the beginning of this present decade, why they hadinitially so much difficulty in developing affective patterns of cooperation, why this is now improving, and what the prospects are for their future cooperation into the 21st century. It must be noted from the onset that some of the problems of developing effective working relationships arise from the different, albeit overlapping memberships of the European Union and NATO; and while all the full members of WEU are members of both NATO and EU, the existence of a third player cannot be said to have always been helpful.
Xia; Liping; Sun; Chongwen
After the end of the Cold War, NATO’s nuclear strategy has undergone a process of evolution, so far can be divided into three phases: dissuasion strategy stage, deter war strategy stage and linkage strategy stage and similar to nuclear strategy of other nuclear-weapon states. The NATO nuclear strategy has five specific policy components: policy on statement, policy on development, policy on deployment, policy on using nuclear arms and policies on nuclear arms control. Factors impacting NATO’s nuclear strategy is multifaceted, in which strategic environment faced by NATO and NATO‘s internal debate on its major nuclear strategy are most influential, and besides the United States plays a leading role in the development of NATO’s nuclear strategy.
The article of record may be found at:http://www.ndc.nato.int/download/downloads.php?icode=193 From 28 February to 2 March 2010 the NATO Defense College hosted a workshop on the future of NATO's nuclear deterrence policies in light of the Alliance's ongoing Strategic Concept review and the May 2010 NPT Review Conference. The workshop panels examined NATO deterrence challenges to 2020, the implications for NATO of "deep cuts" and "global zero," Article 5 and the NATO Strategic Concept, the...
Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-
Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 21. aug. 2008, lk. 6. Prantsusmaa välisministri Bernard Kouchneri pressikonverentsist ja NATO välisministrite otsustest Venemaaga suhtlemise osas seoses Venemaa-Gruusia sõjalise konfliktiga. USA välisministri Condoleezza Riceþi, NATO peasekretäri Jaap de Hoop Schefferi ja Eesti välisministri Urmas Paeti seisukohti. Vt. samas: Uusliikmed ootavad NATO-lt kaitseplaane; Gruusiat kurvastab OSCE vaatlejate arv
Anvelt, Kärt, 1973-
Eesti NATO-suursaadik Jüri Luik annab NATO istungil edasi Eesti seisukoha, mille kohaselt peaks NATO esinema tugeva seisukohaga, kinnitades veel kord oma toetust Gruusia suveräänsusele ja territoriaalsele terviklikkusele. Vt. samas: Eesti on väike riik, kus on palju Vene kodanikke. Mida me Gruusia kriisist oleme nüüd õppinud? Küsimusele vastavad Harri Tiido ja Jüri Pihl
Ilisson, Airi, 1980-
Täna annavad peaminister Juhan Parts ja Eesti suursaadik NATO juures Harri Tiido Washingtonis üle Eesti ühinemisdokumendid. Riigikogu väliskomisjoni esimees Marko Mihkelson peab NATO-ga liitumist strateegilises mõttes tähtsamaks liitumisest EL-iga. NATO-ga liituvate riikide peaministrid avaldavad International Herald Tribune'is ühiskirja. Vt. samas: Põhja-Atlandi leping, artikkel 5
This thesis analyzes the relationship between Ukraine and NATO. It evaluates the development of relations and presents information concerning the relationship by the Ukrainian side. Based on the analysis of the development of Ukraine - NATO relations, this thesis gives the reader an overview of the problems with which meet Ukraine on its way to NATO integration. At the same time internal and external factors, that impede this integration, are analyzed. The work gives information about the par...
Major, Claudia; Rathke, Jeffrey
Deterrence is back in Europe. As NATO approaches its July summit in Warsaw, Allies are adapting this concept to the new security settings in place in Europe since the 2014 crisis in Ukraine. Yet, deterrence is intrinsically connected to dialogue: these are the two pillars of NATO's strategy, as defined in the 1967 Harmel Report. Consequently, in a security environment in which Russia uses military force to coerce neighbours and violates international law by redrawing borders, NATO needs to fi...
Schweickert, Rainer; Melnykovska, Inna; Heitmann, Hanno
The effectiveness of NATO conditionality for institutional reforms is highly controversial. Some papers argue that any effect this conditionality might have had may be due to endogeneity effects, i.e. NATO may have picked the winners. We argue that this is not the case. First, NATO-Mazedonia relations provide a case in point. Macedonia was granted entry into the Membership Action Plan (MAP) in 1999 due to country's strategic importance. Only after the Ohrid agreement, effective conditionality...
Gates, Michael E.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Special Operations Forces (SOF) Headquarters and its predecessor the NATO SOF Coordination Center (NSCC) have made significant progress in special operations interoperability during its brief history. Despite the rapid progress, large gaps in communications, doctrine, intelligence sharing, equipment, and structure within NATO SOF units remain. The lessons learned from the past decade ...
Nunes, Isabel Ferreira
This study examines the impact of role prescriptions by international organisations on small state foreign and security policies. Focusing on Portugal, NATO and the EU, the study analyses primary sources (official documents) and blends role theory with insights of sociological institutionalism, finding empirical evidence of policy roles informed by prescribed appropriate standards of behaviour. The study uses a) sociological institutionalist views about the logic of appropriateness as a guidi...
Holmes, W. M.
This report presents the results of a Flight Mechanics Panel (FMP) sponsored survey of twenty-four (24) simulation and flight mechanics facilities in six NATO community nations: France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States. The survey included government and contractor facilities and was obtained by a combination of a questionnaire mailed to each facility and a follow-up on-site visit and interview with facility managers and operational personnel.
Halasa, Katrina Bassam
The major purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the past in order to understand the complex phenomenon of students engaging in science (Newman, Ridenour, Newman, & DeMarco, 2003) specifically through the oral histories of six self-identified African American males enrolled in a high school Advanced Placement Biology class and the oral histories about events that followed during their post high school experiences. To elucidate an understanding of this phenomenon, this research explored the ecology of African American males' descriptions of their school science, their peer school science community, their lived experiences during and after graduation, and their meso-community (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). Many minority and low-income students are less likely to enroll in rigorous courses during high school (Education Trust, 2006). This study is of utmost importance because capturing the informants' oral histories may improve rigorous science education. Many African American male students are attending urban schools with an ever growing achievement gap among their White counterparts (Norman, Ault, Bentz, & Meskimen, 2001); therefore, they are disengaging in science. As a result, African American males are underrepresented in both science careers and achievements in science (Atwater, 2000; National Science Foundation, 1994). The six oral histories highlighted the ecological factors that affected African American males regarding (1) the impact of their relationship with their mothers, (2) the understanding of personal responsibility, (3) the notion of a scientist, (4) the issue of gender being more of an obstacle than race, (5) the understanding that education is valuable, (6) the interactions and influence of relationships with others on their decisions, (7) the development of integrity through the participation in sports, (8) the ecological neighborhood environment influences an image, (9) the enrollment of Advanced Placement Biology course helped the transition
Marty, C.; Bruel, F.; Prieur, D.; Naz, P.; Miller, L. S.
This paper describes the NATO Task Group SET-093/RTG53/MSE (referred to as TG-53 in this report) Acoustic Detection of Weapons Firing Joint Field Experiment II conducted at the Etablissement Technique de Bourges (ETBS), Bourges, France, during 16 to 27 June 2008. This field experiment is a follow-on to the NATO TG-53 Acoustic Detection of Weapons Firing Joint Field Experiment I conducted at the Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG), Yuma, Arizona, USA, during 31 October to 4 November 2005 . The objectives of the joint experiment were: (i) to collect acoustic signatures of direct and indirect firings from weapons' such as small arms, mortars, artillery, rockets, and C4 explosives, (ii) to analyze the propagation effects of grassy, wooded, and urban terrains, (iii) to share signatures collected from a variety of acoustic sensors, on the ground and in the air, distributed over a wide area, and (iv) to demonstrate the interoperability of disparate sensors developed by the various nations involved. The participating NATO countries , including France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States of America, and Israel as well as part of the Mediterranean dialogue countries, deployed nearly 90 sensors and sensor systems over the test range area.
Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-
NATO peasekretär Jaap de Hoop Scheffer kinnitas pärast NATO maade suursaadikuid koondava Põhja-Atlandi Nõukogu (NAC) ja Gruusiaga korraldatud NAC+1 kriisikohtumisi antud pressikonverentsil, et istungit Venemaal polnud kavaski. Jaap de Hoop Schefferi vastuseid küsimustele Venemaa jõukasutamise kohta Gruusias ja selle vastavuse kohta SRÜ rahuvalvemandaadile ning Gruusia ja Ukraina NATO-pürgimuste kohta. Vt. samas intervjuud Eesti suursaadikuga NATO juures: Jüri Luik: Medvedevi otsus sõja peatamisest NATOt ei mõjutanud
The combination of Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOTs) and biological processes can be visualized as a very successful technological option for treatment of effluents, because it combines high oxidizing technologies with a conventional, low-cost and well-established treatment technology.Photochemical AOTs, like UV-C with or without H2O2, photo-Fenton (PF, UV/H2O2/Fe(II-III)) and UV/TiO2 heterogeneous photo catalysis involve the generation and use of powerful oxidizing species, mainly the hydroxyl radical.In almost all AOTs, it is possible to use sunlight. Benzalkonium chloride (dodecyldimetylbencylammonium chloride, BKC) is a widely used surfactant, which has many industrial applications.Due to its antibacterial effect, it cannot be eliminated from effluents by a biological treatment, and the complexity of its chemical structure makes necessary the use of drastic oxidizing treatments to achieve complete mineralization and to avoid the formation of byproducts even more toxic than the initial compound.In this study, different alternatives for BKC treatment using photochemical AOTs followed by bio catalytic techniques are presented.Three AOTs were tested: a) UV-C (254 nm, germicide lamp) with and without H2O2, b) PF (366 nm), c) UV/TiO2 (254 and 366 nm). PF at a 15:1:1 H2O2total/BKC0/Fe0 molar ratio at 55 degree C was the most efficient treatment in order to decrease the tensioactivity and the total organic carbon of the solution . The biocatalysis was studied in a reactor fitted with a biofilm of microorganisms coming from a sludge-water treatment plant. To evaluate the maximal BKC concentration that could be allowed to ingress to the biological reactor after the AOT treatment, the toxicity of solutions of different BKC concentrations was analyzed. The study of the relevant parameters of both processes and their combination allowed to establish the preliminary conditions for optimizing the pollutant degradation
Barlogie, B; Epstein, J; Selvanayagam, P; Alexanian, R
levels) and biology. Further studies of cellular and molecular biology (ie, CAL-LA, H-ras) may reveal those tumor cell features that define clinical entities, response to therapy, and long-term prognosis. The lack of a major advance in prognosis despite the use of more drugs and more intensive regimens justifies the continued use of standard melphalan-prednisone for patients with a highly favorable prognosis, for the very aged, and for those with a short life expectancy due to other major medical problems. However, a radical departure from standard practice is required to improve the prognosis for younger patients with poor risk features.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2465790
Evans, Jackson Allan
This investigation examines college success in freshman and sophomore level biology courses for students with biology AP credit by addressing the following questions: One, Does AP biology experience increase academic performance in freshman biology? Do AP students with scores of 3 significantly outperform non-AP students? Do AP students with scores of 5 significantly outperform non-AP students in sophomore level biology courses? Two groups of college freshman and sophomores, those with AP bio...
Ukraina palus NATO-l kaaluda alliansi tippkohtumisel Ukrainale liikmesuse tegevusplaani (MAP) andmist, Venemaa reageeris sellele Ukrainaga 1997. aastal sõlmitud lepingu katkestamisega. Ukrainas on NATO-ga liitumise vastu üle poole elanikkonnast
Deng, Shihai; Li, Desheng; Yang, Xue; Zhu, Shanbin; Xing, Wei
Nitrogen pollution in ground and surface water significantly affects the environment and its organisms, thereby leading to an increasingly serious environmental problem. Such pollution is difficult to degrade because of the lack of carbon sources. Therefore, an electrochemical and biological coupling process (EBCP) was developed with a composite catalytic biological carrier (CCBC) and applied in a pilot-scale cylindrical reactor to treat wastewater with a carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 2. The startup process, coupling principle, and dynamic feature of the EBCP were examined along with the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), dissolved oxygen (DO), and initial pH on nitrogen removal. A stable coupling system was obtained after 51 days when plenty of biofilms were cultivated on the CCBC without inoculation sludge. Autotrophic denitrification, with [Fe(2+)] and [H] produced by iron-carbon galvanic cells in CCBC as electron donors, was confirmed by equity calculation of CODCr and nitrogen removal. Nitrogen removal efficiency was significantly influenced by HRT, DO, and initial pH with optimal values of 3.5 h, 3.5 ± 0.1 mg L(-1), and 7.5 ± 0.1, respectively. The ammonia, nitrate, and total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiencies of 90.1 to 95.3 %, 90.5 to 99.0 %, and 90.3 to 96.5 % were maintained with corresponding initial concentrations of 40 ± 2 mg L(-1) (NH3-N load of 0.27 ± 0.01 kg NH3-N m(-3) d(-1)), 20 ± 1 mg L(-1), and 60 ± 2 mg L(-1) (TN load of 0.41 ± 0.02 kg TN m(-3) d(-1)). Based on the Eckenfelder model, the kinetics equation of the nitrogen transformation along the reactor was N e = N 0 exp (-0.04368 h/L(1.8438)). Hence, EBCP is a viable method for advanced low C/N ratio wastewater treatment. PMID:26564190
Bertozzi, Carolyn R.
Nature has evolved complex and elegant materials well suited to fulfill a myriad of functions. Lubricants, structural scaffolds and protective sheaths can all be found in nature, and these provide a rich source of inspiration for the rational design of materials for biomedical applications. Many biological materials are based in some fashion on hydrogels, the crosslinked polymers that absorb and hold water. Biological hydrogels contribute to processes as diverse as mineral nucleation during bone growth and protection and hydration of the cell surface. The carbohydrate layer that coats all living cells, often referred to as the glycocalyx, has hydrogel-like properties that keep cell surfaces well hydrated, segregated from neighboring cells, and resistant to non-specific protein deposition. With the molecular details of cell surface carbohydrates now in hand, adaptation of these structural motifs to synthetic materials is an appealing strategy for improving biocompatibility. The goal of this collaborative project between Prof. Bertozzi's research group, the Center for Advanced Materials at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Sunsoft Corporation was the design, synthesis and characterization of novel hydrogel polymers for improved soft contact lens materials. Our efforts were motivated by the urgent need for improved materials that allow extended wear, and essential feature for those whose occupation requires the use of contact lenses rather than traditional spectacles. Our strategy was to transplant the chemical features of cell surface molecules into contact lens materials so that they more closely resemble the tissue in which they reside. Specifically, we integrated carbohydrate molecules similar to those found on cell surfaces, and sulfoxide materials inspired by the properties of the carbohydrates, into hydrogels composed of biocompatible and manufacturable substrates. The new materials were characterized with respect to surface and bulk hydrophilicity
Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-
NATO kõrge ametniku väitel oli Eesti reaktsioon küberrünnakutele nii erakordselt tõhus, et NATO harta 5. artiklis sisalduva kollektiivkaitseklausli rakendamiseks vajadust ei tekkinud. NATO võtab vastu uue küberkaitsepoliitika ja selle rakendamise kontseptsiooni, kavandatakse kiirreageerimisabi pakkumist riikidele, kus küberrünnakute alla langevad NATO-le olulised sidevõrgud
潘碌亭; 韩悦; 吴锦峰
Experiments were conducted to investigate the behavior of the sequential system of intensified zero-valent iron process (IZVI) and anaerobic filter and biological aerated filter (AF/BAF) reactors for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coking wastewater. Particular attention was paid to the performance of the integrated system for the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and total nitrogen (TN). The average removal efficiencies of COD, NH3-N and TN were 76.28%, 96.76% and 59.97%, with the average effluent mass concentrations of 56, 0.53 and 18.83 mg/L, respectively, reaching the first grade of the national discharge standard. Moreover, the results of gas chromatography/mass spectrum (GC/MS) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis demonstrated that the refractory organic compounds with high relative molecular mass were partly removed in IZVI process by the function of oxidation-reduction, flocculation and adsorption which could also enhance the biodegradability of the system effluent. The removal efficiencies of NH3-N and TN were achieved mainly in the subsequent AF/BAF reactors by nitrification and denitrification. Overall, the results obtained show that the application of IZVI in combination with AF/BAF is a promising technology for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coking wastewater.
Čtyroký, Jiří; Prkna, Ladislav; Hubálek, Milan
Dordrecht: Springer, 2006 - (Janz, S.; Čtyroký, J.; Tanev, S.), s. 71-100. (NATO Science Series. Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry. Sub Series II. 216). ISBN 1-4020-4164-0. [NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Frontiers in Planar Lightwave Circuit Technology . Ottawa (CA), 21.09.2004-25.09.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : optical waveguide theory * photonic crystals * integrated optics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers
Al-Din, Ravil Khair
Vene riigiduuma liige Dmitri Rogozini võib saada Venemaa NATO-esindajaks. Vt. samas: Mihkelson: kaks kärbest ühe hoobiga. Riigikogu EL-i asjade komisjoni esimees Marko Mihkelson nimetab kaks eesmärki, mida võib teenida Dmitri Rogozini võimalik nimetamine Venemaa NATO-esindajaks
Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-
Eesti president räägib sõjalistest kokkupõrgetest Gruusias, vajadusest uue rahvusvahelise julgeolekustruktuuri järele, ootustest rahvusvahelise üldsuse suhtes, Balti riikide julgeolekust ning kritiseerib NATO otsust mitte anda Gruusiale NATO liikmelisuse tegevuskava
Venemaa ja Ukraina poliitikute konfliktist Venemaa presidendi Vladimir Putini väidetava ütluse tõttu NATO tippkohtumisel, et Ukraina polegi õige riik. Putini seisukohtadest Ukraina mõnede alade kuuluvuse osas NATO-ga liitumisel. Kaart: Ukraina ida- ja lääneosa
Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-
NATO peasekretäri Jaap de Hoop Schefferi teatel on NATO 16 000 rahukaitsja ülesanne tagada kogu Kosovo turvalisus ja kaitsta kõiki Kosovo kodanikke. Javier Solana sõnul hakkab Euroopa Liidu tugimissioon tegutsema kogu Kosovo territooriumil
...) Summit, Chicago, Illinois in the Federal Register (77 FR 13232). Although the G8 Summit is now planned to... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO... NATO Summit and associated events, which will be held in Chicago from May 16, 2012, through May...
... collection notice was previously published in the Federal Register on December 18, 2012, at 77 FR 74861... Record of Request A, G, or NATO Dependent Employment Authorization or Change/ Adjustment To/From A, G, or NATO Status, Form I-566; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection; Extension ACTION: 30-day...
... Record of Request A, G, or NATO Dependent Employment Authorization or Change/ Adjustment To/From A, G, or NATO Status, Form I-566; Extension, Without Change, of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 60-Day... Currently Approved Collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Interagency Record of Request A, G, or...
For a decade, NATO nations, both on their own and within NATO groups have performed studies in the field of Twodimensional Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (2D-ISAR) and High Resolution Radar (HRR) Range Profiles. During that work high-quality radar imagery data of aircraft has become available thro
..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The... Harbor and the Chicago River during the G8/NATO Summit and associated events, which will be held...
Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Bertrand, H.
NATO Task group SCI-133 on “Countermine Technologies” under the NATO RTO (Systems Concepts and Integration) panel, has the goal to identify technologies for mine detection (close-in detection and remote detection) and mine neutralization (breaching, route clearing, area clearance) which provide the
Sula, Ismail Erkam; Luleci, and Cagla
With the end of the Cold War, NATO's function has become a significant puzzle for world politics and the International Relations(IR) discipline. Numerous studieshavebeendeveloped on thispuzzle, whichapproachtheissuefromdifferenttheoreticalanddescriptiveangles. Thisarticlefits in thisliteratureviafocusing on thesecurityconception of theorganization. Hence, the purpose is to analyze NATO's post-Cold War endurance, while linking the 'theory' with the'practice' of security. Empirically, the artic...
Intervjuu Belgias elava ja NATO Big Bandis mängiva eesti trompetist Simmu Vasaraga. Jazzkaare ajaloost ja üritustest: läti vokaalansambli Cosmos kontserdist 24. apr. Endla teatris, Jazzkaare avakontsert-ballist 26. apr. Pärnu kontserdimajas NATO Big Bandi ja Eesti Muusikaakadeemia Big Bandiga (solistid Kaire Vilgats ja Liina Saar)
Euroopa Liidu ja NATO tõhusat kaitsealast koostööd takistavateks teguriteks on Euroopa Liidu piiratud võime korraldada kriisiohjeoperatsioone, sõjaliste võimete ebaefektiivne kasutamine ning NATO ja Euroopa Liidu liikmete vahelised tüliküsimused
... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-1648, Application for A, G, or NATO Visa, OMB No. 1405-0100... Collection: Application for A, G, or NATO Visa. OMB Control Number: 1405-0100. Type of Request: Revision of a... Number: DS-1648. Respondents: All applicants for A, G, or NATO visas reauthorizations, excluding A-3,...
Asmus, Ronald D., 1957-2011
USA asevälisministri endine asetäitja ja nõunik NATO laienemise alal Ron Asmus ning Eesti endine välisminister, Riigikogu liige Toomas Hendrik Ilves raskustest, mis eelnesid Eesti saamisele NATO liikmeks, USA ja Euroopa suhetest, NATO tulevikust
Fujiwara, Satoru (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
182nd advanced science seminar (the workshop on neutron structural biology) was held in February 9-10, 2000 at Tokai. Thirty-six participants from universities, research institutes, and private companies took part in the workshop, and total of 24 lectures were given. This proceedings collects abstracts, the figures and tables, which the speakers used in their lectures. The proceedings contains two reviews from the point of view of x-ray and neutron scatterings, and six subjects (21 papers) including neutron and x-ray scattering in the era of structure genomics, structural changes detected with solution scattering, a new way in structural biology opened by neutron crystallography and neutron scattering, x-ray sources and detectors, simulation and solution scattering, and neutron sources and detectors. (Kazumata, Y.)
182nd advanced science seminar (the workshop on neutron structural biology) was held in February 9-10, 2000 at Tokai. Thirty-six participants from universities, research institutes, and private companies took part in the workshop, and total of 24 lectures were given. This proceedings collects abstracts, the figures and tables, which the speakers used in their lectures. The proceedings contains two reviews from the point of view of x-ray and neutron scatterings, and six subjects (21 papers) including neutron and x-ray scattering in the era of structure genomics, structural changes detected with solution scattering, a new way in structural biology opened by neutron crystallography and neutron scattering, x-ray sources and detectors, simulation and solution scattering, and neutron sources and detectors. (Kazumata, Y.)
Veliz, Ignacio; Loo, Yong; Castillo, Omar; Karachaliou, Niki; Nigro, Olga; Rosell, Rafael
Malignant gliomas, such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), present some of the greatest challenges in the management of cancer patients worldwide. Even with aggressive surgical resections and recent advances in radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the prognosis for GBM patients remains dismal and quality of life is poor. Although new molecular pathways crucial to the biology and invasive ability of GBM are coming to light, translation of basic science achievements into clinical practice is slow. Optimal management requires a multidisciplinary approach and knowledge of potential complications arising from both disease and treatment. To help illustrate "where we are going" with GBM, we here include a detailed depiction of the molecular alterations underlying this fatal disease, as well as intensive research over the past two decades that has led to considerable advances in the understanding of basic GBM biology, pathogenesis and therapeutic approaches. PMID:25705639
Espejo, Azahara; Aguinaco, Almudena; Amat Payá, Ana María; Fernando J. Beltrán
Removal of nine pharmaceutical compounds¿acetaminophen (AAF), antipyrine (ANT), caffeine (CAF), carbamazepine (CRB), diclofenac (DCF), hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), ketorolac (KET), metoprolol (MET) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX)¿spiked in a primary sedimentation effluent of a municipal wastewater has been studied with sequential aerobic biological and ozone advanced oxidation systems. Combinations of ozone, UVA black light and Fe(III) or Fe3O4 constituted the chemical systems. During the ...
Georgia’s NATO membership became a dispute between the NATO member countries and the Russian Federation. It is argued that Russia perceives Georgia’s NATO membership as a move that aims to take the control of critical energy infrastructure in the Caspian and Black Sea regions while NATO tries to be more influential on this geography strategic for the energy security of the US and the EU. This asymmetry of perceptions and interests between Russia and NATO is expected to complicate power dynami...
Kauffman, L H
In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.
The successful implementations of the NATO-ASTECMATRIX project in Armenia are essential contribution into security, stability and solidarity among regional nations, by applying the best technical expertise to problem solving. Collaboration, networking and capacity-building are means used to accomplish these goals. A further aim is to promote the co-operation with new partners and the ASTEC are creating links between scientists and organizations in formerly separated communities, developing new strategy concentrating support on security related collaborative projects and finding answers to critical questions and a way of connecting nations. The NATO-ASTECMATRIX within Armenia leads to a network of high standards laboratories that will drastically improve the overview and the technical infrastructure for monitoring, accounting and control of CBRN materials in the Armenia. This new infrastructure will enhance the exchange of information on this vital issue via the IRIS. In follow-up phases, it will also help to better define the needs and requirements for a policy to enhance legal tools for the management of these materials, and for the creation of one or several agencies aiming at dealing with wastes or no longer useful materials containing CBRN components in Armenia
From August 4 to 8, 1980, the Science Committee of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) sponsored the symposium, "Women and the World of Work," which was held at the Hotel Sintra Estoril in the coastal area south of Lisbon, Portugal. This symposium hatl been "in progress" since 1977 when the idea to prepare a proposal for a NATO sponsored symposium on the topic of women and the military was first suggested by Dr. Walter Wilkins, then Scientific Director of the Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, California. At that time and during the previous 5 years, increasing numbers of women were being recruited into military service not only in the United States but also in several NATO-allied countries. Few research projects on the utilization of women in the military had been reported in the scientific literature with the exception of work conducted at the University of Chicago and Naval Health Research Center. Several investigators, however, were identified who had recently initiated research in this ...
Drummond, J. Philip; Bouchez, Marc; McClinton, Charles R.
The purpose of the present overview is to summarize the current knowledge of the NATO contributors. All the topics will be addressed in this chapter, with references and some examples. This background enhances the level of knowledge of the NATO scramjet community, which will be used for writing the specific chapters of the Report. Some previous overviews have been published on scramjet technology worldwide. NASA, DOD, the U.S. industry and global community have studied scramjet-powered hypersonic vehicles for over 40 years. Within the U.S. alone, NASA, DOD (DARPA, U.S. Navy and USAF), and industry have participated in hypersonic technology development. Over this time NASA Langley Research Center continuously studied hypersonic system design, aerothermodynamics, scramjet propulsion, propulsion-airframe integration, high temperature materials and structural architectures, and associated facilities, instrumentation and test methods. These modestly funded programs were substantially augmented during the National Aero-Space Plane (X-30) Program, which spent more than $3B between 1984 and 1995, and brought the DOD and other NASA Centers, universities and industry back into hypersonics. In addition, significant progress was achieved in all technologies required for hypersonic flight, and much of that technology was transferred into other programs, such as X-33, DC-X, X-37, X-43, etc. In addition, technology transfer impacted numerous other industries, including automotive, medical, sports and aerospace.
Full Text Available The European Security and Defense Identity (ESDI is a common but not defined goal, due to disagreements among Europeans on its political content. Reasons to explain this are related to the resistance to the idea of a European defense authority, fears of German hegemony, and the conviction that Europe is uncapable of defending herselfwithout the assistance of the United States. Estrella states that, with the end of the Cold War, some arguments opposing ESDI lost weight. However, the evolution and restructuring of NATO is not the product of European initiative, but rather an element of the U.S.strategy in Europe. Moreover, while the U.S. has a global strategy, Europe has not yet defined its security interests neither globally nor regionally. The author reviews the steps undertaken by NATO and the WEU towards further collaboration and the development of a European identity. He wonders whether there is enough political will either in Europe or the U.S. to overcome archaic views on trans-atlantic relations and narrow concepts about the future of Europe.
Burke, Ronald L; Mann, Kelly A; Richards, Steven; Stevenson, Timothy H
NATO requires all standardization agreements and Al-lied Medical Publications to be reviewed at least once every 3 years to ensure they reflect current technologies and national military policies and procedures. This is particularly applicable with regard to veterinary medi-cine and food and water safety where advances in scientific knowledge and practices may result in documents quickly becoming obsolete. Such is the case with the 8 standardization agreements for which the FWSVS has responsibility; all are currently undergoing major revisions. With each revision, national representatives, including US veterinary and preventive medicine personnel, must review the documents to ensure there are no significant issues which would prevent ratification and implementation. This improves standardization and enhances interoperability between NATO partners to minimize duplication. This is accomplished by leveraging other national military capabilities, while maintaining confidence that the food, water, and veterinary support provided to their Warriors, support personnel, and animals in the field is safe and high in quality. Adherence to such standards is a major factor in maintaining the operational readiness of all alliance armed forces. PMID:23277450
Eesti ja NATO põhiülesandeks on kujundada strateegia NATO-Venemaa partnerluse säilitamiseks ja tugevdamiseks. NATO-Vene nõukogust. Eestile tähendab liitumine NATO-ga ka liikmestaatust NATO-Vene nõukogus, mis nõuab riigi poliitiliselt ja sõjaväliselt eliidilt läbimõtlemist, mida on Eestil pakkuda nõukogu tugevdamiseks ning selle kaalu tõstmiseks julgeolekuküsimuste lahendamisel
Eesti ja NATO põhiülesandeks on kujundada strateegia NATO-Venemaa partnerluse säilitamiseks ja tugevdamiseks. NATO-Vene nõukogust. Eestile tähendab liitumine NATO-ga ka liikmestaatust NATO-Vene nõukogus, mis nõuab riigi poliitiliselt ja sõjaväliselt eliidilt läbimõtlemist, mida on Eestil pakkuda nõukogu tugevdamiseks ning selle kaalu tõstmiseks julgeolekuküsimuste lahendamisel
Kostal, Vratislav; Arriaga, Edgar A.
This review covers research papers published in the years 2005–2007 that describe the application of capillary electrophoresis to the analysis of biological particles such as whole cells, subcellular organelles, viruses and microorganisms.
Yannas, I.V.; Tzeranis, D. S.; Harley, B A; So, P. T. C.
A small number of type I collagen–glycosaminoglycan scaffolds (collagen–GAG scaffolds; CGSs) have unusual biological activity consisting primarily in inducing partial regeneration of organs in the adult mammal. Two of these are currently in use in a variety of clinical settings. CGSs appear to induce regeneration by blocking the adult healing response, following trauma, consisting of wound contraction and scar formation. Several structural determinants of biological activity have been identif...
Yapa M.A.M. Wijerathna
Viroids are the smallest pathogens of plants. They are the cause of serious diseases on economic plants worldwide. Prevention and detection of the pathogens are the best method to reduce the economic loss from viroid infection. During last decade, genetics and molecular biology techniques have gained an increasing presence in plant pathology research. The purpose of this review is to highlight the most upgrade molecular biology techniques that have been used and studied recently. Most relevan...
The sustainability of radiation biology (radiobiology) is under threat in South Africa because of underdevelopment in the discipline, despite the fact that South Africa has been a user of radiation since radioactivity and X-rays were discovered. The widespread use of radiation in medicine, nuclear reactors, particle accelerators and other sophisticated nuclear facilities in South Africa makes it imperative that the interaction of radiation with biological systems is understood. For example, r...
Zou Haiming; Ma Wanzheng; Wang Yan
Dye wastewater is one of typically non-biodegradable industrial effluents. A new process linking Fenton’s oxidation with biological oxidation proposed in this study was investigated to degrade the organic substances from real dye wastewater. During the combination process, the Fenton’s oxidation process can reduce the organic load and enhance biodegradability of dye wastewater, which is followed by biological aerated filter (BAF) system to further remove organic substances in terms of dischar...
Defense reform in Hungary has followed a difficult path from the Soviet era to NATO accession. This paper suggests how Hungary first adopted the new Defense Law and Basic Security Principles in 1993, and defined the roles of the Armed Forces in the new post-Cold War era. Secondly, by the end of the NATO accession talks in 1998, Hungary transformed not only its own military to comply with NATO standards, but also the command structure and the leadership and management of the Armed Forces. As a...
It is well known that DU (depleted uranium) weaponry was extensively used during the 'Desert Storm' operation in Iraq. There is no doubt that NATO used DU ammunition in Bosnia in 1994 and 1995. It is also common knowledge that many NATO armies are equipped with DU ammunition in various calibers (from 20 up to 155 mm) as a standard part of certain weapon systems. These facts, as a result of literature research, as well as Yugoslav Army (YA) intelligence data on the eve of the aggression clearly showed that NATO most probably would use DU ammunition. (author)
The aim of this paper is to attempt possible quantification of determinants of military expenditure and their application to current NATO member countries. To analyse the economic, security and political risks of NATO member countries, author employ multivariate statistical techniques which take into consideration the multivariate properties of the data sets used as input variables. Classification of countries based on cluster analysis has made it possible to identify disparities between NATO member countries, and thus to describe diverse economic or security environment affecting the amount of military expenditure as a percentage of the respective countries' gross domestic product.
Robertson, Dale N.; Pham, Tien; Scanlon, Michael V.; Srour, Nassy; Reiff, Christian G.; Sim, Leng K.; Solomon, Latasha; Thompson, Dorothea F.
In this paper, we discuss the NATO Task Group 53 (TG-53) acoustic detection of weapon firing field joint experiment at Yuma Proving Ground during 31 October to 4 November 2005. The participating NATO countries include France, the Netherlands, UK and US. The objectives of the joint experiments are: (i) to collect acoustic signatures of direct and indirect firings from weapons such as sniper, mortar, artillery and C4 explosives and (ii) to share signatures among NATO partners from a variety of acoustic sensing platforms on the ground and in the air distributed over a wide area.
Evans, K.; Lea, M.-A.; Patterson, T. A.
The deployment of an ever-evolving array of animal-borne telemetry and data logging devices is rapidly increasing our understanding of the movement, behaviour and physiology of a variety species and the complex, and often highly dynamic, environments they use and respond to. The rapid rate at which new technologies, improvements to current technologies and new analytical techniques are being developed has meant that movements, behaviour and physiological processes are being quantified at finer spatial and temporal scales than ever before. The Fourth International Symposium on Bio-logging Science, held on 14-18 March in Hobart, Australia, brought together scientists across multiple disciplines to discuss the latest innovations in technology, applications and analytical techniques in bio-logging science, building on research presented at three previous conferences. Here we present an update on the state of bio-logging research and provide some views on the future of this field of research. Papers were grouped into five theme areas: (i) Southern Ocean ecosystems; (ii) fishery and biodiversity management applications; (iii) from individuals to populations—inferences of population dynamics from individuals; (iv) conservation biology and (v) habitat modelling. Papers reflected wider uptake of newer technologies, with a greater proportion of studies utilising accelerometry and incorporating advances in statistical modelling of behaviour and habitats, especially via state space modelling methods. Environmental data collected by tags at increasing accuracies are now having wider application beyond the bio-logging community, providing important oceanographic data from regions difficult to sample using traditional methodologies. Partnerships between multiple organisations are also now enabling regional assessments of species movements, behaviour and physiology at population scales and will continue to be important for applying bio-logging technologies to species
Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Xu, Peng; Hou, Baolin
Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted to investigate a novel system integrating catalytic ultrasound oxidation (CUO) with membrane bioreactor (CUO-MBR) on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater. Results indicated that CUO with catalyst of FeOx/SBAC (sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded Fe oxides) represented high efficiencies in eliminating TOC as well as improving the biodegradability. The integrated CUO-MBR system with low energy intensity and high frequency was more effective in eliminating COD, BOD5, TOC and reducing transmembrane pressure than either conventional MBR or ultrasound oxidation integrated MBR. The enhanced hydroxyl radical oxidation, facilitation of substrate diffusion and improvement of cell enzyme secretion were the mechanisms for CUO-MBR performance. Therefore, the integrated CUO-MBR was the promising technology for advanced treatment in engineering applications. PMID:25936898
Walker, Theodore, Jr.
In contrast to the Copernican revolution in astro-geometry, the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe contribution to the recent and continuing revolution in astrobiology - "cometary panspermia" - features astronomy and biology converging toward theology. They employed astro-biotic reasoning (often labeled "anthropic" reasoning) to demonstrate that life is made possible by the deliberate controlling influence of the living all-embracing "intelligent universe." This is consistent with panentheism [pan-en-theos-ism, not pantheism]. As advanced by Hoyle and Wickramasinghe, cometary panspermia is panentheistic. Also, neoclassical panentheism requires generic panspermia, and favors cometary panspermia.
CHEN Zhao-bo; TANG Jiao-wen; ZHANG Fu
Biological water saving is one of the major fields of water saving agriculture in the future and has an enormous potential in agricultural production. In this paper, the necessity and urgency of developing high water use efficiency in plant biology were dissertated firstly, and the research progresses at home and abroad were reviewed as following aspects: mechanisms of drought resistance and high water use efficiency, criterions for identifying and evaluating drought resistance and water use efficiency, genetic improvement for drought resistance and water use efficiency, water saving irrigation technology based on the physiological regulation and control in crop plants. Major problems in the research field at present were put forward, and development tendency of water use efficiency in plant biology in the future were also discussed.
Shinn, J.H.; Hall, C.H.; Neher, L.A.; Wilder, F.J.; Gouveia, D.W.; Layton, D.W.; Daniels, J.I.
As the United States plays a greater role in the 21st Century as global peacekeeper and international defender of human rights and democratic principles, there is an increasing likelihood that it will become the focus of acts of terrorism. Such acts of terrorism--sometimes described as ''asymmetric''--could involve the threat or use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), particularly those considered unconventional, which include ones designed to release chemical or biological agents. In fact, biological agents are of great concern because, as noted by D.A. Henderson of the Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD, ''... with shortages of hospital space, vaccines, antibiotics, there would be chaos.'' (Williams, 2000). Unfortunately, potential aggressor nations, terrorist groups, and even individuals, can, for a modest cost and effort, develop covert capabilities for manufacturing, transporting, and offensively using biological weapons of mass destruction. Furthermore, there is evidence to indicate that terrorist increasingly are targeting civilian populations--in order to inflict indiscriminate casualties--as well as other more traditional targets such as symbolic buildings or organizations (see Tucker, 1999), which suggest that introducing rapid treatment after a biological event may be more practical than concentrating on prevention (see Siegrist, 1999), especially because sensors are unlikely to be placed in all major urban areas to detect even an atmospheric biological release. For these reasons, and because symptoms for the majority of those effected may not occur or be directly identified for several days, early identification of a covert undetected biological event (CUBE) will contribute to timely medical intervention, which can save many lives.
Yapa M.A.M. Wijerathna
Full Text Available Viroids are the smallest pathogens of plants. They are the cause of serious diseases on economic plants worldwide. Prevention and detection of the pathogens are the best method to reduce the economic loss from viroid infection. During last decade, genetics and molecular biology techniques have gained an increasing presence in plant pathology research. The purpose of this review is to highlight the most upgrade molecular biology techniques that have been used and studied recently. Most relevant published reports and hand skilled techniques have presented here with emphasis on suitable Viroid detection technique should be used for Sri Lanka.
Newly research progresses were summarized in effect of ion beams on seed surface, biological effect, growth, development, gravitropism and so on. Furthermore, mutation molecular mechanism of Arabidopsis thaliana was discussed, for example, alteration of DNA bases, DNA damage, chromosomal recombination, characteristics of mutant transmissibility, etc. Meanwhile, the achievements of transfer- ring extraneous gene to Arabidopsis thaliana by ion beams were reviewed in the paper. At last, the future prospective are also discussed here in mutation molecular mechanism and the potential application of biological effect of heavy ion beams. (authors)
Dorko, Michael A.; Schultz, Robert G.
An object-oriented simulation model is developed to evaluate the effectiveness of NATO Standardization Agreement (STANAG) 4214, which promulgates the protocol for international telephone call routing and directories for tactical communications. The model simulates communication systems using the STANAG 4214 protocol to isolate discrepancies which could lead to the inability to successfully complete calls within the system. The model also simulates protocol modifications created to correct existing discrepancies and verifies their effectiveness in making the protocol more robust. Results show that these modifications improve STANAG call completion rate from a potential low of under 70 percent to 100 percent, while simultaneously easing the restrictions on lateral communication connections. The model is menu-driven with both graphical and hard copy output, making it useful to network planners, protocol designers, and tactical communications officers.
The unilateralist policies of the United States administration have raised the question of how the international system should operate. It is suggested that the administration is dismissive of institutions such as the United Nations, the International Criminal Court and the Kyoto Protocol because they do not permit the US to follow its desire to be the world's unchallenged economic, political and military force. It is proposed that the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe should be responsible for European security in place of NATO. The European Union should not attempt to compete militarily with the US, but could act as a counterweight by adopting sustainable economic policies and political reforms. The United Nations must be democratized and international security enhanced by dealing with poverty and inequality. An emerging global public opinion may provide the political will for this to be achieved. PMID:14703126
For many years ergonomists and human engineering specialists have made significant contributions to the solution of problems faced in the area of human labour and to the introduction of their research results and field experience into the process of equipment design. However, the rapid increase in complexity of equipment in use as well as in development demonstrates the necessity of broaden ing the point of view continuously. The workshop held in Munich from March 22nd to March 26th, 1982, was an excellent opportunity for the participants to discuss their respective interests and their interpretation of needs for future research. The workshop was sponsored by the Human Factors Special Programme Panel of the Scientific Affairs Division of NATO. This sponsorship, together with the helpful assistance rendered by Drs. Bayraktar, Kroemer, and Sanders, is gratefully acknowledged. This volume contains the papers presented during the workshop. All these papers are directly related to the general aim: the ex chang...
Hou, Baolin; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Xu, Peng; Jia, Shengyong; Li, Kun
A novel integrated process with three-dimensional electro-Fenton (3D EF) and biological activated carbon (BAC) was employed in advanced treatment of biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater. SAC-Fe (sludge deserved activated carbon from sewage and iron sludge) and SAC (sludge deserved activated carbon) were used in 3D EF as catalytic particle electrodes (CPEs) and in BAC as carriers respectively. Results indicated that 3D EF with SAC-Fe as CPEs represented excellent pollutants and COLOR removals as well as biodegradability improvement. The efficiency enhancement attributed to generating more H2O2 and OH. The integrated process exhibited efficient performance of COD, BOD5, total phenols, TOC, TN and COLOR removals at a much shorter retention time, with the corresponding concentrations in effluent of 31.18, 6.69, 4.29, 17.82, 13.88mg/L and <20 times, allowing discharge criteria to be met. The integrated system was efficient, cost-effective and ecological sustainable and could be a promising technology for engineering applications. PMID:26227570
Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia
This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers…
Sovyetler Birliği'nin 1991'de sona ermesiyle NATO kendi varlığının meşruiyetini yeniden temellendirme sürecine girmiştir. NATO bu meşruiyet zeminini öncelikle söylemsel olarak oluşturmakta ve bunun inşasını yaparken "Gelecek güvenliği riski" söylemi üzerinden politikasını belirlemektedir. Bu makale, NATO'nun varlığının meşruiyetinin inşa sürecini, söylem analizi yöntemiyle inceleyerek, NATO'nun günümüzdeki amacının yapı taşlarına ışık tutmayı ve bu bağlamda da bu "y...
Suurbritannias Cornwallis toimunud NATO Briti peakorteri ARRC (Allied Rapid Reaction Corps) staabiõppusest Arrcade Fusion, kus osales ka kaks Eesti ohvitseri. Eesti kaitseväge oodatakse liituma ARRC-ga, Eesti poolt on liitumine esialgu lahtine
Shea, Jamie Patrick
NATO asepeasekretäri asetäitja räägib alliansi kaitseplaneerimisest, rahukaitsest, arengust, tegevusest Afganistanis, rollist Iraagis, võitlusest terrorismiga, koostööst USA-ga. Lisa: Jamie Patrick Shea
Papers reporting the application of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis to biological samples continue to appear regularly in the literature. The majority of these papers deal with blood, hair, and other common body organs while a few deal with biological samples from the environnment. A variety of sample preparation methods have been demonstrated, a number of which are improvements, refinements and extensions of the thick- and thin-sample preparation methods reported in the early development of PIXE. While many papers describe the development of PIXE techniques some papers are now describing applications of the methods to serious biological problems. The following two factors may help to stimulate more consistant use of the PIXE method. First, each PIXE facility should be organized to give rapid sample processing and should have available several sample preparation and handling methods. Second, those with the skill to use PIXE methods need to become closely associated with researches knowledge able in medical and biological sciences and they also need to become more involved in project planning and sample handling. (orig.)
@@ Since the identification of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome in 1989, a lot of progresses have been done about the understanding of HCV biology, natural history and therapeutic options. HCV is a member of the Flaviviridae viral family. Its genome is a positive simple strand RNA molecule which shows significant genetic variability.
Discusses how instruction of biological concepts as ATP cellular energetics is related to fundamental physical science understandings. Reviews areas of common misconceptions and confusions. Summarizes results of a study which investigated students' knowledge and perception of difficulty associated with the topic of energy and ATP. (ML)
Many of the processing steps in the nuclear fuel cycle generate aqueous effluent streams bearing contaminants that can, because of their chemical or radiological properties, pose an environmental hazard. Concentration of such contaminants must be reduced to acceptable levels before the streams can be discharged to the environment. Two classes of contaminants, nitrates and heavy metals, are addressed in this study. Specific techniques aimed at the removal of nitrates and radioactive heavy metals by biological processes are being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Although cost comparisons between biological processes and current treatment methods will be presented, these comparisons may be misleading because biological processes yield environmentally better end results which are difficult to price. The fluidized-bed biological denitrification process is an environmentally acceptable and economically sound method for the disposal of nonreusable sources of nitrate effluents. A very high denitrification rate can be obtained in a FBR as the result of a high concentration of denitrification bacteria in the bioreactor and the stagewise operation resulting from plug flow in the reactor. The overall denitrification rate in an FBR ranges from 20- to 100-fold greater than that observed for an STR bioreactor. It has been shown that the system can be operated using Ca2+, Na+, or NH4+ cations at nitrate concentrations up to 1 g/liter without inhibition. Biological sorption of uranium and other radionuclides (particularly the actinides) from dilute aqueous waste streams shows considerable promise as a means of recovering these valuable resources and reducing the environmental impact, however, further development efforts are required
Pullen, J.M.; Carey, S; Cordonnier, N.; Khimeche, L.; Schade, U.; Reus, N.M. de; Grand, N.P. le; Mevassvik, O.M.; Cubero, S.G.; Godoy, S.G.; Powers, M.; Galvin, K
The NATO Modeling and Simulation Group Technical Activity 48 (MSG-048) was chartered in 2006 to investigate the potential of a Coalition Battle Management Language for multinational and NATO interoperation of command and control systems with modeling and simulation. In its May, 2007 meeting, MSG-048 decided to undertake as its first technical project a multinational demonstration, using the US Joint Battle Management Language (JBML) phase 1 prototype Web services as central infrastructure. Th...
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In the process of the European implementation of a Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) at Maastricht in December 1991 until the Franco-British declaration on European defense at Saint-MlÌ o in December 1998, the EU's European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP) etched out the initial concept of a European Pillar within the framework of NATO expressed in NATO's European Security and Defense Identity (ESDI). The Franco-British decla...
Vukadinović Lidija Čehulić; Begović Monika
Numerous representatives of theories of international relations, security theories or alliance theories have examined the new role of the North Atlantic Alliance or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in the post-bipolar world. Parallel with the theoretical examination of goals and tasks, NATO has transformed itself in practice, following the realities of the contemporary global era. In trying to achieve and keep the primacy of the strongest military- political organization, the All...
Klein, Margarete; Major, Claudia
Institutional relations between NATO and Russia have been suspended since the illegal annexation of Crimea in 2014 and the war in eastern Ukraine. Conflicting ideas about Euro-Atlantic security have left the relationship deeply and lastingly damaged. This makes it all the more important to gain clarity about the determining factors and perspectives of the relationship. Its evolution over the coming five to ten years will also be shaped by future events, such as the NATO summit in Warsaw in 20...
Klein, Margarete; Kaim, Markus
A key aspect of the NATO summit in Newport (Wales) was the reaction of the alliance to Russia's annexation of Crimea and its destabilisation of Eastern Ukraine. However, apart from the decision to create a high-readiness force, and an action plan for Eastern Europe, heads of state and government did not focus enough on the long-term prospects for NATO's relationship with Russia. (author's abstract)
Martel, Albert M.
Many observers in NATO and European Union (EU) countries hold that Russia is attempting to challenge the increasing Western influence in Central and Eastern Europe and reassert itself as a regional and global superpower. The 2008 Russia-Georgia conflict and the ongoing crisis in Ukraine provide evidence in support of this theory. Twelve Central and Eastern European nations have nonetheless joined NATO since 1999, and others have pledged their membership aspirations. This fact alone suggests t...
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was organized on a two-track structure. The military part of the Alliance was to be involved in immediate military planning for the defense of the Alliance. The NATO civilian part was to provide objectives and political coordination for the military planners. It turned out that NATO military officials achieved relatively independent positions from their civilian superiors and were able to influenc...
Recent years have seen a debate within NATO over the issue of whether U.S. nonstrategic nuclear weapons in Europe should be retained in their current status, reduced in number, or withdrawn from the Continent. Some countries, including Germany, the Netherlands, and Belgium have advocated removal of the weapons. Others, notably member states in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) are wary of changes in the nuclear posture of the alliance. The position of the United States and NATO as a whole i...
The NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Nuclear Submarine Decommissioning and Related Problems was held in Moscow June 19--22, 1995. It was preceded by a visit to the Zvezdotchka Shipyard at Severodvinsk, a repair and maintenance yard for Russian nuclear submarines, for a subgroup of the workshop attendees. Most of the material in this paper is drawn directly form the workshop proceedings. Slightly less than 500 nuclear ships and submarines (the vast majority are submarines) have been constructed by the countries with nuclear navies. This includes approximately 250 by Russia, 195 by the United States, 23 by the United Kingdom, 11 by France and 6 by China. By the year 2000 it is expected that approximately one-half of these nuclear vessels will be removed from service and in various states of decommissioning. A newspaper account in June 1997 indicated that 156 Russian nuclear submarines had been removed from service. In August 1996 it was reported that 55 reactor compartment sections from US nuclear submarines were already in long-term storage at Hanford. Overall the dismantlement of nuclear submarines and the processing, storage and disposal of nuclear fuel, activated components and section of the hulls, and the liquid and solid radioactive and hazardous wastes is an enormous problem. This problem has been exacerbated by the accelerated decommissioning schedule associated with treaty obligations
Xavier, José C.; Barbosa, Andrés; Agusti, Susana; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Alvito, Pedro; Ameneiro, Julia; Ávila, Conxita; BAETA Alexandra; Canário, João; Carmona, Raquel; Catry, Paulo; Ceia, Filipe; Clark, Melody S.; Cristobo, Francisco J.; Bruno CRUZ
Polar marine ecosystems have global ecological and economic importance because of their unique biodiversity and their major role in climate processes and commercial fisheries, among others. Portugal and Spain have been highly active in a wide range of disciplines in marine biology of the Antarctic and the Arctic. The main aim of this paper is to provide a synopsis of some of the results and initiatives undertaken by Portuguese and Spanish polar teams within the field of marine sciences, parti...
Computational biology is on the verge of a paradigm shift in its research practice - from a data-based (computational) paradigm to an information-based (cognitive) paradigm. As in the other research fields, this transition is impeded by lack of a right understanding about what is actually hidden behind the term "information". The paper is intended to clarify this issue and introduces two new notions of "physical information" and "semantic information", which together constitute the term "info...
Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Coutant, Charles C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Whitney, Richard R. [Leavenworth, WA (United States)
A review of the literature related to turbine-passage injury mechanisms suggests the following biological criteria should be considered in the design of new turbines: (1) pressure; (2) cavitation; (3) shear and turbulence; and (4) mechanical injury. Based on the study’s review of fish behavior in relation to hydropower facilities, it provides a number of recommendations to guide both turbine design and additional research.
Balsa-Canto, Eva; Julio R Banga
Motivation: Mathematical models of complex biological systems usually consist of sets of differential equations which depend on several parameters which are not accessible to experimentation. These parameters must be estimated by fitting the model to experimental data. This estimation problem is very challenging due to the non-linear character of the dynamics, the large number of parameters and the frequently poor information content of the experimental data (poor practical identifiability). ...
In order to understand radiation damages on biological specimens, it is important to investigate from molecular level to cell level in size and femto-second to hours in time. Three key techniques such as molecular simulation, ultra-fast spectroscopy, and single shot x-ray microscopy has been developed. Combining those techniques, total image of radiation damaging process from molecular level to cell level are going to be established. (author)
Anshul Chawla; Chesta Batra
Heterocyclic chemistry comprises at least half of all organic chemistry research worldwide. Quinazolinone and its derivatives constitute an important class of heterocyclic compounds. The chemistry of quinazoline compounds has more than centuries old history; however the intense search for biologically active substances in this series began only in the last few decades. In this present communication an attempt is made to cover the medicinally active compounds, along with the recent discoveries...
Full Text Available Dye wastewater is one of typically non-biodegradable industrial effluents. A new process linking Fenton’s oxidation with biological oxidation proposed in this study was investigated to degrade the organic substances from real dye wastewater. During the combination process, the Fenton’s oxidation process can reduce the organic load and enhance biodegradability of dye wastewater, which is followed by biological aerated filter (BAF system to further remove organic substances in terms of discharge requirement. The results showed that 97.6% of chemical oxygen demand (COD removal by the combination process was achieved at the optimum process parameters: pH of 3.5, H2O2 of 2.0 mL/L, Fe(II of 500 mg/L, 2.0 h treatment time in the Fenton’s oxidation process and hydraulic retention time (HRT of 5 h in the BAF system. Under these conditions, COD concentration of effluent was 72.6 mg/L whereas 3020 mg/L in the influent, thus meeting the requirement of treated dye wastewater discharge performed by Chinese government (less than 100 mg/L. These results obtained here suggest that the new process combining Fenton’s oxidation with biological oxidation may provide an economical and effective alternative for treatment of non-biodegradable industrial wastewater.
Rigatos, Gerasimos G
This book provides a complete study on neural structures exhibiting nonlinear and stochastic dynamics, elaborating on neural dynamics by introducing advanced models of neural networks. It overviews the main findings in the modelling of neural dynamics in terms of electrical circuits and examines their stability properties with the use of dynamical systems theory. It is suitable for researchers and postgraduate students engaged with neural networks and dynamical systems theory.
Together, the Australian Synchrotron in Melbourne and the OPAL research reactor, at the Bragg Institute in Sydney represent Australia's largest ever investment in scientific infrastructure. Both facilities commenced operation in 2007, have passed through their infancy and adolescence to take their place amongst the rank of top-flight international user facilities. Far from middle-aged, these two vibrant landmark facilities (each with 10 operational beamlines) and along with the National Deuteration Facility at ANSTO have provided transformational research capabilities for the Australian scientific community. Although modest in size compared to the well-established international competition, both institutions are producing excellent amounts of high-quality research with the Bragg Institute and the Australian Synchrotron generating more than 200 and 450 peer-reviewed publications per annum respectively. At first glance both synchrotron and neutron sources show similar scientific profiles, encompassing an extremely wide range of disciplines: materials, chemistry, biology, condensed matter physics, nanotechnology, engineering, geosciences, archaeology and studies relating to cultural heritage. Common to both are advanced capabilities for the study of atomic and molecular structure, as well as operational studies of functional materials under a diverse range of extreme environments. A more forensic examination however reveals fundamental differences in their DNA. While the biological, pharmaceutical and medical research communities drive substantial capability development and research outcomes at the Australian Synchrotron, neutron scattering and molecular deuteration at the Bragg Institute provides a focus for studies in soft condensed matter, physical and inorganic chemistry, solid state physics and crystallography. Although their respective probes are generated from different parts of the atom and interact with matter in fundamentally different ways, my
NATO sõjalise komitee esimehe sõnul on NATO eesmärk aidata Balti riike õhuturbega kuni 2018. aastani, õhuturbe kontseptsioon vaadatakse üle 2011. aastal. Ämari lennuväli peab muutuma kättesaadavaks kõigile NATO õhuvägedele. Kindral tõstis esile küberkaitse kompetentsikeskuse loomise vajadust ning avaldas arvamust Eesti kaitseväe praeguse mudeli kohta
Atreya CD; Stark Caren J
Abstract In the aftermath of the SARS epidemic, there has been significant progress in understanding the molecular and cell biology of SARS-CoV. Some of the milestones are the availability of viral genome sequence, identification of the viral receptor, development of an infectious cDNA clone, and the identification of viral antigens that elicit neutralizing antibodies. However, there is still a large gap in our understanding of how SARS-CoV interacts with the host cell and the rapidly changin...
Proširenje NATO-a nakon hladnog rata, izvedeno u dva kruga s ukupno deset novih država primljenih u članstvo NATO-a, predstavlja ključan dobitak u izgradnji sigurnosne arhitekture post-hladnoratovske Europe, te je najznačajniji sigurnosni dobitak za Europu nakon raspada Varšavskog ugovora i SSSR-a. Dva kruga proširenja NATO-a bila su vrlo različita po svojem teritorijalnom opsegu, regionalnoj pripadnosti, trenutnim okolnostima unutar NATO-a, te utjecaju na geopolitičke odnose u Europi i geost...
Yost, David S.
The article of record may be found at:http://www.ndc.nato.int/download/downloads.php?icode=310 On 25-26 October 2011 the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung and the NATO Defense College co-sponsored a workshop in Brussels concerning the issues at stake in NATO's ongoing Deterrence and Defense Posture Review (DDPR). The NATO Allies chartered the DDPR in the November 2010 Lisbon Summit Declaration. They have agreed to present the findings of the DDPR at the May 2012 Chicago Summit.
Ciasca, G; Papi, M; Businaro, L; Campi, G; Ortolani, M; Palmieri, V; Cedola, A; De Ninno, A; Gerardino, A; Maulucci, G; De Spirito, M
By mimicking naturally occurring superhydrophobic surfaces, scientists can now realize artificial surfaces on which droplets of a few microliters of water are forced to assume an almost spherical shape and an extremely high contact angle. In recent decades, these surfaces have attracted much attention due to their technological applications for anti-wetting and self-cleaning materials. Very recently, researchers have shifted their interest to investigate whether superhydrophobic surfaces can be exploited to study biological systems. This research effort has stimulated the design and realization of new devices that allow us to actively organize, visualize and manipulate matter at both the microscale and nanoscale levels. Such precise control opens up wide applications in biomedicine, as it allows us to directly manipulate objects at the typical length scale of cells and macromolecules. This progress report focuses on recent biological and medical applications of superhydrophobicity. Particular regard is paid to those applications that involve the detection, manipulation and study of extremely small quantities of molecules, and to those that allow high throughput cell and biomaterial screening. PMID:26844980
Full Text Available Yang Yu,1 Hui Guan,1 Yuanli Dong,1 Ligang Xing,2 Xiaolin Li2 1School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, University of Jinan, Jinan, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China Objective: To summarize the research progress about the dosimetry and biological predictors of radiation-induced esophagitis.Methods: We performed a systematic literature review addressing radiation esophagitis in the treatment of lung cancer published between January 2009 and May 2015 in the PubMed full-text database index systems.Results: Twenty-eight eligible documents were included in the final analysis. Many clinical factors were related to the risk of radiation esophagitis, such as elder patients, concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and the intense radiotherapy regimen (hyperfractionated radiotherapy or stereotactic body radiotherapy. The parameters including Dmax, Dmean, V20, V30, V50, and V55 may be valuable in predicting the occurrence of radiation esophagitis in patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Genetic variants in inflammation-related genes are also associated with radiation-induced toxicity.Conclusion: Dosimetry and biological factors of radiation-induced esophagitis provide clinical information to decrease its occurrence and grade during radiotherapy. More prospective studies are warranted to confirm their prediction efficacy. Keywords: lung cancer, esophagitis, radiation injuries, predictors
Castellani, Gastone; Intrator, Nathan; Remondini, Daniel
Contemporary biomedicine is producing large amount of data, especially within the fields of “omic” sciences. Nevertheless, other fields, such as neuroscience, are producing similar amount of data by using non-invasive techniques such as imaging, functional magnetic resonance and electroencephalography. Nowadays a big challenge and a new research horizon for Systems Biology is to develop methods to integrate and model this data in an unifying framework capable to disentangle this amazing complexity. In this paper we show how methods from genomic data analysis can be applied to brain data. In particular the concept of pathways, networks and multiplex are discussed. These methods can lead to a clear distinction of various regimes of brain activity. Moreover, this method could be the basis for a Systems Biology analysis of brain data and for the integration of these data in a multivariate and multidimensional framework. The feasibility of this integration is strongly dependent from the feature extraction method used. In our case we used an “alphabet” derived from a multi-resolution analysis that is capable to capture the most relevant information from these complex signals. PMID:25206359
Vaitekunas, David A.; Fraedrich, Douglas S.
An integrated naval infrared target, threat and countermeasure simulator (SHIPIR/NTCS) has been developed. The SHIPIR component of the model has been adopted by both NATO and the US Navy as a common tool for predicting the infrared (IR) signature of naval ships in their background. The US Navy has taken a lead role in further developing and validating SHIPIR for use in the Twenty-First Century Destroyer (DD-21) program. As a result, the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has performed an in-depth validation of SHIPIR. This paper presents an overview of SHIPIR, the model validation methodology developed by NRL, and the results of the NRL validation study. The validation consists of three parts: a review of existing validation information, the design, execution, and analysis of a new panel test experiment, and the comparison of experiment with predictions from the latest version of SHIPIR (v2.5). The results show high levels of accuracy in the radiometric components of the model under clear-sky conditions, but indicate the need for more detailed measurement of solar irradiance and cloud model data for input to the heat transfer and in-band sky radiance sub-models, respectively.
Kuś, A.; Makowski, P.; Kujawińska, M.
Optical diffraction tomography has been steadily proving its potential to study one of the hot topics in modern cell biology -- 3D dynamic changes in cells' morphology represented with refractive index values. In this technique digital holography is combined with tomographic reconstruction and thus it is necessary to provide projections acquired at different viewing directions. Usually the Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration is used and while the object beam performs scanning, the reference beam is in most cases stationary. This approach either limits possible scanning strategies or requires additional mechanical movement to be introduced in the reference beam. On the other hand, spiral or grid scanning is possible in alternative common-path or Michelson configurations. However, in this case there is no guarantee that a specimen is sparse enough for the object to interfere with an object-free part of the beam. In this paper we present a modified version of Mach-Zehnder interferometer-based tomographic microscope, in which both object and reference beam are subject to scanning using one scanning device only thus making any scanning scenario possible. This concept is realized with a custom-built optical system in the reference beam and is appropriate for mechanical as well as optical scanning. Usually, the tomographic reconstruction setups and algorithms are verified using a microsphere phantom, which is not enough to test the influence of the distribution of the projections. In this work we propose a more complex calibration object created using two-photon polymerization.
Xavier, José C.; Barbosa, Andrés; Agustí, Susana; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Alvito, Pedro; Ameneiro, Julia; Ávila, Conxita; Baeta, Alexandra; Canário, João; Carmona, Raquel; Catry, Paulo; Ceia, Filipe; Clark, Melody S.; Cristobo, Francisco J.; Cruz, Bruno; Duarte, Carlos M.; Figuerola, Blanca; Gili, Josep-Maria; Gonçalves, Ana R.; Gordillo, Francisco J. L.; Granadeiro, José P.; Guerreiro, Miguel; Isla, Enrique; Jiménez, Carlos; López-González, Pablo J.; Lourenço, Sílvia; Marques, João C.; Moreira, Elena; Mota, Ana M.; Nogueira, Marta; Núñez-Pons, Laura; Orejas, Covadonga; Paiva, Vitor H.; Palanques, Albert; Pearson, Gareth A.; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Peña Cantero, Álvaro L.; Power, Deborah M.; Ramos, Jaime A.; Rossi, Sergi; Seco, José; Sañé, Elisabet; Serrão, Ester A.; Taboada, Sergi; Tavares, Sílvia; Teixidó, Núria; Vaqué, Dolors; Valente, Tiago; Vázquez, Elsa; Vieira, Rui P.; Viñegla, Benjamin
Polar marine ecosystems have global ecological and economic importance because of their unique biodiversity and their major role in climate processes and commercial fisheries, among others. Portugal and Spain have been highly active in a wide range of disciplines in marine biology of the Antarctic and the Arctic. The main aim of this paper is to provide a synopsis of some of the results and initiatives undertaken by Portuguese and Spanish polar teams within the field of marine sciences, particularly on benthic and pelagic biodiversity (species diversity and abundance, including microbial, molecular, physiological and chemical mechanisms in polar organisms), conservation and ecology of top predators (particularly penguins, albatrosses and seals), and pollutants and evolution of marine organisms associated with major issues such as climate change, ocean acidification and UV radiation effects. Both countries have focused their polar research more in the Antarctic than in the Arctic. Portugal and Spain should encourage research groups to continue increasing their collaborations with other countries and develop multi-disciplinary research projects, as well as to maintain highly active memberships within major organizations, such as the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR), the International Arctic Science Council (IASC) and the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS), and in international research projects.
Dunkel, R.; Verge, T.; Linnehan, R.; Doerry, A.
In June 2012, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Reconnaissance Systems Group participated in the NATO Unified Vision 2012 (UV12) Joint ISR (JISR) Trial at Orland Main Air Station in Brekstad, Norway. GA-ASI supplied a modified King Air 200 as a Predator B/MQ-9 Reaper Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) surrogate outfitted with a Lynx Block 30 Multi-mode Synthetic Aperture Radar/Ground Moving Target Indicator (SAR/GMTI), a FLIR Star SAFIRE 3800HD Electro-optical/Infrared (EO/IR) sensor, and a L-3 Tactical Common Data Link. This airborne platform was combined with GA-ASI's new System for Tactical Archival, Retrieval, and Exploitation (STARE) for full integration into the NATO ISR exploitation community. UV12 was an event sponsored by the NATO Joint Capability Group on Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) to focus on the interoperability of national ISR assets and improving JISR concept of operations. The Predator B RPA surrogate flew alongside multiple NATO ISR assets in nine missions that showcased the platform's all-weather ISR capabilities focusing on the Lynx SAR/GMTI and Maritime Wide Area Search (MWAS) modes. The inclusion of the STARE technology allowed GA-ASI's radar and Full Motion Video (FMV) data to be seamlessly processed and passed to joint networks where the data was fused with other NATO ISR products, resulting in a full battlefield reconnaissance picture.
Orgeig, Sandra; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Casals, Cristina; Clark, Howard W; Haczku, Angela; Knudsen, Lars; Possmayer, Fred
This review is focused on the evolution and function of alveolar proteins. The lung faces physical and environmental challenges, due to changing pressures/volumes and foreign pathogens, respectively. The pulmonary surfactant system is integral in protecting the lung from these challenges via two groups of surfactant proteins - the small molecular weight hydrophobic SPs, SP-B and -C, that regulate interfacial adsorption of the lipids, and the large hydrophilic SPs, SP-A and -D, which are surfactant collectins capable of inhibiting foreign pathogens. Further aiding pulmonary host defence are non-surfactant collectins and antimicrobial peptides that are expressed across the biological kingdoms. Linking to the first symposium session, which emphasised molecular structure and biophysical function of surfactant lipids and proteins, this review begins with a discussion of the role of temperature and hydrostatic pressure in shaping the evolution of SP-C in mammals. Transitioning to the role of the alveolus in innate host defence we discuss the structure, function and regulation of antimicrobial peptides, the defensins and cathelicidins. We describe the recent discovery of novel avian collectins and provide evidence for their role in preventing influenza infection. This is followed by discussions of the roles of SP-A and SP-D in mediating host defence at the alveolar surface and in mediating inflammation and the allergic response of the airways. Finally we discuss the use of animal models of lung disease including knockouts to develop an understanding of the role of these proteins in initiating and/or perpetuating disease with the aim of developing new therapeutic strategies. PMID:20433956
Righello, Joseph D.
This thesis explores Russia's attempts to influence NATO bilateral relationships between members and non-members (partners) and examines the US-Ukraine military-to-military program as its case study. The thesis begins by describing Russia's relations with NATO, centering on NATO enlargement and its role in the NATO-Russia relationship. It then examines the US-Ukraine relationship, with a specific eye toward military-to-military relations and examples of Russian influence on that relationship....
... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-1648, Application for A, G, or NATO Visa, OMB No. 1405-0100.... Title of Information Collection: Application for A, G, or NATO Visa. OMB Control Number: 1405-0100. Type... Affairs, Office of Visa Services. Form Number: DS-1648. Respondents: All applicants for A, G, or...
This lesson plan imagines the student as part of a delegation to a special meeting of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)-sponsored Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council being held in Brussels, Belgium, where the topic of discussion is a proposal by several NATO members to invite independent republics of the former Soviet Union to become…
Leonard, Thomas M.
This paper analyzes the issues regarding current expansion of NATO membership to include Romania and Bulgaria. The perspective given is that of the United States and places the Romanian and Bulgarian cases within the context of those issues. Sections of the paper include: (1) "The Road to Madrid: Expansion of NATO"; (2) "No Easy Answers: The…
Baggrunden for Atlantpagtens oprettelse, NATOs formative periode i 1950erne, 'out-of-area'-operationer i Den Tredje Verden, atomstrategier, afspændingsperioden, den kolde krigs afslutning, samt NATOs transformation og udvidelse efter 1991 tematiseres i en oversigtlig analyse....
This paper is concerned with those studies and analyses that affected early NATO nuclear policy and force structure. The discussion focuses specifically on two open-quotes benchmarkclose quotes activities. Project VISTA and Project ATTACK. These two studies were chosen less because one can document their direct impact on NATO nuclear policy and more because they capture the state of thinking about tactical nuclear weapons at a particular point of time. Project VISTA offers an especially important benchmark in this respect. Project ATTACK is a rather different kind of benchmark. It is not a pathbreaking study. It is much narrower and more technical than VISTA. It appears to have received no public attention. Project ATTACK is interesting because it seems to capture a open-quotes nuts-and-boltsclose quotes feel for how U.S. (and thereby NATO) theater nuclear policy was evolving prior to MC 48. The background and context for Project VISTA and Project ATTACK are presented and discussed