WorldWideScience

Sample records for biology field trip

  1. A Biomes Field Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, William H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a field trip designed to give students opportunities to experience relevant data leading to concepts in biogeography. Suggests that teachers (including college instructors) adapt the areas studied and procedures used to their own locations. Includes a suggested field trip handout. (JN)

  2. Field Trips--Vicariously?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendered, Norman C.

    1975-01-01

    Cost and scheduling problems often prevent industrial arts teachers from taking their students on field trips. Moreover, study findings indicate that the highly valued industrial visit proves less effective than flexible, inexpensive, custom-tailored slide-tape presentations. Slide-tape preparation procedures are outlined, and recommendations are…

  3. Mobile Collector for Field Trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Terrenghi

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Current e-Learning is based on learning management systems that provide certain standard services - course authoring and delivery, tutoring, administration and collaboration facilities. Rapid development of mobile technologies opens a new area of m-Learning to enhance the current educational opportunities. Field trips are a relevant part of the curriculum, but for various reasons it is often difficult to organize them. The aim of the RAFT project is development of a system that would enable virtual field trips. One mobile learning application prototype created in this project, called Mobile Collector, enables data gathering and annotation in the field, together with real time collaboration. The application supports learner-centred education in real world context.

  4. Collecting Planarians: A Good Choice for a Field Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Heeyoung

    2001-01-01

    Describes a field trip to collect planarians as successful in generating interest in the sciences. This activity is suitable for all grade levels as a field trip or biology lab. Planarians can be easily collected from streams across the United States. Once in the classroom, planaria are easily fed and cared for. (SAH)

  5. Comparison of the effectiveness of real and virtual field trips in biology and ecology classes in lower secondary school based on the example of the Maribor island natural educational trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhek, Miro

    The present doctoral thesis presents a case study within the scope of which real and virtual field trips have been compared. The emphasis of the study was on determining the levels of knowledge gain effectiveness in the fields of biology and ecology in the final triad (third) of lower secondary school education. The analysis included students completing various tasks along the Maribor Island natural education trail, which had been digitized and inserted into Geopedia. The study was conducted in autumn of 2011 and included 464 students (enrolled in grades from 6 to 9) from 11 lower secondary schools located in the Maribor area. The results have generally shown minute differences between the levels of knowledge acquisition effectiveness between both field trips. During the real field trip, the majority of the students included in the study achieved better results particularly at tasks where they were able to benefit from first-hand experience. During the virtual field trip, individual students were more successful at tasks where they were allowed to access a computer in order to obtain additional information. Within the scope of the study, we had also surveyed lower secondary and secondary school teachers on the frequency of including field trips in the curriculum, on the obstacles that the teachers faced with regard to including field work in it, and on their views on real and virtual field trips. The survey included a total of 386 teachers, the majority whom were teaching the subjects of biology, geography, and natural science. The results have shown that the surveyed teachers regard field trips as a very important educational method that particularly encourages experience-based learning in nature. The views of the teachers on virtual field trips were generally positive, but only when regarded and applied as a supplemental teaching tool and not as a substitute for real field trips.

  6. Fellows in the Middle: Fabulous Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Mary Lou

    2008-05-01

    Montclair State University's NSF GK-12 Program focuses on grades 7 and 8 in five urban public school districts in northern New Jersey. Each year four fieldtrips are taken by the students, middle school teachers, and graduate student Fellows. Many interdisciplinary hands-on lessons are written for use before, during and after each trip with this year's theme of Earth history. The Sterling Hill Mine trip evoked lessons on geology, economics, crystal structure, density, and pH. A virtual trip (webcam link) to scientists in the rainforest of Panama prompted critical thinking, categorizing layers and animals, and construction of model food webs. In the field trip to the NJ School of Conservation the students will build model aquifers, measure tree heights, and measure stream flow to compare to their Hackensack River. Finally the students will travel to MSU for a Math/Science Day with research talks, lab tours, hands-on activities, and a poster session. In January 2008 seventeen teachers, Fellows, and grant personnel took a field trip to China to set up collaborations with researchers and schools in Beijing and Xi'an, including the Beijing Ancient Observatory. All field trips are fabulous! Next year (IYA) our theme will be planetary science and will feature field trips to the Newark Museum's Dreyfuss Planetarium, BCC Buehler Challenger & Science Center, and star parties. We look forward to invigorating middle school science and mathematics with exciting astronomy. Funded by NSF #0638708

  7. Field Trip - Conservation of Carnivores in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Amanda

    2017-04-01

    Field trips are a key component of our curriculum at ISWB. Classroom teaching is invaluable but field trips provide pupils with a tangible connection to pertinent issues of conservation. ISWB realises the importance of out of the classroom learning in field trips and to this end our students have an opportunity to partake in a number of 3-5 day field trips per academic year. In 2016, several Year 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 students visited the AfriCat Foundation on Okonjima in central Namibia for 4 days to learn about the conservation of the predator population in Namibia. The trips were very successful and another trip this year to AfriCat North close to Etosha National Park, where the students will work closely with the local farming communities, is planned. AfriCat provides Environmental Education programmes for the youth of Namibia giving them a greater understanding of the importance of wildlife conservation. Their main objective is promoting predator and environmental awareness amongst the youth of Namibia. AfriCat Environmental Education Programme is based on 1997 UNESCO-UNEP Environmental Education objectives. "Attitudes: To raise concern about problems, values, personal responsibility and willingness to participate/act. In the end, we conserve only what we love. We will love only what we understand. We will understand only what we are taught."

  8. Field Trips as Valuable Learning Experiences in Geography Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowka, Amy Richmond

    2012-01-01

    Field trips have been acknowledged as valuable learning experiences in geography. This article uses Kolb's (1984) experiential learning model to discuss how students learn and how field trips can help enhance learning. Using Kolb's experiential learning theory as a guide in the design of field trips helps ensure that field trips contribute to…

  9. Immersive, interactive virtual field trips promote learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, G.; Mead, C.; Buxner, S.; Taylor, W.; Semken, S. C.; Anbar, A. D.; Sundstrom, J.

    2016-12-01

    We are assessing the educational effectiveness of a new type of immersive virtual field trip (iVFT) that we are developing, grounded in active, inquiry-based learning, and accessible via web browsers. To this end, we collected data from five high school AP biology classes (n = 153) that were assigned an iVFT lesson focused on life and environment during the Ediacaran time period, 550 million years ago. Students explore a series of fossil beds using high resolution imagery and video acquired during a field expedition to the Nilpena site in the Flinders Ranges, South Australia. They first encounter an immersive spherical image, which orients them to the area. Then, they identify fossils in the iVFT, using a dichotomous key. Finally, they explore an interactive simulation of this ancient ecosystem. The average time spent on the experience was approximately two hours. The learning objective is for students to be able to describe the Ediacaran ecosystem preserved in the rocks at Nilpena. To assess this outcome, we administered identical pre- and post-lesson quizzes to students. Results showed a statistically significant improvement on the six-item quiz with a normalized gain of 0.96 (pre-lesson mean: 2.4, post-lesson mean: 5.9, p lesson scores are close to what would be expected from guessing, so these results represent a substantial growth in understanding. These findings encourage the use of iVFT-based learning experiences in education (an evolving suite is publicly available at http://vft.asu.edu). In the future, we will explore in more detail which aspects of the experience provide greatest educational benefit, and the effectiveness in teaching scientific reasoning skills in addition to content knowledge. To answer these questions, we will supplement content-based questions with mixed-methods data including interviews.

  10. Hunton Group core workshop and field trip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.S. [ed.

    1993-12-31

    The Late Ordovician-Silurian-Devonian Hunton Group is a moderately thick sequence of shallow-marine carbonates deposited on the south edge of the North American craton. This rock unit is a major target for petroleum exploration and reservoir development in the southern Midcontinent. The workshop described here was held to display cores, outcrop samples, and other reservoir-characterization studies of the Hunton Group and equivalent strata throughout the region. A field trip was organized to complement the workshop by allowing examination of excellent outcrops of the Hunton Group of the Arbuckle Mountains.

  11. Elementary school children's science learning from school field trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Marilyn Petty

    This research examines the impact of classroom anchoring activities on elementary school students' science learning from a school field trip. Although there is prior research demonstrating that students can learn science from school field trips, most of this research is descriptive in nature and does not examine the conditions that enhance or facilitate such learning. The current study draws upon research in psychology and education to create an intervention that is designed to enhance what students learn from school science field trips. The intervention comprises of a set of "anchoring" activities that include: (1) Orientation to context, (2) Discussion to activate prior knowledge and generate questions, (3) Use of field notebooks during the field trip to record observations and answer questions generated prior to field trip, (4) Post-visit discussion of what was learned. The effects of the intervention are examined by comparing two groups of students: an intervention group which receives anchoring classroom activities related to their field trip and an equivalent control group which visits the same field trip site for the same duration but does not receive any anchoring classroom activities. Learning of target concepts in both groups was compared using objective pre and posttests. Additionally, a subset of students in each group were interviewed to obtain more detailed descriptive data on what children learned through their field trip.

  12. Influence of Field Trip on the Development of Students Interest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research ... The study investigated the influence of field trip on the development of students' interest towards studying fine and applied arts. ... Result of the study showed that; field trip increased students' interest towards studying fine and applied art theory and practicals.

  13. Strategies for Planning an Overseas Field Trip for Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubball, Harry; Robertson, Scott

    2004-01-01

    Overseas field trips, when they are well planned, offer numerous benefits to young athletes. They contribute to player development, and fuel the team's energy and commitment to success. Field trips are enjoyable and exciting breaks from the regular routine of training and competing. The authors recommend strategies for positive results based on…

  14. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, L.

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, on January 17-18, 1980. On the basis of the January conference and the June field trip, EEG has formed the following conclusions: (1) it has not been clearly established that the site or the surrounding area has been attacked by deep dissolution to render it unsuitable for the nuclear waste pilot repository; (2) the existence of an isolated breccia pipe at the site unaccompanied by a deep dissolution wedge, is a very remote possibility; (3) more specific information about the origin and the nature of the brine reservoirs is needed. An important question that should be resolved is whether each encounter with artesian brine represents a separate pocket or whether these occurrences are interconnected; (4) Anderson has postulated a major tectonic fault or a fracture system at the Basin margin along the San Simon Swale; (5) the area in the northern part of the WIPP site, identified from geophysical and bore hole data as the disturbed zone, should be further investigated to cleary understand the nature and significance of this structural anomaly; and (6) a major drawback encountered during the discussions of geological issues related to the WIPP site is the absence of published material that brings together all the known information related to a particular issue

  15. Astronaut Neil Armstrong studies rock samples during geological field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, studies rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  16. Guidelines for Setting Up an Extended Field Trip to Florida and the Florida Keys: An Interactive Experiential Training Field Biology Program Consisting of Pretrip Instruction, Search Image Training, Field Exercises, and Observations of Tropical Habitats and Coral Reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Claude D.; And Others

    The importance of experiential aspects of biological study is addressed using multi-dimensional classroom and field classroom approaches to student learning. This document includes a guide to setting up this style of field experience. Several teaching innovations are employed to introduce undergraduate students to the literature, techniques, and…

  17. Field trip guidebook for the post-meeting field trip: The Central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John F.; Loch, James D.; Ganis, G. Robert; Repetski, John E.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Blackmer, Gale C.; Brezinski, David K.; Goldman, Daniel; Orndorff, Randall C.; Sell, Bryan K.

    2015-01-01

    The lower Paleozoic rocks to be examined on this trip through the central Appalachians represent an extreme range of depositional environments. The lithofacies we will examine range from pelagic radiolarian chert and interbedded mudstone that originated on the deep floor of the Iapetus Ocean, through mud cracked supratidal dolomitic laminites that formed during episodes of emergence of the long-lived Laurentian carbonate platform, to meandering fluvial conglomerate and interstratified overbank mudstone packages deposited in the latest stages of infilling of the Taconic foredeep. In many ways this field trip is about contrasts. The Upper Cambrian (Furongian) and Lower Ordovician deposits of the Sauk megasequence record deposition controlled primarily by eustatic sea level sea level fluctuations that influenced deposition along the passive, southern (Appalachian) margin of the paleocontinent of Laurentia. The only tectonic influence apparent in these passive margin deposits is the expected thickening of the carbonate stack toward the platform margin as compared to the thinner (and typically shallower) facies that formed farther in toward the paleoshoreline. Carbonates overwhelmingly dominate the passive margin succession. Clastic influx was minimal and consisted largely of eastward transport of clean cratonic sands across the platform from the adjacent inner detrital belt to the west during higher order (2nd and 3rd order) regressions.In contrast, Middle and Upper Ordovician deposits of the Tippecanoe megasequence record the strong influence of tectonics, specifically Iapetus closure. The first signal of this tectonic transformation was the arrival of arc-related ash beds that abound in the active margin carbonates. Subsequent intensification of Taconic orogenesis resulted in the foundering of the carbonate platform under the onslaught of fine siliciclastics arriving from offshore tectonic sources to the east, creating a deep marine flysch basin where graptolitic

  18. Field trips as an intervention to enhance pharmacy students' positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine whether students' experience of field trips influenced their perceptions regarding a management module as part of their training as future pharmacists. Methods. A mixed-method sequential exploratory research design was used. Data were gathered through written narratives and focus group interviews, ...

  19. Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin study rock samples during field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, and Astronaut Edwin Aldrin, Lunar module pilot for Apollo 11, study rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  20. Using GIS for planning field trips: In-situ assessment of Geopoints for field trips with mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Sarah; Kisser, Thomas; Ditter, Raimund

    2016-04-01

    Up to now no application is existing for collecting data via mobile devices using a geographical information system referring to the evaluation of Geopoints. Classified in different geographical topics a Geopark can be rated for suitability of Geopoints for field trips. The systematically acquisition of the suitability of Geopoints is necessary, especially when doing field trips with lower grade students who see a physical-geographic phenomenon for the first time. For this reason, the development of such an application is an invention for easy handling evaluations of Geopoints on the basis of commonly valid criteria like esthetic attraction, interestingness, and pithiness (Streifinger 2010). Collecting data provides the opportunity of receiving information of particularly suitable Geopoints out of the sight from students, tourists and others. One solution for collecting data in a simple and intuitive form is Survey123 for ArcGIS (http://survey123.esri.com/#/). You can create surveys using an ArcGIS Online organizational account and download your own survey or surveys "that may have been shared with you" (https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/survey-123-for-arcgis/id993015031?mt=8) on your mobile device. "Once a form is downloaded, you will be able to start collecting data."(https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/survey-123-for-arcgis/id993015031?mt=8) Free of cost and use while disconnected the application can easily be used via mobile device on field trips. On a 3-day field trip which is held three times per year in the Geopark Bergstraße-Odenwald Survey123 is being used to evaluate the suitability of different Geopoints for different topics (geology, soils, vegetation, climate). With every field trip about 25 students take part in the survey and evaluate each Geopoint at the route. So, over the time, the docents know exactly which Geopoints suites perfect for teaching geology for example, and why it suites that good. The field trip is organized in an innovative way. Before

  1. Factors affecting elementary principals' and teachers' decisions to support outdoor field trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Michael Joseph

    Outdoor field trips are recommended in science education reform, yet they are not frequently taken. Barriers may prevent elementary public school teachers from participating in outdoor field trips (Mirka, 1973; Falk & Balling, 1979; Ham, 1988; Orion, 1993). To determine what would increase students' attendance at a nature preserve, factors that may affect elementary private and public school principals' and teachers' decisions to support field trips were identified and compared. Private school principals supported field trips. They believed field trips were safe, and easy to arrange, and that the field trips helped students experience culture in the community. Experienced public school principals who were supportive and believed field trips should be required believed field trips fit into the teacher's lesson plan and were taken for enrichment. Public school principals who were less experienced with field trips believed field trips should be extracurricular. They believed that field trips served as a reward, and that they needed more information. They did not support field trips. Private school teachers believed that field trips did not have overly demanding administrative concerns. They believed field trips were safe, easy to arrange, and were supported by their administrator. Public school teachers who supported field trips and believed field trips should be required were white, female, experienced, and older. They believed that field trips were safe, easy to arrange, enjoyable, and that they had enough help to conduct trips. Public school teachers who may not support trips had administrative concerns, and they did not believe field trips met the needs of students. These were male, white or non-white, young or middle-aged, and less experienced. They may believe field trips are a waste of time and money. They believed they had a nonsupportive administrator. Money for transportation was a barrier for older public school teachers and principals. No improvement on

  2. Understanding Social Learning Behaviors via a Virtual Field Trip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Bai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a multidisciplinary study investigating how a virtual rather than face-to-face field trip can be conducted in a real-world setting and how students respond to such a social learning opportunity. Our participants followed a story of a stroke patient at her virtual home and in a virtual hospital via a teaching vignette. They were then given a new case and got on a virtual trip via a multiuser virtual environment. They played the roles of patients, relatives, doctors, or nurses, experiencing the emotional, physical, or social impacts those stakeholders may go through. Our study finds the overall participation of the Virtual Group is 50% more than the Text Group. Although the Virtual Group generates much more nodes in total, they focused much less on knowledge sharing and comparing than the Text Group (46 vs. 67, but more on other higher-level aspects of social interactions, such as knowledge discovery (57 vs. 42, co-construction (66 vs. 39, testing and modification (58 vs. 24 and application of newly constructed meaning (60 vs. 16. Analysis of students’ virtual field activities and in-depth discussions of important issues implied are included to help understand social learning behaviors during a virtual field trip. Sustainability of such systems is discussed.

  3. Linking Immersive Virtual Field Trips with an Adaptive Learning Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, G.; Taylor, W.; Anbar, A. D.; Semken, S. C.; Buxner, S.; Mead, C.; El-Moujaber, E.; Summons, R. E.; Oliver, C.

    2016-12-01

    The use of virtual environments in science education has been constrained by the difficulty of guiding a learner's actions within the those environments. In this work, we demonstrate how advances in education software technology allow educators to create interactive learning experiences that respond and adapt intelligently to learner input within the virtual environment. This innovative technology provides a far greater capacity for delivering authentic inquiry-driven educational experiences in unique settings from around the world. Our immersive virtual field trips (iVFT) bring students virtually to geologically significant but inaccessible environments, where they learn through authentic practices of scientific inquiry. In one recent example, students explore the fossil beds in Nilpena, South Australia to learn about the Ediacaran fauna. Students interactively engage in 360° recreations of the environment, uncover the nature of the historical ecosystem by identifying fossils with a dichotomous key, explore actual fossil beds in high resolution imagery, and reconstruct what an ecosystem might have looked like millions of years ago in an interactive simulation. With the new capacity to connect actions within the iVFT to an intelligent tutoring system, these learning experiences can be tracked, guided, and tailored individually to the immediate actions of the student. This new capacity also has great potential for learning designers to take a data-driven approach to lesson improvement and for education researchers to study learning in virtual environments. Thus, we expect iVFT will be fertile ground for novel research. Such iVFT are currently in use in several introductory classes offered online at Arizona State University in anthropology, introductory biology, and astrobiology, reaching thousands of students to date. Drawing from these experiences, we are designing a curriculum for historical geology that will be built around iVFT-based exploration of Earth

  4. Spreading Geodiversity awareness in schools through field trips and ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magagna, Alessandra; Giardino, Marco; Ferrero, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Geodiversity, unlike Biodiversity, is not a topic included in the Italian schools curriculum. Nevertheless, Geomorphology is taught at all levels, and it seems to be the right tool for introducing the students to the concepts related to Geodiversity. In this context, a research on the use of field trips and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is being carried out for spreading the value of Geodiversity in Secondary Schools. Relevant international literature states that field trips are effective didactic tools for Earth Science education, because they stimulate an active learning process and allow students to appreciate the geological complexity of an area. On the other side, ICT allow students to get knowledge about the variety of landforms of their own territory by staying indoor, using virtual field trips and free software like Google Earth, Google Maps, Bing etc. In order to connect the two strategies, an innovative educational project is proposed here; it involves both the indoor and the outdoor activities, by enhancing a critical approach to the complexity of geological processes. As a starting point, a multimedia product on 20 Italian geological tours, designed for analyzing Geodiversity at a regional scale, has been tested with teachers and students, in order to understand its effectiveness by using it solely indoor. In a second phase, teachers and students have been proposed to compare and integrate indoor and outdoor activities to approach Geodiversity directly at a local scale, by means of targeted field trips. For achieving this goal, during the field trips, students used their mobile devices (smartphone and tablet) equipped with free and/or open source applications (Epicollect, Trimble Outdoor Navigator). These tools allow to track field trips, to gather data (geomorphological observations and related photographs), and to elaborate them in the laboratory; a process useful for reasoning on concepts such as spatial and temporal scales and for

  5. Factors that influence learning during a scientific field trip in a natural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orion, Nir; Hofstein, Avi

    This study deals with the educational effectiveness of field trips. The main purpose was to obtain insight concerning factors that might influence the ability of students to learn during a scientific field trip in a natural environment. The research was conducted in the context of a 1-day geologic field trip by 296 students in Grades 9 through 11 in high schools in Israel. The study combined qualitative and quantitative research methods. Data were collected from three different sources (student, teacher, and outside observer) in three stages (before, after, and during the field trip). Using observations and questionnaires we investigated: a) the nature of student learning during the field trip, b) student attitudes toward the field trip, and c) changes in student knowledge and attitudes after the field trip. Our findings suggest that the educational effectiveness of a field trip is controlled by two major factors: the field trip quality and the Novelty space (or Familiarity Index). The educational quality of a field trip is determined by its structure, learning materials, and teaching method, and the ability to direct learning to a concrete interaction with the environment. The novelty space consists of three prefield variables: cognitive, psychological, and geographic. The learning performance of students whose Novelty Space was reduced before the field trip was significantly higher than that of students whose Novelty Space had not been so reduced. Thus, the former group gained significantly higher achievement and attitude levels. It is suggested that a field trip should occur early in the concrete part of the curriculum, and should be preceded by a relatively short preparatory unit that focuses on increasing familiarity with the learning setting of the field trip, thereby limiting the Novelty Space factors.Received: 23 March 1993; Revised: 24 January 1994;

  6. A Virtual Field Trip to the Gemini Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R. Scott; Michaud, P. D.

    2010-01-01

    Live from Gemini (LfG) is a virtual field trip using video conferencing technology to connect primary, secondary and post-secondary students with scientists and educators at the Gemini Observatory. As a pilot project, LfG is rapidly becoming one of the observatory's most often-requested educational programs for learners of all ages. The program aligns exceptionally well with national science (and technology) standards, as well as existing school curricula. This combination makes it easy for teachers to justify participation in the program, especially as the necessary video conferencing technology becomes ever more ubiquitous in classrooms and technology learning centers around the world. In developing and testing this pilot project, a programmatic approach and philosophy evolved that includes post-field-trip educational materials, multi-disciplinary subject matter (astronomy, geology, mathematics, meteorology, engineering and even language - the program is offered in Spanish from Gemini South in Chile), and the establishment of a personal connection and rapport with students. The presenters work to create a comfortable interaction despite the perceived technological barriers. The authors’ experiences with the LfG pilot project convince us that this model is viable for almost any astronomical observatory and should be considered by any dynamic, technology- and education-oriented facility.

  7. Effective Lesson Planning: Field Trips in the Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, C. R.

    2010-10-01

    Science field trips can positively impact and motivate students. However, if a field trip is not executed properly, with appropriate preparation and follow-up reinforcement, it can result in a loss of valuable educational time and promote misconceptions in the students. This study was undertaken to determine if a classroom lesson before an out-of-the-classroom activity would affect learner gain more or less than a lesson after the activity. The study was based on the immersive theater movie ``Earth's Wild Ride'' coupled with a teacher-led Power Point lesson. The participants in the study were students in a sixth grade physical science class. The order of lessons showed no detectable effect on final learner outcomes. Based on pre- and post-testing, improvement in mean learning gain came from the teacher-led lesson independent of the movie. The visit to the immersive theater, however, had significant positive effects that did not show up in the quantitative results of the testing.

  8. Field trips and their effect on student achievement in and attitudes toward science: A comparison of a physical versus a virtual field trip to the Indian River Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Lesley Cochran

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of physical and virtual field trips on students' achievement in estuarine ecology and their attitudes toward science. The study also assessed the effect of students' learning styles, the interaction between group membership and learning styles, and the effect of group membership on students' ability to answer questions at different levels of Bloom's (1956) taxonomy. Working with a convenient sample of 67 freshmen and sophomore non-science majors, students were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (physical, n = 32 and virtual, n = 35). Prior to treatment, students' learning styles were determined, students were pre-assessed on the two targeted measures, and all students attended four consecutive, in-class, 75-minute lectures on estuarine ecology and the Indian River Lagoon (IRL). Pre-assessed data indicated no significant differences between the groups on the two dependent measures. On the weekend following the lecture series, the physical field trip group engaged in a set of predetermined activities at the IRL for 2 hours in the morning. Later that afternoon, the virtual field trip group participated in a 2-hour virtual trip to the IRL that exactly matched the physical field trip activities. This virtual trip incorporated the CD-ROM The Living Lagoon: An Electronic Field Trip. Following each trip, students were post-assessed using the same pre-assessment instruments. MANCOVA results indicated no significant differences on all research factors (i.e., group membership, learning style, and group-learning style interaction). Data analysis also revealed that there was no significant effect of group membership on students' ability to answer questions at different levels of Bloom's taxonomy. These findings imply that educators can integrate virtual field trips that are structured in the same manner as their corresponding physical field trips without significantly impacting student achievement or attitudes.

  9. Teachers as Secondary Players: Involvement in Field Trips to Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Nirit Lavie; Tal, Tali

    2017-08-01

    This study focused on field trips to natural environments where the teacher plays a secondary role alongside a professional guide. We investigated teachers' and field trip guides' views of the teacher's role, the teacher's actual function on the field trip, and the relationship between them. We observed field trips, interviewed teachers and guides, and administered questionnaires. We found different levels of teacher involvement, ranging from mainly supervising and giving technical help, to high involvement especially in the cognitive domain and sometimes in the social domain. Analysis of students' self-reported outcomes showed that the more students believe their teachers are involved, the higher the self-reported learning outcomes.

  10. Geologic field-trip guide to Long Valley Caldera, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    2017-07-26

    This guide to the geology of Long Valley Caldera is presented in four parts: (1) An overview of the volcanic geology; (2) a chronological summary of the principal geologic events; (3) a road log with directions and descriptions for 38 field-trip stops; and (4) a summary of the geophysical unrest since 1978 and discussion of its causes. The sequence of stops is arranged as a four-day excursion for the quadrennial General Assembly of the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI), centered in Portland, Oregon, in August 2017. Most stops, however, are written freestanding, with directions that allow each one to be visited independently, in any order selected.

  11. Wolves Are Beautiful and Proud: Science Learning from a School Field Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Marilyn Petty; Samarapungavan, Ala

    2008-01-01

    This research examines the impact of related classroom activities on fourth grade students' science learning from a school field trip. The current study draws upon research in psychology and education to create an intervention that is designed to enhance what students learn from school science field trips. The intervention comprises a set of…

  12. Current Practices for Providing School Field Trip Meals: Perspectives of School Nutrition Managers and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Jeannie; Vaterlaus Patten, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The Healthy, Hunger Free Kids Act of 2010 extended the requirements for a school food safety program to wherever food is stored, prepared, or served, including meals for field trips. The purpose of this study was to determine what foods are used for field trip meals, how those foods are transported and stored, and what standard…

  13. Student Self-Reported Learning Outcomes of Field Trips: The Pedagogical Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Nirit Lavie; Tal, Tali

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used the classification and regression trees (CART) method to draw relationships between student self-reported learning outcomes in 26 field trips to natural environments and various characteristics of the field trip that include variables associated with preparation and pedagogy. We wished to examine the extent to which the…

  14. Field trip guide to selected outcrops, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-11-17

    The Arbuckle Mountains, named for Brigadier General Matthew Arbuckle, are located in south-central Oklahoma. The formations that comprise the Arbuckle Mountains have been extensively studied for hydrocarbon source rock and reservoir rock characteristics that can be applied to the subsurface in the adjacent Anadarko and Ardmore basins. Numerous reports and guidebooks have been written concerning the Arbuckle Mountains. A few important general publications are provided in the list of selected references. The purpose of this handout is to provide general information on the geology of the Arbuckle Mountains and specific information on the four field trip stops, adapted from the literature. The four stops were at: (1) Sooner Rock and Sand Quarry; (2) Woodford Shale; (3) Hunton Anticline and Hunton Quarry; and (4) Tar Sands of Sulfur Area. As part of this report, two papers are included for more detail: Paleomagnetic dating of basinal fluid migration, base-metal mineralization, and hydrocarbon maturation in the Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma and Laminated black shale-bedded chert cyclicity in the Woodford Formation, southern Oklahoma.

  15. Forest Field Trips among High School Science Teachers in the Southern Piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Shannon M.; Munsell, John F.; Seiler, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Students benefit in many ways by taking field trips to forests. Improved academic performance, increased participation in outdoor recreation, and a better grasp of natural resources management are some of the advantages. However, trips are not easy for teachers to organize and lead. Declining budgets, on-campus schedules, and standards of learning…

  16. Field trip report: Observations made at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Special report No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.A.

    1993-03-01

    A field trip was made to the Yucca Mountain area on December 5-9, 1992 by Jerry Frazier, Don Livingston, Christine Schluter, Russell Harmon, and Carol Hill. Forty-three separate stops were made and 275 lbs. of rocks were collected during the five days of the field trip. Key localities visited were the Bare Mountains, Yucca Mountain, Calico Hills, Busted Butte, Harper Valley, Red Cliff Gulch, Wahmonie Hills, Crater Flat, and Lathrop Wells Cone. This report only describes field observations made by Carol Hill. Drawings are used rather than photographs because cameras were not permitted on the Nevada Test Site during this trip

  17. A Way to Change Learning: Field Trips as a University Pedagogical Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Vásquez Salazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article represents the systematization of different experiences related to educational field trips in higher education taking place between 2005 and 2012 within the Primary Education Division (DEB at Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica. Field trips were used as an educational resource to develop attitudes and aptitudes in students from various education majors. The author proposes pedagogical field trips as a possible strategy to promote innovation in higher education and achieve a positive change in teaching and learning processes. Field trips are presented as a tool that allows students to complete their coursework in a more significant and participative manner being in contact with the educational reality and to become humanized and to reinvent themselves as persons and future teachers.

  18. SafeTrip-21 : Federal ITS field tests to transform the traveler experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    SafeTrip-21 popularized transportation technology by making traffic and transit data available to the public : via websites, smartphone apps, and other electronic media. Federal ITS field tests were carried out between : November 2008 and November 20...

  19. Field trip guide to the Valles Caldera and its geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.E.; Bolivar, S.L.

    1983-12-01

    This field trip guide has been compiled from extensive field trips led at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the past six years. The original version of this guide was designed to augment a workshop on the Valles Caldera for the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP). This workshop was held at Los Alamos, New Mexico, 5-7 October 1982. More stops were added to this guide to display the volcanic and geothermal features at the Valles Caldera. The trip covers about 90 miles (one way) and takes two days to complete; however, those who wish to compress the trip into one day are advised to use the designated stops listed in the Introduction. Valles Caldera and vicinity comprise both one of the most exciting geothermal areas in the United States and one of the best preserved Quaternary caldera complexes in the world.

  20. Exploring the use of Virtual Field Trips with elementary school teachers: A collaborative action research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jeffrey Lance

    This research examines how elementary school teachers, when supported, use Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) to address the curricula in meaningful ways. I conducted a qualitative study with six teachers, in a collaborative action research context over a six month period. The teachers, five males and one female, all taught either grade five or six and utilized Virtual Field Trips within a variety of curricula areas including science, social studies, music and language arts. In addition, the thesis examines resulting integration of technology into the regular classroom program as a product of the utilization of Virtual Field Trips. The process of collaborative action research was applied as a means of personal and professional growth both for the participants and the researcher/facilitator. By the end of the research study, all participants had learned to integrate Virtual Field Trips into their classroom program, albeit with different levels of success and in different curricula areas. The development of attitudes, skills and knowledge for students and teachers alike was fostered through the participation in Virtual Field Trips. A common concern regarding the utilization of Virtual Field Trips was the time spent locating an appropriate site that met curricula expectations. Participation in the collaborative action research process allowed each teacher to grow professionally, personally and socially. Each participant strongly encouraged the utilization of a long term project with a common area of exploration as a means for positive professional development. Implications and recommendations for future research on the utilization of Virtual Field Trips, as well as the viability of collaborative action research to facilitate teacher development are presented.

  1. Collaborative Research: Bringing Problem Solving in the Field into the Classroom: Developing and Assessing Virtual Field Trips for Teaching Sedimentary and Introductory Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Caldwell, M.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal Florida offers a unique setting for the facilitation of learning about a variety of modern sedimentary environments. Despite the conflicting concept of "virtual" and "actual" field trip, and the uncertainties associated with the implementation and effectiveness, virtual trips provide likely the only way to reach a large diversified student population and eliminate travel time and expenses. In addition, with rapidly improving web and visualization technology, field trips can be simulated virtually. It is therefore essential to systematically develop and assess the educational effectiveness of virtual field trips. This project is developing, implementing, and assessing a series of virtual field trips for teaching undergraduate sedimentary geology at a large four-year research university and introductory geology at a large two-year community college. The virtual field trip is based on a four-day actual field trip for a senior level sedimentary geology class. Two versions of the virtual field trip, one for advanced class and one for introductory class, are being produced. The educational outcome of the virtual field trip will be compared to that from actual field trip. This presentation summarizes Year 1 achievements of the three-year project. The filming, editing, and initial production of the virtual field trip have been completed. Formative assessments were conducted by the Coalition for Science Literacy at the University of South Florida. Once tested and refined, the virtual field trips will be disseminated through broadly used web portals and workshops at regional and national meetings.

  2. Bridging contexts and interpretations: Mobile blogging on art museum field trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmyre Pierroux

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study of art museum field trips by high school students, we investigate the ways in which features of different social and mobile technologies, specifically blogs and mobile phones, are able to bridge and support meaning making in young people’s encounters with contemporary art. Empirical material is presented from Gidder, a web-based learning environment with a mobile blogging feature. Through close examination of students’ use of contextual resources and the writing and editing of blog entries, this study contributes a deeper understanding of the ways in which digital technologies may be designed for pedagogical use on museum field trips.

  3. Bridging contexts and interpretations: Mobile blogging on art museum field trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmyre Pierroux

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study of art museum field trips by high school students, we investigate the ways in which features of different social and mobile technologies, specifically blogs and mobile phones, are able to bridge and support meaning making in young people’s encounters with contemporary art. Empirical material is presented from Gidder, a web-based learning environment with a mobile blogging feature. Through close examination of students’ use of contextual resources and the writing and editing of blog entries, this study contributes a deeper understanding of the ways in which digital technologies may be designed for pedagogical use on museum field trips.

  4. Electromagnetic fields in biological systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, James C

    2012-01-01

    "Focusing on exposure, induced fields, and absorbed energy, this volume covers the interaction of electromagnetic fields and waves with biological systems, spanning static fields to terahertz waves...

  5. Field Trip as an Effective Method of Teaching Apiculture/Beekeeping among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja’afar-Furo, M. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Various methods of teaching beekeeping in the very few institutions of higher learning that offer such courses have been studied. This survey attempted to review the numerous methods of instructions applied in achieving better learning outcomes on apiculture in tertiary institutions. Secondary information were mainly used to source for data for the survey. However, interview schedules were conducted to solicit for primary data from the students on their perception on best methodology for learning the subject. Descriptive statistics and percentage score were used to analyse the involvement of institutions in instructing learners, and capture learners’ perception on most preferred teaching methods of the course, respectively. Although findings indicated that a classroom lectures method, a combination of lecture and demonstration methods, field trip method, laboratory method, project methods, among others, existed as pedagogies used for ensuring that learners have had thorough understanding of the subject matter, majority of learners opted for the field trip method of teaching apiculture as the most preferred way of stimulating students toward enhanced learning outcomes. Based on the findings of the study, it’s concluded that a combination of field trip and lecture methods of instruction is the most effective way of teaching beekeeping in tertiary schools. Therefore, institutions and organisations of public and private origins that intend to improve on the knowledge of apiculture among youths and all, should capture field trip and lecture methods in their curricula of learning as the most preferred way of instruction.

  6. FieldTrip: Open source software for advanced analysis of MEG, EEG, and invasive electrophysiological data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostenveld, R.; Fries, P.; Maris, E.G.G.; Schoffelen, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes FieldTrip, an open source software package that we developed for the analysis of MEG, EEG, and other electrophysiological data. The software is implemented as a MATLAB toolbox and includes a complete set of consistent and user-friendly high-level functions that allow

  7. Student Self-Reported Learning Outcomes of Field Trips: The pedagogical impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie Alon, Nirit; Tal, Tali

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we used the classification and regression trees (CART) method to draw relationships between student self-reported learning outcomes in 26 field trips to natural environments and various characteristics of the field trip that include variables associated with preparation and pedagogy. We wished to examine the extent to which the preparation for the field trip, its connection to the school curriculum, and the pedagogies used, affect students' self-reported outcomes in three domains: cognitive, affective, and behavioral; and the extent the students' socioeconomic group and the guide's affiliation affect students' reported learning outcomes. Given that most of the field trips were guide-centered, the most important variable that affected the three domains of outcomes was the guide's storytelling. Other variables that showed relationships with self-reported outcomes were physical activity and making connections to everyday life-all of which we defined as pedagogical variables. We found no significant differences in student self-reported outcomes with respect to their socioeconomic group and the guide's organizational affiliation.

  8. The Role of Science Museum Field Trips in the Primary Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morentin, Maite; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2015-01-01

    School visits and field trips to museums and science centres are considered a powerful learning resource given their recreational and educational potential, but visits need to be integrated into classroom programming to optimize learning. In this study, we have attempted to design and build bridges between what a school needs and what a museum can…

  9. Designing Mobile Learning Environments to Support Teacher-Led Field Trips within Informal Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Donald S.

    2016-01-01

    Mobile devices have become increasingly more visible within classrooms and informal learning spaces. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the impact of mobile learning (m-learning) tools to support student learning during teacher-led field trips. Specifically, the research questions for this study are: (a) What conditions affect student…

  10. Utilizing Geo-Referenced Mobile Game Technology for Universally Accessible Virtual Geology Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursztyn, Natalie; Pederson, Joel; Shelton, Brett; Walker, Andrew; Campbell, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Declining interest and low persistence is well documented among undergraduate students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math in the United States. For geoscience, field trips are important attractors to students, however with high enrollment courses and increasing costs they are becoming rare. We propose in this concept paper that the…

  11. Geologic field-trip guide to Medicine Lake Volcano, northern California, including Lava Beds National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Grove, Timothy L.

    2017-08-17

    Medicine Lake volcano is among the very best places in the United States to see and walk on a variety of well-exposed young lava flows that range in composition from basalt to rhyolite. This field-trip guide to the volcano and to Lava Beds National Monument, which occupies part of the north flank, directs visitors to a wide range of lava flow compositions and volcanic phenomena, many of them well exposed and Holocene in age. The writing of the guide was prompted by a field trip to the California Cascades Arc organized in conjunction with the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) quadrennial meeting in Portland, Oregon, in August of 2017. This report is one of a group of three guides describing the three major volcanic centers of the southern Cascades Volcanic Arc. The guides describing the Mount Shasta and Lassen Volcanic Center parts of the trip share an introduction, written as an overview to the IAVCEI field trip. However, this guide to Medicine Lake volcano has descriptions of many more stops than are included in the 2017 field trip. The 23 stops described here feature a range of compositions and volcanic phenomena. Many other stops are possible and some have been previously described, but these 23 have been selected to highlight the variety of volcanic phenomena at this rear-arc center, the range of compositions, and for the practical reason that they are readily accessible. Open ground cracks, various vent features, tuffs, lava-tube caves, evidence for glaciation, and lava flows that contain inclusions and show visible evidence of compositional zonation are described and visited along the route.

  12. Predicting Individual Trip Destinations With Artificial Potential Fields.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonta, A.; Smit, S.K.; Haasdijk, Evert

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a method to model the intended destination of a subject in real time, based on a trace of position information and prior knowledge of possible destinations. In contrast to most work in this field, it does so without the need for prior analysis of habitual travel patterns. The

  13. Overview for geologic field-trip guides to volcanoes of the Cascades Arc in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffler, L. J. Patrick; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Grove, Timothy L.; Clynne, Michael A.; Christiansen, Robert L.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Ryan-Davis, Juliet

    2017-08-15

    The California Cascades field trip is a loop beginning and ending in Portland, Oregon. The route of day 1 goes eastward across the Cascades just south of Mount Hood, travels south along the east side of the Cascades for an overview of the central Oregon volcanoes (including Three Sisters and Newberry Volcano), and ends at Klamath Falls, Oregon. Day 2 and much of day 3 focus on Medicine Lake Volcano. The latter part of day 3 consists of a drive south across the Pit River into the Hat Creek Valley and then clockwise around Lassen Volcanic Center to the town of Chester, California. Day 4 goes from south to north across Lassen Volcanic Center, ending at Burney, California. Day 5 and the first part of day 6 follow a clockwise route around Mount Shasta. The trip returns to Portland on the latter part of day 6, west of the Cascades through the Klamath Mountains and the Willamette Valley. Each of the three sections of this guidebook addresses one of the major volcanic regions: Lassen Volcanic Center (a volcanic field that spans the volcanic arc), Mount Shasta (a fore-arc stratocone), and Medicine Lake Volcano (a rear-arc, shield-shaped edifice). Each section of the guide provides (1) an overview of the extensive field and laboratory studies, (2) an introduction to the literature, and (3) directions to the most important and accessible field localities. The field-trip sections contain far more stops than can possibly be visited in the actual 6-day 2017 IAVCEI excursion from Portland. We have included extra stops in order to provide a field-trip guide that will have lasting utility for those who may have more time or may want to emphasize one particular volcanic area.

  14. Development of field programmable gate array-based reactor trip functions using systems engineering approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Cheon; Ahmed, Ibrahim [Nuclear Power Plant Engineering, KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Design engineering process for field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based reactor trip functions are developed in this work. The process discussed in this work is based on the systems engineering approach. The overall design process is effectively implemented by combining with design and implementation processes. It transforms its overall development process from traditional V-model to Y-model. This approach gives the benefit of concurrent engineering of design work with software implementation. As a result, it reduces development time and effort. The design engineering process consisted of five activities, which are performed and discussed: needs/systems analysis; requirement analysis; functional analysis; design synthesis; and design verification and validation. Those activities are used to develop FPGA-based reactor bistable trip functions that trigger reactor trip when the process input value exceeds the setpoint. To implement design synthesis effectively, a model-based design technique is implied. The finite-state machine with data path structural modeling technique together with very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language and the Aldec Active-HDL tool are used to design, model, and verify the reactor bistable trip functions for nuclear power plants.

  15. Viability of seeds in food products proposed for field trips in Galapagos

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo, Patricia; Bassantes, Joselyn; Tye, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Seeds of 14 plant species extracted from food products proposed for field trips in Galapagos were tested for viability. Strawberry Fragaria ananasa and Blackberry Rubus glaucus jams (Snob and Gustadina brands) contained no viable seeds. Schullo brand granola contained inviable Sesame Sesamum indicum seed, but Sesame in granolas prepared in Galapagos was viable. Sesame seed in bread was viable but Flax Linum usitatissimum seed in bread was not. Brown Rice Oryza sativa and Sunflower...

  16. Electromagnetic fields in biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, James C

    2016-01-01

    As wireless technology becomes more sophisticated and accessible to more users, the interactions of electromagnetic fields with biological systems have captured the interest not only of the scientific community but also the general public. Unintended or deleterious biological effects of electromagnetic fields and radiation may indicate grounds for health and safety precautions in their use. Spanning static fields to terahertz waves, Electromagnetic Fields in Biological Systems explores the range of consequences these fields have on the human body. With contributions by an array of experts, topics discussed include: Essential interactions and field coupling phenomena, highlighting their importance in research on biological effects and in scientific, industrial, and medical applications Electric field interactions in cells, focusing on ultrashort, pulsed high-intensity fields The effect of exposure to naturally occurring and human-made static, low-frequency, and pulsed magnetic fields in biological systems Dosi...

  17. Leveraging Field Trips in Higher Education for Local Engagement and Impact: An Example from Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riker, J.; Watson, M.; Liu, E. J.; Chigna, G.; Purvis, M.; Naismith, A.

    2016-12-01

    For over ten years, the University of Bristol (U.K.) has run a field trip for masters students in Natural Hazards in the volcanically active areas of southern Guatemala, home to more than 13 million people. This trip has obvious benefits to its participants - it serves as an immersive and formative experience for students studying volcanic hazard, as well as a springboard for the work of the researchers who lead it. Over the years, it has helped to build strong collaborative ties between academic researchers at Bristol and Guatemala's geologic survey (INSIVUMEH) and emergency management agency (CONRED), facilitating the sharing of data, expertise, and monitoring equipment. The students' regular presence has also enabled infrastructure improvements at Fuego Volcano Observatory, which is itself hosted and partly staffed by the residents of Panimache, a small village just a few miles from the volcano's summit. This field trip does raise challenges, however - an influx of foreign students can draw questions from community members for whom the benefits are indirect (i.e., local job creation or infrastructure improvement) or intangible (i.e., incremental contributions to the body of knowledge regarding volcanic hazard). In this presentation, we'll share stories of our experiences of effective community collaboration in Guatemala. In the spirit of discussion, we would also like to explore the opportunities that exist to better utilise this trip, along with the energy and expertise of its participants, to maximise the positive impact on (and resilience of) local communities, particularly those in the small and largely indigenous villages that populate Fuego Volcano's flanks.

  18. Field-trip guide to a volcanic transect of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Dennis; Wolff, John; Harpp, Karen

    2017-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest region of the United States provides world-class and historically important examples of a wide variety of volcanic features. This guide is designed to give a broad overview of the region’s diverse volcanism rather than focusing on the results of detailed studies; the reader should consult the reference list for more detailed information on each of the sites, and we have done our best to recognize previous field trip leaders who have written the pioneering guides. This trip derives from one offered as a component of the joint University of Idaho- Washington State University volcanology class taught from 1995 through 2014, and it borrows in theme from the classic field guide of Johnston and Donnelly-Nolan (1981). For readers interested in using this field guide as an educational tool, we have included an appendix with supplemental references to resources that provide useful background information on relevant topics, as well as a few suggestions for field-based exercises that could be useful when bringing students to these locations in the future. The 4-day trip begins with an examination of lava flow structures of the Columbia River Basalt, enormous lava fields that were emplaced during one of the largest eruptive episodes in Earth’s recent history. On the second day, the trip turns to the High Lava Plains, a bimodal volcanic province that transgressed from southeast to northwest from the Miocene through the Holocene, at the northern margin of the Basin and Range Province. This volcanic field provides excellent examples of welded ignimbrite, silicic lavas and domes, monogenetic basaltic lava fields, and hydrovolcanic features. The third day is devoted to a circumnavigation of Crater Lake, the result of one of the world’s best-documented caldera-forming eruptions. The caldera walls also expose the anatomy of Mount Mazama, a stratovolcano of the Cascade Range. The last day is spent at Newberry Volcano, a back-arc shield volcano topped by a

  19. Field-trip guide to Mount Hood, Oregon, highlighting eruptive history and hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, William E.; Gardner, Cynthia A.

    2017-06-22

    This guidebook describes stops of interest for a geological field trip around Mount Hood volcano. It was developed for the 2017 International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) Scientific Assembly in Portland, Oregon. The intent of this guidebook and accompanying contributions is to provide an overview of Mount Hood, including its chief geologic processes, magmatic system, eruptive history, local tectonics, and hazards, by visiting a variety of readily accessible localities. We also describe coeval, largely monogenetic, volcanoes in the region. Accompanying the field-trip guidebook are separately authored contributions that discuss in detail the Mount Hood magmatic system and its products and behavior (Kent and Koleszar, this volume); Mount Hood earthquakes and their relation to regional tectonics and the volcanic system (Thelen and Moran, this volume); and young surface faults cutting the broader Mount Hood area whose extent has come to light after acquisition of regional light detection and ranging coverage (Madin and others, this volume).The trip makes an approximately 175-mile (280-kilometer) clockwise loop around Mount Hood, starting and ending in Portland. The route heads east on Interstate 84 through the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. The guidebook points out only a few conspicuous features of note in the gorge, but many other guides to the gorge are available. The route continues south on the Mount Hood National Scenic Byway on Oregon Route 35 following Hood River, and returns to Portland on U.S. Highway 26 following Sandy River. The route traverses rocks as old as the early Miocene Eagle Creek Formation and overlying Columbia River Basalt Group of middle Miocene age, but chiefly lava flows and clastic products of arc volcanism of late Miocene to Holocene age.

  20. Enhancing Geologic Education in Grades 5-12: Creating Virtual Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitek, J. D.; Gamache, K. R.; Giardino, J. R.; Schroeder, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    New tools of technology enhance and facilitate the ability to bring the "field experience" into the classroom as part of the effort necessary to turn students onto the geosciences. The real key is high-speed computers and high-definition cameras with which to capture visual images. Still and movie data are easily obtained as are large and small-scale images from space, available through "Google Earth°". GPS information provides accurate location data to enhance mapping efforts. One no longer needs to rely on commercial ventures to show students any aspect of the "real" world. The virtual world is a viable replacement. The new cost-effective tools mean everyone can be a producer of information critical to understanding Earth. During the last four summers (2008-2011), Texas teachers have participated in G-Camp, an effort to instill geologic and geomorphic knowledge such that the information will make its way into classrooms. Teachers have acquired thousands of images and developed concepts that are being used to enhance their ability to promote geology in their classrooms. Texas will soon require four years of science at the high-school level, and we believe that geology or Earth science needs to be elevated to the required level of biology, chemistry and physics. Teachers need to be trained and methodology developed that is exciting to students. After all, everyone on Earth needs to be aware of the hazardous nature of geologic events not just to pass an exam, but for a lifetime. We use a video, which is a composite of our ventures, to show how data collected during these trips can be used in the classroom. . Social media, Facebook°, blogs, and email facilitate sharing information such that everyone can learn from each other about the best way to do things. New tools of technology are taking their place in every classroom to take advantage of the skills students bring to the learning environment. Besides many of these approaches are common to video gaming, and

  1. TRIPping Constructivism

    OpenAIRE

    Zarakol, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    The Teaching, Research, and International Policy (TRIP) surveys have become the authoritative source for making sense of the discipline of inter- national relations (IR) as a global field of practice. At relatively regular intervals they provide snap-shots of the discipline based on the self-reporting of IR schol- ars from 20 countries around the world. The TRIP project also includes assessments from “a new journal article database that includes every article published in the field’s 12 leadi...

  2. Field-trip guides to selected volcanoes and volcanic landscapes of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2017-06-23

    The North American Cordillera is home to a greater diversity of volcanic provinces than any comparably sized region in the world. The interplay between changing plate-margin interactions, tectonic complexity, intra-crustal magma differentiation, and mantle melting have resulted in a wealth of volcanic landscapes.  Field trips in this guide book collection (published as USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2017–5022) visit many of these landscapes, including (1) active subduction-related arc volcanoes in the Cascade Range; (2) flood basalts of the Columbia Plateau; (3) bimodal volcanism of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone volcanic system; (4) some of the world’s largest known ignimbrites from southern Utah, central Colorado, and northern Nevada; (5) extension-related volcanism in the Rio Grande Rift and Basin and Range Province; and (6) the eastern Sierra Nevada featuring Long Valley Caldera and the iconic Bishop Tuff.  Some of the field trips focus on volcanic eruptive and emplacement processes, calling attention to the fact that the western United States provides opportunities to examine a wide range of volcanological phenomena at many scales.The 2017 Scientific Assembly of the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) in Portland, Oregon, was the impetus to update field guides for many of the volcanoes in the Cascades Arc, as well as publish new guides for numerous volcanic provinces and features of the North American Cordillera. This collection of guidebooks summarizes decades of advances in understanding of magmatic and tectonic processes of volcanic western North America. These field guides are intended for future generations of scientists and the general public as introductions to these fascinating areas; the hope is that the general public will be enticed toward further exploration and that scientists will pursue further field-based research.

  3. Immersive Virtual Reality Field Trips in the Geosciences: Integrating Geodetic Data in Undergraduate Geoscience Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Femina, P. C.; Klippel, A.; Zhao, J.; Walgruen, J. O.; Stubbs, C.; Jackson, K. L.; Wetzel, R.

    2017-12-01

    High-quality geodetic data and data products, including GPS-GNSS, InSAR, LiDAR, and Structure from Motion (SfM) are opening the doors to visualizing, quantifying, and modeling geologic, tectonic, geomorphic, and geodynamic processes. The integration of these data sets with other geophysical, geochemical and geologic data is providing opportunities for the development of immersive Virtual Reality (iVR) field trips in the geosciences. iVR fieldtrips increase accessibility in the geosciences, by providing experiences that allow for: 1) exploration of field locations that might not be tenable for introductory or majors courses; 2) accessibility to outcrops for students with physical disabilities; and 3) the development of online geosciences courses. We have developed a workflow for producing iVR fieldtrips and tools to make quantitative observations (e.g., distance, area, and volume) within the iVR environment. We use a combination of terrestrial LiDAR and SfM data, 360° photos and videos, and other geophysical, geochemical and geologic data to develop realistic experiences for students to be exposed to the geosciences from sedimentary geology to physical volcanology. We present two of our iVR field trips: 1) Inside the Volcano: Exploring monogenetic volcanism at Thrihnukagigar Iceland; and 2) Changes in Depositional Environment in a Sedimentary Sequence: The Reedsville and Bald Eagle Formations, Pennsylvania. The Thrihnukagigar experience provides the opportunity to investigate monogenetic volcanism through the exploration of the upper 125 m of a fissure-cinder cone eruptive system. Students start at the plate boundary scale, then zoom into a single volcano where they can view the 3D geometry from either terrestrial LiDAR or SfM point clouds, view geochemical data and petrologic thins sections of rock samples, and a presentation of data collection and analysis, results and interpretation. Our sedimentary geology experience is based on a field lab from our

  4. Geologic field-trip guide to Mount Shasta Volcano, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Robert L.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Grove, Timothy L.

    2017-08-18

    The southern part of the Cascades Arc formed in two distinct, extended periods of activity: “High Cascades” volcanoes erupted during about the past 6 million years and were built on a wider platform of Tertiary volcanoes and shallow plutons as old as about 30 Ma, generally called the “Western Cascades.” For the most part, the Shasta segment (for example, Hildreth, 2007; segment 4 of Guffanti and Weaver, 1988) of the arc forms a distinct, fairly narrow axis of short-lived small- to moderate-sized High Cascades volcanoes that erupted lavas, mainly of basaltic-andesite or low-silica-andesite compositions. Western Cascades rocks crop out only sparsely in the Shasta segment; almost all of the following descriptions are of High Cascades features except for a few unusual localities where older, Western Cascades rocks are exposed to view along the route of the field trip.The High Cascades arc axis in this segment of the arc is mainly a relatively narrow band of either monogenetic or short-lived shield volcanoes. The belt generally averages about 15 km wide and traverses the length of the Shasta segment, roughly 100 km between about the Klamath River drainage on the north, near the Oregon-California border, and the McCloud River drainage on the south (fig. 1). Superposed across this axis are two major long-lived stratovolcanoes and the large rear-arc Medicine Lake volcano. One of the stratovolcanoes, the Rainbow Mountain volcano of about 1.5–0.8 Ma, straddles the arc near the midpoint of the Shasta segment. The other, Mount Shasta itself, which ranges from about 700 ka to 0 ka, lies distinctly west of the High Cascades axis. It is notable that Mount Shasta and Medicine Lake volcanoes, although volcanologically and petrologically quite different, span about the same range of ages and bracket the High Cascades axis on the west and east, respectively.The field trip begins near the southern end of the Shasta segment, where the Lassen Volcanic Center field trip leaves

  5. Flow field and thermal characteristics in a model of a tangentially fired furnace under different conditions of burner tripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, M. A.; Ben-Mansour, R.; Antar, M. A.

    2005-08-01

    Tangentially fired furnaces are vortex-combustion units and are widely used in steam generators of industrial plants. The present study provides a numerical investigation of the problem of turbulent reacting flows in a model furnace of a tangentially fired boiler. The importance of this problem is mainly due to its relation to large boiler furnaces used in thermal power plants. In the present work, calculation of the flow field, temperature and species concentration-contour maps in a tangentially-fired model furnace are provided. The safety of these furnaces requires that the burner be tripped (its fuel is cut off) if the flame is extinguished. Therefore, the present work provides an investigation of the influence of number of tripped burners on the characteristics of the flow and thermal fields. The details of the flow, thermal and combustion fields are obtained from the solution of the conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy and transport equations for scalar variables in addition to the equations of the turbulence model. Available experimental measurements were used for validating the calculation procedure. The results show that the vortex created due to pressure gradient at the furnace center only influenced by tripping at least two burners. However, the temperature distributions are significantly distorted by tripping any of the burners. Regions of very high temperature close to the furnace walls appear as a result of tripping the fuel in one or two of the burners. Calculated heat flux along the furnace walls are presented.

  6. FieldTrip: Open Source Software for Advanced Analysis of MEG, EEG, and Invasive Electrophysiological Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oostenveld

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes FieldTrip, an open source software package that we developed for the analysis of MEG, EEG, and other electrophysiological data. The software is implemented as a MATLAB toolbox and includes a complete set of consistent and user-friendly high-level functions that allow experimental neuroscientists to analyze experimental data. It includes algorithms for simple and advanced analysis, such as time-frequency analysis using multitapers, source reconstruction using dipoles, distributed sources and beamformers, connectivity analysis, and nonparametric statistical permutation tests at the channel and source level. The implementation as toolbox allows the user to perform elaborate and structured analyses of large data sets using the MATLAB command line and batch scripting. Furthermore, users and developers can easily extend the functionality and implement new algorithms. The modular design facilitates the reuse in other software packages.

  7. Field Trip 5: HYDROGEOLOGY OF BEER AND WINE IN THE YAKIMA VALLEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Bachmann, Matthew P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2011-05-05

    The climate and geology of eastern Washington are ideally suited to the production of hops and wine grapes. Nearly all of Washington’s hop and wine-grape production is located in the lower Yakima River Basin , which is one of the most intensively irrigated areas in the United States. Most of this irrigation water has been supplied by surface water reservoirs and canal systems drawing from the Yakima River. However, increasing demands for water has spurred the increased use of groundwater resources. This field trip guide explores many aspects of the geology and hydrogeology in the lower Yakima River Basin, particularly as they relate to water resources that support the local beer and wine industries.

  8. Field-trip guide to the geologic highlights of Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Robert A.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.

    2017-08-09

    Newberry Volcano and its surrounding lavas cover about 3,000 square kilometers (km2) in central Oregon. This massive, shield-shaped, composite volcano is located in the rear of the Cascades Volcanic Arc, ~60 km east of the Cascade Range crest. The volcano overlaps the northwestern corner of the Basin and Range tectonic province, known locally as the High Lava Plains, and is strongly influenced by the east-west extensional environment. Lava compositions range from basalt to rhyolite. Eruptions began about half a million years ago and built a broad composite edifice that has generated more than one caldera collapse event. At the center of the volcano is the 6- by 8-km caldera, created ~75,000 years ago when a major explosive eruption of compositionally zoned tephra led to caldera collapse, leaving the massive shield shape visible today. The volcano hosts Newberry National Volcanic Monument, which encompasses the caldera and much of the northwest rift zone where mafic eruptions occurred about 7,000 years ago. These young lava flows erupted after the volcano was mantled by the informally named Mazama ash, a blanket of volcanic ash generated by the eruption that created Crater Lake about 7,700 years ago. This field trip guide takes the visitor to a variety of easily accessible geologic sites in Newberry National Volcanic Monument, including the youngest and most spectacular lava flows. The selected sites offer an overview of the geologic story of Newberry Volcano and feature a broad range of lava compositions. Newberry’s most recent eruption took place about 1,300 years ago in the center of the caldera and produced tephra and lava of rhyolitic composition. A significant mafic eruptive event occurred about 7,000 years ago along the northwest rift zone. This event produced lavas ranging in composition from basalt to andesite, which erupted over a distance of 35 km from south of the caldera to Lava Butte where erupted lava flowed west to temporarily block the Deschutes

  9. The Search for Braddock's Caldera-Guidebook for Colorado Scientific Society Fall 2008 Field Trip, Never Summer Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James C.; Larson, Ed; Farmer, Lang; Kellogg, Karl S.

    2008-01-01

    The report contains the illustrated guidebook that was used for the fall field trip of the Colorado Scientific Society on September 6-7, 2008. It summarizes new information about the Tertiary geologic history of the northern Front Range and the Never Summer Mountains, particularly the late Oligocene volcanic and intrusive rocks designated the Braddock Peak complex. Minor modifications were made in response to technical reviews by D.J. Lidke and C.A. Ruleman (U.S. Geological Survey) regarding clarity and consistency, and text editing by M.A. Kidd. However, the text remains essentially similar to the guidebook that was circulated to the participants on the Colorado Scientific Society 2008 field trip. Several notes were added following the trip (as indicated) to address developments since the guidebook was written.

  10. Overview for geologic field-trip guides to Mount Mazama, Crater Lake Caldera, and Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Charles R.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Jensen, Robert A.; Wright, Heather M.

    2017-08-16

    These field-trip guides were written for the occasion of the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) quadrennial scientific assembly in Portland, Oregon, in August 2017. The guide to Mount Mazama and Crater Lake caldera is an updated and expanded version of the guide (Bacon, 1989) for part of an earlier IAVCEI trip to the southern Cascade Range. The guide to Newberry Volcano describes the stops included in the 2017 field trip. Crater Lake and Newberry are the two best-preserved and most recent calderas in the Cascades Volcanic Arc. Although located in different settings in the arc, with Crater Lake on the arc axis and Newberry in the rear-arc, both volcanoes are located at the intersection of the arc and the northwest corner region of the extensional Basin and Range Province.

  11. What are undergraduates doing at biological field stations and marine laboratories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janet Hodder

    2009-01-01

    Biological field stations and marine laboratories (FSMLs) serve as places to study the natural environment in a variety of ways, from the level of the molecule to the globe. Undergraduate opportunities at FSMLs reflect the diversity of study options -- formal courses, research and service internships, and field-trip experiences -- and students are responding to those...

  12. Determining Virtual Environment "Fit": The Relationship between Navigation Style in a Virtual Field Trip, Student Self-Reported Desire to Visit the Field Trip Site in the Real World, and the Purposes of Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutwiler, M. Shane; Lin, Ming-Chao; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a follow-up analysis of the data reported in Lin et al. ("Learn Media Technol." doi: 10.1080/17439884.2011.629660 , 2011), we investigated the relationship between student use of a virtual field trip (VFT) system and the probability of students reporting wanting to visit the national park site upon which the VFT was modeled,…

  13. A Field Trip to the Archaean in Search of Darwin’s Warm Little Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Damer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Charles Darwin’s original intuition that life began in a “warm little pond” has for the last three decades been eclipsed by a focus on marine hydrothermal vents as a venue for abiogenesis. However, thermodynamic barriers to polymerization of key molecular building blocks and the difficulty of forming stable membranous compartments in seawater suggest that Darwin’s original insight should be reconsidered. I will introduce the terrestrial origin of life hypothesis, which combines field observations and laboratory results to provide a novel and testable model in which life begins as protocells assembling in inland fresh water hydrothermal fields. Hydrothermal fields are associated with volcanic landmasses resembling Hawaii and Iceland today and could plausibly have existed on similar land masses rising out of Earth’s first oceans. I will report on a field trip to the living and ancient stromatolite fossil localities of Western Australia, which provided key insights into how life may have emerged in Archaean, fluctuating fresh water hydrothermal pools, geological evidence for which has recently been discovered. Laboratory experimentation and fieldwork are providing mounting evidence that such sites have properties that are conducive to polymerization reactions and generation of membrane-bounded protocells. I will build on the previously developed coupled phases scenario, unifying the chemical and geological frameworks and proposing that a hydrogel of stable, communally supported protocells will emerge as a candidate Woese progenote, the distant common ancestor of microbial communities so abundant in the earliest fossil record.

  14. Contributing to Sustainability Education of East Asian University Students through a Field Trip Experience: A Social-Ecological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Kyung Yoon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the effects of a field trip environmental education program with a social-ecological perspective on the experience and learning of university students from China, Japan, South Korea and Vietnam. The students visited Jeju Island, the Saemangeum Sea Dike, the Demilitarized Zone and Seoul, South Korea. Their experiences and learning about social-ecological interactions were analyzed using the new environmental paradigm test, an evaluation questionnaire, group presentations and individual reports. Across demographic characteristics, the participants believed the program fairly presented the concept of social-ecological systems. Some developed new ideas of social-ecological systems through interpreting, transforming and contextualizing their field trip experience based on prior knowledge bases; others compared the sites to case studies. They preferred the sites where social-ecological issues were clearly presented by well-preserved landscapes, successful environmental management or environmental conflict. The results show the need for an advanced multi-dimensional methodology to evaluate students’ learning through constructive processes. The program design of this study from planning to field trip and evaluation, the field site design in which regional site resources were organized in a social-ecological context and the analysis of participants’ learning and experiences could contribute to attempts to couple the social-ecological perspective with the practice of sustainability and environmental education in field trip design.

  15. A brave new world: considering the pedagogic potential of Virtual World Field Trips (VWFTs in initial teacher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzsimons Sabrina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In its broadest and historical sense, place-based education refers to education that occurs outside of the physical boundaries of a school building (Dewey 1910; Sobel 1996; Theobald 1997; Woodhouse and Knapp 2000. Place-based education, colloquially referred to as the ‘field trip’, is predominantly considered a pedagogic tool of the sciences. It involves a physical movement from the school-based location to a place of interest, for example, a geography field trip to an ecological landscape or science visit to a local museum. This paper considers the use of virtual world field trips (VWFTs within the context of a pre-service Teacher Education programme. The paper presents data from one undergraduate module offered on a programme of initial teacher education. The paper identifies three significant elements of virtual world field trips: place, people and content. First, the virtual world can provide access to places not possible in the offline context as a result of geographic, economic or religious factors. Second, exposure to and dialogue with a variety of world views can challenge students’ assumptions, facilitate reflection and provide an opportunity for oneto-one teaching encounters. Third, from a teacher educator perspective, engagement in virtual world field trips can provide a space for teachers to model teaching methodologies and model creative learning techniques, thus providing student teachers with an insight into different approaches to teaching.

  16. An Elementary School Environmental Education Field Trip: Long-Term Effects on Ecological and Environmental Knowledge and Attitude Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, James; Knapp, Doug; Benton, Gregory M.

    2007-01-01

    Using phenomenological analysis, the authors examined the long-term effects of an environmental education school field trip on fourth grade elementary students who visited Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The authors' findings suggest that one year after the experience, many students remembered what they had seen and heard and had developed a…

  17. A Brave New World: Considering the Pedagogic Potential of Virtual World Field Trips (VWFTs) in Initial Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Sabrina; Farren, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    In its broadest and historical sense, place-based education refers to education that occurs outside of the physical boundaries of a school building (Dewey 1910; Sobel 1996; Theobald 1997; Woodhouse and Knapp 2000). Place-based education, colloquially referred to as the "field trip", is predominantly considered a pedagogic tool of the…

  18. Bridging the Field Trip Gap: Integrating Web-Based Video as a Teaching and Learning Partner in Interior Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehl, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This study utilizes web-based video as a strategy to transfer knowledge about the interior design industry in a format that interests the current generation of students. The model of instruction developed is based upon online video as an engaging, economical, and time-saving alternative to a field trip, guest speaker, or video teleconference.…

  19. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, E.

    1993-01-01

    In this generally intelligible article, the author describes at first the physical fundamentals of electromagnetic fields and their basic biological significance and effects for animals and human beings before dealing with the discussion regarding limiting values and dangers. The article treats possible connections with leukaemia as well as ith melatonine production more detailed. (vhe) [de

  20. Geologic field-trip guide to the volcanic and hydrothermal landscape of the Yellowstone Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Morzel, Lisa Ann; Shanks, W. C. Pat; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Farrell, Jamie M.; Robinson, Joel E.

    2017-11-20

    Yellowstone National Park, a nearly 9,000 km2 (~3,468 mi2) area, was preserved in 1872 as the world’s first national park for its unique, extraordinary, and magnificent natural features. Rimmed by a crescent of older mountainous terrain, Yellowstone National Park has at its core the Quaternary Yellowstone Plateau, an undulating landscape shaped by forces of late Cenozoic explosive and effusive volcanism, on-going tectonism, glaciation, and hydrothermal activity. The Yellowstone Caldera is the centerpiece of the Yellowstone Plateau. The Yellowstone Plateau lies at the most northeastern front of the 17-Ma Yellowstone hot spot track, one of the few places on Earth where time-transgressive processes on continental crust can be observed in the volcanic and tectonic (faulting and uplift) record at the rate and direction predicted by plate motion. Over six days, this field trip presents an intensive overview into volcanism, tectonism, and hydrothermal activity on the Yellowstone Plateau (fig. 1). Field stops are linked directly to conceptual models related to monitoring of the various volcanic, geochemical, hydrothermal, and tectonic aspects of the greater Yellowstone system. Recent interest in young and possible future volcanism at Yellowstone as well as new discoveries and synthesis of previous studies, (for example, tomographic, deformation, gas, aeromagnetic, bathymetric, and seismic surveys), provide a framework in which to discuss volcanic, hydrothermal, and seismic activity in this dynamic region.

  1. A brave new world: considering the pedagogic potential of Virtual World Field Trips (VWFTs) in initial teacher education

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzsimons Sabrina; Farren Margaret

    2016-01-01

    In its broadest and historical sense, place-based education refers to education that occurs outside of the physical boundaries of a school building (Dewey 1910; Sobel 1996; Theobald 1997; Woodhouse and Knapp 2000). Place-based education, colloquially referred to as the ‘field trip’, is predominantly considered a pedagogic tool of the sciences. It involves a physical movement from the school-based location to a place of interest, for example, a geography field trip to an ecological landscape o...

  2. Science field trips to nuclear power plants - A low capital cost program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, E.N.; Gabel, C.; Sayles, C.

    1991-01-01

    School science field trips to nuclear power plants can be quite rewarding to both students and teachers if the right material is used from a perspective different from the textbooks. One does not need a large, expensive facility to have a program useful to students that addresses adult issues understandably. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station hosted ∼110 visits (simulator tours) averaging 2,700 visitors in each of calendar years 1989 and 1990 after averaging 75 visits in each of the five preceding years. Most audiences were from middle schools located within a 50-mile radius. The station does not have a separate visitor's center; a classroom is reserved at the station's training and education center. The advantage is using real working laboratories; the disadvantage is not having the more traditional displays and interactive models. Therefore, the instructor emphasizes showing the integrated engineering applications of chemistry, physics, and geology - rather than repeating material that is more easily taught in the school's classroom. Generic issues are emphasized rather than the design details of the plant systems

  3. Virtual field trips as physically active lessons for children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Emma; Shelton, Nicola; Dunsmuir, Sandra; Duke-Williams, Oliver; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2015-04-11

    The modern classroom is an inherently sedentary environment. Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) using interactive whiteboards to explore virtual scenes are a potential method of converting sedentary class-time into physically active teaching. This pilot aimed to assess the effects of a developed VFT on physical activity and learning in primary-school children. Participants (n = 85) were randomly assigned to a) a 30-minute physically active London 2012 Olympics-themed VFT, or b) a 30-minute sedentary version of the same VFT. Activity was measured using GT1M Actigraphs, content recall was assessed with a quiz and user evaluations were gained from teacher and pupil questionnaires. Pupils in the active VFT displayed significantly less sedentary time (p < 0.001), and significantly more light (p < 0.001), moderate (p = 0.01) and vigorous physical activity (p < 0.001) than sedentary VFT pupils. No differences in content recall were found between intervention groups: suggesting that adding physical activity into classroom teaching may not compromise attainment. High acceptability was found in teachers and active VFT students rated their session significantly higher than sedentary pupils (p < 0.002). This one-day pilot provides early evidence of the ability of VFTs to convert sedentary academic time into active time. Longitudinal research is needed to assess prolonged effects of active VFTs in reducing sedentary time.

  4. International short-term medical service trips: guidelines from the literature and perspectives from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Erica; Doocy, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    The increasing interest in practising medicine overseas has outpaced research conducted to evaluate its effectiveness and the development of guidelines from evidence-based best practices. Short-term medical teams regularly travel to provide medical care, yet there is little research on the impact or practices of these missions. This study assessed current practices and challenges of short-term medical service teams, using questionnaire-based interviews of 40 participants in recent medical service trips. Study results and a review of recommendations in peer-reviewed journals were used to develop guidelines for international short-term medical trips in relation to mission, collaboration, education and capacity building, provider qualifications, appropriate donations, and cultural sensitivity and understanding. Guidelines that inform models, approaches, best practices and minimum standards for short-term medical service trips should be adopted so that improved and sustainable outcomes can be consistently achieved.

  5. iVFTs - immersive virtual field trips for interactive learning about Earth's environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, G.; Anbar, A. D.; Semken, S. C.; Summons, R. E.; Oliver, C.; Buxner, S.

    2014-12-01

    Innovations in immersive interactive technologies are changing the way students explore Earth and its environment. State-of-the-art hardware has given developers the tools needed to capture high-resolution spherical content, 360° panoramic video, giga-pixel imagery, and unique viewpoints via unmanned aerial vehicles as they explore remote and physically challenging regions of our planet. Advanced software enables integration of these data into seamless, dynamic, immersive, interactive, content-rich, and learner-driven virtual field explorations, experienced online via HTML5. These surpass conventional online exercises that use 2-D static imagery and enable the student to engage in these virtual environments that are more like games than like lectures. Grounded in the active learning of exploration, inquiry, and application of knowledge as it is acquired, users interact non-linearly in conjunction with an intelligent tutoring system (ITS). The integration of this system allows the educational experience to be adapted to each individual student as they interact within the program. Such explorations, which we term "immersive virtual field trips" (iVFTs), are being integrated into cyber-learning allowing science teachers to take students to scientifically significant but inaccessible environments. Our team and collaborators are producing a diverse suite of freely accessible, iVFTs to teach key concepts in geology, astrobiology, ecology, and anthropology. Topics include Early Life, Biodiversity, Impact craters, Photosynthesis, Geologic Time, Stratigraphy, Tectonics, Volcanism, Surface Processes, The Rise of Oxygen, Origin of Water, Early Civilizations, Early Multicellular Organisms, and Bioarcheology. These diverse topics allow students to experience field sites all over the world, including, Grand Canyon (USA), Flinders Ranges (Australia), Shark Bay (Australia), Rainforests (Panama), Teotihuacan (Mexico), Upheaval Dome (USA), Pilbara (Australia), Mid-Atlantic Ridge

  6. Urban Environmental Excursions: Designing field trips to demonstrate sustainable connections between natural and engineered systems in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, L. D.

    2012-12-01

    Field trips are a proven and effective instructional tool to connect students with the world around them. In most communities, opportunities abound to allow students to make connections between concepts introduced in classroom or lab activities and the urban environment that surrounds them. Potential destinations include solid and liquid waste disposal sites, brownfield redevelopment sites, hazardous waste sites, industrial complexes, or sites with ongoing environmental restoration efforts. Each of these locations presents opportunities to explore sustainable aspects of anthropogenic activities in relation to the natural systems that they seek to modify or exploit. Early planning is essential, however, because it can sometimes take several months lead time to arrange for a large group tour of industrial or municipal sites. Several practices may be employed to design effective learning experiences for students when visiting such sites. These include: 1) choose local sites to keep trips relevant and practical; 2) balance sites of environmental concern with those where significant progress is being made in environmental restoration or stewardship; 3) connect sites with a pertinent theme (e.g., air quality, water quality, economic development, environmental justice, etc.); 4) develop a sense of location among student participants by providing a map showing the relationship between campus and the field sites; 5) prepare a guidebook containing one-page descriptions of each stop along with a list of questions to stimulate discussion and promote active engagement among all participants; 6) employ expert guides to maximize students' access to authoritative information; 7) tie each field experience to your curriculum; and 8) model active learning by asking genuine questions and engaging in open discussions with experts and student participants. In this presentation, urban field trip design will be illustrated with examples from trips run in conjunction with freshman

  7. Educating the Public about Meteorites and Impacts through Virtual Field Trips and Classroom Experience Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Teresa; Hines, R.; Minitti, M.; Taylor, W.; Morris, M. A.; Wadhwa, M.

    2014-01-01

    With specimens representing over 2,000 individual meteorites, the Center for Meteorite Studies (CMS) at Arizona State University (ASU) is home to the world's largest university-based meteorite collection. As part of our mission to provide educational opportunities that expand awareness and understanding of the science of meteoritics, CMS continues to develop new ways to engage the public in meteorite and space science, including the opening of a new Meteorite Gallery, and expansion of online resources through upgrades to the CMS website, meteorites.asu.edu. In 2008, CMS was the recipient of a philanthropic grant to improve online education tools and develop loanable modules for educators. These modules focus on the origin of meteorites, and contain actual meteorite specimens, media resources, a user guide, and lesson plans, as well as a series of engaging activities that utilize hands-on materials geared to help students develop logical thinking, analytical skills, and proficiency in STEM disciplines. In 2010, in partnership with the ASU NASA Astrobiology Institute team, CMS obtained a NASA EPOESS grant to develop Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) complemented by loanable “Experience Boxes” containing lesson plans, media, and hands-on objects related to the VFT sites. One VFT-Box pair focuses on the record of the oldest multicellular organisms on Earth. The second VFT-Box pair focuses on the Upheaval Dome (UD) structure, a meteorite impact crater in Utah’s Canyonlands National Park. UD is widely accepted as the deeply eroded remnant of a ~5 kilometer impact crater (e.g. Kriens et al., 1999). The alternate hypothesis that the Dome was formed by the upwelling of salt from a deposit underlying the region (e.g. Jackson et al., 1998) makes UD an ideal site to learn not only about specific scientific principles present in the Next Generation Science Standards, but also the process of scientific inquiry. The VFTs are located on an interactive website dedicated to VFTs, vft

  8. Grand Canyon as a universally accessible virtual field trip for intro Geoscience classes using geo-referenced mobile game technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursztyn, N.; Pederson, J. L.; Shelton, B.

    2012-12-01

    There is a well-documented and nationally reported trend of declining interest, poor preparedness, and lack of diversity within U.S. students pursuing geoscience and other STEM disciplines. We suggest that a primary contributing factor to this problem is that introductory geoscience courses simply fail to inspire (i.e. they are boring). Our experience leads us to believe that the hands-on, contextualized learning of field excursions are often the most impactful component of lower division geoscience classes. However, field trips are becoming increasingly more difficult to run due to logistics and liability, high-enrollments, decreasing financial and administrative support, and exclusivity of the physically disabled. Recent research suggests that virtual field trips can be used to simulate this contextualized physical learning through the use of mobile devices - technology that exists in most students' hands already. Our overarching goal is to enhance interest in introductory geoscience courses by providing the kinetic and physical learning experience of field trips through geo-referenced educational mobile games and test the hypothesis that these experiences can be effectively simulated through virtual field trips. We are doing this by developing "serious" games for mobile devices that deliver introductory geology material in a fun and interactive manner. Our new teaching strategy will enhance undergraduate student learning in the geosciences, be accessible to students of diverse backgrounds and physical abilities, and be easily incorporated into higher education programs and curricula at institutions globally. Our prototype involves students virtually navigating downstream along a scaled down Colorado River through Grand Canyon - physically moving around their campus quad, football field or other real location, using their smart phone or a tablet. As students reach the next designated location, a photo or video in Grand Canyon appears along with a geological

  9. Students’ Digital Photography Behaviors during a Multiday Environmental Science Field Trip and Their Recollections of Photographed Science Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor R. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking photographs to document the experiences of an educational field trip is becoming a common activity for teachers and students alike. Considering the regular creation of photographic artifacts, our goal in this paper is to explore students’ picture taking behavior and their recollections of science content associated with their photographs. In this study, we partnered with a class of fifth-grade students in the United States and provided each student with a digital camera to document their experiences during an environmental science field trip at a national park. We report the frequency of photography behaviors according to which activities were most often documented by the students and specifically that students tended to document more of their experiences when they were in outdoor, natural spaces rather than inside of visitor centers or museums. Also, through an analysis of students’ comments about the science content captured in their photographs we observe that students’ comments about photographs of the outdoors tended to show greater depth and complexity than those that were taken in indoor, museum-like spaces.

  10. Field trip guide to selected studies of the Southwest Mineral and Environmental Investigations Project in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, B.B.; Gettings, M.E.; Bultman, M.W.; Gray, Floyd; Caruthers, K.R.; Hirschberg, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Southwest Mineral and Environmental Investigations Project is designed to address issues raised by rapid urban development in the basins of the southwestern U.S. These issues require objective geoscientific data that can be used by land managers and stakeholders to develop informed land and water use strategies. The project integrates new and existing geologic, geophysical, and geochemical data, and imagery to provide three-dimensional visualizations of the basins of southeastern Arizona. Emphasis is on developing better knowledge of the aquifer systems of both the basins and the ranges, on acquiring background and baseline information, and on determining the distribution of metals related to mineralization and the fate of these metals in surface and subsurface environments. The products of the project will be used in resolving issues of water quality and quantity, in understanding environmental impacts such as riparian ecosystem maintenace, and in evaluating mineral resources beneath and within the basins. The field trip highlights three topics and areas (figs. 1 and 2): (1) geology and geophysics of the upper San Pedro and upper Santa Cruz basins (M.E. Gettings, M. W. Bultman, and B.B. Houser), (2) geology, geophysics, and mineral resource potential of the San Rafael basin (M.W. Bultman), and (3) hydrology and aqueous geochemistry of the Red Mountain and Sonoita Creek drainage system (Floyd Gray). The trip guide, which begins and ends in Tucson, Arizona, also includes commentary on the cultural and mining history of the area.

  11. Bringing Grand Canyon to the College Campus: Assessment of Student Learning in the Geosciences Through Virtual Field Trip Games for Mobile Smart-Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursztyn, N.; Walker, A.; Shelton, B.; Pederson, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscience educators have long considered field trips to be the most effective way of attracting students into the discipline. A solution for bringing student-driven, engaging, kinesthetic field experiences to a broader audience lies in ongoing advances in mobile-communication technology. This NSF-TUES funded project developed three virtual field trip experiences for smartphones and tablets (on geologic time, geologic structures, and hydrologic processes), and then tested their performance in terms of student interest in geoscience as well as gains in learning. The virtual field trips utilize the GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablets, requiring the students to navigate outdoors in the real world while following a map on their smart device. This research, involving 873 students at five different college campuses, used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and multiple regression for statistical methods. Gains in learning across all participants are minor, and not statistically different between intervention and control groups. Predictors of gains in content comprehension for all three modules are the students' initial interest in the subject and their base level knowledge. For the Geologic Time and Structures modules, being a STEM major is an important predictor of student success. Most pertinent for this research, for Geologic Time and Hydrologic Processes, gains in student learning can be predicted by having completed those particular virtual field trips. Gender and race had no statistical impact, indicating that the virtual field trip modules have broad reach across student demographics. In related research, these modules have been shown to increase student interest in the geosciences more definitively than the learning gains here. Thus, future work should focus on improving the educational impact of mobile-device field trips, as their eventual incorporation into curricula is inevitable.

  12. The Effects of In-Nature and Virtual-Nature Field Trip Experiences On Proenvironmental Attitudes and Behaviors, And Environmental Knowledge Of Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferderbar, Catherine A.

    To develop sustainable solutions to remediate the complex ecological problems of earth's soil, water, and air degradation requires the talents and skills of knowledgeable, motivated people (UNESCO, 1977; UNESCO, 2010). Researchers historically emphasized that time spent in outdoor, nature activities (Wells & Lekies, 2006), particularly with an adult mentor (Chawla & Cushing, 2007), promotes environmental knowledge and nature-relatedness, precursors to environmental literacy. Research has also demonstrated that technology is integral to the lives of youth, who spend 7:38 hours daily (Rideout, et al., 2010), engaged in electronics. Educators would benefit from knowing if in-nature and virtual-nature field trip experiences provide comparable levels of knowledge and connectedness, to nurture student proenvironmentalism. To investigate field trip phenomena, the researcher studied the impact of virtual-nature and in-nature experiences during which students analyzed water quality along Midwestern rivers. The quasi-experimental, mixed method convergent parallel design with a purposeful sample (n=131) of middle school students from two Midwestern K-8 schools, utilized scientist participant observer field records and narrative response, written assessment aligned to field trip content to evaluate knowledge acquisition. To gain insight into student environmental dispositions, participant observers recorded student comments and behaviors throughout field trips. A survey, administered Pre-Treatment, Post-Treatment 1 and Post-Treatment 2, focused on family water-related behaviors and student perceptions of the need for local government water protection. The findings demonstrated both field trips increased content knowledge significantly, with large effect size. Content knowledge gain from one experience transferred to and was augmented by the second experience. Skill gain (technical and observational) varied by type of field trip and did not transfer. Technical skill was often

  13. Integrating geoscience and Native American experiences through a multi-state geoscience field trip for high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, P. R.; Brown, L. M.; Spencer, M.; Sabatine, S.; Goetz, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    experiences led by Lake Superior State University professors, K-12 earth science teachers, local science experts (most with tribal affiliation), and local Native American leaders. Student selection is based on an application that includes academic background and performance, a personal essay, and teacher and counselor references. All of the students invited to be part of the GRANITE program participated in the summer field excursion. The GRANITE summer field trip was structured to address over 50% of Michigan's high school geology standards. Each student's geoscience knowledge and interest is assessed through questionnaires administered pre- and post the summer field experience. Also, student feedback is gathered during the GRANITE field trip and more than six months post field trip. Students recorded field observations and discussion in their field books which they used to produce powerpoint slides summarizing and reflecting upon what they did and learned each day. Students' post field excursion, content-oriented scores increased each of the three years of the program. In addition to geosciences content growth, all of the students responded affirmatively that GRANITE "increased my understanding of how geoscientists study the Earth "and "increased my knowledge of the importance of geoscience to our society."

  14. A field trip guidebook to the type localities of Marland Billings' 1935 Paleozoic bedrock stratigraphy near Littleton, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Douglas W.; Rankin, Mary B.

    2014-01-01

    Marland Billings' classic paper published in 1937 in the Geological Society of America Bulletin established a succession of six stratigraphic units in rocks of low metamorphic grade near Littleton, New Hampshire. The two youngest units are fossiliferous in the area, with ages established at the time as “middle” Silurian and Early Devonian. Billings and students mapped the same stratigraphic section in adjacent areas of progressively higher regional metamorphic grade. This work laid the foundation upon which a major part of subsequent work in New England has been directly or indirectly built. This guidebook was written for a field trip held in March 2013 to visit roadcuts that are as close as possible in March to the type localities or areas of Billings’ six-fold stratigraphic succession. Ten stops are in rocks of chlorite grade of Acadian(?) metamorphism; the final stop visits amphibolite of the Ammonoosuc Volcanics. Fieldwork by the authors over the past 20 years confirms Billings’ broad conclusions.

  15. Marine molecular biology: an emerging field of biological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G

    2008-01-01

    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future.

  16. Late Devonian (Frasnian) bivalves from the Nocedo Formation: the results of Wilhelm Kegel’s 1927 field trip to northern Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amler, M.R.W.

    2010-01-01

    During a field trip to the Peña-Corada Unit of the southernmost Esla region of the Cantabrian Mountains in 1927, the German stratigrapher Wilhelm Kegel sampled brachiopods and bivalves from a section in the Laoz valley near La Ercina. The stratigraphic position is believed to be part of the Nocedo

  17. Mysterious Mycorrhizae? A Field Trip & Classroom Experiment to Demystify the Symbioses Formed between Plants & Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nancy C.; Chaudhary, V. Bala; Hoeksema, Jason D.; Moore, John C.; Pringle, Anne; Umbanhowar, James A.; Wilson, Gail W. T.

    2009-01-01

    Biology curricula cover fungi in units on bacteria, protists, and primitive plants, but fungi are more closely related to animals than to bacteria or plants. Like animals, fungi are heterotrophs and cannot create their own food; but, like plants, fungi have cell walls, and are for the most part immobile. Most species of fungi have a filamentous…

  18. Enhancing University Courses and Field Schools through Cross-cultural Exchange: Joint US-Bangladeshi Trips to the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Mississippi Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, M. S.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Lowes, S.; Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B.; Ahmed, K. M.; Akhter, S. H.; Sousa, D.; Wilson, C.; Datta, D. K.; Roy, K.; Mondal, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    As part of an NSF PIRE grant, we have led four field trips for undergraduate, MS and PhD students to large deltaic systems. Three trips took US students to the Ganges-Brahmaputra (GB) delta in Bangladesh and one brought Bangladeshi faculty and students to the Mississippi (Miss.) delta in the US. An essential component in the learning process and overall experience of each trip was that ~2/5 of the participants were students and professors from Bangladesh. In all cases, the involvement of a substantial international cohort greatly broadened perspectives on the topics being covered. For example, in GBD the local geologic and cultural knowledge of the Bangladeshis deepened the learning and engagement of the US students, an outcome that was almost universally noted in student reviews. The trips received similar feedback from Bangladeshi participants, as they had an enthusiastic and engaged audience of peers from the US. Even for the Miss. delta trip, the Bangladeshis added a unique perspective from a nation that faces similar environmental issues. These overwhelmingly positive contributions have been experienced in several different contexts. Three trips were associated with US courses and run over Spring Break. One matched sustainable development undergrads at Columbia U. with geology undergrads from Dhaka U., and two others matched a mixed group of graduate and undergrad students from Vanderbilt U. with cohorts from Bangladesh. The fourth trip was a stand-alone Field School for PhD students from 14 US universities and mostly MS students from 4 Bangladeshi universities. The focus of each trip ranged from broader surveys of tectonic, fluvial and coastal processes to investigations of geology and people affected by tropical storms. Of particular interest was the success of mixing undergrad and graduate students in the Vanderbilt course, which centered on the intersection of social sciences, physical sciences, and engineering. In this case, undergrads engaged in a

  19. Bringing Adam Smith's Pin Factory to Life: Field Trips and Discussions as Forms of Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizzi, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Educators are often aware of the need to implement a variety of teaching techniques to reach out to students with different learning styles. I describe an attempt to target multimodal learners by bringing classical economic texts and concepts to life through discussions, field visits and role playing exercises. In my Labor Economics class I…

  20. The Field Trip as Part of Spatial (Architectural) Design Art Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batic, Janja

    2011-01-01

    Spatial (architectural) design is one of five fields introduced to pupils as part of art education. In planning architectural design tasks, one should take into consideration the particularities of the architectural design process and enable pupils to experience space and relationships within space through their own movement. Furthermore, pupils…

  1. Interaction between Gaming and Multistage Guiding Strategies on Students' Field Trip Mobile Learning Performance and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Hung; Liu, Guan-Zhi; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an integrated gaming and multistage guiding approach was proposed for conducting in-field mobile learning activities. A mobile learning system was developed based on the proposed approach. To investigate the interaction between the gaming and guiding strategies on students' learning performance and motivation, a 2 × 2 experiment was…

  2. The good field trip: How elementary students from diverse socio-economic backgrounds learn science, art, and technology at a museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, Sandra Toro

    The Good Field Trip is a study that uses an ethnographic approach to answer the question of what learning looks like during a field trip to a museum. The study uses the Contextual Model of Learning (Falk & Dierking, 2000) to investigate elementary students' personal, physical, and sociocultural contexts of learning as well as how time affects students' thoughts and feelings about the experience. The author accompanied a group of eight students on a three and a half day camp-like experience to a museum that promotes environmental stewardship and the integration of art, science, and technology use and learning. The author videotaped the students' conversations and experiences and interviewed students before, during, and after the trip. Analyses of the videotapes were supplemented with student documents, including comic books, journal notes, and reflective essays about the trip. Findings include that not all experiences are marked as science, art, and technology; technology use does not occur; art is presented in a more formalized manner than science, which is composed of observation and the acquisition of knowledge about plants and animals; and conversations and activities resemble traditional modes of learning in school settings.

  3. Virtual Field Trips: Using Google Maps to Support Online Learning and Teaching of the History of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluke, Christopher J.

    I report on a pilot study on the use of Google Maps to provide virtual field trips as a component of a wholly online graduate course on the history of astronomy. The Astronomical Tourist Web site (http://astronomy.swin.edu.au/sao/tourist), themed around the role that specific locations on Earth have contributed to the development of astronomical knowledge, was created using the Google Maps application programming interface. Students used this Web site as a component of their assessment and to help motivate and support online discussions. The site also aims to help build a stronger online community among geographically distributed students as they share in the creation of an Internet resource that will be used and enhanced by others over time. I describe the structure of the Web site and how it was integrated into student essays, and I provide a summary of student responses to this new learning and teaching approach. This project is an example of how Web 2.0 applications can be used to build new learning environments.

  4. ICARUS trip

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi

    2017-01-01

    It’s lived in two different countries and is about to make its way to a third. It’s the largest machine of its kind, designed to find extremely elusive particles and tell us more about them. Its pioneering technology is the blueprint for some of the most advanced science experiments in the world. And this summer, it will travel across the Atlantic Ocean to its new home (and its new mission) at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. It’s called ICARUS, and you can follow its journey over land and sea with the help of an interactive map at IcarusTrip.fnal.gov (link is external), or on Facebook (link is external), Twitter (link is external) and Instagram (link is external) using the hashtag #IcarusTrip.

  5. Creating Meaningful Learning for Children's Nursing Students: Can Museum Field Trips Offer Added Value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Zoe; Ashbrooke, Lorna; Price, Jayne

    2018-01-02

    Children's nurses require a wide range of skills and knowledge to enable them to provide the best care for children and families, thus nurse educators must continually strive to ensure they create appropriate and meaningful learning for students in their journey to become children's nurses. Museum visits have been utilized previously within nurse education, but no evidence as to any added value of such visits on the learning of children's nursing students has been reported. This article highlights an innovative teaching strategy that was introduced to a group of year 1 children's nursing students-a field visit to the Museum of Childhood in London-and demonstrates the potential value to their learning. Students worked together in small groups within the museum exploring topics relevant to children's nursing. They had an opportunity to reflect and research further and then worked together to present their learning to their peers. Subsequent evaluation of both the visit and the presentation helped unravel the extent of student learning and highlighted that a range of different learning had taken place. Not without its challenges, the museum visit seemed to provide a meaningful learning experience for students, and suggestions for improving the learning for future similar groups have been explored.

  6. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip. A report of a field trip to the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant project in Southeastern New Mexico, June 16 to 18, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, L

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, on January 17-18, 1980. On the basis of the January conference and the June field trip, EEG has formed the following conclusions: (1) it has not been clearly established that the site or the surrounding area has been attacked by deep dissolution to render it unsuitable for the nuclear waste pilot repository; (2) the existence of an isolated breccia pipe at the site unaccompanied by a deep dissolution wedge, is a very remote possibility; (3) more specific information about the origin and the nature of the brine reservoirs is needed. An important question that should be resolved is whether each encounter with artesian brine represents a separate pocket or whether these occurrences are interconnected; (4) Anderson has postulated a major tectonic fault or a fracture system at the Basin margin along the San Simon Swale; (5) the area in the northern part of the WIPP site, identified from geophysical and bore hole data as the disturbed zone, should be further investigated to cleary understand the nature and significance of this structural anomaly; and (6) a major drawback encountered during the discussions of geological issues related to the WIPP site is the absence of published material that brings together all the known information related to a particular issue.

  7. Geologic field trip guide to Mount Mazama and Crater Lake Caldera, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Charles R.; Wright, Heather M.

    2017-08-08

    geologic research at Crater Lake have been incorporated not only in scientific investigations elsewhere, but also in the practical evaluation of local hazards (Bacon and others, 1997b) and geothermal resources (Bacon and Nathenson, 1996). The 1:24,000-scale geologic map of Mount Mazama and Crater Lake caldera (Bacon, 2008) is unusual because it portrays bedrock (outcrop), surficial, and lake floor geology. Caldera wall geology is depicted in detail on the accompanying geologic panoramas, and bedrock geology is shown in a 1:50,000-scale geologic map. This field guide supersedes earlier geology guides of Crater Lake (Bacon, 1987, 1989).

  8. Petrographic description of calcite/opal samples collected on field trip of December 5-9, 1992. Special report No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.A.; Schluter, C.M.

    1993-06-01

    This study is part of the research program of the Yucca Mountain Project intended to provide the State of Nevada with a detailed analysis and assessment of the water-deposited minerals of Yucca Mountain and adjacent regions. Forty-three separate stops were made and 203 samples were collected during the five days of the field trip. This report describes petrographic observations made on the calcite/opal samples

  9. Field-trip guide to Columbia River flood basalts, associated rhyolites, and diverse post-plume volcanism in eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferns, Mark L.; Streck, Martin J.; McClaughry, Jason D.

    2017-08-09

    The Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) is the youngest and best preserved continental flood basalt province on Earth, linked in space and time with a compositionally diverse succession of volcanic rocks that partially record the apparent emergence and passage of the Yellowstone plume head through eastern Oregon during the late Cenozoic. This compositionally diverse suite of volcanic rocks are considered part of the La Grande-Owyhee eruptive axis (LOEA), an approximately 300-kilometer-long (185 mile), north-northwest-trending, middle Miocene to Pliocene volcanic belt located along the eastern margin of the Columbia River flood basalt province. Volcanic rocks erupted from and preserved within the LOEA form an important regional stratigraphic link between the (1) flood basalt-dominated Columbia Plateau on the north, (2) bimodal basalt-rhyolite vent complexes of the Owyhee Plateau on the south, (3) bimodal basalt-rhyolite and time-transgressive rhyolitic volcanic fields of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone Plateau, and (4) the High Lava Plains of central Oregon.This field-trip guide describes a 4-day geologic excursion that will explore the stratigraphic and geochemical relationships among mafic rocks of the Columbia River Basalt Group and coeval and compositionally diverse volcanic rocks associated with the early “Yellowstone track” and High Lava Plains in eastern Oregon. Beginning in Portland, the Day 1 log traverses the Columbia River gorge eastward to Baker City, focusing on prominent outcrops that reveal a distal succession of laterally extensive, large-volume tholeiitic flood lavas of the Grande Ronde, Wanapum, and Saddle Mountains Basalt formations of the CRBG. These “great flows” are typical of the well-studied flood basalt-dominated Columbia Plateau, where interbedded silicic and calc-alkaline lavas are conspicuously absent. The latter part of Day 1 will highlight exposures of middle to late Miocene silicic ash-flow tuffs, rhyolite domes, and

  10. Biological effects of electrical and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault de Boesinghe, L. de

    1979-01-01

    A review is made by the author of the literature about the biological effects of electrical and magnetic fields. A distinction is made between the observations made on man and the experience on animals. The results do not allow to reach a uniform conclusion. The used methodology is furthermore often open for discussion. One fundamental question remains: is there or not a threshold value. The question may be asked if objective modifications would not better come out in the light of systematical programs studies. This review of the literature gives results which anyway justify a systematic study of this subject. (author)

  11. How do we support informal educators teaching for climate literacy? Lessons from design-based research to improve climate science field trips through educator experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, L. B.; Steiner, M.; Crowley, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate literacy is an important and timely aspect of students' and educators' scientific understanding. Climate science is a challenging topic to understand and communicate, given that factors affecting change in climate are spatially and temporally distant from one another, and include layers of understanding biotic, abiotic, and anthropogenic factors. Some learning scientists describe complex processes such as these "constraint-based interactions" and consider them to be among the more difficult for learners to grasp. An additional challenge for climate education is the politicized nature of the issue of climate change among U.S. adults. Our goal is to create a climate literacy program that bridges informal and formal learning for middle school students by integrating tools and ideas from pre-field trip classroom activities into deep investigations on the floor of the natural history museum. In this presentation, we address the challenges and successes of an in-progress climate literacy project sponsored by NASA from the perspective of educator learning. A group of experienced natural history docents were asked to participate in an iteratively designed field trip program for climate education. The project challenged educators with both new content and a new pedagogical structure: using real NASA satellite data to visualize and explore earth's climate, while implementing student-centered, participatory learning on the floor of the museum. By engaging in an iterative, design-based research process of prototyping field trips at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, we collected observational and interview data from seven dedicated informal educators who were asked to change both the content and the format of their interactions with middle school field trip students. These docents have a wide variety of experiences and opinions around climate science, data, and student-centered teaching and learning pedagogies. Over the course of one semester of iteratively

  12. Transforming an Exposure trip to Botanical Expedition: Introducing Ecological Research thru Exposure Trip in an Eco-tourism Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo C. Lunar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available – Fieldtrips can be considered as one of the three avenues through which science can be taught - through formal classroom teaching, practical work and field trips. An exposure trip at Bangkong Kahoy Valley Field Study Center was arranged for a class of BS Biology and BS Education students enrolled in Ecology Course. This approach purposefully transformed the usual exposure trip from being a casual site visit into a focused and productive learning experience. This transformation from exposure trip to a botanical expedition has exceeded the initial activity goals. Rather than a day off from learning, the time spent at the study center has been a meaningful opportunity to engage students in an active ecological research project while delivering valuable science content. Employing the descriptive survey design, the learning gains of the students were assessed and students were directed to do a guided reflection writing using the ORID Model of Focused Conversation. The learning gains and reflections of the students confirmed that students can collaboratively develop focused research questions, make meaning from a variety of sources, carry out a vegetation analysis and conduct surveys on socio-economic status, plant resource utilization and ecotourism assessment of the host community. As students prepared for their trip and synthesized their learning afterward, they were able to come up with very impressive and scientifically sound research outputs.

  13. Baja California: Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, John; Stewart, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Describes how to plan and execute an extended field trip which provides first hand observation of biological and cultural systems. Socialization of the participants was achieved through common planning and goal achievement. (BR)

  14. Field-trip guide to Mount St. Helens, Washington - An overview of the eruptive history and petrology, tephra deposits, 1980 pyroclastic density current deposits, and the crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallister, John S.; Clynne, Michael A.; Wright, Heather M.; Van Eaton, Alexa R.; Vallance, James W.; Sherrod, David R.; Kokelaar, B. Peter

    2017-08-02

    This field trip will provide an introduction to several fascinating features of Mount St. Helens. The trip begins with a rigorous hike of about 15 km from the Johnston Ridge Observatory (9 km north-northeast of the crater vent), across the 1980 Pumice Plain, to Windy Ridge (3.6 km northeast of the crater vent) to examine features that document the dynamics and progressive emplacement of pyroclastic flows. The next day, we examine classic tephra outcrops of the past 3,900 years and observe changes in thickness and character of these deposits as we traverse their respective lobes. We examine clasts in the deposits and discuss how the petrology and geochemistry of Mount St. Helens deposits reveal the evolution of the magmatic system through time. We also investigate the stratigraphy of the 1980 blast deposit and review the chronology of this iconic eruption as we travel through the remains of the blown-down forest. The third day is another rigorous hike, about 13 km round trip, climbing from the base of Windy Ridge (elevation 1,240 m) to the front of the Crater Glacier (elevation 1,700 m). En route we examine basaltic andesite and basalt lava flows emplaced between 1,800 and 1,700 years before present, a heterolithologic flow deposit produced as the 1980 blast and debris avalanche interacted, debris-avalanche hummocks that are stranded on the north flank and in the crater mouth, and shattered dacite lava domes that were emplaced between 3,900 and 2,600 years before present. These domes underlie the northern part of the volcano. In addition, within the crater we traverse well-preserved pyroclastic-flow deposits that were emplaced on the crater floor during the summer of 1980, and a beautiful natural section through the 1980 deposits in the upper canyon of the Loowit River.Before plunging into the field-trip log, we provide an overview of Mount St. Helens geology, geochemistry, petrology, and volcanology as background. The volcano has been referred to as a

  15. Field-trip guide to the vents, dikes, stratigraphy, and structure of the Columbia River Basalt Group, eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Victor E; Reidel, Stephen P.; Ross, Martin E.; Brown, Richard J.; Self, Stephen

    2017-06-22

    The Columbia River Basalt Group covers an area of more than 210,000 km2 with an estimated volume of 210,000 km3. As the youngest continental flood-basalt province on Earth (16.7–5.5 Ma), it is well preserved, with a coherent and detailed stratigraphy exposed in the deep canyonlands of eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. The Columbia River flood-basalt province is often cited as a model for the study of similar provinces worldwide.This field-trip guide explores the main source region of the Columbia River Basalt Group and is written for trip participants attending the 2017 International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) Scientific Assembly in Portland, Oregon, USA. The first part of the guide provides an overview of the geologic features common in the Columbia River flood-basalt province and the stratigraphic terminology used in the Columbia River Basalt Group. The accompanying road log examines the stratigraphic evolution, eruption history, and structure of the province through a field examination of the lavas, dikes, and pyroclastic rocks of the Columbia River Basalt Group.

  16. PENGARUH METODE FIELD TRIP DENGAN PEMANFAATAN RUMPON BUATAN TERHADAP KETERAMPILAN PROSES SAINS DAN SIKAP ILMIAH DI SMP SATU ATAP PULAU TUNDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Rifqiawati

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh field trip dengan pemanfaatan rumpon buatan terhadap keterampilan proses sains (KPS dan sikap ilmiah siswa di SMP Satu Atap Pulau Tunda, Kecamatan Tirtayasa, Kabupaten Serang. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian weak experiment, karena tidak adanya kelas kontrol. Sampel penelitian adalah siswa kelas X SMP Satu Atap Pulau Tunda yang dipilih secara purposive sampling, karena kelas X hanya ada satu kelas saja. Data diperoleh dari soal KPS, lembar observasi KPS dan sikap ilmiah selama pembelajaran, dan lembar wawancara. Hasil uji T menunjukkan nilai signifikansi 0.00 < 0.05, menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh metode field trip dengan pemanfaatan rumpon buatan terhadap keterampilan proses sains (KPS dan sikap ilmiah siswa di SMP Satu Atap Pulau Tunda. Aspek KPS yang memiliki persentase tinggi yaitu menggunakan alat dan bahan, dan interpretasi. Sikap ilmiah yang tertinggi yaitu rasa ingin tahu. Saran dari hasil penelitian ini agar KPS dan sikap ilmiah siswa dapat ditingkatkan lagi yaitu dengan cara kepala sekolah serta pemerintah daerah  berperan serta untuk memberikan  pelatihan bagi guru terkait model pembelajaran, KPS, dan sikap ilmiah.

  17. Tripping up Trp: Modification of protein tryptophan residues by reactive oxygen species, modes of detection, and biological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Deterding, Leesa J; Mason, Ronald P

    2015-12-01

    Proteins comprise a majority of the dry weight of a cell, rendering them a major target for oxidative modification. Oxidation of proteins can result in significant alterations in protein molecular mass such as breakage of the polypeptide backbone and/or polymerization of monomers into dimers, multimers, and sometimes insoluble aggregates. Protein oxidation can also result in structural changes to amino acid residue side chains, conversions that have only a modest effect on protein size but can have widespread consequences for protein function. There are a wide range of rate constants for amino acid reactivity, with cysteine, methionine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan having the highest rate constants with commonly encountered biological oxidants. Free tryptophan and tryptophan protein residues react at a diffusion-limited rate with hydroxyl radical and also have high rate constants for reactions with singlet oxygen and ozone. Although oxidation of proteins in general and tryptophan residues specifically can have effects detrimental to the health of cells and organisms, some modifications are neutral, whereas others contribute to the function of the protein in question or may act as a signal that damaged proteins need to be replaced. This review provides a brief overview of the chemical mechanisms by which tryptophan residues become oxidized, presents both the strengths and the weaknesses of some of the techniques used to detect these oxidative interactions, and discusses selected examples of the biological consequences of tryptophan oxidation in proteins from animals, plants, and microbes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Biología del trips frankliniella occidentalis (pegande) (thysanoptera: thripidae) sobre crisantemo chrysanthemum morifolium l. bajo condiciones de laboratorio

    OpenAIRE

    Cardenas, Estrella; Corredor, Dario

    2011-01-01

    La especie Frankliniella occidentalis (Pegande) se encontró causando daño a flores de crisantemo en una empresa de laSabana de Bogotá. Se estudió su biología bajo condiciones de laboratorio (24,31 ± 2,50C y 66,36 ± 12% H.R.). El rango deduración en días de su ciclo de vida fue: huevo 4-5, ninfa de primer instar 3-4, ninfa de segundo instar 5-8, prepupa 4-6, pupa 3-5 y los adultos alcanzaron una longevidad entre 60 y 121 días. Esta especie presentó partenogénesis de tipo arrenotoquia; de las h...

  19. Healthy Ride Trip Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A dataset that shows trips taken using the Healthy Ride system by quarter. The dataset includes bike number, membership type, trip start and end timestamp, and...

  20. Field-trip guide to mafic volcanism of the Cascade Range in Central Oregon—A volcanic, tectonic, hydrologic, and geomorphic journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligne, Natalia I.; Mckay, Daniele; Conrey, Richard M.; Grant, Gordon E.; Johnson, Emily R.; O'Connor, Jim; Sweeney, Kristin

    2017-08-16

    The Cascade Range in central Oregon has been shaped by tectonics, volcanism, and hydrology, as well as geomorphic forces that include glaciations. As a result of the rich interplay between these forces, mafic volcanism here can have surprising manifestations, which include relatively large tephra footprints and extensive lava flows, as well as water shortages, transportation and agricultural disruption, and forest fires. Although the focus of this multidisciplinary field trip will be on mafic volcanism, we will also look at the hydrology, geomorphology, and ecology of the area, and we will examine how these elements both influence and are influenced by mafic volcanism. We will see mafic volcanic rocks at the Sand Mountain volcanic field and in the Santiam Pass area, at McKenzie Pass, and in the southern Bend region. In addition, this field trip will occur during a total solar eclipse, the first one visible in the United States in more than 25 years (and the first seen in the conterminous United States in more than 37 years).The Cascade Range is the result of subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate underneath the North American plate. This north-south-trending volcanic mountain range is immediately downwind of the Pacific Ocean, a huge source of moisture. As moisture is blown eastward from the Pacific on prevailing winds, it encounters the Cascade Range in Oregon, and the resulting orographic lift and corresponding rain shadow is one of the strongest precipitation gradients in the conterminous United States. We will see how the products of the volcanoes in the central Oregon Cascades have had a profound influence on groundwater flow and, thus, on the distribution of Pacific moisture. We will also see the influence that mafic volcanism has had on landscape evolution, vegetation development, and general hydrology.

  1. Trip Roller Clutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Bidirectional roller-locking mechanism offers advantages of efficiency and controllability. Trip roller clutch contains back-to-back roller-locking, overrunning clutches released (tripped) with small magnetic forces. Designed to operate with lubricant. Unlike other friction-based devices, trip roller clutch remains cool during operation.

  2. Field-trip guide to subaqueous volcaniclastic facies in the Ancestral Cascades arc in southern Washington State—The Ohanapecosh Formation and Wildcat Creek beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutzeler, Martin; McPhie, Jocelyn

    2017-06-27

    Partly situated in the idyllic Mount Rainier National Park, this field trip visits exceptional examples of Oligocene subaqueous volcaniclastic successions in continental basins adjacent to the Ancestral Cascades arc. The >800-m-thick Ohanapecosh Formation (32–26 Ma) and the >300-m-thick Wildcat Creek (27 Ma) beds record similar sedimentation processes from various volcanic sources. Both show evidence of below-wave-base deposition, and voluminous accumulation of volcaniclastic facies from subaqueous density currents and suspension settling. Eruption-fed facies include deposits from pyroclastic flows that crossed the shoreline, from tephra fallout over water, and from probable Surtseyan eruptions, whereas re-sedimented facies comprise subaqueous density currents and debris flow deposits.

  3. Arsenic associated with historical gold mining in the Sierra Nevada foothills: Case study and field trip guide for Empire Mine State Historic Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Charles N.; Myers, Perry A; Millsap, Daniel; Regnier, Tamsen B; Bowell, Robert J.; Alpers, Charles N.; Jamieson, Heather E.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Majzlan, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    The Empire Mine, together with other mines in the Grass Valley mining district, produced at least 21.3 million troy ounces (663 tonnes) of gold (Au) during the 1850s through the 1950s, making it the most productive hardrock Au mining district in California history (Clark 1970). The Empire Mine State Historic Park (Empire Mine SHP or EMSHP), established in 1975, provides the public with an opportunity to see many well-preserved features of the historic mining and mineral processing operations (CDPR 2014a).A legacy of Au mining at Empire Mine and elsewhere is contamination of mine wastes and associated soils, surface waters, and groundwaters with arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and other metals. At EMSHP, As has been the principal contaminant of concern and the focus of extensive remediation efforts over the past several years by the State of California, Department of Parks and Recreation (DPR) and Newmont USA, Ltd. In addition, the site is the main focus of a multidisciplinary research project on As bioavailability and bioaccessibility led by the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA’s) Brownfields Program.This chapter was prepared as a guide for a field trip to EMSHP held on June 14, 2014, in conjunction with a short course on “Environmental Geochemistry, Mineralogy, and Microbiology of Arsenic” held in Nevada City, California on June 15–16, 2014. This guide contains background information on geological setting, mining history, and environmental history at EMSHP and other historical Au mining districts in the Sierra Nevada, followed by descriptions of the field trip stops.

  4. Geology of the Right Stepover region between the Rodgers Creek, Healdsburg, and Maacama faults, northern San Francisco Bay region: a contribution to Northern California Geological Society Field Trip Guide, June 6-8, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei

    2003-01-01

    This Open file report was written as part of a two-day field trip on June 7 and 8, 2003, conducted for the Northern California Geological Society. The first day of this field trip (June 7) was led by McLaughlin and Sarna-Wojcicki in the area of the right- step between the Rodgers Creek- Healdsburg fault zone and the Maacama fault. The second day of the trip (June 8), was led by David Wagner of the California Geological Survey and students having recently completed MS theses at San Jose State University (James Allen) and San Francisco State University (Carrie Randolph-Loar), as well as a student from San Francisco State University whose MS thesis was in progress in June 2003 (Eric Ford). The second day covered the Rodgers Creek fault zone and related faults of the Petaluma Valley area (the Tolay and Petaluma Valley fault zones).

  5. Field-trip guide for exploring pyroclastic density current deposits from the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Brittany D.; Pollock, Nicholas; Sarocchi, Damiano; Dufek, Josef; Clynne, Michael A.

    2017-07-05

    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are one of the most dangerous phenomena associated with explosive volcanism. To help constrain damage potential, a combination of field studies, laboratory experiments, and numerical modeling are used to establish conditions that influence PDC dynamics and depositional processes, including runout distance. The objective of this field trip is to explore field relations that may constrain PDCs at the time of emplacement.The PDC deposits from the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens are well exposed along the steep flanks (10–30° slopes) and across the pumice plain (5–12° slopes) as far as 8 km north of the volcano. The pumice plain deposits represent deposition from a series of concentrated PDCs and are primarily thick (3–12 m), massive, and poorly sorted. In contrast, the steep east-flank deposits are stratified to cross-stratified, suggesting deposition from PDCs where turbulence strongly influenced transport and depositional processes.The PDCs that descended the west flank were largely nondepositional; they maintained a higher flow energy and carrying capacity than PDCs funneled through the main breach, as evidenced by the higher concentration of large blocks in their deposits. The PDC from the west flank collided with PDCs funneled through the breach at various points along the pumice plain. Evidence for flow collision will be explored and debated throughout the field trip.Evidence for substrate erosion and entrainment is found (1) along the steep eastern flank of the volcano, which has a higher degree of rough, irregular topography relative to the west flanks where PDCs were likely nonerosive, (2) where PDCs encountered debris-avalanche hummocks across the pumice plain, and (3) where PDCs eroded and entrained material deposited by PDCs produced during earlier phases of the eruption. Two features interpreted as large-scale (tens of meters wide) levees and a large (~200 m wide) channel scour-and-fill feature

  6. Fungal biology and agriculture: revisiting the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarden, O.; Ebbole, D.J.; Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Dickman, M. B.

    2003-01-01

    Plant pathology has made significant progress over the years, a process that involved overcoming a variety of conceptual and technological hurdles. Descriptive mycology and the advent of chemical plant-disease management have been followed by biochemical and physiological studies of fungi and their hosts. The later establishment of biochemical genetics along with the introduction of DNA-mediated transformation have set the stage for dissection of gene function and advances in our understanding of fungal cell biology and plant-fungus interactions. Currently, with the advent of high-throughput technologies, we have the capacity to acquire vast data sets that have direct relevance to the numerous subdisciplines within fungal biology and pathology. These data provide unique opportunities for basic research and for engineering solutions to important agricultural problems. However, we also are faced with the challenge of data organization and mining to analyze the relationships between fungal and plant genomes and to elucidate the physiological function of pertinent DNA sequences. We present our perspective of fungal biology and agriculture, including administrative and political challenges to plant protection research.

  7. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D; Correa, Carlos; Oh, Cecilia

    2009-02-21

    The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus.

  8. Speech recognition employing biologically plausible receptive fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fereczkowski, Michal; Bothe, Hans-Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    The main idea of the project is to build a widely speaker-independent, biologically motivated automatic speech recognition (ASR) system. The two main differences between our approach and current state-of-the-art ASRs are that i) the features used here are based on the responses of neuronlike...... Model-based adaptation procedures. Two databases are used, TI46 for discrete speech a subset of the TIMIT database collected from speakers belonging to the New York dialect region. Each of the selection of 10 sentences is uttered once by each of 35 speakers. The major differences between the two data...... sets initiate the development and comparison of two distinct ASRs within the project, which will be presented in the following. Employing a reduced sampling frequency and bandwidth of the signals, the ASR algorithm reaches and goes beyond recognition results that are known from humans....

  9. Pulsed Electric Fields for Biological Weapons Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    including Staphylococcus, a-hemolytic Streptococcus, Actinomyces, and Candida species. , 12% 0.1 % ° F R 3 R2 R3 .0 E R5:2 % R5: 32...pulsed electric field. Pore formation in these simulations of homogeneous lipid bilayers is a molecular process , an extension of water defects into...and Bianco, A. (2006). Functionalized carbon nanotubes are non-cytotoxic and preserve the functionality of primary immune cells. Nano Letters 6, 1522-8

  10. Perception of Biological Motion in Central and Peripheral Visual Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laicāne Ilze

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies analysing biological motion perception based on reduced number of dots have demonstrated that biological motion can be perceived even when only the lower part of the body is visible or when the number of dots representing the object is reduced. What is the minimal amount of information that enables biological motion to be distinguished from its scrambled version? The results of the current experiment demonstrate that biological motion can be distinguished from its scrambled version when the object is formed of approximately 5 (4.7 ± 0.1 dots. Additionally, we also investigated whether the threshold value for biological motion perception differs in central and peripheral visual fields. By using stimulus magnification, we demonstrate that the number of dots sufficient for biological motion perception is similar in the central visual field and near periphery. Hence, stimulus magnification can compensate for reduced task performance in the peripheral visual field. The current results suggest that reduced performance of biological motion perception in the peripheral visual field (as demonstrated in other studies is due to difficulties with the global perception of biological motion.

  11. Electromagnetic field induced biological effects in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszuba-Zwoińska, Jolanta; Gremba, Jerzy; Gałdzińska-Calik, Barbara; Wójcik-Piotrowicz, Karolina; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to artificial radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has increased significantly in recent decades. Therefore, there is a growing scientific and social interest in its influence on health, even upon exposure significantly below the applicable standards. The intensity of electromagnetic radiation in human environment is increasing and currently reaches astronomical levels that had never before experienced on our planet. The most influential process of EMF impact on living organisms, is its direct tissue penetration. The current established standards of exposure to EMFs in Poland and in the rest of the world are based on the thermal effect. It is well known that weak EMF could cause all sorts of dramatic non-thermal effects in body cells, tissues and organs. The observed symptoms are hardly to assign to other environmental factors occurring simultaneously in the human environment. Although, there are still ongoing discussions on non-thermal effects of EMF influence, on May 31, 2011--International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)--Agenda of World Health Organization (WHO) has classified radio electromagnetic fields, to a category 2B as potentially carcinogenic. Electromagnetic fields can be dangerous not only because of the risk of cancer, but also other health problems, including electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a phenomenon characterized by the appearance of symptoms after exposure of people to electromagnetic fields, generated by EHS is characterized as a syndrome with a broad spectrum of non-specific multiple organ symptoms including both acute and chronic inflammatory processes located mainly in the skin and nervous systems, as well as in respiratory, cardiovascular systems, and musculoskeletal system. WHO does not consider the EHS as a disease-- defined on the basis of medical diagnosis and symptoms associated with any known syndrome. The symptoms may be associated with a single source of EMF

  12. Quantification and Measurement of Internal Electromagnetic Fields Induced in Finite Biological Bodies by Nonuniform Electromagnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-15

    implantable EM field probes which can be used to measure the internal EM fields induced in simulated biological bod ies. Major topics of this program include...be used to measure the internal EM fields induced in simulated biological bodies with a high degree of accuracy. Most of the originally planned topics...following papers: (1) "Focal hyperthermia as induced by RF radiation of simulacra with embedded tumors and as induced by EM fields in a model of a human

  13. Biological field stations: research legacies and sites for serendipity

    Science.gov (United States)

    William K. Michener; Keith L. Bildstein; Arthur McKee; Robert R. Parmenter; William W. Hargrove; Deedra McClearn; Mark Stromberg

    2009-01-01

    Biological field stations are distributed throughout North America, capturing much of the ecological variability present at the continental scale and encompassing many unique habitats. In addition to their role in supporting research and education, field stations offer legacies of data, specimens, and accumulated knowledge. Such legacies often provide the only...

  14. Biological actions and effects of low-frequency fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brix, J.

    1993-01-01

    Cell culture studies have shown that low-frequency electromagnetic fields may affect cell behaviour. The fact that the corresponding field strengths are too weak to affect membrane potential, suggests that these fields trigger enzymatic reactions at the outer face of the membrane, i.e. cell-intrinsic reaction cascades and a biological modification of the affected biological system take place. These are working models and hypotheses which need to substantiated by further studies in this field. Epidemiological studies suggest that electromagnetic fields influence cancer development in man. However there is no action model indicating exposure to fields to be a genotoxic agent possible triggering a direct genetic modification which precludesr any initialization. (orig.) [de

  15. Review: Bioenergetic Fields and Their Biologic Effects Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Movaffaghi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available As interests in complementary and alternative medicine grows, the scientists are looking forward in researches which determine the mechanisms in which they exert their effectiveness. Some of these modalities like Yoga, Acupuncture, and especially other bio-field therapies such as none contact therapeutic touch, affects the bio-field which spreads throughout the body and into the space around it. According to physic’s law, when electricity flows throw the living tissues, like what happens in our heart and brain, biomagnetic fields are being induced in the surrounding space. Beside that moving charges like ions and free radicals which finally produce electromagnetic fields. Using very sensitive magnetometers, biomagnetic fields have been detected and get amplified up to 1000 times by meditation. This phenomenon could be the basis for most of most complementaty therapeutic approaches like therapeutic touch. On the other hand the electrical, magnetic and bio-magnetic fields have a well known application in conventional medicine. Modern research about bio-magnetism and magneto-biology suggests that in term of both aspects, the effects and the mechanisms for all the different looking modalities used in conventional medicine and complementary medicine which have commons in their fundamentals. This article reviews some of the recent works on biological effects of natural or artificial electromagnetic fields.

  16. Biological effect of paramecium in diffused ultrasonic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shiuh-Kuang; Huang, Yi-Cheng

    2002-04-01

    Since the cell structure or biophysical reaction includes in the interaction between ultrasound and living matter. When multi-cell creature is exposed to ultrasound, this reaction will lead the biological effect becomes complex. Therefore, in this paper, a single cell creature is chosen to study the biological effects induced by ultrasound exposure. The paramecium, which possesses many features typical of higher-order animal cells, was considered an appropriate choice for this study. The ability shown by ultrasound in promoting and/or accelerating many reactions has been shown to be a useful field. The growth phase of paramecium by using the ultrasound irradiation is an important parameter in this study. In our experiment, the exponential and stationary phases were employed. Three important factors must be taken into account when an ultrasonic biological reaction is investigated: the medium system, the bubbles' field, and the acoustic field. The medium system involves the physical parameters of the medium field. The bubbles' field includes the reacting bubble size of the liquid and the resonance frequency of the reaction bubbles. The oscillation of the cells in response to the ultrasound radiation is simulated using Rayleigh-Plesset's bubble activation theory. The resonance frequency of the unicellular creature is then calculated. The acoustic field is about using the diffuse field theory of Sabine to create a uniform sound field for the radiation experiment. The resonance frequency of the paramecium vacuole is among 0.54-1.09 MHz. When the 0.25 and 0.5 MHz frequencies of ultrasound was irradiated in the stationary phase of the paramecium, the relative growth rate was about 20% lower than that of unexposed sample. Therefore, the phenomenon of inhibition and destruction appeared during irradiation. The exponential phase of the paramecium samples appear to be different when irradiated with 1 MHz ultrasound. As can be seen in the results, the maximum relative growth

  17. Interaction mechanisms and biological effects of static magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1994-06-01

    Mechanisms through which static magnetic fields interact with living systems are described and illustrated by selected experimental observations. These mechanisms include electrodynamic interactions with moving, ionic charges (blood flow and nerve impulse conduction), magnetomechanical interactions (orientation and translation of molecules structures and magnetic particles), and interactions with electronic spin states in charge transfer reactions (photo-induced electron transfer in photosynthesis). A general summary is also presented of the biological effects of static magnetic fields. There is convincing experimental evidence for magnetoreception mechanisms in several classes of lower organisms, including bacteria and marine organisms. However, in more highly evolved species of animals, there is no evidence that the interactions of static magnetic fields with flux densities up to 2 Tesla (1 Tesla [T] = 10{sup 4} Gauss) produce either behavioral or physiolocical alterations. These results, based on controlled studies with laboratory animals, are consistent with the outcome of recent epidemiological surveys on human populations exposed occupationally to static magnetic fields.

  18. Biological interactions and human health effects of static magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1994-09-01

    Mechanisms through which static magnetic fields interact with living systems will be described and illustrated by selected experimental observations. These mechanisms include electrodynamic interactions with moving ionic charges (blood flow and nerve impulse conduction), magnetomechanical interactions (orientation and translation of molecular structures and magnetic particles), and interactions with electronic spin states in charge transfer reactions (photo-induced electron transfer in photosynthesis). A general summary will also be presented of the biological effects of static magnetic fields studied in the laboratory and in natural settings. One aspect of magnetic field effects that merits special concern is their influence on implanted medical electronic devices such as cardiac pacemakers. Several extensive studies have demonstrated closure of the reed switch in pacemakers exposed to relatively weak static magnetic fields, thereby causing them to revert to an asynchronous mode of operation that is potentially hazardous. Recommendations for human exposure limits are provided

  19. Instrumentation for electromagnetic field generation in biological measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaric, K.; Malaric, R.; Tkalec, M.; Lenicek, I.; Sala, A.

    2005-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are part of everyday life in modern world. Extremely low-frequency EMFs (50 Hz) are produced by most electric home appliance, electric power transmission and distribution lines. For the last ten years mobile phones have been widely used all around the world. They operate on the EMF frequencies from 400 MHz to 1900 MHz. The effects of EMFs on living organisms have been the subject of debate and research for the last thirty years. The instrumentation for generation of EMFs have been designed at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Zagreb, and can be used for controlled exposure to different EMFs. To study the effect of extremely low-frequency EMF, duckweed (Lemna minor) - the model plant in biological measurement, test setup was made for magnetic field in Helmholtz coil and for electric field between two parallel circle electrodes. For the effect of mobile phones frequencies, test setup with exposition to the electromagnetic field was done with Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic Mode (GTEM) cell. The research confirmed that instrumentation used in these experiments is suitable for evaluation of biological effects of EMFs. The effect of different field strengths, exposure times and modulation can be tested with these instrumentation.(author)

  20. The relative biological effectiveness of out-of-field dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderson, Michael; Koger, Brandon; Kirkby, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: using simulations and models derived from existing literature, this work investigates relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for out-of-field radiation and attempts to quantify the relative magnitudes of different contributing phenomena (spectral, bystander, and low dose hypersensitivity effects). Specific attention is paid to external beam radiotherapy treatments for prostate cancer. Materials and methods: using different biological models that account for spectral, bystander, and low dose hypersensitivity effects, the RBE was calculated for different points moving radially out from isocentre for a typical single arc VMAT prostate case. The RBE was found by taking the ratio of the equivalent dose with the physical dose. Equivalent doses were calculated by determining what physical dose would be necessary to produce the same overall biological effect as that predicted using the different biological models. Results: spectral effects changed the RBE out-of-field less than 2%, whereas response models incorporating low dose hypersensitivity and bystander effects resulted in a much more profound change of the RBE for out-of-field doses. The bystander effect had the largest RBE for points located just outside the edge of the primary radiation beam in the cranial caudal (z-direction) compared to low dose hypersensitivity and spectral effects. In the coplanar direction, bystander effect played the largest role in enhancing the RBE for points up to 8.75 cm from isocentre. Conclusions: spectral, bystander, and low dose hypersensitivity effects can all increase the RBE for out-of-field radiation doses. In most cases, bystander effects seem to play the largest role followed by low dose hypersensitivity. Spectral effects were unlikely to be of any clinical significance. Bystander, low dose hypersensitivity, and spectral effect increased the RBE much more in the cranial caudal direction (z-direction) compared with the coplanar directions.

  1. Guam Commercial Purchases (Trip Ticket)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DAWR collects Trip Ticket or purchase invoice data from vendors that buy fish directly from the fishermen. Similar to the trip ticket system in Saipan, this is a...

  2. Science Activities for School Trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quint, Walter C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes ways in which physics-learning activity packets can be used by high school students participating in trips organized by other departments. Provides an example of physics activities incorporated into an airplane trip to Disney World. (CS)

  3. Electric and magnetic fields in medicine and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Papers Include: The effects of low frequency (50 Hz) magnetic fields on neuro-chemical transmission in vitro; Morphological changes in E Coli subjected to DC electrical fields; An investigation of some claimed biological effects of electromagnetic fields; Electrical phenomena and bone healing - a comparison of contemporary techniques; Clinical evaluations of a portable module emitting pulsed RF energy; The design, construction and performance of a magnetic nerve stimulator; The principle of electric field tomography and its application to selective read-out of information from peripheral nerves; Applied potential tomography - clinical applications; Impendance imaging using a linear electrode array; Mathematics as an aid to experiment: human body currents induced by power frequency electric fields; Effects of electric field near 750KV transmission line and protection against their harmful consequences; Leukemia and electromagnetic fields: a case-control study; Overhead power lines and childhood cancer; Magnetic measurement of nerve action currents - a new intraoperative recording technique; The potential use of electron spin resonance or impedance measurement to image neuronal electrical activity in the human brain

  4. Influencing attitudes toward science through field experiences in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Deborah Mcintyre

    The purpose of this study was to determine how student attitudes toward science are influenced by field experiences in undergraduate biology courses. The study was conducted using two institutions of higher education including a 2-year lower-level and a 2-year upper-level institution. Data were collected through interviews with student participants, focus group discussions, students' journal entries, and field notes recorded by the researcher during the field activities. Photographs and video recordings were also used as documentation sources. Data were collected over a period of 34 weeks. Themes that emerged from the qualitative data included students' beliefs that field experiences (a) positively influence student motivation to learn, (b) increase student ability to learn the concepts being taught, and (c) provide opportunities for building relationships and for personal growth. The findings of the study reinforce the importance of offering field-study programs at the undergraduate level to allow undergraduate students the opportunity to experience science activities in a field setting. The research study was framed by the behavioral and developmental theories of attitude and experience including the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) and the Theory of Experiential Learning (Kolb, 1984).

  5. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields and recently updated safety guidelines for strong static magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Sekino, Masaki; Ueno, Shoogo

    2011-01-01

    Humans are exposed daily to artificial and naturally occurring magnetic fields that originate from many different sources. We review recent studies that examine the biological effects of and medical applications involving electromagnetic fields, review the properties of static and pulsed electromagnetic fields that affect biological systems, describe the use of a pulsed electromagnetic field in combination with an anticancer agent as an example of a medical application that incorporates an electromagnetic field, and discuss the recently updated safety guidelines for static electromagnetic fields. The most notable modifications to the 2009 International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines are the increased exposure limits, especially for those who work with or near electromagnetic fields (occupational exposure limits). The recommended increases in exposure were determined using recent scientific evidence obtained from animal and human studies. Several studies since the 1994 publication of the guidelines have examined the effects on humans after exposure to high static electromagnetic fields (up to 9.4 tesla), but additional research is needed to ascertain further the safety of strong electromagnetic fields. (author)

  6. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields and recently updated safety guidelines for strong static magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Sekino, Masaki; Ueno, Shoogo

    2011-01-01

    Humans are exposed daily to artificial and naturally occurring magnetic fields that originate from many different sources. We review recent studies that examine the biological effects of and medical applications involving electromagnetic fields, review the properties of static and pulsed electromagnetic fields that affect biological systems, describe the use of a pulsed electromagnetic field in combination with an anticancer agent as an example of a medical application that incorporates an electromagnetic field, and discuss the recently updated safety guidelines for static electromagnetic fields. The most notable modifications to the 2009 International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines are the increased exposure limits, especially for those who work with or near electromagnetic fields (occupational exposure limits). The recommended increases in exposure were determined using recent scientific evidence obtained from animal and human studies. Several studies since the 1994 publication of the guidelines have examined the effects on humans after exposure to high static electromagnetic fields (up to 9.4 tesla), but additional research is needed to ascertain further the safety of strong electromagnetic fields.

  7. Influence of different natural physical fields on biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashinsky, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    In space flight conditions gravity, magnetic, and electrical fields as well as ionizing radiation change both in size, and in direction. This causes disruptions in the conduct of some physical processes, chemical reactions, and metabolism in living organisms. In these conditions organisms of different phylogenetic level change their metabolic reactions undergo changes such as disturbances in ionic exchange both in lower and in higher plants, changes in cell morphology for example, gyrosity in Proteus ( Proteus vulgaris), spatial disorientation in coleoptiles of Wheat ( Triticum aestivum) and Pea ( Pisum sativum) seedlings, mutational changes in Crepis ( Crepis capillaris) and Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana) seedling. It has been found that even in the absence of gravity, gravireceptors determining spatial orientation in higher plants under terrestrial conditions are formed in the course of ontogenesis. Under weightlessness this system does not function and spatial orientation is determined by the light flux gradient or by the action of some other factors. Peculiarities of the formation of the gravireceptor apparatus in higher plants, amphibians, fish, and birds under space flight conditions have been observed. It has been found that the system in which responses were accompanied by phase transition have proven to be gravity-sensitive under microgravity conditions. Such reactions include also the process of photosynthesis which is the main energy production process in plants. In view of the established effects of microgravity and different natural physical fields on biological processes, it has been shown that these processes change due to the absence of initially rigid determination. The established biological effect of physical fields influence on biological processes in organisms is the starting point for elucidating the role of gravity and evolutionary development of various organisms on Earth.

  8. THz near-field imaging of biological tissues employing synchrotronradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schade, Ulrich; Holldack, Karsten; Martin, Michael C.; Fried,Daniel

    2004-12-23

    Terahertz scanning near-field infrared microscopy (SNIM) below 1 THz is demonstrated. The near-field technique benefits from the broadband and highly brilliant coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) from an electron storage ring and from a detection method based on locking onto the intrinsic time structure of the synchrotron radiation. The scanning microscope utilizes conical wave guides as near-field probes with apertures smaller than the wavelength. Different cone approaches have been investigated to obtain maximum transmittance. Together with a Martin-Puplett spectrometer the set-up enables spectroscopic mapping of the transmittance of samples well below the diffraction limit. Spatial resolution down to about lambda/40 at 2 wavenumbers (0.06 THz) is derived from the transmittance spectra of the near-field probes. The potential of the technique is exemplified by imaging biological samples. Strongly absorbing living leaves have been imaged in transmittance with a spatial resolution of 130 mu-m at about 12 wave numbers (0.36 THz). The THz near-field images reveal distinct structural differences of leaves from different plants investigated. The technique presented also allows spectral imaging of bulky organic tissues. Human teeth samples of various thicknesses have been imaged between 2 and 20 wavenumbers (between 0.06and 0.6 THz). Regions of enamel and dentin within tooth samples are spatially and spectrally resolved, and buried caries lesions are imaged through both the outer enamel and into the underlying dentin.

  9. Phase-field theories for mathematical modeling of biological membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Guillermo R; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Hernández-Machado, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    Biological membranes are complex structures whose mechanics are usually described at a mesoscopic level, such as the Helfrich bending theory. In this article, we present the phase-field methods, a useful tool for studying complex membrane problems which can be applied to very different phenomena. We start with an overview of the general theory of elasticity, paying special attention to its derivation from a molecular scale. We then study the particular case of membrane elasticity, explicitly obtaining the Helfrich bending energy. Within the framework of this theory, we derive a phase-field model for biological membranes and explore its physical basis and interpretation in terms of membrane elasticity. We finally explain three examples of applications of these methods to membrane related problems. First, the case of vesicle pearling and tubulation, when lipidic vesicles are exposed to the presence of hydrophobic polymers that anchor to the membrane, inducing a shape instability. Finally, we study the behavior of red blood cells while flowing in narrow microchannels, focusing on the importance of membrane elasticity to the cell flow capabilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Epigenetics: A way to bridge the gap between biological fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoglou, Antonine; Merlin, Francesca

    2017-12-01

    The concept of epigenetics has evolved since Waddington defined it from the late 1930s as the study of the causal mechanisms at work in development. It has become a multi-faceted notion with different meanings, depending on the disciplinary context it is used. In this article, we first analyse the transformations of the concept of epigenetics, from Waddington to contemporary accounts, in order to identify its different meanings and traditions, and to come up with a typology of epigenetics throughout its history. Second, we show on this basis that epigenetics has progressively turned its main focus from biological problems regarding development, toward issues concerning evolution. Yet, both these different epistemological aspects of epigenetics still coexist. Third, we claim that the classical opposition between epigenesis and preformationism as ways of thinking about the developmental process is part of the history of epigenetics and has contributed to its current various meanings. With these objectives in mind, we first show how Waddington introduced the term "epigenetics" in a biological context in order to solve a developmental problem, and we then build on this by presenting Nanney's, Riggs' and Holliday's definitions, which form the basis for the current conception of "molecular epigenetics". Then, we show that the evo-devo research field is where some particular uses of epigenetics have started shifting from developmental issues to evolutionary problems. We also show that epigenetics has progressively focused on the issue of epigenetic inheritance within the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis' framework. Finally, we conclude by presenting a typology of the different conceptions of epigenetics throughout time, and analyse the connections between them. We argue that, since Waddington, epigenetics, as an integrative research area, has been used to bridge the gap between different biological fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Test plan : Branson TRIP travel time/data accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The Branson Travel and Recreational Information Program (TRIP) in Branson, Missouri, and the I-40 Traveler and Tourist Information System (TTIS) in the I-40 corridor of Northern Arizona are two Field Operational Tests (FOTs) of Traveler Information S...

  12. Chemical, Biological, and Explosive Sensors for Field Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyle, Kevin; Manard, Manuel; Weeks, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) is developing handheld chemical, biological, and explosive (CBE) detection systems and sensor motes for wireless networked field operations. The CBE sensors are capable of detecting and identifying multiple targeted toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) and high-explosive vapor components. The CBE devices are based on differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) coupled with fast gas chromatography (GC) or mass spectrometry. The systems all include the concepts of: (1) Direct air/particulate 'smart' sampling; (2) Selective, continuous real-time (∼1 sec) alert monitoring using DMS; and (3) Highly selective, rapid dual technology separation/verification analysis The biosensor technology is based on Raman aerosol particle flow cytometry for target detection and identification. Monitoring and identifying trace level chemical vapors directly from ambient air will allow First Responders to quickly adapt situational response strategies and personal protective equipment needs to the specific response scenario being encountered. First Responders require great confidence in the measurements and ability of a given system to detect CBE below threshold levels without interferences. The concept of determining the background matrix in near real-time to allow subsequent automated field-programmable method selection and cueing of high-value assets in a wide range of environs will be presented. This provides CBE information for decisions prior to First Responders entering the response site or sending a portable mobile unit for a remote site survey of the hazards. The focus is on real-time information needed by those responsible for emergency response and national security

  13. Chemical, Biological, and Explosive Sensors for Field Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Kyle, Manuel Manard, Stephan Weeks

    2009-01-31

    Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) is developing handheld chemical, biological, and explosive (CBE) detection systems and sensor motes for wireless networked field operations. The CBE sensors are capable of detecting and identifying multiple targeted toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) and high-explosive vapor components. The CBE devices are based on differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) coupled with fast gas chromatography (GC) or mass spectrometry. The systems all include the concepts of: 1. Direct air/particulate “smart” sampling 2. Selective, continuous real-time (~1 sec) alert monitoring using DMS 3. Highly selective, rapid dual technology separation/verification analysis The biosensor technology is based on Raman aerosol particle flow cytometry for target detection and identification. Monitoring and identifying trace level chemical vapors directly from ambient air will allow First Responders to quickly adapt situational response strategies and personal protective equipment needs to the specific response scenario being encountered. First Responders require great confidence in the measurements and ability of a given system to detect CBE below threshold levels without interferences. The concept of determining the background matrix in near real-time to allow subsequent automated field-programmable method selection and cueing of high-value assets in a wide range of environs will be presented. This provides CBE information for decisions prior to First Responders entering the response site or sending a portable mobile unit for a remote site survey of the hazards. The focus is on real-time information needed by those responsible for emergency response and national security.

  14. Biological effect of magnetic field on the fermentation of wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Dobšinský

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the transformation process of matter is produced energy, which afterwards interacts with matter itself, and other forms of energy. Energy induced electromagnetic appliances may affect the processes occurring in biological systems. In our study we have evaluated the wine fermentation process of the magnetic field with different amplitudes of electromagnetic induction, the constant exposure of 30 minutes a day for 10 days. The device for inducing magnetism was constructed at the Department of Fruit Growing, Viticulture and Enology at Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra for research purposes. Essence of the device lies in the way of the management of direct current, which flows through the coil. Volume of direct current is regulated by network auto-transformer. Output of network autotransformer is rectified by two-way bridge rectifier. The coil is powered by a direct current voltage pulse. This device has a maximum value of the magnetic induction at 150 mT. At full power it must be supplied from three-phase socket with a rated current of 32 A. For our experiment, we chose wine grape variety of Hibernal, from Nitra wine region. The magnetic field induced by the electromagnetic device has an impact on the process of fermentation and sensory characteristics of a young wine. As part of the sensory profile, we noticed higher levels of residual sugar and speed up of the fermentation process and the process of purifying of the young wine. The influence of magnetic field on grape juice during the entire fermentation process and production of wine is a convenient way to improve the quality of wine without side effects or any chemical additives.

  15. Human round trip to Mars: Six months and radiation safe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazareth, O.W.; Schmidt, E.; Ludewig, H.; Powell, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    We describe a different type of round trip to Mars, using a combination of spacecraft. Compared to typical proposals, this flight is relatively fast and relatively safe from biological radiation dosage. Our study is concerned with the trip from Earth orbit to Mars orbit. Four spacecraft are required for the round trip. The crew spends most of their time on board a comparatively large, well shielded spacecraft (LC) which is in free (non-powered) orbit about the sun. The crew travels from Earth orbit to the LC while on board a comparatively small, powered spacecraft (SC). At Mars, the procedure is reversed and the crew returns on a second LC. In addition, a cargo craft, with no crew, is sent to Mars prior to the crew leaving Earth orbit. The trip time is about six months and the radiation dose equivalent is within guidelines recommended by the National Commission on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

  16. Geology of the Devonian Marcellus Shale--Valley and Ridge province, Virginia and West Virginia--a field trip guidebook for the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Eastern Section Meeting, September 28-29, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Catherine B.; Coleman, James L.; Haynes, John T.; Whitmeyer, Steven J.; McDowell, Ronald R.; Lewis, J. Eric; Spear, Tyler P.; Swezey, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed and reconnaissance field mapping and the results of geochemical and mineralogical analyses of outcrop samples indicate that the Devonian shales of the Broadtop Synclinorium from central Virginia to southern Pennsylvania have an organic content sufficiently high and a thermal maturity sufficiently moderate to be considered for a shale gas play. The organically rich Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale is present throughout most of the synclinorium, being absent only where it has been eroded from the crests of anticlines. Geochemical analyses of outcrop and well samples indicate that hydrocarbons have been generated and expelled from the kerogen originally in place in the shale. The mineralogical characteristics of the Marcellus Shale samples from the Broadtop Synclinorium are slightly different from the averages of samples from New York, Pennsylvania, northeast Ohio, and northern West Virginia. The Middle Devonian shale interval is moderately to heavily fractured in all areas, but in some areas substantial fault shearing has removed a regular "cleat" system of fractures. Conventional anticlinal gas fields in the study area that are productive from the Lower Devonian Oriskany Sandstone suggest that a continuous shale gas system may be in place within the Marcellus Shale interval at least in a portion of the synclinorium. Third-order intraformational deformation is evident within the Marcellus shale exposures. Correlations between outcrops and geophysical logs from exploration wells nearby will be examined by field trip attendees.

  17. News Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

  18. Contextual influences on trip generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This study examines the ways in which urban context affects vehicle trip generation rates across a variety of land uses. An establishment intercept travel survey was administered at 78 establishments in the Portland, Oregon region during the summer o...

  19. Make My Trip Count 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Make My Trip Count (MMTC) commuter survey, conducted in September and October 2015 by GBA, the Pittsburgh 2030 District, and 10 other regional transportation...

  20. CNMI Commercial Purchases (Trip Ticket)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Division of Fish and Wildlife (DFW) collects 'Trip Ticket' or purchase invoice data from vendors that buy fish...

  1. Trip Report of Field Search for Exercise Desert Rock Documentation Conducted by Representatives of The Adjutant General 18 June 1978 to 14 July 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-04

    2 Army Field Forces Doard Number 2 2 Army Field Forces Board Number 3 2 Army Field Forces Board Nutbor 4 2 A" Liaison Orficur, Sandia Base, Neav ...FORD WILLIAM 0 CCIE58572 AF %_COCCCOO2gC FOX RICt-ARC K CCE74191C ti P _COCCCOOe62 FCX RICh-ARC K CC’,74191C N’ ICOCCCOOE63 FRASER CONALU M CCC33...eC44 N v cocoCCS0G~8 FRASER Mi~AL1 M CCC33044N .~ It OCCCOOS07_.- FRtSER CIONALE 14 CCIC39912 rhP vCCCCCOO0O-1 UFRASER CONALC_4 M CC7C3992 N viP

  2. Biological applications of near-field scanning optical microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moers, Marco H.P.; Moers, M.H.P.; Ruiter, A.G.T.; Jalocha, A.; Jalocha, Alain; van Hulst, N.F.

    1995-01-01

    Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopy (NSOM) is a true optical microscopic technique allowing fluorescence, absorption, reflection and polarization contrast with the additional advantage of nanometer lateral resolution, unlimited by diffraction and operation at ambient conditions. NSOM based on

  3. Effects of Magnetic Field on Biological Cells and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Jen

    2001-03-01

    While there has been extensive research performed in the physics of magnetic fields and the physics and chemistry in life sciences, independent of each other, there has been a paucity of scientific research and development investigating the possible applications of magnetic fields in life sciences. The focus of this presentation is to present the stimulation mechanism by which magnetic fields affect (a) yeast cells (b) plant cells and (c) mammalian normal and cancer cells. Recently we have found that the Saccharomyces Cerevsa yeast growth increases by about 30to a 1 tesla field and the production of CO2 increases by about 30of yeast metabolism may be due to an increase in intercellular interaction and protein channel alignment, the introduction of an alteration in the DNA from the magnetic field exposure or a combination of these mechanisms. We also have found that the application of high magnetic fields (1 tesla and above) can have marked effects on the germination and growth of plants, especially corn, beans and peas. This finding has opened up the possibility of technology developments in botanical growth systems to accelerate seed germination and crop harvesting. Most recently we have investigated the application of high magnetic fields on leukemia, CaCoII and HEP G2 cancer cell lines. We found that when leukemia are exposed to a 12 tesla field for 2 hours has an increase in cell death by about 30that were not exposed to the magnetic field. Viability of CaCoII cells sandwiched between permanent magnets of maximum strength of 1.2 tesla was measured. A decrease in viable cells by 33unexposed cells. HSP 70 was measured for HEPG2 cells that were exposed to permanent magnetic field of 1.2 tesla for 40 minutes and for unexposed cells. It was found that the exposed cells produce 19 times more HSP70 compared to unexposed cells. Our results together with other investigators report suggest a strong evidence of a reduction in the cell growth rate for cancer cells when

  4. Exact image theory for field calculation in layered biological medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanen, E.; Lindell, I.V.

    1985-01-01

    A method based on the exact image theory to calculate the near field distribution of a horn antenna in direct contact with the skin is introduced. Being exact, the method is not restricted by parameter values and can be applied in optimization of horn aperture function to produce focus fields in the human body. The method observes the effect of the skin layer and can be applied for an arbitrary aperture function. The optimization is demonstrated with few examples

  5. The return trip effect: why the return trip often seems to take less time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Niels; van Rijswijk, Leon; Roy, Michael M

    2011-10-01

    Three studies confirm the existence of the return trip effect: The return trip often seems shorter than the initial trip, even though the distance traveled and the actual time spent traveling are identical. A pretest shows that people indeed experience a return trip effect regularly, and the effect was found on a bus trip (Study 1), a bicycle trip (Study 2), and when participants watched a video of someone else traveling (Study 3). The return trip effect also existed when another, equidistant route was taken on the return trip, showing that it is not familiarity with the route that causes this effect. Rather, it seems that a violation of expectations causes this effect.

  6. Biología del Trips Frankliniella Occidentalis (Pegande) (Thysanoptera: thripidae) sobre Crisantemo Chrysanthemum morifolium l. bajo condiciones de laboratorio Developmentaland reproductive biology of Frankliniella Occidentslis (Pegande) (Thysanoptera: thripidae) on Chrysanthemum

    OpenAIRE

    Cardenas Estrella; Corredor Dario

    1989-01-01

    La especie Frankliniella occidentalis (Pegande) se encontró causando daño a flores de crisantemo en una empresa de la
    Sabana de Bogotá. Se estudió su biología bajo condiciones de laboratorio (24,31 ± 2,50C y 66,36 ± 12% H.R.). El rango de
    duración en días de su ciclo de vida fue: huevo 4-5, ninfa de primer instar 3-4, ninfa de segundo instar 5-8, prepupa 4-6, pupa 3-5 y los adultos alcanzaron una longevidad entre 60 y 121 días. Esta especie presentó partenogénesis de tip...

  7. Biología del Trips Frankliniella Occidentalis (Pegande (Thysanoptera: thripidae sobre Crisantemo Chrysanthemum morifolium l. bajo condiciones de laboratorio Developmentaland reproductive biology of Frankliniella Occidentslis (Pegande (Thysanoptera: thripidae on Chrysanthemum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardenas Estrella

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available La especie Frankliniella occidentalis (Pegande se encontró causando daño a flores de crisantemo en una empresa de la
    Sabana de Bogotá. Se estudió su biología bajo condiciones de laboratorio (24,31 ± 2,50C y 66,36 ± 12% H.R.. El rango de
    duración en días de su ciclo de vida fue: huevo 4-5, ninfa de primer instar 3-4, ninfa de segundo instar 5-8, prepupa 4-6, pupa 3-5 y los adultos alcanzaron una longevidad entre 60 y 121 días. Esta especie presentó partenogénesis de tipo arrenotoquia; de las hembras fecundadas se obtuvo una generación
    de 87,5% hembras y 12% machos. La fecundidad por partenogénesis fue de 325,7 huevos por hembra y la sexual de
    303,1 huevos por hembra.F. occidentelis (Pegande was found to be an important pest in chrysanthemum green houses at the Bogotá Plateau.
    We studied its biology under lab conditions (24 ± 2.50C and 66 ± 12% R.H.. Its life cycle was egg 4-5 days, first instar nymph 3-4 days, second instar nymph 5-3 day prepupa 4-6 days, pupa 3-5 days and the adults had a longevity between 60 and 121
    days. Females reproduce by parthenogenesis (Arrhenotoky in the absence of males. Fertilized females produced 87.5% females and 12% males. Fecundity of parthenogenetic females was 325.7 eggs per female. Fecundity of sexually reproduced females was 303.1 eggs per female.

  8. Electromagnetic field interaction with biological systems and microwave hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behari, J.; Srivastava, G.P.

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of microwaves with biological system is best understood in terms of heating of the tissues. This in turn lead to changes in chemical reaction rates and current flows, the understanding of which demands a basic knowledge of mechanisms of microwave-biointeraction. A practical advantage of this lies in using this method for selective heating of tissues as in the case of cancer. Modality of heating by using interstitial implants and interstitial antennas is discussed. Design of antennas for specific heating profile is also presented. (author)

  9. Nanoscaled biological gated field effect transistors for cytogenetic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Dimaki, Maria; Andersen, Karsten Brandt

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis is the study of chromosome structure and function, and is often used in cancer diagnosis, as many chromosome abnormalities are linked to the onset of cancer. A novel label free detection method for chromosomal translocation analysis using nanoscaled field effect transistors...

  10. Learning from a Bike Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Mike

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a bike trip which marks the culmination of a unit reviewing map-reading capabilities. In seventh grade, students develop various map skills, including cardinal and intermediate directions, how to measure distance on a map using a scale of miles, how to interpret the legend of a map, and how to locate places…

  11. The E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of Trip12 is essential for mouse embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Kajiro

    Full Text Available Protein ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification that regulates many biological conditions. Trip12 is a HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates ARF and APP-BP1. However, the significance of Trip12 in vivo is largely unknown. Here we show that the ubiquitin ligase activity of Trip12 is indispensable for mouse embryogenesis. A homozygous mutation in Trip12 (Trip12(mt/mt that disrupts the ubiquitin ligase activity resulted in embryonic lethality in the middle stage of development. Trip12(mt/mt embryos exhibited growth arrest and increased expression of the negative cell cycle regulator p16. In contrast, Trip12(mt/mt ES cells were viable. They had decreased proliferation, but maintained both the undifferentiated state and the ability to differentiate. Trip12(mt/mt ES cells had increased levels of the BAF57 protein (a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex and altered gene expression patterns. These data suggest that Trip12 is involved in global gene expression and plays an important role in mouse development.

  12. Waveguide evanescent field fluorescence microscopy & its application in cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Abdollah

    There are many powerful microscopy technologies available for the investigation of bulk materials as well as for thin film samples. Nevertheless, for imaging an interface, especially live cells on a substrate and ultra thin-films, only Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is available. This TIRF microscopy allows imaging without interference of the bulk. Various approaches are employed in fluorescence microscopy applications to restrict the excitation and detection of fluorophores to a thin region of the specimen. Elimination of background fluorescence from outside the focal plane can dramatically improve the signal-to-noise ratio, and consequently, the spatial resolution of the features or events of interest. TIRF microscopy is an evanescent field based microscopy. In this method, fluorescent dyes are only excited within an evanescent field: roughly within 100 nm above a glass coverslip. This will allow imaging surface and interfacial issues of the glass coverslip and an adjacent material. Waveguide evanescent field fluorescence (WEFF) microscopy is a new development for imaging cell-substrate interactions in real time and in vitro. It is an alternative to TIRF microscopy. In this method the light is coupled into a waveguide via an optical grating. The coupled light propagates as a waveguide mode and exhibits an evanescent field on top of the waveguide. This can be used as a surface-bound illumination source to excite fluorophores. This evanescent field serves as an extremely powerful tool for quality control of thin films, to study cell-substrate contacts, and investigating the effect of external agents and drugs on the cell-substrate interaction in real time and in vitro. This new method has been established and optimized to minimize non-uniformity, scattering and photo bleaching issues. Visualizing and quantifying of the cell-substrates and solid thin films have been carried out by WEFF microscopy. The images of the cell-substrate interface

  13. Resonance properties of the biological objects in the RF field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocherova, E.; Kupec, P.; Stofanik, V.

    2011-12-01

    Irradiation of people with electromagnetic fields emitted from miscellaneous devices working in the radio-frequency (RF) range may have influence, for example may affect brain processes. The question of health impact of RF electromagnetic fields on population is still not closed. This article is devoted to an investigation of resonance phenomena of RF field absorption in the models of whole human body and body parts (a head) of different size and shape. The values of specific absorption rate (SAR) are evaluated for models of the different shapes: spherical, cylindrical, realistic shape and for different size of the model, that represents the case of new-born, child and adult person. In the RF frequency region, absorption depends nonlinearly on frequency. Under certain conditions (E-polarization), absorption reaches maximum at frequency, that is called "resonance frequency". The whole body absorption and the resonance frequency depends on many further parameters, that are not comprehensively clarified. The simulation results showed the dependence of the whole-body average SAR and resonance frequency on the body dimensions, as well as the influence of the body shape.

  14. Resonance properties of the biological objects in the RF field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocherova, E; Kupec, P; Stofanik, V

    2011-01-01

    Irradiation of people with electromagnetic fields emitted from miscellaneous devices working in the radio-frequency (RF) range may have influence, for example may affect brain processes. The question of health impact of RF electromagnetic fields on population is still not closed. This article is devoted to an investigation of resonance phenomena of RF field absorption in the models of whole human body and body parts (a head) of different size and shape. The values of specific absorption rate (SAR) are evaluated for models of the different shapes: spherical, cylindrical, realistic shape and for different size of the model, that represents the case of new-born, child and adult person. In the RF frequency region, absorption depends nonlinearly on frequency. Under certain conditions (E-polarization), absorption reaches maximum at frequency, that is called r esonance frequency . The whole body absorption and the resonance frequency depends on many further parameters, that are not comprehensively clarified. The simulation results showed the dependence of the whole-body average SAR and resonance frequency on the body dimensions, as well as the influence of the body shape.

  15. Trip generation studies for special generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    This research examines the effects of town centers and senior housing developments on : surrounding roadways and nearby transit. The Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) : Trip Generation Manual, which determines number of trips produced or at...

  16. Trip generation characteristics of special generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Special generators are introduced in the sequential four-step modeling procedure to represent certain types of facilities whose trip generation characteristics are not fully captured by the standard trip generation module. They are also used in the t...

  17. Trip generation and data analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Through the Trip Generation and Data Analysis Study, the District of Columbia Department of : Transportation (DDOT) is undertaking research to better understand multimodal urban trip generation : at mixed-use sites in the District. The study is helpi...

  18. Biological effects of exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahnstroem, G.

    1992-10-01

    The biological effects of exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields are reviewed with the objective of summarizing effects directly relevant to considerations of the health and safety of exposed people

  19. Mars Field Geology, Biology, and Paleontology Workshop: Summary and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budden, Nancy Ann (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    Current NASA planning envisions human missions to Mars as early as 2013, on a mission that would send six crew members for a 500-day stay on the surface of Mars. While our understanding of how we would get there and back is fairly mature, the planning for what the crew would do to explore while on the surface for 500 days is less detailed. Mission objectives are to understand the composition and geo- morphology of the martian surface, and to continue to investigate and sample the geologic history of Mars. Special emphasis will focus on exploring for possible biogenic signatures, past or present, and on analyzing pre-biotic chemistry. The purpose of this workshop was to explore the strategies, desired capabilities, skills, and operational realities required to lend success to the first human missions to Mars. Current mission planning dictates that there will be considerable mobility, sampling and analytical capability available to human crews, at a site warranting long-term geologic and possibly biological interest. However, the details of specific capabilities are not yet clearly defined.

  20. Trip internalization in multi-use developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Internal trip capture refers to how the number trips to and from a development are reduced by the proximity of : complementary land uses within the development (e.g., residential to retail). Internal trips occur within the : development and do not en...

  1. One-trip drum operating instruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, D.T.

    1994-01-01

    The one trip system is a bagless transfer system for egress of waste from gloveboxes into 55 gallon one-trip drums. The contents of this document give an overview of the assembly, loading, and handling of the one-trip drum for use in the WRAP-1 plant

  2. The silica road: Field trip notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soto

    2016-09-01

    This paper present some keynotes distributed to the symposium attendants. It consists on: 1 a brief geological framework of the Montsant Massif, located at the southern margin of the Catalan Central Depression. It includes the definition of their Palaeozoic to Cenozoic depositional sequence and the localization of some points of interests with panoramic views and source areas where Tertiary chert nodules were available. They represent a significant focus for the raw materials procurement of several Paleolithic occupations since Lower Pleistocene. 2 A general presentation of the Middle Palaeolithic site of the Abric Romaní site, including a brief reference of the three research phases initiated at the beginning of 20th Century, the description of its 50 meters stratigraphic sequence, where 27 archaeological levels have been identified dating since 110 to 39 ka BP, and some of the main traits of the archaeological assemblages recovered.

  3. Geology Field Trips as Performance Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Callan

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important goals the author has for students in his introductory-level physical geology course is to give them the conceptual skills for solving geologic problems on their own. He wants students to leave his course as individuals who can use their knowledge of geologic processes and logic to figure out the extended geologic history…

  4. On a Field Trip with Bourdieu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    for exploring the strength and limits of state authority—also beyond the national territory. More- over, I claim that sovereign state interaction—diplomacy—has developed into a metafield. If we are to understand emerging challenges to state authority, from private companies to international organizations...... and global media, we need to study everyday activities, which both reproduce and challenge the sovereign state system as a meaningful reality. I illustrate this idea of competing articulations of political authority by focusing on the EU’s new diplomatic service, which chal- lenges the very idea of national...

  5. Simulated field trip on ski area development

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Lindsay; Hubertus J. Mittmann

    1979-01-01

    Not too long ago winter sports facilities were small and simple. As more people participated in winter sports and technology advanced, the impact on the land in-creased not only from the standpoint of actual facilities needed for winter recreation but also from associated facilities. In many instances winter sports areas developed into full fledged tourist oriented...

  6. Gulf of Aqaba Field Trip - Datasets

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2013-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this work we use geophysical methods to locate and characterize active faults in alluvial sediments. INTRODUCTION: Since only subtle material and velocity contrasts are expected across the faults, we used seismic refraction tomography and 2D resistivity imaging to locate the fault. One seismic profile and one 2D resistivity profile are collected at an alluvial fan on the Gulf of Aqaba coast in Saudi Arabia. The collected data are inverted to generate the traveltime tomogram and the electric resistivity tomogram (ERT). A low velocity anomaly is shown on the traveltime tomogram indicates the colluvial wedge associated with the fault. The location of the fault is shown on the ERT as a vertical high resistivity anomaly. Two data sets were collected at the study site to map the subsurface structure along a profile across the known normal fault described above. The first data set is a seismic refraction data set and the second is a 2D resistivity imaging data set. A total of 120 common shot gathers were collected (MatLab and DPik format). Each shot gather has 120 traces at equal shot and receiver intervals of 2.5 m. The total length of the profile is 297.5 m . Data were recorded using a 1 ms sampling interval for a total recording time of 0.3 s. A 200 lb weight drop was used as the seismic source, with 10 to 15 stacks at each shot location. One 2D resistivity profile is acquired at the same location and parallel to the seismic profile. The acquisition parameters of the resistivity profile are: No. of nodes: 64, Node interval: 5 m, Configuration Array: Schlumberger-Wenner, Total profile length: 315 m, Both seismic and resistivity profiles share the same starting point at the western end of the profile.

  7. Problem-based learning through field investigation: Boosting questioning skill, biological literacy, and academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwono, Hadi; Wibowo, Agung

    2018-01-01

    Biology learning emphasizes problem-based learning as a learning strategy to develop students ability in identifying and solving problems in the surrounding environment. Problem identification skills are closely correlated with questioning skills. By holding this skill, students tend to deliver a procedural question instead of the descriptive one. Problem-based learning through field investigation is an instruction model which directly exposes the students to problems or phenomena that occur in the environment, and then the students design the field investigation activities to solve these problems. The purpose of this research was to describe the improvement of undergraduate biology students on questioning skills, biological literacy, and academic achievement through problem-based learning through field investigation (PBFI) compared with the lecture-based instruction (LBI). This research was a time series quasi-experimental design. The research was conducted on August - December 2015 and involved 26 undergraduate biology students at the State University of Malang on the Freshwater Ecology course. The data were collected during the learning with LBI and PBFI, in which questioning skills, biological literacy, and academic achievement were collected 3 times in each learning model. The data showed that the procedural correlative and causal types of questions are produced by the students to guide them in conducting investigations and problem-solving in PBFI. The biological literacy and academic achievement of the students at PBFI are significantly higher than those at LBI. The results show that PBFI increases the questioning skill, biological literacy, and the academic achievement of undergraduate biology students.

  8. Static magnetic fields: A summary of biological interactions, potential health effects, and exposure guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1992-05-01

    Interest in the mechanisms of interaction and the biological effects of static magnetic fields has increased significantly during the past two decades as a result of the growing number of applications of these fields in research, industry and medicine. A major stimulus for research on the bioeffects of static magnetic fields has been the effort to develop new technologies for energy production and storage that utilize intense magnetic fields (e.g., thermonuclear fusion reactors and superconducting magnet energy storage devices). Interest in the possible biological interactions and health effects of static magnetic fields has also been increased as a result of recent developments in magnetic levitation as a mode of public transportation. In addition, the rapid emergence of magnetic resonance imaging as a new clinical diagnostic procedure has, in recent years, provided a strong rationale for defining the possible biological effects of magnetic fields with high flux densities. In this review, the principal interaction mechanisms of static magnetic fields will be described, and a summary will be given of the present state of knowledge of the biological, environmental, and human health effects of these fields.

  9. From a word to a world: the current situation in the interdisciplinary field of synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xiaojun; Rousseau, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Using a carefully designed search query, we describe the field of synthetic biology in terms of leading countries, organizations and funding sources. Besides articles we also paid some attention to patents. The USA is the leading country in this field, followed by China. There is a clear exponential growth in the field of synthetic biology over the latest 14 years. Keywords were analyzed using the notion of year-based h-indices, core gap and relative core gap. We conclude that the term “synth...

  10. The Role of Field Classes in Education of Prospective Teachers in Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fleszar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Field classes are indispensable in education of biology and environment protection students, as they allow a future teacher to carry out teaching material bringing together theory and practice through activity. In the framework of Biology Didactics classes the biology students of the Faculty of Natural Sciences at the University of Szczecin participate actively in the works on didactic nature trail in the Arkoñski Woods prepared by Dr. Ewa Fleszar. During the work on didactic natural path the students make themselves acquainted with: field class objectives; field class tasks; field class programmes, e.g. concerning phenology; flora and fauna species. Writing synopsis of field classes for selected lesson units at different teaching levels they acquire sound knowledge based on the ecological contents. Contacts with nature as well as gaining the experience during field classes allow them to obtain competences for working in the field and to understand the objectives of carrying out such classes. Field classes have an effect on developing interests of participants in the subject, and affect the improvement of teaching performance. Visit to the field forms ecological awareness, which leads to obtaining an ecological culture.

  11. Interaction of biological systems with static and ELF electric and magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.E.; Kelman, B.J.; Weigel, R.J. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    Although background levels of atmospheric electric and geomagnetic field levels are extremely low, over the past several decades, human beings and other life forms on this planet have been subjected to a dramatically changing electromagnetic milieu. An exponential increase in exposure to electromagnetic fields has occurred, largely because of such technological advances as the growth of electrical power generation and transmission systems, the increased use of wireless communications, and the use of radar. In addition, electromagnetic field generating devices have proliferated in industrial plants, office buildings, homes, public transportation systems, and elsewhere. Although significant increases have occurred in electromagnetic field strenghths spanning all frequency ranges, this symposium addresses only the impact of these fields at static and extremely low frequencies (ELF), primarily 50 and 60 Hz. This volume contains the proceedings of the symposium entitled /open quotes/Interaction of biological systems with static and ELF electric and magnetic fields/close quotes/. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for discussions of all aspects of research on the interaction of static and ELF electromagnetic fields with biological systems. These systems include simple biophysical models, cell and organ preparations, whole animals, and man. Dosimetry, exposure system design, and artifacts in ELF bioeffects research were also addressed, along with current investigations that examine fundamental mechanisms of interactions between the fields and biological processes. Papers are indexed separately.

  12. Publication Growth in Biological Sub-Fields: Patterns, Predictability and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pautasso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Biologists are producing ever-increasing quantities of papers. The question arises of whether current rates of increase in scientific outputs are sustainable in the long term. I studied this issue using publication data from the Web of Science (1991–2010 for 18 biological sub-fields. In the majority of cases, an exponential regression explains more variation than a linear one in the number of papers published each year as a function of publication year. Exponential growth in publication numbers is clearly not sustainable. About 75% of the variation in publication growth among biological sub-fields over the two studied decades can be predicted by publication data from the first six years. Currently trendy fields such as structural biology, neuroscience and biomaterials cannot be expected to carry on growing at the current pace, because in a few decades they would produce more papers than the whole of biology combined. Synthetic and systems biology are problematic from the point of view of knowledge dissemination, because in these fields more than 80% of existing papers have been published over the last five years. The evidence presented here casts a shadow on how sustainable the recent increase in scientific publications can be in the long term.

  13. Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Krauss

    Full Text Available Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short

  14. Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid

  15. Do field-free electromagnetic potentials play a role in biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, A; Vincze, G; Andocs, G; Szasz, O

    2009-01-01

    All bio-systems are imperfect dielectrics. Their general properties however cannot be described by conventional simple electrodynamics; the system is more complex. A central question in our present paper is centered on a controversial debate of the possible effect of the zero fields (only potentials exist). We show that the identical use of the "field-free," "curl-free," and "force-free" terminologies is incorrect, there have definitely different meanings. It is shown that the effective electro-dynamical parameters that describe and modify living systems are the potentials and not the fields. We discuss how the potentials have a role in biological processes even in field-free cases.

  16. Identifying Walking Trips Using GPS Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Gi-Hyoug; Rodríguez, Daniel A; Evenson, Kelly R

    2011-02-01

    this study developed and tested algorithms to identify outdoor walking trips from portable global positioning system (GPS) units in free-living conditions. the study included a calibration and a validation phase. For the calibration phase, we determined the best algorithm from 35 person-days of data. Measures of agreement regarding the daily number and duration of diary-reported and GPS-identified trips were used. In the validation phase, the best algorithm was applied to an additional and separate 136 person-days of diary and GPS data. the preferred algorithm in the calibration phase resulted in 90% of trips identified from the GPS data being found in the diary, whereas 81% of trips reported in the diary being found in the GPS data. The preferred algorithm used 1) a maximum 3-min gap between points to define a trip, 2) at least 5 min or more of continuous GPS points, 3) a speed range between 2 and 8.0 km·h, 4) at least 30 m of displacement between the start and end points of a trip, and 5) merged walking trips when the time gap between trips was less than 3 min. With the validation data, substantial agreement between the GPS and the diary was achieved, with 86% of trips identified from the GPS data found in the diary and 77% of trips reported in the diary found in the GPS data. the algorithm identified free-living walking trips of more than 5 min in duration. The ability to identify outdoor walking trips from GPS data can be improved by reducing recording intervals used in the GPS units and monitoring participant compliance. Further research is desirable to determine whether concurrent wearing of an accelerometer may improve the ability to detect walking more accurately.

  17. TRIP RATES FOR CONDOMINIUM CONSTRUCTION PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirach Hirun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of large scale condominium construction projects had dramatically increased in Bangkok. Many projects had occurred in either densely populated areas or in central business districts, where traffic conditions were usually highly congested. To prevent traffic problems, a traffic impact study must be prepared and submitted for review by concerned public authorities. Unit trip generation rates were important data in traffic impact analysis. Without accurate unit trip generation rates, public agencies could not obtain accurate information on the traffic that will be generated. This study aimed to study trip rates and the factors affecting them for condominium construction project in Bangkok. The data were collected from 30 condominium construction sites located in 15 districts of Bangkok. The analysis used the linear regression method and was divided into three cases: 1 trip rates for all vehicles, 2 trip rates for classified vehicles, and 3 trip rates for all types of condominium. All case analyses considered weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday. The results found that trip rates related to the number of dwellings in the condominium. The trip rates for all vehicle types on weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday were 10.636, 4.647, and 9.294 vehicles per 100 dwelling units per day respectively. The trip rates for six-wheeled and ten-wheeled trucks on weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday were 2.046, 0.975, and 0.575 vehicles per 100 dwelling units per day respectively. The trip rate for four-wheeled trucks and passenger cars on weekdays was 1.960. Regarding condominium types, the trip rate for low rise condominiums for all vehicle types on weekdays was 5.315 while the trip rates for high rise condominiums for weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday were 3.965, 2.667, and 1.261 respectively.

  18. Methods for studying and criteria for evaluating the biological effects of electric fields of industrial frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savin, B.M.; Shandala, M.G.; Nikonova, K.V.; Morozov, Yu.A.

    1978-10-01

    Data are reviewed from a number of USSR research studies on the biological effects of electric power transmission lines of 1150 Kv and above. Effects on man, plants, animals, and terrestrial ecosystems are reported. Existing health standards in the USSR for the exposure of personnel working in electric fields are included. It is concluded that high-voltage electric fields have a harmful effect on man and his environment.

  19. Procedural Aspects of Compulsory Licensing Under TRIPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wested, Jakob; Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    and discussion addressed the framework and context for CL provided by the TRIPS convention. Both the specific requirements enshrined in TRIPS art 31 and the broader objectives and principles enshrined in TRIPS, e.g. transfer and dissemination of technology (art 7), protection of public health (art 8......In 2013, Indian authorities granted a compulsory license to NATCO Pharmaceuticals for a patented pharmaceutical product sold by Bayer. This decision raised several complex issues regarding the grant a CL and their consistency with the principles and objectives of TRIPS. Furthermore, in January 2017...

  20. Mechanisms of interaction and biological effects of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1994-07-01

    Evidence is mounting, that environmental electric and magnetic fields in the extremely-low-frequency (ELF) band below 300 Hz can influence biological functions by mechanisms that are only poorly understood at the present time. The primary objectives of this paper are to review the physical properties of ELF fields, their interactions with living systems at the tissue, cellular, and subcellular levels, and the key role of cell membranes in the transduction of signals from imposed ELF fields. Topics of discussion include signal-to-noise ratios for single cells and cell aggregates, resonance phenomena involving a combination of static and ELF magnetic fields, and the possible influence of ELF fields on molecular signaling pathways that involve membrane receptors and cytoplasmic second messengers. The implications of these findings for promotion of tumor growth by ELF fields are also reviewed.

  1. The rebirth of the morphogenetic field as an explanatory tool in biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perović Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I discuss two uses of the concept of the morphogenetic field, a tool of the 19th century biology motivated by particular ontological views of the time, which has been re-emerging and increasingly relevant in explaining microbiological phenomena. I also consider the relation of these uses to the Central Dogma of modern biology as well as Modern Synthesis of Darwinism and genetics. An induced morphogenetic field is determined by a physical (e.g., gravitational field, or it acquires a physical (e.g., visco-elastic field’s characteristics. Such a morphogenetic field presents only a weak challenge to the Central Dogma of Modern Synthesis by indirectly, albeit severely, constraining variability at the molecular level. I discuss explanations that introduce structural inheritance in ciliate protozoa, as well as the experimental evidence on which these arguments are based. The global cellular morphogenetic field is a unit of such inheritance. I discuss relevant cases of structural inheritance in ciliates that bring about internal cellular as well as functional changes and point out that DNA is absent in the cortex and that RNA controls neither intermediary nor the global level of the field. I go on to argue that utilizing knowledge of known physical fields may advance explanations and understanding of the morphogenetic field in ciliates as the unit of both development and inheritance. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179041: Dynamic Systems in nature and society: Philosophical and empirical aspects

  2. Biological effects from electric fields associated with high voltage transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    Efforts during the past year by the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute-funded laboratories to investigate the biological effects from electric fields are described in resume form. Investigations generally have been summarized with objectives, accomplishments of the past year, and some indication of projected studies.

  3. Predictive Trip Detection for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Drew J.; Jiang, Jin

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates the use of a Kalman filter (KF) to predict, within the shutdown system (SDS) of a nuclear power plant (NPP), whether safety parameter measurements have reached a trip set-point. In addition, least squares (LS) estimation compensates for prediction error due to system-model mismatch. The motivation behind predictive shutdown is to reduce the amount of time between the occurrence of a fault or failure and the time of trip detection, referred to as time-to-trip. These reductions in time-to-trip can ultimately lead to increases in safety and productivity margins. The proposed predictive SDS differs from conventional SDSs in that it compares point-predictions of the measurements, rather than sensor measurements, against trip set-points. The predictive SDS is validated through simulation and experiments for the steam generator water level safety parameter. Performance of the proposed predictive SDS is compared against benchmark conventional SDS with respect to time-to-trip. In addition, this paper analyzes: prediction uncertainty, as well as; the conditions under which it is possible to achieve reduced time-to-trip. Simulation results demonstrate that on average the predictive SDS reduces time-to-trip by an amount of time equal to the length of the prediction horizon and that the distribution of times-to-trip is approximately Gaussian. Experimental results reveal that a reduced time-to-trip can be achieved in a real-world system with unknown system-model mismatch and that the predictive SDS can be implemented with a scan time of under 100ms. Thus, this paper is a proof of concept for KF/LS-based predictive trip detection.

  4. Blood Stage Plasmodium falciparum Exhibits Biological Responses to Direct Current Electric Fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena M Coronado

    Full Text Available The development of resistance to insecticides by the vector of malaria and the increasingly faster appearance of resistance to antimalarial drugs by the parasite can dangerously hamper efforts to control and eradicate the disease. Alternative ways to treat this disease are urgently needed. Here we evaluate the in vitro effect of direct current (DC capacitive coupling electrical stimulation on the biology and viability of Plasmodium falciparum. We designed a system that exposes infected erythrocytes to different capacitively coupled electric fields in order to evaluate their effect on P. falciparum. The effect on growth of the parasite, replication of DNA, mitochondrial membrane potential and level of reactive oxygen species after exposure to electric fields demonstrate that the parasite is biologically able to respond to stimuli from DC electric fields involving calcium signaling pathways.

  5. Biological effects of high strength electric fields. Second interim progress report, September 1976--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, R.D.; Kaune, W.T.

    1977-05-01

    This report describes progress made on the Project during the period of September 9, 1976 to March 31, 1977 towards the determination of the biological effects of high strength electric fields on small laboratory animals. The efforts to date can be divided into five categories: (1) the design, construction, and testing of a prototype and special studies exposure system; (2) the design and construction of exposure systems for rats and mice; (3) dosimetry; (4) experiments to determine the maximum field strength which does not produce corona discharge, ozone formation, shocks to the animal, hair stimulation, or a behavioral preference by rats to avoid exposure to the field; and (5) preparations for the biological screening experiments.

  6. Multimodal Trip Planner System final evaluation report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This evaluation of the Multimodal Trip Planning System (MMTPS) is the culmination of a multi-year project evaluating the development and deployment of a multimodal trip planner in the Chicagoland area between 2004 and 2010. The report includes an ove...

  7. Human round trip to Mars: Six months and radiation safe. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazareth, O.W.; Schmidt, E.; Ludewig, H.; Powell, J.R.

    1991-12-31

    We describe a different type of round trip to Mars, using a combination of spacecraft. Compared to typical proposals, this flight is relatively fast and relatively safe from biological radiation dosage. Our study is concerned with the trip from Earth orbit to Mars orbit. Four spacecraft are required for the round trip. The crew spends most of their time on board a comparatively large, well shielded spacecraft (LC) which is in free (non-powered) orbit about the sun. The crew travels from Earth orbit to the LC while on board a comparatively small, powered spacecraft (SC). At Mars, the procedure is reversed and the crew returns on a second LC. In addition, a cargo craft, with no crew, is sent to Mars prior to the crew leaving Earth orbit. The trip time is about six months and the radiation dose equivalent is within guidelines recommended by the National Commission on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

  8. Improved Holographic Reconstruction Procedure for Particle Field and Biological Cell Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Abhishek; Maheshwari, Muneesh; Bhandari, S. S.; Panigrahi, P. K.

    2011-10-01

    Digital holography technique has wide range of applications in the field of science and engineering. It consists of two processes i.e. recording and reconstruction. The reconstruction procedure influences the accuracy of the measurement. The present study proposes a novel approach for the reconstruction process based on the superposition principle. The effectiveness of this proposed approach has been presented for 3D distribution of the particle field using both simulated data and experimental data. The 3D particle field has been experimentally generated using the mixture of copper particle and gelatin solution between two glass cover slip. The enhancement of resolution is subsequently achieved by implementing the lens based holographic technique. This technique is capable of providing both 3D geometrical and compositional details of crystals and biological cells etc. A single hologram provides 3D distribution and morphology of the object field.

  9. Fractional Calculus-Based Modeling of Electromagnetic Field Propagation in Arbitrary Biological Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Bia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of electromagnetic fields and biological tissues has become a topic of increasing interest for new research activities in bioelectrics, a new interdisciplinary field combining knowledge of electromagnetic theory, modeling, and simulations, physics, material science, cell biology, and medicine. In particular, the feasibility of pulsed electromagnetic fields in RF and mm-wave frequency range has been investigated with the objective to discover new noninvasive techniques in healthcare. The aim of this contribution is to illustrate a novel Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD scheme for simulating electromagnetic pulse propagation in arbitrary dispersive biological media. The proposed method is based on the fractional calculus theory and a general series expansion of the permittivity function. The spatial dispersion effects are taken into account, too. The resulting formulation is explicit, it has a second-order accuracy, and the need for additional storage variables is minimal. The comparison between simulation results and those evaluated by using an analytical method based on the Fourier transformation demonstrates the accuracy and effectiveness of the developed FDTD model. Five numerical examples showing the plane wave propagation in a variety of dispersive media are examined.

  10. Computational Model Prediction and Biological Validation Using Simplified Mixed Field Exposures for the Development of a GCR Reference Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, M.; Rhone, J.; Beitman, A.; Saganti, P.; Plante, I.; Ponomarev, A.; Slaba, T.; Patel, Z.

    2018-01-01

    The yield of chromosomal aberrations has been shown to increase in the lymphocytes of astronauts after long-duration missions of several months in space. Chromosome exchanges, especially translocations, are positively correlated with many cancers and are therefore a potential biomarker of cancer risk associated with radiation exposure. Although extensive studies have been carried out on the induction of chromosomal aberrations by low- and high-LET radiation in human lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and epithelial cells exposed in vitro, there is a lack of data on chromosome aberrations induced by low dose-rate chronic exposure and mixed field beams such as those expected in space. Chromosome aberration studies at NSRL will provide the biological validation needed to extend the computational models over a broader range of experimental conditions (more complicated mixed fields leading up to the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) simulator), helping to reduce uncertainties in radiation quality effects and dose-rate dependence in cancer risk models. These models can then be used to answer some of the open questions regarding requirements for a full GCR reference field, including particle type and number, energy, dose rate, and delivery order. In this study, we designed a simplified mixed field beam with a combination of proton, helium, oxygen, and iron ions with shielding or proton, helium, oxygen, and titanium without shielding. Human fibroblasts cells were irradiated with these mixed field beam as well as each single beam with acute and chronic dose rate, and chromosome aberrations (CA) were measured with 3-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting methods. Frequency and type of CA induced with acute dose rate and chronic dose rates with single and mixed field beam will be discussed. A computational chromosome and radiation-induced DNA damage model, BDSTRACKS (Biological Damage by Stochastic Tracks), was updated to simulate various types of CA induced by

  11. Biological effects of static and low-frequency electromagnetic fields: an overview of United States literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, R.D.; Kaune, W.T.

    1977-04-12

    Results are reviewed from a number of studies on the biological effects of static and low frequency electromagnetic fields on animals. Based on a long history of experience with electric fields by the utility industry, it appears that intermittent and repeated exposures to strong 60-Hz electromagnetic fields from present power transmission systems have no obvious adverse effect on the health of man. It has been recognized recently that this belief must be tested by carefully designed and executed experiments under laboratory conditions where precise control can be exercised over coexisting environmental factors. A number of studies have been initiated in response to this need to evaluate possible effects from both acute and chronic exposures. 100 references.

  12. Biological effects of the hypomagnetic field: An analytical review of experiments and theories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N Binhi

    Full Text Available During interplanetary flights in the near future, a human organism will be exposed to prolonged periods of a hypomagnetic field that is 10,000 times weaker than that of Earth's. Attenuation of the geomagnetic field occurs in buildings with steel walls and in buildings with steel reinforcement. It cannot be ruled out also that a zero magnetic field might be interesting in biomedical studies and therapy. Further research in the area of hypomagnetic field effects, as shown in this article, is capable of shedding light on a fundamental problem in biophysics-the problem of primary magnetoreception. This review contains, currently, the most extensive bibliography on the biological effects of hypomagnetic field. This includes both a review of known experimental results and the putative mechanisms of magnetoreception and their explanatory power with respect to the hypomagnetic field effects. We show that the measured correlations of the HMF effect with HMF magnitude and inhomogeneity and type and duration of exposure are statistically absent. This suggests that there is no general biophysical MF target similar for different organisms. This also suggests that magnetoreception is not necessarily associated with evolutionary developed specific magnetoreceptors in migrating animals and magnetotactic bacteria. Independently, there is nonspecific magnetoreception that is common for all organisms, manifests itself in very different biological observables as mostly random reactions, and is a result of MF interaction with magnetic moments at a physical level-moments that are present everywhere in macromolecules and proteins and can sometimes transfer the magnetic signal at the level of downstream biochemical events. The corresponding universal mechanism of magnetoreception that has been given further theoretical analysis allows one to determine the parameters of magnetic moments involved in magnetoreception-their gyromagnetic ratio and thermal relaxation time

  13. Biological effects of the hypomagnetic field: An analytical review of experiments and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binhi, Vladimir N; Prato, Frank S

    2017-01-01

    During interplanetary flights in the near future, a human organism will be exposed to prolonged periods of a hypomagnetic field that is 10,000 times weaker than that of Earth's. Attenuation of the geomagnetic field occurs in buildings with steel walls and in buildings with steel reinforcement. It cannot be ruled out also that a zero magnetic field might be interesting in biomedical studies and therapy. Further research in the area of hypomagnetic field effects, as shown in this article, is capable of shedding light on a fundamental problem in biophysics-the problem of primary magnetoreception. This review contains, currently, the most extensive bibliography on the biological effects of hypomagnetic field. This includes both a review of known experimental results and the putative mechanisms of magnetoreception and their explanatory power with respect to the hypomagnetic field effects. We show that the measured correlations of the HMF effect with HMF magnitude and inhomogeneity and type and duration of exposure are statistically absent. This suggests that there is no general biophysical MF target similar for different organisms. This also suggests that magnetoreception is not necessarily associated with evolutionary developed specific magnetoreceptors in migrating animals and magnetotactic bacteria. Independently, there is nonspecific magnetoreception that is common for all organisms, manifests itself in very different biological observables as mostly random reactions, and is a result of MF interaction with magnetic moments at a physical level-moments that are present everywhere in macromolecules and proteins and can sometimes transfer the magnetic signal at the level of downstream biochemical events. The corresponding universal mechanism of magnetoreception that has been given further theoretical analysis allows one to determine the parameters of magnetic moments involved in magnetoreception-their gyromagnetic ratio and thermal relaxation time-and so to better

  14. Large Pelagic Logbook Trip Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch and effort for fishing trips that are taken by vessels with a Federal permit issued for the swordfish and sharks under the Highly...

  15. Trip generation data collection in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    There is currently limited data on urban, multimodal trip generation at the individual site level. This lack of : data limits the ability of transportation agencies to assess development impacts on the transportation system : in urban and multimodal ...

  16. Pre-Trip Notification Database (PTNS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The PTNS contains pre-trip notification data from vessels participating in the Northeast Multispecies groundfish fishery from 2010 to present and the Longfin squid...

  17. Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields of transformers and possible biological and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirav, Bahriye; Sezgin, Gaye; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2014-12-01

    Physiological processes in organisms can be influenced by extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic energy. Biological effect studies have great importance; as well as measurement studies since they provide information on the real exposure situations. In this study, the leakage magnetic fields around a transformer were measured in an apartment building in Küçükçekmece, Istanbul, and the measurement results were evaluated with respect to the international exposure standards. The transformer station was on the bottom floor of a three-floor building. It was found that people living and working in the building were exposed to ELF magnetic fields higher than the threshold magnetic field value of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Many people living in this building reported health complaints such as immunological problems of their children. There were child-workers working in the textile factories located in the building. Safe distances or areas for these people should be recommended. Protective measures could be implemented to minimize these exposures. Further residential exposure studies are needed to demonstrate the exposure levels of ELF magnetic fields. Precautions should, therefore, be taken either to reduce leakage or minimize the exposed fields. Shielding techniques should be used to minimize the leakage magnetic fields in such cases.

  18. Detectors in Medicine and Biology: Applications of Detectors in Technology, Medicine and Other Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2011-01-01

    Detectors in Medicine and Biology in 'Applications of Detectors in Technology, Medicine and Other Fields', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B2: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 2: Systems and Applications'. This document is part of Part 2 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Section '7.1 Detectors in Medicine and Biology' of Chapter '7 Applications of Detectors in Technology; Medicine and Other Fields' with the content: 7.1 Detectors in Medicine and Biology 7.1.1 Dosimetry and medical imaging 7.1.1.1 Radiotherapy and dosimetry 7.1.1.2 Status of medical imaging 7.1.1.3 Towards in-vivo molecular imaging 7.1.2 X-Ray radiography and computed tomography (CT) 7.1.2.1 Different X-Ray imaging modalities 7.1.2.2 Detec...

  19. Trip electrical circuit of the gyrotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.O.

    1987-09-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance heating system of INPE/LAP is shown and the trip electrical circuit of the gyrotron is described, together with its fundamental aspects. The trip electrical circuit consists basically of a series regulator circuit which regulates the output voltage level and controls the pulse width time. Besides that, a protection circuit for both tubes, regulator and gyrotron, against faults in the system. (author) [pt

  20. Treatment of complex biological mixtures with pulsed electric fields An energy transfer characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrive, Luc

    2004-01-01

    Sewage sludge from waste water treatment plants is a complex biological mixture and a problematic by-product because of valorisation restrictions. In order to limit its production, pulsed electric fields (PEF) were studied because of their biological effects and their potentially physico-chemical action. This work demonstrated a paradoxical phenomenon: cell lysis triggered a respirometric activation followed by a delayed lethality. This phenomenon was related to the leakage of internal compounds which were immediately bio-assimilated. At high energy expense, the plasmic membrane permeabilization led to cell death. Practically, with the technical configuration of the equipment, no hydrolysis was detected. This limitation decreases the interest for excess sludge reduction, but for the same reason, PEF cold sterilization technique can be assessed as a promising process. The representation of the electric energy transfer from electrodes to cell was exchanged by the study of mass transfer from the biological cell to the surrounding media under an electromotive force. Thus, the survival rate was modelled by a Sherwood number taking account of electrical, biological and hydraulic parameters. (author) [fr

  1. Arizona Geology Trip - February 25-28, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gretchen A.; Ross, Amy J.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of hardware developers, crew, mission planners, and headquarters personnel traveled to Gila Bend, Arizona, in February 2008 for a CxP Lunar Surface Systems Team geology experience. Participating in this field trip were the CxP Space Suit System (EC5) leads: Thomas (PLSS) and Ross (PGS), who presented the activities and findings learned from being in the field during this KC. As for the design of a new spacesuit system, this allowed the engineers to understand the demands this type of activity will have on NASA's hardware, systems, and planning efforts. The engineers also experienced the methods and tools required for lunar surface activity.

  2. In vivo robotics: the automation of neuroscience and other intact-system biological fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodandaramaiah, Suhasa B; Boyden, Edward S; Forest, Craig R

    2013-12-01

    Robotic and automation technologies have played a huge role in in vitro biological science, having proved critical for scientific endeavors such as genome sequencing and high-throughput screening. Robotic and automation strategies are beginning to play a greater role in in vivo and in situ sciences, especially when it comes to the difficult in vivo experiments required for understanding the neural mechanisms of behavior and disease. In this perspective, we discuss the prospects for robotics and automation to influence neuroscientific and intact-system biology fields. We discuss how robotic innovations might be created to open up new frontiers in basic and applied neuroscience and present a concrete example with our recent automation of in vivo whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology of neurons in the living mouse brain. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Wide-field four-channel fluorescence imager for biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Madhuri; Melnik, Dmitry; Barnett, Heather; Daly, Kevin; Moran, Christine H.; Chang, Wei-Shun; Link, Stephan; Bucher, Christopher Theodore; Kittrell, Carter; Curl, Robert

    2010-03-01

    A wide-field four-channel fluorescence imager has been developed. The instrument uses four expanded laser beams to image a large section (6 mm×9 mm). An object can be sequentially illuminated with any combination of 408-, 532-, 658-, and 784-nm lasers for arbitrary (down to 1 ms) exposure times for each laser. Just two notch filters block scattered light from all four lasers. The design approach described here offers great flexibility in treatment of objects, very good sensitivity, and a wide field of view at low cost. There appears to be no commercial instrument capable of simultaneous fluorescence imaging of a wide field of view with four-laser excitation. Some possible applications are following events such as flow and mixing in microchannel systems, the transmission of biological signals across a culture, and following simulations of biological membrane diffusion. It can also be used in DNA sequencing by synthesis to follow the progress of the photolytic removal of dye and terminator. Without utilizing its time resolution, it can be used to obtain four independent images of a single tissue section stained with four targeting agents, with each coupled to a different dye matching one of the lasers.

  4. Biological effects of exposure to static electric fields in humans and vertebrates: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Anne-Kathrin; Schmiedchen, Kristina; Stunder, Dominik; Dechent, Dagmar; Kraus, Thomas; Bailey, William H; Driessen, Sarah

    2017-04-17

    High-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines are the technology of choice for the transport of large amounts of energy over long distances. The operation of these lines produces static electric fields (EF), but the data reviewed in previous assessments were not sufficient to assess the need for any environmental limit. The aim of this systematic review was to update the current state of research and to evaluate biological effects of static EF. Using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) recommendations, we collected and evaluated experimental and epidemiological studies examining biological effects of exposure to static EF in humans (n = 8) and vertebrates (n = 40). There is good evidence that humans and animals are able to perceive the presence of static EF at sufficiently high levels. Hair movements caused by electrostatic forces may play a major role in this perception. A large number of studies reported responses of animals (e.g., altered metabolic, immunologic or developmental parameters) to a broad range of static EF strengths as well, but these responses are likely secondary physiological responses to sensory stimulation. Furthermore, the quality of many of the studies reporting physiological responses is poor, which raises concerns about confounding. The weight of the evidence from the literature reviewed did not indicate that static EF have adverse biological effects in humans or animals. The evidence strongly supported the role of superficial sensory stimulation of hair and skin as the basis for perception of the field, as well as reported indirect behavioral and physiological responses. Physical considerations also preclude any direct effect of static EF on internal physiology, and reports that some physiological processes are affected in minor ways may be explained by other factors. While this literature does not support a level of concern about biological effects of exposure to static EF, the conditions

  5. High voltage electric field effects on structure and biological characteristics of barley seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khazaei, J. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Agrotechnology, Univ. College of Abouraihan; Aliabadi, E. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Crop Production Horticulture, Univ. College of Aburaihan; Shayegani, A.A. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Univ. College of Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Electric biostimulation of seeds is a pre-sowing treatment in which an electric field is applied to seeds to increase germination of non standard seeds. This paper reported on a study that examined the effects of AC electric field and exposure time on the structure and biological characteristics of barley seeds. The objective was to determine the potential to accelerate seed germination, plant growth and root development by the electric field strength and exposure time. Makooei cultivar barley seeds were used in this study. The effect of electric field strength (at 2, 4, 9, and 14 kV/m) and exposure time (at 15, 45, 80, and 150 min) on seed germination was studied along with height of seedling, length or root, height of stem, length of leaves, earliness, dry weight and wet weight of seedling. The treated seeds were stored for a month in a refrigerator at 5 degrees C prior to the germination experiments. The initial germination percent of the seed was 81 per cent. The treatment of barley seeds in an AC electric field had a positive effect on all investigated parameters. The germination percent of the treated seed increased to 94.5 per cent . The seeds exposed for long periods of time (45 to 150 min) showed better germination than the seeds exposed to lower exposure times. Dry and wet weights of seedling increased 143.4 per cent and 45.7 per cent, respectively.

  6. THz near-field imaging of biological tissues employing synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schade, Ulrich; Holldack, Karsten; Martin, Michael C.; Fried, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Terahertz scanning near-field infrared microscopy (SNIM) below 1 THz is demonstrated. The near-field technique benefits from the broadband and highly brilliant coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) from an electron storage ring and from a detection method based on locking onto the intrinsic time structure of the synchrotron radiation. The scanning microscope utilizes conical wave guides as near-field probes with apertures smaller than the wavelength. Different cone approaches have been investigated to obtain maximum transmittance. Together with a Martin-Puplett spectrometer the set-up enables spectroscopic mapping of the transmittance of samples well below the diffraction limit. Spatial resolution down to about lambda/40 at 2 wavenumbers (0.06 THz) is derived from the transmittance spectra of the near-field probes. The potential of the technique is exemplified by imaging biological samples. Strongly absorbing living leaves have been imaged in transmittance with a spatial resolution of 130 mu-m at about 12 wave numbers (0.36 THz). The THz near-field images reveal distinct structural differences of leaves from different plants investigated. The technique presented also allows spectral imaging of bulky organic tissues. Human teeth samples of various thicknesses have been imaged between 2 and 20 wavenumbers (between 0.06and 0.6 THz). Regions of enamel and dentin within tooth samples are spatially and spectrally resolved, and buried caries lesions are imaged through both the outer enamel and into the underlying dentin

  7. Hyperspectral-Enhanced Dark Field Microscopy for Single and Collective Nanoparticle Characterization in Biological Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Zamora-Perez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We review how the hyperspectral dark field analysis gives us quantitative insights into the manner that different nanoscale materials interact with their environment and how this relationship is directly expressed in an optical readout. We engage classification tools to identify dominant spectral signatures within a scene or to qualitatively characterize nanoparticles individually or in populations based on their composition and morphology. Moreover, we follow up the morphological evolution of nanoparticles over time and in different biological environments to better understand and establish a link between the observed nanoparticles’ changes and cellular behaviors.

  8. Enforced Scale Selection in Field Theories of Mechanical and Biological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Jens Magelund

    The collective motion of driven or self-propelled interacting units is in many natural systems known to produce complex patterns. This thesis considers two continuum field theories commonly used in describing pattern formation and dynamics: The first one, the phase field crystal model, which...... dynamics of single crystals. Secondly, a continuum theory describing mesoscopic turbulence of biological active matter, which is used to study long-range ordered vorticity patterns generated by cell divisions in a endothelial cell layer....... describes the dynamical and equilibrium properties of crystalline material, is used to study the coarsening dynamics of polycrystalline materials in two and three dimensions. A generalization introducing a faster elastic relaxation time scale is then used to study the plastic deformation and dislocation...

  9. 41 CFR 301-71.106 - Who must sign a trip-by-trip authorization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 71-AGENCY TRAVEL ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS Travel Authorization § 301-71.106 Who must sign a trip-by-trip authorization? The... acceptance of the payment. Travel expenses related to attendance at a conference A senior agency official...

  10. Convergence of The Nobel Fields of Telomere Biology and DNA Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquerel, Elise; Opresko, Patricia L

    2017-01-01

    The fields of telomere biology and DNA repair have enjoyed a great deal of cross-fertilization and convergence in recent years. Telomeres function at chromosome ends to prevent them from being falsely recognized as chromosome breaks by the DNA damage response and repair machineries. Conversely, both canonical and nonconical functions of numerous DNA repair proteins have been found to be critical for preserving telomere structure and function. In 2009, Elizabeth Blackburn, Carol Greider and Jack Szostak were awarded the Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of telomeres and telomerase. Four years later, pioneers in the field of DNA repair, Aziz Sancar, Tomas Lindahl and Paul Modrich were recognized for their seminal contributions by being awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. This review is part of a special issue meant to celebrate this amazing achievement, and will focus in particular on the convergence of nucleotide excision repair and telomere biology, and will discuss the profound implications for human health. © 2016 The American Society of Photobiology.

  11. Effects of transgenic Bt cotton on soil fertility and biology under field conditions in subtropical inceptisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman Jeet; Ahlawat, I P S; Singh, Surender

    2013-01-01

    Although there is large-scale adoption of Bt cotton by the farmers because of immediate financial gain, there is concern that Bt crops release Bt toxins into the soil environment which reduces soil chemical and biological activities. However, the majorities of such studies were mainly performed under pot experiments, relatively little research has examined the direct and indirect effects of associated cover crop of peanut with fertilization by combined application of organic and inorganic sources of nitrogen under field conditions. We compared soil chemical and biological parameters of Bt cotton with pure crop of peanut to arrive on a valid conclusion. Significantly higher dehydrogenase enzyme activity and KMnO(4)-N content of soil were observed in Bt cotton with cover crop of peanut over pure Bt cotton followed by pure peanut at all the crop growth stages. However, higher microbial population was maintained by pure peanut over intercropped Bt cotton, but these differences were related to the presence of high amount of KMnO(4)-N content of soil. By growing cover crop of peanut between Bt cotton rows, bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes population increased by 60%, 14%, and 10%, respectively, over Bt cotton alone. Bt cotton fertilized by combined application of urea and farm yard manure (FYM) maintained higher dehydrogenase enzyme activity, KMnO(4)-N content of soil and microbial population over urea alone. Significant positive correlations were observed for dry matter accumulation, dehydrogenase enzyme activity, KMnO(4)-N content, and microbial population of soil of Bt cotton, which indicates no harmful effects of Bt cotton on soil biological parameters and associated cover crop. Our results suggest that inclusion of cover crop of peanut and FYM in Bt cotton enhanced soil chemical and biological parameters which can mask any negative effect of the Bt toxin on microbial activity and thus on enzymatic activities.

  12. Analysis of Peach Bottom turbine trip tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.S.; Lu, M.S.; Hsu, C.J.; Shier, W.G.; Diamond, D.J.; Levine, M.M.; Odar, F.

    1979-01-01

    Current interest in the analysis of turbine trip transients has been generated by the recent tests performed at the Peach Bottom (Unit 2) reactor. Three tests, simulating turbine trip transients, were performed at different initial power and coolant flow conditions. The data from these tests provide considerable information to aid qualification of computer codes that are currently used in BWR design analysis. The results are presented of an analysis of a turbine trip transient using the RELAP-3B and the BNL-TWIGL computer codes. Specific results are provided comparing the calculated reactor power and system pressures with the test data. Excellent agreement for all three test transients is evident from the comparisons

  13. Finite element modelling of TRIP steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papatriantafillou, I.; Aravas, N.; Haidemenopoulos, G.N. [Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Univ. of Thessaly, Volos (Greece)

    2004-11-01

    A constitutive model that describes the mechanical behaviour of steels exhibiting ''Transformation Induced Plasticity'' (TRIP) during martensitic transformation is presented. Multiphase TRIP steels are considered as composite materials with a ferritic matrix containing bainite and retained austenite, which gradually transforms into martensite. The effective properties and overall behaviour of TRIP steels are determined by using homogenization techniques for non-linear composites. The developed constitutive model considers the different hardening behaviour of the individual phases and estimates the apportionment of plastic strain and stress between the individual phases of the composite. A methodology for the numerical integration of the resulting elastoplastic constitutive equations in the context of the finite element method is developed and the constitutive model is implemented in a general-purpose finite element program. The prediction of the model in uniaxial tension agrees well with the experimental data. The problem of necking of a bar in uniaxial tension is studied in detail. (orig.)

  14. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  15. Functionalization and microfluidic integration of silicon nanowire biologically gated field effect transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfreundt, Andrea; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Dimaki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of a novel biosensor for the detection of biomolecules based on a silicon nanowire biologically gated field-effect transistor and its integration into a point-of-care device. The sensor and electrical on-chip integration was developed in a different project....... The presented research is based on this sensor structure and investigates its potential as a versatile biomarker detection platform by evaluating different functionalization approaches. The functionalization of the silicon sensor surface with organic molecules was investigated in detail to determine...... the suitability of different methods for the preparation of organic interfaces for protein attachment. Oxide-free silicon surfaces offer unique possibilities to create highly sensitive sensor surfaces for charge detection due to the lack of an insulating oxide layer, but the highly reactive surface presents...

  16. Functionalization and microfluidic integration of silicon nanowire biologically gated field effect transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfreundt, Andrea

    This thesis deals with the development of a novel biosensor for the detection of biomolecules based on a silicon nanowire biologically gated field-effect transistor and its integration into a point-of-care device. The sensor and electrical on-chip integration was developed in a different project....... The presented research is based on this sensor structure and investigates its potential as a versatile biomarker detection platform by evaluating different functionalization approaches. The functionalization of the silicon sensor surface with organic molecules was investigated in detail to determine...... the suitability of different methods for the preparation of organic interfaces for protein attachment. Oxide-free silicon surfaces offer unique possibilities to create highly sensitive sensor surfaces for charge detection due to the lack of an insulating oxide layer, but the highly reactive surface presents...

  17. Best practice for minimising unmanned aerial vehicle disturbance to wildlife in biological field research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jarrod C; Koh, Lian Pin

    2016-05-23

    The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), colloquially referred to as 'drones', for biological field research is increasing [1-3]. Small, civilian UAVs are providing a viable, economical tool for ecology researchers and environmental managers. UAVs are particularly useful for wildlife observation and monitoring as they can produce systematic data of high spatial and temporal resolution [4]. However, this new technology could also have undesirable and unforeseen impacts on wildlife, the risks of which we currently have little understanding [5-7]. There is a need for a code of best practice in the use of UAVs to mitigate or alleviate these risks, which we begin to develop here. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biological control of white mold by Trichoderma harzianum in common bean under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Diego Costa Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate Trichoderma harzianum isolates for biological control of white mold in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. Five isolates were evaluated for biocontrol of white mold in 'Perola' common bean under field conditions, in the 2009 and 2010 crop seasons. A commercial isolate (1306 and a control treatment were included. Foliar applications at 2x109 conidia mL-1 were performed at 42 and 52 days after sowing (DAS, in 2009, and at 52 DAS in 2010. The CEN287, CEN316, and 1306 isolates decreased the number of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum apothecia per square meter in comparison to the control, in both crop seasons. CEN287, CEN316, and 1306 decreased white mold severity during the experimental period, when compared to the control.

  19. Managing biodiversity for a competitive ecotourism industry in tropical developing countries: New opportunities in biological fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Luchman

    2017-11-01

    Managing biodiversity for sustainable and competitive ecotourism destinations requires a basic understanding of the principles of biology, which are poorly understood in tropical developing countries, including Indonesia. This paper describes the current status of tourism in Indonesia, identifies environment and biodiversity vulnerability in tourism destinations, and explores the challenges of the biological field in supporting ecotourism development. This review found that tourism, especially nature-based and ecotourism, has grown significantly in Indonesia, and the contribution of Indonesian biodiversity has been identified as significant. Threats to biodiversity, however, are found in nature-based tourism destinations. Issues related to pollution, exotic plant species invasion, habitat changes and degradation, habitat loss, and wildlife disturbance are widely reported, indicating the importance of such issues in destination management. Pollution is found in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Water pollution is an important issue among lakes and rivers. To date, there are few assessments of the impact of tourism activities on aquatic ecosystems, resulting in the management of aquatic ecosystems facing numerous difficulties. These studies identify the invasive plants found, which become a crucial problem in many nature-based tourism destinations, and which significantly contribute to a reduction in the existence of many flora-fauna in a wild habitat. Habitat changes and degradation are mostly influenced by tourism infrastructure development. Massive infrastructure development often leads to habitat loss, which is a crucial step in local biodiversity extinction. Increasing and uncontrolled visitor behaviors influence animal behavior changes, which is recognized as a dangerous phenomenon affecting animal survival in the future. An agenda for future integrative biological research is needed to improve resource management, to increase sustainability and the

  20. Biological effects of high strength electric fields on small laboratory animals. Interim progress report, March 9, 1976--September 8, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, R.D.; Kaune, W.T.; Decker, J.R.; Hjeresen, D.L.

    1976-09-01

    Progress is reported on a broad and comprehensive series of biological experiments made under strictly controlled laboratory conditions to screen for possible effects of exposure to 60-Hz electric fields on small laboratory animals. Electric field strengths comparable to and exceeding those under existing and anticipated transmission line designs will be used. Dosimetry studies will complement the animal studies to establish the relationship between tissue dose and any observed biological effects. Information derived from this project will provide a better basis for evaluating potential hazards of exposure to 60-Hz electric fields and help define parameters to be studied in clinical evaluations on humans.

  1. Improvement of Soil Biology Characteristics at Paddy Field by System of Rice Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyatmani Sih Dewi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to test the System of Rice Intensification (SRI method in improving the biological properties of paddy soil. The indicators of improvement were measured by the number of earthworm feces (cast, and the population of some microbial and nutrient content in the cast. The experiments were performed by comparing the three methods, namely: (1 SRI, (2 semi-conventional, and (3 conventional, using Randomized Completely Block Design. Each treatment was repeated nine times. The experiments were performed in the paddy fields belonging to farmers in Sukoharjo, Central Java. The result showed that the SRI (application of 1 tons ha-1 of vermicompost + 50% of inorganic fertilizer dosage tends to increase the number of earthworms cast. It is an indicator of earthworm activity in soil. Earthworms cast contains more phosphate solubilizing bacteria (12.98 x 1010cfu and N content (1.23% compared to its surrounding soil. There is a close functional relation between earthworms cast with total tiller number. SRI method is better than the other two methods to improve the biological characteristics of paddy soil that has the potential to maintain the sustainability of soil productivity.

  2. NEWS: A trip to CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, A. D.

    2000-07-01

    the canteen. Over lunch we mixed with physicists of many different nationalities and backgrounds. Figure 1 Figure 1. In the afternoon we visited Microcosm, the CERN visitors centre, and the LEP control room and also the SPS. Here the students learned new applications for much of the physics of standing waves and resonance that they had been taught in the classroom. Later that night, we visited a bowling alley where momentum and collision theory were put into practice. The following morning we returned to CERN and visited the large magnet testing facility. Here again physics was brought to life. We saw superconducting magnets being assembled and tested and the students gained a real appreciation of the problems and principles involved. The afternoon was rounded off by a visit to a science museum in Geneva - well worth a visit, as some of us still use some of the apparatus on display. Friday was our last full day so we visited Chamonix in the northern Alps. In the morning, we ascended the Aiguille de Midi - by cable car. Twenty minutes and 3842 m later we emerged into 50 km h-1 winds and -10 °C temperature, not counting the -10 °C wind chill factor. A crisp packet provided an unusual demonstration of the effects of air pressure (figure 2). Figure 2 Figure 2. The views from the summit were very spectacular though a few people experienced mild altitude sickness. That afternoon the party went to the Mer de Glace. Being inside a 3 million year-old structure moving down a mountain at 3 cm per day was an interesting experience, as was a tot of whisky with 3 million year-old water. Once again the local scenery was very photogenic and the click and whirr of cameras was a constant background noise. Saturday morning saw an early start for the long drive home. Most students - and some staff - took the opportunity to catch up on their sleep. Thanks are due to many people without whom the trip would never have taken place. Anne Craige, Stuart Williams

  3. The Compensation Act 2006 and School Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Jones, John

    2006-01-01

    The Compensation Act 2006 received its Royal Assent on 25 July 2006. The Act allows the courts to have regard to the social utility of "desirable activities", including school trips, in considering negligence claims. The article reviews the law of negligence as it affects teachers of the very young and considers the possible impact of…

  4. The SMS-GPS-Trip-Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Harder, Henrik; Weber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new method for collecting travel behavior data, based on a combination of GPS tracking and SMS technology, coined the SMS–GPS-Trip method. The state-of-the-art method for collecting data for activity based traffic models is a combination of travel diaries and GPS tracking...

  5. School Trips: Are They Worth the Effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Even the most basic of school trips will require booking places, arranging transport, writing to parents, collecting payments, planning activities, producing worksheets and, of course, endless risk assessments. It always leaves teachers wondering: "is it really worth all this effort?" Robert Johnston believes that every teacher should…

  6. Injuries from slips and trips in construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Glazner, Judith E; Bondy, Jessica; Guarini, Kenneth; Lezotte, Dennis

    2006-05-01

    Construction injuries preceded by a slip or trip were documented using data from the building of the Denver International Airport (Denver, Colorado, USA), the largest construction project in the world at the time. Slips and trips occurred at a rate of 5/200,000 h worked accounting for 18% of all injuries and 25% of workers' compensation payments, or more than $10 million. Slips contributed to the vast majority (85%) of same-level falls and over 30% of falls from height, as well as a significant number of musculoskeletal injures sustained after slipping or tripping but without falling. The injury burden would have been under-recognized in analyses of most coded compensation records. In contrast to other types of injuries, the most common contributing factors were environmental in nature including conditions of walking and working surfaces, terrain and weather. Due to the very dynamic nature of construction work, reducing slips and trips will require a focus on environmental and organizational solutions that evolve as the site changes and the construction project evolves.

  7. Biological and clinical effects of low-frequency magnetic and electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llaurado, J.G.; Sances, A. Jr.; Battocletti, J. (eds.)

    1974-01-01

    The blurb on this book states that it has been written for physicians, biologists, psychologists, engineers and those persons interested in the interaction of low frequency electric and magnetic fields upon animals and man. Certainly, the content of this book--which comprises papers presented by specialists at a symposium on The Effects of Low Frequency Magnetic Fields on Biological Communication Processes held in Aspen, Colorado--does not make simple reading and those lacking the necessary background are unlikely to make much progress. This said, however, the book can be recommended to those with the necessary interest, knowledge and perseverance. The book provides a great deal of information in a convenient manner and all those concerned with its production are to be congratulated on their work. Articles are well set out, illustrated and supported by abstracts, extensive references and discussions. As indicated above, the range of the subjects covered is large and includes such varied items as acupuncture, bird communication and some details of the U.S.A. Navy's extra low frequency communication system known as Project Sanguine. Finally, it is a pleasure to say that the book has been attractively produced and contains an excellent index.

  8. Investigation Biological And Medical Specimen Using X-Ray Dark Field Imagine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattanasiriwisawa, Wanwisa; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Maksimenko, Anton; Kazuyuki, Hyodo; Ando, Masami

    2005-10-01

    X-ray dark-field imaging (DFI) and bright-field imaging (BFI) in the Laue geometry has been successfully demonstrated. Using a Bragg-case asymmetric monochromator which produces an x-ray beam with a 0.3 μrad divergence incident onto an object and a Laue geometry analyzer that can simultaneously provide DFI and BFI. The imaging technique of DFI is quite novel one that we did not have before in that the central bright line satisfying the Bragg condition is removed by the analyzer crystal and the background radiation obscuring the image of the object does not come to record film. This is not the case in BFI and the strong background radiation obscures the real image of the object. X-ray optics comprising two Laue case diffraction wafers working at 35 keV has been successfully applied to some biological samples such as ivory, tusk, horn, tooth and a phantom of breast cancer. Images of ivory and others have shown very clear and informative inside structure. All pieces of the breast cancer phantom provide us with very fine images to simulate cancer

  9. International and National Expert Group Evaluations: Biological/Health Effects of Radiofrequency Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalaxmi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The escalated use of various wireless communication devices, which emit non-ionizing radiofrequency (RF fields, have raised concerns among the general public regarding the potential adverse effects on human health. During the last six decades, researchers have used different parameters to investigate the effects of in vitro and in vivo exposures of animals and humans or their cells to RF fields. Data reported in peer-reviewed scientific publications were contradictory: some indicated effects while others did not. International organizations have considered all of these data as well as the observations reported in human epidemiological investigations to set-up the guidelines or standards (based on the quality of published studies and the “weight of scientific evidence” approach for RF exposures in occupationally exposed individuals and the general public. Scientists with relevant expertise in various countries have also considered the published data to provide the required scientific information for policy-makers to develop and disseminate authoritative health information to the general public regarding RF exposures. This paper is a compilation of the conclusions, on the biological effects of RF exposures, from various national and international expert groups, based on their analyses. In general, the expert groups suggested a reduction in exposure levels, precautionary approach, and further research.

  10. Laboratory and field evaluation of a biological monitoring system using Corbicula fluminea and Mulinia lateralis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waller, W.T.; Allen, H.J.; Schwalm, F.U.; Acevedo, M.F.; Ammann, L.P.; Dickson, K.L.; Kennedy, J.H. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Morgan, E.L. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Laboratory and field experiments have been performed to evaluate a non-invasive biomonitoring system using the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea and Mulinia lateralis. C. fluminea was exposed to simulated episodic toxicity events in the laboratory using copper, diazinon, and regulated flow rates. Group behavior during these simulated events was compared to behavior during unstressed periods to develop a statistical model and an alarm criteria. Bayou Chico, Pensacola Bay, FL, was the site for field experiments in which M. lateralis was placed in situ to evaluate the performance of the biomonitoring system. The biomonitoring system consists of proximity sensors which detect an aluminum foil target attached to the valve of an organism. Valve movements of the clams are then digitally recorded using a personal computer. Data collected from remote sites are telemetered to the lab using short wave radio. In its final form, the authors envision an in situ biological monitoring system using bivalves deployed in aquatic systems in conjunction with automated monitoring systems like those found at USGS gauging stations. A tool such as this could be used as a warning system to increase the probability of detecting toxic events as they occur.

  11. Trip generation studies for special generators : final report, December 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This research examines the effects of town centers and senior housing developments on surrounding roadways and nearby transit. The Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) Trip Generation Manual, which determines number of trips produced or attrac...

  12. Solving touristic trip planning problem by using taboo search approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kadri Sylejmani; Agni Dika

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an algorithm that automatically plans a touristic trip by considering some hard and soft constrains. Opening and closing hours of POIs, trip duration and trip allocated budget represent the hard constraints, while the satisfaction factors of the POIs and travelling distance in the trip are considered as soft constraints. We use the soft constraints to evaluate the generated solution of the algorithm. The algorithm is developed by utilizing the taboo search method a...

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY: SCHOOL TRIP AND SCIENTIFIC EDUCATIONAL ACADEMIC TRIP IN THE NORTH-WEST OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIANCA SORINA RĂCĂŞAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study proposes a comparative approach of two forms of non-formal educational activities: the school trip and the scientific educational academic trip with their similarities and differences regarding both tourist and pedagogical levels. In order to acquire this goal the following objectives have been set: analysing a geographical-tourist itinerary, analysing the involved tourist services, analysing the trip planner for the specified itinerary, analysing certain teaching activities, differentiated based on the level of study (pre-university/superior, analysing students and undergraduates’ worksheets after they have been completed according to the requirements. Consequently a series of similarities have appeared between the school trip and the academic trip, especially related to the theme, purpose, evaluation form, participants’ involvement degree, structure and integrated tourist elements (from attractions to services. On the other hand, the main differences that were highlighted, starting with educational level, age difference, and participants’ number have had repercussions on the quantitative and qualitative particularities of the tasks and last but not least, on the evaluation product (students’ portfolios and undergraduates’ trip notebooks.

  14. A Contingent Trip Model for Estimating Rail-trail Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter J. Betz; John C. Bergstrom; J. Michael Bowker

    2003-01-01

    The authors develop a contingent trip model to estimate the recreation demand for and value of a potential rail-trail site in north-east Georgia. The contingent trip model is an alternative to travel cost modelling useful for ex ante evaluation of proposed recreation resources or management alternatives. The authors estimate the empirical demand for trips using a...

  15. Austenite stability in TRIP steels studied by synchrotron radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blondé, R.

    2014-01-01

    TRIP steel is a material providing great mechanical properties. Such steels show a good balance between high-strength and ductility, not only as a result of the fine microstructure, but also because of the well-known TRIP effect. The Transformation Induced-Plasticity (TRIP) phenomenon is the

  16. Development of RPS trip logic based on PLD technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Gyun; Lee, Dong Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    The majority of instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in today's nuclear power plants (NPPs) are based on analog technology. Thus, most existing I and C systems now face obsolescence problems. Existing NPPs have difficulty in repairing and replacing devices and boards during maintenance because manufacturers no longer produce the analog devices and boards used in the implemented I and C systems. Therefore, existing NPPs are replacing the obsolete analog I and C systems with advanced digital systems. New NPPs are also adopting digital I and C systems because the economic efficiencies and usability of the systems are higher than the analog I and C systems. Digital I and C systems are based on two technologies: a microprocessor based system in which software programs manage the required functions and a programmable logic device (PLD) based system in which programmable logic devices, such as field programmable gate arrays, manage the required functions. PLD based systems provide higher levels of performance compared with microprocessor based systems because PLD systems can process the data in parallel while microprocessor based systems process the data sequentially. In this research, a bistable trip logic in a reactor protection system (RPS) was developed using very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language (VHDL), which is a hardware description language used in electronic design to describe the behavior of the digital system. Functional verifications were also performed in order to verify that the bistable trip logic was designed correctly and satisfied the required specifications. For the functional verification, a random testing technique was adopted to generate test inputs for the bistable trip logic.

  17. Ecological engineering to control bioclogging: an original field study coupling infiltration and biological measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gette-bouvarot, Morgane; Mermillod-Blondin, Florian; Lassabatere, Laurent; Lemoine, Damien; Delolme, Cécile; Volatier, Laurence

    2014-05-01

    Infiltration systems are increasingly used in urban areas for several purposes such as flood prevention and groundwater recharge. However, their functioning is often impacted by clogging that leads to decreases in hydraulic and water treatment performances. These systems are commonly built with sand as infiltration medium, a media subject to rapid clogging by the combined and overlapping processes of pore occlusion by fine particles and biofilm development. In a previous study, we pointed out that the phototrophic component of biofilms developed at the surface layer of infiltration systems (algae, cyanobacteria) could reduce by up to 60-fold the saturated hydraulic conductivity. Consequently, it appears crucial to control biofilm growth to maintain porous infiltration media performances. The present study aimed to test the influence of biotic (addition of animals or macrophytes) and abiotic (light reduction) treatments on biofilm development and associated hydraulic properties in an infiltration device dedicated to aquifer recharge with river water in Lyon Area (France). Twenty-five benthic enclosures were used to test 5 "treatments" on non-manipulated surface layer under field conditions. Three biotic treatments consisted in the introduction of: (i) an invertebrate acting as algae grazer (Viviparus viviparus), (ii) an invertebrate that digs galleries in sediments (Tubifex tubifex), and (iii) a macrophyte that could inhibit benthic biofilm by allelopathic activity (Vallisneria spiralis L). The fourth treatment was designed to simulate shading. The last "treatment" was a control which monitored the evolution of the system during the experiment without manipulation (addition of macro-organisms or shading). Each treatment was replicated five times. The experiment was conducted for 6 weeks, and sampling of the surface layer (0-1 cm) was carried out in each enclosure at the beginning (t0) and the end (tf). We coupled biological characterizations (organic matter, algal

  18. [The influence of variable and constant magnetic fields on biota and biological activity of ordinary chernozem soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, T V; Kazeev, K Sh

    2007-01-01

    In model experiments on influence variable magnetic fields of industrial frequency (50 Hz) an induction of 1500 and of 6000 mkTl and the constant magnetic field an induction of 6000 mkTl and of 15000 mkTl during 5 days of exposure on biological properties of chernozem ordinary is shown, that the soil microflora is more sensitive to magnetic fields, than enzymes activity. Bacteria are more sensitive, than microscopic mushrooms. Dehydrogenase it is steady against influence of all variants. Constant magnetic field by the induction of 15000 mkTl rendered practically identical authentic overwhelming influence on catalase and saccharase activity - on 51 and 47% accordingly.

  19. Characterisation of radiation field for irradiation of biological samples at nuclear reactor-comparison of twin detector and recombination methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnik, N; Gryziński, M A; Kowalska, M; Meronka, K; Tulik, P

    2014-10-01

    Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection is involved in achieving scientific project on biological dosimetry. The project includes irradiation of blood samples in radiation fields of nuclear reactor. A simple facility for irradiation of biological samples has been prepared at horizontal channel of the nuclear reactor MARIA in NCBJ in Poland. The radiation field, composed mainly of gamma radiation and thermal neutrons, has been characterised in terms of tissue kerma using twin-detector technique and recombination chambers. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A Trip to the Statler Hilton Hotel. The Special Education Curriculum Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Muriel

    A program designed for high school level work-study classes for students of limited mental ability presents specific curriculum methods and materials to teach information regarding positions available in the hotel industry. A field trip tour of the Boston Statler Hilton Hotel if the focal activity of the unit, and is accompanied by a history of…

  1. Research at the interface of physics and biology: bridging the two fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Kamal

    2014-10-08

    I firmly believe that interaction between physics and biology is not only natural, but inevitable. Kamal Shukla provides a personal perspective on working at the interface between the physical and biological sciences.

  2. BIOLOGICAL AND HEALTH EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD FROM MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao TAKI

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile communication devices are sources of radiofrequency (RF electromagnetic field (EMF that are common in daily life and can cause strong exposure to the head. Possible adverse health effects, especially on brain functions, have been of great concern among the general public since the explosive penetration of this technology began in the 1990's. The exposure complies with current safety guidelines. The established knowledge of biological effects of RF does not provide any evidence for anecdotally reported effects such as memory loss or causing brain tumors. However, there is no way to prove the absolute absence of such effects. The enormous efforts have been made to search for such unknown effects and ascertain the safety of this technology. Recent research on the possible effects of RF-EMF on the brain is briefly summarized here to show what is known and what remains unknown. The evidence reported so far indicates few effects that could possibly damage human health seriously. Only slight changes in physiological function in the brain may exist, but variation of the data is too great to believe that the exposure actually has the potential to affect function. The health risk, if any, at an individual level, would be very low in consideration of the available evidence. However, if mobile phone fields were actually hazardous, the very large number of mobile phone users could mean that, even if the individual risk were very low, the impact on public health could be considerable. This is the most important reason why so many efforts are being made in this issue.

  3. Development of a filtered neutron field in KUR. In behalf of biological irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takashi; Utsuro, Masahiko; Utsumi, Hiroshi

    1995-07-01

    Very little direct measurements have been made of the biological effects of neutrons below 100keV. Recently, an iron-filtered 24keV neutron beam of Harwell Materials Testing Reactor, PLUTO, was reported to be highly efficient in inducing chromosome aberrations; the efficiency being comparable to that of fission neutrons. This results could have serious repercussions for radiation protection standards as the ICRP assume a decrease in neutron RBE below 100keV. The investigations reported here have as their primary purpose the production of neutron beams at the 24keV iron window energy, using the B-1 experimental facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (KURRI). The filtered neutron filed for biomedical applications is designed to maximized the contributions of neutrons with other energies and gamma-rays. The characteristics of the radiation field were obtained by the simple transmission calculations for Fe(45cm) and Al(35cm) filters, by using the Monte Carlo code MCN P, and by the measurement of nuclear heating for Fe and Al filter pieces. The 24keV neutron flux and gamma-ray dose rate were measured using a proton recoil counter and TLDs, respectively. The measured findings are as follows: The 24keV neutron flux at the irradiation field was approximately 1x10 6 n/cm 2 /s, and the gamma-ray dose rate was 1.0Gy/h at the surface of the B-1 plug. Nuclear heating of the filter materials was 5.2mW/g for Fe and 4mW/g for Al, in maximum. (author)

  4. Systematic review of biological effects of exposure to static electric fields. Part II: Invertebrates and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedchen, Kristina; Petri, Anne-Kathrin; Driessen, Sarah; Bailey, William H

    2018-01-01

    The construction of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines for the long-distance transport of energy is becoming increasingly popular. This has raised public concern about potential environmental impacts of the static electric fields (EF) produced under and near HVDC power lines. As the second part of a comprehensive literature analysis, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of static EF exposure on biological functions in invertebrates and plants and to provide the basis for an environmental impact assessment of such exposures. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was used to guide the methodological conduct and reporting. Thirty-three studies - 14 invertebrate and 19 plant studies - met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. The reported behavioral responses of insects and planarians upon exposure strongly suggest that invertebrates are able to perceive the presence of a static EF. Many other studies reported effects on physiological functions that were expressed as, for example, altered metabolic activity or delayed reproductive and developmental stages in invertebrates. In plants, leaf damage, alterations in germination rates, growth and yield, or variations in the concentration of essential elements, for example, have been reported. However, these physiological responses and changes in plant morphology appear to be secondary to surface stimulation by the static EF or caused by concomitant parameters of the electrostatic environment. Furthermore, all of the included studies suffered from methodological flaws, which lowered credibility in the results. At field levels encountered from natural sources or HVDC lines ( 35kV/m), adverse effects on physiology and morphology, presumably caused by corona-action, appear to be more likely. Higher quality studies are needed to unravel the role of air ions, ozone, nitric oxide and corona current on alterations in physiological functions

  5. Scanning near-field optical microscopy on rough surfaces: applications in chemistry, biology, and medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Shear-force apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM with very sharp uncoated tapered waveguides relies on the unexpected enhancement of reflection in the shear-force gap. It is the technique for obtaining chemical (materials contrast in the optical image of “real world” surfaces that are rough and very rough without topographical artifacts, and it is by far less complicated than other SNOM techniques that can only be used for very flat surfaces. The experimental use of the new photophysical effect is described. The applications of the new technique are manifold. Important mechanistic questions in solid-state chemistry (oxidation, diazotization, photodimerization, surface hydration, hydrolysis are answered with respect to simultaneous AFM (atomic force microscopy and detailed crystal packing. Prehistoric petrified bacteria and concomitant pyrite inclusions are also investigated with local RAMAN SNOM. Polymer beads and unstained biological objects (rabbit heart, shrimp eye allow for nanoscopic analysis of cell organelles. Similarly, human teeth and a cancerous tissue are analyzed. Bladder cancer tissue is clearly differentiated from healthy tissue without staining and this opens a new highly promising diagnostic tool for precancer diagnosis. Industrial applications are demonstrated at the corrosion behavior of dental alloys (withdrawal of a widely used alloy, harmless substitutes, improvement of paper glazing, behavior of blood bags upon storage, quality assessment of metal particle preparations for surface enhanced RAMAN spectroscopy, and determination of diffusion coefficient and light fastness in textile fiber dyeing. The latter applications include fluorescence SNOM. Local fluorescence SNOM is also used in the study of partly aggregating dye nanoparticles within resin/varnish preparations. Unexpected new insights are obtained in all of the various fields that cannot be obtained by other techniques.

  6. Analysis of electric vehicle's trip cost allowing late arrival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jun-Qiang; Liu, Wei-Yi; Zhao, Lin

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we use a car-following model to study each electric vehicle's trip cost and the total trip cost allowing late arrival. The numerical result show that the electricity cost has great effects on each commuter's trip cost and the total trip costs and that these effects are dependent on each commuter's time headway at the origin, but the electricity cost has no prominent impacts on the minimum value of total trip cost under each commuter's different time headway at the origin.

  7. Hybrid finite element method for describing the electrical response of biological cells to applied fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Wenjun; Henriquez, Craig S

    2007-04-01

    A novel hybrid finite element method (FEM) for modeling the response of passive and active biological membranes to external stimuli is presented. The method is based on the differential equations that describe the conservation of electric flux and membrane currents. By introducing the electric flux through the cell membrane as an additional variable, the algorithm decouples the linear partial differential equation part from the nonlinear ordinary differential equation part that defines the membrane dynamics of interest. This conveniently results in two subproblems: a linear interface problem and a nonlinear initial value problem. The linear interface problem is solved with a hybrid FEM. The initial value problem is integrated by a standard ordinary differential equation solver such as the Euler and Runge-Kutta methods. During time integration, these two subproblems are solved alternatively. The algorithm can be used to model the interaction of stimuli with multiple cells of almost arbitrary geometries and complex ion-channel gating at the plasma membrane. Numerical experiments are presented demonstrating the uses of the method for modeling field stimulation and action potential propagation.

  8. Tweets from the forest: using Twitter to increase student engagement in an undergraduate field biology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluk, Lauren; Buddle, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Twitter is a cold medium that allows users to deliver content-rich but small packets of information to other users, and provides an opportunity for active and collaborative communication. In an education setting, this social media tool has potential to increase active learning opportunities, and increase student engagement with course content. The effects of Twitter on learning dynamics was tested in a field biology course offered by a large Canadian University: 29 students agreed to take part in the Twitter project and quantitative and qualitative data were collected, including survey data from 18 students. Students published 200% more public Tweets than what was required, and interacted frequently with the instructor and teaching assistant, their peers, and users external to the course. Almost 80% of students stated that Twitter increased opportunities for among-group communication, and 94% of students felt this kind of collaborative communication was beneficial to their learning. Although students did not think they would use Twitter after the course was over, 77% of the students still felt it was a good learning tool, and 67% of students felt Twitter had a positive impact on how they engaged with course content. These results suggest social media tools such as Twitter can help achieve active and collaborative learning in higher education. PMID:26594328

  9. Biological water contamination in some cattle production fields of Argentina subjected to runoff and erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celio I. Chagas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Grain production has displaced livestock to marginal lands in most of the productive regions in Argentina since 1990. In the fertile Rolling Pampa region, extensive cattle production has been concentrated in lowlands subjected to flooding, salt excess, erosion and sedimentation processes but also in some feedlots recently located in sloping arable lands prone to soil erosion. We studied the concentration of microbiological contamination indicators in runoff water and sediments accumulated in depressions along the tributary network from these lands devoted to cattle production. The aims of this work were: (i to gather a reliable set of data from different monitoring periods and scales, (ii to search for simple and sensible variables to be used as indicators for surface water quality advising purposes and (iii to corroborate previous biological contamination conceptual models for this region. Concentration of pollution indicators in these ponds was related to mean stocking rates from nearby fields and proved to depend significantly on the accumulated water and sediments. Viable mesophiles and total coliforms were found mainly attached to large sediments rather than in the runoff water phase. Seasonal sampling showed that the time period between the last significant runoff event and each sampling date regarding enterococci proved to be a sensible variable for predicting contamination. Enterococci concentration tended to increase gradually until the next extraordinary runoff event washed away contaminants. The mentioned relationship may be useful for designing early warning surface water contamination programs regarding enterococci dynamics and other related microbial pollutants as well.

  10. Tweets from the forest: using Twitter to increase student engagement in an undergraduate field biology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluk, Lauren; Buddle, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Twitter is a cold medium that allows users to deliver content-rich but small packets of information to other users, and provides an opportunity for active and collaborative communication. In an education setting, this social media tool has potential to increase active learning opportunities, and increase student engagement with course content. The effects of Twitter on learning dynamics was tested in a field biology course offered by a large Canadian University: 29 students agreed to take part in the Twitter project and quantitative and qualitative data were collected, including survey data from 18 students. Students published 200% more public Tweets than what was required, and interacted frequently with the instructor and teaching assistant, their peers, and users external to the course. Almost 80% of students stated that Twitter increased opportunities for among-group communication, and 94% of students felt this kind of collaborative communication was beneficial to their learning. Although students did not think they would use Twitter after the course was over, 77% of the students still felt it was a good learning tool, and 67% of students felt Twitter had a positive impact on how they engaged with course content. These results suggest social media tools such as Twitter can help achieve active and collaborative learning in higher education.

  11. Structured Development and Promotion of a Research Field: Hormesis in Biology, Toxicology, and Environmental Regulatory Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushak, Paul; Elliott, Kevin C

    2015-12-01

    The ability of powerful and well-funded interest groups to steer scientific research in ways that advance their goals has become a significant social concern. This steering ability is increasingly being recognized in the peer-reviewed scientific literature and in findings of deliberative scientific bodies. This paper provides a case study that illustrates some of the major strategies that can be used to structure and advance a controversial research field. It focuses on hormesis, described as a type of dose-response relationship in toxicology and biology showing low-dose stimulation but high-dose inhibition, or the reverse. Hormesis proponents tout its significance, arguing that substances toxic at high doses and beneficial at lower doses should be regulated less stringently. We identify five strategies employed by hormesis proponents to foster its acceptance: (1) creating institutions focused on supporting hormesis; (2) developing terminology, study designs, and data interpretations that cast it in a favorable light; (3) using bibliometric techniques and surveys to attract attention; (4) aggressively advocating for the phenomenon and challenging critics; and (5) working with outside interest groups to apply the hormesis phenomenon in the economic and political spheres. We also suggest a number of oversight strategies that can be implemented to help promote credible and socially responsible research in cases like this one.

  12. Biological effects of high strength electric fields on small laboratory animals. Annual report, April 1977--March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    Progress is reported on studies of the biological effects on mice and rats of exposure to 60-Hz electric fields. Results are reported on the effects of 30-day and 60-day exposures to 100 kV/m, 60-Hz electric fields on hematologic values, blood chemistry, and organ weights. With the possible exception of elevated blood platelet counts following 60-day exposures, there were no pathological changes observed in either mice or rats.

  13. Your private trips with Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    CERN Multimedia

    Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    2015-01-01

    Your Carlson Wagonlit Travel agency at CERN (building 62) also organizes private trips!     Do not hesitate to contact the “Tourism” team, at your disposal from Monday to Friday from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Phone: 72763. E-mail: cern@carlsonwagonlit.ch. Since 1 January 2015, everyone working at CERN benefits from lower booking fees.

  14. TRIPs Agreement, Important Multilateral WTO Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Maria Florescu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting the content and the frame of the TRIPs. Agreement. It starts by introducing the reader to the terms that defined the world economical climate by the time of the Agreement negociation. Also, it explains the need of having an Agreement on intellectual property rights with impact on the business world. Moreover, the article reviews the main provisions of the Agreement and the most important intellectual property rights.

  15. Tourism and fashion: factors affecting trip length

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón García, María Haydeé; G. Gallarza, Martina; Fayos Gardó, Teresa; O'Sullivan, P.

    2016-01-01

    Tourism and shopping are closely related, and the influence of fashion shopping on a tourist's decision to travel is especially significant. The concept of cognitive and hedonic involvement enables us to relate the importance given to shopping by consumers of fashion products and of tourism services. This research analyses whether tourist involvement in fashion shopping has an impact on the length of their stay in a destination. In addition, it examines whether trip length is conditioned by t...

  16. Installation of a second trip system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessada, E.

    1997-01-01

    Since its first criticality in 1957, the NRU reactor has been operating safely and efficiently supporting the CANDU reactor's research and development programs and producing radioisotopes for medical use. To ensure that the reactor continues to operate safely and effectively, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) commissioned a team in 1989 to conduct a systematic review and assessment of the reactor condition. The outcome of the study indicated that the overall condition of the reactor is good and that it is being operated safely. The study also produced recommendations as to where safety can be improved. These recommendations are the basis of the upgrade program currently being implemented in the reactor. The Second Trip System (STS) is part of the upgrade program. It is a stand alone seismically qualified trip system that operates independently from the existing first trip system (FST) to shutdown the reactor. This paper discusses the design, installation and the inactive commissioning of the system, and the process used to ensure that the system can be retrofitted to the reactor without affecting its safety or its operational requirements. (author)

  17. [Magnetic resonance imaging : Recent studies on biological effects of static magnetic and high‑frequency electromagnetic fields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pophof, B; Brix, G

    2017-07-01

    During the last few years, new studies on biological effects of strong static magnetic fields and on thermal effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were published. Many of these studies have not yet been included in the current safety recommendations. Scientific publications since 2010 on biological effects of static and electromagnetic fields in MRI were researched and evaluated. New studies confirm older publications that have already described effects of static magnetic fields on sensory organs and the central nervous system, accompanied by sensory perceptions. A new result is the direct effect of Lorentz forces on ionic currents in the semicircular canals of the vestibular system. Recent studies of thermal effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields were focused on the development of anatomically realistic body models and a more precise simulation of exposure scenarios. Strong static magnetic fields can cause unpleasant sensations, in particular, vertigo. In addition, they can influence the performance of the medical staff and thus potentially endanger the patient's safety. As a precaution, medical personnel should move slowly within the field gradient. High-frequency electromagnetic fields lead to an increase in the temperature of patients' tissues and organs. This should be considered especially in patients with restricted thermoregulation and in pregnant women and neonates; in these cases exposure should be kept as low as possible.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging. Recent studies on biological effects of static magnetic and high-frequency electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pophof, B.; Brix, G.

    2017-01-01

    During the last few years, new studies on biological effects of strong static magnetic fields and on thermal effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were published. Many of these studies have not yet been included in the current safety recommendations. Scientific publications since 2010 on biological effects of static and electromagnetic fields in MRI were researched and evaluated. New studies confirm older publications that have already described effects of static magnetic fields on sensory organs and the central nervous system, accompanied by sensory perceptions. A new result is the direct effect of Lorentz forces on ionic currents in the semicircular canals of the vestibular system. Recent studies of thermal effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields were focused on the development of anatomically realistic body models and a more precise simulation of exposure scenarios. Strong static magnetic fields can cause unpleasant sensations, in particular, vertigo. In addition, they can influence the performance of the medical staff and thus potentially endanger the patient's safety. As a precaution, medical personnel should move slowly within the field gradient. High-frequency electromagnetic fields lead to an increase in the temperature of patients' tissues and organs. This should be considered especially in patients with restricted thermoregulation and in pregnant women and neonates; in these cases exposure should be kept as low as possible. (orig.) [de

  19. Biological effects of high-strength electric fields on small laboratory animals. Interim report, March 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, R.D.; Anderson, L.E.; Kaune, W.T.

    1979-12-01

    Progress is described on a project assessing the biological effects of 60-Hz electric fields on small laboratory animals (rats and mice). The report includes sections on hematology and seram chemistry, immunology, pathology, metabolism, bone growth, endocrinology, cardiovascular function, neurophysiology, growth and development, and animal behavior. (ACR)

  20. Campus Eco Tours: An Integrative & Interactive Field Project for Undergraduate Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Katie E.

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor areas within or near college campuses offer an opportunity for biology students to observe the natural world and apply concepts from class. Here, I describe an engaging and integrative project where undergraduate non-major biology students work in teams to develop and present professional "eco tours." This project takes place over multiple…

  1. Development of trip coverage analysis methodology - CATHENA trip coverage analysis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Ho; Ohn, M. Y.; Cho, C. H.; Huh, J. Y.; Na, Y. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, B. G.; Kim, H. H.; Kim, S. W.; Bae, C. J.; Kim, T. M.; Kim, S. R.; Han, B. S.; Moon, B. J.; Oh, M. T. [Korea Power Engineering Co., Yongin (Korea)

    2001-05-01

    This report describes the CATHENA model for trip coverage analysis. This model is prepared based on the Wolsong 2 design data and consist of primary heat transport system, shutdown system, steam and feedwater system, reactor regulating system, heat transport pressure and inventory control system, and steam generator level and pressure control system. The new features and modified parts from the Wolsong 2 CATHENA LOCA Model required for trip coverage analysis is described. this model is tested by simulation of steady state at 100 % FP and at several low powers. Also, the cases of power rundown and power runup are tested. 17 refs., 124 figs., 19 tabs. (Author)

  2. Direct observation of unstained biological specimens in water by the frequency transmission electric-field method using SEM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko Ogura

    Full Text Available Scanning electron microscopy (SEM is a powerful tool for the direct visualization of biological specimens at nanometre-scale resolution. However, images of unstained specimens in water using an atmospheric holder exhibit very poor contrast and heavy radiation damage. Here, we present a new form of microscopy, the frequency transmission electric-field (FTE method using SEM, that offers low radiation damage and high-contrast observation of unstained biological samples in water. The wet biological specimens are enclosed in two silicon nitride (SiN films. The metal-coated SiN film is irradiated using a focused modulation electron beam (EB at a low-accelerating voltage. A measurement terminal under the sample holder detects the electric-field frequency signal, which contains structural information relating to the biological specimens. Our results in very little radiation damage to the sample, and the observation image is similar to the transmission image, depending on the sample volume. Our developed method can easily be utilized for the observation of various biological specimens in water.

  3. Molecular change signal-to-noise criteria for interpreting experiments involving exposure of biological systems to weakly interacting electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Timothy E; Weaver, James C

    2005-05-01

    We describe an approach to aiding the design and interpretation of experiments involving biological effects of weakly interacting electromagnetic fields that range from steady (dc) to microwave frequencies. We propose that if known biophysical mechanisms cannot account for an inferred, underlying molecular change signal-to-noise ratio, (S/N)gen, of a observed result, then there are two interpretation choices: (1) there is an unknown biophysical mechanism with stronger coupling between the field exposure and the ongoing biochemical process, or (2) the experiment is responding to something other than the field exposure. Our approach is based on classical detection theory, the recognition that weakly interacting fields cannot break chemical bonds, and the consequence that such fields can only alter rates of ongoing, metabolically driven biochemical reactions, and transport processes. The approach includes both fundamental chemical noise (molecular shot noise) and other sources of competing chemical change, to be compared quantitatively to the field induced change for the basic case that the field alters a single step in a biochemical network. Consistent with pharmacology and toxicology, we estimate the molecular dose (mass associated with field induced molecular change per mass tissue) resulting from illustrative low frequency field exposures for the biophysical mechanism of voltage gated channels. For perspective, we then consider electric field-mediated delivery of small molecules across human skin and into individual cells. Specifically, we consider the examples of iontophoretic and electroporative delivery of fentanyl through skin and electroporative delivery of bleomycin into individual cells. The total delivered amount corresponds to a molecular change signal and the delivery variability corresponds to generalized chemical noise. Viewed broadly, biological effects due to nonionizing fields may include animal navigation, medical applications, and environmental

  4. A preliminary survey of marine contamination from mining-related activities on Marinduque Island, Philippines: porewater toxicity and chemistry results from a field trip, October 14-19, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, R. Scott; Nipper, Marion; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2001-01-01

    measurement of porewater concentrations of several heavy metals associated with copper mining activities. Pore waters for toxicological and chemical analyses were collected at several stations on the coast of Marinduque, near the mouths of the Boac and Mogpog rivers, and near the causeways formed by mine tailings disposal. Porewater samples were also collected at the Tres Reyes Marine Reserve, so that these non-contaminated samples could serve as a reference for test performance. Sea urchin embryological development and fertilization were only significantly impaired by two porewater samples, suggesting the presence of contaminants in toxic amounts at those stations. The toxic samples were collected near the up current side of the Calancan (Marcopper) mine tailings causeway (stations 2 and 3 – see figure 10). The pore water from station 2 also had the highest levels of heavy metals, particularly cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead and zinc (Table 5). The concentrations of cobalt, nickel and zinc were also elevated 2 at station 3. Copper concentrations were also elevated at the two river mouth stations (8 and 9) and near the CMI tailings causeway (station 7). Visual observations also indicated biological degradation due to heavy siltation and smothered coral at a gradient off the Calancan causeway, suggesting that siltation might also be causing a physical impact. This preliminary survey suggests that effects related to past mining activities are still evident and warrant a more comprehensive study to assess their severity and areal extent.

  5. Predictors of trips to food destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr Jacqueline

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food environment studies have focused on ethnic and income disparities in food access. Few studies have investigated distance travelled for food and did not aim to inform the geographic scales at which to study the relationship between food environments and obesity. Further, studies have not considered neighborhood design as a predictor of food purchasing behavior. Methods Atlanta residents (N = 4800 who completed a travel diary and reported purchasing or consuming food at one of five food locations were included in the analyses. A total of 11,995 food-related trips were reported. Using mixed modeling to adjust for clustering of trips by participants and households, person-level variables (e.g. demographics, neighborhood-level urban form measures, created in GIS, and trip characteristics (e.g. time of day, origin and destination were investigated as correlates of distance travelled for food and frequency of grocery store and fast food outlet trips. Results Mean travel distance for food ranged from 4.5 miles for coffee shops to 6.3 miles for superstores. Type of store, urban form, type of tour, day of the week and ethnicity were all significantly related to distance travelled for food. Origin and destination environment, type of tour, day of week, age, gender, income, ethnicity, vehicle access and obesity status were all significantly related to visiting a grocery store. Home neighborhood environment, day of week, type of tour, gender, income, education level, age, and obesity status were all significantly related to likelihood of visiting a fastfood outlet. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that people travel sizeable distances for food and this distance is related to urban. Results suggest that researchers need to employ different methods to characterize food environments than have been used to assess urban form in studies of physical activity. Food is most often purchased while traveling from locations other

  6. Can Lucifer Yellow Indicate Correct Permeability of Biological Cell Membrane under An Electric and Magnetic Field?

    OpenAIRE

    Pourmirjafari Firoozabadi, Tahereh; Shankayi, Zeinab; Izadi, Azam; Pourmirjafari Firoozabadi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of external magnetic and electric fields, in the range of electroporation and magnetoporation, on Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescence in the absence of cells is studied. Electric-field-induced quenching and magnetic field-induced increase are observed for fluorescence intensity of LY. Regard to the fact that the variation of field-induced fluorescence, even in the absence of cells, can be observed, the application of LY, as a marker, is debatable in electroporation and magnetoporation...

  7. Can Lucifer Yellow Indicate Correct Permeability of Biological Cell Membrane under An Electric and Magnetic Field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmirjafari Firoozabadi, Tahereh; Shankayi, Zeinab; Izadi, Azam; Pourmirjafari Firoozabadi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of external magnetic and electric fields, in the range of electroporation and magnetoporation, on Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescence in the absence of cells is studied. Electric-field-induced quenching and magnetic field-induced increase are observed for fluorescence intensity of LY. Regard to the fact that the variation of field-induced fluorescence, even in the absence of cells, can be observed, the application of LY, as a marker, is debatable in electroporation and magnetoporation techniques.

  8. Age related intrinsic limitations in preventing a trip and regaining balance after a trip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dieen, J.H.; Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.; Bobbert, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature to determine directions for prevention of falls among the elderly by establishing causal factors for falls resulting from a trip. The literature on risk factors for falls is briefly reviewed, but the main emphasis is on experimental studies to complement

  9. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields | Yalçın | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the possible effects of extra low frequency electromagnetic fields on the public health have become an interesting subject. Generally, electromagnetic fields occur around the high voltage lines. However, electromagnetic fields also occur with some electrical machines use for fun and TV used routinely at our home ...

  10. Thermodynamically consistent force fields for the assembly of inorganic, organic, and biological nanostructures: the INTERFACE force field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Hendrik; Lin, Tzu-Jen; Mishra, Ratan Kishore; Emami, Fateme S

    2013-02-12

    The complexity of the molecular recognition and assembly of biotic-abiotic interfaces on a scale of 1 to 1000 nm can be understood more effectively using simulation tools along with laboratory instrumentation. We discuss the current capabilities and limitations of atomistic force fields and explain a strategy to obtain dependable parameters for inorganic compounds that has been developed and tested over the past decade. Parameter developments include several silicates, aluminates, metals, oxides, sulfates, and apatites that are summarized in what we call the INTERFACE force field. The INTERFACE force field operates as an extension of common harmonic force fields (PCFF, COMPASS, CHARMM, AMBER, GROMACS, and OPLS-AA) by employing the same functional form and combination rules to enable simulations of inorganic-organic and inorganic-biomolecular interfaces. The parametrization builds on an in-depth understanding of physical-chemical properties on the atomic scale to assign each parameter, especially atomic charges and van der Waals constants, as well as on the validation of macroscale physical-chemical properties for each compound in comparison to measurements. The approach eliminates large discrepancies between computed and measured bulk and surface properties of up to 2 orders of magnitude using other parametrization protocols and increases the transferability of the parameters by introducing thermodynamic consistency. As a result, a wide range of properties can be computed in quantitative agreement with experiment, including densities, surface energies, solid-water interface tensions, anisotropies of interfacial energies of different crystal facets, adsorption energies of biomolecules, and thermal and mechanical properties. Applications include insight into the assembly of inorganic-organic multiphase materials, the recognition of inorganic facets by biomolecules, growth and shape preferences of nanocrystals and nanoparticles, as well as thermal transitions and

  11. COMPUTATIONAL MODELING AND SIMULATION IN BIOLOGY TEACHING: A MINIMALLY EXPLORED FIELD OF STUDY WITH A LOT OF POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia López

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of a research project that aims to characterize the epistemological, psychological and didactic presuppositions of science teachers (Biology, Physics, Chemistry that implement Computational Modeling and Simulation (CMS activities as a part of their teaching practice. We present here a synthesis of a literature review on the subject, evidencing how in the last two decades this form of computer usage for science teaching has boomed in disciplines such as Physics and Chemistry, but in a lesser degree in Biology. Additionally, in the works that dwell on the use of CMS in Biology, we identified a lack of theoretical bases that support their epistemological, psychological and/or didactic postures. Accordingly, this generates significant considerations for the fields of research and teacher instruction in Science Education.

  12. Biological cell as a soft magnetoelectric material: Elucidating the physical mechanisms underpinning the detection of magnetic fields by animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krichen, S.; Liu, L.; Sharma, P.

    2017-10-01

    Sharks, birds, bats, turtles, and many other animals can detect magnetic fields. Aside from using this remarkable ability to exploit the terrestrial magnetic field map to sense direction, a subset is also able to implement a version of the so-called geophysical positioning system. How do these animals detect magnetic fields? The answer to this rather deceptively simple question has proven to be quite elusive. The currently prevalent theories, while providing interesting insights, fall short of explaining several aspects of magnetoreception. For example, minute magnetic particles have been detected in magnetically sensitive animals. However, how is the detected magnetic field converted into electrical signals given any lack of experimental evidence for relevant electroreceptors? In principle, a magnetoelectric material is capable of converting magnetic signals into electricity (and vice versa). This property, however, is rare and restricted to a rather small set of exotic hard crystalline materials. Indeed, such elements have never been detected in the animals studied so far. In this work we quantitatively outline the conditions under which a biological cell may detect a magnetic field and convert it into electrical signals detectable by biological cells. Specifically, we prove the existence of an overlooked strain-mediated mechanism and show that most biological cells can act as nontrivial magnetoelectric materials provided that the magnetic permeability constant is only slightly more than that of a vacuum. The enhanced magnetic permeability is easily achieved by small amounts of magnetic particles that have been experimentally detected in magnetosensitive animals. Our proposed mechanism appears to explain most of the experimental observations related to the physical basis of magnetoreception.

  13. STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIC FIELD ON SOME BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ZEA MAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A ALADJADJIYAN

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the static magnetic field of 0,15 Т induction on the maize seeds was studied. The germinating energy and seed germination were detected. The fresh weight and the shoot length were measured. The absorption spectra and the specific electroconductivity of the water extract from seeds were registered. It was detected that the magnetic field stimulated the shoot development and led to the increase of the germinating energy, germination, fresh weight and shoot length. The extinction of the samples treated with a magnetic field increased by about 20 %. The highest values of the treated sample parameters were obtained after 10-min exposure in the magnetic field.

  14. Influence of electromagnetic field on soliton-mediated charge transport in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizhik, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that electromagnetic fields affect dynamics of Davydov's solitons which provide charge transport processes in macromolecules during metabolism of the system. There is a resonant frequency of the field at which it can cause the transition of electrons from bound soliton states into delocalised states. Such decay of solitons reduces the effectiveness of charge transport, and, therefore, inhibits redox processes. Solitons radiate their own electromagnetic field of characteristic frequency determined by their average velocity. This self-radiated field leads to synchronization of soliton dynamics and charge transport processes, and is the source of the coherence in the system. Exposition of the system to the oscillating electromagnetic field of the frequency, which coincides with the eigen-frequency of solitons can enhance eigen-radiation of solitons, and, therefore, will enhance synchronization of charge transpor, stimulate the redox processes and increase coherence in the system. Electromagnetic oscillating field causes also ratchet phenomenon of solitons, i.e., drift of solitons in macromolecules in the presence of unbiased periodic field. Such additional drift enhances the charge transport processes. It is shown that temperature facilitates the ratchet drift. In particular, temperature fluctuations lead to the lowering of the critical value of the intensity and period of the field, above which the drift of solitons takes place. Moreover, there is a stochastic resonance in the soliton dynamics in external electromagnetic fields. This means, that there is some optimal temperature at which the drift of solitons is maximal.

  15. Coal geology of the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox Group) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson Group) in east-central Texas; field trip guidebook for the Society for Organic Petrology, Twelfth Annual Meeting, The Woodlands, Texas, August 30, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Crowley, Sharon S.

    1995-01-01

    The Jackson and Wilcox Groups of eastern Texas (fig. 1) are the major lignite producing intervals in the Gulf Region. Within these groups, the major lignite-producing formations are the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson). According to the Keystone Coal Industry Manual (Maclean Hunter Publishing Company, 1994), the Gulf Coast basin produces about 57 million short tons of lignite annually. The state of Texas ranks number 6 in coal production in the United States. Most of the lignite is used for electric power generation in mine-mouth power plant facilities. In recent years, particular interest has been given to lignite quality and the distribution and concentration of about a dozen trace elements that have been identified as potential hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. As pointed out by Oman and Finkelman (1994), Gulf Coast lignite deposits have elevated concentrations of many of the HAPs elements (Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Se, U) on a as-received gm/mmBtu basis when compared to other United States coal deposits used for fuel in thermo-electric power plants. Although regulations have not yet been established for acceptable emissions of the HAPs elements during coal burning, considerable research effort has been given to the characterization of these elements in coal feed stocks. The general purpose of the present field trip and of the accompanying collection of papers is to investigate how various aspects of east Texas lignite geology might collectively influence the quality of the lignite fuel. We hope that this collection of papers will help future researchers understand the complex, multifaceted interrelations of coal geology, petrology, palynology and coal quality, and that this introduction to the geology of the lignite deposits of east Texas might serve as a stimulus for new ideas to be applied to other coal basins in the U.S. and abroad.

  16. Beyond the Field Trip: Teaching Tourism through Tours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelner, Shaul; Sanders, George

    2009-01-01

    A course in the sociology of tourism offers an opportunity to examine a world-transforming force that is penetrating more and more aspects of social life. It also offers an opportunity to create a learning environment that uses the object of study as the medium of study. This article examines how instructors can use tourism to teach the sociology…

  17. Using Online Field Trips and Tours in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2010-01-01

    While not focusing directly on art, music, or literature, classroom teachers, students, and supervisors can find many virtual tours of museum offices, and agencies that do have art content. The use of virtual tours can be extremely effective--whether used as an entire classroom experience (such as the teacher guiding students through a tour using…

  18. Electronic Field Trip: Journalism's New Frontier Involves Live, Interactive Broadcast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMar, Jason

    1998-01-01

    Describes the "Newseum," a recently opened museum in Arlington, Virginia, dedicated to journalism and freedom of speech. Lists its highlights: free admission, an interactive newsroom, a 126-foot video wall, a news history gallery, a domed theater with a 20-by-40-foot high-definition video screen, and "The Freedom Wall." (PA)

  19. Take Geology Field Trips Right to the Schoolyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a sample activity to introduce students to geologic processes while opening up and expanding their curiosity about the world around them. This exercise is targeted towards younger students, but could serve as a short introductory activity for further schoolyard mapping activities for older students. In this activity, students…

  20. Assessment of vehicle trip production rates in Ilorin (Nigeria) | Jimoh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occupation, age, gender, income lev-el, vehicle ownership, trip length and fare structure affected the total trip generation, with an average production rate of 3.5, in the range of 2.79 - 4.29. The lower rate was characteristic of school children (5 - 15 years), while the highest rate was attributed to affluent and elderly persons ...

  1. Gezocht: de beste roofmijt voor Californische trips in roos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkesteijn, M.; Pijnakker, J.

    2012-01-01

    De Californische trips, Frankliniella occidentalis, is een van de belangrijkste plagen in de glastuinbouw. De introductie van deze trips dateert van 1984. Het plaaginsect vormt nu een struikelblok voor de verdere uitbreiding van geïntegreerde bestrijding. In roos kan een klein aantal van deze

  2. Enhancing Biological Analyses with Three Dimensional Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility, Low Field Drift Time Ion Mobility and Mass Spectrometry (µFAIMS/IMS-MS) Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xing; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Erin Shammel

    2015-06-30

    We report the first evaluation of a platform coupling a high speed field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry microchip (µFAIMS) with drift tube ion mobility and mass spectrometry (IMS-MS). The µFAIMS/IMS-MS platform was used to analyze biological samples and simultaneously acquire multidimensional information of detected features from the measured FAIMS compensation fields and IMS drift times, while also obtaining accurate ion masses. These separations thereby increase the overall separation power, resulting increased information content, and provide more complete characterization of more complex samples. The separation conditions were optimized for sensitivity and resolving power by the selection of gas compositions and pressures in the FAIMS and IMS separation stages. The resulting performance provided three dimensional separations, benefitting both broad complex mixture studies and targeted analyses by e.g. improving isomeric separations and allowing detection of species obscured by “chemical noise” and other interfering peaks.

  3. Enhancing biological analyses with three dimensional field asymmetric ion mobility, low field drift tube ion mobility and mass spectrometry (μFAIMS/IMS-MS) separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Kyle, Jennifer E; Norheim, Randolph V; Monroe, Matthew E; Smith, Richard D; Baker, Erin S

    2015-10-21

    Multidimensional high throughput separations are ideal for analyzing distinct ion characteristics simultaneously in one analysis. We report on the first evaluation of a platform coupling a high speed field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry microchip (μFAIMS) with drift tube ion mobility and mass spectrometry (IMS-MS). The μFAIMS/IMS-MS platform was used to analyze biological samples and simultaneously acquire multidimensional FAIMS compensation fields, IMS drift times, and accurate ion masses for the detected features. These separations thereby increased the overall measurement separation power, resulting in greater information content and more complete characterization of the complex samples. The separation conditions were optimized for sensitivity and resolving power by the selection of gas compositions and pressures in the FAIMS and IMS separation stages. The resulting performance provided three dimensional separations, benefitting both broad complex mixture studies and targeted analyses by improving isomeric separations and allowing detection of species obscured by interfering peaks.

  4. A biologically inspired model of bat echolocation in a cluttered environment with inputs designed from field Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncich, Kristen Teczar

    Bat echolocation strategies and neural processing of acoustic information, with a focus on cluttered environments, is investigated in this study. How a bat processes the dense field of echoes received while navigating and foraging in the dark is not well understood. While several models have been developed to describe the mechanisms behind bat echolocation, most are based in mathematics rather than biology, and focus on either peripheral or neural processing---not exploring how these two levels of processing are vitally connected. Current echolocation models also do not use habitat specific acoustic input, or account for field observations of echolocation strategies. Here, a new approach to echolocation modeling is described capturing the full picture of echolocation from signal generation to a neural picture of the acoustic scene. A biologically inspired echolocation model is developed using field research measurements of the interpulse interval timing used by a frequency modulating (FM) bat in the wild, with a whole method approach to modeling echolocation including habitat specific acoustic inputs, a biologically accurate peripheral model of sound processing by the outer, middle, and inner ear, and finally a neural model incorporating established auditory pathways and neuron types with echolocation adaptations. Field recordings analyzed underscore bat sonar design differences observed in the laboratory and wild, and suggest a correlation between interpulse interval groupings and increased clutter. The scenario model provides habitat and behavior specific echoes and is a useful tool for both modeling and behavioral studies, and the peripheral and neural model show that spike-time information and echolocation specific neuron types can produce target localization in the midbrain.

  5. LAS GIRAS: UNA PRÁCTICA PEDAGÓGICA EN EL REPERTORIO PROBLEMAS ECOLÓGICOS, ESCUELA DE ESTUDIOS GENERALES, EN LA UNIVERSIDAD DE COSTA RICA (THE FIELD TRIP STUDY: A PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICE IN THE REPERTOIRE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS, SCHOOL OF GENERAL STUDIES, AT UNIVERSITY OF COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Morales Ana Patricia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Durante el primer semestre del 2007, se realizó un estudio para evaluar la opinión de los estudiantes del Repertorio de Problemas Ecológicos, de la Escuela de Estudios Generales de la Universidad de Costa Rica, 155 estudiantes fueron entrevistados después de participar en una gira de estudio como una actividad del curso.El objetivo de la investigación fue indagar la importancia de las giras al campo como apoyo a su formación profesional, así como promotora de un cambio de concepción de mundo en su relación con el ambiente. Además, era de interés evaluar la presencia del curso en el ámbito universitario debido a que es un curso de repertorio dirigido a estudiante de carreras diferentes a las ciencias básicas. Como resultado de la investigación se obtuvo que la mayoría de los entrevistados (70.97% ve la gira importante en su formación profesional, pues les permite una educación integral. Además, esta práctica le permitió al 65.8% de los participantes cambiar su concepción de mundo en relación con el ambiente y a un 19.35% reafirmar sus creencias, permitiéndoles observar personalmente lo que ya conocían en forma teórica. A nivel U niversitario se comprobó que el curso tiene una presencia importante, los estudiantes que participaron como informantes pertenecían a 44 carreras de 12 facultades distintas.Abstract:During the first term of 2007 a study to evaluate the opinion of the students of the Repertoire of Ecological Problems, of the School of General Studies of the University of Costa Rica was carried out, 155 students were interviewed after participating in a study field trip. The objective of the research was to investigate the relevance of this practice in its professional development, as well as promotional of a change of world conception in its relation with the environment. In addition, it was of interest to evaluate the presence of the course in the university scope because it is a course of repertoire

  6. User oriented trajectory search for trip recommendation

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2012-01-01

    Trajectory sharing and searching have received significant attentions in recent years. In this paper, we propose and investigate a novel problem called User Oriented Trajectory Search (UOTS) for trip recommendation. In contrast to conventional trajectory search by locations (spatial domain only), we consider both spatial and textual domains in the new UOTS query. Given a trajectory data set, the query input contains a set of intended places given by the traveler and a set of textual attributes describing the traveler\\'s preference. If a trajectory is connecting/close to the specified query locations, and the textual attributes of the trajectory are similar to the traveler\\'e preference, it will be recommended to the traveler for reference. This type of queries can bring significant benefits to travelers in many popular applications such as trip planning and recommendation. There are two challenges in the UOTS problem, (i) how to constrain the searching range in two domains and (ii) how to schedule multiple query sources effectively. To overcome the challenges and answer the UOTS query efficiently, a novel collaborative searching approach is developed. Conceptually, the UOTS query processing is conducted in the spatial and textual domains alternately. A pair of upper and lower bounds are devised to constrain the searching range in two domains. In the meantime, a heuristic searching strategy based on priority ranking is adopted for scheduling the multiple query sources, which can further reduce the searching range and enhance the query efficiency notably. Furthermore, the devised collaborative searching approach can be extended to situations where the query locations are ordered. The performance of the proposed UOTS query is verified by extensive experiments based on real and synthetic trajectory data in road networks. © 2012 ACM.

  7. HOW DO YOUNG PEOPLE SELECT INFORMATION TO PLAN A TRIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana ŢUGULEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to reveal the young tourists preferences in the process of planning a trip. Sources of information used, the utility of Internet/travel agencies in planning travel trip activities, preferred means of transportation and types of accommodation are investigated. As research methods, there used both qualitative and quantitative methods: focus group and survey. Internet is more used by young tourists in planning trips than travel agencies are. Internet is considered more useful in the documentation stage and when buying airline tickets. Young tourists are more influenced by friends when planning a trip. Young tourists prefer cars and planes as means of transportation for a trip and hotels and guesthouses as accommodation when traveling.

  8. Characterization of Radiation Fields for Assessing Concrete Degradation in Biological Shields of NPPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remec Igor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Life extensions of nuclear power plants (NPPs to 60 years of operation and the possibility of subsequent license renewal to 80 years have renewed interest in long-term material degradation in NPPs. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations are constructed from concrete, including safety-related structures such as biological shields and containment buildings; therefore, concrete degradation is being considered with particular focus on radiation-induced effects. Based on the projected neutron fluence values (E > 0.1 MeV in the concrete biological shields of the US pressurized water reactor fleet and the currently available data on radiation effects on concrete, some decrease in mechanical properties of concrete cannot be ruled out during extended operation beyond 60 years. An expansion of the irradiated concrete database is desirable to ensure reliable risk assessment for extended operation of nuclear power plants.

  9. Biologic Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields Associated with Proposed Project Seafarer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    experiments to the field conditions proposed for Seafarer suggest that the behavioral, neurophysiologic , andi neuro- chemical effects reported occur only at air...mainly derived data. In addition, no independent confirmation of these results has been reported. Neurophysiologic Effects Brain electric rhytlms (EEG...cerebral cortex and decreased activity in deep centers of the hypothalamus 17 (Lott and McCain ). However, the use of those very high field strengths

  10. Sensorless adaptive optics and the effect of field of view in biological second harmonic generation microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Vandendriessche, Stefaan; Vanbel, Maarten; Verbiest, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    In light of the population aging in many developed countries, there is a great economical interest in improving the speed and cost-efficiency of healthcare. Clinical diagnosis tools are key to these improvements, with biophotonics providing a means to achieve them. Standard optical microscopy of in vitro biological samples has been an important diagnosis tool since the invention of the microscope, with well known resolution limits. Nonlinear optical imaging improves on the resolution limits o...

  11. Improvement of Soil Biology Characteristics at Paddy Field by System of Rice Intensification

    OpenAIRE

    Widyatmani Sih Dewi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research was to test the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) method in improving the biological properties of paddy soil. The indicators of improvement were measured by the number of earthworm feces (cast), and the population of some microbial and nutrient content in the cast. The experiments were performed by comparing the three methods, namely: (1) SRI, (2) semi-conventional, and (3) conventional, using Randomized Completely Block Design. Each treatment was repeated nine tim...

  12. Improved biological wastewater treatment and sludge characteristics by applying magnetic field to aerobic granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Qiang Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Permanent magnets with non-uniform magnetic field and an electromagnet with 3–5 mT uniform magnetic field were applied to investigate their effects on both aerobic granulation and COD and ammonium removal in reactors with less than 7% coverage of magnetic field. It was found that both types of magnets had little influence on the granulation speed and the settling ability of granular sludge at the steady state. However, the maximum specific COD degradation rate and the maximum specific NH4+-N removal rate were increased by 45–54% and 30–50%, respectively, in the magnetic fields. Mean effluent COD with the electromagnet and the permanent magnet field, respectively, at the steady state, was 28 mg l−1 and 6 mg l−1, respectively, lower than the control at a statistical significance level of alpha = 0.05. No statistically significant increase in NH4+-N removal was observed at the steady state probably due to almost complete NH4+-N removal before the end of the cycle. In addition, it was found that extracellular polymeric substances in granular sludge with electromagnet were 77% more while soluble microbial products were much less compared with the control, suggesting a positively changed metabolism of granular sludge at steady state. The results in this study indicated that low-intensity magnetic field has a great potential to be applied in granular sludge for an improved wastewater treatment.

  13. A field survey of chemicals and biological products used in shrimp farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graeslund, S.; Holmstroem, K.; Wahlstroem, A

    2003-01-01

    This study documented the use of chemicals and biological products in marine and brackish water shrimp farming in Thailand, the world's top producer of farmed shrimp. Interviews were conducted with 76 shrimp farmers in three major shrimp producing regions, the eastern Gulf coast, the southern Gulf coast and the Andaman coast area. Farmers in the study used on average 13 different chemicals and biological products. The most commonly used products were soil and water treatment products, pesticides and disinfectants. Farmers in the southern Gulf coast area used a larger number of products than farmers in the other two areas. In the study, the use of more than 290 different chemicals and biological products was documented. Many of the pesticides, disinfectants and antibiotics used by the farmers could have negative effects on the cultured shrimps, cause a risk for food safety, occupational health, and/or have negative effects on adjacent ecosystems. Manufacturers and retailers of the products often neglected to provide farmers with necessary information regarding active ingredient and relevant instructions for safe and efficient use.

  14. A field survey of chemicals and biological products used in shrimp farming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeslund, S.; Holmstroem, K.; Wahlstroem, A.

    2003-01-01

    This study documented the use of chemicals and biological products in marine and brackish water shrimp farming in Thailand, the world's top producer of farmed shrimp. Interviews were conducted with 76 shrimp farmers in three major shrimp producing regions, the eastern Gulf coast, the southern Gulf coast and the Andaman coast area. Farmers in the study used on average 13 different chemicals and biological products. The most commonly used products were soil and water treatment products, pesticides and disinfectants. Farmers in the southern Gulf coast area used a larger number of products than farmers in the other two areas. In the study, the use of more than 290 different chemicals and biological products was documented. Many of the pesticides, disinfectants and antibiotics used by the farmers could have negative effects on the cultured shrimps, cause a risk for food safety, occupational health, and/or have negative effects on adjacent ecosystems. Manufacturers and retailers of the products often neglected to provide farmers with necessary information regarding active ingredient and relevant instructions for safe and efficient use

  15. Local Ecological Knowledge and Biological Conservation: Post-normal Science as an Intercultural Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorje Ignacio Zalles

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available From a natural sciences perspective, efforts directed at the conservation of biodiversity are based upon what is known as conservation biology. Given its epistemological assumptions, conservation biology faces obstacles in the incorporation of wisdom originating in local ecological knowledge, that which a local population has gained about the local environment which it is surrounded by and due to its direct contact with this local environment, instead of the result of a product of a positivist scientific inquiry. Post-normal science has emerged in recent decades as an alternative for public management that aims to complement the search for knowledge by means of empirical approaches through the inclusion of understandings based on the everyday experiences and the subjective interpretation of natural phenomena, transcending the compartmentalization associated with scientific traditions born out of modernity. This article discusses the integration of local ecological knowledge and conservation biology from the perspective of post normal science, illustrating different forms of intercultural communication that would make the requisite dialogue of knowledges possible.

  16. Toward increased concentration sensitivity for continuous wave EPR investigations of spin-labeled biological macromolecules at high fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Likai; Liu, Zhanglong; Kaur, Pavanjeet; Esquiaqui, Jackie M.; Hunter, Robert I.; Hill, Stephen; Smith, Graham M.; Fanucci, Gail E.

    2016-04-01

    High-field, high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at W-(∼94 GHz) and D-band (∼140 GHz) is important for investigating the conformational dynamics of flexible biological macromolecules because this frequency range has increased spectral sensitivity to nitroxide motion over the 100 ps to 2 ns regime. However, low concentration sensitivity remains a roadblock for studying aqueous samples at high magnetic fields. Here, we examine the sensitivity of a non-resonant thin-layer cylindrical sample holder, coupled to a quasi-optical induction-mode W-band EPR spectrometer (HiPER), for continuous wave (CW) EPR analyses of: (i) the aqueous nitroxide standard, TEMPO; (ii) the unstructured to α-helical transition of a model IDP protein; and (iii) the base-stacking transition in a kink-turn motif of a large 232 nt RNA. For sample volumes of ∼50 μL, concentration sensitivities of 2-20 μM were achieved, representing a ∼10-fold enhancement compared to a cylindrical TE011 resonator on a commercial Bruker W-band spectrometer. These results therefore highlight the sensitivity of the thin-layer sample holders employed in HiPER for spin-labeling studies of biological macromolecules at high fields, where applications can extend to other systems that are facilitated by the modest sample volumes and ease of sample loading and geometry.

  17. Biological control of broad-leaved dock infestation in wheat using plant antagonistic bacteria under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Tasawar; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Naveed, Muhammad; Aslam, Zubair

    2017-06-01

    Conventional weed management systems have produced many harmful effects on weed ecology, human health and environment. Biological control of invasive weeds may be helpful to minimize these harmful effects and economic losses incurred to crops by weeds. In our earlier studies, plant antagonistic bacteria were obtained after screening a large number of rhizobacteria for production of phytotoxic substances and effects on wheat and its associated weeds under laboratory conditions. In this study, five efficient strains inhibitory to broad-leaved dock and non-inhibitory to wheat were selected and applied to broad-leaved dock co-seeded with wheat both in pot trial and chronically infested field trial. Effects of plant antagonistic bacteria on the weed and infested wheat were studied at tillering, booting and harvesting stage of wheat. The applied strains significantly inhibited the germination and growth of the weed to variable extent. Similarly, variable recovery in losses of grain and straw yield of infested wheat from 11.6 to 68 and 13 to 72.6% was obtained in pot trial while from 17.3 to 62.9 and 22.4 to 71.3% was obtained in field trial, respectively. Effects of plant antagonistic bacteria were also evident from the improvement in physiology and nutrient contents of infested wheat. This study suggests the use of these plant antagonistic bacteria to biologically control infestation of broad-leaved dock in wheat under field conditions.

  18. A many-body field theory approach to stochastic models in population biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Dodd

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Many models used in theoretical ecology, or mathematical epidemiology are stochastic, and may also be spatially-explicit. Techniques from quantum field theory have been used before in reaction-diffusion systems, principally to investigate their critical behavior. Here we argue that they make many calculations easier and are a possible starting point for new approximations.We review the many-body field formalism for Markov processes and illustrate how to apply it to a 'Brownian bug' population model, and to an epidemic model. We show how the master equation and the moment hierarchy can both be written in particularly compact forms. The introduction of functional methods allows the systematic computation of the effective action, which gives the dynamics of mean quantities. We obtain the 1-loop approximation to the effective action for general (space- translation invariant systems, and thus approximations to the non-equilibrium dynamics of the mean fields.The master equations for spatial stochastic systems normally take a neater form in the many-body field formalism. One can write down the dynamics for generating functional of physically-relevant moments, equivalent to the whole moment hierarchy. The 1-loop dynamics of the mean fields are the same as those of a particular moment-closure.

  19. Lead field theory provides a powerful tool for designing microelectrode array impedance measurements for biological cell detection and observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttrich, Marcel; Tanskanen, Jarno M A; Hyttinen, Jari A K

    2017-06-26

    Our aim is to introduce a method to enhance the design process of microelectrode array (MEA) based electric bioimpedance measurement systems for improved detection and viability assessment of living cells and tissues. We propose the application of electromagnetic lead field theory and reciprocity for MEA design and measurement result interpretation. Further, we simulated impedance spectroscopy (IS) with two- and four-electrode setups and a biological cell to illustrate the tool in the assessment of the capabilities of given MEA electrode constellations for detecting cells on or in the vicinity of the microelectrodes. The results show the power of the lead field theory in electromagnetic simulations of cell-microelectrode systems depicting the fundamental differences of two- and four-electrode IS measurement configurations to detect cells. Accordingly, the use in MEA system design is demonstrated by assessing the differences between the two- and four-electrode IS configurations. Further, our results show how cells affect the lead fields in these MEA system, and how we can utilize the differences of the two- and four-electrode setups in cell detection. The COMSOL simulator model is provided freely in public domain as open source. Lead field theory can be successfully applied in MEA design for the IS based assessment of biological cells providing the necessary visualization and insight for MEA design. The proposed method is expected to enhance the design and usability of automated cell and tissue manipulation systems required for bioreactors, which are intended for the automated production of cell and tissue grafts for medical purposes. MEA systems are also intended for toxicology to assess the effects of chemicals on living cells. Our results demonstrate that lead field concept is expected to enhance also the development of such methods and devices.

  20. Biological experiments in low-flux light-particle fields produced by accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerschel, B.; Hermsdorf, D.; Kuehne, H.

    2000-01-01

    An experimental set-up for irradiation of biological material with low-energetic and low-mass ions in an external beam has been designed using the cyclotron U-120 of the Rossendorf Research Centre. The horizontal beam line consists of components for beam spread out and control, for particle spectroscopy and monitoring and for energy and dose rate variation. To prove the performance of the beam line, a first radiobiological experiment has been carried out by exposing of R1 fish liver cells to 8.2 MeV protons

  1. Non-proliferation issues in the field of biological technologies and dual-use materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamadaliev, S.M.; Troitskij, E.N.; Ibraev, R.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper the results of the DTRA 01-00-C-0030 'Strengthening of physical and biological protection' project at the Research Agricultural Institute (Kazakhstan) are discussed. The project was directed on the organization of a reliable physical integrity of dangerous pathogens, on the provision reliable protection around the periphery and outside security of the whole object as well as on the exclusion of possibility of pathogens expansion of dangerous infection material out the controlled working conditions. The central section of the protection is storehouse of microorganism culture

  2. A multipurpose hybrid conventional/scanning near-field optical microscope for applications in materials science and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, G; Girasole, M; Pompeo, G; Generosi, R; Luce, M; Cricenti, A

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid conventional/scanning near-field optical microscope is presented. The instrument is obtained coupling an Olympus IX-70 inverted optical microscope with a SNOM head, to combine the versatility and ease of use of the conventional microscope with the high-resolution and three-dimensional reconstruction achieved by the SNOM. The head can be run in shear or tapping mode and is optimized to characterize soft, biological samples including living cells in physiological environment by including the SNOM in a cylindrical chamber that insulates it from external noise, while maintaining a controlled temperature and atmosphere

  3. Biological Control Of Witch Weed In Fields Of Burkina Faso Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifteen Fusarium oxysporum isolates from diseased parasitic weeds (Striga hermonthica plants) were evaluated over two years (1997-98) to identify the most effective isolates for the control of the parasite in infested sorghum fields in Burkina Faso. In both years the fungus was found to reduce Striga infection in sorghum by ...

  4. The biological control of Pomacea canaliculata population by rice-duck mutualism in paddy fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang Liang; Jia-en Zhang; Li Fang; Benliang Zaho; Mingzhu Luo; Prem Parajuli; Ying Ouyang

    2013-01-01

    Duck has been used as a non-chemical control method against Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck, but little is known about its principles that underlie the control of snail populations. An indoor experiment was initially used to observe the predation potential of ducks, followed by replicated field trials. In the indoor studies, ducks effectively preyed on...

  5. Field-based detection of biological samples for forensic analysis: Established techniques, novel tools, and future innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jack; Watts, Giles; Hobbs, Glyn; Dawnay, Nick

    2018-02-21

    Field based forensic tests commonly provide information on the presence and identity of biological stains and can also support the identification of species. Such information can support downstream processing of forensic samples and generate rapid intelligence. These approaches have traditionally used chemical and immunological techniques to elicit the result but some are known to suffer from a lack of specificity and sensitivity. The last 10 years has seen the development of field-based genetic profiling systems, with specific focus on moving the mainstay of forensic genetic analysis, namely STR profiling, out of the laboratory and into the hands of the non-laboratory user. In doing so it is now possible for enforcement officers to generate a crime scene DNA profile which can then be matched to a reference or database profile. The introduction of these novel genetic platforms also allows for further development of new molecular assays aimed at answering the more traditional questions relating to body fluid identity and species detection. The current drive for field-based molecular tools is in response to the needs of the criminal justice system and enforcement agencies, and promises a step-change in how forensic evidence is processed. However, the adoption of such systems by the law enforcement community does not represent a new strategy in the way forensic science has integrated previous novel approaches. Nor do they automatically represent a threat to the quality control and assurance practices that are central to the field. This review examines the historical need and subsequent research and developmental breakthroughs in field-based forensic analysis over the past two decades with particular focus on genetic methods Emerging technologies from a range of scientific fields that have potential applications in forensic analysis at the crime scene are identified and associated issues that arise from the shift from laboratory into operational field use are discussed

  6. Student perspectives on their school trips to zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Susan Kay

    This dissertation aimed to explore students' perspectives on their school trips to informal education sites. In particular, what did students think they learned, what did they want to do, what was fun or boring, and how did their trip relate to classroom activities? The two case studies presented here explore these ideas with 11-12-year olds in New Zealand and their class trips to zoos, in contrasting situations: one is a class in which the teacher thoughtfully and explicitly linked the trip to classroom learning both before and after the trip; the other classroom teacher did not. These differences impacted how students thought about their learning and how they valued the trip. Despite the differences, students had similarities in some of their perspectives, particularly in their focus on social interactions with peers and their desire to see the animals at the zoos. This study concludes with recommendations for informal and classroom educators, especially to find out what students are interested in, give them choices, and connect trips to classroom activities.

  7. Expert system for the CPCS-initiated trip analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Sedo; Im, Inyoung; Kuh, Jungeui

    1991-01-01

    In Yonggwang nuclear units 3 and 4, the core protection calculator system (CPCS) performs various protection logics against many transients and certain accidents. The CPCS is a real-time computer system calculating the departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR), and local power density, and other protection logics. It takes process variables such as neutron flux, hot-leg temperature, cold-leg temperature, control element assembly positions, and reactor coolant pump shaft speed. Since the CPCS protection logics are quite complex, it is difficult for an operator to tell immediately which parameter is the major cause of the reactor trip. Thus, whenever the reactor trip signal is generated, the process input variables and calculated results, including selected intermediate variables, are frozen in the specified computer memory for later analysis. These frozen variables are called the trip buffer. Analysis of the trip buffer requires an expert in the CPCS and related documents containing algorithms and a data base for algorithms. The Trip Buffer Analysis Program (TBAP) is an expert system that pinpoints the causes of the CPCS initiated reactor trip, thus relieving the operator from the burden of analyzing the trip buffer

  8. Biological effects of static magnetic fields: a selective review with emphasis on risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.E.

    1982-04-01

    Rather than focusing on literature per se, the current study determines the status of magnetic field information that is applicable to risk assessment. Hence, an attempt is made to identify both the literature that is useful to the goal of risk assessment and a framework within which risk assessment methodologies can be derived. From this selected review, it is concluded that three areas exist for which adequate information can be found to begin modelling: disease induction, reproduction and development, and cardiovascular response. The first two are supported by a combination of positive and negative findings and the last by a calculational technique which utilizes the physically well-known principle of flow retardation for a conducting fluid moving through a magnetic field

  9. Biological effects of static magnetic fields: a selective review with emphasis on risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterly, C. E.

    1982-04-01

    Rather than focusing on literature per se, the current study determines the status of magnetic field information that is applicable to risk assessment. Hence, an attempt is made to identify both the literature that is useful to the goal of risk assessment and a framework within which risk assessment methodologies can be derived. From this selected review, it is concluded that three areas exist for which adequate information can be found to begin modelling: disease induction, reproduction and development, and cardiovascular response. The first two are supported by a combination of positive and negative findings and the last by a calculational technique which utilizes the physically well-known principle of flow retardation for a conducting fluid moving through a magnetic field.

  10. Characterization of Radiation Fields in Biological Shields of Nuclear Power Plants for Assessing Concrete Degradation*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remec Igor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Life extensions of nuclear power plants to 60 and potentially 80 years of operation have renewed interest in long-term material degradation. One material being considered is concrete, with a particular focus on radiation-induced effects. Based on the projected neutron fluence values (E > 0.1 MeV in the concrete biological shields of the US pressurized water reactor fleet and the available data on radiation effects on concrete, some decrease in mechanical properties of concrete cannot be ruled out during extended operation beyond 60 years. An expansion of the irradiated concrete database and a reliable determination of relevant neutron fluence energy cutoff value are necessary to ensure reliable risk assessment for extended operation of nuclear power plants.

  11. Vital analysis: field validation of a framework for annotating biological signals of first responders in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, P; Lopes, B; Coimbra, M

    2012-01-01

    First responders are professionals that are exposed to extreme stress and fatigue during extended periods of time. That is why it is necessary to research and develop technological solutions based on wearable sensors that can continuously monitor the health of these professionals in action, namely their stress and fatigue levels. In this paper we present the Vital Analysis smartphone-based framework, integrated into the broader Vital Responder project, that allows the annotation and contextualization of the signals collected during real action. After a contextual study we have implemented and deployed this framework in a firefighter team with 5 elements, from where we have collected over 3300 hours of annotations during 174 days, covering 382 different events. Results are analysed and discussed, validating the framework as a useful and usable tool for annotating biological signals of first responders in action.

  12. Characterization of Radiation Fields in Biological Shields of Nuclear Power Plants for Assessing Concrete Degradationa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remec, Igor [ORNL; Rosseel, Thomas M [ORNL; Field, Kevin G [ORNL; Le Pape, Yann [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Life extensions of nuclear power plants to 60 and potentially 80 years of operation have renewed interest in long-term material degradation. One material being considered is concrete, with a particular focus on radiation-induced effects. Based on the projected neutron fluence values (E > 0.1 MeV) in the concrete biological shields of the US pressurized water reactor fleet and the available data on radiation effects on concrete, some decrease in mechanical properties of concrete cannot be ruled out during extended operation beyond 60 years. An expansion of the irradiated concrete database and a reliable determination of relevant neutron fluence energy cutoff value are necessary to ensure reliable risk assessment for extended operation of nuclear power plants.

  13. Scanning near-field optical microscopy on rough surfaces: Applications in chemistry, biology, and medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Kaupp, Gerd

    2006-01-01

    Shear-force apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) with very sharp uncoated tapered waveguides relies on the unexpected enhancement of reflection in the shear-force gap. It is the technique for obtaining chemical (materials) contrast in the optical image of “real world” surfaces that are rough and very rough without topographical artifacts, and it is by far less complicated than other SNOM techniques that can only be used for very flat surfaces. The ex...

  14. Biological and Human Health Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields. Post-1977 Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    some variations at different clinical facilities. 0 Effects of Induced Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields ( PEMF ). Early studies of the electromagnetic...Bassett, Pilla, and Pawluk 1977). Subsequent larger series of clinical cases have reported success rates for PEMF approaching 90 percent 0 (Bassett...1982), even though Becker (1974, 1984) asserted that all possible risks of PEMF have rot yet been assessed. 0 There is very little support in the

  15. Theoretical description of protein field effects on electronic excitations of biological chromophores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varsano, Daniele; Caprasecca, Stefano; Coccia, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Photoinitiated phenomena play a crucial role in many living organisms. Plants, algae, and bacteria absorb sunlight to perform photosynthesis, and convert water and carbon dioxide into molecular oxygen and carbohydrates, thus forming the basis for life on Earth. The vision of vertebrates is accomplished in the eye by a protein called rhodopsin, which upon photon absorption performs an ultrafast isomerisation of the retinal chromophore, triggering the signal cascade. Many other biological functions start with the photoexcitation of a protein-embedded pigment, followed by complex processes comprising, for example, electron or excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic complexes. The optical properties of chromophores in living systems are strongly dependent on the interaction with the surrounding environment (nearby protein residues, membrane, water), and the complexity of such interplay is, in most cases, at the origin of the functional diversity of the photoactive proteins. The specific interactions with the environment often lead to a significant shift of the chromophore excitation energies, compared with their absorption in solution or gas phase. The investigation of the optical response of chromophores is generally not straightforward, from both experimental and theoretical standpoints; this is due to the difficulty in understanding diverse behaviours and effects, occurring at different scales, with a single technique. In particular, the role played by ab initio calculations in assisting and guiding experiments, as well as in understanding the physics of photoactive proteins, is fundamental. At the same time, owing to the large size of the systems, more approximate strategies which take into account the environmental effects on the absorption spectra are also of paramount importance. Here we review the recent advances in the first-principle description of electronic and optical properties of biological chromophores embedded in a protein environment. We show

  16. Theoretical description of protein field effects on electronic excitations of biological chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsano, Daniele; Caprasecca, Stefano; Coccia, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Photoinitiated phenomena play a crucial role in many living organisms. Plants, algae, and bacteria absorb sunlight to perform photosynthesis, and convert water and carbon dioxide into molecular oxygen and carbohydrates, thus forming the basis for life on Earth. The vision of vertebrates is accomplished in the eye by a protein called rhodopsin, which upon photon absorption performs an ultrafast isomerisation of the retinal chromophore, triggering the signal cascade. Many other biological functions start with the photoexcitation of a protein-embedded pigment, followed by complex processes comprising, for example, electron or excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic complexes. The optical properties of chromophores in living systems are strongly dependent on the interaction with the surrounding environment (nearby protein residues, membrane, water), and the complexity of such interplay is, in most cases, at the origin of the functional diversity of the photoactive proteins. The specific interactions with the environment often lead to a significant shift of the chromophore excitation energies, compared with their absorption in solution or gas phase. The investigation of the optical response of chromophores is generally not straightforward, from both experimental and theoretical standpoints; this is due to the difficulty in understanding diverse behaviours and effects, occurring at different scales, with a single technique. In particular, the role played by ab initio calculations in assisting and guiding experiments, as well as in understanding the physics of photoactive proteins, is fundamental. At the same time, owing to the large size of the systems, more approximate strategies which take into account the environmental effects on the absorption spectra are also of paramount importance. Here we review the recent advances in the first-principle description of electronic and optical properties of biological chromophores embedded in a protein environment. We show

  17. Stable organic field-effect transistors for continuous and nondestructive sensing of chemical and biologically relevant molecules in aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Minseong; Sharma, Asha; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Hwang, Do Kyung; Dindar, Amir; Singh, Sanjeev; Choi, Sangmoo; Kippelen, Bernard

    2014-02-12

    The use of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) as sensors in aqueous media has gained increased attention for environmental monitoring and medical diagnostics. However, stable operation of OFETs in aqueous media is particularly challenging because of electrolytic hydrolysis of water, high ionic conduction through the analyte, and irreversible damage of organic semiconductors when exposed to water. To date, OFET sensors have shown the capability of label-free sensing of various chemical/biological species, but they could only be used once because their operational stability and lifetime while operating in aqueous environments has been poor, and their response times typically slow. Here, we report on OFETs with unprecedented water stability. These OFETs are suitable for the implementation of reusable chemical/biological sensors because they primarily respond to charged species diluted in an aqueous media by rapidly shifting their threshold voltage. These OFET sensors present stable current baselines and saturated signals which are ideal for detection of low concentration of small or large molecules that alter the pH of an aqueous environment. The overall response of these OFET sensors paves the way for the development of continuous chemical/biological nondestructive sensor applications in aqueous media.

  18. Advanced transportation concept for round-trip space travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chen-Wan L.

    1988-01-01

    A departure from the conventional concept of round-trip space travel is introduced. It is shown that a substantial reduction in the initial load required of the Shuttle or other launch vehicle can be achieved by staging the ascent orbit and leaving fuel for the return trip at each stage of the orbit. Examples of round trips from a low-inclination LEO to a high-inclination LEO and from an LEO to a GEO are used to show the merits of the new concept. Potential problem areas and research needed for the development of an efficient space transportation network are discussed.

  19. United States: Ukraine Technical Exchange II trip report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moak, D.J.; Wendling, M.A.

    1995-02-01

    May 15--21, 1994, the first technical conference was held at Hanford between Ukraine-Chornobyl, Westinghouse Hanford, and SAIC, to exchange technical information and experience gained in cleanup and stabilization of radioactive contamination at Hanford and Chornobyl. Protocol was signed for a second exchange and technology demonstration program in Kiev and near Chornobyl power plants. Technical Exchange No. 2 was held from August 28--September 9, 1994, with 3 focus areas: field demonstration of DOE-Hanford technologies and application to cleanup of contaminated lands resulting from 1986 Chornobyl accident; application of other US DOE-technologies; and observation/evaluation of Ukraine-developed technologies for potential application in USA. Three radiological mapping systems were demonstrated near Chornobyl: man-carried Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System, a mobile radiological data system, and NOMAD field gamma spectroscopy system. The Ukraine-Chornobyl team hosted technical presentations, discussions and field trips for 4.5 days, providing insight on the Chornobyl problem and allowing the US team to present overviews on DOE technologies that may be applicable to the Chornobyl situation. It is concluded that Ukrainian scientists have tremendous talent and expended considerable energy in attempting to tackle such a problem, but economic and cultural conditions with Ukraine have prevented them from acquiring the resources to implement basic aspects of characterization and remediation activities. Most of their publications are in Russian only. Their translation, plus resources to carry out proposals for bench scale and field demonstration projects, could benefit the DOE complex and other nuclear programs. The considerable cultural and economic change occurring in Ukraine, is providing opportunities for private industries to assist in the changes and for DOE, others to apply cleanup technologies, and it is essential that close institutional relations be established

  20. The Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey (GGMFS: challenges and opportunities of a unique, large-scale collaboration for invasion biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colautti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand what makes some species successful invaders, it is critical to quantify performance differences between native and introduced regions, and among populations occupying a broad range of environmental conditions within each region. However, these data are not available even for the world’s most notorious invasive species. Here we introduce the Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey, a coordinated distributed field survey to collect performance data and germplasm from a single invasive species: garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata across its entire distribution using minimal resources. We chose this species for its ecological impacts, prominence in ecological studies of invasion success, simple life history, and several genetic and life history attributes that make it amenable to experimental study. We developed a standardised field survey protocol to estimate population size (area and density, age structure, plant size and fecundity, as well as damage by herbivores and pathogens in each population, and to collect representative seed samples. Across four years and with contributions from 164 academic and non-academic participants from 16 countries in North America and Europe thus far, we have collected 45,788 measurements and counts of 137,811 plants from 383 populations and seeds from over 5,000 plants. All field data and seed resources will be curated for release to the scientific community. Our goal is to establish A. petiolata as a model species for plant invasion biology and to encourage large collaborative studies of other invasive species.

  1. The Role of Anthropogenic Influence on Biological Signal Field (BSF Characteristics of the Wolf, Canis lupus lupus (Canidae, Carnivora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkvyria M. G.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the current research includes studying the biological signal field (BSF characteristics of the wolf (Canis lupus lupus Linnaeus, 1758 at different values of anthropogenic load on territories with conservation (Białowieża National park (Poland and hunting status of the species (Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (Ukraine. The research in Białowieża Primeval Forest was conducted in two stages: study of the BSF characteristics of the wolf and finding correlation between data acquired from Ukraine (the first stage, and over-time study of intensity of the biological signal field (the second stage. In result of the first stage, there was no significant dependence on the characteristics of the territory and the differences between the behavior of wolves in the Białowieża Primeval Forest (conservation status of the species and the Exclusion Zone (game status. During the second stage it was determined that provided variance of the intensity between territory groups was insufficient, the degree of significance to animals of area categories varied with the stages of the pack’s life. It was found that the main factors which govern the character of wolf activity are not the level of the anthropic load and hunting pressure, but periods of the life cycle and spatial structure of groups.

  2. Field trial assessment of biological, chemical, and physical responses of soil to tillage intensity, fertilization, and grazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Gil, Silvina; Becker, Analia; Oddino, Claudio; Zuza, Mónica; Marinelli, Adriana; March, Guillermo

    2009-08-01

    Soil microbial populations can fluctuate in response to environmental changes and, therefore, are often used as biological indicators of soil quality. Soil chemical and physical parameters can also be used as indicators because they can vary in response to different management strategies. A long-term field trial was conducted to study the effects of different tillage systems (NT: no tillage, DH: disc harrow, and MP: moldboard plough), P fertilization (diammonium phosphate), and cattle grazing (in terms of crop residue consumption) in maize (Zea mays L.), sunflower (Heliantus annuus L.), and soybean (Glycine max L.) on soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters. The field trial was conducted for four crop years (2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003, and 2003/2004). Soil populations of Actinomycetes, Trichoderma spp., and Gliocladium spp. were 49% higher under conservation tillage systems, in soil amended with diammonium phosphate (DAP) and not previously grazed. Management practices also influenced soil chemical parameters, especially organic matter content and total N, which were 10% and 55% higher under NT than under MP. Aggregate stability was 61% higher in NT than in MP, 15% higher in P-fertilized soil, and also 9% higher in not grazed strips, bulk density being 12% lower in NT systems compared with MP. DAP application and the absence of grazing also reduced bulk density (3%). Using conservation tillage systems, fertilizing crops with DAP, and avoiding grazing contribute to soil health preservation and enhanced crop production.

  3. Autonomy and Fear of Synthetic Biology: How Can Patients' Autonomy Be Enhanced in the Field of Synthetic Biology? A Qualitative Study with Stable Patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Rakic Milenko; Wienand Isabelle; Shaw David; Nast Rebecca; Elger Bernice S

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed stable patients' views regarding synthetic biology in general the medical application of synthetic biology and their potential participation in trials of synthetic biology in particular. The aim of the study was to find out whether patients' views and preferences change after receiving more detailed information about synthetic biology and its clinical applications. The qualitative study was carried out with a purposive sample of 36 stable patients who suffered from diabetes or gou...

  4. Evaluation of biological effects of intermediate frequency magnetic field on differentiation of embryonic stem cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Yoshie

    Full Text Available The embryotoxic effect of intermediate frequency (IF magnetic field (MF was evaluated using murine embryonic stem (ES cells and fibroblast cells based on the embryonic stem cell test (EST. The cells were exposed to 21 kHz IF–MF up to magnetic flux density of 3.9 mT during the cell proliferation process (7 days or the cell differentiation process (10 days during which an embryonic body differentiated into myocardial cells. As a result, there was no significant difference in the cell proliferation between sham- and IF–MF-exposed cells for both ES and fibroblast cells. Similarly, the ratio of the number of ES-derived cell aggregates differentiated to myocardial cells to total number of cell aggregates was not changed by IF–MF exposure. In addition, the expressions of a cardiomyocytes-specific gene, Myl2, and an early developmental gene, Hba-x, in the exposed cell aggregate were not altered. Since the magnetic flux density adopted in this study is much higher than that generated by an inverter of the electrical railway, an induction heating (IH cooktop, etc. in our daily lives, these results suggested that IF–MF in which the public is exposed to in general living environment would not have embryotoxic effect. Keywords: Differentiation, Embryonic stem cell, Gene expression, Intermediate frequency magnetic field

  5. Laboratory and field methods for stable isotope analysis in human biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsema, Laurie J

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis (SIA; carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen) of human tissues offers a means for assessing diet among living humans. Stable isotope ratios of broad categories of food and drink food vary systematically, and stable isotope ratios in consumer tissues represent a composite of the isotopic ratios of food and drink consumed during an individual's life. Isotopic evidence for diet is independent of errors in informant recall, and accrues during time periods when researchers are absent. Beyond diet reconstruction, tissue stable isotope ratios are sensitive to excursions from homeostasis, such as starvation and rapid growth. Because of their relationship to diet, geographic location, hydration, and nutritional status, stable isotope signatures in human tissues offer a window into human biocultural adaptations, past and present. This article describes methods for SIA that may be usefully applied in studies of living humans, with emphasis placed on carbon and nitrogen. Some of the ecological, physiological, and evolutionary applications of stable isotope data among living humans are discussed. By incorporating SIA in research, human biologists facilitate a productive dialog with bioarchaeologists, who routinely use stable isotope evidence, mingling different perspectives on human biology and behavior. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Bridging the fields of nanoscience and toxicology: nanoparticle impact on biological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosone, A.; Marchesano, V.; Mattera, L.; Tino, A.; Tortiglione, C.

    2011-03-01

    In the emerging area of nanotechnology a key issue is related to the potential impacts of the novel nanomaterials on the environment and human health so that this technology can be used with minimal risk. Specifically designed to combine on a single structure multipurpose tags and properties, nanomaterials need a comprehensive characterization of both chemicophysical properties and toxicological evaluation, which is a challenging endeavor: the in vitro toxicity assays that are employed for nanotoxicity assessments do not accurately predict in vivo response. To overcome these limitations and gain a deeper understanding of nanoparticle-cell interactions, we have employed cnidarian models, in particular the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris, not opposed to more complex and evoluted systems, but to add valuable information, at an intermediate level between prokaryotes and vertebrates, on both cytoxicity and on pollution affecting the environment. By testing CdSe/CdS core shell nanocrystals in vivo, at whole animal level, we investigated the impact of their properties on uptake, accumulation, biodistribution, elicitation of behavioural responses. Spanning from animal to cell biology, we provide an analysis on metal based and semiconductor NC, discussing the crucial role played by the synthesis route and chemical surface on the toxicity for living organisms.

  7. American Samoa Longline Fishery Trip Expenditure (2006 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a time-series dataset for trip expenditure data for the American Samoa-based longline fleet from August 2006 to present. The dataset includes 10 variable...

  8. ITE Trip Generation Modification Factors for Louisiana : Research Project Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Using data from studies conducted in the United States over the last 50-60 years, the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) has published trip generation rates for different land uses. Over time, observations from new studies have been incorpor...

  9. Senior travelers' trip chaining behavior : survey results and data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    The research team conducted a survey of travel and activity scheduling behavior to better understand senior : citizens trip chaining behavior in the Chicago metropolitan areas most populous counties. The team used an : internet-based, prompted ...

  10. Hawaii Longline Fishery Trip Expenditure (2004 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a time-series dataset of trip expenditure data for the Hawaii-based longline fleet for the period August 2004 to present. The data collection includes 10...

  11. Regional warehouse trip production analysis : Chicago metro area, September, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This research report provides primary research data and analysis on heavy truck trip generation and characteristics from regional : distribution centers (RDC) and similar facilities in an effort to facilitate future public policy making regarding roa...

  12. Autonomy and Fear of Synthetic Biology: How Can Patients' Autonomy Be Enhanced in the Field of Synthetic Biology? A Qualitative Study with Stable Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakic, Milenko; Wienand, Isabelle; Shaw, David; Nast, Rebecca; Elger, Bernice S

    2017-04-01

    We analyzed stable patients' views regarding synthetic biology in general, the medical application of synthetic biology, and their potential participation in trials of synthetic biology in particular. The aim of the study was to find out whether patients' views and preferences change after receiving more detailed information about synthetic biology and its clinical applications. The qualitative study was carried out with a purposive sample of 36 stable patients, who suffered from diabetes or gout. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, translated and fully anonymized. Thematic analysis was applied in order to examine stable patients' attitudes towards synthetic biology, its medical application, and their participation in trials. When patients were asked about synthetic biology in general, most of them were anxious that something uncontrollable could be created. After a concrete example of possible future treatment options, patients started to see synthetic biology in a more positive way. Our study constitutes an important first empirical insight into stable patients' views on synthetic biology and into the kind of fears triggered by the term "synthetic biology." Our results show that clear and concrete information can change patients' initial negative feelings towards synthetic biology. Information should thus be transmitted with great accuracy and transparency in order to reduce irrational fears of patients and to minimize the risk that researchers present facts too positively for the purposes of persuading patients to participate in clinical trials. Potential participants need to be adequately informed in order to be able to autonomously decide whether to participate in human subject research involving synthetic biology.

  13. Biological effects of PEMF (Pulsing Electromagnetic Field): An attempt to modify cell resistance to anticancer agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquinelli, P. (C.R.E.S.A.M., Pisa (Italy)); Petrini, M.; Mattii, L.; Saviozzi, M.; Malvaldi, G. (Univ. of Pisa (Italy)); Galimberti, S. (Scuola di Perfezionamento S. Anna, Pisa (Italy))

    Pulsing Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) effects lead to a modification of the multidrug resistance (MDR) of cells in vitro and in vivo. The murine leukemic doxorubicin-resistant cell line, P388/Dx, subjected to PEMF irradiation in vitro, showed a significant difference in thymidine incorporation when the concentration of doxorubicin reached a level of 1 [mu]g/mL, which corresponds to the inhibition dose 50 (ID[sub 50]). The human lymphoblastic leukemia vinblastine-resistant cell line, CEM/VLB[sub 100], also showed a significant modification under the same experimental conditions at the in vitro ID[sub 50] corresponding to a vinblastine concentration of 100 ng/mL. BDF1 mice transplanted with P388/Dx cells also had an increase in their life span when Doxorubicin was injected intraperitoneally in fractionated doses, while being subjected to PEMF irradiation. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Biological transfer and loss of 36Cl-labeled DDT in an old-field ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterle, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    An enclosed 10-acre old-field plot treated in June 1969, with chlorine-36 labeled DDT was sampled each year from 1969 through 1974 to monitor the fate of the insecticide in the soil and biota. In order to provide data on compartmentalization of DDT in the vegetation, invertebrates and vertebrates inhabiting the plot, sampling was carried out to estimate both body burdens of DDT and biomass of populations. Another aspect of this study, the determination of rates of accumulation of residues by invertebrates and vertebrates, has been reported previously (Forsyth and Peterle 1973; Forsyth et al. 1975; Peterle 1975). This report describes (a) temporal patterns of DDT residues in soil and biota from 1969 through 1974 and (b) quantities of DDT held in the soil and biotic compartments of the ecosystem. Part II of the report is concerned with translocation and accumulation of 14 C-DDT

  15. Hybrid intelligent monironing systems for thermal power plant trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Nader; Ismail, Firas Basim

    2012-11-01

    Steam boiler is one of the main equipment in thermal power plants. If the steam boiler trips it may lead to entire shutdown of the plant, which is economically burdensome. Early boiler trips monitoring is crucial to maintain normal and safe operational conditions. In the present work two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler trips have been proposed and coded within the MATLAB environment. The training and validation of the two systems has been performed using real operational data captured from the plant control system of selected power plant. An integrated plant data preparation framework for seven boiler trips with related operational variables has been proposed for IMSs data analysis. The first IMS represents the use of pure Artificial Neural Network system for boiler trip detection. All seven boiler trips under consideration have been detected by IMSs before or at the same time of the plant control system. The second IMS represents the use of Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks as a hybrid intelligent system. A slightly lower root mean square error was observed in the second system which reveals that the hybrid intelligent system performed better than the pure neural network system. Also, the optimal selection of the most influencing variables performed successfully by the hybrid intelligent system.

  16. Language Travel or Language Tourism: Have Educational Trips Changed So Much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborda, Jesus Garcia

    2007-01-01

    This article points out the changes in organization, students and language learning that language trips, as contrasted with educational trips (of which language trips are a subgroup) have gone through in the last years. The article emphasizes the need to differentiate between language trips and language tourism based on issues of additional…

  17. Modelling of transformations in TRIP steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsamas, A.I.; Haidemenopoulos, G.N.; Aravas, N. [Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Univ. of Thessaly, Volos (Greece)

    2004-11-01

    Industrial processing of low-alloy Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels involves various stages of heat-treating, such as Intercritical Annealing (IA) and Bainitic Isothermal Treatment (BIT), in order to produce a dispersion of retained austenite ({gamma}{sub R}) particles and bainite ({alpha}{sub B}) in a ferritic matrix ({alpha}). Retained austenite then transforms to martensite ({alpha}') during forming processes undergone by the steel. In the present work an effort was made to model these stages of processing, i.e. IA, BIT and the {gamma}{sub R}{yields}{alpha}' strain-induced transformation. Simulation of heat-treatment stages was implemented using computational kinetics methods. Investigation of the strain-induced {gamma}{sub R}{yields}{alpha}' transformation kinetics was performed by means of a simple analytical model. Simulation of IA and comparison with available experimental data showed that the amount of austenite ({gamma}) forming during IA reaches the values predicted by thermodynamic equilibrium only at high annealing temperatures (>825 C). It was also observed that kinetic and thermodynamic predictions set a lower and an upper limit, respectively, within which the actual amount of austenite experimentally observed is contained. Results from the simulation of the BIT indicated considerable carbon enrichment, and thus stabilization of {gamma}{sub R}, in agreement with recent experimental observations. As regards the strain-induced {gamma}{sub R}{yields}{alpha}' transformation, the analytical model employed in the present work was fitted to available experimental results, showing reasonably good adaptation to the kinetic behaviour of the microstructure during plastic deformation. (orig.)

  18. User Oriented Trajectory Search for Trip Recommendation

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Ruogu

    2012-07-08

    Trajectory sharing and searching have received significant attention in recent years. In this thesis, we propose and investigate the methods to find and recommend the best trajectory to the traveler, and mainly focus on a novel technique named User Oriented Trajectory Search (UOTS) query processing. In contrast to conventional trajectory search by locations (spatial domain only), we consider both spatial and textual domains in the new UOTS query. Given a trajectory data set, the query input contains a set of intended places given by the traveler and a set of textual attributes describing the traveler’s preference. If a trajectory is connecting/close to the specified query locations, and the textual attributes of the trajectory are similar to the traveler’s preference, it will be recommended to the traveler. This type of queries can enable many popular applications such as trip planning and recommendation. There are two challenges in UOTS query processing, (i) how to constrain the searching range in two domains and (ii) how to schedule multiple query sources effectively. To overcome the challenges and answer the UOTS query efficiently, a novel collaborative searching approach is developed. Conceptually, the UOTS query processing is conducted in the spatial and textual domains alternately. A pair of upper and lower bounds are devised to constrain the searching range in two domains. In the meantime, a heuristic searching strategy based on priority ranking is adopted for scheduling the multiple query sources, which can further reduce the searching range and enhance the query efficiency notably. Furthermore, the devised collaborative searching approach can be extended to situations where the query locations are ordered. Extensive experiments are conducted on both real and synthetic trajectory data in road networks. Our approach is verified to be effective in reducing both CPU time and disk I/O time.

  19. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field and wound healing: implication of cytokines as biological mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Mirko; Patruno, Antonia; Speranza, Lorenza; Reale, Marcella

    2013-03-01

    Wound healing is a highly coordinated and complex process involving various cell types, chemical mediators and the surrounding extracellular matrix, resulting in a tightly orchestrated re-establishment of tissue integrity by specific cytokines. It consists of various dynamic processes including a series of overlapping phases: inflammation, proliferation, re-epithelialization and remodeling. One of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the disturbances in wound healing is an out-of-control inflammatory response that can cause pathological consequences, such as hypertrophic scars, keloids or chronic wounds and ulcers. Recently, several reports have evaluated the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on tissue repair. In particular, the data analysis supports an anti-inflammatory effect of EMFs by the modulation of cytokine profiles that drive the transition from a chronic pro-inflammatory state to an anti-inflammatory state of the healing process. In this review, we focus on the effect of EMFs on skin wound healing showing emerging details of the anti-inflammatory effects of EMFs, with a view to cytokines as candidate biomarkers. Molecular clarification of the mechanisms involved in the modulation of inflammatory factors following exposure to EMFs will provide a better understanding of the cellular responses induced by EMFs and a potential, additional treatment in non-responding, chronic wounds.

  20. Highly cited German research contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics. Focus on collaboration and diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, C. [Nordland Hospital, Bodoe (Norway). Dept. of Oncology and Palliative Medicine; Tromsoe Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    2012-10-15

    Background and purpose: Tight budgets and increasing competition for research funding pose challenges for highly specialized medical disciplines such as radiation oncology. Therefore, a systematic review was performed of successfully completed research that had a high impact on clinical practice. These data might be helpful when preparing new projects. Methods: Different measures of impact, visibility, and quality of published research are available, each with its own pros and cons. For this study, the article citation rate was chosen (minimum 15 citations per year on average). Highly cited German contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics (published between 1990 and 2010) were identified from the Scopus database. Results: Between 1990 and 2010, 106 articles published in 44 scientific journals met the citation requirement. The median average of yearly citations was 21 (maximum 167, minimum 15). All articles with {>=} 40 citations per year were published between 2003 and 2009, consistent with the assumption that the citation rate gradually increases for up to 2 years after publication. Most citations per year were recorded for meta-analyses and randomized phase III trials, which typically were performed by collaborative groups. Conclusion: A large variety of clinical radiotherapy, biology, and physics topics achieved high numbers of citations. However, areas such as quality of life and side effects, palliative radiotherapy, and radiotherapy for nonmalignant disorders were underrepresented. Efforts to increase their visibility might be warranted. (orig.)

  1. Highly cited German research contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics: focus on collaboration and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, C

    2012-10-01

    Tight budgets and increasing competition for research funding pose challenges for highly specialized medical disciplines such as radiation oncology. Therefore, a systematic review was performed of successfully completed research that had a high impact on clinical practice. These data might be helpful when preparing new projects. Different measures of impact, visibility, and quality of published research are available, each with its own pros and cons. For this study, the article citation rate was chosen (minimum 15 citations per year on average). Highly cited German contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics (published between 1990 and 2010) were identified from the Scopus database. Between 1990 and 2010, 106 articles published in 44 scientific journals met the citation requirement. The median average of yearly citations was 21 (maximum 167, minimum 15). All articles with ≥ 40 citations per year were published between 2003 and 2009, consistent with the assumption that the citation rate gradually increases for up to 2 years after publication. Most citations per year were recorded for meta-analyses and randomized phase III trials, which typically were performed by collaborative groups. A large variety of clinical radiotherapy, biology, and physics topics achieved high numbers of citations. However, areas such as quality of life and side effects, palliative radiotherapy, and radiotherapy for nonmalignant disorders were underrepresented. Efforts to increase their visibility might be warranted.

  2. Highly cited German research contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics. Focus on collaboration and diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieder, C.; Tromsoe Univ.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Tight budgets and increasing competition for research funding pose challenges for highly specialized medical disciplines such as radiation oncology. Therefore, a systematic review was performed of successfully completed research that had a high impact on clinical practice. These data might be helpful when preparing new projects. Methods: Different measures of impact, visibility, and quality of published research are available, each with its own pros and cons. For this study, the article citation rate was chosen (minimum 15 citations per year on average). Highly cited German contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics (published between 1990 and 2010) were identified from the Scopus database. Results: Between 1990 and 2010, 106 articles published in 44 scientific journals met the citation requirement. The median average of yearly citations was 21 (maximum 167, minimum 15). All articles with ≥ 40 citations per year were published between 2003 and 2009, consistent with the assumption that the citation rate gradually increases for up to 2 years after publication. Most citations per year were recorded for meta-analyses and randomized phase III trials, which typically were performed by collaborative groups. Conclusion: A large variety of clinical radiotherapy, biology, and physics topics achieved high numbers of citations. However, areas such as quality of life and side effects, palliative radiotherapy, and radiotherapy for nonmalignant disorders were underrepresented. Efforts to increase their visibility might be warranted. (orig.)

  3. Biological response in vitro of skeletal muscle cells treated with different intensity continuous and pulsed ultrasound fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrunhosa, Viviane M; Costa-Felix, Rodrigo P B; Mermelstein, Claudia S; Costa, Manoel L

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound has been used in physiotherapy to accelerate tissue healing. Although the ultrasonic wave is widely used in clinical practice, not much is known about the biological effects of ultrasound on cells and tissues. This study aims to evaluate the biological response of ultrasound in primary cultures of chick myogenic cells. To ensure the metrological reliability of whole measurement process, the ultrasound equipment was calibrated in accordance with IEC 61689:2007. The skeletal muscle cells were divided in four samples. One sample was used as a control group and the others were submitted to different time and intensity and operation mode of ultrasound: 1) 0.5 W/cm 2 continuous for 5 minutes, 2) 0.5 W/cm 2 pulsed for 5 minutes, 3) 1.0 W/cm 2 pulsed for 10 minutes. The samples were analyzed with phase contrast optical microscopy before and after the treatment. The results showed alignment of myogenic cells in the sample treated with 0.5 W/cm 2 continuous during 5 minutes when compared with the control group and the other samples. This study is a first step towards a metrological and scientific based protocol to cells and tissues treatment under different ultrasound field exposures.

  4. Biological response in vitro of skeletal muscle cells treated with different intensity continuous and pulsed ultrasound fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrunhosa, Viviane M; Costa-Felix, Rodrigo P B [Laboratory of Ultrasound, Directory of Scientific and Industrial Metrology (DIMCI), National Institute of Metrology, Standardization, and Industrial Quality (Inmetro), Av. Nossa Sra das Gracas, 50 Predio 1, Duque de Caxias, RJ, ZIP 25250-020 (Brazil); Mermelstein, Claudia S; Costa, Manoel L, E-mail: rpfelix@inmetro.gov.br [Laboratory of Muscle Differentiation and Cytoskeleton, Biomedical Sciences Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, ZIP 21949-590 (Brazil)

    2011-02-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound has been used in physiotherapy to accelerate tissue healing. Although the ultrasonic wave is widely used in clinical practice, not much is known about the biological effects of ultrasound on cells and tissues. This study aims to evaluate the biological response of ultrasound in primary cultures of chick myogenic cells. To ensure the metrological reliability of whole measurement process, the ultrasound equipment was calibrated in accordance with IEC 61689:2007. The skeletal muscle cells were divided in four samples. One sample was used as a control group and the others were submitted to different time and intensity and operation mode of ultrasound: 1) 0.5 W/cm{sup 2} continuous for 5 minutes, 2) 0.5 W/cm{sup 2} pulsed for 5 minutes, 3) 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} pulsed for 10 minutes. The samples were analyzed with phase contrast optical microscopy before and after the treatment. The results showed alignment of myogenic cells in the sample treated with 0.5 W/cm{sup 2} continuous during 5 minutes when compared with the control group and the other samples. This study is a first step towards a metrological and scientific based protocol to cells and tissues treatment under different ultrasound field exposures.

  5. Analysis of waste management issues arising from a field study evaluating decontamination of a biological agent from a building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, P; Wood, J; Drake, J; Minamyer, S; Silvestri, E; Yund, C; Nichols, T; Ierardi, M; Amidan, B

    2016-01-01

    The Bio-response Operational Testing and Evaluation (BOTE) Project was a cross-government effort designed to operationally test and evaluate a response to a biological incident (release of Bacillus anthracis [Ba] spores, the causative agent for anthrax) from initial public health and law enforcement response through environmental remediation. The BOTE Project was designed to address site remediation after the release of a Ba simulant, Bacillus atrophaeus spp. globigii (Bg), within a facility, drawing upon recent advances in the biological sampling and decontamination areas. A key component of response to a biological contamination incident is the proper management of wastes and residues, which is woven throughout all response activities. Waste is generated throughout the response and includes items like sampling media packaging materials, discarded personal protective equipment, items removed from the facility either prior to or following decontamination, aqueous waste streams, and materials generated through the application of decontamination technologies. The amount of residual contaminating agent will impact the available disposal pathways and waste management costs. Waste management is an integral part of the decontamination process and should be included through "Pre-Incident" response planning. Overall, the pH-adjusted bleach decontamination process generated the most waste from the decontamination efforts, and fumigation with chlorine dioxide generated the least waste. A majority of the solid waste generated during pH-adjusted bleach decontamination was the nonporous surfaces that were removed, bagged, decontaminated ex situ, and treated as waste. The waste during the two fumigation rounds of the BOTE Project was associated mainly with sampling activities. Waste management activities may represent a significant contribution to the overall cost of the response/recovery operation. This paper addresses the waste management activities for the BOTE field test

  6. 1st World Congress on Electroporation and Pulsed Electric Fields in Biology, Medicine and Food & Environmental Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Kramar, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the 1st World Congress on Electroporation and Pulsed Electric Fields in Biology, Medicine and Food & Environmental Technologies (WC2015). The congress took place in Portorož, Slovenia, during the week of September 6th to 10th, 2015. The scientific part of the Congress covered different aspects of electroporation and related technologies and included the following main topics:   ·         Application of pulsed electric fields technology in food: challenges and opportunities ·         Electrical impedance measurement for assessment of electroporation yield ·         Electrochemistry and electroporation ·         Electroporation meets electrostimulation ·         Electrotechnologies for food and biomass treatment ·         Food and biotechnology applications ·         In vitro electroporation - basic mechanisms ·         Interfacial behaviour of lipid-assemblies, membranes and cells in electric f...

  7. Three-dimensional temperature fields of the North Patagonian Sea recorded by Magellanic penguins as biological sampling platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Juan E.; Pisoni, Juan P.; Quintana, Flavio

    2017-04-01

    Temperature is a primary determinant of biogeographic patterns and ecosystem processes. Standard techniques to study the ocean temperature in situ are, however, particularly limited by their time and spatial coverage, problems which might be partially mitigated by using marine top predators as biological platforms for oceanographic sampling. We used small archival tags deployed on 33 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), and obtained 21,070 geo-localized profiles of water temperature, during late spring of 2008, 2011, 2012 and 2013; in a region of the North Patagonian Sea with limited oceanographic records in situ. We compared our in situ data of sea surface temperature (SST) with those available from satellite remote sensing; to describe the three-dimensional temperature fields around the area of influence of two important tidal frontal systems; and to study the inter-annual variation in the three-dimensional temperature fields. There was a strong positive relationship between satellite- and animal-derived SST data although there was an overestimation by remote-sensing by a maximum difference of +2 °C. Little inter-annual variability in the 3-dimensional temperature fields was found, with the exception of 2012 (and to a lesser extent in 2013) where the SST was significantly higher. In 2013, we found weak stratification in a region which was unexpected. In addition, during the same year, a warm small-scale vortex is indicated by the animal-derived temperature data. This allowed us to describe and better understand the dynamics of the water masses, which, so far, have been mainly studied by remote sensors and numerical models. Our results highlight again the potential of using marine top predators as biological platforms to collect oceanographic data, which will enhance and accelerate studies on the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. In a changing world, threatened by climate change, it is urgent to fill information gaps on the coupled ocean-atmosphere system

  8. The return trip is felt shorter only postdictively: A psychophysiological study of the return trip effect [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Ozawa

    Full Text Available The return trip often seems shorter than the outward trip even when the distance and actual time are identical. To date, studies on the return trip effect have failed to confirm its existence in a situation that is ecologically valid in terms of environment and duration. In addition, physiological influences as part of fundamental timing mechanisms in daily activities have not been investigated in the time perception literature. The present study compared round-trip and non-round-trip conditions in an ecological situation. Time estimation in real time and postdictive estimation were used to clarify the situations where the return trip effect occurs. Autonomic nervous system activity was evaluated from the electrocardiogram using the Lorenz plot to demonstrate the relationship between time perception and physiological indices. The results suggest that the return trip effect is caused only postdictively. Electrocardiographic analysis revealed that the two experimental conditions induced different responses in the autonomic nervous system, particularly in sympathetic nervous function, and that parasympathetic function correlated with postdictive timing. To account for the main findings, the discrepancy between the two time estimates is discussed in the light of timing strategies, i.e., prospective and retrospective timing, which reflect different emphasis on attention and memory processes. Also each timing method, i.e., the verbal estimation, production or comparative judgment, has different characteristics such as the quantification of duration in time units or knowledge of the target duration, which may be responsible for the discrepancy. The relationship between postdictive time estimation and the parasympathetic nervous system is also discussed.

  9. Vanpool trip planning based on evolutionary multiple objective optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Yang, Disheng; Feng, Shibing; Liu, Hengchang

    2017-08-01

    Carpool and vanpool draw a lot of researchers’ attention, which is the emphasis of this paper. A concrete vanpool operation definition is given, based on the given definition, this paper tackles vanpool operation optimization using user experience decline index(UEDI). This paper is focused on making each user having identical UEDI and the system having minimum sum of all users’ UEDI. Three contributions are made, the first contribution is a vanpool operation scheme diagram, each component of the scheme is explained in detail. The second contribution is getting all customer’s UEDI as a set, standard deviation and sum of all users’ UEDI set are used as objectives in multiple objective optimization to decide trip start address, trip start time and trip destination address. The third contribution is a trip planning algorithm, which tries to minimize the sum of all users’ UEDI. Geographical distribution of the charging stations and utilization rate of the charging stations are considered in the trip planning process.

  10. Hybrid Intelligent Warning System for Boiler tube Leak Trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Deshvin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated boiler tube leak trips in coal fired power plants can increase operating cost significantly. An early detection and diagnosis of boiler trips is essential for continuous safe operations in the plant. In this study two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler tube leak trips have been proposed. The first intelligent warning system (IWS-1 represents the use of pure artificial neural network system whereas the second intelligent warning system (IWS-2 represents merging of genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks as a hybrid intelligent system. The Extreme Learning Machine (ELM methodology was also adopted in IWS-1 and compared with traditional training algorithms. Genetic algorithm (GA was adopted in IWS-2 to optimize the ANN topology and the boiler parameters. An integrated data preparation framework was established for 3 real cases of boiler tube leak trip based on a thermal power plant in Malaysia. Both the IWSs were developed using MATLAB coding for training and validation. The hybrid IWS-2 performed better than IWS-1.The developed system was validated to be able to predict trips before the plant monitoring system. The proposed artificial intelligent system could be adopted as a reliable monitoring system of the thermal power plant boilers.

  11. Appraisal of boundary layer trips for landing gear testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Philip; Feltham, Graham; Ekmekci, Alis

    2013-11-01

    Dynamic similarity during scaled model testing is difficult to maintain. Forced boundary layer transition via a surface protuberance is a common method used to address this issue, however few guidelines exist for the effective tripping of complex geometries, such as aircraft landing gears. To address this shortcoming, preliminary wind tunnel tests were performed at Re = 500,000. Surface transition visualisation and pressure measurements show that zigzag type trips of a given size and location are effective at promoting transition, thus preventing the formation of laminar separation bubbles and increasing the effective Reynolds number from the critical regime to the supercritical regime. Extension of these experiments to include three additional tripping methods (wires, roughness strips, CADCUT dots) in a range of sizes, at Reynolds number of 200,000 and below, have been performed in a recirculating water channel. Analysis of surface pressure measurements and time resolved PIV for each trip device, size and location has established a set of recommendations for successful use of tripping for future, low Reynolds number landing gear testing.

  12. Microstructure Evolution during Friction Stir Spot Welding of TRIP steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Colding

    and thereby reduced weight of the vehicles. One of the limitations for the wide application of TRIP steel is associated with joining, since so far no method has succeeded in joining TRIP steel, without comprising the steel properties. In this study, the potential of joining TRIP steel with Friction Stir Spot...... Welding (FSSW) is investigated. The aim of the study is to assess whether high quality welds can be produced and, in particular, to obtain an understanding of the microstructural changes during welding. The microstructure of the welded samples was investigated by means of reflected light microscopy......, scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. Microhardness measurements and lab-shear tests completed the investigations of the welded samples and allow evaluation of the quality of the welds as seen from a practical point of view. Selected samples were also investigated by X...

  13. Microstructure characterization of Friction Stir Spot Welded TRIP steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Colding; Adachi, Yoshitaka; Peterson, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels have not yet been successfully joined by any welding technique. It is desirable to search for a suitable welding technique that opens up for full usability of TRIP steels. In this study, the potential of joining TRIP steel with Friction Stir Spot...... Welding (FSSW) is investigated. The aim of the study is to investigate whether acceptable welds can be produced, and additionally, to obtain an understanding of the microstructural changes during welding. The microstructure was investigated with a combination of microscopical techniques with the aim...... of identifying the transformations occurring during welding. Reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction were among the methods applied for detailed investigations. The microstructure adjacent to the welds can generally be subdivided in two thermo...

  14. Mode, load, and specific climate impact from passenger trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Berntsen, Terje

    2013-07-16

    The climate impact from a long-distance trip can easily vary by a factor of 10 per passenger depending on mode choice, vehicle efficiency, and occupancy. In this paper we compare the specific climate impact of long-distance car travel with coach, train, or air trips. We account for both, CO2 emissions and short-lived climate forcers. This particularly affects the ranking of aircraft's climate impact relative to other modes. We calculate the specific impact for the Global Warming Potential and the Global Temperature Change Potential, considering time horizons between 20 and 100 years, and compare with results accounting only for CO2 emissions. The car's fuel efficiency and occupancy are central whether the impact from a trip is as high as from air travel or as low as from train travel. These results can be used for carbon-offsetting schemes, mode choice and transportation planning for climate mitigation.

  15. Texture developed during deformation of Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, M; Asim, T; Sushil, M; Shanta, C

    2015-01-01

    Automotive industry is currently focusing on using advanced high strength steels (AHSS) due to its high strength and formability for closure applications. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is promising material for this application among other AHSS. The present work is focused on the microstructure development during deformation of TRIP steel sheets. To mimic complex strain path condition during forming of automotive body, Limit Dome Height (LDH) tests were conducted and samples were deformed in servo hydraulic press to find the different strain path. FEM Simulations were done to predict different strain path diagrams and compared with experimental results. There is a significant difference between experimental and simulation results as the existing material models are not applicable for TRIP steels. Micro texture studies were performed on the samples using EBSD and X-RD techniques. It was observed that austenite is transformed to martensite and texture developed during deformation had strong impact on limit strain and strain path. (paper)

  16. Are short daily trips compensated by higher leisure mobility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2006-01-01

    Studies in several cities have shown that inner-city residents travel shorter distances and use cars less for local transport than suburbanites do. However, according to some authors, a low daily amount of travel is likely to be compensated through more extensive leisure mobility at weekends...... and on holidays. On the basis of a study of residential location and travel in the Copenhagen metropolitan area, this paper addresses the phenomenon of compensatory travel. For travel within ‘weekend trip distance’ from the residence, inner-city living appears to have a certain compensatory effect in the form...... of a higher frequency of medium-distance leisure trips. Probably, this reflects a shortage of nature in the immediate surroundings of the dwelling as well as less leisure time tied to gardening and house maintenance. These compensatory trips imply a slight reduction of the transport-reducing effect of inner...

  17. The effect of within-crop habitat manipulations on the conservation biological control of aphids in field-grown lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirvin, D J; Kravar-Garde, L; Reynolds, K; Wright, C; Mead, A

    2011-12-01

    Within-crop habitat manipulations have the potential to increase the biological control of pests in horticultural field crops. Wildflower strips have been shown to increase the abundance of natural enemies, but there is little evidence to date of an impact on pest populations. The aim of this study was to determine whether within-crop wildflower strips can increase the natural regulation of pests in horticultural field crops. Aphid numbers in plots of lettuce grown adjacent to wildflower strips were compared with those in plots grown in the absence of wildflowers. The presence of wildflower strips led to a decrease in aphid numbers on adjacent lettuce plants during June and July, but had less impact in August and September. The decrease in aphid numbers was greatest close to the wildflower strips and, the decrease in aphid numbers declined with increasing distance from the wildflower strips, with little effect at a distance of ten metres. The main natural enemies found in the crop were those that dispersed aerially, which is consistent with data from previous studies on cereal crops. Analysis and interpretation of natural enemy numbers was difficult due to low recovery of natural enemies, and the numbers appeared to follow changes in aphid abundance rather than being directly linked to the presence of wildflower strips. Cutting the wildflower strips, to remove floral resources, had no impact on the reduction in aphid numbers achieved during June and July, but decreased the effect of the wildflower strips during August and September. The results suggest that wildflower strips can lead to increased natural regulation of pest aphids in outdoor lettuce crops, but more research is required to determine how this is mediated by natural enemies and how the impact of wildflower strips on natural pest regulation changes during the growing season.

  18. WTO ministerial conference adopts declaration on TRIPS and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Richard

    2002-03-01

    In November 2001, the 4th Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization adopted a Ministerial Declaration on public health and the WTO's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (the "TRIPS Agreement"). The declaration represents a modest advance in addressing concerns that strict patent laws, and threats of trade sanctions, will be a barrier to most of the world's people with HIV/AIDS accessing affordable medicines. The full significance of the declaration remains to be seen, as it depends on what political impact it has at the WTO and on its member countries, and what legal impact it will have in the interpretation of the TRIPS Agreement.

  19. The development of cause analysis system for CPCS trip using the rule-base deduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Seok; Kim, Dong Hoon; Seo, Ho Joon; Koo, In Soo; Park, Suk Joon

    1992-01-01

    The Core Protection Calculator System(CPCS) was developed to initiate a Reactor Trip under the circumstance of certain transients by Combustion Engineering Company. The major function of the CPCS is to generate contact outputs for the Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio(DNBR) Trip and Local Power Density(LPD) Trip. But in CPCS the trip causes can not be identified, only trip status is displayed. It may take much time and efforts for plant operator to analyse the trip causes of CPCS. So, the Cause Analysis System for CPCS(CASCPCS) has been developed using the rule-base deduction method to aid the operators in Nuclear Power Plant

  20. Open source software for electric field Monte Carlo simulation of coherent backscattering in biological media containing birefringence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosevich, Andrew J; Rogers, Jeremy D; Capoğlu, Ilker R; Mutyal, Nikhil N; Pradhan, Prabhakar; Backman, Vadim

    2012-11-01

    ABSTRACT. We present an open source electric field tracking Monte Carlo program to model backscattering in biological media containing birefringence, with computation of the coherent backscattering phenomenon as an example. These simulations enable the modeling of tissue scattering as a statistically homogeneous continuous random media under the Whittle-Matérn model, which includes the Henyey-Greenstein phase function as a special case, or as a composition of discrete spherical scatterers under Mie theory. The calculation of the amplitude scattering matrix for the above two cases as well as the implementation of birefringence using the Jones N-matrix formalism is presented. For ease of operator use and data processing, our simulation incorporates a graphical user interface written in MATLAB to interact with the underlying C code. Additionally, an increase in computational speed is achieved through implementation of message passing interface and the semi-analytical approach. Finally, we provide demonstrations of the results of our simulation for purely scattering media and scattering media containing linear birefringence.

  1. Development of dark-striped field mice, Apodemus agrarius coreae, as a biological dosimeter in a radio-ecological monitoring system: 2. Survival rates and hematology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Sun; Kim, Chong Soon; Nishmura, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Regarding the management of nuclear power plants and the installation of facilities for radiation waste storage: social concerns over radiation safety are increasing. To understand how environmental radiation affects on human beings, the development of an reasonable monitoring system is required. The existing radio-environmental surveillance systems can be classified into physical and biological monitoring systems. The wild small animals and livestocks were reported to be effective biological indicators of environmental radiation This study investigated the possibility of using dark-striped field mice as a biological dosimetric model to assess the effect of radiation on the human environments. For this study, the criteria for the biological dosimeters of environmental radiation were established as the following: first, it should be an animal from a clear background of species; second, it should inhabit a broad range of areas and in considerable numbers; third, it should maintain identical ecological characteristics; fourth, it should be cohabitating with humans; fifth, it should have been consuming food found in their habitat; and finally, it should indicate a clear doseresponse relationship with high sensitivity. Based on such criteria, this study investigated the possibility of using dark-striped field mice as an effective biological dosimeter. Primarily, their species were classified based on their morphological external characteristics and isoenzymic patterns. The taxonomically classified darkstriped field mice, A. agrarius coreae, were then irradiated to investigate their radiation sensitivity based on the survival rate and hematology in this study

  2. Report on the 1992 study trip on the Weser aboard the laboratory ship 'Max-Pruess' of the Land North-Rhine-Westfalia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    As agreed by the standing committee of the Weser task force ('Arge Weser'), regular trips on the river for taking measurements have been made since 1965. The ninth trip, from May 8th to 14th, 1992 aboard the ''Max Pruess'', a ship equipped with measuring instruments and a laboratory and owned by the Land North-Rhine-Westphalia, was concerned with three areas of investigation: A) the Fulda and Werra estuaries, B) the upper and middle Weser (Hann.-Muenden (km 0.0) to Bremen (km 361.1)), C) the lower Weser (Bremen (km 0.0) to Kolumbuskai (km 67.8)). A uniform water quality longitudinal profile of the Weser was established during this trip by means of chemico-physical and biological tests. While investigations by measuring stations cover a longer period of time, the measurements taken during a voyage reflect a transient condition and complement long-term trend investigations. The voyage also permits to gain an overview of relative changes in the condition of the river at various points of its course. The evaluation of the results of this trip is facilitated by investigations of Arge Weser already carried through for the duration of several years and information obtained by previous trips. (orig./EF) [de

  3. Un Viaje al Aeropuerto (A Trip to the Airport).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This illustrated, bilingual Spanish-English intermediate reader describes a class trip to an airport, in which the class tours the airport, and learns about airport activities, the parts of an airplane, and other related topics. Each page of the text is illustrated with a drawing. The narrative is followed by a list of 24 suggested learning…

  4. The Euler-Mascheroni Constant and The Car Talk Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Frank H.; Page, Breeanna S.

    2018-01-01

    This paper uses the lens of a calculus student to examine different solutions to a weekly puzzler from the radio show "Car Talk," hosted by Tom and Ray Magliozzi. The puzzler describes an automobile that is traveling 75 miles per hour and is 75 miles from its destination. The trip is completed by traveling 1 mile at 75 miles per hour, 1…

  5. 49 CFR 236.586 - Daily or after trip test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Daily or after trip test. 236.586 Section 236.586 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... device is within specified limits. [49 FR 3387, Jan. 26, 1984] ...

  6. Journal of South African Trip: January 14-March 1, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carl R.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a personal account, dictated en route, of Carl Rogers' experiences during his trip to South Africa. Documents extensive commitment to people and to a process leading to peace. Journal ends with conviction that violence can be avoided and that no group really wants violence. (Author)

  7. The Scope of Gene Patent Protection and the TRIPS Agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Tine

    2007-01-01

    The Scope of Gene Patent Protection and the TRIPS Agreement - An Exclusively Nondiscriminatory Approach?   Gene patenting in Europe has provoked much debate both before and since the adoption of Directive 98/44/EC on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions. Some of the major points of...

  8. Evidence Based Prevention of Occupational Slips, Trips and Falls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that about one third of the compensated occupational injuries and half of the most serious occupational injuries in merchant seafaring are related to slips, trips and falls (STF)-events. Among the elderly, STF is the risk factor that causes the largest number of inpatient days...

  9. Retained austenite stability investigation in TRIP steel using neutron diffraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zrník, J.; Muránsky, Ondrej; Lukáš, Petr; Nový, Z.; Šittner, Petr; Horňák, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 437, č. 1 (2006), s. 114-119 ISSN 0921-5093 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : TRIP steel * austenite conditioning * neutron diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.490, year: 2006

  10. INTERNET TRAFFIC AND PACKET ROUND TRIP DELAY SELF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Self Similarity, LRD, Internet Traffic,. Internet Packet Round Trip ... Internet. Current data networks typically use packet switching as a means of dynamically allocating network resources on a demand basis. Packet switching had been widely used .... the distribution of income within the population( 4]. Figure lea) ...

  11. Foreign trips in search of medical care: outright blatant profligacy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and higher budgetary allocations to the Nigerian health sector is necessary to restore confidence in this sector. If most of the treatment Nigerians go to seek abroad can be gotten in Nigeria, a lot of foreign exchange would be saved for productive ventures like Agriculture. Key words: Foreing trips, medical care, capital flight ...

  12. Roofwantsen tegen trips in chrysant: Orius majusculus en Orius niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der A.; Staaij, van der M.

    2011-01-01

    Referaat Roofwantsen, Orius spp. kunnen behalve tripsnimfen ook volwassen trips eten. Omdat Orius niger volgens verschillende auteurs niet gevoelig zou zijn voor korte daglengte, waarbij sommige Orius soorten stoppen met eileg, werden deze roofwantsen buiten verzameld en in kweek genomen. Het kweken

  13. Sense of place in outdoor-pursuits trip groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon L. Todd; Anderson B. Young; Lynn S. Anderson; Timothy S. O' Connell; Mary Breunig

    2009-01-01

    Studies have revealed that sense of community and group cohesion increase significantly over time in outdoor-pursuits trip groups. This study sought to understand similar development of sense of place. Do people simultaneously become more attached to or dependent on the natural environment as they grow closer to each other? Results from a study of college students...

  14. [Biogeography: geography or biology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafanov, A I

    2009-01-01

    General biogeography is an interdisciplinary science, which combines geographic and biological aspects constituting two distinct research fields: biological geography and geographic biology. These fields differ in the nature of their objects of study, employ different methods and represent Earth sciences and biological sciences, respectively. It is suggested therefore that the classification codes for research fields and the state professional education standard should be revised.

  15. CNMI, American Samoa, and Guam Small Boat Fishery Trip Expenditure (2009 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a time-series dataset of trip expenditure data including actual fishing trip expenses, input usage, and input prices, for boat-based reef fish, bottomfish,...

  16. Improved trip generation data for Texas using workplace and special generator surveys : workshop materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Workshop Objectives: : Present Texas Trip Generation Manual : How developed : How it can be used, built upon : Provide examples and discuss : Present Generic WP Attraction Rates : Review Trip Attractions and Advanced Models

  17. Framework of collagen type I - vasoactive vessels structuring invariant geometric attractor in cancer tissues: insight into biological magnetic field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo A Díaz

    Full Text Available In a previous research, we have described and documented self-assembly of geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal-like complex organizations (GTCHC in human pathological tissues. This article documents and gathers insights into the magnetic field in cancer tissues and also how it generates an invariant functional geometric attractor constituted for collider partners in their entangled environment. The need to identify this hierarquic attractor was born out of the concern to understand how the vascular net of these complexes are organized, and to determine if the spiral vascular subpatterns observed adjacent to GTCHC complexes and their assembly are interrelational. The study focuses on cancer tissues and all the macroscopic and microscopic material in which GTCHC complexes are identified, which have been overlooked so far, and are rigorously revised. This revision follows the same parameters that were established in the initial phase of the investigation, but with a new item: the visualization and documentation of external dorsal serous vascular bed areas in spatial correlation with the localization of GTCHC complexes inside the tumors. Following the standard of the electro-optical collision model, we were able to reproduce and replicate collider patterns, that is, pairs of left and right hand spin-spiraled subpatterns, associated with the orientation of the spinning process that can be an expansion or contraction disposition of light particles. Agreement between this model and tumor data is surprisingly close; electromagnetic spiral patterns generated were identical at the spiral vascular arrangement in connection with GTCHC complexes in malignant tumors. These findings suggest that the framework of collagen type 1 - vasoactive vessels that structure geometric attractors in cancer tissues with invariant morphology sets generate collider partners in their magnetic domain with opposite biological behavior. If these principles are incorporated

  18. Design and implementation of STD32-BUS based reactor protection trip unit on FPGA imbaby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, I.; Elnokity, O.A.; Refai, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a way to design and implement the Trip Unit of a Reactor Protection System (RPS) using a Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). Instead of the traditional embedded Microprocessor based interface design method, a proposed tailor made FPGA based circuit is built to substitute the Trip Unit (TL1) existing in Egypt's 2' ' Research reactor ETRR-2. The existing embedded system is built around the STD32 field Computer Bus which used in industrial and process control applications. It is modular, rugged, reliable, and easy-to-use and is able to support a large mix of I/O cards and to easily change its configuration in the future. Therefore, the state machine of this bus is extracted from its timing diagrams and implemented in VHDL to interface the designed TU circuit. The proposed designed circuit implemented using ALTERA EPF10K10LC84-3 chip replaces the Single Board Computer which have the embedded SAY program of the TU providing the same integrated HAV and SAV functions implemented in FPGA Chip housed in an printed circuit board, which uses the same shape and specifications of STD32 boards. H/W implementation of both TU and STD32 Bus in VHDL addresses the issues of safety and reusability

  19. Apicomplexa-specific tRip facilitates import of exogenous tRNAs into malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bour, Tania; Mahmoudi, Nassira; Kapps, Delphine; Thiberge, Sabine; Bargieri, Daniel; Ménard, Robert; Frugier, Magali

    2016-04-26

    The malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites are transmitted to vertebrates by mosquitoes. To support their growth and replication, these intracellular parasites, which belong to the phylum Apicomplexa, have developed mechanisms to exploit their hosts. These mechanisms include expropriation of small metabolites from infected host cells, such as purine nucleotides and amino acids. Heretofore, no evidence suggested that transfer RNAs (tRNAs) could also be exploited. We identified an unusual gene in Apicomplexa with a coding sequence for membrane-docking and structure-specific tRNA binding. This Apicomplexa protein-designated tRip (tRNA import protein)-is anchored to the parasite plasma membrane and directs import of exogenous tRNAs. In the absence of tRip, the fitness of the parasite stage that multiplies in the blood is significantly reduced, indicating that the parasite may need host tRNAs to sustain its own translation and/or as regulatory RNAs. Plasmodium is thus the first example, to our knowledge, of a cell importing exogenous tRNAs, suggesting a remarkable adaptation of this parasite to extend its reach into host cell biology.

  20. Biological effects of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields and radiation: III radiofrequency and microwave radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, R.D.; Kowalczuk, C.I.; Sienkiewicz, Z.J.

    1991-12-01

    The biological effects of experimental exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and microwave radiation above 100 kHz are reviewed with the intention of providing a summary of effects directly relevant to considerations of the health and safety of exposed people. The biological bases for restricting exposures are also briefly discussed. Studies of the possible effects of electromagnetic field exposure on human populations are described in a separate report. The majority of the biological effects of acute exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and microwave radiation are consistent with responses to induced heating, resulting either from frank rises in tissue or body temperature of about 1 0 C or more, or from responses involved in minimising the total heat load. Most responses have been reported at specific energy absorption rates (SARs) above about 1-2 W kg -1 in different animal species exposed under various environmental conditions. These animal, particularly primate, data indicate the sorts of responses that are likely to occur in humans subject to a sufficient heat load. In addition, most animal and cell culture data indicate that RF and microwave exposure is not mutagenic and so will not result in somatic mutation or in hereditary effects; such exposure is therefore unlikely to initiate cancers. With some exceptions that are described below, restrictions on the acute exposure of humans to RF or microwave radiation should be based on the acute responses to raised body temperature. It seems probable that healthy people can tolerate short-term (minute-hour) rises in body temperature of up to about 1 0 C. This rise is well below the maximum tolerable increase but nevertheless represents a significant thermal load. The evidence suggests that the exposure of resting humans in moderate environments at whole-body SARs of 1 W kg -1 , and up to 4 W kg -1 for short periods, will result in body temperature rises of less than 1 0 C. A restriction of whole-body SAR for healthy people to 0

  1. A Novel Trip Coverage Index for Transit Accessibility Assessment Using Mobile Phone Data

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Zhengyi; Wang, Dianhai; Chen, Xiqun

    2017-01-01

    Transit accessibility is an important measure on the service performance of transit systems. To assess whether the public transit service is well accessible for trips of specific origins, destinations, and origin-destination (OD) pairs, a novel measure, the Trip Coverage Index (TCI), is proposed in this paper. TCI considers both the transit trip coverage and spatial distribution of individual travel demands. Massive trips between cellular base stations are estimated by using over four-million...

  2. Trip Generations at “Polyclinic” Land Use Type in Johor Bahru, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Ishtiaque; Abdulrahman, Suleiman; Hainin, Mohd Rosli; Hassan, Sitti Asmah

    2014-01-01

    Transportation planners need to estimate the trip generations of different land use types in the travel demand forecasting process. The Trip Generation Manual of Malaysia, similar to the Trip Generation Manual of the Institute of Transportation Engineers, USA, provides the trip generation rate at “Polyclinics” as a function of the Gross Floor Area. However, the data for this rate have no line of best fit resulting in the lack of confidence in the prediction. This study considered ten location...

  3. Does ignoring multidestination trips in the travel cost method cause a systematic bias?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuosmanen, T.K.; Nillesen, E.E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper demonstrates that treating multidestination trips (MDT) as single-destination trips does not involve any systematic upward or downward bias in consumer surplus (CS) estimates because the direct negative effect of a price increase (treating MDT as a single-destination trip) is

  4. Examining the Role of Trip Length in Commuter Decisions to Use Public Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Traveler trip length has for years been used as a fundamental indicator of the best mix of transit modes and user perceptions of travel cost for transit versus auto. This study examines traveler trip lengths across transit modes, work trip duration f...

  5. Questionnaire-based person trip visualization and its integration to quantitative measurements in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimijiama, S.; Nagai, M.

    2016-06-01

    With telecommunication development in Myanmar, person trip survey is supposed to shift from conversational questionnaire to GPS survey. Integration of both historical questionnaire data to GPS survey and visualizing them are very important to evaluate chronological trip changes with socio-economic and environmental events. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) visualize questionnaire-based person trip data, (b) compare the errors between questionnaire and GPS data sets with respect to sex and age and (c) assess the trip behaviour in time-series. Totally, 345 individual respondents were selected through random stratification to assess person trip using a questionnaire and GPS survey for each. Conversion of trip information such as a destination from the questionnaires was conducted by using GIS. The results show that errors between the two data sets in the number of trips, total trip distance and total trip duration are 25.5%, 33.2% and 37.2%, respectively. The smaller errors are found among working-age females mainly employed with the project-related activities generated by foreign investment. The trip distant was yearly increased. The study concluded that visualization of questionnaire-based person trip data and integrating them to current quantitative measurements are very useful to explore historical trip changes and understand impacts from socio-economic events.

  6. Nuevos atrayentes de trips ayudan a los agricultores en el control de plagas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Kogel, de W.J.; Teulon, D.

    2007-01-01

    Los trips constituyen una plaga importante que afecta a muchos cultivos diferentes. El año pasado se probaron con éxito, en situaciones prácticas, aromas atrayentes de trips de las flores y trips de la cebolla. El producto, que estará a disposición de los cultivadores en junio, resultó efectivo en

  7. THE NETWORK OF CITY PUBLIC TRANSPORT AS THE BASE FOR TRIP LENGTH DISTRIBUTION DETERMINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Horbachov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The up-to-date methods of modelling the demand for public transport services require an objective estimation and improvement. Such an improvement can be achieved by taking into account the trip length distribution during trip matrix calculation that requires determining the reasons of regularities occurance in city population trip lengths.

  8. [A trip through the history of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balke, H; Nocito, Antonio

    2013-01-16

    The origins of obesity can be traced back at least 25 000 years. In the Stone Age, in the Middle Ages, and in the 17th century overweight indicated prosperity,power, and fertility, but already Hippocrates described obesity as a disease in the Antique. The first academic papers dealing with adiposity were published in the times of the Industrial Revolution.In the 19th century a pharmaceutical treatment boom against overweight emerged- people had to deal with quackery and dangerous remedies like amphetamines that flooded the market.Bariatric surgery was introduced in the 20th century- to days gold standard is the RYGB operation. Dealing with morbid obesity and its comorbidities is nowadays one of the serious problems in the field of public health.

  9. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  10. 3-D components of a biological neural network visualized in computer generated imagery. I - Macular receptive field organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Cutler, Lynn; Meyer, Glenn; Lam, Tony; Vaziri, Parshaw

    1990-01-01

    Computer-assisted, 3-dimensional reconstructions of macular receptive fields and of their linkages into a neural network have revealed new information about macular functional organization. Both type I and type II hair cells are included in the receptive fields. The fields are rounded, oblong, or elongated, but gradations between categories are common. Cell polarizations are divergent. Morphologically, each calyx of oblong and elongated fields appears to be an information processing site. Intrinsic modulation of information processing is extensive and varies with the kind of field. Each reconstructed field differs in detail from every other, suggesting that an element of randomness is introduced developmentally and contributes to endorgan adaptability.

  11. Field Guide to Layered Rocks. Earth Science Curriculum Project Pamphlet Series PS-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Tom

    Presented is the study of sequences of rock layers as the basis for historical geology. Also considered is the influence of rock layers on the appearance of the landscape. Specific relevant laws of geology are presented. Preparation for a field trip is discussed. An example field trip is discussed and field techniques and projects are reviewed.…

  12. Making a report of a short trip in an ophiolitic complex with Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubret, Marianne

    2017-04-01

    Plate tectonics is taught in French secondary school (lower and upper-sixth). According to the curriculum, the comprehension of plate-tectonic processes and concepts should be based on field data. For example, the Alpine's ocean history is studied to understand how mountain ranges are formed. In this context, Corsica is a great open-air laboratory, but unfortunately, the traffic conditions are very difficult in the island and despite the short distances, it's almost impossible for teachers to take their students to the remarkable geologic spots. The «défilé de l'Inzecca» is one of them: there you can see a part of the alpine's ophiolitic complex. The aim of this activity is to elaborate a « KMZ folder » in Google Earth as a report of a short trip thanks to the students' data field; it is also the occasion to enrich the Google Earth KMZ folder already available for our teaching.

  13. Harvesting Collective Trend Observations from Large Scale Study Trips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare; Ovesen, Nis

    2014-01-01

    To enhance industrial design students’ decoding and understanding of the technological possibilities and the diversity of needs and preferences in different cultures it is not unusual to arrange study trips where such students acquire a broader view to strengthen their professional skills and app...... numbers of students to the annual Milan Design Week and the Milan fair ‘I Saloni’ in Italy. The present paper describes and evaluates the method, the theory behind it, the practical execution of the trend registration, the results from the activities and future perspectives....... and approach, hence linking the design education and the design culture of the surrounding world. To improve the professional learning it is useful, though, to facilitate and organize the trips in a way that involves systematic data collection and reporting. This paper presents a method for facilitating study...

  14. Customer satisfaction with individual shopping trip experiences in grocery retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    Grocery retailers from Aldi to Wal-Mart strive to satisfy their customers. Grocery shopping is a frequently recurring activity that can provide both utilitarian and hedonic value to customers. Utilitarian value is derived from accomplishing the need that stimulated a particular shopping trip......, whereas hedonic value reflects the potential entertainment and emotional worth associated with the shopping trip. Recognising this duality, in addition to enabling customers to satisfy utilitarian needs related to product-acquisition, grocery retailers increasingly try to offer customers pleasurable...... encounters with that retailer. There are relatively few studies of satisfaction within the grocery retail sector. However, because grocery shopping is a frequently recurring activity that is often routine and task-oriented in nature, and thus dominated by utilitarian rather than hedonic concerns, different...

  15. Analysis of reactor trips originating in balance of plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stetson, F.T.; Gallagher, D.W.; Le, P.T.; Ebert, M.W.

    1990-09-01

    This report documents the results of an analysis of balance-of-plant (BOP) related reactor trips at commercial US nuclear power plants of a 5-year period, from January 1, 1984, through December 31, 1988. The study was performed for the Plant Systems Branch, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of the study were: to improve the level of understanding of BOP-related challenges to safety systems by identifying and categorizing such events; to prepare a computerized data base of BOP-related reactor trip events and use the data base to identify trends and patterns in the population of these events; to investigate the risk implications of BOP events that challenge safety systems; and to provide recommendations on how to address BOP-related concerns in regulatory context. 18 refs., 2 figs., 27 tabs

  16. Treatment planning for heavy ion radiotherapy: calculation and optimization of biologically effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, M.; Scholz, M.

    2000-09-01

    We describe a novel approach to treatment planning for heavy ion radiotherapy based on the local effect model (LEM) which allows to calculate the biologically effective dose not only for the target region but for the entire irradiation volume. LEM is ideally suited to be used as an integral part of treatment planning code systems for active dose shaping devices like the GSI raster scan system. Thus, it has been incorporated into our standard treatment planning system for ion therapy (TRiP). Single intensity modulated fields can be optimized with respect to homogeneous biologically effective dose. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is calculated separately for each voxel of the patient CT. Our radiobiologically oriented code system is in use since 1995 for the planning of irradiation experiments with cell cultures and animals such as rats and minipigs. Since 1997 it is in regular and successful use for patient treatment planning. (orig.)

  17. Babcock and Wilcox Owners' Group program: Trip reduction and transient response improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, W.T.; Mercado, A.L.; Ganthner, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985, the average trip frequency for the industry was 4.3 trips per plant per year while Babcock ampersand Wilcox (B ampersand W)-designed plants had 4.5 trips. In early 1986, the B ampersand W Owners' Group (B ampersand WOG) established goals to reduce trip frequency and improve posttrip transient response. Through the recommendations of the B ampersand WOG Trip Reduction and Transient Response Improvement Program (TR/TRIP) and other utility initiatives, the trip frequency for the B ampersand WOG plants has been on a progressive downward trend and has been consistently below the industry average since 1986. The successful results in trip reduction for the B ampersand WOG plants are shown. The B ampersand WOG has implemented several programs that have resulted in fewer trips per plant. This success can be attributed to the following: (1) a comprehensive program to evaluate each trip and transient for root-cause determination, define corrective actions, share information, and peer reviews; (2) a broad program to review systems and components that contribute to trips and transients, identify specific recommendations to correct deficiencies, utility commitment to implementation, conduct internal monitoring and indirectly exert peer pressure; (3) an awareness of the goals at all levels in the organization coupled with strong executive-level involvement; and (4) timely implementation of recommendations

  18. Thermal and mechanical stability of retained austenite in aluminum-containing multiphase TRIP steels

    CERN Document Server

    Zwaag, S; Kruijver, S O; Sietsma, J

    2002-01-01

    Stability of retained austenite is the key issue to understand transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect. In this work, both thermal stability and mechanical stability are investigated by thermo-magnetic as well as in situ conventional X-ray diffraction and micro synchrotron radiation diffraction measurements. The thermal stability in a 0.20C-1.52Mn-0.25Si-0.96Al (wt%) TRIP steel is studied in the temperature range between 5 and 300 K under a constant magnetic field of 5T. It is found that almost all austenite transforms thermally to martensite upon cooling to 5K and M sub s and M sub f temperatures are analyzed to be 355 and 115 K. Transformation kinetics on the fraction versus temperature relation are well described by a model based on thermodynamics. From the in situ conventional X-ray and synchrotron diffraction measurements in a 0.17C-1.46Mn-0.26Si-1.81Al (wt%) steel, the volume fraction of retained austenite is found to decrease as the strain increases according to Ludwigson and Berger relation. T...

  19. Medial septum lesions disrupt exploratory trip organization: evidence for septohippocampal involvement in dead reckoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Megan M; Horn, Katharine L; Kusman, Kelly J; Wallace, Douglas G

    2007-02-28

    Rats organize their open field behavior into a series of exploratory trips focused around a central location or home base. In addition, differences in movement kinematics have been used to fractionate the exploratory trip into tour (i.e., sequences of linear movement or progressions punctuated by stops) and homeward (i.e., single progression direct to the home base) segments. The observation of these characteristics independent of environmental familiarity and visual cue availability has suggested a role for self-movement information or dead reckoning in organizing exploratory behavior. Although previous work has implicated a role for the septohippocampal system in dead reckoning based navigation, as of yet, no studies have investigated the contribution of the medial septum to dead reckoning. First, the present study examined the organization of exploratory behavior under dark and light conditions in control rats and rats receiving either electrolytic or sham medial septum lesions. Medial septum lesions produced a significant increase in homeward segment path circuity and variability of temporal pacing of linear speeds. Second, as an independent assessment of the effectiveness of the medial septum lesions, rats were trained to locate a hidden platform in the standard water maze procedure. Consistent with previous research, medial septum lesions attenuated learning the location of the hidden platform. These results demonstrate a role for the medial septum in organizing exploratory behavior and provide further support for the role of the septohippocampal system in dead reckoning based navigation.

  20. Strain Rate Effect on Tensile Flow Behavior and Anisotropy of a Medium-Manganese TRIP Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alturk, Rakan; Hector, Louis G.; Matthew Enloe, C.; Abu-Farha, Fadi; Brown, Tyson W.

    2018-04-01

    The dependence of the plastic anisotropy on the nominal strain rate for a medium-manganese (10 wt.% Mn) transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel with initial austenite volume fraction of 66% (balance ferrite) has been investigated. The material exhibited yield point elongation, propagative instabilities during hardening, and austenite transformation to α'-martensite either directly or through ɛ-martensite. Uniaxial strain rates within the range of 0.005-500 s-1 along the 0°, 45°, and 90° orientations were selected based upon their relevance to automotive applications. The plastic anisotropy (r) and normal anisotropy (r n) indices corresponding to each direction and strain rate were determined using strain fields obtained from stereo digital image correlation systems that enabled both quasistatic and dynamic measurements. The results provide evidence of significant, orientation-dependent strain rate effects on both the flow stress and the evolution of r and r n with strain. This has implications not only for material performance during forming but also for the development of future strain-rate-dependent anisotropic yield criteria. Since tensile data alone for the subject medium-manganese TRIP steel do not satisfactorily determine the microstructural mechanisms responsible for the macroscopic-scale behavior observed on tensile testing, additional tests that must supplement the mechanical test results presented herein are discussed.

  1. Mission trip to Panama: a glimpse at global poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Cynthia; Chertok, Rachel

    2008-03-01

    Panama is a beautiful country with many disparities. It was estimated in 1995 that 40% of the population lived in poverty. Deaths from cardiovascular disease increased by 2% annually from 1990 to 1994, with hypertension being the leading cause of death for persons aged 60 years or more. I had the opportunity to travel briefly in Panama on a mission trip and found elevated blood pressure to be a major symptom of the clinic participants.

  2. Stability and constitutive modelling in multiphase TRIP steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haidemenopoulos, G.N.; Katsamas, A.I.; Aravas, N. [Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Univ. of Thessaly, Volos (Greece)

    2006-09-15

    Multiphase TRIP steels are a relatively new class of steels exhibiting excellent combinations of strength and cold formability, a fact that renders them particularly attractive for automotive applications. The present work reports models regarding the prediction of the stability of retained austenite, the optimisation of the heat-treatment stages necessary for austenite stabilization in the microstructure, as well as the mechanical behaviour of these steels under deformation. Austenite stability against mechanically-induced transformation to martensite depends on chemical composition, austenite particle size, strength of the matrix and stress state. The stability of retained austenite is characterized by the M{sub s}{sigma} temperature, which can be expressed as a function of the aforementioned parameters by an appropriate model presented in this work. Besides stability, the mechanical behaviour of TRIP steels also depends on the amount of retained austenite present in the microstructure. This amount is determined by the combinations of temperature and temporal duration of the heat-treatment stages undergone by the steel. Maximum amounts of retained austenite require optimisation of the heat-treatment conditions. A physical model is presented in this work, which is based on the interactions between bainite and austenite during the heat-treatment of multiphase TRIP steels, and which allows for the selection of treatment conditions leading to the maximization of retained austenite in the final microstructure. Finally, a constitutive micromechanical model is presented, which describes the mechanical behaviour of multiphase TRIP steels under deformation, taking into account the different plastic behaviour of the individual phases, as well as the evolution of the microstructure itself during plastic deformation. This constitutive micromechanical model is subsequently used for the calculation of forming limit diagrams (FLD) for these complex steels, an issue of great

  3. Trips and the Life Sciences - Perspectives on Limitations to Patentability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wested, Jakob; Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    This report is based on the material and input that was presented and discussed at the webinar with the title: “Perspectives on limitations to patentability”. The Webinar and the theme where introduced by Prof. Timo Minssen. Then Prof. Nari Lee gave a presentation introducing some of the context...... and Minssen, Timo, Trips and the Life Sciences - Perspectives on Limitations to Patentability (June 15, 2017). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2986751...

  4. An Evaluation of the TRIPS Computer System (Extended Technical Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-08

    Kernels 4 transpose (ct), convolution (conv), vector- add ( vadd ), matrix multiply (matrix) VersaBench 3 of 10 bit and stream (fmradio, 802.11a, 8b10b...more extensively hand-optimized four scientific kernels on TRIPS: matrix transpose (ct), convolution (conv), vector add ( vadd ), and matrix multiply...matrix); further, we hand-scheduled matrix and vadd . The most complex benchmarks come from SPEC2000 and include 10 integer and 8 floating-point bench

  5. Marketing a destination: Case of CreateTrips and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Tiainen, Johanna; Korvenpää, Emmi

    2015-01-01

    This thesis concentrates on Finnish people travelling to Mexico. Firstly, the writers conduct a quantitative research, a questionnaire, that studies Finnish people’s thoughts and presumptions about Mexico. Secondly, they create mobile travel guides of four different destinations. The questionnaire concentrates on the people’s point of view, asking what people think about Mexico, on what kind of trip would they go it they travel there, how long it would last and so on. The questionnaire also h...

  6. Effect of diamond trip geometries on boundary layer transition for hypersonic inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Ni, H. L.; Zhang, Z. M.; Yi, M. R.

    2016-10-01

    In order to grasp the effect of diamond trip geometries on boundary layer transition of hypersonic inlet, an experiment at Mach number 6 in a hypersonic wind tunnel was performed for a hypersonic inlet. The heat transfers at the inlet wall were measured through the infrared thermography. The transition region was judged by the comparison of heat transfer between experiment and computation. Ten diamond forced transition trips were designed according to Modern Design of Experiments. The experimental results shown that the effect order of trip geometries on transition region were the trip height, distance between diamond elements and diagonal length of diamond element from the largest to the smallest. Transition region moved forward to the model tip with increasing trip height or trip length, or with decreasing distance between diamond elements, or with increasing diagonal length of element. The optimized configuration was obtained for diamond forced-transition trip when the optimization object was transition region.

  7. Researching the weather impact on trip generation in European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Dragana D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and changes in weather conditions have the impact on the transport system. Changes in weather conditions cause changes in the transport supply, as well as in transport demand. The first researches about weather impact on transport demand in the cities were carried out at the end of the nineties and have been intensified in the last ten years. Most of the researches about weather impact on trip generation were carried out in the countries of Northern Europe. In recent years, researches are also conducted in European countries that have climate conditions and population habits significantly different from northern European countries. This paper presents an overview of the areas in which weather impact on the trip generation was investigated. The most important conclusions of the conducted research are presented and the weather components that have the greatest influence on the trip generation are indicated. Understanding the weather impact on the transport demand is necessary for the implementation of transportation planning procedures in the upcoming climate change conditions.

  8. SnapVideo: Personalized Video Generation for a Sightseeing Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luming; Jing, Peiguang; Su, Yuting; Zhang, Chao; Shaoz, Ling

    2017-11-01

    Leisure tourism is an indispensable activity in urban people's life. Due to the popularity of intelligent mobile devices, a large number of photos and videos are recorded during a trip. Therefore, the ability to vividly and interestingly display these media data is a useful technique. In this paper, we propose SnapVideo, a new method that intelligently converts a personal album describing of a trip into a comprehensive, aesthetically pleasing, and coherent video clip. The proposed framework contains three main components. The scenic spot identification model first personalizes the video clips based on multiple prespecified audience classes. We then search for some auxiliary related videos from YouTube 1 according to the selected photos. To comprehensively describe a scenery, the view generation module clusters the crawled video frames into a number of views. Finally, a probabilistic model is developed to fit the frames from multiple views into an aesthetically pleasing and coherent video clip, which optimally captures the semantics of a sightseeing trip. Extensive user studies demonstrated the competitiveness of our method from an aesthetic point of view. Moreover, quantitative analysis reflects that semantically important spots are well preserved in the final video clip. 1 https://www.youtube.com/.

  9. First Trip Abroad: Expectations, Experiences and Stories of Transnational Romanians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croitoru Alin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes transnational Romanians’ stories about their first trip abroad. The concept of physical mobility is seen in a broader framework for understanding transnational and cosmopolitan behaviours as well as international migration. In order to distinguish between different types of travelling for the first trip abroad the article is constructed keeping in mind the structural changes and constraints regarding physical mobility for Romanian citizens. During the process of transition from a communist country to the status of EU member, Romanian citizens’ stories about travelling abroad for the first time fundamentally changed. Labour migrants, asylum seekers, business travellers, students or tourists left the countries with different expectations and faced different problems at destination. Their attitudes toward origin and destination framed their images about the first trip abroad. Using a qualitative approach and samples of Romanians who live in Denmark, Germany, Italy, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom, the analysis emphasizes certain differences between different types of travelling for the first time abroad and reconstructs how Romanians started their transnational careers

  10. State-of-the-art technologies, current opinions and developments, and novel findings: news from the field of histochemistry and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Esther; Drenckhahn, Detlev

    2008-12-01

    Investigations of cell and tissue structure and function using innovative methods and approaches have again yielded numerous exciting findings in recent months and have added important data to current knowledge, inspiring new ideas and hypotheses in various fields of modern life sciences. Topics and contents of comprehensive expert reviews covering different aspects in methodological advances, cell biology, tissue function and morphology, and novel findings reported in original papers are summarized in the present review.

  11. Parks, Trees, and Environmental Justice: Field Notes from Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Geoffrey L.; Whitmer, Ali; Grove, J. Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Students enrolled in a graduate seminar benefited in multiple ways from an intensive 3-day field trip to Washington, DC. Constructed around the theme of environmental justice, the trip gave students a chance to learn about street tree distribution, park quality, and racial segregation "up close." Working with personnel from the United…

  12. Isolasi, Identifikasi, Sifat Fisik, dan Biologi Virus Tetelo yang Diisolasi dari Kasus di Lapangan (ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION, PHISICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTER OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS ISOLATED FROM FIELD CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Haryadi Wibowo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available native chicken farm suspected to Newcastle disease (ND virus infection. Specimens were taken andcollected from the lung was further processed. Suspected materials were inoculated into allantoic sacc inspecific pathogenic free of 10 days embryonating egg chicken. The growth of the virus was determined withthe ability to agglutinate the chicken red blood cells or hemaglutination test. Positive hemaglutinationwas performed with hemaglutinatin inhibition test using specific antibody against ND virus. Method forND virus isolation, propagation and identification were based on the standard procedure of serologicalidentification for ND virus serological identification. 13 out of 34 samples were identified as ND viruses.Observation on the course and time of the virus to kill the chicken embryo could be differentiated intomoderate virus patho-type were 10 isolates and a virulent strains were 3 isolates. Further characterizationbased on the elution time observation indicated 11 isolates were not pathogenic strain and 2 isolates werenot virulent strain. Hemagglutinin stability study revealed that 11 isolates were sensitive being heated at560C for 30 minutes while 2 isolates were resistant. Biological characteristic of ND virus to hemagglutinateon various mammalian red blood cells indicating that most isolates were HA negative. Two isolates wereHA positive with cattle, horse and sheep red blood cell, and one isolate indicated positive HA test by usingsheep red blood cell. Control virus was lentogenic patho-type of La Sota strain showed HA and HI testpositive, elution time was 29 minutes, stability on the hemagglutinin after heating was 2 minutes and HApositive with cattle, horse and sheep red blood cell.

  13. Soaring antiretroviral prices, TRIPS and TRIPS flexibilities: a burning issue for antiretroviral treatment scale-up in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Fabienne; d'almeida, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    The achievement of significant reductions in the price of antiretroviral drugs constitutes one of the main economic pillars of antiretroviral treatment scale-up in developing countries. Today this economic pillar is threatened. The prohibitive prices of newer first-line and second-line regimens have created a watershed in relation to the prices of earlier first-line treatments. These price increases are closely related to the World Trade Organization's Agreement on the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) that imposes an important barrier to generic competition. Intellectual property flexibilities foreseen by the TRIPS agreement allow the manufacture and supply of affordable generic versions of new generations of antiretroviral under certain conditions. However, the capacity to supply a specified list of generics under such conditions is tight and the utilization of such flexibilities in their current form remains complex and unattractive. The TRIPS agreement currently constitutes a significant barrier to providing access to new antiretroviral at affordable prices in developing countries. If the debate on initiatives for increased flexibility of intellectual property rights does not become more extensive or obtain the overwhelming support of the international community, serious consequences are to be expected in terms of the fight against AIDS in most of the developing countries.

  14. Observing Trip Chain Characteristics of Round-Trip Carsharing Users in China: A Case Study Based on GPS Data in Hangzhou City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Hui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Carsharing as a means to provide individuals with access to automobiles to complete a personal trip has grown significantly in recent years in China. However, there are few case studies based on operational data to show the role carsharing systems play in citizens’ daily trips. In this study, vehicle GPS data of a round-trip carsharing system in Hangzhou, China was used to describe the trip chain characteristics of users. For clearer delineation of carshare usage, the car use time length of all observations chosen in the study was within 24 h or less. Through data preprocessing, a large pool (26,085 of valid behavior samples was obtained, and several trip chaining attributes were selected to describe the characteristics. The pool of observations was then classified into five clusters, with each cluster having significant differences in one or two trip chain characteristics. The cluster results reflected that different use patterns exist. By a comparative analysis with trip survey data in Hangzhou, differences in trip chain characteristics exist between carsharing and private cars, but in some cases, shared vehicles can be a substitute for private cars to satisfy motorized travel. The proposed method could facilitate companies in formulating a flexible pricing strategy and determining target customers. In addition, traffic administration agencies could have a deeper understanding of the position and function of various carsharing modes in an urban transportation system.

  15. Optimizing the service area and trip selection of an electric automated taxi system used for the last mile of train trips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, X.; Homem de Almeida Correia, G.; van Arem, B.

    2016-01-01

    We propose two integer programming models for optimizing an automated taxi (AT) system for last mile of train trips. Model S1: trip reservations are accepted or rejected by the operator according to the profit maximization; model S2: any reservation on a selected zone by the model must be

  16. Electrical and Thermal Modulation of Protein Synthesis in Cartilage: A Model for Field Effects on Biological Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-15

    Science, 178:982. [11] Bassett, C.A.L., (1984), The Development and Application of Pulsed Elec- tromagnetic Fields ( PEMFs ) for Ununited Fractures...Electro- magnetic Fields ( PEMFs ) on Cell Migration and Morphology, BEMS Seventh Annual Meeting, June 16-20, San Francisio, CA. [13] Bates, G.P., Schor

  17. Evaluating anaerobic soil disinfestation and other biological soil management methods for open-field tomato production in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD), amending the soil with composted poultry litter (CPL) and molasses (M), has been shown to be a potential alternative to chemical soil fumigation for tomato production, however, optimization of ASD and the use of other biologically-based soil management practices ...

  18. Interaction between the biological effects of high- and low-LET radiation dose components in a mixed field exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mason, Anna J.; Giusti, Valerio; Green, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The relative biological effectiveness of two epithermal neutron sources, a reactor based source at Studsvik, Sweden, and a proton accelerator-based source in Birmingham, UK, was studied in relation to the proportional absorbed dose distribution as a function of neutron energy. Evidence for any in...

  19. 77 FR 46373 - Field Release of Aphelinus glycinis for the Biological Control of the Soybean Aphid in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... of the Soybean Aphid in the Continental United States; Availability of an Environmental Assessment... for the biological control of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, in the continental United States. We... INFORMATION: Background The soybean aphid, Aphis glycinis, which is native to Asia, was found in North America...

  20. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  1. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  2. How combined trip purposes are associated with transport choice for short distance trips. Results from a cross-sectional study in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Scheepers

    Full Text Available One way to increase physical activity is to stimulate a shift from car use to walking or cycling. In single-purpose trips, purpose was found to be an important predictor of transport choice. However, as far as known, no studies have been conducted to see how trips with combined purposes affect this decision. This study was designed to provide insight into associations between combined purposes and transport choice.An online questionnaire (N = 3,663 was used to collect data concerning transport choice for four primary purposes: shopping, going to public natural spaces, sports, and commuting. Per combination of primary trip purpose and transport choice, participants were asked to give examples of secondary purposes that they combine with the primary purpose. Logistic regression analyses were used to model the odds of both cycling and walking versus car use.Primary trip purposes combined with commuting, shopping, visiting private contacts or medical care were more likely to be made by car than by cycling or walking. Combinations with visiting catering facilities, trips to social infrastructure facilities, recreational outings, trips to facilities for the provision of daily requirements or private contacts during the trip were more likely to be made by walking and/or cycling than by car.Combined trip purposes were found to be associated with transport choice. When stimulating active transport focus should be on the combined-trip purposes which were more likely to be made by car, namely trips combined with commuting, other shopping, visiting private contacts or medical care.

  3. Neural network design with combined backpropagation and creeping random search learning algorithms applied to the determination of retained austenite in TRIP steels; Diseno de redes neuronales con aprendizaje combinado de retropropagacion y busqueda aleatoria progresiva aplicado a la determinacion de austenita retenida en aceros TRIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda-Caraballo, I.; Garcia-Mateo, C.; Capdevila, C.

    2010-07-01

    At the beginning of the decade of the nineties, the industrial interest for TRIP steels leads to a significant increase of the investigation and application in this field. In this work, the flexibility of neural networks for the modelling of complex properties is used to tackle the problem of determining the retained austenite content in TRIP-steel. Applying a combination of two learning algorithms (backpropagation and creeping-random-search) for the neural network, a model has been created that enables the prediction of retained austenite in low-Si / low-Al multiphase steels as a function of processing parameters. (Author). 34 refs.

  4. Trombay programmable logic controller - 32 (TPLC-32) based reactor trip logic system (RTLS) for absolute trips (ATs) and conditional trips (CTs) of Dhruva research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramkumar, N.; Punekar, P.A.; Patel, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    The Control and Instrumentation (C and I) Systems of Dhruva Research Reactor were designed in late seventies and are facing not only obsolescence but have limited diagnostic features. Since the expected life of C and I systems is typically twenty years, it was considered appropriate to upgrade some of the major systems including Reactor Trip Logic System (RTLS). The RTLS for ATs and CTs for Dhruva is first PLC based (TPLC-32) Safety Class IA system to be deployed in any Indian Nuclear Reactor. The entire cycle involved conceptualization of system, making system requirement specifications, detailing the concept, design, fabrication, creation of test setup, system testing, validation of system performance, preparation of various documents for the regulatory safety clearances, installation and commissioning of the systems. The paper provides an insight on system design of RTLS for ATs and CTs, its important and innovative features, the testing carried on the system and installation and commissioning experience

  5. Biological control of golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata by Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis in the wild rice, Zizania latifolia field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengzhang Dong

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The wild rice, Zizania latifolia Turcz, used to be one of the important aquatic vegetables cultivated in China. Recently, the golden apple snail - GAS (Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck was found to be a major invasive pest attacking Z. latifolia. To control efficiently GAS, predation by the Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis on GAS was evaluated in laboratory and field trials. P. sinensis had a strong predatory capacity and selectivity for GAS both in laboratory and field conditions. All the sizes of P. sinensis prefer to capture smaller snails. The optimum number of P. sinensis released in Z. latifolia field was dependent on the density of over-wintered GAS, and varied between 30 and 50 turtles per 666.7 m². The number of GAS declined in the fields with turtles as compared to turtle-free field. A pattern of releasing P. sinensis in Z. latifolia fields was developed and widely adopted by farmers because of much more benefit besides biologically controlling GAS.

  6. Multiscale mechanics of TRIP-assisted multiphase steels: II. Micromechanical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lani, F.; Furnemont, Q.; Van Rompaey, T.; Delannay, F.; Jacques, P.J.; Pardoen, T.

    2007-01-01

    The stress and strain partitioning between the different phases of transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP)-aided multiphase steels is evaluated using a mean field homogenization approach. The change of the austenite volume fraction under straining is predicted using a micromechanics-based criterion for the martensitic transformation adapted to the case of small, isolated, transforming austenite grains. The parameters of the model are identified from the mechanical response and transformation kinetics measured under uniaxial tension for two steels differing essentially by the austenite stability. The model is validated by comparing the predictions with tests performed under different loading conditions: pure shear, intermediate biaxial and equibiaxial. An analysis of the effect of the austenite stability on strength and ductility provides guidelines for optimizing properties according to the stress state

  7. Evaluation of Immunoassays and General Biological Indicator Tests for Field Screening of Bacillus anthracis and Ricin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Arce, Jennifer S.; Engelmann, Heather E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Hofstad, Beth A.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Jarman, Kristin; Melville, Angela M.; Victry, Kristin D.; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this testing was to evaluate the ability of currently available commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) biological indicator tests and immunoassays to detect Bacillus anthracis (Ba) spores and ricin. In general, immunoassays provide more specific identification of biological threats as compared to indicator tests [3]. Many of these detection products are widely used by first responders and other end users. In most cases, performance data for these instruments are supplied directly from the manufacturer, but have not been verified by an external, independent assessment [1]. Our test plan modules included assessments of inclusivity (ability to generate true positive results), commonly encountered hoax powders (which can cause potential interferences or false positives), and estimation of limit of detection (LOD) (sensitivity) testing.

  8. Field application of the Numobag as a portable disposable isolation unit and for treating chemical, radiological or biologically induced wounds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Keith A.; Felton, Robert; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Numotech Inc. has developed the Numobag{trademark}, a disposable, lightweight, wound healing device which produces Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT). The Numobag{trademark} is cost effective and has been clinically validated to heal large skin lesions rapidly and has proven to arrest wound advancement from several insidious forms of biological attack including dermal anthrax, small pox, necrotizing fasciitis etc. The Numobag{trademark} can treat mass casualties wounded by chemical/radiological burns or damaging biological exposures. The Numobag{trademark} can be a frontline tool as an isolation unit, reducing cross-contamination and infection of medical personnel. The heightened oxygen content kills organisms on the skin and in the wound, avoids expensive hospital trash disposal procedures, and helps the flesh heal. The Numobag{trademark} requires high purity oxygen. Numotech Inc. is teaming with Sandia National Laboratories and Spektr Conversion in Russia to develop a cost effective, portable, low power oxygen generator.

  9. Comprehensive biological effects of a complex field poly-metallic pollution gradient on the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, M; Buronfosse, T; Geffard, O; Coquery, M; Mons, R; Abbaci, K; Giamberini, L; Garric, J

    2011-01-17

    The Lot River is known to be contaminated by metals, mainly cadmium and zinc, due to a former Zn ore treatment plant in the watershed of the Riou-Mort, a tributary of the Lot River. Many studies have been performed to characterize contamination, but few have assessed its consequences on the biological responses of organisms along the gradient. We exposed adult and juvenile New Zealand freshwater mudsnails Potamopyrgus antipodarum at several sites along the gradient of metal contamination for 28 days. Biological responses were monitored at different levels: individual (survival, growth and fecundity), tissue and biochemical (energy status and vertebrate-like sex steroid levels) to better understand the toxicity mechanisms involved. Accumulation of Cd and Zn was high during exposure. Most of the biological effects observed could be linked to this contamination and were concentration-dependent. Histological lesions of the digestive gland were observed, with hypertrophy of calcium cells and vacuolization of digestive cells. Such effects are likely to explain the decrease of energy status (triglycerides and proteins), juvenile growth and adult fecundity observed at the most polluted site. However the magnitude of the fall in fecundity cannot be attributed only to these tissular effects, indicating another mode of action of Cd or possible confounding factors. Steroid accumulation in snails indicated only organic pollution. Histopathological effects proved the most sensitive endpoint to metal (Cd and Zn) contamination. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of nuclear power plant stability. Trip criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beato Castro, D.; Iturbe Uriarte, R.; Wilhelmi Ayza, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The influence that nuclear power plants and high voltage power systems have on each other when confronted by disturbances in the offsite network may lead, due to dynamic effects, to plant trip. It is therefore necessary to study the disturbances in the network and the effects on plant equipment by means of dynamic simulations which evaluate the unit protection system and the auxiliary services so as to obtain maximum unit availability without jeopardizing its safety. These studies can be conducted since there are models and software tools capable of simulating dynamic behaviour of the electric system, including the excitation systems and specific speed governors obtainment of valid. (author)

  11. Activity time budget during foraging trips of emperor penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinichi; Sato, Katsufumi; Ponganis, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    We developed an automated method using depth and one axis of body acceleration data recorded by animal-borne data loggers to identify activities of penguins over long-term deployments. Using this technique, we evaluated the activity time budget of emperor penguins (n = 10) both in water and on sea ice during foraging trips in chick-rearing season. During the foraging trips, emperor penguins alternated dive bouts (4.8 ± 4.5 h) and rest periods on sea ice (2.5 ± 2.3 h). After recorder deployment and release near the colony, the birds spent 17.9 ± 8.4% of their time traveling until they reached the ice edge. Once at the ice edge, they stayed there more than 4 hours before the first dive. After the first dive, the mean proportions of time spent on the ice and in water were 30.8 ± 7.4% and 69.2 ± 7.4%, respectively. When in the water, they spent 67.9 ± 3.1% of time making dives deeper than 5 m. Dive activity had no typical diurnal pattern for individual birds. While in the water between dives, the birds had short resting periods (1.2 ± 1.7 min) and periods of swimming at depths shallower than 5 m (0.25 ± 0.38 min). When the birds were on the ice, they primarily used time for resting (90.3 ± 4.1% of time) and spent only 9.7 ± 4.1% of time traveling. Thus, it appears that, during foraging trips at sea, emperor penguins traveled during dives >5 m depth, and that sea ice was primarily used for resting. Sea ice probably provides refuge from natural predators such as leopard seals. We also suggest that 24 hours of sunlight and the cycling of dive bouts with short rest periods on sea ice allow emperor penguins to dive continuously throughout the day during foraging trips to sea.

  12. Highly Scalable Trip Grouping for Large Scale Collective Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Risch, Tore

    2008-01-01

    Transportation-related problems, like road congestion, parking, and pollution, are increasing in most cities. In order to reduce traffic, recent work has proposed methods for vehicle sharing, for example for sharing cabs by grouping "closeby" cab requests and thus minimizing transportation cost...... and utilizing cab space. However, the methods published so far do not scale to large data volumes, which is necessary to facilitate large-scale collective transportation systems, e.g., ride-sharing systems for large cities. This paper presents highly scalable trip grouping algorithms, which generalize previous...

  13. WTO approves TRIPS amendment on importing under compulsory licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herget, Greg

    2006-04-01

    On 6 December 2005, the World Trade Organization (WTO) amended the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement to allow WTO member states to produce, under compulsory licences, lower-cost generic pharmaceutical products for export to countries that lack domestic production capacity to make such products. The amendment makes permanent the previous decision of 30 August 2003, which has not yet proven to be an effective mechanism to encourage the supply of more affordable medicines and other pharmaceutical products to countries in need.

  14. Activity time budget during foraging trips of emperor penguins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Watanabe

    Full Text Available We developed an automated method using depth and one axis of body acceleration data recorded by animal-borne data loggers to identify activities of penguins over long-term deployments. Using this technique, we evaluated the activity time budget of emperor penguins (n = 10 both in water and on sea ice during foraging trips in chick-rearing season. During the foraging trips, emperor penguins alternated dive bouts (4.8 ± 4.5 h and rest periods on sea ice (2.5 ± 2.3 h. After recorder deployment and release near the colony, the birds spent 17.9 ± 8.4% of their time traveling until they reached the ice edge. Once at the ice edge, they stayed there more than 4 hours before the first dive. After the first dive, the mean proportions of time spent on the ice and in water were 30.8 ± 7.4% and 69.2 ± 7.4%, respectively. When in the water, they spent 67.9 ± 3.1% of time making dives deeper than 5 m. Dive activity had no typical diurnal pattern for individual birds. While in the water between dives, the birds had short resting periods (1.2 ± 1.7 min and periods of swimming at depths shallower than 5 m (0.25 ± 0.38 min. When the birds were on the ice, they primarily used time for resting (90.3 ± 4.1% of time and spent only 9.7 ± 4.1% of time traveling. Thus, it appears that, during foraging trips at sea, emperor penguins traveled during dives >5 m depth, and that sea ice was primarily used for resting. Sea ice probably provides refuge from natural predators such as leopard seals. We also suggest that 24 hours of sunlight and the cycling of dive bouts with short rest periods on sea ice allow emperor penguins to dive continuously throughout the day during foraging trips to sea.

  15. Trip optimization system and method for a train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajith Kuttannair; Shaffer, Glenn Robert; Houpt, Paul Kenneth; Movsichoff, Bernardo Adrian; Chan, David So Keung

    2017-08-15

    A system for operating a train having one or more locomotive consists with each locomotive consist comprising one or more locomotives, the system including a locator element to determine a location of the train, a track characterization element to provide information about a track, a sensor for measuring an operating condition of the locomotive consist, a processor operable to receive information from the locator element, the track characterizing element, and the sensor, and an algorithm embodied within the processor having access to the information to create a trip plan that optimizes performance of the locomotive consist in accordance with one or more operational criteria for the train.

  16. Biological effects of power line fields: New York State Power Lines Project Scientific Advisory Panel: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlbom, A.; Albert, E.N.; Fraser-Smith, A.C.; Grodzinsky, A.J.; Marron, M.T.; Martin, A.O.; Persinger, M.A.; Shelanski, M.L.; Wolpow, E.R.

    1987-07-01

    The New York State Power Lines Project was established to conduct research and to review the scientific literature to determine whether health hazards of electric and magnetic fields are possible. Particular attention was directed to the fields generated by 765-kV overhead transmission lines. The research program provided support to 16 research groups studying human, animal and isolated cell sensitivity to electric and magnetic fields. No effects were found on reproduction, growth or development. Several studies showed no evidence of genetic or chromosomal damage that might lead to inherited effects or cause cancer. While most measurements of behavior and brain function did not demonstrate changes, some did show changes that were small but consistent. Some of these appear to result from changes in body rhythms, and might interfere with normal sleep patterns. There were also changes in pain responses and in the ability of rats to learn. A more serious concern comes from a study of cancer in children suggesting that children with leukemia and brain cancer are more likely to live in homes where there are elevated 60-Hz magnetic field levels. Although much more research is needed before the question whether the magnetic fields actually cause or promote cancer can be resolved, the basis for such an hypothesis is now established. 159 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Out-of-plane trunk movements and trunk muscle activity after a trip during walking

    OpenAIRE

    van der Burg, J.C.E.; Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Tripping during gait occurs frequently. A successful balance recovery implies that the forward body rotation is sufficiently reduced. In view of this, adequate control of the trunk momentum is important, as the trunk has a high inertia. The aim of this study was to establish out-of-plane trunk movements after a trip and to determine trunk muscle responses. Ten male volunteers repeatedly walked over a platform in which 21 obstacles were hidden. Each subject was tripped over one of these obstac...

  18. Trip time prediction in mass transit companies. A machine learning approach

    OpenAIRE

    João M. Moreira; Alípio Jorge; Jorge Freire de Sousa; Carlos Soares

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how trip time prediction can be useful foroperational optimization in mass transit companies and which machine learningtechniques can be used to improve results. Firstly, we analyze which departmentsneed trip time prediction and when. Secondly, we review related work and thirdlywe present the analysis of trip time over a particular path. We proceed by presentingexperimental results conducted on real data with the forecasting techniques wefound most adequate, and concl...

  19. Tripping Elicits Earlier and Larger Deviations in Linear Head Acceleration Compared to Slipping

    OpenAIRE

    Arena, Sara L.; Davis, Julian L.; Grant, J. Wallace; Madigan, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Slipping and tripping contribute to a large number of falls and fall-related injuries. While the vestibular system is known to contribute to balance and fall prevention, it is unclear whether it contributes to detecting slip or trip onset. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of slipping and tripping on head acceleration during walking. This information would help determine whether individuals with vestibular dysfunction are likely to be at a greater risk of fal...

  20. Two-point Stokes vector parameters of object field for diagnosis and differentiation of optically anisotropic biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubolazov, O. V.; Trifonyuk, L.; Marchuk, Yu.; Ushenko, Yu. O.; Zhytaryuk, V. G.; Prydiy, O. G.; Kushnerik, L.; Meglinskiy, I.

    2017-08-01

    A new method of Stokes correlometry of polarization-inhomogeneous images of biological layers is presented. Analytic relations are determined for the modulus of complex parameters of the Stokes vector. A technique for measuring the coordinate distributions of the magnitude of the two-point modulus of the Stokes vector is proposed. Objective criteria for differentiating the optical anisotropy of polycrystalline urine films of healthy donors and patients with albuminuria have been found. An excellent level of balanced accuracy of differential diagnostics has been achieved.

  1. A Novel Trip Coverage Index for Transit Accessibility Assessment Using Mobile Phone Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Cai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transit accessibility is an important measure on the service performance of transit systems. To assess whether the public transit service is well accessible for trips of specific origins, destinations, and origin-destination (OD pairs, a novel measure, the Trip Coverage Index (TCI, is proposed in this paper. TCI considers both the transit trip coverage and spatial distribution of individual travel demands. Massive trips between cellular base stations are estimated by using over four-million mobile phone users. An easy-to-implement method is also developed to extract the transit information and driving routes for millions of requests. Then the trip coverage of each OD pair is calculated. For demonstrative purposes, TCI is applied to the transit network of Hangzhou, China. The results show that TCI represents the better transit trip coverage and provides a more powerful assessment tool of transit quality of service. Since the calculation is based on trips of all modes, but not only the transit trips, TCI offers an overall accessibility for the transit system performance. It enables decision makers to assess transit accessibility in a finer-grained manner on the individual trip level and can be well transformed to measure transit services of other cities.

  2. Organisation of biological research carried out in the United States by the A.E.C. or under her contract (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellerin, J.

    1960-01-01

    This report is based on information gathered in the course of a trip to the United States, in November and December 1958 which consisted chiefly of visits to the main biological and medical research laboratories and discussions with the heads of these establishments. A description is given of the general organisation of the Atomic Energy Commission's Division of Biology and Medicine, and of the distribution of responsibility for radiation protection work and for biological, medical and agricultural research amongst the various Services attached to it; this is followed by a more detailed account of the activities carried on in this field at the great national laboratories. Finally, the systems of collaboration set up with external research organisations in the form of research contracts are examined, together with the substantial help provided by the A.E.C. for biological, medical and agricultural research in general, owing to a systematic policy of subsidising the distribution of radioisotopes for this purpose. (author) [fr

  3. Flow characteristics and exchange in complex biological systems as observed by pulsed-field-gradient magnetic-resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, N.; Venne, B.B.; As, van H.

    2010-01-01

    Water flow through model porous media was studied in the presence of surface relaxation, internal magnetic field inhomogeneities and exchange with stagnant water pools with different relaxation behavior, demonstrating how the apparent flow parameters average velocity, volume flow and flow conducting

  4. 3D deformation field in growing plant roots reveals both mechanical and biological responses to axial mechanical forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizet, François; Bengough, A Glyn; Hummel, Irène; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice; Dupuy, Lionel X

    2016-10-01

    Strong regions and physical barriers in soils may slow root elongation, leading to reduced water and nutrient uptake and decreased yield. In this study, the biomechanical responses of roots to axial mechanical forces were assessed by combining 3D live imaging, kinematics and a novel mechanical sensor. This system quantified Young's elastic modulus of intact poplar roots (32MPa), a rapid 3D. Measured critical elongation force was accurately predicted from an Euler buckling model, indicating that no biologically mediated accommodation to mechanical forces influenced bending during this short period of time. Force applied by growing roots increased more than 15-fold when buckling was prevented by lateral bracing of the root. The junction between the growing and the mature zones was identified as a zone of mechanical weakness that seemed critical to the bending process. This work identified key limiting factors for root growth and buckling under mechanical constraints. The findings are relevant to crop and soil sciences, and advance our understanding of root growth in heterogeneous structured soils. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Reproductive biology of the greater bandicoot rat Bandicota indica (Rodentia: Muridae in the rice fields of southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. THITIPRAMOTE

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated some aspects of the reproductive biology of male and female greater bandicoot rats Bandicota indica in southern Thailand from September 2004 to September 2006. In females, body, uterine and preputial gland weights, occurrences of pregnancies and placental scars, and in males, testicular weights and histology, and sizes of accessory sex glands, were recorded. Pregnancies occurred predominantly, but not exclusively, in the wet season, with a higher incidence pregnancies in the second, than in the first, dry season. Uterine and preputial gland weights tended to be lower in the first, but not the second dry season, with placental scars occurring at all times of year. Males tended to have heavier testes in the wet season but some seminiferous tubules contained sperm even in the dry season. Seminal vesicles, but not prostates and preputial glands, tended to be heavier in animals in the wet season. We conclude that the greater bandicoot rat in southern Thailand shows maximal reproductive activity in the wet season with some reproductive activity, albeit variable from year to year, occurring in the dry season depending upon environmental conditions. This study has also shown that females, as well as males, have large preputial glands, and that males invariably have small testes regardless of the time of year. These observations suggest a similar timing of reproduction, but a different breeding biology and perhaps social organisation, from that of the sympatric ricefield rat, Rattus argentiventer [Current Zoology 55(1: 48–55, 2009].

  6. Reducing Carbon Emissions from Shopping Trips: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With rising income and the emergence of modern shopping centers in urban China, shopping trips by private car becomes more and more common, leading to higher carbon emissions in the transport sector. Encouraging car owners to shift transport mode from private car to public transport could achieve significant emissions reductions. This study estimate carbon emissions savings by shifting from private cars to public transport for shopping trips in urban China, using Shenyang, one of the largest cities in China, as a case study. Our results show that the average carbon emissions per shopper is 426.9 g, and the carbon emissions on weekends is 13% higher than weekdays. Moreover, shoppers travelling by private car emitted five times more carbon emission than those by public transport. We also found that car ownership gradually increased as accessibility to public transport decreased, and that more car owners chose to travel by private cars than public transport in areas with limited access. This study, thus, highlights the potential for high-quality public transport to reduce the transport sector’s carbon emissions in urban China.

  7. Pure intelligent monitoring system for steam economizer trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim Ismail Firas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam economizer represents one of the main equipment in the power plant. Some steam economizer's behavior lead to failure and shutdown in the entire power plant. This will lead to increase in operating and maintenance cost. By detecting the cause in the early stages maintain normal and safe operational conditions of power plant. However, these methodologies are hard to be achieved due to certain boundaries such as system learning ability and the weakness of the system beyond its domain of expertise. The best solution for these problems, an intelligent modeling system specialized in steam economizer trips have been proposed and coded within MATLAB environment to be as a potential solution to insure a fault detection and diagnosis system (FDD. An integrated plant data preparation framework for 10 trips was studied as framework variables. The most influential operational variables have been trained and validated by adopting Artificial Neural Network (ANN. The Extreme Learning Machine (ELM neural network methodology has been proposed as a major computational intelligent tool in the system. It is shown that ANN can be implemented for monitoring any process faults in thermal power plants. Better speed of learning algorithms by using the Extreme Learning Machine has been approved as well.

  8. Transforming the radiological interpretation process: the SCAR TRIP initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Katherine P.; Morin, Richard L.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Carrino, John A.; Erickson, Bradley J.; Horii, Steven C.; Piraino, David W.; Reiner, Bruce I.; Seibert, James A.; Siegel, Eliot L.

    2004-04-01

    The Society for Computer Applications in Radiology (SCAR) Transforming the Radiological Interpretation Process (TRIP) Initiative aims to spearhead research, education, and discovery of innovative solutions to address the problem of information and image data overload. The initiative will foster inter-disciplinary research on technological, environmental and human factors to better manage and exploit the massive amounts of data. TRIP will focus on the following basic objectives: improving the efficiency of interpretation of large data sets, improving the timeliness and effectiveness of communication, and decreasing medical errors. The ultimate goal of the initiative is to improve the quality and safety of patient care. Interdisciplinary research into several broad areas will be necessary to make progress in managing the ever-increasing volume of data. The six concepts involved include: human perception, image processing and computer-aided detection (CAD), visualization, navigation and usability, databases and integration, and evaluation and validation of methods and performance. The result of this transformation will affect several key processes in radiology, including image interpretation; communication of imaging results; workflow and efficiency within the health care enterprise; diagnostic accuracy and a reduction in medical errors; and, ultimately, the overall quality of care.

  9. Dose calculation in biological samples in a mixed neutron-gamma field at the TRIGA reactor of the University of Mainz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitz, T.; Blaickner, M.; Schütz, C.

    2010-01-01

    biological effectiveness (RBE) of liver and cancer cells in our mixed neutron and gamma field. We work with alanine detectors in combination with Monte Carlo simulations, where we can measure and characterize the dose. To verify our calculations we perform neutron flux measurements using gold foil activation...... and pin-diodes. Material and methods. When L-α-alanine is irradiated with ionizing radiation, it forms a stable radical which can be detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The value of the ESR signal correlates to the amount of absorbed dose. The dose for each pellet is calculated using...... of the mixed neutron and gamma field of the TRIGA Mainz is possible in order to characterize the neutron behavior in the thermal column. Currently we also speculate on sensitizing alanine to thermal neutrons by adding boron compounds....

  10. Long-term and real-time monitoring of chondrocyte behavior synthesizing extracellular matrix with biologically coupled field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Hiroto; Saito, Akiko; Mizuno, Shuichi; Kajisa, Taira; Sakata, Toshiya

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we report the differential measurement method of accurately monitoring cellular metabolism with a semiconductor-based field effect transistor (FET), focusing on the proliferation potency of chondrocytes utilized in the field of orthopedics. By adding growth factors to chondrocytes on the gate, cellular activity was induced and continuously monitored as a change in pH during a cellular respiration for ten days using the FET biosensor. Moreover, the electrical signal of the FET device reflected the reproduction property of chondrocytes to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM). A platform based on the FET device is suitable as a noninvasive, real-time and long-term monitoring system for cellular functions; it will contribute to the elucidation of the mechanism of ECM synthesis by chondrocytes.

  11. Open-field host specificity test of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandolfo, D.; McKay, F.; Medal, J.C.; Cuda, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    An open-field experiment was conducted to assess the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and a S. viarum control plot was established 40 km from the campus. One hundred adult beetles were released in each plot at the beginning of the experiment during the vegetative stage of the plants, and forty additional beetles were released in the S. melongena plot at the flowering stage. All the plants in each plot were checked twice a week and the number of adults, immatures, and eggs recorded. Results showed almost a complete rejection of eggplant by G. boliviana. No noticeable feeding damage was ever recorded on eggplant. The experiment was ended when the eggplants started to senesce or were severely damaged by whiteflies and spider mites. The results of this open-field experiment corroborate previous quarantine/laboratory host-specificity tests indicating that a host range expansion of G. boliviana to include eggplant is highly unlikely. Gratiana boliviana was approved for field release in May 2003 in the USA. To date, no non-target effects have been observed either on eggplant or native species of Solanum. (author) [es

  12. Physical and biological factors determining the effective proton range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grün, Rebecca; Friedrich, Thomas; Krämer, Michael; Scholz, Michael; Zink, Klemens; Durante, Marco; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Proton radiotherapy is rapidly becoming a standard treatment option for cancer. However, even though experimental data show an increase of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) with depth, particularly at the distal end of the treatment field, a generic RBE of 1.1 is currently used in proton radiotherapy. This discrepancy might affect the effective penetration depth of the proton beam and thus the dose to the surrounding tissue and organs at risk. The purpose of this study was thus to analyze the impact of a tissue and dose dependent RBE of protons on the effective range of the proton beam in comparison to the range based on a generic RBE of 1.1.Methods: Factors influencing the biologically effective proton range were systematically analyzed by means of treatment planning studies using the Local Effect Model (LEM IV) and the treatment planning software TRiP98. Special emphasis was put on the comparison of passive and active range modulation techniques.Results: Beam energy, tissue type, and dose level significantly affected the biological extension of the treatment field at the distal edge. Up to 4 mm increased penetration depth as compared to the depth based on a constant RBE of 1.1. The extension of the biologically effective range strongly depends on the initial proton energy used for the most distal layer of the field and correlates with the width of the distal penumbra. Thus, the range extension, in general, was more pronounced for passive as compared to active range modulation systems, whereas the maximum RBE was higher for active systems.Conclusions: The analysis showed that the physical characteristics of the proton beam in terms of the width of the distal penumbra have a great impact on the RBE gradient and thus also the biologically effective penetration depth of the beam

  13. To use or not to use? An empirical study of pre-trip public transport information for business and leisure trips and comparison with car travel

    OpenAIRE

    Farag, S.; Lyons, G.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study provides more insight into the relative strength of various factors affecting the use and non-use of pre-trip Public Transport (PT) information for business and leisure trips. It also illuminates comparing car with public transport and its consequences for mode choice. The factors affecting PT information use most strongly are travel behaviour and sociodemographics, but travel attitudes, information factors, and social surrounding also play a role. Public transport use...

  14. Technical evaluation of the proposed deletion of a reactor trip on a turbine trip below 50-percent power for the Beaver Valley nuclear power plant, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, W.E.

    1979-12-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the Duquesne Light Company's proposed license amendment for the deletion of a reactor trip on a turbine trip below 50% power for the Beaver Valley nuclear power plant, Unit 1. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Program being conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

  15. The FLUKA Monte Carlo code coupled with the local effect model for biological calculations in carbon ion therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mairani, A; Brons, S; Parodi, K; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Sommerer, F; Fasso, A; Kraemer, M; Scholz, M

    2010-01-01

    Clinical Monte Carlo (MC) calculations for carbon ion therapy have to provide absorbed and RBE-weighted dose. The latter is defined as the product of the dose and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE). At the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung as well as at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT), the RBE values are calculated according to the local effect model (LEM). In this paper, we describe the approach followed for coupling the FLUKA MC code with the LEM and its application to dose and RBE-weighted dose calculations for a superimposition of two opposed 12 C ion fields as applied in therapeutic irradiations. The obtained results are compared with the available experimental data of CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cell survival and the outcomes of the GSI analytical treatment planning code TRiP98. Some discrepancies have been observed between the analytical and MC calculations of absorbed physical dose profiles, which can be explained by the differences between the laterally integrated depth-dose distributions in water used as input basic data in TRiP98 and the FLUKA recalculated ones. On the other hand, taking into account the differences in the physical beam modeling, the FLUKA-based biological calculations of the CHO cell survival profiles are found in good agreement with the experimental data as well with the TRiP98 predictions. The developed approach that combines the MC transport/interaction capability with the same biological model as in the treatment planning system (TPS) will be used at HIT to support validation/improvement of both dose and RBE-weighted dose calculations performed by the analytical TPS.

  16. Experience-based Learning in Acadia National Park: a Successful, Long-running, Model Field Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, M.

    2015-12-01

    This two-week field course has been offered alternate summers since 2000 in Acadia National Park on Mount Desert Island, Maine and addresses the geological history, physical and biological oceanography and principles of community ecology applicable to terrestrial and/or marine communities of coastal Maine. The course is often transformative and deeply meaningful to the students, many of whom have limited travel experience. The essential components of experience-based learning are well represented in this class with multiple opportunities for abstract conceptualization, active experimentation, concrete hands-on experiences and reflective observation built into the course. Each day begins with a lecture introducing concepts, which are then made concrete though daily field trips (4-8 hours in duration) into the park that include rigorous hiking, some kayaking and one commercial nature cruise. Field trips include hands-on experience with lecture concepts, on-site lessons in field methods, and data collection for independent projects. Each field trip is tied to a specific independent project, which are generated by the instructor, but self-selected by the students. Every student is actively involved in data collection during each field trip, with one student in charge of the collection each day. Daily guided journaling in three parts (scientific, personal and creative) and evening discussions provide ample opportunity for the student to reflect on the scientific content of the course, examine their personal reactions to what they have experienced and to be creative, sharing prior experiences, prior learning and their personalities. The course includes two exams, each following a week of lecture and field experiences. Independent research projects include the production of a manuscript-formatted report complete with statistical analysis of the data and a literature-based discussion of the conclusions. The combination of experiential reinforcement of concepts, abundant

  17. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  18. Field-controlled electron transfer and reaction kinetics of the biological catalytic system of microperoxidase-11 and hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongki Choi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlled reaction kinetics of the bio-catalytic system of microperoxidase-11 and hydrogen peroxide has been achieved using an electrostatic technique. The technique allowed independent control of 1 the thermodynamics of the system using electrochemical setup and 2 the quantum mechanical tunneling at the interface between microperoxidase-11 and the working electrode by applying a gating voltage to the electrode. The cathodic currents of electrodes immobilized with microperoxidase-11 showed a dependence on the gating voltage in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, indicating a controllable reduction reaction. The measured kinetic parameters of the bio-catalytic reduction showed nonlinear dependences on the gating voltage as the result of modified interfacial electron tunnel due to the field induced at the microperoxidase-11-electrode interface. Our results indicate that the kinetics of the reduction of hydrogen peroxide can be controlled by a gating voltage and illustrate the operation of a field-effect bio-catalytic transistor, whose current-generating mechanism is the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water with the current being controlled by the gating voltage.

  19. Description of chemical and biological soil characteristics of two fields subjected to different agricultural management under mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore M. Meli

    Full Text Available Several factors such as soil pollution and intensive agricultural management continuously damage the sustainability of agricultural production, with potentially adverse effects on soil quality. It is important to create applicable and valid soil quality indicators in order to both identify areas with potential productivity problems and monitor soil quality changes due to a range of perturbations. In this work we compared several chemical and biological variables between a Mediterranean soil characterized by intensive horticulture that has been irrigated for 20 years with moderately saline waters (IM and an adjacent soil, subjected to a sustainable agricultural production management and irrigated with plain water (SM. Soil sampling was repeated three times during a year in both sites. IM soil had lower pH, organic carbon and total nitrogen compared to SM soil at all sampling times, while its electrical conductivity was significantly higher at two sampling times only. Potentially mineralizable nitrogen pointed out significant differences only at the first sampling time, with lower levels in the SM soil. β-sitosterol, cholesterol and ergosterol varied significantly with sampling time and were influenced also by management. Statistical approach by Principal Component Analysis highlighted a contrast between two groups of soil variables: potentially mineralizable nitrogen and sterols mainly weighted on the first axis, while chemical properties, weighted on the second one. Moreover, the second axis separated the soil subjected to a sustainable agricultural production system from that subjected to intensive practice management, while the first axis separated the third sampling data from the first two.

  20. The AAA+ ATPase TRIP13 remodels HORMA domains through N-terminal engagement and unfolding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Qiaozhen; Kim, Dong Hyun; Dereli, Ihsan; Rosenberg, Scott C.; Hagemann, Goetz; Herzog, Franz; Tóth, Attila; Cleveland, Don W.; Corbett, Kevin D.

    2017-06-28

    Proteins of the conserved HORMA domain family, including the spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD2 and the meiotic HORMADs, assemble into signaling complexes by binding short peptides termed “closure motifs”. The AAA+ ATPase TRIP13 regulates both MAD2 and meiotic HORMADs by disassembling these HORMA domain–closure motif complexes, but its mechanisms of substrate recognition and remodeling are unknown. Here, we combine X-ray crystallography and crosslinking mass spectrometry to outline how TRIP13 recognizes MAD2 with the help of the adapter protein p31comet. We show that p31comet binding to the TRIP13 N-terminal domain positions the disordered MAD2 N-terminus for engagement by the TRIP13 “pore loops”, which then unfold MAD2 in the presence of ATP. N-terminal truncation of MAD2 renders it refractory to TRIP13 action in vitro, and in cells causes spindle assembly checkpoint defects consistent with loss of TRIP13 function. Similar truncation of HORMAD1 in mouse spermatocytes compromises its TRIP13-mediated removal from meiotic chromosomes, highlighting a conserved mechanism for recognition and disassembly of HORMA domain–closure motif complexes by TRIP13.

  1. Trip generation studies for special generators : research summary , December 17, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-17

    The Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) Trip Generation, 7th ed., which determines the number of : trips produced or attracted by different developments, does not include town centers as a type of land use. It : has also been argued that the ...

  2. Cultural Immersion Trip to Southeast Asia: A Study of Cross-Cultural Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustambekov, Elzotbek; Mohan, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to demonstrate the execution of a successful short-term study trip to Southeast Asia and its influence on a student's cultural intelligence. This article discusses an academic component of an international study trip that was developed for sophomores at a private university in the New England region of the…

  3. 50 CFR 660.332 - Open access daily trip limit (DTL) fishery for sablefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open access daily trip limit (DTL) fishery... COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish-Open Access Fisheries § 660.332 Open access daily trip limit (DTL) fishery for sablefish. (a) Open access DTL fisheries both north and south of 36° N. lat. Open access...

  4. Exchanging car trips by cycling in the Netherlands : a first estimation of the health benefits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, E.E.M.M. Swart, W. Wendel-Vos, G.C.W. Steinberger, P.E. Knol, A.B. Stipdonk, H.L. & Reurings, M.C.B.

    2010-01-01

    As commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment, the authors assessed the possible health benefits of the substitution of short-distance car trips with short-distance cycling trips. To this end they used existing methods for Health Impact Assessment and

  5. Biologische bestrijding van spint en trips in anjer : selectieproef met 6 soorten roofmijten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte-Wassink, G.M.; Berg, van den D.

    2005-01-01

    In de anjerteelt zijn de anjerspintmijt (Tetranychus cinnabarinus) en de californische trips (Frankliniella occi-dentalis) de twee belangrijkste plagen. Vanwege de gewasopbouw van anjer en de levenswijze van spint en trips zijn deze plagen met een bespuiting moeilijk te bestrijden. De ervaring tot

  6. Microstructure Evolution during Friction Stir Spot Welding of TRIP Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Colding; Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of friction stir spot welding of TRIP steel is investigated. In addition to manufacturing successful welds, the present study aims at a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms occurring at the (sub)micron scale during friction stir spot welding. As one of the main...... parameters to control friction stir welding, the influence of the rotational speed of the tool was investigated. Three different rotational speeds (500 rpm, 1000 rpm and 1500 rpm, respectively) were applied. The microstructure of the welded samples was investigated with reflected light microscopy, scanning...... electron microscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction. Microhardness measurements and lap-shear tensile tests completed the investigations of the welded samples and allow evaluation of the quality of the welds....

  7. ANO-2 turbine trip transient test analysis using MMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.K.; Divakaruni, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    The data from the turbine trip transient tests conducted at the Arkansas Nuclear One-Unit 2 was used as one of the benchmark cases for validating the Modular Modeling System (MMS) Code, developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The data was used first to validate the modules in stand-alone simulation tests and then in a Nuclear Steam Supply system integral tests. This paper presents the results from the MMS simulation effort and compares the code generated results with the plant data as well as RETRAN results. In general, MMS simulation results compare very well with the plant data. The code calculations for the hot and cold leg temperatures, primary system pressure and the pressurizer level are very good compared to RETRAN; however, MMS results for steam generator level compare reasonably well only with RETRAN calculations

  8. Vehicle Routing Problem with Backhaul, Multiple Trips and Time Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Oscar Ong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation planning is one of the important components to increase efficiency and effectiveness in the supply chain system. Good planning will give a saving in total cost of the supply chain. This paper develops the new VRP variants’, VRP with backhauls, multiple trips, and time window (VRPBMTTW along with its problem solving techniques by using Ant Colony Optimization (ACO and Sequential Insertion as initial solution algorithm. ACO is modified by adding the decoding process in order to determine the number of vehicles, total duration time, and range of duration time regardless of checking capacity constraint and time window. This algorithm is tested by using set of random data and verified as well as analyzed its parameter changing’s. The computational results for hypothetical data with 50% backhaul and mix time windows are reported.

  9. Probabilistic assessment and design of overpower trips in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, C.M.; Laratta, F.A.R.

    1983-01-01

    The data used for the design and operation of the Neutron Overpower (NOP) trip systems in CANDU reactors are subject to errors and uncertainty in their values, for which a suitable allowance must be made. The final NOP setpoints thus depend on the size of this error allowance in relation to the magnitudes of the various types of errors expected. This report outlines a new probabilistic assessment procedure for determining the NOP error allowance needed to meet a specified level of confidence. The procedure is relatively simple and computationally inexpensive, yet provides a comprehensive and reasonably rigorous assessment of the statistical risk of the NOP errors. Margins of about 11 percent have been found sufficient to meet regulatory requirements with the new procedure, compared with 18 to 20 percent previously. A further extension of the procedure, to probabilistic optimization of the core reference power shape, is also outlined

  10. How travellers’ schedule their trips under uncertain travel times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine

    Travel times play an important role when people decide where, when and how much to travel. But travel times are not always predictable from the traveller’s point of view: They may vary from day to day due to demand fluctuations, weather conditions, accidents and other unforeseen events that cause...... road capacity to decrease. We refer to this uncertainty as travel time variability (TTV). TTV is likely to affect how travellers schedule their trips, since it affects their probability of arriving late at their destination. We would like to account for TTV in traffic models and cost-benefit analyses......, but in practice there are limits to the kinds of behaviour that can be accommodated in such applications. For that reason, we are not solely interested in explaining travellers’ behaviour, but also in whether this behaviour can be approximated by behavioural models that are simple enough to be applied in traffic...

  11. Evidence Based Prevention of Occupational Slips, Trips and Falls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that about one third of the compensated occupational injuries and half of the most serious occupational injuries in merchant seafaring are related to slips, trips and falls (STF)-events. Among the elderly, STF is the risk factor that causes the largest number of inpatient days...... at hospitals. It is the argued that prevention of STF is insufficient and that the reason is insufficient evidence on incidence rates, the causes and the health impact of STF related injuries. Practical knowledge of the best practice and what works is also needed. Here the issue is evidence based...... on epidemiological data. STF in the injury model is considered not as an injury, but as a pre-event of an injury and in most cases a near miss without injury. The registration of whether a STF-event preceded an injury or not is important near miss information for prevention in injury registers. The quality...

  12. Biological studies of swine exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Volume 4: growth, reproduction, and development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-12-01

    Swine were exposed to uniform, vertical, 60-Hz, 30-kV/m electric fields for 20 hours/day, 7 days/week. The parental generation (F/sub 0/ gilts) was bred after 4 months on study; some were killed for teratologic study at 100 days of gestation (dg), and the others produced a first-generation (F/sub 1/) of offspring. The pooled incidence of terata in these litters was similar in the exposed and sham-exposed groups. The F/sub 0/ females, which produced the F/sub 1/ generation, were rebred after 18 months of exposure and were killed at 100 dg: malformation incidence in exposed litters (75%) was significantly greater than in sham-exposed litters (29%). Types of malformations were not dissimilar between the two groups. The F/sub 1/ gilts were bred at 18 months of age; there were indications of impaired copulatory behavior and decreased fertility in the exposed animals. Defective offspring were found in significantly more of the exposed litters (71%) than in sham-exposed litters (33%). The F/sub 1/ sows were bred again 10 months later, and teratologic evaluations were performed on their second litters at 100 dg. The percentage of litters with malformed fetuses was essentially identical in the exposed and sham-exposed groups (70 and 73%, respectively). The change in malformation incidences between generations and between the first and second breedings makes it difficult to unequivocally conclude that chronic exposure to a strong electric field caused developmental effects in swine, although it appears there may be an association. It is also possible that other factors, such as housing, inbreeding, disease or its treatment may have contributed to the results. 22 refs., 9 figs., 28 tabs.

  13. Molecular and biological characterisation of two novel pomo-like viruses associated with potato (Solanum tuberosum) fields in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Jose Fernando; Adams, Ian; Boonham, Neil; Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2016-06-01

    Potato is the fourth most important crop worldwide that is used as a staple food, after rice, wheat and maize. The crop can be affected by a large number of pathogens, including fungi, oomycetes, bacteria and viruses. Diseases caused by viruses are among the most important factors contributing to reduced quality and yield of the crop. Potato mop-top virus (genus Pomovirus) induces necrotic flecks in the tuber flesh and skin of potato in temperate countries. Spongospora subterranea is the vector of PMTV. Both the virus and its vector cause disease in potato. In Colombia, PMTV has been detected throughout the country together with a novel pomo-like virus in the centre (Cundinamarca and Boyacá) and south west (Nariño) of the country. We studied the molecular and biological characteristics of this novel virus. Its genome resembles those of members of the genus Pomovirus, and it is closely related to PMTV. It induces mild systemic symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana (mosaic, branch curling), but no symptoms in N. tabacum, N. debneyi and Chenopodium amaranticolor. The proposed name for the virus is "Colombian potato soil-borne virus" (CPSbV). Additionally, another pomo-like virus was identified in Nariño. This virus induces severe systemic stem declining and mild mosaic in N. benthamiana. The tentative name "soil-borne virus 2" (SbV2) is proposed for this virus. No vectors have been identified for these viruses despite several attempts. This work focused on the characterisation of CPSbV. The risk posed by these viruses if they are introduced into new territories is discussed.

  14. Recommendations for Planning and Managing International Short-term Pharmacy Service Trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kalin L; Alsharif, Naser Z; Rovers, John; Connor, Sharon; White, Nicole D; Hogue, Michael D

    2017-03-25

    International pharmacy service trips by schools and colleges of pharmacy allow students to provide health care to medically underserved areas. A literature review (2000-2016) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms was performed to assess current practices to establish and maintain successful pharmacy service trips. Educational documents such as syllabi were obtained from pharmacy programs and examined. A preliminary draft was developed and authors worked on sections of interest and expertise. Considerations and current recommendations are provided for the key aspects of the home institution and the host country requirements for pharmacy service trips based on findings from a literature search and the authors' collective, extensive experience. Evaluation of the trip and ethical considerations are also discussed. This article serves as a resource for schools and colleges of pharmacy that are interested in the development of new pharmacy service trips and provides key considerations for continuous quality improvement of current or future activities.

  15. An integrative conceptual framework for analyzing customer satisfaction with shopping trip experiences in grocery retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2012-01-01

    Grocery retailers aim to satisfy customers, and because grocery shopping trips are frequently recurring, they must do socontinuously. Surprisingly, little research has addressed satisfaction with individual grocery shopping trips. This article therefore develops a conceptual framework for analyzing...... customer satisfaction with individual grocery shopping trip experiences within a overall ‘disconfirmation of expectations model’ of customer satisfaction. The contribution of the framework is twofold. First, by focusing on satisfaction with individual grocery shopping trips, previous research...... on satisfaction is extended to a context marked by frequently recurring, often tedious and routine activities. Understanding what causes satisfaction/dissatisfaction with individual shopping trips is required to explain overall, cumulative satisfaction with a retailer, which has been the focus of prior research...

  16. Forest and field abundance of Scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae in the São Donato Biological Reserve, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius da Costa Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the species richness, abundance and diversity of Scarabaeidae beetles in two types of habitats (field and forest, and to assess whether their seasonal variation is related to climatic variables. This study was conducted in the São Donato Biological Reserve, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil (Pampa biome. Beetles were collected using pitfall traps between January 2012 and January 2013. A total of 125 individuals were collected, of which six genera and 11 species from four subfamilies of Scarabaeidae were identified. 54 individuals of five species were collected from the field, and 71 individuals of eight species were collected from the forest. The most abundant species were Ataenius picinus Harold, 1868, Canthon lividus Blanchard, 1845 and Leucothyreus lavipes Eschscholtz, 1822, which together accounted for 86.4% of all individuals captured. The highest total number of individuals was collected in summer (78, and the highest number of species was collected in spring (9. Differences in environmental structure (and associated climate and food resource availability may be decisive and limiting factors for beetle occurrence in forest versus field areas, as various species were restricted to a specific habitat type or season.

  17. Impacts of energy consumption and emissions on the trip cost without late arrival at the equilibrium state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Wang, Tao; Chen, Liang; Shang, Hua-Yan

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we apply a car-following model, fuel consumption model, emission model and electricity consumption model to explore the influences of energy consumption and emissions on each commuter's trip costs without late arrival at the equilibrium state. The numerical results show that the energy consumption and emissions have significant impacts on each commuter's trip cost without late arrival at the equilibrium state. The fuel cost and emission cost prominently enhance each commuter's trip cost and the trip cost increases with the number of vehicles, which shows that considering the fuel cost and emission cost in the trip cost will destroy the equilibrium state. However, the electricity cost slightly enhances each commuter's trip cost, but the trip cost is still approximately a constant, which indicates that considering the electricity cost in the trip cost does not destroy the equilibrium state.

  18. Establishment of Local Trip Generation Rates or Equations for Mixed-Use Developments in Kansas : Technical Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Currently, the trip generation rates and equations contained in the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) Trip Generation Manual, 8th Edition are based on the information collected at single-use, free-standing sites and cannot be directly appli...

  19. Pseudomonas canadensis sp. nov., a biological control agent isolated from a field plot under long-term mineral fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambong, James T; Xu, Renlin; Bromfield, Eden S P

    2017-04-01

    The bacterial strain 2-92T, isolated from a field plot under long-term (>40 years) mineral fertilization, exhibited in vitro antagonistic properties against fungal pathogens. A polyphasic approach was undertaken to verify its taxonomic status. Strain 2-92T was Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming, motile by one or more flagella, and oxidase-, catalase- and urease-positive. The optimal growth temperature of strain 2-92T was 30 °C. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that the strain is related to species of the genus Pseudomonas. Phylogenetic analysis of six housekeeping genes (dnaA, gyrB, recA, recF, rpoB and rpoD) revealed that strain 2-92T clustered as a distinct and well separated lineage with Pseudomonassimiae as the most closely related species. Polar lipid and fatty acid compositions corroborated the taxonomic position of strain 2-92T in the genus Pseudomonas. Phenotypic characteristics from carbon utilization tests could be used to differentiate strain 2-92T from closely related species of the genus Pseudomonas. DNA-DNA hybridization values (wet laboratory and genome-based) and average nucleotide identity data confirmed that this strain represents a novel species. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, it is concluded that this strain represents a separate novel species for which the name Pseudomonas canadensis sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain 2-92T (=LMG 28499T=DOAB 798T). The DNA G+C content is 60.30 mol%.

  20. Control of the surface radioactive contamination in the field of biological research; Control de la contaminacion radiactiva superficial en el ambito de la investigacion biologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, S.; Encina, A. de la; Gaspar, J.; Macias, M. T.; Sanchez, A.; Usera, F.

    2012-11-01

    The manipulation of unsealed sources in biomedical research involves significant risk of radioactive contamination. the aim of this study has been to analyze the radioactive contamination occurring in the field of biomedical research, assessing its magnitude, identifying the equipment that can be contaminated with higher probability and monitoring the evolution of the contaminations production taking into account the radioisotopes and the activities uses, and the radiation protection control applied. The data used for this study correspond to a very lengthy period of time and it have been collected in the radioactive facility, of the Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia (CSIC), a very large biological research centre that can be used perfectly as a reference for this area. The results obtained show a gradual and significant decrease in the incidence of the radioactive contamination. This is due to the optimization of radiation protection standards applied and the implementation or a systematic operational radiation protection program. (Author) 13 refs.