WorldWideScience

Sample records for biology experiments conducted

  1. Cell biology experiments conducted in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    A review of cell biology experiments conducted during the first two decades of space flight is provided. References are tabulated for work done with six types of living test system: isolated viruses, bacteriophage-host, bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, protozoans, and small groups of cells (such as hamster cell tissue and fertilized frog eggs). The general results of studies involving the survival of cells in space, the effect of space flight on growing cultures, the biological effects of multicharged high-energy particles, and the effects of space flight on the genetic apparatus of microorganisms are summarized. It is concluded that cell systems remain sufficiently stable during space flight to permit experimentation with models requiring a fixed cell line during the space shuttle era.

  2. Conducting interactive experiments online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechar, Antonio A; Gächter, Simon; Molleman, Lucas

    2018-01-01

    Online labor markets provide new opportunities for behavioral research, but conducting economic experiments online raises important methodological challenges. This particularly holds for interactive designs. In this paper, we provide a methodological discussion of the similarities and differences between interactive experiments conducted in the laboratory and online. To this end, we conduct a repeated public goods experiment with and without punishment using samples from the laboratory and the online platform Amazon Mechanical Turk. We chose to replicate this experiment because it is long and logistically complex. It therefore provides a good case study for discussing the methodological and practical challenges of online interactive experimentation. We find that basic behavioral patterns of cooperation and punishment in the laboratory are replicable online. The most important challenge of online interactive experiments is participant dropout. We discuss measures for reducing dropout and show that, for our case study, dropouts are exogenous to the experiment. We conclude that data quality for interactive experiments via the Internet is adequate and reliable, making online interactive experimentation a potentially valuable complement to laboratory studies.

  3. Culture experiments on conductive polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoda, Mitsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast L929 and myoblast C2C12 cells of the mouse connective tissue origin were sown on the surface of conductive polymer films (polypyrrole, PPy and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT) in the cell culture medium, and the proliferative process of these cells was observed. Without changing the form, fibroblast L929 and myoblast C2C12 cells were observed to proliferate almost similarly to the cell which cultured on a dish on the market and to maintain compatibility. In other word, it has been understood these two kinds of conductive polymers used in this study, the PEDOT films maintain the secretion function of the cell cultured on the surface of these polymers. Therefore, the PPy- and the PEDOT-coated electrode suggested the possibility usable as a nerve stimulation electrode with biocompatibility, because these polymers were effective to culture the cell.

  4. Long conduction time POs experiments on MITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodall, H.N.; McDaniel, D.H.; Mendel, C.W.; Rochau, G.E.; Zagar, D.M.; Simpson, W.W.; Zuchowski, N.P.

    1990-01-01

    MITE is a power flow test bed that has been modified to conduct experiments in high power plasma opening switch (POS) technology and apply this technology to Inertial Confinement Fusion. The goal of the experiment is to develop a plasma opening switch that conducts megampere currents for 300 ns, then opens in 5--10 ns. MITE/POS is an advanced power flow experiment that uses a magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) as the inductive energy store and as a means to shape the output pulse. This experiment demonstrates that a simplified, lower-cost facility can be built by eliminating water pulse-forming lines and water-switching. Another advantage of this approach is that high energy efficiency at peak power can be achieved. The disadvantage is that a new technology, the triggered POS, must be implemented. The triggered POS is necessary for synchronization of multiple modules with a long conduction-time POS. The MITE facility has been modified to drive a 250 nH, 16.6 Ohm MITL at 0.9 MA to accommodate this power flow experiment. A MITL inductive energy storage of 101 kJ is available for POS switching to a matched load. Experiments have been conducted using segmented flashboards and magnetic-field controlled plasma sources. These experiments will lead to the development of the triggered POS. The initial experiments with plasma conduction times of 120 ns to 800 ns are discussed

  5. Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Anisotropic Biological Tissue In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Kai; Cheng, Liang; Yang, Lina; Jin, Bitao; Zhang, Xinxin

    2017-06-01

    The accurate determination of the thermal conductivity of biological tissues has implications on the success of cryosurgical/hyperthermia treatments. In light of the evident anisotropy in some biological tissues, a new modified stepwise transient method was proposed to simultaneously measure the transverse and longitudinal thermal conductivities of anisotropic biological tissues. The physical and mathematical models were established, and the analytical solution was derived. Sensitivity analysis and experimental simulation were performed to determine the feasibility and measurement accuracy of simultaneously measuring the transverse and longitudinal thermal conductivities. The experimental system was set up, and its measurement accuracy was verified by measuring the thermal conductivity of a reference standard material. The thermal conductivities of the pork tenderloin and bovine muscles were measured using the traditional 1D and proposed methods, respectively, at different temperatures. Results indicate that the thermal conductivities of the bovine muscle are lower than those of the pork tenderloin muscle, whereas the bovine muscle was determined to exhibit stronger anisotropy than the pork tenderloin muscle. Moreover, the longitudinal thermal conductivity is larger than the transverse thermal conductivity for the two tissues and all thermal conductivities increase with the increase in temperature. Compared with the traditional 1D method, results obtained by the proposed method are slightly higher although the relative deviation is below 5 %.

  6. Optical sensor for heat conduction measurement in biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez-Arroyo, A; Sanchez-Perez, C; Aleman-Garcia, N

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a heat flux sensor using an optical fiber system to measure heat conduction in biological tissues. This optoelectronic device is based on the photothermal beam deflection of a laser beam travelling in an acrylic slab this deflection is measured with a fiber optic angle sensor. We measure heat conduction in biological samples with high repeatability and sensitivity enough to detect differences in tissues from three chicken organs. This technique could provide important information of vital organ function as well as the detect modifications due to degenerative diseases or physical damage caused by medications or therapies.

  7. Low power digital communication in implantable devices using volume conduction of biological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ning; Lee, Heung-No; Sclabassi, R J; Sun, Mingui

    2006-01-01

    This work investigates the data communication problem of implantable devices using fundamental theories in communications. We utilize the volume conduction property of biological tissues to establish a digital communications link. Data obtained through animal experiments are used to analyze the time and frequency response of the volume conduction channel as well as to characterize the biological signals and noises present in the system. A low power bandwidth efficient channel-coded modulation scheme is proposed to conserve battery power and reduce the health risks associated.

  8. Antimonene: Experiments and theory of surface conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Juan Jose; Ares, Pablo; Pakdel, Sahar; Paz, Wendel; Zamora, Felix; Gomez-Herrero, Julio

    Very recently antimony has been demonstrated to be amenable to standard exfoliation procedures opening the possibility of studying the electronic properties of isolated few-layers flakes of this material, a.k.a. antimonene. Antimony is a topological semimetal, meaning that its electronic structure presents spin-split helical states (or Dirac cones) on the surface, but it is still trivially metallic in bulk. Antimonene, on the other hand, may present a much reduced electronic bulk contribution for a small number of layers. A novel technique to make electrical contacts on the surface of individual thin flakes (5-10 monolayers) has allowed us to measure the (surface) conductivity of these in ambient conditions. Our measurements show a high conductivity in the range of 1 - 2e2 / h , which we attribute to the surface Dirac electrons. We have also carried out theoretical work to address the origin of this value, in particular, the importance of scattering between the Dirac electrons and the bulk bands. Our calculations are based on density functional theory for the electronic structure and Kubo formalism for the conductivity, the latter considering random disorder and the presence of water. Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad, Grant FIS2016-80434-P.

  9. Conductance of Ion Channels - Theory vs. Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael; Mijajlovic, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Transmembrane ion channels mediate a number of essential physiological processes in a cell ranging from regulating osmotic pressure to transmission of neural signals. Kinetics and selectivity of ion transport is of critical importance to a cell and, not surprisingly, it is a subject of numerous experimental and theoretical studies. In this presentation we will analyze in detail computer simulations of two simple channels from fungi - antiamoebin and trichotoxin. Each of these channels is made of an alpha-helical bundle of small, nongenomically synthesized peptides containing a number of rare amino acids and exhibits strong antimicrobial activity. We will focus on calculating ionic conductance defined as the ratio of ionic current through the channel to applied voltage. From molecular dynamics simulations, conductance can be calculated in at least two ways, each involving different approximations. Specifically, the current, given as the number of charges transferred through the channel per unit of time, can be obtained from the number of events in which ions cross the channel during the simulation. This method works well for large currents (high conductance values and/or applied voltages). If the number of crossing events is small, reliable estimates of current are difficult to achieve. Alternatively, conductance can be estimated assuming that ion transport can be well approximated as diffusion in the external potential given by the free energy profile. Then, the current can be calculated by solving the one-dimensional diffusion equation in this external potential and applied voltage (the generalized Nernst-Planck equation). To do so three ingredients are needed: the free energy profile, the position-dependent diffusion coefficient and the diffusive flux of ions into the channel. All these quantities can be obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. An important advantage of this method is that it can be used equally well to estimating large and small currents

  10. Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy for Studying Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard D. Dietzel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM is a scanning probe technique that utilizes the increase in access resistance that occurs if an electrolyte filled glass micro-pipette is approached towards a poorly conducting surface. Since an increase in resistance can be monitored before the physical contact between scanning probe tip and sample, this technique is particularly useful to investigate the topography of delicate samples such as living cells. SICM has shown its potential in various applications such as high resolution and long-time imaging of living cells or the determination of local changes in cellular volume. Furthermore, SICM has been combined with various techniques such as fluorescence microscopy or patch clamping to reveal localized information about proteins or protein functions. This review details the various advantages and pitfalls of SICM and provides an overview of the recent developments and applications of SICM in biological imaging. Furthermore, we show that in principle, a combination of SICM and ion selective micro-electrodes enables one to monitor the local ion activity surrounding a living cell.

  11. Bodily experiences in secondary school biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlander, Auli Arvola; Wickman, Per-Olof

    2011-09-01

    This is a study of teaching about the human body. It is based on transcribed material from interviews with 15-year-old students and teachers about their experiences of sex education and from recordings of classroom interactions during a dissection. The analysis is focused on the relationship between what students are supposed to learn about the biological body and their expressed experiences and meaning making of bodies in the schoolwork. The results indicate that the negotiations associated with the encounters between the bodies of the classroom (student, teacher, and animal bodies) are important for what directions meaning making takes and what students are afforded to learn about bodies, biologically as well as in terms of values. We suggest that these negotiations should be taken into account at schools, be regarded as an important part of the learning processes in science education and in that way open up for new possibilities for students' meaning making.

  12. Biological and Medical Experiments on the Space Shuttle, 1981 - 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Thora W. (Editor); Dufour, Patricia A. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This volume is the first in a planned series of reports intended to provide a comprehensive record of all the biological and medical experiments and samples flown on the Space Shuttle. Experiments described have been conducted over a five-year period, beginning with the first plant studies conducted on STS-2 in November 1981, and extending through STS 61-C, the last mission to fly before the tragic Challenger accident of January 1986. Experiments were sponsored within NASA not only by the Life Sciences Division of the Office of Space Science and Applications, but also by the Shuttle Student Involvement Program (SSIP) and the Get Away Special (GAS) Program. Independent medical studies were conducted as well on the Shuttle crew under the auspices of the Space Biomedical Research Institute at Johnson Space Center. In addition, cooperative agreements between NASA and foreign government agencies led to a number of independent experiments and also paved the way for the joint US/ESA Spacelab 1 mission and the German (DFVLR) Spacelab D-1. Experiments included: (1) medically oriented studies of the crew aimed at identifying, preventing, or treating health problems due to space travel; (2) projects to study morphological, physiological, or behavioral effects of microgravity on animals and plants; (3) studies of the effects of microgravity on cells and tissues; and (4) radiation experiments monitoring the spacecraft environment with chemical or biological dosimeters or testing radiation effects on simple organisms and seeds.

  13. Experiments on microsecond conduction time plasma opening switch mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rix, W.; Coleman, M.; Miller, A.R.; Parks, D.; Robertson, K.; Thompson, J.; Waisman, E.; Wilson, A.

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe a series of experiments carried out on ACE 2 and ACE 4 to elucidate the mechanisms controlling the conduction and opening phases on plasma opening switches in a radial geometry with conduction times on the order of a microsecond. The results indicate both conduction and opening physics are similar to that observed on lower current systems in a coaxial geometry

  14. An experiment in heat conduction using hollow cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortuno, M; Marquez, A; Gallego, S; Neipp, C; Belendez, A, E-mail: a.belendez@ua.es [Departamento de Fisica, IngenierIa de Sistemas y TeorIa de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    An experimental apparatus was designed and built to allow students to carry out heat conduction experiments in hollow cylinders made of different materials, as well as to determine the thermal conductivity of these materials. The evolution of the temperature difference between the inner and outer walls of the cylinder as a function of time is analysed, and when the process reaches the steady state regime the thermal conductivity can be easily calculated. Several materials such as wood, plastic and metals are considered and the values of their thermal conductivities, obtained experimentally, are compared with those given in the reference list.

  15. Conducting Closed Habitation Experiments: Experience from the Lunar Mars Life Support Test Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Edeen, Marybeth A.; Henninger, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    The Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP) was conducted from 1995 through 1997 at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) to demonstrate increasingly longer duration operation of integrated, closed-loop life support systems that employed biological and physicochemical techniques for water recycling, waste processing, air revitalization, thermal control, and food production. An analog environment for long-duration human space travel, the conditions of isolation and confinement also enabled studies of human factors, medical sciences (both physiology and psychology) and crew training. Four tests were conducted, Phases I, II, IIa and III, with durations of 15, 30, 60 and 91 days, respectively. The first phase focused on biological air regeneration, using wheat to generate enough oxygen for one experimental subject. The systems demonstrated in the later phases were increasingly complex and interdependent, and provided life support for four crew members. The tests were conducted using two human-rated, atmospherically-closed test chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC) and the Integrated Life Support Systems Test Facility (ILSSTF). Systems included test articles (the life support hardware under evaluation), human accommodations (living quarters, kitchen, exercise equipment, etc.) and facility systems (emergency matrix system, power, cooling, etc.). The test team was managed by a lead engineer and a test director, and included test article engineers responsible for specific systems, subsystems or test articles, test conductors, facility engineers, chamber operators and engineering technicians, medical and safety officers, and science experimenters. A crew selection committee, comprised of psychologists, engineers and managers involved in the test, evaluated male and female volunteers who applied to be test subjects. Selection was based on the skills mix anticipated for each particular test, and utilized

  16. Recommendations for designing and conducting veterinary clinical pathology biologic variation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freeman, Kathleen P; Baral, Randolph M; Dhand, Navneet K

    2017-01-01

    The recent creation of a veterinary clinical pathology biologic variation website has highlighted the need to provide recommendations for future studies of biologic variation in animals in order to help standardize and improve the quality of published information and to facilitate review......). These recommendations provide a valuable resource for clinicians, laboratorians, and researchers interested in conducting studies of biologic variation and in determining the quality of studies of biologic variation in veterinary laboratory testing....

  17. A national comparison of biochemistry and molecular biology capstone experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguanno, Ann; Mertz, Pamela; Martin, Debra; Bell, Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing the increasingly integrative nature of the molecular life sciences, the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) recommends that Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (BMB) programs develop curricula based on concepts, content, topics, and expected student outcomes, rather than courses. To that end, ASBMB conducted a series of regional workshops to build a BMB Concept Inventory containing validated assessment tools, based on foundational and discipline-specific knowledge and essential skills, for the community to use. A culminating activity, which integrates the educational experience, is often part of undergraduate molecular life science programs. These "capstone" experiences are commonly defined as an attempt to measure student ability to synthesize and integrate acquired knowledge. However, the format, implementation, and approach to outcome assessment of these experiences are quite varied across the nation. Here we report the results of a nation-wide survey on BMB capstone experiences and discuss this in the context of published reports about capstones and the findings of the workshops driving the development of the BMB Concept Inventory. Both the survey results and the published reports reveal that, although capstone practices do vary, certain formats for the experience are used more frequently and similarities in learning objectives were identified. The use of rubrics to measure student learning is also regularly reported, but details about these assessment instruments are sparse in the literature and were not a focus of our survey. Finally, we outline commonalities in the current practice of capstones and suggest the next steps needed to elucidate best practices. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  18. Conducting Family Nursing in Heart Failure outpatient clinics: Nurses experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voltelen, Barbara; Konradsen, Hanne; Østergaard, Birte

    Aim: This study aimed to explore what was documented during structured Family Nursing (FN) conversations with patients diagnosed with Heart Failure and their families, and to gain knowledge about the nurses’ experiences conducting FN. Background: Patients with HF face many challenges, and so do...... throughout the FN intervention and a Focus group interview with 6 nurses who were conducting the conversations. Content analyses of all text material dealt with both manifest and latent content, and were analyzed through a deductive and inductive process. Results: Enabling bonding emerged as the overall...

  19. Modeling and conduct of turbine missile concrete impact experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodfin, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The overall objective of the subject experiments was to provide full scale data on the response of reinforced concrete containment walls to impact and penetration by postulated turbine-produced missiles. These data can be used to validate analytical or scale modeling methods and to assess the applicability of current design formulas to penetration by large, irregularly shaped missiles. These data and results will be used in providing more realistic estimates of turbine missile damage probability in nuclear power plants with a non-peninsula arrangement. This paper describes the derivation of the test matrix and the method of conducting the experiments. (orig./HP)

  20. Experiments on thermal conductivity in buffer materials for geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, T.; Yano, T.; Wakamatsu, H.; Matsushima, E.

    1989-01-01

    Engineered barriers for geologic disposal for HLW are planned to consist of canister, overpack and buffer elements. One of important physical characteristics of buffer materials is determining temperature profiles within the near field in a repository. Buffer materials require high thermal conductivity to disperse radiogenic heat away to the host rock. As the buffer materials, compacted blocks of the mixture of sodium bentonite and sand have been the most promising candidate in some countries, e.g. Sweden, Switzerland and Japan. The authors have been carrying out a series of thermal dispersion experiments to evaluate thermal conductivity of bentonite/quartz sand blocks. In this study, the following two factors considered to affect thermal properties of the near field were examined: effective thermal conductivities of buffer materials, and heat transfer characteristics of the gap between overpack and buffer materials

  1. Lessons learned about spaceflight and cell biology experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    2004-01-01

    Conducting cell biology experiments in microgravity can be among the most technically challenging events in a biologist's life. Conflicting events of spaceflight include waiting to get manifested, delays in manifest schedules, training astronauts to not shake your cultures and to add reagents slowly, as shaking or quick injection can activate signaling cascades and give you erroneous results. It is important to select good hardware that is reliable. Possible conflicting environments in flight include g-force and vibration of launch, exposure of cells to microgravity for extended periods until hardware is turned on, changes in cabin gases and cosmic radiation. One should have an on-board 1-g control centrifuge in order to eliminate environmental differences. Other obstacles include getting your funding in a timely manner (it is not uncommon for two to three years to pass between notification of grant approval for funding and actually getting funded). That said, it is important to note that microgravity research is worthwhile since all terrestrial life evolved in a gravity field and secrets of biological function may only be answered by removing the constant of gravity. Finally, spaceflight experiments are rewarding and worth your effort and patience.

  2. MOTHERHOOD EXPERIENCE: ADOPTIVE AND BIOLOGICAL MOTHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia F. Lakhvich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To become a mother … To be a mother … What does it mean for a woman? And what else changes her life so irreversibly, allows to see the world in a different way and discovers new, earlier unknown features? Probably, nothing does. However, there is also a question how a woman bearing a child and carrying out motherhood responsibilities and a woman who has not given life to a child, but carrying out the same responsibilities, goes through the process of motherhood. It is one of the questions that was studied in a comparative research of the adaptation process in the Belarusian adoptive and biological families in case of a child appearing in the family. The study involved 64 adoptive and 62 biological mothers.

  3. Influencing attitudes toward science through field experiences in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Deborah Mcintyre

    The purpose of this study was to determine how student attitudes toward science are influenced by field experiences in undergraduate biology courses. The study was conducted using two institutions of higher education including a 2-year lower-level and a 2-year upper-level institution. Data were collected through interviews with student participants, focus group discussions, students' journal entries, and field notes recorded by the researcher during the field activities. Photographs and video recordings were also used as documentation sources. Data were collected over a period of 34 weeks. Themes that emerged from the qualitative data included students' beliefs that field experiences (a) positively influence student motivation to learn, (b) increase student ability to learn the concepts being taught, and (c) provide opportunities for building relationships and for personal growth. The findings of the study reinforce the importance of offering field-study programs at the undergraduate level to allow undergraduate students the opportunity to experience science activities in a field setting. The research study was framed by the behavioral and developmental theories of attitude and experience including the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) and the Theory of Experiential Learning (Kolb, 1984).

  4. Rotating biological contactors: the Canadian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuenca, Manuel A. [Ryerson Polytechnical Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Smith, Tom [CMS Rotordisk Inc., Concord, ON (Canada); Vianna, Arlinda C. [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    In fifteen years, Rotating Biological Contactors (RBC) have become one of the most attractive technologies for secondary wastewater treatment. The present work is a review of the evolution of RBC technology in the last twenty years. In addition, the status of the technology in Canada is described, emphasizing industrial facilities and landfill leachate treatment. An enumeration of the most relevant development areas is included. (author). 34 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Rotating biological contactors: the Canadian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuenca, Manuel A [Ryerson Polytechnical Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Smith, Tom [CMS Rotordisk Inc., Concord, ON (Canada); Vianna, Arlinda C [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    In fifteen years, Rotating Biological Contactors (RBC) have become one of the most attractive technologies for secondary wastewater treatment. The present work is a review of the evolution of RBC technology in the last twenty years. In addition, the status of the technology in Canada is described, emphasizing industrial facilities and landfill leachate treatment. An enumeration of the most relevant development areas is included. (author). 34 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Morphogenesis and pattern formation in biological systems experiments and models

    CERN Document Server

    Noji, Sumihare; Ueno, Naoto; Maini, Philip

    2003-01-01

    A central goal of current biology is to decode the mechanisms that underlie the processes of morphogenesis and pattern formation. Concerned with the analysis of those phenomena, this book covers a broad range of research fields, including developmental biology, molecular biology, plant morphogenesis, ecology, epidemiology, medicine, paleontology, evolutionary biology, mathematical biology, and computational biology. In Morphogenesis and Pattern Formation in Biological Systems: Experiments and Models, experimental and theoretical aspects of biology are integrated for the construction and investigation of models of complex processes. This collection of articles on the latest advances by leading researchers not only brings together work from a wide spectrum of disciplines, but also provides a stepping-stone to the creation of new areas of discovery.

  7. Statistical analysis of joint toxicity in biological growth experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Henrik; Tørslev, J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors formulate a model for the analysis of designed biological growth experiments where a mixture of toxicants is applied to biological target organisms. The purpose of such experiments is to assess the toxicity of the mixture in comparison with the toxicity observed when the toxicants are...... is applied on data from an experiment where inhibition of the growth of the bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens caused by different mixtures of pentachlorophenol and aniline was studied.......The authors formulate a model for the analysis of designed biological growth experiments where a mixture of toxicants is applied to biological target organisms. The purpose of such experiments is to assess the toxicity of the mixture in comparison with the toxicity observed when the toxicants...

  8. Conjugate Meningococcal Vaccines Development: GSK Biologicals Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacqueline M.; Mesaros, Narcisa; Van Der Wielen, Marie; Baine, Yaela

    2011-01-01

    Meningococcal diseases are serious threats to global health, and new vaccines specifically tailored to meet the age-related needs of various geographical areas are required. This paper focuses on the meningococcal conjugate vaccines developed by GSK Biologicals. Two combined conjugate vaccines were developed to help protect infants and young children in countries where the incidence of meningococcal serogroup C or serogroup C and Y disease is important: Hib-MenC-TT vaccine, which offers protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C diseases, is approved in several countries; and Hib-MenCY-TT vaccine, which adds N. meningitidis serogroup Y antigen, is currently in the final stages of development. Additionally, a tetravalent conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) designed to help protect against four meningococcal serogroups is presently being evaluated for global use in all age groups. All of these vaccines were shown to be highly immunogenic and to have clinically acceptable safety profiles. PMID:21991444

  9. Conjugate Meningococcal Vaccines Development: GSK Biologicals Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningococcal diseases are serious threats to global health, and new vaccines specifically tailored to meet the age-related needs of various geographical areas are required. This paper focuses on the meningococcal conjugate vaccines developed by GSK Biologicals. Two combined conjugate vaccines were developed to help protect infants and young children in countries where the incidence of meningococcal serogroup C or serogroup C and Y disease is important: Hib-MenC-TT vaccine, which offers protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C diseases, is approved in several countries; and Hib-MenCY-TT vaccine, which adds N. meningitidis serogroup Y antigen, is currently in the final stages of development. Additionally, a tetravalent conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT designed to help protect against four meningococcal serogroups is presently being evaluated for global use in all age groups. All of these vaccines were shown to be highly immunogenic and to have clinically acceptable safety profiles.

  10. Infusing Outdoor Field Experiences into the Secondary Biology Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Ginny

    1984-01-01

    To offer students biological field experiences, teachers should use their own basic skills, be enthusiastic motivators, participate in community programs/courses/workshops to acquire additional skills/knowledge for outdoor biological education, plan outdoor excursions with safety considerations in mind, and use available resources for classroom…

  11. The Importance of Conducting Life Sciences Experiments on the Deep Space Gateway Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, S.

    2018-01-01

    Over the last several decades important information has been gathered by conducting life science experiments on the Space Shuttle and on the International Space Station. It is now time to leverage that scientific knowledge, as well as aspects of the hardware that have been developed to support the biological model systems, to NASA's next frontier - the Deep Space Gateway. In order to facilitate long duration deep space exploration for humans, it is critical for NASA to understand the effects of long duration, low dose, deep space radiation on biological systems. While carefully controlled ground experiments on Earth-based radiation facilities have provided valuable preliminary information, we still have a significant knowledge gap on the biological responses of organisms to chronic low doses of the highly ionizing particles encountered beyond low Earth orbit. Furthermore, the combined effects of altered gravity and radiation have the potential to cause greater biological changes than either of these parameters alone. Therefore a thorough investigation of the biological effects of a cis-lunar environment will facilitate long term human exploration of deep space.

  12. Magnetoacoustic Imaging of Electrical Conductivity of Biological Tissues at a Spatial Resolution Better than 2 mm

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Gang; He, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI) is an emerging approach for noninvasively imaging electrical impedance properties of biological tissues. The MAT-MI imaging system measures ultrasound waves generated by the Lorentz force, having been induced by magnetic stimulation, which is related to the electrical conductivity distribution in tissue samples. MAT-MI promises to provide fine spatial resolution for biological tissue imaging as compared to ultrasound resolution. In t...

  13. Recommendations for designing and conducting veterinary clinical pathology biologic variation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Kathleen P; Baral, Randolph M; Dhand, Navneet K; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jensen, Asger L

    2017-06-01

    The recent creation of a veterinary clinical pathology biologic variation website has highlighted the need to provide recommendations for future studies of biologic variation in animals in order to help standardize and improve the quality of published information and to facilitate review and selection of publications as standard references. The following recommendations are provided in the format and order commonly found in veterinary publications. A checklist is provided to aid in planning, implementing, and evaluating veterinary studies on biologic variation (Appendix S1). These recommendations provide a valuable resource for clinicians, laboratorians, and researchers interested in conducting studies of biologic variation and in determining the quality of studies of biologic variation in veterinary laboratory testing. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  14. Experiences of Judeo-Christian Students in Undergraduate Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M. Elizabeth; Truong, Jasmine M.; Brownell, Sara E.

    2017-01-01

    A major research thrust in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education is focused on how to retain students as STEM majors. The accumulation of seemingly insignificant negative experiences in STEM classes can, over time, lead STEM students to have a low sense of belonging in their disciplines, and this can lead to lower retention. In this paper, we explore how Judeo-Christian students in biology have experiences related to their religious identities that could impact their retention in biology. In 28 interviews with Judeo-Christian students taking undergraduate biology classes, students reported a religious identity that can conflict with the secular culture and content of biology. Some students felt that, because they are religious, they fall within a minority in their classes and would not be seen as credible within the biology community. Students reported adverse experiences when instructors had negative dispositions toward religion and when instructors were rigid in their instructional practices when teaching evolution. These data suggest that this may be a population susceptible to experiences of cultural conflict between their religious identities and their STEM identities, which could have implications for retention. We argue that more research should explore how Judeo-Christian students’ experiences in biology classes influence their sense of belonging and retention. PMID:28232586

  15. Advancing Small Satellite Electronics Heritage for Microfluidic Biological Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Bruce; Mazmanian, Edward; Tapio, Eric

    2016-01-01

    DLR's Eu:CROPIS (Euglena and Combined Regenerative Organic-Food Production in Space) mission, launching in 2017, will carry multiple biological payloads into a sun-synchronous orbit, including NASA Ames' PowerCell experiment. PowerCell will attempt to characterize the viability of synthetic biology at micro-g, Lunar, and Martian gravity levels. PowerCell experiment requirements demand an electronic system similar to previous microfluidic biology payloads, but with an expanded feature set. As such, the system was based on PharmaSat (Diaz-Aguado et al. 2009), a previous successful biology payload from NASA Ames, and improved upon. Newer, more miniaturized electronics allow for greater capability with a lower part count and smaller size. Two identical PowerCell enclosures will fly. Each enclosure contains two separate and identical experiments with a 48-segment optical density measurement system, grow light system, microfluidic system for nutrient delivery and waste flushing, plus thermal control and environmental sensing/housekeeping including temperature, pressure, humidity, and acceleration. Electronics consist of a single Master PCB that interfaces to the spacecraft bus and regulates power and communication, plus LED, Detector, and Valve Manifold PCBs for each experiment. To facilitate ease of reuse on future missions, experiment electronics were designed to be compatible with a standard 3U small sat form factor and power bus, or to interface with a Master power/comm PCB for use in a larger satellite as in the case of PowerCell's flight on Eu:CROPIS.

  16. Standard reporting requirements for biological samples in metabolomics experiments: Microbial and in vitro biology experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, M.J. van der; Takors, R.; Smedsgaard, J.; Nielsen, J.; Ferenci, T.; Portais, J.C.; Wittmann, C.; Hooks, M.; Tomassini, A.; Oldiges, M.; Fostel, J.; Sauer, U.

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing use of metabolomics as a means to study a large number of different biological research questions, there is a need for a minimal set of reporting standards that allow the scientific community to evaluate, understand, repeat, compare and re-investigate metabolomics studies. Here

  17. Direct Electron Transfer of Enzymes in a Biologically Assembled Conductive Nanomesh Enzyme Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Lee, Ki-Young; Song, Yong-Won; Choi, Won Kook; Chang, Joonyeon; Yi, Hyunjung

    2016-02-24

    Nondestructive assembly of a nanostructured enzyme platform is developed in combination of the specific biomolecular attraction and electrostatic coupling for highly efficient direct electron transfer (DET) of enzymes with unprecedented applicability and versatility. The biologically assembled conductive nanomesh enzyme platform enables DET-based flexible integrated biosensors and DET of eight different enzyme with various catalytic activities. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Transport properties of olivine grain boundaries from electrical conductivity experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, Anne; Kohlstedt, David L.; Hansen, Lars N.; Mackwell, Stephen; Tasaka, Miki; Heidelbach, Florian; Leinenweber, Kurt

    2018-05-01

    Grain boundary processes contribute significantly to electronic and ionic transports in materials within Earth's interior. We report a novel experimental study of grain boundary conductivity in highly strained olivine aggregates that demonstrates the importance of misorientation angle between adjacent grains on aggregate transport properties. We performed electrical conductivity measurements of melt-free polycrystalline olivine (Fo90) samples that had been previously deformed at 1200 °C and 0.3 GPa to shear strains up to γ = 7.3. The electrical conductivity and anisotropy were measured at 2.8 GPa over the temperature range 700-1400 °C. We observed that (1) the electrical conductivity of samples with a small grain size (3-6 µm) and strong crystallographic preferred orientation produced by dynamic recrystallization during large-strain shear deformation is a factor of 10 or more larger than that measured on coarse-grained samples, (2) the sample deformed to the highest strain is the most conductive even though it does not have the smallest grain size, and (3) conductivity is up to a factor of 4 larger in the direction of shear than normal to the shear plane. Based on these results combined with electrical conductivity data for coarse-grained, polycrystalline olivine and for single crystals, we propose that the electrical conductivity of our fine-grained samples is dominated by grain boundary paths. In addition, the electrical anisotropy results from preferential alignment of higher-conductivity grain boundaries associated with the development of a strong crystallographic preferred orientation of the grains.

  19. How to Conduct Clinical Qualitative Research on the Patient's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    From a perspective of patient-centered healthcare, exploring patients' (a) preconceptions, (b) treatment experiences, (c) quality of life, (d) satisfaction, (e) illness understandings, and (f) design are all critical components in improving primary health care and research. Utilizing qualitative approaches to discover patients' experiences can…

  20. Code of Conduct on Biosecurity for Biological Resource Centres: procedural implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Christine; Smith, David; Martin, Dunja; Fritze, Dagmar; Stalpers, Joost

    2013-07-01

    A globally applicable code of conduct specifically dedicated to biosecurity has been developed together with guidance for its procedural implementation. This is to address the regulations governing potential dual-use of biological materials, associated information and technologies, and reduce the potential for their malicious use. Scientists researching and exchanging micro-organisms have a responsibility to prevent misuse of the inherently dangerous ones, that is, those possessing characters such as pathogenicity or toxin production. The code of conduct presented here is based on best practice principles for scientists and their institutions working with biological resources with a specific focus on micro-organisms. It aims to raise awareness of regulatory needs and to protect researchers, their facilities and stakeholders. It reflects global activities in this area in response to legislation such as that in the USA, the PATRIOT Act of 2001, Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001; the Anti-Terrorism Crime and Security Act 2001 and subsequent amendments in the UK; the EU Dual-Use Regulation; and the recommendations of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), under their Biological Resource Centre (BRC) Initiative at the beginning of the millennium (OECD, 2001). Two project consortia with international partners came together with experts in the field to draw up a Code of Conduct on Biosecurity for BRCs to ensure that culture collections and microbiologists in general worked in a way that met the requirements of such legislation. A BRC is the modern day culture collection that adds value to its holdings and implements common best practice in the collection and supply of strains for research and development. This code of conduct specifically addresses the work of public service culture collections and describes the issues of importance and the controls or

  1. Qualitative reasoning for biological network inference from systematic perturbation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaloni, Silvana; Di Camillo, Barbara; Sambo, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The systematic perturbation of the components of a biological system has been proven among the most informative experimental setups for the identification of causal relations between the components. In this paper, we present Systematic Perturbation-Qualitative Reasoning (SPQR), a novel Qualitative Reasoning approach to automate the interpretation of the results of systematic perturbation experiments. Our method is based on a qualitative abstraction of the experimental data: for each perturbation experiment, measured values of the observed variables are modeled as lower, equal or higher than the measurements in the wild type condition, when no perturbation is applied. The algorithm exploits a set of IF-THEN rules to infer causal relations between the variables, analyzing the patterns of propagation of the perturbation signals through the biological network, and is specifically designed to minimize the rate of false positives among the inferred relations. Tested on both simulated and real perturbation data, SPQR indeed exhibits a significantly higher precision than the state of the art.

  2. On The Construction of Models for Electrical Conduction in Biological Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Aguilar, F.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Rosales-Garcia, J.; Guia-Calderon, M.

    2010-01-01

    Applying RC circuit theory, a theoretical representation for the electrical conduction in a biological multilayer system was developed. In particular an equivalent circuit for the epidermis, dermis and the subcutaneous tissue was constructed. This model includes an equivalent circuit, inside the dermis, in order to model a small formation like tumor. This work shows the feasibility to apply superficial electrodes to detect subcutaneous abnormalities. The behavior of the model is shown in the form of a frequency response chart. The Bode and Nyquist plots are also obtained. This theoretical frame is proposed to be a general treatment to describe the bioelectrical transport in a three layer bioelectrical system.

  3. Background study of absorbed dose in biological experiments at the Modane Underground Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampe Nathanael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to explore how biological systems respond to ultra-low background environ-ments, we report here our background studies for biological experiments in the Modane Under-ground Laboratory. We find that the minimum radioactive background for biology experiments is limited by the potassium content of the biological sample itself, coming from its nutritive me-dium, which we find in our experimental set-up to be 26 nGy hr-1. Compared to our reference radiation environment in Clermont-Ferrand, biological experiments can be conducted in the Modane laboratory with a radiation background 8.2 times lower than the reference above-ground level. As the radiation background may be further reduced by using different nutritive media, we also provide measurements of the potassium concentration by gamma spectroscopy of yeast extract (63.3±1.2 mg g-1 and tryptone (2.5±0.2 mg g-1 in order to guide media selection in future experiments.

  4. openBEB: open biological experiment browser for correlative measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Chandrasekhar; Bieri, Andrej; Sauter, Nora; Roizard, Sophie; Ringler, Philippe; Müller, Shirley A; Goldie, Kenneth N; Enimanev, Kaloyan; Stahlberg, Henning; Rinn, Bernd; Braun, Thomas

    2014-03-26

    New experimental methods must be developed to study interaction networks in systems biology. To reduce biological noise, individual subjects, such as single cells, should be analyzed using high throughput approaches. The measurement of several correlative physical properties would further improve data consistency. Accordingly, a considerable quantity of data must be acquired, correlated, catalogued and stored in a database for subsequent analysis. We have developed openBEB (open Biological Experiment Browser), a software framework for data acquisition, coordination, annotation and synchronization with database solutions such as openBIS. OpenBEB consists of two main parts: A core program and a plug-in manager. Whereas the data-type independent core of openBEB maintains a local container of raw-data and metadata and provides annotation and data management tools, all data-specific tasks are performed by plug-ins. The open architecture of openBEB enables the fast integration of plug-ins, e.g., for data acquisition or visualization. A macro-interpreter allows the automation and coordination of the different modules. An update and deployment mechanism keeps the core program, the plug-ins and the metadata definition files in sync with a central repository. The versatility, the simple deployment and update mechanism, and the scalability in terms of module integration offered by openBEB make this software interesting for a large scientific community. OpenBEB targets three types of researcher, ideally working closely together: (i) Engineers and scientists developing new methods and instruments, e.g., for systems-biology, (ii) scientists performing biological experiments, (iii) theoreticians and mathematicians analyzing data. The design of openBEB enables the rapid development of plug-ins, which will inherently benefit from the "house keeping" abilities of the core program. We report the use of openBEB to combine live cell microscopy, microfluidic control and visual

  5. Mini-columns for Conducting Breakthrough Experiments. Design and Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ware, Stuart Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-11

    Experiments with moderately and strongly sorbing radionuclides (i.e., U, Cs, Am) have shown that sorption between experimental solutions and traditional column materials must be accounted for to accurately determine stationary phase or porous media sorption properties (i.e., sorption site density, sorption site reaction rate coefficients, and partition coefficients or Kd values). This report details the materials and construction of mini-columns for use in breakthrough columns to allow for accurate measurement and modeling of sorption parameters. Material selection, construction techniques, wet packing of columns, tubing connections, and lessons learned are addressed.

  6. Conducting organizational safety reviews - requirements, methods and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.; Wahlstroem, B.; Rollenhagen, C.; Kahlbom, U.

    2008-03-01

    Organizational safety reviews are part of the safety management process of power plants. They are typically performed after major reorganizations, significant incidents or according to specified review programs. Organizational reviews can also be a part of a benchmarking between organizations that aims to improve work practices. Thus, they are important instruments in proactive safety management and safety culture. Most methods that have been used for organizational reviews are based more on practical considerations than a sound scientific theory of how various organizational or technical issues influence safety. Review practices and methods also vary considerably. The objective of this research is to promote understanding on approaches used in organizational safety reviews as well as to initiate discussion on criteria and methods of organizational assessment. The research identified a set of issues that need to be taken into account when planning and conducting organizational safety reviews. Examples of the issues are definition of appropriate criteria for evaluation, the expertise needed in the assessment and the organizational motivation for conducting the assessment. The study indicates that organizational safety assessments involve plenty of issues and situations where choices have to be made regarding what is considered valid information and a balance has to be struck between focus on various organizational phenomena. It is very important that these choices are based on a sound theoretical framework and that these choices can later be evaluated together with the assessment findings. The research concludes that at its best, the organizational safety reviews can be utilised as a source of information concerning the changing vulnerabilities and the actual safety performance of the organization. In order to do this, certain basic organizational phenomena and assessment issues have to be acknowledged and considered. The research concludes with recommendations on

  7. Conducting organizational safety reviews - requirements, methods and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.; Wahlstroem, B. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland); Rollenhagen, C. [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, (Sweden); Kahlbom, U. [RiskPilot (Sweden)

    2008-03-15

    Organizational safety reviews are part of the safety management process of power plants. They are typically performed after major reorganizations, significant incidents or according to specified review programs. Organizational reviews can also be a part of a benchmarking between organizations that aims to improve work practices. Thus, they are important instruments in proactive safety management and safety culture. Most methods that have been used for organizational reviews are based more on practical considerations than a sound scientific theory of how various organizational or technical issues influence safety. Review practices and methods also vary considerably. The objective of this research is to promote understanding on approaches used in organizational safety reviews as well as to initiate discussion on criteria and methods of organizational assessment. The research identified a set of issues that need to be taken into account when planning and conducting organizational safety reviews. Examples of the issues are definition of appropriate criteria for evaluation, the expertise needed in the assessment and the organizational motivation for conducting the assessment. The study indicates that organizational safety assessments involve plenty of issues and situations where choices have to be made regarding what is considered valid information and a balance has to be struck between focus on various organizational phenomena. It is very important that these choices are based on a sound theoretical framework and that these choices can later be evaluated together with the assessment findings. The research concludes that at its best, the organizational safety reviews can be utilised as a source of information concerning the changing vulnerabilities and the actual safety performance of the organization. In order to do this, certain basic organizational phenomena and assessment issues have to be acknowledged and considered. The research concludes with recommendations on

  8. Recent experiences and problems in conducting pressure vessel surveillance examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Each of the commercial power reactors in the U.S.A. has a pressure vessel surveillance program. The purpose of the programs is to monitor the effects of radiation on the mechanical properties on the steel pressure vessels. A program for a given reactor includes a series of irradiation capsules containing neutron dosimeters and mechanical property specimens. The capsules are periodically removed during the life of the reactor and evaluated. The surveillance capsule examinations conducted to date have been valuable in assessing the effects of radiation on pressure vessels. However, a number of problems have been observed in the course of capsule examinations which potentially could reduce the maximum value of the data obtained. These problems are related to specimen design and preparation, capsule design and preparation, capsule installation and removal, capsule disassembly, specimen testing and evaluation, program documentation, and quality assurance. Examples of problems encountered in the preceding areas are presented in the present paper, and recommendations are made for minimization or prevention of these problems in future programs. Included in the recommendations is that appropriate ASTM standards, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code sections, and NRC regulations provide the appropriate framework for prevention of problems

  9. The Climate Experiences of Students in Introductory Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón S. Barthelemy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding course climate is important for improving students’ experiences and increasing the likelihood of their persistence in STEM fields. This study presents climate survey results from 523 students taking introductory biology at the University of Michigan. Principal component analysis revealed that a student’s climate experience is comprised of five main elements: comfort, school avoidance, relationship to course, academic stress, and discomfort. Of these climate factors, comfort, school avoidance, and relationship to course were significant predictors of course satisfaction, and academic stress was a significant predictor of persistence. The results indicated the importance of a positive climate that is facilitated by the instructor in order to promote a positive student experience. Climate may be an important metric for institutions to track across time and course.

  10. Numerical analysis of biological clogging in two-dimensional sand box experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildsgaard, J.; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional models for biological clogging and sorptive tracer transport were used to study the progress of clogging in a sand box experiment. The sand box had been inoculated with a strip of bacteria and exposed to a continuous injection of nitrate and acetate. Brilliant Blue was regularly...... injected during the clogging experiment and digital images of the tracer movement had been converted to concentration maps using an image analysis. The calibration of the models to the Brilliant Blue observations shows that Brilliant Blue has a solid biomass dependent sorption that is not compliant...... with the assumed linear constant Kd behaviour. It is demonstrated that the dimensionality of sand box experiments in comparison to column experiments results in a much lower reduction in hydraulic conductivity Žfactor of 100. and that the bulk hydraulic conductivity of the sand box decreased only slightly. However...

  11. Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation: Mexican clinical experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Pardo, M.E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. postal 18-1027, Col. Escandon 11801 Mexico DF (Mexico)], E-mail: memp@nuclear.inin.mx; Ley-Chavez, E. [ISSEMYM Toluca, Mexico DF (Mexico); Reyes-Frias, M.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. postal 18-1027, Col. Escandon 11801 Mexico DF (Mexico); Rodriguez-Ferreyra, P. [Hospital ' Dr. Nicolas San Juan' , Toluca, Mexico DF (Mexico); Vazquez-Maya, L.; Salazar, M.A. [Hospital General de Mexico, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation, such as amnion and pig skin, are a reality in Mexico. These tissues are currently processed in the tissue bank and sterilized in the Gamma Industrial Irradiation Plant; both facilities belong to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) (National Institute of Nuclear Research). With the strong support of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the bank was established at the ININ and the Mexican Ministry of Health issued its sanitary license on July 7, 1999. The Quality Management System of the bank was certified by ISO 9001:2000 on August 1, 2003; the scope of the system is 'Research, Development and Processing of Biological Tissues Sterilized with Gamma Radiation'. At present, more than 150 patients from 16 hospitals have been successfully treated with these tissues. This paper presents a brief description of the tissue processing, as well as the present Mexican clinical experience with children and adult patients who underwent medical treatment with radiosterilized amnion and pig skin, used as biological wound dressings on burns and ocular surface disorders.

  12. Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation: Mexican clinical experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pardo, M. E.; Ley-Chávez, E.; Reyes-Frías, M. L.; Rodríguez-Ferreyra, P.; Vázquez-Maya, L.; Salazar, M. A.

    2007-11-01

    Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation, such as amnion and pig skin, are a reality in Mexico. These tissues are currently processed in the tissue bank and sterilized in the Gamma Industrial Irradiation Plant; both facilities belong to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) (National Institute of Nuclear Research). With the strong support of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the bank was established at the ININ and the Mexican Ministry of Health issued its sanitary license on July 7, 1999. The Quality Management System of the bank was certified by ISO 9001:2000 on August 1, 2003; the scope of the system is "Research, Development and Processing of Biological Tissues Sterilized with Gamma Radiation". At present, more than 150 patients from 16 hospitals have been successfully treated with these tissues. This paper presents a brief description of the tissue processing, as well as the present Mexican clinical experience with children and adult patients who underwent medical treatment with radiosterilized amnion and pig skin, used as biological wound dressings on burns and ocular surface disorders.

  13. Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation: Mexican clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Pardo, M.E.; Ley-Chavez, E.; Reyes-Frias, M.L.; Rodriguez-Ferreyra, P.; Vazquez-Maya, L.; Salazar, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation, such as amnion and pig skin, are a reality in Mexico. These tissues are currently processed in the tissue bank and sterilized in the Gamma Industrial Irradiation Plant; both facilities belong to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) (National Institute of Nuclear Research). With the strong support of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the bank was established at the ININ and the Mexican Ministry of Health issued its sanitary license on July 7, 1999. The Quality Management System of the bank was certified by ISO 9001:2000 on August 1, 2003; the scope of the system is 'Research, Development and Processing of Biological Tissues Sterilized with Gamma Radiation'. At present, more than 150 patients from 16 hospitals have been successfully treated with these tissues. This paper presents a brief description of the tissue processing, as well as the present Mexican clinical experience with children and adult patients who underwent medical treatment with radiosterilized amnion and pig skin, used as biological wound dressings on burns and ocular surface disorders

  14. The beginning of Space Life Science in China exploration rockets for biological experiment during 1960's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peidong; Zhang, Jingxue

    The first step of space biological experiment in China was a set of five exploration rockets launched during 1964 to 1966, by Shanghai Institute of Machine and Electricity, and Institute of Biophysics of The Chinese Academy of Sciences. Three T-7AS1rockets for rats, mice and other samples in a biological cabin were launched and recovered safely in July of 1964 and June of 1965. Two T-7AS2rockets for dog, rats, mice and other samples in a biological cabin were launched and recovered safely in July of 1966. Institute of Biophysics in charged of the general design of biological experiments, telemetry of physiological parameters, and selection and training of experiment animals. The samples on-board were: rats, mice, dogs, and test tubes with fruit fly, enzyme, bacteria, E. Coli., lysozyme, bacteriaphage, RNAase, DNAase, crystals of enzyme, etc. Physiological, biochemical, bacte-riological, immunological, genetic, histochemical studies had been conducted, in cellular and sub cellular level. The postures of rat and dog were monitored during flight and under weight-lessness. Physiological parameters of ECG, blood pressure, respiration rate, body temperature were recorded. A dog named"Xiao Bao"was flight in 1966 with video monitor, life support system and conditioned reflex equipment. It flighted for more than 20 minutes and about 70km high. After 40 years, the experimental data recorded of its four physiological parameters during the flight process was reviewed. The change of 4 parameters during various phase of total flight process were compared, analyzed and discussed.

  15. Reusable bi-directional 3ω sensor to measure thermal conductivity of 100-μm thick biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubner, Sean D.; Choi, Jeunghwan; Wehmeyer, Geoff; Waag, Bastian; Mishra, Vivek; Natesan, Harishankar; Bischof, John C.; Dames, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the thermal conductivity (k) of biological tissues is important for cryopreservation, thermal ablation, and cryosurgery. Here, we adapt the 3ω method—widely used for rigid, inorganic solids—as a reusable sensor to measure k of soft biological samples two orders of magnitude thinner than conventional tissue characterization methods. Analytical and numerical studies quantify the error of the commonly used "boundary mismatch approximation" of the bi-directional 3ω geometry, confirm that the generalized slope method is exact in the low-frequency limit, and bound its error for finite frequencies. The bi-directional 3ω measurement device is validated using control experiments to within ±2% (liquid water, standard deviation) and ±5% (ice). Measurements of mouse liver cover a temperature ranging from -69 °C to +33 °C. The liver results are independent of sample thicknesses from 3 mm down to 100 μm and agree with available literature for non-mouse liver to within the measurement scatter.

  16. Reproducible computational biology experiments with SED-ML--the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltemath, Dagmar; Adams, Richard; Bergmann, Frank T; Hucka, Michael; Kolpakov, Fedor; Miller, Andrew K; Moraru, Ion I; Nickerson, David; Sahle, Sven; Snoep, Jacky L; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2011-12-15

    The increasing use of computational simulation experiments to inform modern biological research creates new challenges to annotate, archive, share and reproduce such experiments. The recently published Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) proposes a minimal set of information that should be provided to allow the reproduction of simulation experiments among users and software tools. In this article, we present the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML). SED-ML encodes in a computer-readable exchange format the information required by MIASE to enable reproduction of simulation experiments. It has been developed as a community project and it is defined in a detailed technical specification and additionally provides an XML schema. The version of SED-ML described in this publication is Level 1 Version 1. It covers the description of the most frequent type of simulation experiments in the area, namely time course simulations. SED-ML documents specify which models to use in an experiment, modifications to apply on the models before using them, which simulation procedures to run on each model, what analysis results to output, and how the results should be presented. These descriptions are independent of the underlying model implementation. SED-ML is a software-independent format for encoding the description of simulation experiments; it is not specific to particular simulation tools. Here, we demonstrate that with the growing software support for SED-ML we can effectively exchange executable simulation descriptions. With SED-ML, software can exchange simulation experiment descriptions, enabling the validation and reuse of simulation experiments in different tools. Authors of papers reporting simulation experiments can make their simulation protocols available for other scientists to reproduce the results. Because SED-ML is agnostic about exact modeling language(s) used, experiments covering models from different fields of research

  17. Reproducible computational biology experiments with SED-ML - The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The increasing use of computational simulation experiments to inform modern biological research creates new challenges to annotate, archive, share and reproduce such experiments. The recently published Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) proposes a minimal set of information that should be provided to allow the reproduction of simulation experiments among users and software tools. Results In this article, we present the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML). SED-ML encodes in a computer-readable exchange format the information required by MIASE to enable reproduction of simulation experiments. It has been developed as a community project and it is defined in a detailed technical specification and additionally provides an XML schema. The version of SED-ML described in this publication is Level 1 Version 1. It covers the description of the most frequent type of simulation experiments in the area, namely time course simulations. SED-ML documents specify which models to use in an experiment, modifications to apply on the models before using them, which simulation procedures to run on each model, what analysis results to output, and how the results should be presented. These descriptions are independent of the underlying model implementation. SED-ML is a software-independent format for encoding the description of simulation experiments; it is not specific to particular simulation tools. Here, we demonstrate that with the growing software support for SED-ML we can effectively exchange executable simulation descriptions. Conclusions With SED-ML, software can exchange simulation experiment descriptions, enabling the validation and reuse of simulation experiments in different tools. Authors of papers reporting simulation experiments can make their simulation protocols available for other scientists to reproduce the results. Because SED-ML is agnostic about exact modeling language(s) used, experiments covering models from

  18. Three-dimensional Simulation of Gas Conductance Measurement Experiments on Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stotler, D.P.; LaBombard, B.

    2004-01-01

    Three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutral transport simulations of gas flow through the Alcator C-Mod subdivertor yield conductances comparable to those found in dedicated experiments. All are significantly smaller than the conductance found with the previously used axisymmetric geometry. A benchmarking exercise of the code against known conductance values for gas flow through a simple pipe provides a physical basis for interpreting the comparison of the three-dimensional and experimental C-Mod conductances

  19. Estimation of Corn Yield and Soil Nitrogen via Soil Electrical Conductivity Measurement Treated with Organic, Chemical and Biological Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Khalilzade

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Around the world maize is the second crop with the most cultivated areas and amount of production, so as the most important strategic crop, have a special situation in policies, decision making, resources and inputs allocation. On the other side, negative environmental consequences of intensive consumption of agrochemicals resulted to change view concerning food production. One of the most important visions is sustainable production of enough food plus attention to social, economic and environmental aspects. Many researchers stated that the first step to achieve this goal is optimization and improvement of resources use efficiencies. According to little knowledge on relation between soil electrical conductivity and yield of maize, beside the environmental concerns about nitrogen consumption and need to replace chemical nitrogen by ecological inputs, this study designed and aimed to evaluate agroecological characteristics of corn and some soil characteristics as affected by application of organic and biological fertilizers under field conditions. Materials and Methods In order to probing the possibility of grain yield and soil nitrogen estimation via measurement of soil properties, a field experiment was conducted during growing season 2010 at Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. A randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications was used. Treatments included: 1- manure (30 ton ha-1, 2-vermicompost (10 ton ha-1, 3- nitroxin (containing Azotobacter sp. and Azospirillum sp., inoculation was done according to Kennedy et al., 4- nitrogen as urea (400 kg ha-1 and 5- control (without fertilizer. Studied traits were soil pH, soil EC, soil respiration rate, N content of soil and maize yield. Soil respiration rate was measured using equation 1: CO2= (V0- V× N×22 Equation 1 In which V0 is the volume of consumed acid for control treatment titration, V is of the volume of consumed acid for sample treatment

  20. Compact Electro-Permeabilization System for Controlled Treatment of Biological Cells and Cell Medium Conductivity Change Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novickij Vitalij

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Subjection of biological cells to high intensity pulsed electric field results in the permeabilization of the cell membrane. Measurement of the electrical conductivity change allows an analysis of the dynamics of the process, determination of the permeabilization thresholds, and ion efflux influence. In this work a compact electro-permeabilization system for controlled treatment of biological cells is presented. The system is capable of delivering 5 μs - 5 ms repetitive square wave electric field pulses with amplitude up to 1 kV. Evaluation of the cell medium conductivity change is implemented in the setup, allowing indirect measurement of the ion concentration changes occurring due to the cell membrane permeabilization. The simulation model using SPICE and the experimental data of the proposed system are presented in this work. Experimental data with biological cells is also overviewed

  1. A National Comparison of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Capstone Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguanno, Ann; Mertz, Pamela; Martin, Debra; Bell, Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing the increasingly integrative nature of the molecular life sciences, the "American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" (ASBMB) recommends that Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (BMB) programs develop curricula based on concepts, content, topics, and expected student outcomes, rather than courses. To that end,…

  2. Single-molecule experiments in biological physics: methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritort, F

    2006-08-16

    I review single-molecule experiments (SMEs) in biological physics. Recent technological developments have provided the tools to design and build scientific instruments of high enough sensitivity and precision to manipulate and visualize individual molecules and measure microscopic forces. Using SMEs it is possible to manipulate molecules one at a time and measure distributions describing molecular properties, characterize the kinetics of biomolecular reactions and detect molecular intermediates. SMEs provide additional information about thermodynamics and kinetics of biomolecular processes. This complements information obtained in traditional bulk assays. In SMEs it is also possible to measure small energies and detect large Brownian deviations in biomolecular reactions, thereby offering new methods and systems to scrutinize the basic foundations of statistical mechanics. This review is written at a very introductory level, emphasizing the importance of SMEs to scientists interested in knowing the common playground of ideas and the interdisciplinary topics accessible by these techniques. The review discusses SMEs from an experimental perspective, first exposing the most common experimental methodologies and later presenting various molecular systems where such techniques have been applied. I briefly discuss experimental techniques such as atomic-force microscopy (AFM), laser optical tweezers (LOTs), magnetic tweezers (MTs), biomembrane force probes (BFPs) and single-molecule fluorescence (SMF). I then present several applications of SME to the study of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA and DNA condensation) and proteins (protein-protein interactions, protein folding and molecular motors). Finally, I discuss applications of SMEs to the study of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of small systems and the experimental verification of fluctuation theorems. I conclude with a discussion of open questions and future perspectives.

  3. Single-molecule experiments in biological physics: methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritort, F

    2006-01-01

    I review single-molecule experiments (SMEs) in biological physics. Recent technological developments have provided the tools to design and build scientific instruments of high enough sensitivity and precision to manipulate and visualize individual molecules and measure microscopic forces. Using SMEs it is possible to manipulate molecules one at a time and measure distributions describing molecular properties, characterize the kinetics of biomolecular reactions and detect molecular intermediates. SMEs provide additional information about thermodynamics and kinetics of biomolecular processes. This complements information obtained in traditional bulk assays. In SMEs it is also possible to measure small energies and detect large Brownian deviations in biomolecular reactions, thereby offering new methods and systems to scrutinize the basic foundations of statistical mechanics. This review is written at a very introductory level, emphasizing the importance of SMEs to scientists interested in knowing the common playground of ideas and the interdisciplinary topics accessible by these techniques. The review discusses SMEs from an experimental perspective, first exposing the most common experimental methodologies and later presenting various molecular systems where such techniques have been applied. I briefly discuss experimental techniques such as atomic-force microscopy (AFM), laser optical tweezers (LOTs), magnetic tweezers (MTs), biomembrane force probes (BFPs) and single-molecule fluorescence (SMF). I then present several applications of SME to the study of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA and DNA condensation) and proteins (protein-protein interactions, protein folding and molecular motors). Finally, I discuss applications of SMEs to the study of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of small systems and the experimental verification of fluctuation theorems. I conclude with a discussion of open questions and future perspectives. (topical review)

  4. Evaluation of combustion experiments conducted during the research and development project ``Mechanical-biological waste conditioning in combination with thermal processing of partial waste fractions``; Auswertung der Verbrennungsversuche zum Forschungs- und Entwicklungsvorhaben ``mechanisch-biologische Restmuellbehandlung unter Einbindung thermischer Verfahren fuer Teilfraktionen``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, J.; Lohf, A.; Herr, C. [Institut WAR, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The technical code on municipal waste makes specific demands on waste to be deposited at landfills which can only be met if mechanical-biological conditioning of waste as well as thermal processing of partial waste fractions are continued also in the future. But waste that has undergone mechanical or mechanical-biological conditioning presents different combustion properties from those of unconditioned waste. In this second stage of the research project, the thermal processability of waste having undergone mechanical or mechanical-biological conditioning was studied. Together with the results from the first project stage, where the throughput represented exclusively mechanically conditioned material, the results of the latter measuring campaigns comprehensively demonstrate possibilities for the thermal processing of partial waste fractions having undergone biological-mechanical conditioning, and inform on changes in plant performance. (orig.) [Deutsch] Um die in der TA-Siedlungsabfall an den abzulagernden Restmuell gestellten Deponieeingangsbedingungen zu erfuellen, muss neben einer mechanisch-biologischen Aufbereitung bei Teilfraktionen auch weiterhin eine thermische Behandlung eingeplant werden. Die Verbrennungseigenschaften von mechanisch oder mechanisch-biologisch vorbehandeltem Restmuell weichen allerdings von denen von unbehandeltem Restmuell ab. In dieser zweiten Projektphase des Forschungsvorhabens wurde eine Untersuchung bezueglich der thermischen Behandelbarkeit von mechanisch und auch biologisch vorbehandeltem Muell durchgefuehrt. Die Ergebnisse der Messkampagnen bilden zusammen mit den Ergebnissen der ersten Projektphase, in der ausschliesslich mechanisch vorbehandeltes Material durchgesetzt wurde, eine umfassende Darstellung ueber Moeglichkeiten und veraenderte Anlagenverhalten bei der thermischen Behandlung von Teilfraktionen aus der biologisch-mechanisch Vorbehandlung. (orig.)

  5. psiTurk: An open-source framework for conducting replicable behavioral experiments online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gureckis, Todd M; Martin, Jay; McDonnell, John; Rich, Alexander S; Markant, Doug; Coenen, Anna; Halpern, David; Hamrick, Jessica B; Chan, Patricia

    2016-09-01

    Online data collection has begun to revolutionize the behavioral sciences. However, conducting carefully controlled behavioral experiments online introduces a number of new of technical and scientific challenges. The project described in this paper, psiTurk, is an open-source platform which helps researchers develop experiment designs which can be conducted over the Internet. The tool primarily interfaces with Amazon's Mechanical Turk, a popular crowd-sourcing labor market. This paper describes the basic architecture of the system and introduces new users to the overall goals. psiTurk aims to reduce the technical hurdles for researchers developing online experiments while improving the transparency and collaborative nature of the behavioral sciences.

  6. Crucible: A System for Space Synthetic Biology Experiments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to expand the capability and methodologies in experimental extreme biology as a step towards Martian ecopoiesis. The objectives in...

  7. openBEB: open biological experiment browser for correlative measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakrishnan, Chandrasekhar; Bieri, Andrej; Sauter, Nora; Roizard, Sophie; Ringler, Philippe; Müller, Shirley A; Goldie, Kenneth N; Enimanev, Kaloyan; Stahlberg, Henning; Rinn, Bernd; Braun, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background: New experimental methods must be developed to study interaction networks in systems biology. To reduce biological noise, individual subjects, such as single cells, should be analyzed using high throughput approaches. The measurement of several correlative physical properties would further improve data consistency. Accordingly, a considerable quantity of data must be acquired, correlated, catalogued and stored in a database for subsequent analysis. Results: We have developed openBE...

  8. Educational experiment for students using natural radioactivity. 2. Practical example of radiochemical experiment conducted at Tottori University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Mariko; Esaka, Takao; Kamata, Masahiro

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a practical example of educational experiment conducted at Tottori University, whose theme is to separate 214 Bi(+ 214 Pb) from superphosphate of lime or the soil sampled at Ningyo-Touge mountain pass. The results of this experiment are quantitative enough for educational purpose, although the amount of radioactivity is so small that it is free from any regulation in Japan. (author)

  9. Graphene as a transparent conductive support for studying biological molecules by transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, R. R.; Anissimova, S.; Novoselov, K. S.; Blake, P.; Blake, J. R.; Geim, A. K.; Zan, R.; Bangert, U.; Golovanov, A. P.; Morozov, S. V.; Latychevskaia, T.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of graphene as a support for imaging individual biological molecules in transmission electron microscope (TEM). A simple procedure to produce free-standing graphene membranes has been designed. Such membranes are extremely robust and can support practically any submicrometer object. Tobacco mosaic virus has been deposited on graphene samples and observed in a TEM. High contrast has been achieved even though no staining has been applied.

  10. Quantifying pCO2 in biological ocean acidification experiments: A comparison of four methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sue-Ann; Fabricius, Katharina E; Munday, Philip L

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in seawater is an essential component of ocean acidification research; however, equipment for measuring CO2 directly can be costly and involve complex, bulky apparatus. Consequently, other parameters of the carbonate system, such as pH and total alkalinity (AT), are often measured and used to calculate the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in seawater, especially in biological CO2-manipulation studies, including large ecological experiments and those conducted at field sites. Here we compare four methods of pCO2 determination that have been used in biological ocean acidification experiments: 1) Versatile INstrument for the Determination of Total inorganic carbon and titration Alkalinity (VINDTA) measurement of dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) and AT, 2) spectrophotometric measurement of pHT and AT, 3) electrode measurement of pHNBS and AT, and 4) the direct measurement of CO2 using a portable CO2 equilibrator with a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) gas analyser. In this study, we found these four methods can produce very similar pCO2 estimates, and the three methods often suited to field-based application (spectrophotometric pHT, electrode pHNBS and CO2 equilibrator) produced estimated measurement uncertainties of 3.5-4.6% for pCO2. Importantly, we are not advocating the replacement of established methods to measure seawater carbonate chemistry, particularly for high-accuracy quantification of carbonate parameters in seawater such as open ocean chemistry, for real-time measures of ocean change, nor for the measurement of small changes in seawater pCO2. However, for biological CO2-manipulation experiments measuring differences of over 100 μatm pCO2 among treatments, we find the four methods described here can produce similar results with careful use.

  11. Biomedical Research Experiences for Biology Majors at a Small College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Shawn K.; Mabry, Michelle L.

    2010-01-01

    A program-level assessment of the biology curriculum at a small liberal arts college validates a previous study demonstrating success in achieving learning outcomes related to content knowledge and communication skills. Furthermore, research opportunities have been provided to complement pedagogical strategies and give students a more complete…

  12. Can Climate Change Enhance Biology Lessons? A Quasi-Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Martha C.; Hall, Stephanie; Li, Christine Jie

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a highly charged topic that some adults prefer to ignore. If the same holds true for secondary students, teachers could be challenged to teach about climate change. We structured one activity about the biological concepts of carbon cycle and carbon sequestration in two ways: with and without mention of climate change. Results…

  13. Permeable barrier materials for strontium immobilization: Unsaturated flow apparatus determination of hydraulic conductivity -- Column sorption experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, T.E.; Conca, J.

    1996-09-01

    Selected materials were tested to emulate a permeable barrier and to examine the (1) capture efficiency of these materials relating to the immobilization of strontium-90 and hexavalent chromium (Cr 6+ ) in Hanford Site groundwater; and (2) hydraulic conductivity of the barrier material relative to the surrounding area. The emplacement method investigated was a permeable reactive barrier to treat contaminated groundwater as it passes through the barrier. The hydraulic conductivity function was measured for each material, and retardation column experiments were performed for each material. Measurements determining the hydraulic conductivity at unsaturated through saturated water content were executed using the Unsaturated Flow Apparatus

  14. A two-parameter nondiffusive heat conduction model for data analysis in pump-probe experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanbao

    2014-12-01

    Nondiffusive heat transfer has attracted intensive research interests in last 50 years because of its importance in fundamental physics and engineering applications. It has unique features that cannot be described by the Fourier law. However, current studies of nondiffusive heat transfer still focus on studying the effective thermal conductivity within the framework of the Fourier law due to a lack of a well-accepted replacement. Here, we show that nondiffusive heat conduction can be characterized by two inherent material properties: a diffusive thermal conductivity and a ballistic transport length. We also present a two-parameter heat conduction model and demonstrate its validity in different pump-probe experiments. This model not only offers new insights of nondiffusive heat conduction but also opens up new avenues for the studies of nondiffusive heat transfer outside the framework of the Fourier law.

  15. [Biologic aspects of ADHD and conduct disorders in childhood and adolescence, selected preventive aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paclt, Ivo; Přibilová, Nikol

    2017-01-01

    Next to environmental factors and problems with interpersonal interaction in family represent developmental findings the basic of understanding these disorders (ADHD, conduct disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, tic disorders etc.). Knowledges of neurodevelopment disorders represent new possibilities of prevention and treatment.

  16. Integrating Responsible Conduct of Research Education into Undergraduate Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Tamara L.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a requirement for directed responsible conduct in research (RCR) education has become a priority in the United States and elsewhere. In the US, both the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation require RCR education for all students who are financially supported by federal awards. The guidelines produced by these…

  17. Essential Data and Techniques for Conducting Microbial Fuel Cell and other Types of Bioelectrochemical System Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and other bioelectrochemical systems are new technologies that require expertise in a variety of technical areas, ranging from electrochemistry to biological wastewater treatment. There are certain data and critical information that should be included in every MFC study, such as specific surface area of the electrodes, solution conductivity, and power densities normalized to electrode surface area and volumes. Electrochemical techniques such as linear sweep voltammetry can be used to understand the performance of the MFC, but extremely slow scans are required for these biological systems compared to more traditional fuel cells. In this Minireview, the critical information needed for MFC studies is provided with examples of how results can be better conveyed through a full description of materials, the use of proper controls, and inclusion of a more complete electrochemical analysis. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Essential Data and Techniques for Conducting Microbial Fuel Cell and other Types of Bioelectrochemical System Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2012-04-19

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and other bioelectrochemical systems are new technologies that require expertise in a variety of technical areas, ranging from electrochemistry to biological wastewater treatment. There are certain data and critical information that should be included in every MFC study, such as specific surface area of the electrodes, solution conductivity, and power densities normalized to electrode surface area and volumes. Electrochemical techniques such as linear sweep voltammetry can be used to understand the performance of the MFC, but extremely slow scans are required for these biological systems compared to more traditional fuel cells. In this Minireview, the critical information needed for MFC studies is provided with examples of how results can be better conveyed through a full description of materials, the use of proper controls, and inclusion of a more complete electrochemical analysis. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Conducting Action Research in Kenyan Primary Schools: A Narrative of Lived Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otienoh, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a narrative of my personal experiences of conducting action research in Kenyan primary schools. It highlights the opportunities, successes, challenges and dilemmas I encountered during the process: from the school hunting period, to the carrying out of the actual research in two schools, with four teachers. This study reveals that…

  20. Experiment and prediction on thermal conductivity of Al2O3/ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Experiment and prediction on thermal conductivity of Al2O3/ZnO nano thin film interface structure. PING YANG*, LIQIANG ZHANG, HAIYING YANG†, DONGJING LIU and XIALONG LI. Laboratory of Advanced Manufacturing and Reliability for MEMS/NEMS/OEDS,. School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, ...

  1. Using Conductivity Measurements to Determine the Identities and Concentrations of Unknown Acids: An Inquiry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. Christopher; Garza, Ariana

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a student designed experiment using titrations involving conductivity measurements to identify unknown acids as being either HCl or H[subscript 2]SO[subscript 4], and to determine the concentrations of the acids, thereby improving the utility of standard acid-base titrations. Using an inquiry context, students gain experience…

  2. 21 CFR 101.108 - Temporary exemptions for purposes of conducting authorized food labeling experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... authorized food labeling experiments. 101.108 Section 101.108 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Exemptions From Food Labeling Requirements § 101.108 Temporary exemptions for purposes of conducting authorized food...

  3. Complex fluids in biological systems experiment, theory, and computation

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book serves as an introduction to the continuum mechanics and mathematical modeling of complex fluids in living systems. The form and function of living systems are intimately tied to the nature of surrounding fluid environments, which commonly exhibit nonlinear and history dependent responses to forces and displacements. With ever-increasing capabilities in the visualization and manipulation of biological systems, research on the fundamental phenomena, models, measurements, and analysis of complex fluids has taken a number of exciting directions. In this book, many of the world’s foremost experts explore key topics such as: Macro- and micro-rheological techniques for measuring the material properties of complex biofluids and the subtleties of data interpretation Experimental observations and rheology of complex biological materials, including mucus, cell membranes, the cytoskeleton, and blood The motility of microorganisms in complex fluids and the dynamics of active suspensions Challenges and solut...

  4. National experience in radiosterelization or radiodescontamination of biological products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padron, E.; Romay, Z.; Otero, I.; Chavez, A.; Prieto, E.; Sainz, D.; Rodriguez, R.; Diaz, D.

    1997-01-01

    The ionizing radiations are especially important when other chemical and physical methods can't be used, or they don't give the result required, for which the employment of advanced technologies for the sterilization is found in ascent at world level. To such effect, the International Atomic Energy Agency has, sponsored a coordinated program for the radiosterilization of medical and biological products in Latin America, in which Cuba participates. (author) [es

  5. Sand box experiments with bioclogging of porous media: Hydraulic conductivity reductions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Dorte; Engesgaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Tracer experiments during clogging and de-clogging experiments in a 2D sand box were via an image analysis used to establish a data set on the relation between changes in hydraulic conductivity (K) and relative porosity (β). Clogging appears to create a finger-like tracer transport, which could...... and closer to the substrate source during the experiments suggesting that the zone of clogging moved upstream. Three clogging models, K(β), from the literature were tested for their ability to describe the temporal changes in clogging at the scale of the sand box; the model of Clement et al. (1996......) that makes no assumption on biomass distribution, the plug formation model of Thullner et al. (2002a), and the biofilm-plug formation model of Vandevivere (1995). The plug formation and biofilm-plug formation models both match the observed changes between the hydraulic conductivity of the sand box...

  6. Magnetoacoustic Tomography with Magnetic Induction (MAT-MI) for Imaging Electrical Conductivity of Biological Tissue: A Tutorial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Yu, Kai; He, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI) is a noninvasive imaging method developed to map electrical conductivity of biological tissue with millimeter level spatial resolution. In MAT-MI, a time-varying magnetic stimulation is applied to induce eddy current inside the conductive tissue sample. With the existence of a static magnetic field, the Lorentz force acting on the induced eddy current drives mechanical vibrations producing detectable ultrasound signals. These ultrasound signals can then be acquired to reconstruct a map related to the sample’s electrical conductivity contrast. This work reviews fundamental ideas of MAT-MI and major techniques developed in these years. First, the physical mechanisms underlying MAT-MI imaging are described including the magnetic induction and Lorentz force induced acoustic wave propagation. Second, experimental setups and various imaging strategies for MAT-MI are reviewed and compared together with the corresponding experimental results. In addition, as a recently developed reverse mode of MAT-MI, magneto-acousto-electrical tomography with magnetic induction (MAET-MI) is briefly reviewed in terms of its theory and experimental studies. Finally, we give our opinions on existing challenges and future directions for MAT-MI research. With all the reported and future technical advancement, MAT-MI has the potential to become an important noninvasive modality for electrical conductivity imaging of biological tissue. PMID:27542088

  7. [Determinant factors and conduct in post-accident with biological material among pre-hospital professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Maria Henriqueta Rocha Siqueira; Oliveira, Adriana Cristina

    2011-01-01

    This transversal study was carried out with a multiprofessional team in the pre-hospital care in Minas Gerais, Brazil. It aimed to estimate the incidence of occupational accidents by exposure to biological material and post-accidents conductsta. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were used. Incidence of accidents was 19.8%: 39,1% perforating-cutting materials and 56.5% body fluids. Doctors (33.3%) and drivers (24.0%) were most involved. Inadequate subsequent measures were highly prevalent: no medical assessment (69.6%), no work accident communication issued (91.3%), no measures (52.2%) and no serological follow-up (52.2%). Variables associated with accidents were: age >31 years old (OR = 3,02; IC95%: 1,25 - 7,33; p = 0,014) and working in basic support units (OR = 5,36; IC95%: 1,51 19,08; p = 0,010). The implementation of post-accidents protocols is suggested in order to reduce accidents and under-notification, and increase post-accident follow-up.

  8. 'Biologizing' Psychopathy: Ethical, Legal, and Research Implications at the Interface of Epigenetics and Chronic Antisocial Conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamatea, Armon J

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetics, a field that links genetics and environmental influences on the expression of phenotypic traits, offers to increase our understanding of the development and trajectory of disease and psychological disorders beyond that thought of traditional genetic research and behavioural measures. By extension, this new perspective has implications for risk and risk management of antisocial behaviour where there is a biological component, such as psychopathy. Psychopathy is a personality disorder associated with repeat displays of antisocial behaviour, and is associated with the disproportionate imposition of harm on communities. Despite advances in our knowledge of psychopathic individuals, the construct remains complex and is hampered by a lack of integration across a range of fundamental domains. The clinical and forensic research on psychopathy is brought into conversation with the emerging field of epigenetics to highlight critical issues of (1) clinical definition and diagnosis, (2) assessment, (3) aetiology of psychopathic phenotypes, and (4) treatment and rehabilitation approaches. Broader ethical and legal questions of the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the management of psychopathy beyond the criminal justice arena are also outlined. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. High accuracy thermal conductivity measurement of aqueous cryoprotective agents and semi-rigid biological tissues using a microfabricated thermal sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xin M.; Sekar, Praveen K.; Zhao, Gang; Zhou, Xiaoming; Shu, Zhiquan; Huang, Zhongping; Ding, Weiping; Zhang, Qingchuan; Gao, Dayong

    2015-01-01

    An improved thermal-needle approach for accurate and fast measurement of thermal conductivity of aqueous and soft biomaterials was developed using microfabricated thermal conductivity sensors. This microscopic measuring device was comprehensively characterized at temperatures from 0 °C to 40 °C. Despite the previous belief, system calibration constant was observed to be highly temperature-dependent. Dynamic thermal conductivity response during cooling (40 °C to –40 °C) was observed using the miniaturized single tip sensor for various concentrations of CPAs, i.e., glycerol, ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide. Chicken breast, chicken skin, porcine limb, and bovine liver were assayed to investigate the effect of anatomical heterogeneity on thermal conductivity using the arrayed multi-tip sensor at 20 °C. Experimental results revealed distinctive differences in localized thermal conductivity, which suggests the use of approximated or constant property values is expected to bring about results with largely inflated uncertainties when investigating bio-heat transfer mechanisms and/or performing sophisticated thermal modeling with complex biological tissues. Overall, the presented micro thermal sensor with automated data analysis algorithm is a promising approach for direct thermal conductivity measurement of aqueous solutions and soft biomaterials and is of great value to cryopreservation of tissues, hyperthermia or cryogenic, and other thermal-based clinical diagnostics and treatments. PMID:25993037

  10. Epigenesis by experience: Romantic empiricism and non-Kantian biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Amanda Jo

    2017-12-13

    Reconstructions of Romantic-era life science in general, and epigenesis in particular, frequently take the Kantian logic of autotelic "self-organization" as their primary reference point. I argue in this essay that the Kantian conceptual rubric hinders our historical and theoretical understanding of epigenesis, Romantic and otherwise. Neither a neutral gloss on epigenesis, nor separable from the epistemological deflation of biological knowledge that has received intensive scrutiny in the history and philosophy of science, Kant's heuristics of autonomous "self-organization" in the third Critique amount to the strategic capture of epigenesis from nature, for thought, in thought's critical transcendence of nature. This essay looks to Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and his English contemporary Erasmus Darwin to begin to reconstruct the rigorously materialist, naturalist, and empiricist theories of epigenesis (still) marginalized by Kantian argumentation. As theorists of environmental and social collaboration in the ontogeny of viable forms, Lamarck and Darwin illuminate features of our own epigenetic turn obscured by the rhetoric of "self-organization," allowing us to glimpse an alternative Romantic genealogy of the biological present.

  11. OGUMI-A new mobile application to conduct common-pool resource experiments in continuous time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Brandt

    Full Text Available OGUMI is an Android-based open source mobile application for conducting Common-Pool Resource Experiments, Choice Experiments, and Questionnaires in the field, in the laboratory, and online. A main feature of OGUMI is its capacity to capture real-time changes in human behaviour in response to a dynamically varying resource. OGUMI is simple (for example, likewise other existing software, it does not require expertise in behavioural game theory, stable, and extremely flexible with respect to the user-resource model running in the background. Here we present the motivation for the development of OGUMI and we discuss its main features with an example application.

  12. Video of Miscible Fluid Experiment Conducted on NASA Low Gravity Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This is a video of dyed water being injected into glycerin in a 2.2 centimeter (cm) diameter test tube. The experiment was conducted on the KC-135 aircraft, a NASA plane that creates microgravity and 2g conditions as it maneuvers through multiple parabolas. The water is less dense and so it rises to the top of the glycerin. The goal of the experiment was to determine if a blob of a miscible fluid would spontaneously become spherical in a microgravity environment.

  13. Large-scale experience with biological treatment of contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz-Berendt, V.; Poetzsch, E.

    1995-01-01

    The efficiency of biological methods for the cleanup of soil contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was demonstrated by a large-scale example in which 38,000 tons of TPH- and PAH-polluted soil was treated onsite with the TERRAFERM reg-sign degradation system to reach the target values of 300 mg/kg TPH and 5 mg/kg PAH. Detection of the ecotoxicological potential (Microtox reg-sign assay) showed a significant decrease during the remediation. Low concentrations of PAH in the ground were treated by an in situ technology. The in situ treatment was combined with mechanical measures (slurry wall) to prevent the contamination from dispersing from the site

  14. Nanocomposites of iridium oxide and conducting polymers as electroactive phases in biological media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral-Vico, J; Sánchez-Redondo, S; Lichtenstein, M P; Suñol, C; Casañ-Pastor, N

    2014-05-01

    Much effort is currently devoted to implementing new materials in electrodes that will be used in the central nervous system, either for functional electrostimulation or for tests on nerve regeneration. Their main aim is to improve the charge capacity of the electrodes, while preventing damaging secondary reactions, such as peroxide formation, occurring while applying the electric field. Thus, hybrids may represent a new generation of materials. Two novel hybrid materials are synthesized using three known biocompatible materials tested in the neural system: polypyrrole (PPy), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and iridium oxide (IrO2). In particular, PPy-IrO2 and PEDOT-IrO2 hybrid nanocomposite materials are prepared by chemical polymerization in hydrothermal conditions, using IrO2 as oxidizing agent. The reaction yields a significant ordered new hybrid where the conducting polymer is formed around the IrO2 nanoparticles, encapsulating them. Scanning electron microscopy and backscattering techniques show the extent of the encapsulation. Both X-ray photoelectron and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies identify the components of the phases, as well as the absence of impurities. Electrochemical properties of the final phases in powder and pellet form are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry. Biocompatibility is tested with MTT toxicity tests using primary cultures of cortical neurons grown in vitro for 6 and 9days. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Divalent Metal Ion Transport across Large Biological Ion Channels and Their Effect on Conductance and Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena García-Giménez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological characterization of large protein channels, usually displaying multi-ionic transport and weak ion selectivity, is commonly performed at physiological conditions (moderate gradients of KCl solutions at decimolar concentrations buffered at neutral pH. We extend here the characterization of the OmpF porin, a wide channel of the outer membrane of E. coli, by studying the effect of salts of divalent cations on the transport properties of the channel. The regulation of divalent cations concentration is essential in cell metabolism and understanding their effects is of key importance, not only in the channels specifically designed to control their passage but also in other multiionic channels. In particular, in porin channels like OmpF, divalent cations modulate the efficiency of molecules having antimicrobial activity. Taking advantage of the fact that the OmpF channel atomic structure has been resolved both in water and in MgCl2 aqueous solutions, we analyze the single channel conductance and the channel selectivity inversion aiming to separate the role of the electrolyte itself, and the counterion accumulation induced by the protein channel charges and other factors (binding, steric effects, etc. that being of minor importance in salts of monovalent cations become crucial in the case of divalent cations.

  16. Semi-automated operation of Mars Climate Simulation chamber - MCSC modelled for biological experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasashvili, M. V.; Sabashvili, Sh. A.; Tsereteli, S. L.; Aleksidze, N. D.; Dalakishvili, O.

    2017-10-01

    The Mars Climate Simulation Chamber (MCSC) (GEO PAT 12 522/01) is designed for the investigation of the possible past and present habitability of Mars, as well as for the solution of practical tasks necessary for the colonization and Terraformation of the Planet. There are specific tasks such as the experimental investigation of the biological parameters that allow many terrestrial organisms to adapt to the imitated Martian conditions: chemistry of the ground, atmosphere, temperature, radiation, etc. MCSC is set for the simulation of the conduction of various biological experiments, as well as the selection of extremophile microorganisms for the possible Settlement, Ecopoesis and/or Terraformation purposes and investigation of their physiological functions. For long-term purposes, it is possible to cultivate genetically modified organisms (e.g., plants) adapted to the Martian conditions for future Martian agriculture to sustain human Mars missions and permanent settlements. The size of the chamber allows preliminary testing of the functionality of space-station mini-models and personal protection devices such as space-suits, covering and building materials and other structures. The reliability of the experimental biotechnological materials can also be tested over a period of years. Complex and thorough research has been performed to acquire the most appropriate technical tools for the accurate engineering of the MCSC and precious programmed simulation of Martian environmental conditions. This paper describes the construction and technical details of the equipment of the MCSC, which allows its semi-automated, long-term operation.

  17. Barriers to Conducting Supervised Agricultural Experiences as Perceived by Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joey Blackburn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess preservice agriculture teachers’ perceptions of the importance of Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE and their views on barriers to conducting SAE. A census of the sophomore-level agricultural education course at Oklahoma State University was conducted to measure perceptions at the beginning and end of the course. This study was framed upon Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior. Results indicated that preservice teachers perceived SAE was an important component of agricultural education and important at the secondary school they attended. The greatest barrier to conducting SAE was their lack of familiarity with newer SAE categories. This was true at both the beginning and end of the course. It is recommended that preservice teachers receive instruction on and experiences in all types of SAE. This would increase the likelihood of preservice teachers perceiving they have control over this barrier regarding SAE implementation. This cohort of preservice teachers should be surveyed over time to determine change in their perceptions of barriers to SAE implementation as they progress in the agricultural education program and through their careers. Further, the views of in-service teachers should also be assessed to determine if perceived barriers differ with professional experience.

  18. Experiment of decontamination of radioactive liquid by a biological method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wormser, G.

    1962-01-01

    The author reports experiments of treatment of radioactive liquid effluents by percolation on a bacterial bed like the one used for the treatment of sewer wastewaters. He also reports results obtained in other countries in terms of reduction of effluent radioactivity for various radioactive ions. The installation is described and results are presented in terms of variation of contamination of an effluent with respect to its recycling on a bacterial bed [fr

  19. Spaceflight hardware for conducting plant growth experiments in space: the early years 1960-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, D. M.; Neichitailo, G. S.; Mashinski, A. L.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    The best strategy for supporting long-duration space missions is believed to be bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). An integral part of a BLSS is a chamber supporting the growth of higher plants that would provide food, water, and atmosphere regeneration for the human crew. Such a chamber will have to be a complete plant growth system, capable of providing lighting, water, and nutrients to plants in microgravity. Other capabilities include temperature, humidity, and atmospheric gas composition controls. Many spaceflight experiments to date have utilized incomplete growth systems (typically having a hydration system but lacking lighting) to study tropic and metabolic changes in germinating seedlings and young plants. American, European, and Russian scientists have also developed a number of small complete plant growth systems for use in spaceflight research. Currently we are entering a new era of experimentation and hardware development as a result of long-term spaceflight opportunities available on the International Space Station. This is already impacting development of plant growth hardware. To take full advantage of these new opportunities and construct innovative systems, we must understand the results of past spaceflight experiments and the basic capabilities of the diverse plant growth systems that were used to conduct these experiments. The objective of this paper is to describe the most influential pieces of plant growth hardware that have been used for the purpose of conducting scientific experiments during the first 40 years of research. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biology experiments at UNILAC. Reports from the biology user meeting, GSI, 3 October 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    On 3 Oct 1985, an internal Biology User Meeting of the groups working at GSI was arranged for the purpose of exchanging information and having discussions. It was found that the experimental data obtained so far are quite complex, and that the attempts at a theoretical treatment are still in a very early stage. To keep the discussion going, this report therefore presents the contributions of the various groups as far as these have been available. Most of the information was not in finished reports but in the form of diagrams and tables with explanations, sometimes even in the form of handwritten notes or sketches. Separate records are available for 13 contributions. (orig./MG) [de

  1. BioWires: Conductive DNA Nanowires in a Computationally-Optimized, Synthetic Biological Platform for Nanoelectronic Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchioni, Simon; Toomey, Emily; Capece, Mark C.; Rothschild, Lynn; Wind, Shalom

    2017-01-01

    DNA is an ideal template for a biological nanowire-it has a linear structure several atoms thick; it possesses addressable nucleobase geometry that can be precisely defined; and it is massively scalable into branched networks. Until now, the drawback of DNA as a conducting nanowire been, simply put, its low conductance. To address this deficiency, we extensively characterize a chemical variant of canonical DNA that exploits the affinity of natural cytosine bases for silver ions. We successfully construct chains of single silver ions inside double-stranded DNA, confirm the basic dC-Ag+-dC bond geometry and kinetics, and show length-tunability dependent on mismatch distribution, ion availability and enzyme activity. An analysis of the absorbance spectra of natural DNA and silver-binding, poly-cytosine DNA demonstrates the heightened thermostability of the ion chain and its resistance to aqueous stresses such as precipitation, dialysis and forced reduction. These chemically critical traits lend themselves to an increase in electrical conductivity of over an order of magnitude for 11-base silver-paired duplexes over natural strands when assayed by STM break junction. We further construct and implement a genetic pathway in the E. coli bacterium for the biosynthesis of highly ionizable DNA sequences. Toward future circuits, we construct a model of transcription network architectures to determine the most efficient and robust connectivity for cell-based fabrication, and we perform sequence optimization with a genetic algorithm to identify oligonucleotides robust to changes in the base-pairing energy landscape. We propose that this system will serve as a synthetic biological fabrication platform for more complex DNA nanotechnology and nanoelectronics with applications to deep space and low resource environments.

  2. First biological experiments at a vertical proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Distel, L; Distel, B; Roessner, B; Schwotzer, G; Sauer, R [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie; Eyrich, W; Fritsch, M; Teufel, A [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Besserer, J; Boer, J de; Moosburger, M; Quicken, P [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Sektion Physik

    1997-09-01

    At the tandem accelerator laboratories in Munich and Erlangen vertical beamlines were installed last year. The advantage of a vertical beamline is that cells can be irradiated in a medium at 37 C and with simultaneous gassing, therefore also in physiological conditions. First experiments were carried out at the accelerator in Munich with a proton energy of 25 MeV. Chinese Hamster cells B14 were irradiated in Petri dishes where the base was of 1 mm polystyrol or 2 {mu}m hostaphan foils. The cell survival was measured by the cell survival assay and the repopulation of the colonies by the total colony volume. A solution of DNA with protein was irradiated to study DNA double strand breaks by constant field gel electrophoresis and DNA protein crosslinks by the nitrocellulose filter assay. For cell survival, total colony volume and DNA double-strand breaks X-rays and protons gave corresponding results, while with protons, higher yields of DNA-protein crosslinks were observed than with X-rays. (orig.)

  3. First biological experiments at a vertical proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distel, L.; Distel, B.; Roessner, B.; Schwotzer, G.; Sauer, R.; Eyrich, W.; Fritsch, M.; Teufel, A.; Besserer, J.; Boer, J. de; Moosburger, M.; Quicken, P.

    1997-01-01

    At the tandem accelerator laboratories in Munich and Erlangen vertical beamlines were installed last year. The advantage of a vertical beamline is that cells can be irradiated in a medium at 37 C and with simultaneous gassing, therefore also in physiological conditions. First experiments were carried out at the accelerator in Munich with a proton energy of 25 MeV. Chinese Hamster cells B14 were irradiated in Petri dishes where the base was of 1 mm polystyrol or 2 μm hostaphan foils. The cell survival was measured by the cell survival assay and the repopulation of the colonies by the total colony volume. A solution of DNA with protein was irradiated to study DNA double strand breaks by constant field gel electrophoresis and DNA protein crosslinks by the nitrocellulose filter assay. For cell survival, total colony volume and DNA double-strand breaks X-rays and protons gave corresponding results, while with protons, higher yields of DNA-protein crosslinks were observed than with X-rays. (orig.)

  4. Nano wire conductance experiments above and below the reservoirs Curie temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa-Kraemer, J. L.; Briones, F. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Serena, P. A. [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-03-01

    The transport properties of Ni nano wires are studied using a Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) under clean high vacuum conditions. A basically flat nano wire conductance histogram is found independently of the magnetic state of the electrodes. This agrees with our previous studies in air but disagrees with recently published results. The possible origin of these discrepancies, together with additional experiments trying to discern the existence of a spin-dependent conductance in ferromagnetic nano wires, are presented. [Spanish] Las propiedades de transporte de nanoalambres de Ni son estudiadas usando un microscopio de efecto tunel bajo condiciones limpias de alto vacio. Se encuentra un histograma esencialmente plano independiente del estado magnetico de los electrodos. Esto concuerda con nuestros estudios previos en aire pero contrasta con resultados publicados recientemente. Se presentara una discusion sobre el posible origen experimental de estas discrepancias, con el fin de discernir sobre la existencia de una conductancia dependiente del espin en nanoalambres ferromagneticos.

  5. Electrical conductivity of highly ionized dense hydrogen plasma. II. Comparison of experiment and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, K [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin. Zentralinstitut fuer Elektronenphysik; Popovic, M M; Popovic, S S; Radtke, R

    1976-05-11

    The electrical conductivity of a non-ideal hydrogen plasma at p = 10 atm and T = 14,000-21,500 K is derived from electrical measurements and the radial temperature distribution of a pulsed wall-stabilized hydrogen arc using the theoretical temperature dependence of conductivity in an ideal binary collision plasma. From the comparison of theory and experiment, a suggestion to modify the cut-off parameter for charged particle potential from rsub(D) is derived, where rsub(D) is the Debye length. An estimate of Kaklyugin and Norman (Kaklyugin, A.S. and Norman, G.E., 1973 Teplofiz. vysok. temp., vol.11, 238-244) which takes into account both particle correlation and electron localisation in the environment of ions agrees very well with the experimental results over the whole temperature range.

  6. The Importance of Pupils' Interests and Out-of-School Experiences in Planning Biology Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Meisalo, Veijo

    2008-01-01

    How to make learning more interesting is a basic challenge for school education. In this Finnish study, the international ROSE questionnaire was used to survey, during spring of 2003, the relationship between interest in biology and out-of-school experiences for 3626 ninth-grade pupils. Interest and experience factors were extracted by using the…

  7. Equilibrium and transient conductivity for gadolinium-doped ceria under large perturbations: I. Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricote, Sandrine; Zhu, Huayang; Coors, W. Grover

    2014-01-01

    (97% O2, 3% H2O) and vice versa reveal great asymmetries in relaxation times. Virtually instantaneous relaxations are observed in the first case, while the oxidizing-to-reducing relaxations take as long as 0.5h. This paper reports conductivity relaxations with over 20 orders of magnitude in the gas......-phase oxygen partial pressure. Models and experiments are used to show that the observed asymmetries cannot be explained by electrode defects or two-dimensional end effects. The companion paper develops a Nernst–Planck–Poisson model to assist the quantitative interpretation of the measurements reported...

  8. A 201-MHz Normal Conducting RF Cavity for the International MICE Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; DeMello, A.J.; Virostek, Steve; Zisman, Michael S.; Rimmer, Robert

    2008-01-01

    MICE is a demonstration experiment for the ionization cooling of muon beams. Eight RF cavities are proposed to be used in the MICE cooling channel. These cavities will be operated in a strong magnetic field; therefore, they must be normal conducting. The cavity design and construction are based on the successful experience and techniques developed for a 201-MHz prototype cavity for the US MUCOOL program. Taking advantage of a muon beamΛ s penetration property, the cavity employs a pair of curved thin beryllium windows to terminate conventional beam irises and achieve higher cavity shunt impedance. The cavity resembles a round, closed pillbox cavity. Two half-shells spun from copper sheets are joined by e-beam welding to form the cavity body. There are four ports on the cavity equator for RF couplers, vacuum pumping and field probes. The ports are formed by means of an extruding technique.

  9. Analysis of in-situ electrical conductivity data from the HFIR TRIST-ER1 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Shikama, T. [Tohoku Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The current vs. applied voltage data generated from the HFIR TRIST-ER1 experiment have been analyzed to determine the electrical conductivity of the 15 aluminum oxide specimens and the MgO-insulated electrical cables as a function of irradiation dose. With the exception of the 0.05%Cr-doped sapphire (ruby) specimen, the electrical conductivity of the alumina specimens remained at the expected radiation induced conductivity (RIC) level of <10{sup -6} S/m during full-power reactor irradiation (10-16 kGy/s) at 450-500{degrees}C up to a maximum dose of {approximately}3 dpa. The ruby specimen showed a rapid initial increase in conductivity to {approximately}2 x 10{sup -4} S/m after {approximately}0.1 dpa, followed by a gradual decrease to <1 x 10{sup -6} S/m after 2 dpa. Nonohmic electrical behavior was observed in all of the specimens, and was attributed to preferential attraction of ionized electrons in the capsule gas to the unshielded low-side bare electrical leads emanating from the subcapsules. The electrical conductivity was determined from the slope of the specimen current vs. voltage curve at negative voltages, where the gas ionization effect was minimized. Dielectric breakdown tests performed on unirradiated mineral-insulated coaxial cables identical to those used in the high voltage coaxial cables during the 3-month irradiation is attributable to thermal dielectric breakdown in the glass seals at the end of the cables, as opposed to a radiation-induced electrical degradation (RIED) effect.

  10. Analysis of in-situ electrical conductivity data from the HFIR TRIST-ER1 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L.; Shikama, T.

    1997-01-01

    The current vs. applied voltage data generated from the HFIR TRIST-ER1 experiment have been analyzed to determine the electrical conductivity of the 15 aluminum oxide specimens and the MgO-insulated electrical cables as a function of irradiation dose. With the exception of the 0.05%Cr-doped sapphire (ruby) specimen, the electrical conductivity of the alumina specimens remained at the expected radiation induced conductivity (RIC) level of -6 S/m during full-power reactor irradiation (10-16 kGy/s) at 450-500 degrees C up to a maximum dose of ∼3 dpa. The ruby specimen showed a rapid initial increase in conductivity to ∼2 x 10 -4 S/m after ∼0.1 dpa, followed by a gradual decrease to -6 S/m after 2 dpa. Nonohmic electrical behavior was observed in all of the specimens, and was attributed to preferential attraction of ionized electrons in the capsule gas to the unshielded low-side bare electrical leads emanating from the subcapsules. The electrical conductivity was determined from the slope of the specimen current vs. voltage curve at negative voltages, where the gas ionization effect was minimized. Dielectric breakdown tests performed on unirradiated mineral-insulated coaxial cables identical to those used in the high voltage coaxial cables during the 3-month irradiation is attributable to thermal dielectric breakdown in the glass seals at the end of the cables, as opposed to a radiation-induced electrical degradation (RIED) effect

  11. How to conduct a workshop on medical writing: Tips, advice and experience sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Farooq Azam; Mansoor, Sahibzada Nasir

    2015-06-01

    Medical writing has become an essential skill for anybody in academia and engaged in teaching. Workshops on medical writing are an effective way to teach the essential skills of medical writing to students and faculty members. There is a huge demand for these workshops all around the globe. Usually there is no curriculum of medical writing for the undergraduates or dedicated structured training sessions for the faculty members. One of the authors won an Author AID grant to conduct a series of workshops on medical writing. Eight workshops were conducted in three months, benefitting more than 200 students and faculty staff. We share our experience of holding this successful series of workshops with the aim that it might serve as a guide for researchers and faculty members who are eager to share and transfer their skills and knowledge. We also offer lessons learnt during this educational activity, tips to improve the quality and delivery of the content with limited resources and maximizing the impact. Experienced medical writers need to conduct these workshops to transfer their skills and to facilitate their colleagues and students to become better medical writers. Planning, rehearsal, motivation, resource management, good team work, audience analysis and feedback can make a workshop successful. Well prepared workshop content delivered in an interactive way with a variety of activities makes the workshop an engaging and interesting educational activity.

  12. Electrode Conduction Processes Segmented Electrode-Insulator Ratio Effects in MHD Power Generation Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pain, H. J.; Fearn, D. G.; Distefano, E. [Imperial College. London (United Kingdom)

    1966-10-15

    (a) Electrode conduction processes have been investigated using a plasma produced in an electromagnetic shock tube operating with argon at 70 {mu}mHg pressure. Complete voltage-current characteristics were obtained by the variation of load and applied voltage. These indicated the existence of two conduction regimes with a complex transition region. In the first regime the current, controlled by ion mobility, rose linearly with voltage to saturate between 10 mA and 1 A depending on conditions. Electrode contamination was significant. The second regime involved large currents controlled by electron mobility and emission from the cathode. The current again increased linearly with voltage and reached 200 A. Observation of induced voltages in transverse magnetic fields and of plasma deceleration in non-uniform fields showed that in the electromagnetic shock tube the plasma was heated predominantly by the driver discharge. Its conductivity was calculated using properties measured by a Langmuir double probe. In both regimes the plasma conductivity was also found from the gradient of the voltage current characteristics using experimental electric field fringing factors and the experimental values were compared with theory. (b) Larger-scale experiments used a combustion-driven shock tube where argon plasma flow, magnetic field and induced current flow were mutually orthogonal. The supersonic flow velocity and thermodynamic parameters of the plasma were accurately known. The electrode channel consisted of a segmented system of 12 electrode pairs with an electrode insulator ratio ranging from 1 to 21, with electrode plus insulator length remaining constant, and with maximum Hall parameter values of unity. Different electrode load combinations (Faraday and Hall generators) have been studied in measuring the power generated and the flow of longitudinal currents between adjacent electrodes. A maximum power of 0,8 MW was obtained, the power output decreasing inversely with the

  13. Electrode Conduction Processes Segmented Electrode-Insulator Ratio Effects in MHD Power Generation Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, H.J.; Fearn, D.G.; Distefano, E.

    1966-01-01

    (a) Electrode conduction processes have been investigated using a plasma produced in an electromagnetic shock tube operating with argon at 70 μmHg pressure. Complete voltage-current characteristics were obtained by the variation of load and applied voltage. These indicated the existence of two conduction regimes with a complex transition region. In the first regime the current, controlled by ion mobility, rose linearly with voltage to saturate between 10 mA and 1 A depending on conditions. Electrode contamination was significant. The second regime involved large currents controlled by electron mobility and emission from the cathode. The current again increased linearly with voltage and reached 200 A. Observation of induced voltages in transverse magnetic fields and of plasma deceleration in non-uniform fields showed that in the electromagnetic shock tube the plasma was heated predominantly by the driver discharge. Its conductivity was calculated using properties measured by a Langmuir double probe. In both regimes the plasma conductivity was also found from the gradient of the voltage current characteristics using experimental electric field fringing factors and the experimental values were compared with theory. (b) Larger-scale experiments used a combustion-driven shock tube where argon plasma flow, magnetic field and induced current flow were mutually orthogonal. The supersonic flow velocity and thermodynamic parameters of the plasma were accurately known. The electrode channel consisted of a segmented system of 12 electrode pairs with an electrode insulator ratio ranging from 1 to 21, with electrode plus insulator length remaining constant, and with maximum Hall parameter values of unity. Different electrode load combinations (Faraday and Hall generators) have been studied in measuring the power generated and the flow of longitudinal currents between adjacent electrodes. A maximum power of 0,8 MW was obtained, the power output decreasing inversely with the

  14. A reverse engineering approach to optimize experiments for the construction of biological regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomeng; Shao, Bin; Wu, Yangle; Qi, Ouyang

    2013-01-01

    One of the major objectives in systems biology is to understand the relation between the topological structures and the dynamics of biological regulatory networks. In this context, various mathematical tools have been developed to deduct structures of regulatory networks from microarray expression data. In general, from a single data set, one cannot deduct the whole network structure; additional expression data are usually needed. Thus how to design a microarray expression experiment in order to get the most information is a practical problem in systems biology. Here we propose three methods, namely, maximum distance method, trajectory entropy method, and sampling method, to derive the optimal initial conditions for experiments. The performance of these methods is tested and evaluated in three well-known regulatory networks (budding yeast cell cycle, fission yeast cell cycle, and E. coli. SOS network). Based on the evaluation, we propose an efficient strategy for the design of microarray expression experiments.

  15. Correlation of microdosimetric measurements with relative biological effectiveness from clinical experience for two neutron therapy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinchcomb, T.G.; Kuchnir, F.T.; Myrianthopoulos, L.C.; Horton, J.L. Jr.; Roberts, W.K.

    1986-01-01

    Microdosimetric measurements were made for the neutron therapy beams at the University of Chicago and at the Cleveland Clinic with the same geometry and phantom material using the same tissue-equivalent spherical proportional counter and standard techniques. The energy deposition spectra (dose distributions in lineal energy) are compared for these beams and for their scattered components (direct beam blocked). The model of dual radiation action (DRA) of Kellerer and Rossi is employed to interpret these data in terms of biological effectiveness over this limited range of radiation qualities. The site-diameter parameter of the DRA theory is determined for the Cleveland beam by setting the biological effectiveness (relative to 60 Co gamma radiation) equal to the relative biological effectiveness value deduced from radiobiology experiments and clinical experience. The resulting value of this site-diameter parameter is then used to predict the biological effectiveness of the Chicago beam. The prediction agrees with the value deduced from radiobiology and clinical experience. The biological effectiveness of the scattered components of both beams is also estimated using the model

  16. Designing and conducting tabletop exercises to assess public health preparedness for manmade and naturally occurring biological threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dausey David J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2001, state and local health departments in the United States (US have accelerated efforts to prepare for high-impact public health emergencies. One component of these activities has been the development and conduct of exercise programs to assess capabilities, train staff and build relationships. This paper summarizes lessons learned from tabletop exercises about public health emergency preparedness and about the process of developing, conducting, and evaluating them. Methods We developed, conducted, and evaluated 31 tabletop exercises in partnership with state and local health departments throughout the US from 2003 to 2006. Participant self evaluations, after action reports, and tabletop exercise evaluation forms were used to identify aspects of the exercises themselves, as well as public health emergency responses that participants found more or less challenging, and to highlight lessons learned about tabletop exercise design. Results Designing the exercises involved substantial collaboration with representatives from participating health departments to assure that the scenarios were credible, focused attention on local preparedness needs and priorities, and were logistically feasible to implement. During execution of the exercises, nearly all health departments struggled with a common set of challenges relating to disease surveillance, epidemiologic investigations, communications, command and control, and health care surge capacity. In contrast, performance strengths were more varied across participating sites, reflecting specific attributes of individual health departments or communities, experience with actual public health emergencies, or the emphasis of prior preparedness efforts. Conclusion The design, conduct, and evaluation of the tabletop exercises described in this report benefited from collaborative planning that involved stakeholders from participating health departments and exercise developers and

  17. Students' Interest in Biology and Their Out-of-School Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Meisalo, Veijo

    2006-01-01

    Interest in biology and the out-of-school experiences of Finnish secondary school pupils (n = 3626, median age 15) were surveyed in the spring of 2003 using the international ROSE questionnaire. Likert-scaled items were categorised with an explorative factor analysis. The scores of eight interest-context factors and seven out-of-school experience…

  18. Variability of Biological Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an Aerobic Aquifer Determined by Laboratory Batch Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    The biological aerobic degradation of 7 aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, p-dichlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, naphthalene and biphenyl) was studied for 149 days in replicate laboratory batch experiments with groundwater and sediment from 8 localities representing a 15 m × 30 m...

  19. Gaining a Child: Comparing the Experiences of Biological Parents, Adoptive Parents, and Stepparents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballo, Rosario; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Abbey, Antonia; Stewart, Abigail J.

    2004-01-01

    This study compares the experience of gaining a child through birth, adoption, or marriage, extending the focus of investigation beyond biological parenthood and the transition made by first-time parents. Using a subsample from the National Survey of Families and Households N=204, we compared reasons for having children, parental well-being,…

  20. Historical parallels of biological space experiments from Soyuz, Salyut and Mir to Shenzhou flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.; Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Human exploitation of space is a great achievement of our civilization. After the first space flights a development of artificial biological environment in space systems is a second big step. First successful biological experiments on a board of space station were performed on Salyut and Mir stations in 70-90th of last century such as - first long time cultivation of plants in space (wheat, linen, lettuce, crepis); - first flowers in space (Arabidopsis); - first harvesting of seeds in space (Arabidopsis); - first harvesting of roots (radish); - first full life cycle from seeds to seeds in space (wheat), Guinness recorded; - first tissue culture experiments (Panax ginseng L, Crocus sativus L, Stevia rebaundiana B; - first tree growing in space for 2 years (Limonia acidissima), Guinness recorded. As a new wave, the modern experiments on a board of Shenzhou Chinese space ships are performed with plants and tissue culture. The space flight experiments are now focused on applications of the space biology results to Earth technologies. In particular, the tomato seeds exposed 6 years in space are used in pharmacy industry in more then 10 pharmaceutical products. Tissue culture experiments are performed on the board of Shenzhou spaceship for creation of new bioproducts including Space Panax ginseng, Space Spirulina, Space Stetatin, Space Tomato and others products with unique properties. Space investments come back.

  1. Tracer tests and image analysis of biological clogging in a two-dimentsional sandbox experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildsgaard, J.; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional flow experiment on biological clogging was carried out by biostimulating a sandbox packed with sand inoculated with bacteria. Biostimulation. consisted of continuously injecting nutrients (acetate and nitrate). Clogging was visualized by frequently carrying out colored tracer...... experiments using Brilliant Blue. The tracer experiments were recorded with a digital camera and converted to concentration maps using an image-analysis method that revealed in detail the complex spreading pattern surrounding clogged areas. Clogging resulted in a finger-like spreading of the tracer around...

  2. [Patient safety culture in hospitals: experiences in planning, organising and conducting a survey among hospital staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vegten, Amanda; Pfeiffer, Yvonne; Giuliani, Francesca; Manser, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the first hospital-wide survey on patient safety climate, involving all staff (medical and non-medical), in the German-speaking area. Its aim is to share our experiences with planning, organising and conducting this survey. The study was performed at the university hospital in Zurich and had a response rate of 46.8% (2,897 valid questionnaires). The survey instrument ("Patientensicherheitsklimainventar") was based on the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (AHRQ). Primarily it allowed for assessing the current patient safety climate as well as identifying specific areas for improvement and creating a hospital-wide awareness and acceptance for patient safety issues and interventions (e.g., the introduction of a Critical Incident Reporting System [CIRS]). We discuss the basic principles and the feedback concept guiding the organisation of the overall project. Critical to the success of this project were the guaranteed anonymity of the respondents, adequate communication through well-established channels within the organisation and the commitment of the management across all project phases. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. Temperature dependence of the cosphi conductance in Josephson tunnel junctions determined from plasma resonance experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, N.F.; Soerensen, O.H.; Mygind, J.

    1978-01-01

    The microwave response at 9 GHz of Sn-O-Sn tunnel-junction current biased at zero dc voltage has been measured just below the critical temperature T/sub c/ of the Sn films. The temperature dependence of the cosphi conductance is determined from the resonant response at the junction plasma frequency f/sub p/ as the temperature is decreased from T/sub c/. We used three different schemes for observation of the plasma oscillations: (a) second-harmonic generation (excitation at approx. 4.5 GHz, f/sub p/ approx. 4.5 GHz); (b) mixing (excitations at approx. 9 and approx. 18 GHz, f/sub p/ approx. 9 GHz); (c) parametric half-harmonic oscillation (excitation at approx. 18 GHz, f/sub p/ approx. 9 GHz). Measurements were possible in two temperature intervals; 0.994 or = T/T/sub c/ > or = 0.930, with the result that as the temperature was decreased the cosphi amplitude first increased from about zero to positive values and then at lower temperatures decreased approaching -1 at the lowest temperatures of the experiment

  4. Long conduction time plasma opening switch experiments at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, M.E.; Simpson, W.W.; Cooper, G.W.; Usher, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has undertaken an ambitious program to reduce the size and cost of large pulsed power drivers. The program basis is inductive energy storage and Plasma Opening Switches (POS). Inductive energy storage has well known advantages, including increased efficiency and reduced stress on the vacuum interface. The Sandia approach is to retain the reliable and efficient Marx generator and the temporal pulse compression of the water dielectric capacitor. A triggered closing switch, developed at Sandia, transfers the capacitor charge into the energy storage inductor. This approach has several advantages, including relaxed requirements on Marx jitter and inductance, and much faster current risetime in the energy storage inductor. The POS itself is the key to the Sandia program. The switch design uses an auxiliary magnetic field to inject the plasma and hold it in place during conduction. After opening begins, the self magnetic field of the power pulse pushes on the plasma to increase the opened gap. The authors use magnetic pressure because they desire POS gaps of several cm. Typical plasma opening switches do not achieve large gaps. Improved opening allows more efficient transfer to loads. They present results from recent experiments at Sandia. Their driver presently supplies 650 kA with a 240 ns risetime to the input of the POS. The storage inductor is a 17 Ohm magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) that is five meters long. They discuss the ways in which magnetic field influences the POS, and the ways in which they control the magnetic fields

  5. Engineering aspects of the experiment and results of animal tests. [Apollo 17 Biological Cosmic Ray Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Look, B. C.; Tremor, J. W.; Barrows, W. F.; Zabower, H. R.; Suri, K.; Park, E. G., Jr.; Durso, J. A.; Leon, H. A.; Haymaker, W.; Lindberg, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    A closed passive system independent of support from the spacecraft or its crew was developed to house five pocket mice for their flight on Apollo XVII. The reaction of potassium superoxide with carbon dioxide and water vapor to produce oxygen provided a habitable atmosphere within the experiment package. The performance of the system and the ability of the mice to survive the key preflight tests gave reasonable assurance that the mice would also withstand the Apollo flight.-

  6. Conducting Integrated Objective Structured Clinical Examination: Experiences at KIST Medical College, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rano Mal Piryani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objective structured clinical examination (OSCE, an important tool for assessment of clinical skills, introduced more than 4 decades ago. KIST Medical College, a new medical school of Nepal, affiliated to Tribhuvan University Institute of Medicine, has made learning of physical examination skills structured and integrated with greater involvement of different clinical science departments. Students learn physical examination skills in second year MBBS as a part of early clinical exposure. Objective: To share the experiences regarding implementation of integrated OSCE. Materials and Methods: At the end of clinical posting of learning of physical examination skills, assessment was done with OSCE. Fifteen OSCE stations including each of 5 minutes were developed and arranged. Standardized patients and validated checklist were used. OSCE was conducted in novel way. Prior to the OSCE session: Suitable venue was selected, assessors were identified, standardized patients were selected, running order of the stations in circuit was developed, list of equipments/instruments required was prepared, and tasks, checklists, feedback questionnaires were printed. The day before the OSCE session: OSCE stations were inspected and clearly labeled, condition of required equipments/instruments was checked, a pack of the documents for each OSCE station were made available, and signs were displayed at proper places. On the day of the OSCE session: Reliable stop watch and loud manual bell were used, support staffs were placed to direct the candidates, examiners, and standardized patients (SPs, assessors explained SPs, students were briefed, supervisors observed the session, and feedback were taken from students, assessors, and SPs. At the end of the OSCE session: Checklists and feedback questionnaires were collected, token money was paid to SPs, and a contribution of everyone was appreciated. After the OSCE session: Score was compiled and result declared, and

  7. Biochar-Induced Changes in Soil Hydraulic Conductivity and Dissolved Nutrient Fluxes Constrained by Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rebecca T.; Gallagher, Morgan E.; Masiello, Caroline A.; Liu, Zuolin; Dugan, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    The addition of charcoal (or biochar) to soil has significant carbon sequestration and agronomic potential, making it important to determine how this potentially large anthropogenic carbon influx will alter ecosystem functions. We used column experiments to quantify how hydrologic and nutrient-retention characteristics of three soil materials differed with biochar amendment. We compared three homogeneous soil materials (sand, organic-rich topsoil, and clay-rich Hapludert) to provide a basic understanding of biochar-soil-water interactions. On average, biochar amendment decreased saturated hydraulic conductivity (K) by 92% in sand and 67% in organic soil, but increased K by 328% in clay-rich soil. The change in K for sand was not predicted by the accompanying physical changes to the soil mixture; the sand-biochar mixture was less dense and more porous than sand without biochar. We propose two hydrologic pathways that are potential drivers for this behavior: one through the interstitial biochar-sand space and a second through pores within the biochar grains themselves. This second pathway adds to the porosity of the soil mixture; however, it likely does not add to the effective soil K due to its tortuosity and smaller pore size. Therefore, the addition of biochar can increase or decrease soil drainage, and suggests that any potential improvement of water delivery to plants is dependent on soil type, biochar amendment rate, and biochar properties. Changes in dissolved carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes also differed; with biochar increasing the C flux from organic-poor sand, decreasing it from organic-rich soils, and retaining small amounts of soil-derived N. The aromaticity of C lost from sand and clay increased, suggesting lost C was biochar-derived; though the loss accounts for only 0.05% of added biochar-C. Thus, the direction and magnitude of hydraulic, C, and N changes associated with biochar amendments are soil type (composition and particle size) dependent

  8. Creating an infrastructure for training in the responsible conduct of research: the University of Pittsburgh's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Barbara E; Friedman, Charles P; Rosenberg, Jerome L; Russell, Joanne; Beedle, Ari; Levine, Arthur S

    2006-02-01

    In response to public concerns about the consequences of research misconduct, academic institutions have become increasingly cognizant of the need to implement comprehensive, effective training in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) for faculty, staff, students, and external collaborators. The ability to meet this imperative is challenging as universities confront declining financial resources and increasing complexity of the research enterprise. The authors describe the University of Pittsburgh's design, implementation, and evaluation of a Web-based, institution-wide RCR training program called Research and Practice Fundamentals (RPF). This project, established in 2000, was embedded in the philosophy, organizational structure, and technology developed through the Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems grant from the National Library of Medicine. Utilizing a centralized, comprehensive approach, the RPF system provides an efficient mechanism for deploying content to a large, diverse cohort of learners and supports the needs of research administrators by providing access to information about who has successfully completed the training. During its first 3 years of operation, the RPF served over 17,000 users and issued more than 38,000 training certificates. The 18 modules that are currently available address issues required by regulatory mandates and other content areas important to the research community. RPF users report high levels of satisfaction with content and ease of using the system. Future efforts must explore methods to integrate non-RCR education and training into a centralized, cohesive structure. The University of Pittsburgh's experience with the RPF demonstrates the importance of developing an infrastructure for training that is comprehensive, scalable, reliable, centralized, affordable, and sustainable.

  9. Report on Beryllium Strength Experiments Conducted at the TA-55 40 mm Impact Test Facility, Fiscal Year 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, William Wyatt [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hollowell, Benjamin Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Todd P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Owens, Charles Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rivera, Joseph Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-10

    A series of experiments is currently in progress at eth 40 mm Impact Test Facility (ITF), located at TA-55, to understand the strength behavior of Beryllium metal at elevated temperature and pressure. In FY 2017, three experiments were conducted as a part of this project.

  10. Design of a Comprehensive Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Experiment: Phase Variation Caused by Recombinational Regulation of Bacterial Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiumei; Xu, Shungao; Lu, Renyun; Isaac, Dadzie; Zhang, Xueyi; Zhang, Haifang; Wang, Huifang; Qiao, Zheng; Huang, Xinxiang

    2014-01-01

    Scientific experiments are indispensable parts of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. In this study, a comprehensive Biochemistry and Molecular Biology experiment about "Salmonella enterica" serovar Typhi Flagellar phase variation has been designed. It consisted of three parts, namely, inducement of bacterial Flagellar phase variation,…

  11. Interpretation of biological-rate coefficients derived from radionuclide content, radionuclide concentration and specific activity experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderploeg, H.A.; Booth, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    Rigorous expressions are derived for the biological-rate coefficients (BRCs) determined from time-dependent measurements of three different dependent variables of radionuclide tracer experiments. These variables, which apply to a single organism, are radionuclide content, radionuclide concentration and specific activity. The BRCs derived from these variables have different mathematical expressions and, for high growth rates, their numerical values can be quite different. The precise mathematical expressions for the BRCs are presented here to aid modelers in selecting the correct parameters for their models and to aid experiments in interpreting their results. The usefulness of these three variables in quantifying elemental uptakes and losses by organisms is discussed. (U.K.)

  12. Portable Conduction Velocity Experiments Using Earthworms for the College and High School Neuroscience Teaching Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Kyle M.; Gage, Gregory J.; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Wilson, W. Jeffrey; Marzullo, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    The earthworm is ideal for studying action potential conduction velocity in a classroom setting, as its simple linear anatomy allows easy axon length measurements and the worm's sparse coding allows single action potentials to be easily identified. The earthworm has two giant fiber systems (lateral and medial) with different conduction velocities…

  13. Beyond the Usability Lab Conducting Large-scale Online User Experience Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, William; Tullis, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Usability testing and user experience research typically take place in a controlled lab with small groups. While this type of testing is essential to user experience design, more companies are also looking to test large sample sizes to be able compare data according to specific user populations and see how their experiences differ across user groups. But few usability professionals have experience in setting up these studies, analyzing the data, and presenting it in effective ways.  Online usability testing offers the solution by allowing testers to elicit feedback simultaneously from 1,0

  14. Multichannel microformulators for massively parallel machine learning and automated design of biological experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikswo, John; Kolli, Aditya; Shankaran, Harish; Wagoner, Matthew; Mettetal, Jerome; Reiserer, Ronald; Gerken, Gregory; Britt, Clayton; Schaffer, David

    Genetic, proteomic, and metabolic networks describing biological signaling can have 102 to 103 nodes. Transcriptomics and mass spectrometry can quantify 104 different dynamical experimental variables recorded from in vitro experiments with a time resolution approaching 1 s. It is difficult to infer metabolic and signaling models from such massive data sets, and it is unlikely that causality can be determined simply from observed temporal correlations. There is a need to design and apply specific system perturbations, which will be difficult to perform manually with 10 to 102 externally controlled variables. Machine learning and optimal experimental design can select an experiment that best discriminates between multiple conflicting models, but a remaining problem is to control in real time multiple variables in the form of concentrations of growth factors, toxins, nutrients and other signaling molecules. With time-division multiplexing, a microfluidic MicroFormulator (μF) can create in real time complex mixtures of reagents in volumes suitable for biological experiments. Initial 96-channel μF implementations control the exposure profile of cells in a 96-well plate to different temporal profiles of drugs; future experiments will include challenge compounds. Funded in part by AstraZeneca, NIH/NCATS HHSN271201600009C and UH3TR000491, and VIIBRE.

  15. The Lattice and Thermal Radiation Conductivity of Thermal Barrier Coatings: Models and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Spuckler, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    The lattice and radiation conductivity of ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings was evaluated using a laser heat flux approach. A diffusion model has been established to correlate the coating apparent thermal conductivity to the lattice and radiation conductivity. The radiation conductivity component can be expressed as a function of temperature, coating material scattering, and absorption properties. High temperature scattering and absorption of the coating systems can be also derived based on the testing results using the modeling approach. A comparison has been made for the gray and nongray coating models in the plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings. The model prediction is found to have a good agreement with experimental observations.

  16. Prosocial Conduct in Urban Middle Schools: Do Young Adolescents' Experiences of the School Context Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    White, Samantha Jane Almaraz Simmons

    2013-01-01

    Young adolescents spend the majority of their time in school, yet little is known about how the school context is associated with their prosocial conduct. The current study focused on 1) the extent to which individual students were teamed with their classmates and 2) their exposure to ethnically diverse peers, and examined the processes by which these aspects of the school context were associated with their prosocial conduct. Multilevel mediation models were fit to multiply imputed question...

  17. Using Coupled Mesoscale Experiments and Simulations to Investigate High Burn-Up Oxide Fuel Thermal Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, Melissa C.; Fromm, Bradley S.; Tonks, Michael R.; Field, David P.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear energy is a mature technology with a small carbon footprint. However, work is needed to make current reactor technology more accident tolerant and to allow reactor fuel to be burned in a reactor for longer periods of time. Optimizing the reactor fuel performance is essentially a materials science problem. The current understanding of fuel microstructure have been limited by the difficulty in studying the structure and chemistry of irradiated fuel samples at the mesoscale. Here, we take advantage of recent advances in experimental capabilities to characterize the microstructure in 3D of irradiated mixed oxide (MOX) fuel taken from two radial positions in the fuel pellet. We also reconstruct these microstructures using Idaho National Laboratory's MARMOT code and calculate the impact of microstructure heterogeneities on the effective thermal conductivity using mesoscale heat conduction simulations. The thermal conductivities of both samples are higher than the bulk MOX thermal conductivity because of the formation of metallic precipitates and because we do not currently consider phonon scattering due to defects smaller than the experimental resolution. We also used the results to investigate the accuracy of simple thermal conductivity approximations and equations to convert 2D thermal conductivities to 3D. It was found that these approximations struggle to predict the complex thermal transport interactions between metal precipitates and voids.

  18. Carbon loaded Teflon (CLT): a power density meter for biological experiments using millimeter waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Stewart J; Ross, James A

    2007-01-01

    The standard technique for measurement of millimeter wave fields utilizes an open-ended waveguide attached to a HP power meter. The alignment of the waveguide with the propagation (K) vector is critical to making accurate measurements. Using this technique, it is difficult and time consuming to make a detailed map of average incident power density over areas of biological interest and the spatial resolution of this instrument does not allow accurate measurements in non-uniform fields. For biological experiments, it is important to know the center field average incident power density and the distribution over the exposed area. Two 4 ft x 4 ft x 1/32 inch sheets of carbon loaded Teflon (CLT) (one 15% carbon and one 25% carbon) were procured and a series of tests to determine the usefulness of CLT in defining fields in the millimeter wavelength range was initiated. Since the CLT was to be used both in the laboratory, where the environment was well controlled, and in the field, where the environment could not be controlled, tests were made to determine effects of change in environmental conditions on ability to use CLT as a millimeter wave dosimeter. The empirical results of this study indicate CLT to be an effective dosimeter for biological experiments both in the laboratory and in the field.

  19. Radiobiological experiments with heavy ions: a comparison of the cross sections of different biological endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, G.

    1989-01-01

    Biological effect of heavy charged particles was studied in experiment at the Unilac on different physical, chemical and biological levels. On these experiments a large body of radiobiological data, cross sections for cell inactivation and mutation, induction of both, chromosome aberrations, and strand breaks, of DNA have been measured for different atomic numbers, from helium (z=2) to uranium (z=92), and at an LET range from 10 to 16000 keV/μm. At LET values below 100 keV/μm all data points to one specific effect form one single curve as a function of LET, independent of the atomic number of the ion. In this LET range the biological effects are independent of the particle energy or track structure and depend only on the energy transfer. Therefore LET is a good parameter in this regime. For LET values greater than 100 keV/μm this regime LET is no longer a good parameter and the physical parameters of the formation of particle track are important. The energy and angular distribution of the electrons in a solid target has to be measured. 28 refs.; 14 figs

  20. Seyle’s biological stressors influence dramatically skin physiology: our experiences with electrical admittance magnitude measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Martini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Abrupt changes of environmental temperatures and assault of chemical and physical assaults belong to the series of biological stresses recorded by the austro-canadian endocrinologist Seyle onto skin, phenomena that are progressively overset all natural events and anthropological lifestyles, are too often depreciated and underestimated by dermatologists and cosmetologists at all. Aims of our study is to evaluate by electrical admittance magnitude measurements the influence these two irrefutable afflictions, designed as stressors, influence negatively human skin and to do this we have selected, to conduct the study, peculiar individuals that, owing to their choice of living, may or not be injured by extreme changes of temperatures and aggressions by chemical and physical pollutants. Materials and Methods: We have recruited 20 nuns in a cloistered convent in Mid Italy: ten of these have been always accustomed to live inside the cloister and their life-style permits the good conservation of the intact skin physiology (that is living at air temperature and medium-low relative humidity and the other ten are accustomed to live and work outdoor and to be assaulted by abrupt and extreme changes of environmental temperature and pollutants. Cloistered nuns have the chance to choose where to live, indoor or aoutdoor. We measured the electrical admittance magnitude (in μmho at the beginning and at the end of the experiment that lasts 29 weeks, using an appropriate instrument based on the system developed by Feldman, working at a single frequency of 30kHz. Results and Conclusion: It is self evident that after the simulation of phyto-induced cortisol release onto the skins of all the 20 volunteers, the subjects that which live outdoor show an exaggerated value of dehydration with regard to the subjects that live indoor. Changes of environmental temperatures and chemical pollutants, is self evident, jeopardize human skin integrity and safety, but

  1. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  2. Experiment and Artificial Neural Network Prediction of Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity for Alumina-Water Nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ningbo; Li, Zhiming

    2017-05-19

    To effectively predict the thermal conductivity and viscosity of alumina (Al₂O₃)-water nanofluids, an artificial neural network (ANN) approach was investigated in the present study. Firstly, using a two-step method, four Al₂O₃-water nanofluids were prepared respectively by dispersing different volume fractions (1.31%, 2.72%, 4.25%, and 5.92%) of nanoparticles with the average diameter of 30 nm. On this basis, the thermal conductivity and viscosity of the above nanofluids were analyzed experimentally under various temperatures ranging from 296 to 313 K. Then a radial basis function (RBF) neural network was constructed to predict the thermal conductivity and viscosity of Al₂O₃-water nanofluids as a function of nanoparticle volume fraction and temperature. The experimental results showed that both nanoparticle volume fraction and temperature could enhance the thermal conductivity of Al₂O₃-water nanofluids. However, the viscosity only depended strongly on Al₂O₃ nanoparticle volume fraction and was increased slightly by changing temperature. In addition, the comparative analysis revealed that the RBF neural network had an excellent ability to predict the thermal conductivity and viscosity of Al₂O₃-water nanofluids with the mean absolute percent errors of 0.5177% and 0.5618%, respectively. This demonstrated that the ANN provided an effective way to predict the thermophysical properties of nanofluids with limited experimental data.

  3. Biological role of gravity: Hypotheses and results of experiments on ``Cosmos'' biosatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpatov, Alexey M.; Antipov, Vsevolod V.; Tairbekov, Murad G.

    In order to reveal the biological significance of gravity, microgravity effects have been studied at the cellular, organism and population levels. The following questions arise. Do any gravity - dependent processes exist in a cell? Is cell adaptation to weightlessness possible; if so, what role may cytoskeleton, the genetic apparatus play in it? What are the consequences of the lack of convection in weightlessness for the performance of morphogenesis? Do the integral characteristics of living beings change in weightlessness? Is there any change in ``biological capacity'' of space, its resistance to expansion of life? What are the direction and intensity of microgravity action as a factor of natural selection, the driving force of evolution? These problems are discussed from a theoretical point of view, and in the light of results obtained in experiments flown aboard biosatellites ``Cosmos''.

  4. Non-Chemical Distant Cellular Interactions as a potential confounder of Cell Biology Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan eFarhadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Distant cells can communicate with each other through a variety of methods. Two such methods involve electrical and/or chemical mechanisms. Non-chemical, distant cellular interactions may be another method of communication that cells can use to modify the behavior of other cells that are mechanically separated. Moreover, non-chemical, distant cellular interactions may explain some cases of confounding effects in Cell Biology experiments. In this article, we review non-chemical, distant cellular interactions studies to try to shed light on the mechanisms in this highly unconventional field of cell biology. Despite the existence of several theories that try to explain the mechanism of non-chemical, distant cellular interactions, this phenomenon is still speculative. Among candidate mechanisms, electromagnetic waves appear to have the most experimental support. In this brief article, we try to answer a few key questions that may further clarify this mechanism.

  5. Low frequency complex dielectric (conductivity) response of dilute clay suspensions: Modeling and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chang-Yu; Feng, Ling; Seleznev, Nikita; Freed, Denise E

    2018-04-11

    In this work, we establish an effective medium model to describe the low-frequency complex dielectric (conductivity) dispersion of dilute clay suspensions. We use previously obtained low-frequency polarization coefficients for a charged oblate spheroidal particle immersed in an electrolyte as the building block for the Maxwell Garnett mixing formula to model the dilute clay suspension. The complex conductivity phase dispersion exhibits a near-resonance peak when the clay grains have a narrow size distribution. The peak frequency is associated with the size distribution as well as the shape of clay grains and is often referred to as the characteristic frequency. In contrast, if the size of the clay grains has a broad distribution, the phase peak is broadened and can disappear into the background of the canonical phase response of the brine. To benchmark our model, the low-frequency dispersion of the complex conductivity of dilute clay suspensions is measured using a four-point impedance measurement, which can be reliably calibrated in the frequency range between 0.1 Hz and 10 kHz. By using a minimal number of fitting parameters when reliable information is available as input for the model and carefully examining the issue of potential over-fitting, we found that our model can be used to fit the measured dispersion of the complex conductivity with reasonable parameters. The good match between the modeled and experimental complex conductivity dispersion allows us to argue that our simplified model captures the essential physics for describing the low-frequency dispersion of the complex conductivity of dilute clay suspensions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Healthy Foundations Study: a randomised controlled trial to evaluate biological embedding of early-life experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Catherine, Nicole; Boyle, Michael; Jack, Susan M; Atkinson, Leslie; Kobor, Michael; Sheehan, Debbie; Tonmyr, Lil; Waddell, Charlotte; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2018-01-26

    Adverse early experiences are associated with long-lasting disruptions in physiology, development and health. These experiences may be 'biologically embedded' into molecular and genomic systems that determine later expressions of vulnerability. Most studies to date have not examined whether preventive interventions can potentially reverse biological embedding. The Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) is an evidence-based intervention with demonstrated efficacy in improving prenatal health, parenting and child functioning. The Healthy Foundations Study is an innovative birth cohort which will evaluate the impact of the NFP on biological outcomes of mothers and their infants. Starting in 2013, up to 400 pregnant mothers and their newborns were recruited from the British Columbia Healthy Connections Project-a randomised controlled trial of the NFP, and will be followed to child aged 2 years. Women were recruited prior to 28 weeks' gestation and then individually randomised to receive existing services (comparison group) or NFP plus existing services (intervention group). Hair samples are collected from mothers at baseline and 2 months post partum to measure physiological stress. Saliva samples are collected from infants during all visits for analyses of stress and immune function. Buccal swabs are collected from infants at 2 and 24 months to assess DNA methylation. Biological samples will be related to child outcome measures at age 2 years. The study received ethical approval from seven research ethics boards. Findings from this study will be shared broadly with the research community through peer-reviewed publications, and conference presentations, as well as seminars with our policy partners and relevant healthcare providers. The outcomes of this study will provide all stakeholders with important information regarding how early adversity may lead to health and behavioural disparities and how these may be altered through early interventions. NCT01672060; Pre-results.

  7. First clinical experiences with an implantable bone conduction hearing aid at the University of Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, R. J.; Dreschler, W. A.; Tange, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    A transcutaneous bone-conduction hearing aid was implanted in 11 patients who were not suitable for transcranial sound amplification. Audiological and surgical selection criteria were followed strictly. One device had to be explanted and minor revision surgery was needed in two cases for skin

  8. Comparison of the Volume Charge Density of Nanofiltration Membranes Obtained from Retention and Conductivity Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benavente, J.; Silva, V.; Pradanos, P.

    2010-01-01

    A version of the Donnan steric-partitioning pore model with dielectrical exclusion (DSPM-DE) has been used to get information on the pore size and charge density of a commercial membrane, NF45 from FilmTec, from its retention of KCl solutions. The conductivity inside the pores has been measured b...

  9. Temperature dependence of the cosphi conductance in Josephson tunnel junctions determined from plasma resonance experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.; Mygind, Jesper

    1978-01-01

    The microwave response at 9 GHz of Sn-O-Sn tunnel-junction current biased at zero dc voltage has been measured just below the critical temperature Tc of the Sn films. The temperature dependence of the cosφ conductance is determined from the resonant response at the junction plasma frequency fp...

  10. The prehistory of biology preprints: A forgotten experiment from the 1960s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Cobb

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1961, the National Institutes of Health (NIH began to circulate biological preprints in a forgotten experiment called the Information Exchange Groups (IEGs. This system eventually attracted over 3,600 participants and saw the production of over 2,500 different documents, but by 1967, it was effectively shut down following the refusal of journals to accept articles that had been circulated as preprints. This article charts the rise and fall of the IEGs and explores the parallels with the 1990s and the biomedical preprint movement of today.

  11. The prehistory of biology preprints: A forgotten experiment from the 1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Matthew

    2017-11-01

    In 1961, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) began to circulate biological preprints in a forgotten experiment called the Information Exchange Groups (IEGs). This system eventually attracted over 3,600 participants and saw the production of over 2,500 different documents, but by 1967, it was effectively shut down following the refusal of journals to accept articles that had been circulated as preprints. This article charts the rise and fall of the IEGs and explores the parallels with the 1990s and the biomedical preprint movement of today.

  12. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Effect of repetitive laser pulses on the electrical conductivity of intervertebral disc tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omel'chenko, A. I.; Sobol', E. N.

    2009-03-01

    The thermomechanical effect of 1.56-μm fibre laser pulses on intervertebral disc cartilage has been studied using ac conductivity measurements with coaxial electrodes integrated with an optical fibre for laser radiation delivery to the tissue. The observed time dependences of tissue conductivity can be interpreted in terms of hydraulic effects and thermomechanical changes in tissue structure. The laserinduced changes in the electrical parameters of the tissue are shown to correlate with the structural changes, which were visualised using shadowgraph imaging. Local ac conductivity measurements in the bulk of tissue can be used to develop a diagnostic/monitoring system for laser regeneration of intervertebral discs.

  13. Professionals and students in a lobbying experiment. Professional rules of conduct and subject surrogacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potters, J.; van Winden, F.A.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Lobbying is studied in a series of signaling game experiments. Students as well as professional lobbyists are used as subjects. In contrast with some earlier studies, comparing students and professionals, we find significant differences in the behavior of the two subject pools. Professional subjects

  14. A critique to Akdemir and Oguz : Methodological and statistical issues to consider when conducting educational experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Casper J.; Boevé, Anja J.; Meijer, Rob R.

    Abstract In the paper “Computer-based testing: An alternative for the assessment of Turkish undergraduate students”, Akdemir and Oguz (2008) discuss an experiment to compare student performance in paper-and-pencil tests with computer-based tests, and conclude that students taking computer-based

  15. A Laboratory Experiment, Based on the Maillard Reaction, Conducted as a Project in Introductory Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchuk, Olena; Elliott, Antony; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2005-01-01

    A simple laboratory experiment, based on the Maillard reaction, served as a project in Introductory Statistics for undergraduates in Food Science and Technology. By using the principles of randomization and replication and reflecting on the sources of variation in the experimental data, students reinforced the statistical concepts and techniques…

  16. Using Satellite Technology to Increase Professional Communications Among Teachers: a Report of Experiments Conducted by the National Education Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Div. of Instruction and Professional Development.

    The National Education Association (NEA) in conjunction with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Library of Medicine, The Alaska Broadcasting Commission, and the Pacific PEACESAT Network, conducted four satellite experiments designed to improve professional communication among teachers. These programs were the Satellite…

  17. Soil Science self-learning based on the design and conduction of experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, A.; Bárcenas-Moreno, G.; Zavala, L. M.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents an experience for introducing the methodology of project-based learning (PBL) in the area of Soil Science in the University of Sevilla (Spain). Currently, teachers try to enhance practical experience of university students in a complementary manner to theoretical knowledge. However, many times this is a difficult process. Practice is an important part of personal work in the vast majority of subjects that degree students receive, since the implementation of the EHEA. In most cases, these experiences are presented as partial small experiments or projects, assigned to the area-specific knowledge agenda. Certain sciences, such as Soil Science, however, require synthesis and integration capabilities of previous knowledge. It is therefore necessary to develop practical programs that address the student not only to the performance of laboratory determinations, but to the formulation of hypotheses, experimental design and problem solving, whether in groups or individually, situated in a wide context and allowing students to make connections with other areas of knowledge. This project involves the development of teamwork experiments, for the study real cases and problems and making decisions in the field of Soil Science. The results of the experimental work were publicly exposed as posters and oral presentations and were discussed during a mini-congress open to students and a general audience. The open and dynamic nature of the project substantially improves student motivation, which adds value to our project. Due to the multidisciplinary character of Soil Science it is relatively easy to propose projects of some complexity, and therefore, provides good conditions for introducing the PBL methodology. The teacher's role is also important and is not limited to observe or qualify the students, but it is a catalyst for learning. It is important that teacher give the leadership of the process and make the students themselves feel the protagonists of the

  18. Determination of the Fatty Acid Content of Biological Membranes: A Highly Versatile GC-MS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Emeric; Pugh, Michael Eugene

    2001-07-01

    The experiment involves the GC-MS of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) obtained from bacterial membranes. It takes about 2 h, from cell harvest to injection. This experiment is done in a lab course for non-science majors and in biochemistry. For non-science majors the focus is on GC-MS as a technique for fingerprinting and on the underlying basis of that fingerprinting. In biochemistry the focus is on the composition of membranes and how this changes with temperature--specifically how the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids changes to maintain constant cell fluidity. Combined with a parallel DNA experiment, the two major types of intermolecular forces important for the structure and function of biomolecules are compared. How this versatile experiment could be adapted in other chemistry courses is presented. The experiment has obvious appeal to biology majors, can be used to develop several important chemistry concepts, involves teamwork, and employs an important instrument. It could be used in the laboratory portion of a course other than biochemistry to fulfill the new ACS biochemistry requirement.

  19. SED-ED, a workflow editor for computational biology experiments written in SED-ML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard R

    2012-04-15

    The simulation experiment description markup language (SED-ML) is a new community data standard to encode computational biology experiments in a computer-readable XML format. Its widespread adoption will require the development of software support to work with SED-ML files. Here, we describe a software tool, SED-ED, to view, edit, validate and annotate SED-ML documents while shielding end-users from the underlying XML representation. SED-ED supports modellers who wish to create, understand and further develop a simulation description provided in SED-ML format. SED-ED is available as a standalone Java application, as an Eclipse plug-in and as an SBSI (www.sbsi.ed.ac.uk) plug-in, all under an MIT open-source license. Source code is at https://sed-ed-sedmleditor.googlecode.com/svn. The application itself is available from https://sourceforge.net/projects/jlibsedml/files/SED-ED/.

  20. An evaluation of the results of the HTR fuel programme conducted in the Dragon reactor experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    The Dragon Reactor Experiment was used over a period of ten years to investigate the behaviour of HTR fuel elements under realistic service conditions. The purpose of the work was to develop fuel capable of meeting the requirements of commercial power reactors. The studies divided into areas concerned with the mechanical behaviour of the graphite core structure under fast neutron irradiation and the ability of the coated particle fuel to retain fissile products over commercially viable life-cycles. (author)

  1. [The infectious diseases experiments conducted on human guinea pigs by Nazis in concentration camps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio

    2013-06-01

    The author systematically examined all available publications and web documents, with regard to scientifically documented experiments carried out by Nazi physicians in their concentration camps during World War II. This research focused on human experiments dealing with: malaria, tuberculosis, petechial typhus, viral hepatitis, and those regarding sulphonamides as antimicrobial agents. The concentration camps involved by experimental programmes on human guinea pigs were: Natzweiler Struthof, Dachau, Mauthausen, Buchenwald, Neuengamme, Ravensbrück, Sachsenhausen and Auschwitz. Overall, around 7,200 deported prisoners went to their deaths during or because of these experiments (also considering human trials other than previously quoted ones). At the end of the war several physicians were charged with war crimes in two trials (Nuremberg and Dachau), and those found guilty were sentenced to death, or years of imprisonment. Some of them, including the notorious Josef Mengele, succeeded in escaping capture and being brought to justice. Thanks to these trials, partial light has been shed on these crimes, which not infrequently had children as designated victims, selected with excruciating cruelty in special segregation sections. The SS was the key structure which ensured maximum efficiency for these experimental programmes, from both logistic planning through to an operative control system carried out in concentration camps, and thanks to an autonomous, dedicated medical structure, which included a rigid hierarchy of physicians directly dependent on the head of SS forces (Reichsführer), i.e. Dr. Heinrich Himmler. Moreover, it is worth noting that also physicians who were not part of the SS corps collaborated in the above experiments on human guinea pigs: these included military personnel belonging to the Wehrmacht, academic physicians from German universities, and researchers who worked in some German pharmaceutical industries, such as IG Farben, Bayer and Boehring.

  2. CFD Analysis of a Slug Mixing Experiment Conducted on a VVER-1000 Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Moretti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A commercial CFD code was applied, for validation purposes, to the simulation of a slug mixing experiment carried out at OKB “Gidropress” scaled facility in the framework of EC TACIS project R2.02/02: “Development of safety analysis capabilities for VVER-1000 transients involving spatial variations of coolant properties (temperature or boron concentration at core inlet.” Such experimental model reproduces a VVER-1000 nuclear reactor and is aimed at investigating the in-vessel mixing phenomena. The addressed experiment involves the start-up of one of the four reactor coolant pumps (the other three remaining idle, and the presence of a tracer slug on the starting loop, which is thus transported to the reactor pressure vessel where it mixes with the clear water. Such conditions may occur in a boron dilution scenario, hence the relevance of the addressed phenomena for nuclear reactor safety. Both a pretest and a posttest CFD simulations of the mentioned experiment were performed, which differ in the definition of the boundary conditions (based either on nominal quantities or on measured quantities, resp.. The numerical results are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and compared against the measured data in terms of space and time tracer distribution at the core inlet. The improvement of the results due to the optimization of the boundary conditions is evidenced, and a quantification of the simulation accuracy is proposed.

  3. S.E.A. Lab. Science Experiments and Activities. Marine Science for High School Students in Chemistry, Biology and Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kathy, Ed.

    A series of science experiments and activities designed for secondary school students taking biology, chemistry, physics, physical science or marine science courses are outlined. Each of the three major sections--chemistry, biology, and physics--addresses concepts that are generally covered in those courses but incorporates aspects of marine…

  4. A synchrotron-based X-ray exposure station for radiation biology experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, A.C.; Blakely, E.A.; Bjornstad, K.A.; Chang, P.Y.; Rosen, C.J.; Schwarz, R.I.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray sources enable radiation biology experiments that are difficult with conventional sources. A synchrotron source can easily deliver a monochromatic, tunable energy, highly collimated X-ray beam of well-calibrated intensity. An exposure station at beamline 10.3.1 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) has been developed which delivers a variable energy (5-20 keV) X-ray fan beam with very sharp edges (10-90% in less than 3 μm). A series of experiments have been done with a four-well slide where a stripe (100 μm widex18 mm long) of cells in each well has been irradiated and the dose varied from well to well. With this facility we have begun a series of experiments to study cells adjacent to irradiated cells and how they respond to the damage of their neighbors. Initial results have demonstrated the advantages of using synchrotron radiation for these experiments

  5. A synchrotron-based X-ray exposure station for radiation biology experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, A.C. [Division of Life Sciences, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Bld. 50A-6120, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: acthompson@lbl.gov; Blakely, E.A.; Bjornstad, K.A. [Division of Life Sciences, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Bld. 50A-6120, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Chang, P.Y. [Division of Life Sciences, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Bld. 50A-6120, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Rosen, C.J.; Schwarz, R.I. [Division of Life Sciences, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Bld. 50A-6120, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2007-11-11

    Synchrotron X-ray sources enable radiation biology experiments that are difficult with conventional sources. A synchrotron source can easily deliver a monochromatic, tunable energy, highly collimated X-ray beam of well-calibrated intensity. An exposure station at beamline 10.3.1 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) has been developed which delivers a variable energy (5-20 keV) X-ray fan beam with very sharp edges (10-90% in less than 3 {mu}m). A series of experiments have been done with a four-well slide where a stripe (100 {mu}m widex18 mm long) of cells in each well has been irradiated and the dose varied from well to well. With this facility we have begun a series of experiments to study cells adjacent to irradiated cells and how they respond to the damage of their neighbors. Initial results have demonstrated the advantages of using synchrotron radiation for these experiments.

  6. Practical strategies and perceptions from community pharmacists following their experiences with conducting pharmacy practice research: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vera, Mary A; Campbell, Natasha K J; Chhina, Harpreet; Galo, Jessica S; Marra, Carlo

    2017-10-26

    While prior research identified barriers to conducting research in community pharmacies, there remains a need to better understand facilitators to ensure successful collaborations between academic researchers and pharmacists. Our objective was to determine the experiences and perspectives of community pharmacists who have recently conducted a pharmacy practice-based research study to gain in-depth understanding of challenges as well as facilitators and identify strategies and solutions. We conducted a qualitative study involving one-on-one semi-structured telephone interviews with community pharmacists following the completion of a practice-based research study in their pharmacies. Interview transcripts were analysed using inductive content analysis involving open coding, creating categories and abstraction into final themes. Eleven pharmacists participated in the qualitative interviews. We identified six major themes including: (1) barriers (e.g. time constraints); (2) facilitators (e.g. ideal pharmacy layout); (3) support and resources from academic researchers (e.g. helpfulness of training, easy-to-use study materials); (4) pharmacist-initiated strategies for conducting research (beyond prior suggestions from researchers); (5) suggestions for future pharmacy practice research; and (6) motivation for conducting pharmacy practice research. These findings informed practical strategies targeted at academic researchers and pharmacists, respectively, to facilitate the conduct of research in community pharmacists across various stages of the research process. Our study adds to better understanding of community pharmacists' perspectives on conducting research and identifies practical solutions that can be readily implemented by academic researchers and pharmacists participating in research. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. “... And Gladly Teach”: The American Hospital Association's Experience in Conducting Institutes on Hospital Librarianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yast, Helen

    1964-01-01

    As part of its overall educational program, the American Hospital Association has since 1959 conducted three institutes on hospital librarianship to meet the demand for more competent librarians in medical, nursing school, and patients' libraries. The purpose of such institutes is to teach the basic elements of library science to untrained personnel in hospital libraries. Discussed are steps in initiating an institute; factors determining length, date, and place; financing; publicity; choice and responsibility of local advisory committee; program content; qualifications of instructors; characteristics of registrants; materials for distribution; evaluations. Details of the most recent institute are outlined. A summary of problems still facing this type of educational program and suggestions for future improvements conclude the paper. PMID:14119309

  8. Development of female medfly attractants to support the sterile insect technique: experiments conducted in Madeira, Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.

    1999-01-01

    With the availability of genetic sexing strains of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), it is possible to release only sterile males in SIT programs. The availability of a new female medfly attractant can reduce labor costs because program progress can be monitored by trapping females instead of the usual male trapping with its labor intensive identification of sterile and wild males. Three Madeira studies evaluated new female attractants; ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine. One study was carried out in the same area during two different periods of 1996 (8 June to 27 July and 12 October to 30 November). A second study was conducted between 24 May to 05 July, 1997, in two different areas at the same altitude. One area had a wild fly population (sex ratio 1: 1) and the other was in an area where sterile males were released (sex ratio > 9: 1). The third study, conducted from 18 October to 29 November, 1997, compared wild fly captures at low elevations (80 m) with those at high elevations (700 m). The first study showed that the inclusion of the attractant trimethylamine significantly increased the wild female medfly. The percentage of medfly females in the traps with the two and the three attractants (FA-2 and FA-3) was more than 70%. In the second and third studies, the dry traps were more effective than wet traps in capturing wild medfly females. In areas with only wild females, the percentage of females captured was more than 62%. In areas where sterile males were released, the percentage of females captured was between 12% and 19%. In conclusion, the new attractants captured high percentages of females and, when combined with medfly genetic sexing strains, can reduce program costs significantly. (author)

  9. Chemometric and biological validation of a capillary electrophoresis metabolomic experiment of Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Angulo, Santiago; Utzinger, Jürg; Holmes, Elaine; Legido-Quigley, Cristina; Barbas, Coral

    2010-07-01

    Metabonomic and metabolomic studies are increasingly utilized for biomarker identification in different fields, including biology of infection. The confluence of improved analytical platforms and the availability of powerful multivariate analysis software have rendered the multiparameter profiles generated by these omics platforms a user-friendly alternative to the established analysis methods where the quality and practice of a procedure is well defined. However, unlike traditional assays, validation methods for these new multivariate profiling tools have yet to be established. We propose a validation for models obtained by CE fingerprinting of urine from mice infected with the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. We have analysed urine samples from two sets of mice infected in an inter-laboratory experiment where different infection methods and animal husbandry procedures were employed in order to establish the core biological response to a S. mansoni infection. CE data were analysed using principal component analysis. Validation of the scores consisted of permutation scrambling (100 repetitions) and a manual validation method, using a third of the samples (not included in the model) as a test or prediction set. The validation yielded 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity, demonstrating the robustness of these models with respect to deciphering metabolic perturbations in the mouse due to a S. mansoni infection. A total of 20 metabolites across the two experiments were identified that significantly discriminated between S. mansoni-infected and noninfected control samples. Only one of these metabolites, allantoin, was identified as manifesting different behaviour in the two experiments. This study shows the reproducibility of CE-based metabolic profiling methods for disease characterization and screening and highlights the importance of much needed validation strategies in the emerging field of metabolomics.

  10. Operating experience review -- Conduct of operations at Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This research examined human error related occurrences, reported in the ORPS database, for the purpose of identifying weaknesses in the implementation of the guidance regarding the Conduct of Operations contained in DOE 5480.19. Specifically, this research examined three separate samples of occurrence reports from Defense Program facilities, which cited human error as a direct or contributing cause. These reports were evaluated using a coding scheme which incorporated the guidelines present in 5480.19, as well as a number of generic human factors concerns. The second chapter of this report summarizes the coding scheme which was used to evaluate the occurrence reports. Since the coding scheme is quite lengthy, only the parts of the scheme needed to make the remainder of the report clear are included in this chapter. Details on the development and content of the coding scheme are reported in Appendices A, B, and C. Chapter 3 presents the analysis of three different data sets. This chapter demonstrates that similar results were obtained across different data sets, collected at different points in time, and coded by different raters. The implications of the results obtained in Chapter 3 are discussed in Chapter 4. This chapter makes a number of suggestions for reducing the problems found in the occurrence reports. Chapter 5 applies the methodology that has been developed in this report to two facilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Finally, Chapter 6 reiterates the major findings of this report. Several additional analyses appear in appendices at the end of this report

  11. Conducting a user-centered information needs assessment: the Via Christi Libraries' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, Cathy M; Gentry, Camillia A; Fleming, A Sue; Sen, Kristin M

    2007-04-01

    The research sought to provide evidence to support the development of a long-term strategy for the Via Christi Regional Medical Center Libraries. An information needs assessment was conducted in a large medical center serving approximately 5,900 physicians, clinicians, and nonclinical staff in 4 sites in 1 Midwestern city. Quantitative and qualitative data from 1,295 self-reporting surveys, 75 telephone interviews, and 2 focus groups were collected and analyzed to address 2 questions: how could the libraries best serve their patrons, given realistic limitations on time, resources, and personnel, and how could the libraries best help their institution improve patient care and outcomes? Clinicians emphasized the need for "just in time" information accessible at the point of care. Library nonusers emphasized the need to market library services and resources. Both clinical and nonclinical respondents emphasized the need for information services customized to their professional information needs, preferences, and patterns of use. Specific information needs in the organization were identified. The results of this three-part, user-centered information needs assessment were used to develop an evidence-based strategic plan. The findings confirmed the importance of promoting library services in the organization and suggested expanded, collaborative roles for hospital librarians.

  12. Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI): Concept, Hardware Development, and Initial Analysis of Experiments Conducted Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    2003-01-01

    Porosity in the form of "bubbles and pipes" can occur during controlled directional solidification processing of metal alloys. This is a consequence that 1) precludes obtaining any meaningful scientific results and 2) is detrimental to desired material properties. Unfortunately, several Microgravity experiments have been compromised by porosity. The intent of the PFMl investigation is to conduct a systematic effort directed towards understanding porosity formation and mobility during controlled directional solidification (DS) in a microgravity environment. PFMl uses a pure transparent material, succinonitrile (SCN), as well as SCN "alloyed" with water, in conjunction with a translating temperature gradient stage so that direct observation and recording of pore generation and mobility can be made. PFMl is investigating the role of thermocapillary forces and temperature gradients in affecting bubble dynamics as well as other solidification processes in a microgravity environment. This presentation will cover the concept, hardware development, operations, and the initial results from experiments conducted aboard the International Space Station.

  13. Analysis of pin removal experiments conducted in an SCWR-like test lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Institue, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Raetz, D. [Paul Scherrer Institue, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Resun AG, CH-5001 Aarau (Switzerland); Jordan, K. A. [Paul Scherrer Institue, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Perret, G. [Paul Scherrer Institue, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    A comprehensive program of integral experiments, largely based on the measurement of reaction rate distributions, was carried out recently on an SCWR-like fuel lattice in the central test zone of the PROTEUS zero-power research reactor at the Paul Scherrer Inst. in Switzerland. The present paper reports on the analysis of a complementary set of measurements, in which the reactivity effects of removing individual pins from the unperturbed, heterogeneously moderated reference lattice were investigated. It has been found that the detailed Monte Carlo modeling of the whole reactor using MCNPX is able - as in the case of the reaction rate distributions - to reproduce the experimental results for the pin removal worths within the achievable statistical accuracy. A comparison of reduced-geometry calculations between MCNPX and the deterministic LWR assembly code CASMO-4E has revealed certain discrepancies. On the basis of a reactivity decomposition analysis of the differences between the codes, it has been suggested that these could be due to CASMO-4E deficiencies in calculating the effect, upon pin removal, of the extra moderation in the neighboring fuel pins. (authors)

  14. Comparison of GAP-3 and GAP-4 experiments with conduction freezing calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments GAP-3 and GAP-4 were performed at ANL to investigate the ability of molten fuel to penetrate downward through the narrow channels separating adjacent subassemblies during an LMFBR hypothetical core disruptive accident. Molten fuel-metal mixtures (81% UO 2 , 19% Mo) at an initial temperature of 3470 0 K generated by a thermite reaction were injected downward into 1 m long rectangular test sections (gap thickness = 0.43 cm, channel width = 20.3 cm) initially at 1170 0 K simulating the nominal Clinch River Breeder Reactor intersubassembly gap. In the GAP-3 test, a prolonged reaction time of approx. 15 s resulted in segregation of the metallic Mo and oxidic UO 2 constituents within the reaction vessel prior to injection. Consequently, Mo entered the test section first and froze, forming a complete plug at a penetration distance of 0.18 m. In GAP-4, the reaction time was reduced to approx. 3 s and the constituents remained well mixed upon injection with the result that the leading edge penetration distance increased to 0.35 m. Posttest examination of the cut-open test sections has revealed the existence of stable insulating crusts upon the underlying steel walls with melting and ablation of the walls only very localized

  15. Multiscale modification of the conductive PEDOT:PSS polymer for the analysis of biological mixtures in a super-hydrophobic drop

    KAUST Repository

    Coppedè, Nicola

    2016-03-18

    Conducting polymers are materials displaying high electrical conductivity, easy of fabrication, flexibility and biocompatibility, for this, they are routinely employed in organic electronics, printed electronics, and bioelectronics. Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are a second generation of organic thin transistors, in which the insulator layer is an electrolyte medium and the conductive polymer is electrochemically active. OECT devices have been demonstrated in chemical and biological sensing: while accurate in determining the size of individual ions in solution, similar devices break down if challenged with complex mixtures. Here, we combine a conductive PEODOT:PSS polymer with a super-hydrophobic scheme to obtain a family of advanced devices, in which the ability to manipulate a biological solution couples to a precise texture of the substrate (which incorporates five micro-electrodes in a line, and each is a site specific measurement point), and this permits to realize time and space resolved analysis of a solution. While the competition between convection and diffusion in a super-hydrophobic drop operates the separation of different species based on their size and charge, the described device delivers the ability to register a similar difference. In the following, we demonstrate the device in the sensing of a solution in which CTAB and adrenaline are separated with good sensitivity, selectivity and reliability.

  16. Multiscale modification of the conductive PEDOT:PSS polymer for the analysis of biological mixtures in a super-hydrophobic drop

    KAUST Repository

    Coppedè , Nicola; Ferrara, Lorenzo; Bifulco, Paolo; Villani, Marco; Iannotta, Salvatore; Zappettini, Andrea; Cesarelli, Mario; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Gentile, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Conducting polymers are materials displaying high electrical conductivity, easy of fabrication, flexibility and biocompatibility, for this, they are routinely employed in organic electronics, printed electronics, and bioelectronics. Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are a second generation of organic thin transistors, in which the insulator layer is an electrolyte medium and the conductive polymer is electrochemically active. OECT devices have been demonstrated in chemical and biological sensing: while accurate in determining the size of individual ions in solution, similar devices break down if challenged with complex mixtures. Here, we combine a conductive PEODOT:PSS polymer with a super-hydrophobic scheme to obtain a family of advanced devices, in which the ability to manipulate a biological solution couples to a precise texture of the substrate (which incorporates five micro-electrodes in a line, and each is a site specific measurement point), and this permits to realize time and space resolved analysis of a solution. While the competition between convection and diffusion in a super-hydrophobic drop operates the separation of different species based on their size and charge, the described device delivers the ability to register a similar difference. In the following, we demonstrate the device in the sensing of a solution in which CTAB and adrenaline are separated with good sensitivity, selectivity and reliability.

  17. Estimation of Knudsen diffusion coefficients from tracer experiments conducted with a binary gas system and a porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibi, Yoshihiko; Kashihara, Ayumi

    2018-03-01

    A previous study has reported that Knudsen diffusion coefficients obtained by tracer experiments conducted with a binary gas system and a porous medium are consistently smaller than those obtained by permeability experiments conducted with a single-gas system and a porous medium. To date, however, that study is the only one in which tracer experiments have been conducted with a binary gas system. Therefore, to confirm this difference in Knudsen diffusion coefficients, we used a method we had developed previously to conduct tracer experiments with a binary carbon dioxide-nitrogen gas system and five porous media with permeability coefficients ranging from 10-13 to 10-11 m2. The results showed that the Knudsen diffusion coefficient of N2 (DN2) (cm2/s) was related to the effective permeability coefficient ke (m2) as DN2 = 7.39 × 107ke0.767. Thus, the Knudsen diffusion coefficients of N2 obtained by our tracer experiments were consistently 1/27 of those obtained by permeability experiments conducted with many porous media and air by other researchers. By using an inversion simulation to fit the advection-diffusion equation to the distribution of concentrations at observation points calculated by mathematically solving the equation, we confirmed that the method used to obtain the Knudsen diffusion coefficient in this study yielded accurate values. Moreover, because the Knudsen diffusion coefficient did not differ when columns with two different lengths, 900 and 1500 mm, were used, this column property did not influence the flow of gas in the column. The equation of the dusty gas model already includes obstruction factors for Knudsen diffusion and molecular diffusion, which relate to medium heterogeneity and tortuosity and depend only on the structure of the porous medium. Furthermore, there is no need to take account of any additional correction factor for molecular diffusion except the obstruction factor because molecular diffusion is only treated in a multicomponent

  18. A summary of the test procedures and operational details of an ocean dumping pollution monitoring experiment conducted 7 October 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Wallace, J. W.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    A remote sensor experiment was conducted at a sewage sludge dump site off the Delaware/Maryland coast. Two aircraft serving as remote sensor platforms flew over the dump site during a sludge dump. One aircraft carried a multispectral scanner and the other aircraft carried a rapid scanning spectrometer. Data from sea-truth stations were collected concurrent with overpasses of the aircraft. All sensors were operational and produced good digital data.

  19. Micro-scale NMR Experiments for Monitoring the Optimization of Membrane Protein Solutions for Structural Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Reto; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2015-07-20

    Reconstitution of integral membrane proteins (IMP) in aqueous solutions of detergent micelles has been extensively used in structural biology, using either X-ray crystallography or NMR in solution. Further progress could be achieved by establishing a rational basis for the selection of detergent and buffer conditions, since the stringent bottleneck that slows down the structural biology of IMPs is the preparation of diffracting crystals or concentrated solutions of stable isotope labeled IMPs. Here, we describe procedures to monitor the quality of aqueous solutions of [ 2 H, 15 N]-labeled IMPs reconstituted in detergent micelles. This approach has been developed for studies of β-barrel IMPs, where it was successfully applied for numerous NMR structure determinations, and it has also been adapted for use with α-helical IMPs, in particular GPCRs, in guiding crystallization trials and optimizing samples for NMR studies (Horst et al ., 2013). 2D [ 15 N, 1 H]-correlation maps are used as "fingerprints" to assess the foldedness of the IMP in solution. For promising samples, these "inexpensive" data are then supplemented with measurements of the translational and rotational diffusion coefficients, which give information on the shape and size of the IMP/detergent mixed micelles. Using microcoil equipment for these NMR experiments enables data collection with only micrograms of protein and detergent. This makes serial screens of variable solution conditions viable, enabling the optimization of parameters such as the detergent concentration, sample temperature, pH and the composition of the buffer.

  20. Experience of an inter-laboratory exercise for the determination of Carbon-14 in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baburajan, A.; Rajaram, S.; D'Souza, Renita Shiny; Nayak, Rasmi; Karunakara, N.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Carbon-14 is one of the naturally occurring cosmogenic nuclide with long half life of 5730 y and beta energy, E max : 156 keV produced continuously in the outer atmosphere. It is also produced by the anthropogenic activities like nuclear weapon test, nuclear power plant etc. contributing to the atmospheric inventory. The 14 CO 2 gets incorporated with the plant species during photosynthesis and ultimately reaches to man through food chain. It is important to accurately quantify the level of 14 C in different biological matrices for the computation of radiation dose due to ingestion. There are different methods available for the determination of 14 C in biological samples. The oxidation of the dried sample is one of the methods used for liberating the 14 CO 2 and which in turn re-absorbed using Carbo Sorb and subjected to Liquid scintillation analyses with Permaflour scintillator solution. The paper deals with the quality assurance programme initiated by ESL, Tarapur along with ESL, Kalpakkam and CARER, Mangalore University and share the experience of the inter-laboratory comparison exercise

  1. Development of a Novel Scanning Thermal Microscopy (SThM) Method to Measure the Thermal Conductivity of Biological Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Kouichi; Kogure, Akinori; Kuwana, Ritsuko; Takamatsu, Hiromu; Ito, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

     Differences in the physical properties of individual cells cannot be evaluated with conventional experimental methods that are used to study groups of cells obtained from pure cultures. To examine the differences in the thermal tolerance of individual cells that are genetically identical, a method is needed to measure the thermal energy required to kill single cells. We developed a scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) system and measured the thermal conductivity of various bacterial cells, for example, spore formeing Bacillus genus and non spore-forming bacteria such as Escherichia coli. The thermal conductivity of vegetative cells (0.61 to 0.75 W/m・K) was found to be higher than that of spores (0.29 to 0.45 W/m・K). Furthermore the newly developed method enables us to estimate the thermal energy needed to kill individual cells or spores. We believe that this method can estimate the thermal energy required to achieve the cell for sterilization by heating.

  2. Dynamic cell culture system: a new cell cultivation instrument for biological experiments in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmunder, F. K.; Nordau, C. G.; Tschopp, A.; Huber, B.; Cogoli, A.

    1988-01-01

    The prototype of a miniaturized cell cultivation instrument for animal cell culture experiments aboard Spacelab is presented (Dynamic cell culture system: DCCS). The cell chamber is completely filled and has a working volume of 200 microliters. Medium exchange is achieved with a self-powered osmotic pump (flowrate 1 microliter h-1). The reservoir volume of culture medium is 230 microliters. The system is neither mechanically stirred nor equipped with sensors. Hamster kidney (Hak) cells growing on Cytodex 3 microcarriers were used to test the biological performance of the DCCS. Growth characteristics in the DCCS, as judged by maximal cell density, glucose consumption, lactic acid secretion and pH, were similar to those in cell culture tubes.

  3. Biological stress reactivity as an index of the two polarities of the experience model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jaime R; Vivanco-Carlevari, Anastassia; Barrientos, Mauricio; Martínez, Claudio; Salazar, Luis A; Krause, Mariane

    2017-10-01

    The two-polarities model of personality argues that experience is organized around two axes: interpersonal relatedness and self-definition. Differential emphasis on one of these poles defines adaptive and pathological experiences, generating anaclitic or introjective tendencies. The anaclitic pattern, on one hand, has been conceptually related with an exaggerated emphasis on interpersonal relatedness. On the other hand, the introjective pattern has been connected to high levels of self-criticism. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychophysiological basis for this relationship. Specifically, we hypothesized that the anaclitic individual should have a higher biological reactivity to stress (BRS), measured by the cortisol concentration in saliva, in an interpersonal stress induction protocol (Trier Social Stress Test). Contrary to what was expected, the results indicated that introjective participants presented a higher BSR than the anaclitic group. Interestingly, in contrast to their higher BSR, the introjective group reported a diminished subjective stress in relation to the average. In the anaclitic group, a tendency that goes in the opposite direction was found. Theoretical implications of these findings were discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A methodology for achieving high-speed rates for artificial conductance injection in electrically excitable biological cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, R J; Wilson, C G; Delnegro, C A; Smith, J C

    2001-12-01

    We present a novel approach to implementing the dynamic-clamp protocol (Sharp et al., 1993), commonly used in neurophysiology and cardiac electrophysiology experiments. Our approach is based on real-time extensions to the Linux operating system. Conventional PC-based approaches have typically utilized single-cycle computational rates of 10 kHz or slower. In thispaper, we demonstrate reliable cycle-to-cycle rates as fast as 50 kHz. Our system, which we call model reference current injection (MRCI); pronounced merci is also capable of episodic logging of internal state variables and interactive manipulation of model parameters. The limiting factor in achieving high speeds was not processor speed or model complexity, but cycle jitter inherent in the CPU/motherboard performance. We demonstrate these high speeds and flexibility with two examples: 1) adding action-potential ionic currents to a mammalian neuron under whole-cell patch-clamp and 2) altering a cell's intrinsic dynamics via MRCI while simultaneously coupling it via artificial synapses to an internal computational model cell. These higher rates greatly extend the applicability of this technique to the study of fast electrophysiological currents such fast a currents and fast excitatory/inhibitory synapses.

  5. [On the necessity to prepare new "Rules for the organization and conduction of forensic biological examination and studies by the State Forensic Examination Boards of the Russian Federation"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusarov, A A

    2010-01-01

    The author substantiates the necessity to prepare new "Rules for the organization and conduction of forensic biological examination and studies by the State Forensic Examination Boards of the Russian Federation". Their long-term absence of the reviewed document has negatively influenced the quality of work of these facilities. The structure and contents of the three previous versions of the Rules for the study of material evidence (1934, 1956, and 1996) are analysed. The structure of the new variant is designed to optimize the work of forensic medical examination bureaus and the performance of relevant studies.

  6. Group processing in an undergraduate biology course for preservice teachers: Experiences and attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, Lauren Brownback

    Group processing is a key principle of cooperative learning in which small groups discuss their strengths and weaknesses and set group goals or norms. However, group processing has not been well-studied at the post-secondary level or from a qualitative or mixed methods perspective. This mixed methods study uses a phenomenological framework to examine the experience of group processing for students in an undergraduate biology course for preservice teachers. The effect of group processing on students' attitudes toward future group work and group processing is also examined. Additionally, this research investigated preservice teachers' plans for incorporating group processing into future lessons. Students primarily experienced group processing as a time to reflect on past performance. Also, students experienced group processing as a time to increase communication among group members and become motivated for future group assignments. Three factors directly influenced students' experiences with group processing: (1) previous experience with group work, (2) instructor interaction, and (3) gender. Survey data indicated that group processing had a slight positive effect on students' attitudes toward future group work and group processing. Participants who were interviewed felt that group processing was an important part of group work and that it had increased their group's effectiveness as well as their ability to work effectively with other people. Participants held positive views on group work prior to engaging in group processing, and group processing did not alter their atittude toward group work. Preservice teachers who were interviewed planned to use group work and a modified group processing protocol in their future classrooms. They also felt that group processing had prepared them for their future professions by modeling effective collaboration and group skills. Based on this research, a new model for group processing has been created which includes extensive

  7. Simulated experiment for elimination of chemical and biological warfare agents by making use of microwave plasma torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Yong C.; Kim, Jeong H.; Uhm, Han S.

    2004-01-01

    The threat of chemical and biological warfare agents in a domestic terrorist attack and in military conflict is increasing worldwide. Elimination and decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents are immediately required after such an attack. Simulated experiment for elimination of CBW agents by making use of atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma torches is carried out. Elimination of biological warfare agents indicated by the vitrification or burnout of sewage sludge powders and decomposition of toluene gas as a chemical agent stimulant are presented. A detailed characterization for the elimination of the simulant chemicals using Fourier transform infrared and gas chromatography is also presented

  8. Simulated experiment for elimination of chemical and biological warfare agents by making use of microwave plasma torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yong C.; Kim, Jeong H.; Uhm, Han S.

    2004-02-01

    The threat of chemical and biological warfare agents in a domestic terrorist attack and in military conflict is increasing worldwide. Elimination and decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents are immediately required after such an attack. Simulated experiment for elimination of CBW agents by making use of atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma torches is carried out. Elimination of biological warfare agents indicated by the vitrification or burnout of sewage sludge powders and decomposition of toluene gas as a chemical agent stimulant are presented. A detailed characterization for the elimination of the simulant chemicals using Fourier transform infrared and gas chromatography is also presented.

  9. ASPIRE: An automated sample positioning and irradiation system for radiation biology experiments at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothari, Ashok; Barua, P.; Archunan, M.; Rani, Kusum; Subramanian, E.T.; Pujari, Geetanjali; Kaur, Harminder; Satyanarayanan, V.V.V.; Sarma, Asitikantha; Avasthi, D.K.

    2015-01-01

    An automated irradiation setup for biology samples has been built at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. It can automatically load and unload 20 biology samples in a run of experiment. It takes about 20 min [2% of the cell doubling time] to irradiate all the 20 samples. Cell doubling time is the time taken by the cells (kept in the medium) to grow double in numbers. The cells in the samples keep growing during entire of the experiment. The fluence irradiated to the samples is measured with two silicon surface barrier detectors. Tests show that the uniformity of fluence and dose of heavy ions reaches to 2% at the sample area in diameter of 40 mm. The accuracy of mean fluence at the center of the target area is within 1%. The irradiation setup can be used to the studies of radiation therapy, radiation dosimetry and molecular biology at the heavy ion accelerator. - Highlights: • Automated positioning and irradiation setup for biology samples at IUAC is built. • Loading and unloading of 20 biology samples can be automatically carried out. • Biologicals cells keep growing during entire experiment. • Fluence and dose of heavy ions are measured by two silicon barrier detectors. • Uniformity of fluence and dose of heavy ions at sample position reaches to 2%

  10. A Conceptual Framework for Organizing Active Learning Experiences in Biology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Joel; Belland, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Introductory biology courses form a cornerstone of undergraduate instruction. However, the predominantly used lecture approach fails to produce higher-order biology learning. Research shows that active learning strategies can increase student learning, yet few biology instructors use all identified active learning strategies. In this paper, we…

  11. Experiences of mobility for people living with rheumatoid arthritis who are receiving biologic drug therapy: implications for podiatry services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Lucy; Donovan-Hall, Margaret; Borthwick, Alan; Bowen, Catherine J

    2017-01-01

    Despite significant advancements in new treatment modalities for rheumatoid arthritis with biological therapies, foot complications remain a disabling and common feature of the disease . In this study the aim was to explore and describe the personal experiences of people with rheumatoid arthritis in receipt of biologic treatments in a bid to understand the impact of this form of medication on their mobility. An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was undertaken to explore in depth the individual experience of rheumatoid disease through personal accounts of the patient journey spanning both 'before' and 'after' the instigation of biologic therapy. A purposive sampling strategy was adopted and in-depth semi structured interviews used to facilitate rich, detailed interview data exploring the lived experiences of individuals undertaking biological therapy and the changes to mobility experienced as a result. Thematic analysis was employed with an IPA framework to identify key meanings, and report patterns within the data. Five people with rheumatoid arthritis participated in the study. The mean disease duration was 20.2 years (range: 6 -32) and all were being treated with biologic therapies. Four key themes emerged from the data: 1) Life before biologic treatment, depicted in accounts as a negative experience characterised by painful and disabling symptoms and feelings of hopelessness. 2) Life with biologic treatment, often experienced as a life changing transition, restoring function and mobility and offering renewed hope. 3) Sense of self, in which the impact of rheumatoid disease and the subsequent changes arising from biologic therapy reveal a profound impact on feelings of personal identity both pre and post biologic therapy; an effect of footwear on self-image emerges as a dominant sub theme; 4) Unmet footcare needs were evident in the patient narrative, where the unrelenting if diminished impact of foot pain on mobility was viewed in the context of

  12. History on the biological nitrogen fixation research in graminaceous plants: special emphasis on the Brazilian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldani, José I; Baldani, Vera L D

    2005-09-01

    This review covers the history on Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF) in Graminaceous plants grown in Brazil, and describes research progress made over the last 40 years, most of which was coordinated by Johanna Döbereiner. One notable accomplishment during this period was the discovery of several nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as the rhizospheric (Beijerinckia fluminensis and Azotobacter paspali), associative (Azospirillum lipoferum, A. brasilense, A. amazonense) and the endophytic (Herbaspirillum seropedicae, H. rubrisubalbicans, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Burkholderia brasilensis and B. tropica). The role of these diazotrophs in association with grasses, mainly with cereal plants, has been studied and a lot of progress has been achieved in the ecological, physiological, biochemical, and genetic aspects. The mechanisms of colonization and infection of the plant tissues are better understood, and the BNF contribution to the soil/plant system has been determined. Inoculation studies with diazotrophs showed that endophytic bacteria have a much higher BNF contribution potential than associative diazotrophs. In addition, it was found that the plant genotype influences the plant/bacteria association. Recent data suggest that more studies should be conducted on the endophytic association to strengthen the BNF potential. The ongoing genome sequencing programs: RIOGENE (Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus) and GENOPAR (Herbaspirillum seropedicae) reflect the commitment to the BNF study in Brazil and should allow the country to continue in the forefront of research related to the BNF process in Graminaceous plants.

  13. The role of space communication in promoting national development with specific reference to experiments conducted in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitnis, E. V.

    The paper describes the role of space communication in promoting national development with special reference to experiments conducted in India, namely SITE (1975-1976), STEP (1977-1979) and APPLE (1981 onwards). The impact of these experiments in economic, cultural and educational terms are discussed, pointing out social implications involved in using advance space communication technology for instruction and information in the areas of education, national integration and development. The paper covers special requirements which arise when a communication system covers backward and remote rural areas in a developing country. The impact on the population measured by conducting social surveys has been discussed - especially the gains of predominently illiterate new media - participants have been highlighted. Possibilities of improving skills of teachers, the quality of the primary and higher education have been covered. The preparation required both on ground as well as space to derive benefits of space technology are considered. A profile of INSAT which marks the culmination of the experimental phase and the beginning of operational domestic satellite system is sketched.

  14. Effect of adverse childhood experiences on physical health in adulthood: Results of a study conducted in Baghdad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameel F Al-Shawi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have revealed a powerful relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs and physical and mental health in adulthood. Literature documents the conversion of traumatic emotional experiences in childhood into organic disease later in life. Objective: The aim was to estimate the effect of childhood experiences on the physical health of adults in Baghdad city. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to January 2014. The study sample was drawn from Baghdad city. Multistage sampling techniques were used in choosing 13 primary health care centers and eight colleges of three universities in Baghdad. In addition, teachers of seven primary schools and two secondary schools were chosen by a convenient method. Childhood experiences were measured by applying a modified standardized ACEs-International Questionnaire form and with questions for bonding to family and parental monitoring. Physical health assessment was measured by a modified questionnaire derived from Health Appraisal Questionnaire of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The questionnaire includes questions on cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, tumor, respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Results: Logistic regression model showed that a higher level of bonding to family (fourth quartile is expected to reduce the risk of chronic physical diseases by almost the half (odds ratio = 0.57 and exposure to a high level of household dysfunction and abuse (fourth quartile is expected to increase the risk of chronic physical diseases by 81%. Conclusion: Childhood experiences play a major role in the determination of health outcomes in adulthood, and early prevention of ACEs. Encouraging strong family bonding can promote physical health in later life.

  15. Physics holo.lab learning experience: using smartglasses for augmented reality labwork to foster the concepts of heat conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzys, M. P.; Kapp, S.; Thees, M.; Klein, P.; Lukowicz, P.; Knierim, P.; Schmidt, A.; Kuhn, J.

    2018-05-01

    Fundamental concepts of thermodynamics rely on abstract physical quantities such as energy, heat and entropy, which play an important role in the process of interpreting thermal phenomena and statistical mechanics. However, these quantities are not covered by human visual perception, and since heat sensation is purely qualitative and easy to deceive, an intuitive understanding often is lacking. Today immersive technologies like head-mounted displays of the newest generation, especially HoloLens, allow for high-quality augmented reality learning experiences, which can overcome this gap in human perception by presenting different representations of otherwise invisible quantities directly in the field of view of the user on the experimental apparatus, which simultaneously avoids a split-attention effect. In a mixed reality (MR) scenario as presented in this paper—which we call a holo.lab—human perception can be extended to the thermal regime by presenting false-color representations of the temperature of objects as a virtual augmentation directly on the real object itself in real-time. Direct feedback to experimental actions of the users in the form of different representations allows for immediate comparison to theoretical principles and predictions and therefore is supposed to intensify the theory–experiment interactions and to increase students’ conceptual understanding. We tested this technology for an experiment on thermal conduction of metals in the framework of undergraduate laboratories. A pilot study with treatment and control groups (N = 59) showed a small positive effect of MR on students’ performance measured with a standardized concept test for thermodynamics, pointing to an improvement of the understanding of the underlying physical concepts. These findings indicate that complex experiments could benefit even more from augmentation. This motivates us to enrich further experiments with MR.

  16. Gene-environment interaction in Major Depression: focus on experience-dependent biological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola eLopizzo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Major Depressive Disorder (MDD is a multifactorial and polygenic disorder, where multiple and partially overlapping sets of susceptibility genes interact each other and with the environment, predisposing individuals to the development of the illness. Thus, MDD results from a complex interplay of vulnerability genes and environmental factors that act cumulatively throughout individual's lifetime. Among these environmental factors, stressful life experiences, especially those occurring early in life, have been suggested to exert a crucial impact on brain development, leading to permanent functional changes that may contribute to life long risk for mental health outcomes. In this review we will discuss how genetic variants (polymorphisms, SNPs within genes operating in neurobiological systems that mediate stress response and synaptic plasticity, can impact, by themselves, the vulnerability risk for MDD; we will also consider how this MDD risk can be further modulated when gene X environment interaction is taken into account. Finally, we will discuss the role of epigenetic mechanisms, and in particular of DNA methylation and miRNAs expression changes, in mediating the effect of the stress on the vulnerability risk to develop MDD. Taken together, in this review we aim to underlie the role of genetic and epigenetic processes involved in stress and neuroplasticity related biological systems on development of MDD after exposure to early life stress, thereby building the basis for future research and clinical interventions.

  17. Reward: commentary. Temporal discounting in conduct disorder: toward an experience-adaptation hypothesis of the role of psychosocial insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2014-02-01

    Young people with conduct disorder often experience histories of psychosocial adversity and socioeconomic insecurity. For these individuals, real-world future outcomes are not only delayed in their delivery but also highly uncertain. Under such circumstances, accentuated time preference (extreme favoring of the present over the future) is a rational response to the everyday reality of social and economic transactions. Building on this observation, the author sets out the hypothesis that the exaggerated temporal discounting displayed by individuals with conduct disorder reported by White et al. (2014) is an adaptation to chronic exposure to psychosocial insecurity during development. The author postulates that this adaptation leads to (a) a decision-making bias whereby delay and uncertainty are coded as inseparable characteristics of choice outcomes and/or (b) reprogramming of the brain networks regulating intertemporal decision making. Future research could explore the putative role of environmental exposures to adversity in the development of exaggerated temporal discounting in conduct disorder as well as the mediating role of putative cognitive and neurobiological adaptations.

  18. A comprehensive experiment for molecular biology: Determination of single nucleotide polymorphism in human REV3 gene using PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Shao, Meng; Gao, Lu; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Sun, Zixuan; Zhou, Liping; Yan, Yongmin; Shao, Qixiang; Xu, Wenrong; Qian, Hui

    2017-07-08

    Laboratory exercise is helpful for medical students to understand the basic principles of molecular biology and to learn about the practical applications of molecular biology. We have designed a lab course on molecular biology about the determination of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in human REV3 gene, the product of which is a subunit of DNA polymerase ζ and SNPs in this gene are associated with altered susceptibility to cancer. This newly designed experiment is composed of three parts, including genomic DNA extraction, gene amplification by PCR, and genotyping by RFLP. By combining these activities, the students are not only able to learn a series of biotechniques in molecular biology, but also acquire the ability to link the learned knowledge with practical applications. This comprehensive experiment will help the medical students improve the conceptual understanding of SNP and the technical understanding of SNP detection. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(4):299-304, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  19. MOLNs: A CLOUD PLATFORM FOR INTERACTIVE, REPRODUCIBLE, AND SCALABLE SPATIAL STOCHASTIC COMPUTATIONAL EXPERIMENTS IN SYSTEMS BIOLOGY USING PyURDME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawert, Brian; Trogdon, Michael; Toor, Salman; Petzold, Linda; Hellander, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Computational experiments using spatial stochastic simulations have led to important new biological insights, but they require specialized tools and a complex software stack, as well as large and scalable compute and data analysis resources due to the large computational cost associated with Monte Carlo computational workflows. The complexity of setting up and managing a large-scale distributed computation environment to support productive and reproducible modeling can be prohibitive for practitioners in systems biology. This results in a barrier to the adoption of spatial stochastic simulation tools, effectively limiting the type of biological questions addressed by quantitative modeling. In this paper, we present PyURDME, a new, user-friendly spatial modeling and simulation package, and MOLNs, a cloud computing appliance for distributed simulation of stochastic reaction-diffusion models. MOLNs is based on IPython and provides an interactive programming platform for development of sharable and reproducible distributed parallel computational experiments.

  20. More Ideas for Monitoring Biological Experiments with the BBC Computer: Absorption Spectra, Yeast Growth, Enzyme Reactions and Animal Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Presented are five ideas for A-level biology experiments using a laboratory computer interface. Topics investigated include photosynthesis, yeast growth, animal movements, pulse rates, and oxygen consumption and production by organisms. Includes instructions specific to the BBC computer system. (CW)

  1. Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... objections runs away from home often truant from school Children who exhibit these behaviors should receive a comprehensive evaluation by an experience mental health professional. Many children with a conduct disorder may ...

  2. Evaluation of long-term patient satisfaction and experience with the Baha(®) bone conduction implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob; Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate long-term patient satisfaction with bone-anchored hearing aids (the Baha(R), now referred to by Cochlear as a 'bone conduction implant') in our hospital clinic spanning the eighteen-year period from the inception of our Baha program. The researchers further wished to analyse...... the various factors leading to patient satisfaction/dissatisfaction with their Baha. We developed a new questionnaire to obtain a comprehensive impression of individual patient practices, general satisfaction, and experiences with their Baha in respect to time spent using Baha, sound quality, annoyance from...... noise disturbance, ease of communication, cosmetic appearance, and satisfaction with the Baha amongst patient relatives, an aspect not previously investigated. Design: The study design was retrospective and executed as a postal questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed by the authors of this paper...

  3. TOPICAL REVIEW: Single-molecule experiments in biological physics: methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritort, F.

    2006-08-01

    I review single-molecule experiments (SMEs) in biological physics. Recent technological developments have provided the tools to design and build scientific instruments of high enough sensitivity and precision to manipulate and visualize individual molecules and measure microscopic forces. Using SMEs it is possible to manipulate molecules one at a time and measure distributions describing molecular properties, characterize the kinetics of biomolecular reactions and detect molecular intermediates. SMEs provide additional information about thermodynamics and kinetics of biomolecular processes. This complements information obtained in traditional bulk assays. In SMEs it is also possible to measure small energies and detect large Brownian deviations in biomolecular reactions, thereby offering new methods and systems to scrutinize the basic foundations of statistical mechanics. This review is written at a very introductory level, emphasizing the importance of SMEs to scientists interested in knowing the common playground of ideas and the interdisciplinary topics accessible by these techniques. The review discusses SMEs from an experimental perspective, first exposing the most common experimental methodologies and later presenting various molecular systems where such techniques have been applied. I briefly discuss experimental techniques such as atomic-force microscopy (AFM), laser optical tweezers (LOTs), magnetic tweezers (MTs), biomembrane force probes (BFPs) and single-molecule fluorescence (SMF). I then present several applications of SME to the study of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA and DNA condensation) and proteins (protein-protein interactions, protein folding and molecular motors). Finally, I discuss applications of SMEs to the study of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of small systems and the experimental verification of fluctuation theorems. I conclude with a discussion of open questions and future perspectives.

  4. Experiences in conducting multiple community-based HIV prevention trials among women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moodley Jothi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa, with its scientific capacity, good infrastructure and high HIV incidence rates, is ideally positioned to conduct large-scale HIV prevention trials. The HIV Prevention Research Unit of the South African Medical Research Council conducted four phase III and one phase IIb trials of women-initiated HIV prevention options in KwaZulu-Natal between 2003 and 2009. A total of 7046 women participated, with HIV prevalence between 25% and 45% and HIV incidence ranging from 4.5-9.1% per year. Unfortunately none of the interventions tested had any impact on reducing the risk of HIV acquisition; however, extremely valuable experience was gained, lessons learned and capacity built, while the communities gained associated benefits. Experience Our experience in conducting these trials ranged from setting up community partnerships to developing clinical research sites and dissemination of trial results. Community engagement included setting up community-based research sites with approval from both political and traditional leaders, and developing community advisory groups to assist with the research process. Community-wide education on HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevention, treatment and care was provided to over 90 000 individuals. Myths and misconceptions were addressed through methods such as anonymous suggestion boxes in clinic waiting areas and intensive education and counselling. Attempts were made to involve male partners to foster support and facilitate recruitment of women. Peer educator programmes were initiated to provide ongoing education and also to facilitate recruitment of women to the trials. Recruitment strategies such as door-to-door recruitment and community group meetings were initiated. Over 90% of women enrolled were retained. Community benefits from the trial included education on HIV prevention, treatment and care and provision of ancillary care (such as Pap smears, reproductive health care and

  5. II. Application of field data from heater experiments conducted at Stripa, Sweden, to parameters for repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, M.; Carlsson, H.; Nelson, P.H.

    1979-01-01

    Current experiments are designed to yield information about both the near-field and the far-field effects of thermomechanical loading of an in-situ, granitic rock mass. Electrically heated canisters, constructed to represent high-level radioactive waste canisters, are emplaced in boreholes from excavations some 340 m below the surface. Thermally induced spalling along the heater borehole wall, a near-field effect, has been monitored and two types of spalling, one serious and one not serious, have been identified. A suggested failure criterion for the serious type of spalling is sigma/sub max/ greater than or equal to C 0 (where sigma/sub max/ is the maximum induced compressive stress at the borehole wall and C 0 is the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock). In one of these experiments this criterion was exceeded, and gross failure at the wall occurred when the equivalent power to the heater was increased beyond 5 kW. The far-field effects of the applied loading are investigated by measuring the temperature, displacement, and stress fields and then comparing the results with predictions which were made based on linear thermoelastic theory. The results show that the dominant mode of heat transfer through the rock is by conduction and, therefore, that predictions of the temperature field are made readily using simple calculations. However, displacements and stresses within the rock mass are measured to be only one-half or less of the values predicted. Two reasons for this major discrepancy are suggested. Work to verify this result is in progress

  6. Multifactorial and microdosimetrical analysis of the biological influence of galactic cosmic rays on Bacillus subtilis spores in the biostack experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facius, R.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper a partial experiment is presented which has been performed during several years and several space flight missions. This experiment is part of a research program to study the radiation biological - and in particular the medical relevance of the 'hard' cosmic ray component. The identification of particles (Z, LET, E) was not hindered by the combination with biological objects and could be performed with sufficient accuracy. Refering to semi-empirical findings the distribution of LET values in the bacillus subtilis could be determined in agreement with other experimental results. The localisation and correlation of particle tracks with the individual cells of the target regions is significant. As a result the LET does not seem to be an important parameter for the biological activity within the parameter range studied here. The energy deposition in the spores by delta-electrons could be calculated on the basis of a microdosimetrical analysis. A more detailed analysis was essentially hampered by an insufficient accuracy for the measurement of the distance between particle tracks and the spores. Thus a dose-survival-curve could not be established. In spite of that the relative biological activity (RBW) has been estimated on the basis of density distributions. The failure of these experiments, a review of the relevant literature, and a detailed discussion contribute essentially to the problem of the existence of specific mechanisms for heavy ions and their radiation biological activity. According to the actual knowledge the existence of such a mechanism in addition to delta-electrons has to be considered as most probable. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Genelab: Scientific Partnerships and an Open-Access Database to Maximize Usage of Omics Data from Space Biology Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsch, S. S.; Galazka, J..; Berrios, D. C; Chakravarty, K.; Fogle, H.; Lai, S.; Bokyo, V.; Timucin, L. R.; Tran, P.; Skidmore, M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's mission includes expanding our understanding of biological systems to improve life on Earth and to enable long-duration human exploration of space. The GeneLab Data System (GLDS) is NASA's premier open-access omics data platform for biological experiments. GLDS houses standards-compliant, high-throughput sequencing and other omics data from spaceflight-relevant experiments. The GeneLab project at NASA-Ames Research Center is developing the database, and also partnering with spaceflight projects through sharing or augmentation of experiment samples to expand omics analyses on precious spaceflight samples. The partnerships ensure that the maximum amount of data is garnered from spaceflight experiments and made publically available as rapidly as possible via the GLDS. GLDS Version 1.0, went online in April 2015. Software updates and new data releases occur at least quarterly. As of October 2016, the GLDS contains 80 datasets and has search and download capabilities. Version 2.0 is slated for release in September of 2017 and will have expanded, integrated search capabilities leveraging other public omics databases (NCBI GEO, PRIDE, MG-RAST). Future versions in this multi-phase project will provide a collaborative platform for omics data analysis. Data from experiments that explore the biological effects of the spaceflight environment on a wide variety of model organisms are housed in the GLDS including data from rodents, invertebrates, plants and microbes. Human datasets are currently limited to those with anonymized data (e.g., from cultured cell lines). GeneLab ensures prompt release and open access to high-throughput genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics data from spaceflight and ground-based simulations of microgravity, radiation or other space environment factors. The data are meticulously curated to assure that accurate experimental and sample processing metadata are included with each data set. GLDS download volumes indicate strong

  8. Heat-flow patterns in Tian-Calvet microcalorimeters: Conductive, convective, and radiative transport in gas dosing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilchiz, Luis Enrique; Pacheco-Vega, Arturo; Handy, Brent E.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical models of a Tian-Calvet microcalorimeter were solved numerically by the finite-element method in an effort to understand the relative importance of the three basic heat transfer mechanisms operative during gas dosing experiments typically used to determine heats of adsorption on catalysts and adsorbents. The analysis pays particular attention to the quantitative release of heat through various elements of the cell and sensor cups to assess time delays and the deg.ree of thermal shunting that may result in inaccuracies in calorimetric measurements. Conductive transfer predominates in situations where there is high gas headspace pressure. The convection currents that arise when dosing with considerable gas pressure in the cell headspace region are not sufficiently strong to shunt significant amounts of sample heat away from being sensed by the surrounding thermopiles. Therefore, the heat capture fraction (heat sensed/heat produced) does not vary significantly with gas headspace pressure. During gas dosing under very low gas headspace pressure, radiation losses from the top of the sample bed may significantly affect the heat capture fraction, leading to underestimations of adsorption heats, unless the heat radiated from the top of the catalyst bed is effectively reflected back to the sample region or absorbed by an inert packing layer also in thermal contact with the thermopile wall

  9. A summary of the test procedures and operational details of a Delaware River and an ocean dumping pollution monitoring experiment conducted 28 August 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Ohlhorst, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    Two remote sensor evaluation experiments are discussed. One experiment was conducted at the DuPont acid-dump site off the Delaware coast. The second was conducted at an organic waste outfall in the Delaware River. The operational objective of obtaining simultaneous sea truth sampling with remote sensors overpasses was met. Descriptions of the test sites, sensors, sensor platforms, flight lines, sea truth data collected, and operational chronology are presented.

  10. History on the biological nitrogen fixation research in graminaceous plants: special emphasis on the Brazilian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I. Baldani

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the history on Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF in Graminaceous plants grown in Brazil, and describes research progress made over the last 40 years, most of whichwas coordinated by Johanna Döbereiner. One notable accomplishment during this period was the discovery of several nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as the rhizospheric (Beijerinckia fluminensis and Azotobacter paspali, associative (Azospirillum lipoferum, A. brasilense, A. amazonense and the endophytic (Herbaspirillum seropedicae, H. rubrisubalbicans, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Burkholderia brasilensis and B. tropica. The role of these diazotrophs in association with grasses, mainly with cereal plants, has been studied and a lot of progress has been achieved in the ecological, physiological, biochemical, and genetic aspects. The mechanisms of colonization and infection of the plant tissues are better understood, and the BNF contribution to the soil/plant system has been determined. Inoculation studies with diazotrophs showed that endophytic bacteria have a much higher BNF contribution potential than associative diazotrophs. In addition, it was found that the plant genotype influences the plant/bacteria association. Recent data suggest that more studies should be conducted on the endophytic association to strengthen the BNF potential. The ongoing genome sequencing programs: RIOGENE (Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and GENOPAR (Herbaspirillum seropedicae reflect the commitment to the BNF study in Brazil and should allow the country to continue in the forefront of research related to the BNF process in Graminaceous plants.A presente revisão aborda a história da Fixação Biológica de Nitrogênio (FBN em Gramíneas no Brasil, procurando mostrar a evolução da pesquisa na área iniciada a mais de 40 anos sob a liderança da pesquisadora Johanna Döbereiner. Um aspecto marcante deste período foi a descoberta de diversas bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio atmosf

  11. A planar conducting micro-loop structure for transportation of magnetic beads: An approach towards rapid sensing and quantification of biological entities

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan

    2012-03-01

    Magnetic beads are utilized effectively in a wide variety of medical applications due to their small size, biocompatibility and large surface to volume ratio. Microfluidic lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices, which utilize magnetic beads, are promising tools for accurate and rapid cell sorting and counting. Effective manipulation of beads is a critical factor for the performance of LOC devices. In this paper we propose a planar conducting micro-loop structure to trap, manipulate and transport magnetic beads. Current through the micro-loops produces magnetic field gradients that are proportional to the force required to manipulate the beads. Numerical analyses were performed to study the magnetic forces and their spatial distributions. Experimental results showed that magnetic beads could not only be transported towards a target region, e.g., for sensing purposes, but also the trapping rate could be increased by switching current between the different loops in the micro-loop structure. This method could lead to rapid and accurate quantification of biological entities tagged with magnetic beads. Copyright © 2012 American Scientific Publishers. All rights reserved.

  12. Infusing Bioinformatics and Research-Like Experience into a Molecular Biology Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogaj, Luiza A.

    2014-01-01

    A nine-week laboratory project designed for a sophomore level molecular biology course is described. Small groups of students (3-4 per group) choose a tumor suppressor gene (TSG) or an oncogene for this project. Each group researches the role of their TSG/oncogene from primary literature articles and uses bioinformatics engines to find the gene…

  13. Experiment of decontamination of radioactive liquid by a biological method; Experience de decontamination de liquides radioactifs far voie biologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wormser, G.

    1962-07-01

    The author reports experiments of treatment of radioactive liquid effluents by percolation on a bacterial bed like the one used for the treatment of sewer wastewaters. He also reports results obtained in other countries in terms of reduction of effluent radioactivity for various radioactive ions. The installation is described and results are presented in terms of variation of contamination of an effluent with respect to its recycling on a bacterial bed [French] Dans le monde entier, on se preoccupe des moyens de decontamination pour des liquides radioactifs. Les experiences de l'auteur ont confirme qu'un lit bacterien neuf peut donner de bons resultats: il est a noter que ce procede biologique se montre selectif a l'egard des divers ions radioactifs. (auteur)

  14. Patients' experiences towards the donation of their residual biological samples and the impact of these experiences on the type of consent given for secondary use: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Chan Tuck; Mackey, Sandra Jane; Hegney, Desley Gail

    Background Residual or leftover clinical tissues are valuable resources for biomedical research. There is on-going discussion about the methodological, legal, and ethical issues on the collection, storage and use of these tissues for future research. This systematic review will consider qualitative studies previously conducted, which report on patients' preferences, experiences and willingness to donate their tissues.Objectives The aim of this review was to critically appraise, synthesize and present the best available evidence related to the experiences of patients toward consent when donating their leftover tissue for research.Search strategy The search strategy aimed to find both published and unpublished studies. A three-step search strategy was utilized. An initial limited search of MEDLINE and CINAHL was undertaken, followed by analysis of text words contained in the title and abstract, and of the index terms used to describe the article. A second search using all identified keywords and index terms was then undertaken across all included databases. Thirdly, the reference lists of all identified reports and articles were searched for additional studies.Data collection & analysis The standardised data extraction tool from the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-QARI) was used to extract data from each paper. The qualitative research findings were presented as thematic pooling using the JBI-QARI approach in a narrative form. During the analysis, 131 study findings from 18 publications were aggregated into 19 categories to form four synthesized findings.Main results The synthesized findings generated were: (1) Healthcare professionals should be aware that patients' consent to the use of their left-over tissues are influenced by many and varied factors. Primarily these factors included: benefits to self and other and trust in research and researchers; (2) Healthcare institutions and regulatory authorities must provide strict

  15. Testing the equation of state and electrical conductivity of copper by the electrical wire explosion in air: Experiment and magnetohydrodynamic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barysevich, A. E.; Cherkas, S. L.

    2011-01-01

    We perform experiments on testing the equations of state and electrical conductivity of copper in three different regimes of copper wire electrical explosion, when the inserted energy (i) is slightly exceeded, (ii) is approximately equal, and (iii) is substantially exceeded the energy needed for the wire complete evaporation. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation is performed. The results predicted by the two different equations of state are compared with the experiment. Empirical expression for the copper electrical conductivity is presented. Parameters in this expression is fit on every of two equations of state. Map of copper conductivity is plotted.

  16. Recognizing and Conducting Opportunistic Experiments in Education: A Guide for Policymakers and Researchers. REL 2014-037

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Alexandra; Berk, Jillian; Akers, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    An opportunistic experiment is a type of randomized controlled trial that studies the effects of a planned intervention or policy change with minimal added disruption and cost. This guide defines opportunistic experiments and provides examples, discusses issues to consider when identifying potential opportunistic experiments, and outlines the…

  17. Pilot scale experiment with MBR operated in intermittent aeration condition: analysis of biological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodici, M; Di Bella, G; Di Trapani, D; Torregrossa, M

    2015-02-01

    The effect of intermittent aeration (IA) on a MBR system was investigated. The study was aimed at analyzing different working conditions and the influence of different IA cycles on the biological performance of the MBR pilot plant, in terms of organic carbon and ammonium removal as well as extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) production. The membrane modules were placed in a separate compartment, continuously aerated. This configuration allowed to disconnect from the filtration stage the biological phenomena occurring into the IA bioreactor. The observed results highlighted good efficiencies, in terms of organic carbon and ammonium removal. It was noticed a significant soluble microbial products (SMPs) release, likely related to the higher metabolic stress that anoxic conditions exerted on the biomass. However, the proposed configuration, with the membranes in a separate compartment, allowed to reduce the EPSs in the membrane tank even during the non-aerated phase, thus lowering fouling development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Spectral and spatial shaping of a laser-produced ion beam for radiation-biology experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pommarel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of radiation biology on laser-based accelerators is most interesting due to the unique irradiation conditions they can produce, in terms of peak current and duration of the irradiation. In this paper we present the implementation of a beam transport system to transport and shape the proton beam generated by laser-target interaction for in vitro irradiation of biological samples. A set of four permanent magnet quadrupoles is used to transport and focus the beam, efficiently shaping the spectrum and providing a large and relatively uniform irradiation surface. Real time, absolutely calibrated, dosimetry is installed on the beam line, to enable shot-to-shot control of dose deposition in the irradiated volume. Preliminary results of cell sample irradiation are presented to validate the robustness of the full system.

  19. Participation, representation, and shared experiences of women scholars in biological anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Trudy R; Bernstein, Robin M; Taylor, Andrea B; Asangba, Abigail; Bekelman, Traci; Cramer, Jennifer Danzy; Elton, Sarah; Harvati, Katarina; Williams-Hatala, Erin Marie; Kauffman, Laurie; Middleton, Emily; Richtsmeier, Joan; Szathmáry, Emőke; Torres-Rouff, Christina; Thayer, Zaneta; Villaseñor, Amelia; Vogel, Erin

    2018-01-01

    American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA) membership surveys from 1996 and 1998 revealed significant gender disparities in academic status. A 2014 follow-up survey showed that gender equality had improved, particularly with respect to the number of women in tenure-stream positions. However, although women comprised 70% of AAPA membership at that time, the percentage of women full professors remained low. Here, we continue to consider the status of women in biological anthropology by examining the representation of women through a quantitative analysis of their participation in annual meetings of the AAPA during the past 20 years. We also review the programmatic goals of the AAPA Committee on Diversity Women's Initiative (COD-WIN) and provide survey results of women who participated in COD-WIN professional development workshops. Finally, we examine the diversity of women's career paths through the personal narratives of 14 women biological anthropologists spanning all ranks from graduate student to Professor Emeritus. We find that over the past 20 years, the percentage of women first authors of invited symposia talks has increased, particularly in the sub-disciplines of bioarchaeology, genetics, and paleoanthropology. The percentage of women first authors on contributed talks and posters has also increased. However, these observed increases are still lower than expected given the percentage of graduate student women and women at the rank of assistant and associate professor. The personal narratives highlight first-hand the impact of mentoring on career trajectory, the challenges of achieving work-life satisfaction, and resilience in the face of the unexpected. We end with some suggestions for how to continue to improve equality and equity for women in biological anthropology. © 2018 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

  20. The effects of autonomy-supportive and controlling teaching behaviour in biology lessons with primary and secondary experiences on students' intrinsic motivation and flow-experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferber, Natalia; Basten, Melanie; Großmann, Nadine; Wilde, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Self-Determination Theory and Flow Theory propose that perceived autonomy fosters the positive qualities of motivation and flow-experience. Autonomy-support can help to maintain students' motivation in very interesting learning activities and may lead to an increase in the positive qualities of motivation in less interesting learning activities. This paper investigates whether autonomy-supportive or controlling teaching behaviour influence students' motivation and flow-experience in biology class. In study 1, 158 students of grade six worked on the adaptations of Harvest Mice (Micromys minutus) with living animals. The 153 sixth graders of study 2 dealt with the same content but instead worked with short films on laptops. Previous studies have shown that students perceive film sequences as less interesting than working with living animals. Students' intrinsic motivation and flow-experience were measured at the end of the first and the third lesson. In study 1, autonomy-supportive teaching behaviour led to significant differences in students' intrinsic motivation and flow-experience when compared to controlling teaching behaviour. In study 2, motivation and flow-experience were not always in line with theory. The positive effects of autonomy-supportive and the non-beneficial effects of the controlling teaching behaviour seem to be dependent on the interestingness of the teaching material.

  1. Landing in the future: Biological experiments on Earth and in space orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovskiy, A.

    1980-01-01

    The development of an Earth biosatellite to duplicate the parameters of pressure, temperature, humidity and others in a space environment onboard Cosmos-1129 is discussed. Effects of a space environment on fruit flies, dogs, laboratory rats in procreation, behavior, stress, biorhythm, body composition, gravitation preference, and cell cultures are examined. The space environment for agricultural products is also studied. The effects of heavy nuclei of galactic space radiation on biological objects inside and outside the satellite is studied, and methods of electrostatic protection are developed.

  2. Landing in the future: Biological experiments on Earth and in space orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovskiy, A.

    1980-09-01

    The development of an Earth biosatellite to duplicate the parameters of pressure, temperature, humidity and others in a space environment onboard Cosmos-1129 is discussed. Effects of a space environment on fruit flies, dogs, laboratory rats in procreation, behavior, stress, biorhythm, body composition, gravitation preference, and cell cultures are examined. The space environment for agricultural products is also studied. The effects of heavy nuclei of galactic space radiation on biological objects inside and outside the satellite is studied, and methods of electrostatic protection are developed.

  3. Variability of Biological Degradation of Phenolic Hydrocarbons in an Aerobic Aquifer Determined by Laboratory Batch Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    The biological aerobic degradation of 7 phenolic hydrocarbons (phenol, o-cresol, o-nitrophenol, p-nitrophenol, 2,6-dichlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 4,6-o-dichlorocresol) and 1 aromatic hydrocarbon (nitrobenzene) was studied for 149 days in replicate laboratory batch microcosms with sediment...... and groundwater from 8 localities representing a 15 m × 30 m section of an aerobic aquifer. Three patterns of variation were found: (1) phenol, o-cresol and in most cases p-nitrophenol showed very fast degradation with no or only short lag phases and with very little variation among localities; (2) 2...

  4. Multiple daily fractionation in radiotherapy: biological rationale and preliminary clinical experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcangeli, G [Instituto Medico Scientifico, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Oncology; Mauro, F; Morelli, D; Nervi, C

    1979-09-01

    The biological bases of radiation dose fractionation are reviewed and discussed with special emphasis on reassortment. Experimental data on animal model systems are presented to clarify that reassortment has to be added to sublethal damage repair and reoxygenation in the rationale for an optimized radiotherapy course according to tumor cell kinetics. Clinical results on several human tumors treated with twice or thrice daily fractions are described. These results show that some clinically radioresistant tumors (especially if not characterized by a relatively long clinical doubling line) can be satisfactorily dealt with using multiple daily fractionation. Clinical observations indicate that a relatively high cumulative daily dose (200 + 150 + 150 rad) can be safely administered.

  5. The effects of corona on current surges induced on conducting lines by EMP: A comparison of experiment data with results of analytic corona models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, J. P.; Tesche, F. M.; McConnell, B. W.

    1987-09-01

    An experiment to determine the interaction of an intense electromagnetic pulse (EMP), such as that produced by a nuclear detonation above the Earth's atmosphere, was performed in March, 1986 at Kirtland Air Force Base near Albuquerque, New Mexico. The results of that experiment have been published without analysis. Following an introduction of the corona phenomenon, the reason for interest in it, and a review of the experiment, this paper discusses five different analytic corona models that may model corona formation on a conducting line subjected to EMP. The results predicted by these models are compared with measured data acquired during the experiment to determine the strengths and weaknesses of each model.

  6. Effect of Si doping on the thermal conductivity of bulk GaN at elevated temperatures – theory and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Paskov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Si doping on the thermal conductivity of bulk GaN was studied both theoretically and experimentally. The thermal conductivity of samples grown by Hydride Phase Vapor Epitaxy (HVPE with Si concentration ranging from 1.6×1016 to 7×1018 cm-3 was measured at room temperature and above using the 3ω method. The room temperature thermal conductivity was found to decrease with increasing Si concentration. The highest value of 245±5 W/m.K measured for the undoped sample was consistent with the previously reported data for free-standing HVPE grown GaN. In all samples, the thermal conductivity decreased with increasing temperature. In our previous study, we found that the slope of the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity gradually decreased with increasing Si doping. Additionally, at temperatures above 350 K the thermal conductivity in the highest doped sample (7×1018 cm-3 was higher than that of lower doped samples. In this work, a modified Callaway model adopted for n-type GaN at high temperatures was developed in order to explain such unusual behavior. The experimental data was analyzed with examination of the contributions of all relevant phonon scattering processes. A reasonable match between the measured and theoretically predicted thermal conductivity was obtained. It was found that in n-type GaN with low dislocation densities the phonon-free-electron scattering becomes an important resistive process at higher temperatures. At the highest free electron concentrations, the electronic thermal conductivity was suggested to play a role in addition to the lattice thermal conductivity and compete with the effect of the phonon-point-defect and phonon-free-electron scattering.

  7. A Case-Based Scenario with Interdisciplinary Guided-Inquiry in Chemistry and Biology: Experiences of First Year Forensic Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Sarah L.; Loughlin, Wendy A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, insight into forensic science students' experiences of a case-based scenario with an interdisciplinary guided-inquiry experience in chemistry and biology is presented. Evaluation of student experiences and interest showed that the students were engaged with all aspects of the case-based scenario, including the curriculum theory…

  8. Biological effects of the hypomagnetic field: An analytical review of experiments and theories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N Binhi

    Full Text Available During interplanetary flights in the near future, a human organism will be exposed to prolonged periods of a hypomagnetic field that is 10,000 times weaker than that of Earth's. Attenuation of the geomagnetic field occurs in buildings with steel walls and in buildings with steel reinforcement. It cannot be ruled out also that a zero magnetic field might be interesting in biomedical studies and therapy. Further research in the area of hypomagnetic field effects, as shown in this article, is capable of shedding light on a fundamental problem in biophysics-the problem of primary magnetoreception. This review contains, currently, the most extensive bibliography on the biological effects of hypomagnetic field. This includes both a review of known experimental results and the putative mechanisms of magnetoreception and their explanatory power with respect to the hypomagnetic field effects. We show that the measured correlations of the HMF effect with HMF magnitude and inhomogeneity and type and duration of exposure are statistically absent. This suggests that there is no general biophysical MF target similar for different organisms. This also suggests that magnetoreception is not necessarily associated with evolutionary developed specific magnetoreceptors in migrating animals and magnetotactic bacteria. Independently, there is nonspecific magnetoreception that is common for all organisms, manifests itself in very different biological observables as mostly random reactions, and is a result of MF interaction with magnetic moments at a physical level-moments that are present everywhere in macromolecules and proteins and can sometimes transfer the magnetic signal at the level of downstream biochemical events. The corresponding universal mechanism of magnetoreception that has been given further theoretical analysis allows one to determine the parameters of magnetic moments involved in magnetoreception-their gyromagnetic ratio and thermal relaxation time

  9. Discrimination of Semi-Quantitative Models by Experiment Selection: Method Application in Population Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vatcheva, Ivayla; Bernard, Olivier; de Jong, Hidde; Gouze, Jean-Luc; Mars, Nicolaas; Nebel, B.

    2001-01-01

    Modeling an experimental system often results in a number of alternative models that are justified equally well by the experimental data. In order to discriminate between these models, additional experiments are needed. We present a method for the discrimination of models in the form of

  10. Does Teaching Experience Matter? Examining Biology Teachers' Prior Knowledge for Teaching in an Alternative Certification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichsen, Patricia J.; Abell, Sandra K.; Pareja, Enrique M.; Brown, Patrick L.; Lankford, Deanna M.; Volkmann, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Alternative certification programs (ACPs) have been proposed as a viable way to address teacher shortages, yet we know little about how teacher knowledge develops within such programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate prior knowledge for teaching among students entering an ACP, comparing individuals with teaching experience to those…

  11. "Their Stories Have Changed My Life": Clinicians' Reflections on Their Experience with and Their Motivation to Conduct Asylum Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishori, Ranit; Hannaford, Alisse; Mujawar, Imran; Ferdowsian, Hope; Kureshi, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Many clinicians perform asylum evaluations yet no studies describe the motivation to perform them or their perceived rewards. The number of asylum seekers in the US is increasing and more clinicians are needed as evaluators. A survey to an asylum evaluators' network asked participants to qualitatively reflect on their experience and motivation. Answers were analyzed for themes and sentiment. Respondents cited commitment to humanistic and moral values, noted personal and family experiences, having skills, expertise, and career interests as drivers. They found the experience very rewarding personally and professionally, and in their perceived benefit to asylees. Negative sentiment was less frequent and centered on emotions related to client narratives. Process-oriented frustrations were also noted. This is the first published study describing clinicians' motivation and experience with asylum evaluations. It may illuminate clinicians' drive to volunteer, and serve as a resource for organizations for recruitment and education.

  12. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Daly:Juvenile blue king crab cannibalism experiment conducted in the Kodiak Lab in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is part of a laboratory experiment, which evaluated how varying prey densities (year-0 blue king crabs) and habitat type (shell and sand) affect the...

  13. Practice as source of learning and knowledge that comes from experience: what science and biology teachers say about it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana M. Lunardi Campos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the possible knowledge that Science and Biology teachers may acquire form their daily work. Fourth three teachers were considered in this research and all belong to the Public School of the city of Botucatu, S.P. All of them were unanimous in stressing the importance of their professional activity as a meaningful aspect. They learned more about themselves, their methods, their employed resources and their pupils through it. Three dimensions can be pointed out here: personal, professional and pedagogical and it can be named nine aspects of the knowledge from experience. An organized and active knowledge may be achieved by reckoning the teacher as the main producer of knowledge about his occupation and assuming as well how important his practice and knowledge from experience are.

  14. Undergraduate Biology Lab Courses: Comparing the Impact of Traditionally Based "Cookbook" and Authentic Research-Based Courses on Student Lab Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sara E.; Kloser, Matthew J.; Fukami, Tadishi; Shavelson, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, several reports have recommended a shift in undergraduate biology laboratory courses from traditionally structured, often described as "cookbook," to authentic research-based experiences. This study compares a cookbook-type laboratory course to a research-based undergraduate biology laboratory course at a Research 1…

  15. Training Drug Treatment Patients to Conduct Peer-Based HIV Outreach: An Ethnographic Perspective on Peers' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Honoria; Deren, Sherry; Mino, Milton; Kang, Sung-Yeon; Shedlin, Michele

    2010-01-01

    From 2005 to 2008, the Bienvenidos Project trained Puerto Rican patients of New York City and New Jersey methadone maintenance treatment programs to conduct peer-based community outreach to migrant Puerto Rican drug users to reduce migrants' HIV risk behaviors. Ethnographic research, including focus groups, individual interviews and observations, was conducted with a subset of the patients trained as peers (n=49; 67% male; mean age 40.3 years) to evaluate the self-perceived effects of the intervention. Results of the ethnographic component of this study are summarized. The role of ethnographic methods in implementing and evaluating this kind of intervention is also discussed. PMID:20141456

  16. Using Zebrafish to Implement a Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience to Study Teratogenesis in Two Biology Laboratory Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chism, Grady W.; Vaughan, Martin A.; Muralidharan, Pooja; Marrs, Jim A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE) spanning three semesters was introduced into freshman and sophomore biology classes, with the hypothesis that participation in a CURE affects skills in research, communication, and collaboration, which may help students persist in science. Student research projects were centered on the hypothesis that nicotine and caffeine exposure during early development affects gastrulation and heart development in zebrafish. First, freshmen generated original data showing distinct effects of embryonic nicotine and caffeine exposure on zebrafish heart development and function. Next, Cell Biology laboratory students continued the CURE studies and identified novel teratogenic effects of nicotine and caffeine during gastrulation. Finally, new freshmen continued the CURE research, examining additional toxicant effects on development. Students designed new protocols, made measurements, presented results, and generated high-quality preliminary data that were studied in successive semesters. By implementing this project, the CURE extended faculty research and provided a scalable model to address national goals to involve more undergraduates in authentic scientific research. In addition, student survey results support the hypothesis that CUREs provide significant gains in student ability to (1) design experiments, (2) analyze data, and (3) make scientific presentations, translating into high student satisfaction and enhanced learning. PMID:26829498

  17. Implementation of a Collaborative Series of Classroom-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences Spanning Chemical Biology, Biochemistry, and Neurobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Jennifer R.; Hoops, Geoffrey C.; Johnson, R. Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Classroom undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) provide students access to the measurable benefits of undergraduate research experiences (UREs). Herein, we describe the implementation and assessment of a novel model for cohesive CUREs focused on central research themes involving faculty research collaboration across departments. Specifically, we implemented three collaborative CUREs spanning chemical biology, biochemistry, and neurobiology that incorporated faculty members’ research interests and revolved around the central theme of visualizing biological processes like Mycobacterium tuberculosis enzyme activity and neural signaling using fluorescent molecules. Each CURE laboratory involved multiple experimental phases and culminated in novel, open-ended, and reiterative student-driven research projects. Course assessments showed CURE participation increased students’ experimental design skills, attitudes and confidence about research, perceived understanding of the scientific process, and interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines. More than 75% of CURE students also engaged in independent scientific research projects, and faculty CURE contributors saw substantial increases in research productivity, including increased undergraduate student involvement and academic outputs. Our collaborative CUREs demonstrate the advantages of multicourse CUREs for achieving increased faculty research productivity and traditional CURE-associated student learning and attitude gains. Our collaborative CURE design represents a novel CURE model for ongoing laboratory reform that benefits both faculty and students. PMID:27810870

  18. Minimal information: an urgent need to assess the functional reliability of recombinant proteins used in biological experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Marco Ario

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Structural characterization of proteins used in biological experiments is largely neglected. In most publications, the information available is totally insufficient to judge the functionality of the proteins used and, therefore, the significance of identified protein-protein interactions (was the interaction specific or due to unspecific binding of misfolded protein regions? or reliability of kinetic and thermodynamic data (how much protein was in its native form?. As a consequence, the results of single experiments might not only become questionable, but the whole reliability of systems biology, built on these fundaments, would be weakened. The introduction of Minimal Information concerning purified proteins to add as metadata to the main body of a manuscript would render straightforward the assessment of their functional and structural qualities and, consequently, of results obtained using these proteins. Furthermore, accepted standards for protein annotation would simplify data comparison and exchange. This article has been envisaged as a proposal for aggregating scientists who share the opinion that the scientific community needs a platform for Minimum Information for Protein Functionality Evaluation (MIPFE.

  19. Importance of temperature control for HEFLEX, a biological experiment for Spacelab 1. [plant gravitational physiology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of temperature control to HEFLEX, a Spacelab experiment designed to measure kinetic properties of Helianthis nutation in a low-g environment, is discussed. It is argued that the development of the HEFLEX experiment has been severely hampered by the inadequate control of ambient air temperature provided by the spacecraft module design. A worst case calculation shows that delivery of only 69% of the maximum yield of useful data from the HEFLEX system is guaranteed; significant data losses from inadequate temperature control are expected. The magnitude of the expected data losses indicates that the cost reductions associated with imprecise temperature controls may prove to be a false economy in the long term.

  20. Implementation of a Collaborative Series of Classroom-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences Spanning Chemical Biology, Biochemistry, and Neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Jennifer R; Hoops, Geoffrey C; Johnson, R Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Classroom undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) provide students access to the measurable benefits of undergraduate research experiences (UREs). Herein, we describe the implementation and assessment of a novel model for cohesive CUREs focused on central research themes involving faculty research collaboration across departments. Specifically, we implemented three collaborative CUREs spanning chemical biology, biochemistry, and neurobiology that incorporated faculty members' research interests and revolved around the central theme of visualizing biological processes like Mycobacterium tuberculosis enzyme activity and neural signaling using fluorescent molecules. Each CURE laboratory involved multiple experimental phases and culminated in novel, open-ended, and reiterative student-driven research projects. Course assessments showed CURE participation increased students' experimental design skills, attitudes and confidence about research, perceived understanding of the scientific process, and interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines. More than 75% of CURE students also engaged in independent scientific research projects, and faculty CURE contributors saw substantial increases in research productivity, including increased undergraduate student involvement and academic outputs. Our collaborative CUREs demonstrate the advantages of multicourse CUREs for achieving increased faculty research productivity and traditional CURE-associated student learning and attitude gains. Our collaborative CURE design represents a novel CURE model for ongoing laboratory reform that benefits both faculty and students. © 2016 J. R. Kowalski et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  1. Implementation of Animal Dissection to Brush the Skills of Biology Experiments Up Qualitatively and the Influence

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Takayuki; Torigoe, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    Animal dissection is good teaching method to understand animal livings directly. But, almost all the science teachers don't have enough experiences and skills about it. Therefore, we caused students to do several animal dissections and compare the results on teacher training of graduate school of university.The results of this study are as follow: 1) Mouse and Frogs as typical animals of dissection are good teaching material for observing overview of inner organs.2) The other vertebrate anima...

  2. The Air Force’s Experience with Should-Cost Reviews and Options for Enhancing Its Capability to Conduct Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    contractor that will be given the opportunity to continue development into EMD.1 Competitors for these contracts have a large incentive to bid low in...and mutual financial benefits are purposes in conducting these analyses. Commercial manufacturers including Toyota , Whirlpool, and LG Electronics use

  3. Preparing Practitioners to Conduct Educational Research and Evaluation: What the Research Says and What Our Experiences Taught Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Katherine Cumings; Stacy, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share the insights gleaned from the literature and our on-the-ground realities teaching practitioners to conduct educational research and evaluation. We focus on four areas we have found most important for teaching practitioner-scholars: (a) giving careful attention to andragogy versus pedagogy, (b) engaging the…

  4. Evaluation of long-term patient satisfaction and experience with the Baha(®) bone conduction implant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob; Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate long-term patient satisfaction with bone-anchored hearing aids (the Baha(R), now referred to by Cochlear as a 'bone conduction implant') in our hospital clinic spanning the eighteen-year period from the inception of our Baha program. The researchers further wished to analyse t...

  5. Biocinema: the experience of using popular movies with students of Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep-Eladi Baños Díez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Popular movies may be successfully used as a teaching aid in health sciences studies. In the last three years we have been using popular movies in an activity called Biocinema during the first trimester with students of fifth year of Biology at the Universitat Pompeu Fabra. The activity was planned to help the students to consider the social aspects of their future professional career. Six different films were used: Outbreak, Lorenzo's oil, The Boys from Brazil, Frankenstein, Le maladie de Sachs and The Andromeda strain. The activity was organized in three steps. First, students watched the film after a brief introduction by one of the teachers who were responsible for the activity. Second, this teacher organized an open discussion with the students during the next hour. Third, students wrote a brief report on one of the topics portrayed in the film or mentioned in the open discussion. These reports were further evaluated and contributed a maximum extrabonus of 0.5 points over 10 in the scoring of the regular topics covered in the trimester.

  6. 4.2. Medico-biological investigations and experiments on animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalikov, D.Kh.

    2012-01-01

    The hemo compatibility of cross-linked polymers was studied. Experiments were carried out on 18 healthy dogs by means of hemo sorption through hydrogels. The diagram of change of erythrocytes, leucocytes, haemoglobin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and hematocrit rate at hemo sorption of healthy dogs is presented. Changes of peripheral blood after its passing through sorbents were considered. Changes of peripheral blood at extra corporal detoxication were studied as well. The effectiveness of hemo sorption by means of ethynyl piperidol polymers at treatment of acute radiation sickness was studied. It was found that hemo sorption by cross-linked ethynyl piperidol polymers purify the animal blood from peptide toxins.

  7. Exploring midwifery students' views and experiences of caseload midwifery: A cross-sectional survey conducted in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Kate; Newton, Michelle; Forster, Della; McLachlan, Helen

    2015-02-01

    in Australia, models of maternity care that offer women continuity of care with a known midwife have been promoted. Little is known about the intentions of the future midwifery workforce to work in such models. This study aimed to explore midwifery students' views and experiences of caseload midwifery and their work intentions in relation to the caseload model following graduation. cross-sectional survey. Victoria, Australia. 129 midwifery students representing all midwifery course pathways (Post Graduate Diploma, Bachelor of Midwifery, Bachelor of Nursing/Bachelor of Midwifery) in Victoria. midwifery students from all course pathways considered that continuity of care is important to women and indicated that exposure to continuity models during their course was very positive. Two-thirds of the students (67%) considered that the continuity experiences made them want to work in a caseload model; only 5% reported that their experiences had discouraged them from continuity of care work in the future. Most wanted a period of consolidation to gain experience as a midwife prior to commencing in the caseload model. Perceived barriers to caseload work were being on-call, and challenges in regard to work/life balance and family commitments. midwifery students in this study were very positive about caseload midwifery and most would consider working in caseload after a period of consolidation. Continuity of care experiences during students' midwifery education programmes appeared to provide students with insight and understanding of continuity of care for both women and midwives. Further research should explore what factors influence students' future midwifery work, whether or not their plans are fulfilled, and whether or not the caseload midwifery workforce can be sustained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a filtered neutron field in KUR. In behalf of biological irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takashi; Utsuro, Masahiko; Utsumi, Hiroshi

    1995-07-01

    Very little direct measurements have been made of the biological effects of neutrons below 100keV. Recently, an iron-filtered 24keV neutron beam of Harwell Materials Testing Reactor, PLUTO, was reported to be highly efficient in inducing chromosome aberrations; the efficiency being comparable to that of fission neutrons. This results could have serious repercussions for radiation protection standards as the ICRP assume a decrease in neutron RBE below 100keV. The investigations reported here have as their primary purpose the production of neutron beams at the 24keV iron window energy, using the B-1 experimental facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (KURRI). The filtered neutron filed for biomedical applications is designed to maximized the contributions of neutrons with other energies and gamma-rays. The characteristics of the radiation field were obtained by the simple transmission calculations for Fe(45cm) and Al(35cm) filters, by using the Monte Carlo code MCN P, and by the measurement of nuclear heating for Fe and Al filter pieces. The 24keV neutron flux and gamma-ray dose rate were measured using a proton recoil counter and TLDs, respectively. The measured findings are as follows: The 24keV neutron flux at the irradiation field was approximately 1x10 6 n/cm 2 /s, and the gamma-ray dose rate was 1.0Gy/h at the surface of the B-1 plug. Nuclear heating of the filter materials was 5.2mW/g for Fe and 4mW/g for Al, in maximum. (author)

  9. Radiation, its biological effects and uses: past experiences and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharti, Neha; Pande, Nivedita

    2012-01-01

    Radiation refers to electromagnetic energy that travels through space in the form of particles or waves. It is energy such as heat, light, sound, radio waves and radar. It is everywhere including in the food we eat and the air that we breathe. Biological effects of radiation including cell killing, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis are all due to damage to DNA; Radiation releases OH ions from water molecules, which cause the cell damage due to their oxidizing effect. The mechanism by which radiation causes damage to human tissue, or any other material, is by ionization of atoms in the material. Genetic or heritable effects appear in the future generations of the exposed person as a result of radiation damage to the reproductive cells. Radiation may alter the DNA within any cell. Cell damage and death that result from mutations in somatic cells occur only in the organism in which the mutation occurred and are therefore termed somatic or no heritable effects. Acute radiation dose is defined as a large dose delivered during a short period of time. Genetic or heritable effects appear in the future generations of the exposed person as a result of radiation damage to the reproductive cells. The radiation used for cancer treatment may come from a machine outside the body, or it may come from radioactive material placed in the body near tumor cells or injected into the bloodstream. Radiation is used to help remove toxic pollutants, such as exhaust gases from coal-fired power stations and industry. For example, electron beam radiation can remove dangerous sulphur dioxides and nitrogen oxides from our environment and used to help remove toxic pollutants, such as exhaust gases from coal-fired power stations and industry. (author)

  10. ARADISH - Development of a Standardized Plant Growth Chamber for Experiments in Gravitational Biology Using Ground Based Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, Oliver; Krause, Lars; Görög, Mark; Hauslage, Jens; Kesseler, Leona; Böhmer, Maik; Hemmersbach, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    Plant development strongly relies on environmental conditions. Growth of plants in Biological Life Support Systems (BLSS), which are a necessity to allow human survival during long-term space exploration missions, poses a particular problem for plant growth, as in addition to the traditional environmental factors, microgravity (or reduced gravity such as on Moon or Mars) and limited gas exchange hamper plant growth. Studying the effects of reduced gravity on plants requires real or simulated microgravity experiments under highly standardized conditions, in order to avoid the influence of other environmental factors. Analysis of a large number of biological replicates, which is necessary for the detection of subtle phenotypical differences, can so far only be achieved in Ground Based Facilities (GBF). Besides different experimental conditions, the usage of a variety of different plant growth chambers was a major factor that led to a lack of reproducibility and comparability in previous studies. We have developed a flexible and customizable plant growth chamber, called ARAbidopsis DISH (ARADISH), which allows plant growth from seed to seedling, being realized in a hydroponic system or on Agar. By developing a special holder, the ARADISH can be used for experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana or a plant with a similar habitus on common GBF hardware, including 2D clinostats and Random Positioning Machines (RPM). The ARADISH growth chamber has a controlled illumination system of red and blue light emitting diodes (LED), which allows the user to apply defined light conditions. As a proof of concept we tested a prototype in a proteomic experiment in which plants were exposed to simulated microgravity or a 90° stimulus. We optimized the design and performed viability tests after several days of growth in the hardware that underline the utility of ARADISH in microgravity research.

  11. Healthcare professionals' self-reported experiences and preferences related to direct healthcare professional communications: a survey conducted in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Piening, Sigrid; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; de Graeff, Pieter A.; Straus, Sabine M. J. M.; Mol, Peter G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In Europe, Direct Healthcare Professional Communications (DHPCs) are important tools to inform healthcare professionals of serious, new drug safety issues. However, this tool has not always been successful in effectively communicating the desired actions to healthcare professionals. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore healthcare providers' experiences and their preferences for improvement of risk communication, comparing views of general practitioners (GPs), internists...

  12. CATHARE 2 analysis of the small break LOCA experiment SP-SB-03, conducted in SPES facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meloni, P.

    1995-01-01

    SPES integral test facility is a scale model of a commercial three-loop PWR plant, making the simulation of a wide range of accident scenarios possible. A Small Break Loss of Coolant test was carried out in this facility in 1991 to serve as a counterpart of tests conducted on BETHSY (France), LSTF (Japan) and LOBI (EC) facilities. A post-test analysis of this test, performed with CATHARE 2 code was realized by ENEA in the framework of the co-operation ENEA-CEA on advanced reactors. This paper presents a survey of the results of the post-test calculation. (author). 5 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs

  13. X-ray absorption and reflection as probes of the GaN conduction bands: Theory and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrecht, W.R.L.; Rashkeev, S.N.; Segall, B. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    X-ray absorption measurements are a well-known probe of the unoccupied states in a material. The same information can be obtained by using glancing angle X-ray reflectivity. In spite of several existing band structure calculations of the group III nitrides and previous optical studies in UV range, a direct probe of their conduction band densities of states is of interest. The authors performed a joint experimental and theoretical investigation using both of these experimental techniques for wurtzite GaN.

  14. Preparing Monodisperse Macromolecular Samples for Successful Biological Small-Angle X-ray and Neutron Scattering Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Cy M.; Graewert, Melissa A.; Blanchet, Clément E.; Langley, David B.; Whitten, Andrew E.; Svergun, Dmitri I

    2017-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS) are techniques used to extract structural parameters and determine the overall structures and shapes of biological macromolecules, complexes and assemblies in solution. The scattering intensities measured from a sample contain contributions from all atoms within the illuminated sample volume including the solvent and buffer components as well as the macromolecules of interest. In order to obtain structural information, it is essential to prepare an exactly matched solvent blank so that background scattering contributions can be accurately subtracted from the sample scattering to obtain the net scattering from the macromolecules in the sample. In addition, sample heterogeneity caused by contaminants, aggregates, mismatched solvents, radiation damage or other factors can severely influence and complicate data analysis so it is essential that the samples are pure and monodisperse for the duration of the experiment. This Protocol outlines the basic physics of SAXS and SANS and reveals how the underlying conceptual principles of the techniques ultimately ‘translate’ into practical laboratory guidance for the production of samples of sufficiently high quality for scattering experiments. The procedure describes how to prepare and characterize protein and nucleic acid samples for both SAXS and SANS using gel electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography and light scattering. Also included are procedures specific to X-rays (in-line size exclusion chromatography SAXS) and neutrons, specifically preparing samples for contrast matching/variation experiments and deuterium labeling of proteins. PMID:27711050

  15. Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) Cell Culture Unit (CCU) and incubator for International Space Station (ISS) cell culture experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandendriesche, Donald; Parrish, Joseph; Kirven-Brooks, Melissa; Fahlen, Thomas; Larenas, Patricia; Havens, Cindy; Nakamura, Gail; Sun, Liping; Krebs, Chris; de Luis, Javier; hide

    2004-01-01

    The CCU and Incubator are habitats under development by SSBRP for gravitational biology research on ISS. They will accommodate multiple specimen types and reside in either Habitat Holding Racks, or the Centrifuge Rotor, which provides selectable gravity levels of up to 2 g. The CCU can support multiple Cell Specimen Chambers, CSCs (18, 9 or 6 CSCs; 3, 10 or 30 mL in volume, respectively). CSCs are temperature controlled from 4-39 degrees C, with heat shock to 45 degrees C. CCU provides automated nutrient supply, magnetic stirring, pH/O2 monitoring, gas supply, specimen lighting, and video microscopy. Sixty sample containers holding up to 2 mL each, stored at 4-39 degrees C, are available for automated cell sampling, subculture, and injection of additives and fixatives. CSCs, sample containers, and fresh/spent media bags are crew-replaceable for long-term experiments. The Incubator provides a 4-45 degrees C controlled environment for life science experiments or storage of experimental reagents. Specimen containers and experiment unique equipment are experimenter-provided. The Specimen Chamber exchanges air with ISS cabin and has 18.8 liters of usable volume that can accommodate six trays and the following instrumentation: five relocatable thermometers, two 60 W power outlets, four analog ports, and one each relative humidity sensor, video port, ethernet port and digital input/output port.

  16. Premier League academy soccer players' experiences of competing in a tournament bio-banded for biological maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Sean P; Brown, Daniel J; Mitchell, Siobhan; Bunce, James; Hunt, Dan; Hedges, Chris; Crane, Gregory; Gross, Aleks; Scott, Sam; Franklin, Ed; Breakspear, Dave; Dennison, Luke; White, Paul; Cain, Andrew; Eisenmann, Joey C; Malina, Robert M

    2018-04-01

    Individual differences in the growth and maturation have been shown to impact player performance and development in youth soccer. This study investigated Premier League academy players' experiences of participating in a tournament bio-banded for biological maturation. Players (N = 66) from four professional soccer clubs aged 11 and 14 years and between 85-90% of adult stature participated in a tournament. Players competed in three 11 vs 11 games on a full size pitch with 25-min halves. Sixteen players participated in four 15-min focus groups and were asked to describe their experiences of participating in the bio-banded tournament in comparison to age group competition. All players described their experience as positive and recommended the Premier League integrate bio-banding into the existing games programme. In comparison to age-group competitions, early maturing players described the bio-banded games more physically challenging, and found that they had to adapt their style of play placing a greater emphasis on technique and tactics. Late maturing players considered the games to be less physically challenging, yet appreciated the having more opportunity to use, develop and demonstrate their technical, physical, and psychological competencies. Bio-banding strategies appear to contribute positively towards the holistic development of young soccer players.

  17. Oxidative degradation processes in synthetic and biological polymers as studied by pulse radiolysis experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnabel, W.

    1986-01-01

    On the basis of pulse radiolysis experiments carried out with various polymers in dilute solution three modes of action of molecular oxygen, O 2 can be discriminated with respect to main-chain scission: (a) O 2 acts as a promoter, (b) O 2 acts as an inhibitor, and (c) O 2 acts as a fixing agent for main-chain breaks. The promoting mode of action (a) is due to the inhibition of simultaneously occurring intermolecular crosslinking and/or to the combination of peroxyl radicals with the subsequent formation of readily decomposing oxyl radicals. The inhibiting mode of action (b) pertains to the reaction of O 2 with macroradicals that otherwise undergo main-chain rupture. Fixing of main-chain ruptures (mode c) becomes important if macroradicals generated by a very fast rupture of bonds in the main chain are prone to recombine quickly. This mode of action was evidenced in the case of polybutenesulfone, where main-chain scission involves the extrusion of small segments of the chain. (author)

  18. Implementing a Comprehensive Program for the Prevention of Conduct Problems in Rural Communities: The Fast Track Experience1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood conduct problems are predictive of a number of serious long-term difficulties (e.g., school failure, delinquent behavior, and mental health problems), making the design of effective prevention programs a priority. The Fast Track Program is a demonstration project currently underway in four demographically diverse areas of the United States, testing the feasibility and effectiveness of a comprehensive, multicomponent prevention program targeting children at risk for conduct disorders. This paper describes some lessons learned about the implementation of this program in a rural area. Although there are many areas of commonality in terms of program needs, program design, and implementation issues in rural and urban sites, rural areas differ from urban areas along the dimensions of geographical dispersion and regionalism, and community stability and insularity. Rural programs must cover a broad geographical area and must be sensitive to the multiple, small and regional communities that constitute their service area. Small schools, homogeneous populations, traditional values, limited recreational, educational and mental health services, and politically conservative climates are all more likely to emerge as characteristics of rural rather than urban sites (Sherman, 1992). These characteristics may both pose particular challenges to the implementation of prevention programs in rural areas, as well as offer particular benefits. Three aspects of program implementation are described in detail: (a) community entry and program initiation in rural areas, (b) the adaptation of program components and service delivery to meet the needs of rural families and schools, and (c) issues in administrative organization of a broadly dispersed tricounty rural prevention program. PMID:9338956

  19. Partnerships for the Design, Conduct, and Analysis of Effectiveness, and Implementation Research: Experiences of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. Hendricks; Kellam, Sheppard G.; Kaupert, Sheila; Muthén, Bengt O.; Wang, Wei; Muthén, Linda K.; Chamberlain, Patricia; PoVey, Craig L.; Cady, Rick; Valente, Thomas W.; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Prado, Guillermo J.; Pantin, Hilda M.; Gallo, Carlos G.; Szapocznik, José; Czaja, Sara J.; McManus, John W.

    2012-01-01

    What progress prevention research has made comes through strategic partnerships with communities and institutions that host this research, as well as professional and practice networks that facilitate the diffusion of knowledge about prevention. We discuss partnership issues related to the design, analysis, and implementation of prevention research and especially how rigorous designs, including random assignment, get resolved through a partnership between community stakeholders, institutions, and researchers. These partnerships shape not only study design, but they determine the data that can be collected and how results and new methods are disseminated. We also examine a second type of partnership to improve the implementation of effective prevention programs into practice. We draw on social networks to studying partnership formation and function. The experience of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group, which itself is a networked partnership between scientists and methodologists, is highlighted. PMID:22160786

  20. Healthcare professionals' self-reported experiences and preferences related to direct healthcare professional communications: a survey conducted in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piening, Sigrid; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M; de Graeff, Pieter A; Straus, Sabine M J M; Mol, Peter G M

    2012-11-01

    In Europe, Direct Healthcare Professional Communications (DHPCs) are important tools to inform healthcare professionals of serious, new drug safety issues. However, this tool has not always been successful in effectively communicating the desired actions to healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to explore healthcare providers' experiences and their preferences for improvement of risk communication, comparing views of general practitioners (GPs), internists, community pharmacists and hospital pharmacists. A questionnaire was developed and pilot tested to assess experiences and preferences of Dutch healthcare professionals with DHPCs. The questionnaire and two reminders were sent to a random sample of 3488 GPs, internists and community and hospital pharmacists in the Netherlands. Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographic characteristics of the respondents. Chi squares, ANOVAs and the Wilcoxon signed rank test were used, when appropriate, to compare healthcare professional groups. The overall response rate was 34% (N = 1141, ranging from 24% for internists to 46% for community pharmacists). Healthcare providers trusted safety information more when provided by the Dutch Medicines Evaluation Board (MEB) than by the pharmaceutical industry. This was more the case for GPs than for the other healthcare professionals. Respondents preferred safety information to be issued by the MEB, the Dutch Pharmacovigilance Center or their own professional associations. The preferred alternative channels of drug safety information were e-mail, medical journals and electronic prescribing systems. Safety information of drugs does not always reach healthcare professionals through DHPCs. To improve current risk communication of drug safety issues, alternative and/or additional methods of risk communication should be developed using electronic methods and medical journals. Moreover, (additional) risk communication coming from an independent source such as the

  1. Bridging the qualitative-quantitative divide: Experiences from conducting a mixed methods evaluation in the RUCAS programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrakis, Vassilios; Kostoulas-Makrakis, Nelly

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative and qualitative approaches to planning and evaluation in education for sustainable development have often been treated by practitioners from a single research paradigm. This paper discusses the utility of mixed method evaluation designs which integrate qualitative and quantitative data through a sequential transformative process. Sequential mixed method data collection strategies involve collecting data in an iterative process whereby data collected in one phase contribute to data collected in the next. This is done through examples from a programme addressing the 'Reorientation of University Curricula to Address Sustainability (RUCAS): A European Commission Tempus-funded Programme'. It is argued that the two approaches are complementary and that there are significant gains from combining both. Using methods from both research paradigms does not, however, mean that the inherent differences among epistemologies and methodologies should be neglected. Based on this experience, it is recommended that using a sequential transformative mixed method evaluation can produce more robust results than could be accomplished using a single approach in programme planning and evaluation focussed on education for sustainable development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. NASA's Rodent Research Project: Validation of Flight Hardware, Operations and Science Capabilities for Conducting Long Duration Experiments in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. Y.; Beegle, J. E.; Wigley, C. L.; Pletcher, D.; Globus, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Research using rodents is an essential tool for advancing biomedical research on Earth and in space. Rodent Research (RR)-1 was conducted to validate flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities that were developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. Twenty C57BL/6J adult female mice were launched on Sept 21, 2014 in a Dragon Capsule (SpaceX-4), then transferred to the ISS for a total time of 21-22 days (10 commercial mice) or 37 (10 validation mice). Tissues collected on-orbit were either rapidly frozen or preserved in RNA later at less than or equal to -80 C (n=2/group) until their return to Earth. Remaining carcasses were rapidly frozen for dissection post-flight. The three controls groups at Kennedy Space Center consisted of: Basal mice euthanized at the time of launch, Vivarium controls, housed in standard cages, and Ground Controls (GC), housed in flight hardware within an environmental chamber. FLT mice appeared more physically active on-orbit than GC, and behavior analysis are in progress. Upon return to Earth, there were no differences in body weights between FLT and GC at the end of the 37 days in space. RNA was of high quality (RIN greater than 8.5). Liver enzyme activity levels of FLT mice and all control mice were similar in magnitude to those of the samples that were optimally processed in the laboratory. Liver samples collected from the intact frozen FLT carcasses had RNA RIN of 7.27 +/- 0.52, which was lower than that of the samples processed on-orbit, but similar to those obtained from the control group intact carcasses. Nonetheless, the RNA samples from the intact carcasses were acceptable for the most demanding transcriptomic analyses. Adrenal glands, thymus and spleen (organs associated with stress response) showed no significant difference in weights between FLT and GC. Enzymatic activity was also not significantly different. Over 3,000 tissues collected from the four groups of mice have become available for the Biospecimen Sharing

  3. Numerical experiments on thermal convection of highly compressible fluids with variable viscosity and thermal conductivity: Implications for mantle convection of super-Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, Masanori; Yamamoto, Mayumi

    2018-01-01

    We conduct a series of numerical experiments of thermal convection of highly compressible fluids in a two-dimensional rectangular box, in order to study the mantle convection on super-Earths. The thermal conductivity and viscosity are assumed to exponentially depend on depth and temperature, respectively, while the variations in thermodynamic properties (thermal expansivity and reference density) with depth are taken to be relevant for the super-Earths with 10 times the Earth's. From our experiments we identified a distinct regime of convecting flow patterns induced by the interplay between the adiabatic temperature change and the spatial variations in viscosity and thermal conductivity. That is, for the cases with strong temperature-dependent viscosity and depth-dependent thermal conductivity, a "deep stratosphere" of stable thermal stratification is formed at the base of the mantle, in addition to thick stagnant lids at their top surfaces. In the "deep stratosphere", the fluid motion is insignificant particularly in the vertical direction in spite of smallest viscosity owing to its strong dependence on temperature. Our finding may further imply that some of super-Earths which are lacking in mobile tectonic plates on their top surfaces may have "deep stratospheres" at the base of their mantles.

  4. Studies on the effects of cosmic HZE-particles on different biological systems in the Biostack experiments I and II flown on board of Apollo 16 and 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucker, H.; Horneck, G.

    1975-01-01

    The Biostack experiments are described and the effects of cosmic HZE-particles on different biological systems are discussed. The biological systems contained in the experimental packages include spores of Bacillus subtilis, cysts of Colpoda cucullus, seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana, radiculae of Vicia faba, and eggs of Artemia solina, Tribolium castaneum, and Carausius moresus. The physical characteristics of the particles are given and the implications for manned spaceflight are discussed

  5. Experience and results of material science research conducted on spent fuel assemblies from the BN-350 fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimkin, O.; Gusev, M.; Turubarova, L.G.; Tsai, K.V.; Yarovchuk, A.V. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The BN-350 fast reactor was commissioned in 1973, ran successfully for many years and is now in the decommission stage. Its unique operational parameters (low temperature of sodium at the input, wide range of damage rates, etc. ) allowed the investigation of a number of new radiation effects on both austenitic and ferritic-martensitic steels. The latter class of steel was extensively employed as wrappers for fuel assemblies. Much of the accumulated experience in BN-350 is relevant to development of fusion devices. Results are presented on post-operational research of steels 12Cr18Ni10Ti, 08Cr16Ni11Mo3, and 12Cr13Mo2BFR, all serving as hexagonal shrouds of fuel assemblies. Structural materials in the active core zone operated at temperatures of 280-430 deg. C, and were irradiated the range of 0.25-83 dpa with damage rates of 10{sup -9} - 10{sup -6} dpa/s). Investigations of irradiated hexagonal shroud materials were performed with using traditional techniques of transmission and scanning electron microscopy, metallography, mechanical tests, hydrostatic weighing, magnetometry, etc. Additionally, new techniques have been developed and employed with great success on these highly irradiated materials, such as optical computer extensometry, and magnetization cartography. Typical results to be covered in this presentation are: a) In 12Cr18Ni10Ti steel irradiated at a low dose rate of 0.12 x 10{sup -8} dpa/s voids were found at 281 deg. C after only 0.65 dpa, demonstrating once again the acceleration of swelling at low dpa rates observed in other steels. b) Data on helium release during annealing of highly irradiated sample are presented. c) Differences in deformation-induced hardening between the shroud's corners and faces leads to post-irradiation differences in swelling and mechanical properties. d) During room temperature mechanical tests of 12Cr18Ni10Ti steel at {approx}56 dpa at 350 deg. C it was found that ductility lost at

  6. A planar conducting micro-loop structure for transportation of magnetic beads: An approach towards rapid sensing and quantification of biological entities

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Giouroudi, Ioanna; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2012-01-01

    tools for accurate and rapid cell sorting and counting. Effective manipulation of beads is a critical factor for the performance of LOC devices. In this paper we propose a planar conducting micro-loop structure to trap, manipulate and transport magnetic

  7. A Comprehensive Experiment for Molecular Biology: Determination of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Human REV3 Gene Using PCR-RFLP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Shao, Meng; Gao, Lu; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Sun, Zixuan; Zhou, Liping; Yan, Yongmin; Shao, Qixiang; Xu, Wenrong; Qian, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory exercise is helpful for medical students to understand the basic principles of molecular biology and to learn about the practical applications of molecular biology. We have designed a lab course on molecular biology about the determination of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in human REV3 gene, the product of which is a subunit of…

  8. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, solid state d.c. electrical conductivity and biological studies of some lanthanide(III chloride complexes with a heterocyclic Schiff base ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohanan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Condensation of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with 2-amino-3-carboxyethyl-4,5-dimethylthiophene in 1:1 molar ratio, yielded a potentially tridentate Schiff base viz. 2-[N-(2′-hydroxy-1-naphthylideneamino]-3-carboxyethyl-4,5-dimethylthiophene (HNAT. This ligand formed complexes with lanthanum(III, cerium(III, praseodymium(III, neodymium(III, samarium(III, europium(III and gadolinium(III chloride under well defined conditions. These complexes were characterized through elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment measurements, IR, UV–Vis, FAB mass and 1H NMR spectral studies. Analytical data showed that all the metal complexes exhibited 1:1 metal–ligand ratio. Molar conductance values adequately confirmed the non-electrolytic nature of the metal complexes. The proton NMR spectral observations supplement the IR spectral assignments. The spectral data revealed that the ligand acted as neutral tridentate, coordinating to the metal ion through azomethine nitrogen, ester carbonyl and naphtholate oxygen without deprotonation. The ligand and its lanthanum(III chloride complex were subjected to XRD studies. The lanthanum(III chloride complex has undergone a facile transesterification reaction. The solid state d.c. electrical conductivity of some selected complexes were measured as a function of temperature, indicating the semiconducting nature of the metal complexes. The antimicrobial activities were examined by disk diffusion method against some pathogenic bacterial and fungal species.

  9. Preliminary experiments on dynamic biology of micro-organisms to avoid any specific full-blown syndrome on humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meer, Sneer

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to apply an efficient system to detect, identify and quicken suppression of any dangerous micro-organism which threatens the health of the human body in any form. It is well known that some specimens of this kind of possess a specific energy related to their speed of division, toxin emissions and high-powered interaction with human and animal cells which have the capacity to provide certain deadly full-blown syndromes. Many problems relating to the above-mentioned properties have not been clarified to date, and it is vital to find a rapid and valid reply as soon as possible. Inter-disciplinary sciences directed us to start some experiments to solve such problems, considering that the human body is dotted with a multiple interactive system of energy release, a fact which can explain the source of the micro-organism's energy also, for their necessity to manifest their deadly pathology. From practical preliminary experiments with some micro-mechanical systems using light-microscopy, connected to video TV Recorder System, one obtains optical enlarged TV images of certain processes which indicated the right way towards our crucial target; ie: the preparation of safe vaccines and safe medicines. This will constitute a basic system to a void deadly manifestations of dangerous micro-organisms and/or even regular infections on earth and in space, a system which will probably be applied at the ISS Space Station and other future actions in space in long and very long flights. We look forward to applying this system of dynamic biology towards preparation of a real and valid vaccine(s) against HIV virus on AIDS diseases.

  10. Biological effects like cancer formation due to inhalational exposure to plutonium. What are evident in animal experiments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oghiso, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Literatures on the title subject are reviewed and problems to be solved are given. There are 2 reports of dog experiments of inhaled Pu by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which have given results incompatible/compatible with risk assessments hitherto: one with the micro-particle of Pu-nitrate, 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in which the dog lung is compared with human's by histology and autoradiography, presenting findings that differ from the previous ICRP assumption of the homogeneous distribution in the lung; and the other with 239 PuO 2 , indicating that non-tumorous diseases are agreeable with the determinative effect defined by ICRP. Other literatures have shown that effects of Pu inhalation differ dependently on the solubility of its chemical form and on its isotope ( 239 Pu and 238 Pu). Size of the inhaled Pu particle affects its deposition and thereby its influence on the air tract and other tissues. Rats are also used in Pu inhalation experiments. The significant increase of malignant lung tumor incidence is shown with 239 PuO 2 inhalation at >1 Gy lung absorbed dose by PNL and Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) and by National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), at >0.7 Gy and not at 239 PuO 2 inhalation in dogs involves the long-term decrease of peripheral lymphocytes, acute radiation pneumonia and chronic fibroid lung at 10-20 Gy, which can be a cause of death. There are many studies of the lung tumor formation at various carcinogenic steps in rats. Problems to be solved for the inhaled Pu compound are the elucidation of accuracy and validity concerning the metabolic parameters, alpha-ray dose assessment, dose rate effects of particle size; the biological factors modifying the metabolism and effect; and the relationship of cancer formation with non-tumorous diseases. (T.T)

  11. Biologism in Psychiatry: A Young Man’s Experience of Being Diagnosed with “Pediatric Bipolar Disorder”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Parry

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric bipolar disorder is a diagnosis that arose in the mid 1990s in the USA and has mostly remained confined to that nation. In this article a young American man (under a pseudonym describes his experience of having the diagnosis throughout his adolescent years. His story was conveyed via correspondence and a meeting with the author, an Australian child psychiatrist. The young American’s story reveals several issues that afflict contemporary psychiatry, particularly in the USA, where social and economic factors have contributed to the rise of a dominant biomedical paradigm—or “biologism”. This focus on the “bio” to the relative exclusion of the “psychosocial” in both diagnosis and treatment can have serious consequences as this young man’s story attests. The author explores aspects of his tale to analyze how the pediatric bipolar disorder “epidemic” arose and became emblematic of a dominant biologism. This narrative points to the need, depending on the service and country, to return to or retain/improve a balanced biopsychosocial perspective in child and adolescent mental health. Child psychiatry needs to advocate for health systems that support deeper listening to our patients. Then we can explore with them the full range of contextual factors that contribute to symptoms of individual and family distress.

  12. A counterpoint between computer simulations and biological experiments to train new members of a laboratory of physiological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozu, Marcelo; Dorr, Ricardo A; Gutiérrez, Facundo; Politi, M Teresa; Toriano, Roxana

    2012-12-01

    When new members join a working group dedicated to scientific research, several changes occur in the group's dynamics. From a teaching point of view, a subsequent challenge is to develop innovative strategies to train new staff members in creative thinking, which is the most complex and abstract skill in the cognitive domain according to Bloom's revised taxonomy. In this sense, current technological and digital advances offer new possibilities in the field of education. Computer simulation and biological experiments can be used together as a combined tool for teaching and learning sometimes complex physiological and biophysical concepts. Moreover, creativity can be thought of as a social process that relies on interactions among staff members. In this regard, the acquisition of cognitive abilities coexists with the attainment of other skills from psychomotor and affective domains. Such dynamism in teaching and learning stimulates teamwork and encourages the integration of members of the working group. A practical example, based on the teaching of biophysical subjects such as osmosis, solute transport, and membrane permeability, which are crucial in understanding the physiological concept of homeostasis, is presented.

  13. The nature of science and technology for pre-service chemistry teacher: A case of techno-chemistry experiment "From Stannum Metalicum to conductive glass"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudzakir, A.; Widhiyanti, T.; Hernani, Arifin, M.; Lestari, A. N.; Jauhariansyah, S.

    2017-08-01

    The study was conducted to address the problems related to low Indonesian students' scientific literacy as revealed in the PISA (Program for International Student Assessment) since 2000-2015. Science teachers (e.g. chemistry teacher) must recognize the nature of science (NOS) to assist their students in preparing an explanation of a phenomenon scientifically correctly. Teachers also need to understand critically about nature of technology (NOT) and it relationship with science as well as society. To integrate those two kinds of knowledge (NOS and NOT), we can conduct a techno-science activity, which integrate the technology to science course in pre-service teacher education program, so that they can improve their knowledge about nature of science and technology (NOST) and pedagogical content knowledge related to NOST. The purpose of this study was to construct an inquiry based laboratory activity worksheet for making conductive glass so that the pre-service teacher could explain how the structure of the semiconductor Fluor doped Tin Oxide (SnO2.F) affect their performance. This study we conducted, described how to design a pre-service chemistry teacher education course that can improve recognizing view of NOST by using a framework called model of educational reconstruction (MER). The scientific activities in the course were guided inquiry based techno-chemistry experiments involving "From Stannum Metallicum to Conductive Glass". Conductive glasses are interesting subject research for several reason. The application of this technology could be found on solar cell, OLED, and display panel. The doped Tin dioxide has been deposited on glass substrate using the spray pyrolysis technique at 400-550°C substrate temperature, 4-5 times, 20 cm gap between glass and sprayer and 450 angle to form a thin film which will act as electrical contact. The resistivity is about 0.5 - 15Ω. The product resulted on this study was rated by several expert to find if the worksheet could

  14. Biological Reference Interval for Hematological Profile of Umbilical Cord Blood: A Study Conducted at A Tertiary Care Centre in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Reddy S. Sudheer; Priyathersini, N.; Rajendran, Rithika; Rajendran, Rashmika; Ramadoss, Umalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Umbilical cord blood (UCB) a source of hematopoietic stem cells, is also an acceptable sample to assess neonatal sepsis. Though reports are available for stem cell counts very minimal literature is available regarding hematologic parameters, which may vary on ethnicity. Aim To establish biological reference interval for hematological parameters of umbilical cord blood to guide neonatologists, hematopoietic stem cell transplant specialists and future analysis. Materials and Methods Prospective longitudinal study was done from January 2014 to April 2014 after ethics committee approval. UCB from 120 full term new borns of normal birth weight born out of uneventful pregnancy to mothers aged between 21 to 45 years with hemoglobin above 10g/dL were processed in Beckman Coulter LH780 analyzer for complete blood count and counter checked by peripheral smear. Results tabulated in Microsoft excel are analyzed using IBM SPSS statistics 16 software. Results Male to female ratio is 1:1.05. There is no difference in the values between males and females. When compared with few studies available, though many values are comparable a few values are not comparable. Conclusion This study can be a useful guide to neonatologists, hematopoietic stem cells transplant hematologists and future analysis. PMID:26557584

  15. The Kovdor-2015 experiment: study of the parameters of a conductive layer of dilatancy-diffusion nature (DD Layer) in the Archaean crystalline basement of the Baltic Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamaletdinov, A. A.; Velikhov, E. P.; Shevtsov, A. N.; Kolobov, V. V.; Kolesnikov, V. E.; Skorokhodov, A. A.; Korotkova, T. G.; Ivonin, V. V.; Ryazantsev, P. A.; Birulya, M. A.

    2017-06-01

    This paper addresses the Kovdor-2015 Experiment involving frequency electromagnetic soundings of the Archaean basement of the Earth's crust in the southwestern part of the Kola Peninsula. Eleven soundings were carried out using two transmitting arrangements, 85 km apart. Each arrangement consisted of two mutually orthogonal grounded electric dipoles of 1.5 km long. The distances between the source and the receiver were 25 and 50 km. Interpretation of the results took into account the influence of displacement currents and static distortions. It is found that there is an intermediate conductive layer of the dilatancy-diffusion nature (DD layer) with a longitudinal conductivity of about one siemens at depths ranging from 1.5-2 to 5-7 km. The results are interpreted in the terms of geodynamics.

  16. Determination of Biology Department Students' Past Field Trip Experiences and Examination of Their Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Planning and Organising Educational Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the past field trip experiences of pre-service teachers who are graduates of Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology and who had pedagogical formation training certificate and to examine their self-efficacy beliefs in planning and organizing field trips with regard to different variables. The study was…

  17. Experiences performed at the C:R: Saluggia of ENEA in low-level determination of plutonium in biological and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spezzano, Pasquale

    1997-10-01

    This report describes some experiences performed at the Research Center Saluggia of ENEA concerning low-level determination of plutonium in biological and environmental samples, with discussions of practical analytical problems. The main characteristics and properties of plutonium with emphasis to aqueous solutions chemistry and environmental behaviour are also reported

  18. Out-of-School Experience Categories Influencing Interest in Biology of Secondary School Students by Gender: Exploration on an Abu Dhabi Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Masood; Yang, Guang; Al Mazroui, Karima; Mohaidat, Jihad; Al Rashedi, Asma; Al Housani, Najwa

    2017-01-01

    This study employed the international Relevance of Science Education questionnaire to survey the interest in biology and the out-of-school experiences of Abu Dhabi secondary school students (median age 17, mean age 17.53 and mode age of 16) in the third semester of 2014. It included 3100 participants. An exploratory factor analysis was used to…

  19. The operators' non-compliance behavior to conduct emergency operating procedures--comparing with the work experience and the complexity of procedural steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea

    2003-01-01

    Many kinds of procedures have been used to reduce the operators' workload throughout various industries, such as in the aviation, the chemical and the nuclear industry. It is remarkable that, however, significant portion of accidents or incidents was caused by procedure related human error due to non-compliance of procedures. In this study, to investigate the operators' non-compliance behavior, emergency-training records were collected using a full scope simulator. And three types of the operators' behavior (such as strict adherence, skipping redundant actions and modifying action sequences) observed from collected emergency training records were compared with both their work experience and the complexity of procedural steps. As the results, three remarkable relationships are obtained. They are: (1) the operators who have an intermediate work experience seem to frequently adopt non-compliance behavior to conduct the procedural steps, (2) the operators seem to frequently adopt non-compliance behavior to conduct the procedural steps that have an intermediate procedural complexity, and (3) the senior reactor operators seem to accommodate their non-compliance behavior based on the complexity of procedural steps. Therefore, it is expected that these relationships can be used as meaningful clues not only to scrutinize the reason for non-compliance behavior but also to suggest appropriate remedies for the reduction of non-compliance behavior that can result in procedure related human error

  20. Orphan missense mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator: A three-step biological approach to establishing a correlation between genotype and phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresquet, Fleur; Clement, Romain; Norez, Caroline; Sterlin, Adélaïde; Melin, Patricia; Becq, Frédéric; Kitzis, Alain; Thoreau, Vincent; Bilan, Frédéric

    2011-09-01

    More than 1860 mutations have been found within the human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene sequence. These mutations can be classified according to their degree of severity in CF disease. Although the most common mutations are well characterized, few data are available for rare mutations. Thus, genetic counseling is particularly difficult when fetuses or patients with CF present these orphan variations. We describe a three-step in vitro assay that can evaluate rare missense CFTR mutation consequences to establish a correlation between genotype and phenotype. By using a green fluorescent protein-tagged CFTR construct, we expressed mutated proteins in COS-7 cells. CFTR trafficking was visualized by confocal microscopy, and the cellular localization of CFTR was determined using intracellular markers. We studied the CFTR maturation process using Western blot analysis and evaluated CFTR channel activity by automated iodide efflux assays. Of six rare mutations that we studied, five have been isolated in our laboratory. The cellular and functional impact that we observed in each case was compared with the clinical data concerning the patients in whom we encountered these mutations. In conclusion, we propose that performing this type of analysis for orphan CFTR missense mutations can improve CF genetic counseling. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Experience of the development special medical technical laboratory for studies of effects caused by potent electromagnetic radiation in biologic objects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodetsky, B N; Kalyada, T V; Petrov, S V

    2015-01-01

    This article covers topics of creating special medical technical laboratory for medial and biologic studies concerning influence of potent high-frequency elecromagnetic radiation on various biologic objects. The authors gave example of such laboratory, described its construction features, purpose and main characteristics of the included devices.

  2. Biological repair with time-dependent irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broyles, A.A.; Shapiro, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    Recent experiments have provided new data that explore the effectiveness of biological repair in assessing damage due to exposures from ionizing radiation. These data are mainly from experiments conducted at constant dose rates, to study the effectiveness per unit dose of different dose rates. Here, we develop new formulae to estimate the effectiveness of an arbitrary time-dependent dose rate exposure

  3. "We actually care and we want to make the parks better": A qualitative study of youth experiences and perceptions after conducting park audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallerani, David G; Besenyi, Gina M; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja A; Kaczynski, Andrew T

    2017-02-01

    This study explored youths' experiences and perceptions about community engagement as a result of participating in a community-based data collection project using paper and mobile technology park environmental audit tools. In July 2014, youth (ages 11-18, n=50) were recruited to participate in nine focus groups after auditing two parks each using paper, electronic, or both versions of the Community Park Audit Tool in Greenville County, SC. The focus groups explored the youths' experiences participating in the project, changes as a result of participation, suggested uses of park audit data collected, and who should use the tools. Four themes emerged related to youths' project participation experiences: two positive (fun and new experiences) and two negative (uncomfortable/unsafe and travel issues). Changes described as a result of participating in the project fell into four themes: increased awareness, motivation for further action, physical activity benefits, and no change. Additionally, youth had numerous suggestions for utilizing the data collected that were coded into six themes: maintenance & aesthetics, feature/amenity addition, online park information, park rating/review system, fundraising, and organizing community projects. Finally, six themes emerged regarding who the youth felt could use the tools: frequent park visitors, community groups/organizations, parks and recreation professionals, adults, youth, and everyone. This study revealed a wealth of information about youth experiences conducting park audits for community health promotion. Understanding youth attitudes and preferences can help advance youth empowerment and civic engagement efforts to promote individual and community health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Experiment Data Depot: A Web-Based Software Tool for Biological Experimental Data Storage, Sharing, and Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morell, William C.; Birkel, Garrett W.; Forrer, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Although recent advances in synthetic biology allow us to produce biological designs more efficiently than ever, our ability to predict the end result of these designs is still nascent. Predictive models require large amounts of high quality data to be parametrized and tested, which are not gener......Although recent advances in synthetic biology allow us to produce biological designs more efficiently than ever, our ability to predict the end result of these designs is still nascent. Predictive models require large amounts of high quality data to be parametrized and tested, which...... algorithms. In this paper, we describe EDD and showcase its utility for three different use cases: storage of characterized synthetic biology parts, leveraging proteomics data to improve biofuel yield, and the use of extracellular metabolite concentrations to predict intracellular metabolic fluxes....

  5. On the selection and validation of biological treatment processes. The GDF experience; Le choix et la validation des procedes de traitement biologique. L`experience de GDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druelle, V. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    The biological treatment process was selected by Gaz de France (GDF), the French national gas utility, for the de-pollution of an old gas works where the main pollutants are coal tars containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Microorganism-based biological treatment techniques may involve bio-reactors, static ground knolls (where oxygen is brought through drains) and dynamic knolls (where oxygenation is carried out by turning up the soil). Issues on sampling, sorting, process testing, site preparation, process control, etc. are reviewed

  6. On the selection and validation of biological treatment processes. The GDF experience; Le choix et la validation des procedes de traitement biologique. L`experience de GDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druelle, V [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The biological treatment process was selected by Gaz de France (GDF), the French national gas utility, for the de-pollution of an old gas works where the main pollutants are coal tars containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Microorganism-based biological treatment techniques may involve bio-reactors, static ground knolls (where oxygen is brought through drains) and dynamic knolls (where oxygenation is carried out by turning up the soil). Issues on sampling, sorting, process testing, site preparation, process control, etc. are reviewed

  7. Surgery confounds biology: the predictive value of stage-, grade- and prostate-specific antigen for recurrence after radical prostatectomy as a function of surgeon experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J; Savage, Caroline J; Bianco, Fernando J; Klein, Eric A; Kattan, Michael W; Secin, Fernando P; Guilloneau, Bertrand D; Scardino, Peter T

    2011-04-01

    Statistical models predicting cancer recurrence after surgery are based on biologic variables. We have shown previously that prostate cancer recurrence is related to both tumor biology and to surgical technique. Here, we evaluate the association between several biological predictors and biochemical recurrence across varying surgical experience. The study included two separate cohorts: 6,091 patients treated by open radical prostatectomy and an independent replication set of 2,298 patients treated laparoscopically. We calculated the odds ratios for biological predictors of biochemical recurrence-stage, Gleason grade and prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-and also the predictive accuracy (area under the curve, AUC) of a multivariable model, for subgroups of patients defined by the experience of their surgeon. In the open cohort, the odds ratio for Gleason score 8+ and advanced pathologic stage, though not PSA or Gleason score 7, increased dramatically when patients treated by surgeons with lower levels of experience were excluded (Gleason 8+: odds ratios 5.6 overall vs. 13.0 for patients treated by surgeons with 1,000+ prior cases; locally advanced disease: odds ratios of 6.6 vs. 12.2, respectively). The AUC of the multivariable model was 0.750 for patients treated by surgeons with 50 or fewer cases compared to 0.849 for patients treated by surgeons with 500 or more. Although predictiveness was lower overall for the independent replication set cohort, the main findings were replicated. Surgery confounds biology. Although our findings have no direct clinical implications, studies investigating biological variables as predictors of outcome after curative resection of cancer should consider the impact of surgeon-specific factors. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  8. Threats to validity in the design and conduct of preclinical efficacy studies: a systematic review of guidelines for in vivo animal experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie C Henderson

    Full Text Available The vast majority of medical interventions introduced into clinical development prove unsafe or ineffective. One prominent explanation for the dismal success rate is flawed preclinical research. We conducted a systematic review of preclinical research guidelines and organized recommendations according to the type of validity threat (internal, construct, or external or programmatic research activity they primarily address.We searched MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Google, and the EQUATOR Network website for all preclinical guideline documents published up to April 9, 2013 that addressed the design and conduct of in vivo animal experiments aimed at supporting clinical translation. To be eligible, documents had to provide guidance on the design or execution of preclinical animal experiments and represent the aggregated consensus of four or more investigators. Data from included guidelines were independently extracted by two individuals for discrete recommendations on the design and implementation of preclinical efficacy studies. These recommendations were then organized according to the type of validity threat they addressed. A total of 2,029 citations were identified through our search strategy. From these, we identified 26 guidelines that met our eligibility criteria--most of which were directed at neurological or cerebrovascular drug development. Together, these guidelines offered 55 different recommendations. Some of the most common recommendations included performance of a power calculation to determine sample size, randomized treatment allocation, and characterization of disease phenotype in the animal model prior to experimentation.By identifying the most recurrent recommendations among preclinical guidelines, we provide a starting point for developing preclinical guidelines in other disease domains. We also provide a basis for the study and evaluation of preclinical research practice. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  9. Threats to validity in the design and conduct of preclinical efficacy studies: a systematic review of guidelines for in vivo animal experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Valerie C; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Fergusson, Dean; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Hackam, Dan G

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of medical interventions introduced into clinical development prove unsafe or ineffective. One prominent explanation for the dismal success rate is flawed preclinical research. We conducted a systematic review of preclinical research guidelines and organized recommendations according to the type of validity threat (internal, construct, or external) or programmatic research activity they primarily address. We searched MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Google, and the EQUATOR Network website for all preclinical guideline documents published up to April 9, 2013 that addressed the design and conduct of in vivo animal experiments aimed at supporting clinical translation. To be eligible, documents had to provide guidance on the design or execution of preclinical animal experiments and represent the aggregated consensus of four or more investigators. Data from included guidelines were independently extracted by two individuals for discrete recommendations on the design and implementation of preclinical efficacy studies. These recommendations were then organized according to the type of validity threat they addressed. A total of 2,029 citations were identified through our search strategy. From these, we identified 26 guidelines that met our eligibility criteria--most of which were directed at neurological or cerebrovascular drug development. Together, these guidelines offered 55 different recommendations. Some of the most common recommendations included performance of a power calculation to determine sample size, randomized treatment allocation, and characterization of disease phenotype in the animal model prior to experimentation. By identifying the most recurrent recommendations among preclinical guidelines, we provide a starting point for developing preclinical guidelines in other disease domains. We also provide a basis for the study and evaluation of preclinical research practice. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  10. Conducting Polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    would exhibit electronic conductivity, their conductivities (of compressed pellets) were indeed measured by others, and were found to be .... Polyaniline. Polyphenylene. Polypheny lene- vinylene. Table 1. G!NeRAl I ARTICl! structure. Maximum conductivity Stem Stability. Processability. ~. 1.5 x 105. Reacts with Film not n air.

  11. Synthesis, characterization, biological and electrical conductivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the complexes have been characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility measurement, electronic and IR spectra and thermogravimetric analysis. The IR spectral data suggested that the ligands behave as dibasic tridentate moiety towards the central metal ion coordinating through phenolic ...

  12. The experience of nuclear objects of the national nuclear center of the republic of Kazakhstan vulnerability analysis conducting with the help of assess analytic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolov, D.V.; Kozlov, N.I.

    2002-01-01

    ASSESS which was developed in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA, was used as a mean of modeling and analyzing. All the input data of the program and the finding of the analysis passed expert estimation by the NNC RK scientists. Vulnerability analysis resulted in getting the optimal schemes of the movement routes of eventual violators and the value of probability of their detection in the sites, buildings and IGR, 'Baikal-1' and VVR-K reactor complexes premises. Especially important result of the modeling was rather a demonstrable idea of the eventual violators route sectors where additional measures and means of their most possible detecting, safety provision and protection of the IAE nuclear objects protection must be taken. The experience of ASSESS application acquired by NNC RK scientists gives way to state confidently that at adaptation the ASSESS program can be successfully used in estimating of any protected nuclear objects vulnerability from any unauthorized acts. It also includes working out of measures aimed at these objects protection improvement both in the countries of the European Union and in the countries of the CIS. In this case adaptation is a specific database accumulation where all the used protecting systems and database integration with ASSESS system have been taken into account. The creation of specified database of the ASSESS program would give opportunity to increase considerably the effectiveness of vulnerability and nuclear objects risk analysis at low financial expenditure. Adapted ASSESS program would also make it possible to conduct qualified working out of measures on guarded objects protection at short terms. So, the adaptation and the application of the analytical ASSESS system can be of great benefit in solution of problems concerning nuclear objects protection improvement which are exclusively important in the present situation. (author)

  13. Cell Migration Analysis: A Low-Cost Laboratory Experiment for Cell and Developmental Biology Courses Using Keratocytes from Fish Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Daniel; Aparicio, Gonzalo; Sotelo-Silveira, Jose R.

    2017-01-01

    Cell and developmental processes are complex, and profoundly dependent on spatial relationships that change over time. Innovative educational or teaching strategies are always needed to foster deep comprehension of these processes and their dynamic features. However, laboratory exercises in cell and developmental biology at the undergraduate level…

  14. Biological nitrogen fixation in three long-term organic and conventional arable crop rotation experiments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Arjun; Li, Fucui; Askegaard, Margrethe

    2017-01-01

    Biological nitrogen (N) fixation (BNF) by legumes in organic cropping systems has been perceived as a strategy to substitute N import from conventional sources. However, the N contribution by legumes varies considerably depending on legumes species, as well as local soil and climatic conditions...

  15. Cell migration analysis: A low-cost laboratory experiment for cell and developmental biology courses using keratocytes from fish scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Daniel; Aparicio, Gonzalo; Sotelo-Silveira, Jose R

    2017-11-01

    Cell and developmental processes are complex, and profoundly dependent on spatial relationships that change over time. Innovative educational or teaching strategies are always needed to foster deep comprehension of these processes and their dynamic features. However, laboratory exercises in cell and developmental biology at the undergraduate level do not often take into account the time dimension. In this article, we provide a laboratory exercise focused in cell migration, aiming to stimulate thinking in time and space dimensions through a simplification of more complex processes occurring in cell or developmental biology. The use of open-source tools for the analysis, as well as the whole package of raw results (available at http://github.com/danielprieto/keratocyte) make it suitable for its implementation in courses with very diverse budgets. Aiming to facilitate the student's transition from science-students to science-practitioners we propose an exercise of scientific thinking, and an evaluation method. This in turn is communicated here to facilitate the finding of common caveats and weaknesses in the process of producing simple scientific communications describing the results achieved. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(6):475-482, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  16. Conducting a Discrete-Choice Experiment Study Following Recommendations for Good Research Practices: An Application for Eliciting Patient Preferences for Diabetes Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ellen M; Hauber, A Brett; Bridges, John F P

    2018-01-01

    To consolidate and illustrate good research practices in health care to the application and reporting of a study measuring patient preferences for type 2 diabetes mellitus medications, given recent methodological advances in stated-preference methods. The International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research good research practices and other recommendations were used to conduct a discrete-choice experiment. Members of a US online panel with type 2 diabetes mellitus completed a Web-enabled, self-administered survey that elicited choices between treatment pairs with six attributes at three possible levels each. A D-efficient experimental design blocked 48 choice tasks into three 16-task surveys. Preference estimates were obtained using mixed logit estimation and were used to calculate choice probabilities. A total of 552 participants (51% males) completed the survey. Avoiding 90 minutes of nausea was valued the highest (mean -10.00; 95% confidence interval [CI] -10.53 to -9.47). Participants wanted to avoid low blood glucose during the day and/or night (mean -3.87; 95% CI -4.32 to -3.42) or one pill and one injection per day (mean -7.04; 95% CI -7.63 to -6.45). Participants preferred stable blood glucose 6 d/wk (mean 4.63; 95% CI 4.15 to 5.12) and a 1% decrease in glycated hemoglobin (mean 5.74; 95% CI 5.22 to 6.25). If cost increased by $1, the probability that a treatment profile would be chosen decreased by 1%. These results are consistent with the idea that people have strong preferences for immediate consequences of medication. Despite efforts to produce recommendations, ambiguity surrounding good practices remains and various judgments need to be made when conducting stated-preference studies. To ensure transparency, these judgments should be described and justified. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Results for the hybrid laminar flow control experiment conducted in the NASA Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel on a 7-foot chord model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbitt, Percy J.; Ferris, James C.; Harvey, William D.; Goradia, Suresh H.

    1992-01-01

    A description is given of the development of, and results from, the hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) experiment conducted in the NASA LaRC 8 ft Transonic Pressure Tunnel on a 7 ft chord, 23 deg swept model. The methods/codes used to obtain the contours of the HLFC model surface and to define the suction requirements are outlined followed by a discussion of the model construction, suction system, instrumentation, and some example results from the wind tunnel tests. Included in the latter are the effects of Mach number, suction level, and the extent of suction. An assessment is also given of the effect of the wind tunnel environment on the suction requirements. The data show that, at or near the design Mach number, large extents of laminar flow can be achieved with suction mass flows over the first 25 percent, or less, of the chord. Top surface drag coefficients with suction extending from the near leading edge to 20 percent of the chord were approximately 40 percent lower than those obtained with no suction. The results indicate that HLFC can be designed for transonic speeds with lift and drag coefficients approaching those of LFC designs but with much smaller extents and levels of suction.

  18. Assessment of variable application rates of biological amendment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of variable application rates of biological amendment substances on establishment and growth characteristics of maize plants. ... Hence, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in 2008 to assess the effects of variable rates (50, 75 and 100% of the recommended rates) of industrial manufactured biological ...

  19. An optimized workflow for the integration of biological information into radiotherapy planning: experiences with T1w DCE-MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, T; Kiessling, F; Brix, G; Baudendistel, K; Zechmann, C; Giesel, F L; Bendl, R

    2005-01-01

    Planning of radiotherapy is often difficult due to restrictions on morphological images. New imaging techniques enable the integration of biological information into treatment planning and help to improve the detection of vital and aggressive tumour areas. This might improve clinical outcome. However, nowadays morphological data sets are still the gold standard in the planning of radiotherapy. In this paper, we introduce an in-house software platform enabling us to combine images from different imaging modalities yielding biological and morphological information in a workflow driven approach. This is demonstrated for the combination of morphological CT, MRI, functional DCE-MRI and PET data. Data of patients with a tumour of the prostate and with a meningioma were examined with DCE-MRI by applying pharmacokinetic two-compartment models for post-processing. The results were compared with the clinical plans for radiation therapy. Generated parameter maps give additional information about tumour spread, which can be incorporated in the definition of safety margins

  20. Ventral incisional hernia (VIH) repair after liver transplantation (OLT) with a biological mesh: experience in 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffellner, S; Sereinigg, M; Wagner, D; Jakoby, E; Kniepeiss, D; Stiegler, P; Haybäck, J; Müller, H

    2016-05-01

    Hernias after orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) occur in about 30 % of cases. Predisposing factors in liver cirrhotic patients of cases are ascites, low abdominal muscle mass and cachexia before and immunosuppression after OLT. Standard operative transplant-technique even in small hernias is to implant a mesh. For patients after liver transplantation a porcine non-cross linked biological patch being less immunogenic than synthetic and cross-linked meshes is chosen for ventral incisional hernia repair. 3 patients (1 female, 2 male), OLT indications Hepatitis C, exogenous- toxic cirrhosis, median-age 53 (51 - 56) and median time to hernia occurrence after OLT were 10 month (6 - 18 m) are documented. 2 patients suffered from diabetes, 2 from chronic-obstructive lung disease. Maintenance immunosuppressions were Everolimus in 1 patient, Everolimus + MMF in the second and Everolimus +Tacrolimus in the third patient. The biological was chosen for hernia repair due to the preexisting risk- factors. Meshes, 10 × 16 cm were placed, in IPOM (Intra-Peritonel-Onlay-Mesh) -position by relaparatomy. Insolvable, monofile, interrupted sutures were used. All patients recovered primarily, and were dismissed within 10 d post OP. No wound healing disorders or signs of postoperative infections occurred. All are free of hernia recurrence in a mean observation time of 22 month (10 - 36). The usage of porcine non-cross-linked biological patches seems feasible for incisional hernia repair after OLT. Wound infections in these patients have been observed with other meshes. Further investigation is needed to prove potential superiority of this biological to the other meshes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigull, U.; Sandner, H.

    1984-01-01

    Included are discussions of rates of heat transfer by conduction, the effects of varying and changing properties, thermal explosions, distributed heat sources, moving heat sources, and non-steady three-dimensional conduction processes. Throughout, the importance of thinking both numerically and symbolically is stressed, as this is essential to the development of the intuitive understanding of numerical values needed for successful designing. Extensive tables of thermophysical properties, including thermal conductivity and diffusivity, are presented. Also included are exact and approximate solutions to many of the problems that arise in practical situations

  2. A new experiment to investigate the origin of optical activity using a low energy positron beam of controlled helicity. [molecular biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidley, D. W.; Rich, A.; Van House, J. C.; Zitzewitz, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    Previous experiments undertaken in search of a correlation between the origin of optical activity in biological molecules and the helicity of beta particles emitted in nuclear beta decay have not provided any useful results. A description is presented of an experiment in which a low energy polarized positron beam of controlled helicity interacts with an optically active material to form positronium in vacuum. Advantages of the current study compared to the previous experiments are mainly related to a much greater sensitivity. Initially, it will be possible to detect a helicity-dependent asymmetry in triplet positronium formation of 1 part in 10,000. Improvements to better than 1 part in 100,000 should be attainable.

  3. Electrical Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  4. Mediterranean fruit fly female attractant studies in support of the sterile insect technique: trapping experiments conducted on the island of Chios, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoyannos, B.I.; Papadopoulos, N.T.; Kouloussis, N.A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper contains information on a four-year research programme co-ordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The main objective of the programme was to develop a trapping system for females of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), for practical use in Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs and to design and evaluate a trap to obtain eggs from wild female medflies in order to estimate sterility induction in the field population. The experiments were conducted from July to September 1994-1997 on the island of Chios, Greece, in citrus orchards with low to medium medfly populations. Different trap types and several trap treatments consisting of sex and food based attractants were tested, following a standard coordinated experimental protocol. The most extensively tested were three food based 'female' attractants (FA-3), namely ammonium acetate (AA), 1,4 diaminobutane (putrescine) and trimethylamine, all formulated in dispensers lasting one month. These attractants were evaluated in combinations of two (AA + putrescine, termed FA-2) or three (FA-3) dispensers in various traps, including dry (provided with DDVP) or wet (provided with water and 0.01% surfactant) plastic International Pheromone's McPhail traps (IPMT). Among the various traps and treatments tested, the most effective for medfly capture was the wet IPMT, baited with FA-3 attractants. This treatment captured predominantly females and was relatively selective for medflies. In dry IPMT traps, the FA-3 were as effective as the standard 300 ml aqueous solution of 9% of the protein NuLure and 3% borax, but much more medfly selective. Dry IPMT traps were also more selective than wet ones. FA-3 baited wet Tephri traps (a Spanish modification of the McPhail trap), performed somewhat poorer than IPMT traps. Other dry trap types tested were not effective. Additional experiments showed that certain insecticide formulations used in dry traps may have a repellent

  5. Banning traditional birth attendants from conducting deliveries: experiences and effects of the ban in a rural district of Kazungula in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheelo, Chilala; Nzala, Selestine; Zulu, Joseph M

    2016-10-21

    In 2010 the government of the republic of Zambia stopped training traditional birth attendants and forbade them from conducting home deliveries as they were viewed as contributing to maternal mortality. This study explored positive and negative maternal health related experiences and effects of the ban in a rural district of Kazungula. This was a phenomenological study and data were collected through focus group discussions as well as in-depth interviews with trained traditional birth attendants (tTBAs) and key informant interviews with six female traditional leaders that were selected one from each of the six zones. All 22 trained tTBAs from three clinic catchment areas were included in the study. Content analysis was used to analyse the data after coding it using NVIVO 8 software. Home deliveries have continued despite the community and tTBAs being aware of the ban. The ban has had both negative and positive effects on the community. Positive effects include early detection and management of pregnancy complications, enhanced HIV/AIDS prevention and better management of post-natal conditions, reduced criticisms of tTBAs from the community in case of birth complications, and quick response at health facilities in case of an emergency. Negatives effects of the ban include increased work load on the part of health workers, high cost for lodging at health facilities and traveling to health facilities, as well as tTBAs feeling neglected, loss of respect and recognition by the community. Countries should design their approach to banning tTBAs differently depending on contextual factors. Further, it is important to consider adopting a step wise approach when implementing the ban as the process of banning tTBAs may trigger several negative effects.

  6. Supporting rural remote physicians to conduct a study and write a paper: experience of Clinical Research Support Team (CRST)-Jichi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, S; Ohkuchi, A; Kamesaki, T; Ishikawa, S; Nakamura, Y; Matsumoto, M

    2014-01-01

    Jichi Medical University (JMU) is the only medical school in Japan that is devoted solely to producing rural and remote doctors. To support research activities of its graduates, mainly young graduates under obligatory rural service, JMU established a voluntary team, Clinical Research Support Team (CRST)-Jichi. CRST-Jichi consists of current and past JMU faculty members; all of them are specialists of certain medical fields and many are also graduates of JMU who have completed rural service. A client who asks the CRST for advice on study design or editing a paper emails the CRST to ask for support in conducting a study. Then, core members of the CRST assign the job to a registered specialist of the corresponding topic, who becomes a 'responsible supporter' and continues to support the client until a paper has been published. During the 3 years from July 2010, 12 English papers have been published in international peer-review journals, two Japanese papers in domestic journals, and 13 studies are in progress. Ninety-one percent of clients were satisfied with the service, and eighty-two percent considered their papers would not have been published if they had not used the service. Sense of commitment, existence of JMU-graduated specialists, and quick response were reported by clients as major strengths of CRST-Jichi. The experience of CRST-Jichi can potentially be transferred to not only other Japanese medical schools with rural doctor production programs, which are now rapidly increasing as part of a national policy, but also rural medical education systems in other countries.

  7. The Effects of Autonomy-Supportive and Controlling Teaching Behaviour in Biology Lessons with Primary and Secondary Experiences on Students' Intrinsic Motivation and Flow-Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferber, Natalia; Basten, Melanie; Großmann, Nadine; Wilde, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Self-Determination Theory and Flow Theory propose that perceived autonomy fosters the positive qualities of motivation and flow-experience. Autonomy-support can help to maintain students' motivation in very interesting learning activities and may lead to an increase in the positive qualities of motivation in less interesting learning activities.…

  8. [Keratoprosthesis with Biological Haptic - The Düsseldorf-Offenburg-Experience with Osteo-Odonto- and Tibia-Keratoprosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerling, Gerd; Hille, Konrad

    2017-06-01

    In severe ocular surface disease with limbal stem cell deficiency associated with severe dry eye, penetrating keratoplasty is likely to fail. In these cases, and provided the posterior segment is normal, keratoprosthesis surgery (KPro) can achieve visual rehabilitation. In KPros with an autologous biological haptic, a bone-tooth-complex (osteo-odonto-keratoprothesis, OOKPro) or a piece of tibial cortex (tibia-keratoprosthesis, TKPro) is used to carry a PMMA cylinder. This construct can successfully be implanted even in severely dry eyes and in those with autoimmune disease, in which other KPro designs frequently fail. Herein we review the published anatomic long-term results of OOKPro and TKPro on our own patients. With a mean follow-up of 7.5 years (max. 20.6) for OOKPro and 4.5 years (max. 13.3) for TKPro patients, the retention rate was 91 and 86%, respectively. We are unaware of any other technique for artificial replacement of the cornea with equally positive long-term results as KPros with a biological haptic. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Conduct disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Smeets, K.C.; Herpers, P.; Scheepers, F.; Glennon, J.; Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic

  10. The Influence of Personal School Experience in Biology Classes on the Beliefs of Students in University Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christoph; Pakzad, Ursula; Schlüter, Kisten

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' pedagogical beliefs are thought to play a prominent role in determining teacher behavior. In contrast to other professions, pedagogical beliefs of teachers and students in teacher education are widely influenced by personal experiences gained in school, which has been referred to as "apprenticeship of observation" (Lortie,…

  11. The Journey of a Sandwich: Computer-Based Laboratory Experiments about the Human Digestive System in High School Biology Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgo, Andrej; Hajdinjak, Zdravka; Briski, Darko

    2008-01-01

    Teaching high school students about the digestive system can be a challenge for a teacher when s/he wants to overcome rote learning of facts without a deeper understanding of the physiological processes inside the alimentary tract. A series of model experiments illustrating the journey of a sandwich was introduced into teaching high school…

  12. Using Yeast to Determine the Functional Consequences of Mutations in the Human p53 Tumor Suppressor Gene: An Introductory Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience in Molecular and Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat-Scafe, Daria S.; Brownell, Sara E.; Seawell, Patricia Chandler; Malladi, Shyamala; Imam, Jamie F. Conklin; Singla, Veena; Bradon, Nicole; Cyert, Martha S.; Stearns, Tim

    2017-01-01

    The opportunity to engage in scientific research is an important, but often neglected, component of undergraduate training in biology. We describe the curriculum for an innovative, course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE) appropriate for a large, introductory cell and molecular biology laboratory class that leverages students' high…

  13. Seeking help for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD): a qualitative study of the enablers and barriers conducted by a researcher with personal experience of OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Karen J; Rose, Diana; Salkovskis, Paul M

    2017-06-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) can be hugely disabling. Although very effective psychological treatments exist, many people delay years before seeking help or never seek treatment. There have been clinical observation and short questionnaire studies on why people delay, but little qualitative research exists on this complex subject. The present qualitative study aimed to identify the barriers to seeking treatment and the factors that encourage or push people to seek help for their OCD (positive and negative enablers). A qualitative, exploratory study using in-depth, individual, semi-structured interviews was conducted by a researcher with personal experience of OCD. Seventeen people with OCD, contacted through the charity OCD-UK, were interviewed about the factors that impacted on their decision to seek help or not. The interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Barriers identified were stigma, 'internal / cognitive' factors, not knowing what their problem was, factors relating to their GP or treatment, and fear of criminalisation. Positive enablers identified were being supported to seek help, information and personal accounts of OCD in the media, and confidence in their GP. Negative enablers were reaching a crisis point and for some participants (whose intrusive thoughts were about harming children) feeling driven to seek treatment because of the nature of the thoughts, that is, seeking help to prevent the 'harm' they feared they were capable of doing. Participants identified a range of barriers and enablers that impacted on their decision to seek help or not. These give important indicators about the likely causes for delayed help seeking in OCD and ways in which people might be encouraged to seek help earlier. People with OCD may face a wide range of barriers to seeking help, including concern about the reaction of health professionals. The level of awareness, kindness, and understanding shown by first-line practitioners can be very important to

  14. Development and Evaluation of the Tigriopus Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience: Impacts on Students' Content Knowledge, Attitudes, and Motivation in a Majors Introductory Biology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olimpo, Jeffrey T; Fisher, Ginger R; DeChenne-Peters, Sue Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Within the past decade, course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) have emerged as a viable mechanism to enhance novices' development of scientific reasoning and process skills in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines. Recent evidence within the bioeducation literature suggests that student engagement in such experiences not only increases their appreciation for and interest in scientific research but also enhances their ability to "think like a scientist." Despite these critical outcomes, few studies have objectively explored CURE versus non-CURE students' development of content knowledge, attitudes, and motivation in the discipline, particularly among nonvolunteer samples. To address these concerns, we adopted a mixed-methods approach to evaluate the aforementioned outcomes following implementation of a novel CURE in an introductory cell/molecular biology course. Results indicate that CURE participants exhibited more expert-like outcomes on these constructs relative to their non-CURE counterparts, including in those areas related to self-efficacy, self-determination, and problem-solving strategies. Furthermore, analysis of end-of-term survey data suggests that select features of the CURE, such as increased student autonomy and collaboration, mediate student learning and enjoyment. Collectively, this research provides novel insights into the benefits achieved as a result of CURE participation and can be used to guide future development and evaluation of authentic research opportunities. © 2016 J. T. Olimpo et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  15. Temperature, salinity, conductivity, and other measurements collected in the Northern Ocean as part of the Arctic Experiment in 1994 (NODC Accession 0002728)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Investigation of thermohaline circulation in Nordic Seas, hydrography and pathways of Atlantic water summer Arctic experiments

  16. Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air. The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air. The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Progress Toward a Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical-Biological (THMCB) Experiment in the Homestake Mine Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenthal, E. L.; Maher, K.; Elsworth, D.; Lowell, R. P.; Uzunlar, N.; Mailloux, B. J.; Conrad, M. E.; Olsen, N. J.; Jones, T. L.; Cruz, M. F.; Torchinsky, A.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of performing a long-term hydrothermal experiment in a deep mine is to gain a scientific understanding of the coupled physical, chemical, and biological processes taking place in fractured rock under the influence of mechanical stress, thermal effects, and fluid flow. Only in a controlled experiment in a well-characterized rock mass, can a fractured rock be probed in 3-D through geophysical imaging, in situ measurements, geochemical/biological sampling, and numerical modeling. Our project is focused on the feasibility of a THMCB experiment in the Homestake Mine, South Dakota to study the long-term evolution (10+ years) of a perturbed heterogeneous rock mass. In addition to the experiment as a laboratory for studying crustal processes, it has direct application to Enhanced Geothermal Systems, carbon sequestration, and contaminant transport. Field activities have focused on fracture and feature mapping, flux measurements from flowing fractures, and collection of water and rock samples for geochemical, biological, and isotopic analyses. Fracture mapping and seepage measurements are being used to develop estimates of permeability and fluxes at different length scales and design the location and orientation of the heater array. Fluxes measured up to several liters/minute indicate localized regions of very high fracture permeability, likely in excess of 10-10 m2. Isotopic measurements indicate heterogeneity in the fracture network on the scale of tens of meters in addition to the large-scale geochemical heterogeneity observed in the mine. New methods for sampling and filtering water samples were developed and tested with the goal of performing radiocarbon analyses in DNA and phospholipid fatty acids. Analytical and numerical models of the thermal perturbation have been used to design the heater orientation and spacing. Reaction path and THC simulations were performed to assess geochemical and porosity/permeability changes as a function of the heat input

  18. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Daly: Juvenile red and blue king crab prey preference experiment conducted in the Kodiak Lab in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is part of a laboratory experiment, which evaluated how varying ratios of prey species (year-0 blue and red king crabs) and habitat type (shell and...

  19. Learning Biology with Plant Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Juliet E.

    This monograph contains 10 plant pathology experiments that were written to correspond to portions of a biology curriculum. Each experiment is suitable to a biology topic and designed to encourage exploration of those biological concepts being taught. Experiments include: (1) The Symptoms and Signs of Disease; (2) Koch's Postulates; (3)…

  20. Biological Clocks & Circadian Rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Jones, M. Gail

    2009-01-01

    The study of biological clocks and circadian rhythms is an excellent way to address the inquiry strand in the National Science Education Standards (NSES) (NRC 1996). Students can study these everyday phenomena by designing experiments, gathering and analyzing data, and generating new experiments. As students explore biological clocks and circadian…

  1. Experiences from a pilot study on how to conduct a qualitative multi-country research project regarding use of antibiotics in Southeast Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark; Traulsen, Janine Morgall

    2016-01-01

    regarding how to conduct these types of research projects by evaluating a pilot study of the project. METHODS: Local data collectors conducted the study according to a developed protocol and evaluated the study with the responsible researcher-team from University of Copenhagen. The pilot study focused......BACKGROUND: In 2014, a qualitative multi-country research project was launched to study the reasons behind the high use of antibiotics in regions of Southeast Europe by using previously untrained national interviewers (who were engaged in other antibiotic microbial resistance-related investigations......) to conduct qualitative interviews with local patients, physicians and pharmacists. Little knowledge exists about how to implement qualitative multi-country research collaborations involving previously untrained local data collectors. The aim of this paper was therefore to contribute to the knowledge...

  2. Conduct disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitelaar, Jan K; Smeets, Kirsten C; Herpers, Pierre; Scheepers, Floor; Glennon, Jeffrey; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-02-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to CD in the light of the forthcoming DSM-5 definition. The diagnostic criteria for CD will remain unchanged in DSM-5, but the introduction of a specifier of CD with a callous-unemotional (CU) presentation is new. Linked to this, we discuss the pros and cons of various other ways to subtype aggression/CD symptoms. Existing guidelines for CD are, with few exceptions, already of a relatively older date and emphasize that clinical assessment should be systematic and comprehensive and based on a multi-informant approach. Non-medical psychosocial interventions are recommended as the first option for the treatment of CD. There is a role for medication in the treatment of comorbid syndromes and/or in case of insufficient response to psychosocial interventions and severe and dangerous aggressive and violent behaviours.

  3. Low-dose neutron dose response of zebrafish embryos obtained from the Neutron exposure Accelerator System for Biological Effect Experiments (NASBEE) facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.Y.P.; Kong, E.Y.; Konishi, T.; Kobayashi, A.; Suya, N.; Cheng, S.H.; Yu, K.N.

    2015-01-01

    The dose response of embryos of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, irradiated at 5 h post fertilization (hpf) by 2-MeV neutrons with ≤100 mGy was determined. The neutron irradiations were made at the Neutron exposure Accelerator System for Biological Effect Experiments (NASBEE) facility in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. A total of 10 neutron doses ranging from 0.6 to 100 mGy were employed (with a gamma-ray contribution of 14% to the total dose), and the biological effects were studied through quantification of apoptosis at 25 hpf. The responses for neutron doses of 10, 20, 25, and 50 mGy approximately fitted on a straight line, while those for neutron doses of 0.6, 1 and 2.5 mGy exhibited neutron hormetic effects. As such, hormetic responses were generically developed by different kinds of ionizing radiations with different linear energy transfer (LET) values. The responses for neutron doses of 70 and 100 mGy were significantly below the lower 95% confidence band of the best-fit line, which strongly suggested the presence of gamma-ray hormesis. - Highlights: • Neutron dose response was determined for embryos of the zebrafish, Danio rerio. • Neutron doses of 0.6, 1 and 2.5 mGy led to neutron hormetic effects. • Neutron doses of 70 and 100 mGy accompanied by gamma rays led to gamma-ray hormesis

  4. Opto-acoustic diagnostics of the thermal action of high-intensity focused ultrasound on biological tissues: the possibility of its applications and model experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhlova, Tanya D; Pelivanov, Ivan M; Solomatin, Vladimir S; Karabutov, Aleksander A; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of using the opto-acoustic (OA) method for monitoring high-intensity ultrasonic therapy is studied. The optical properties of raw and boiled liver samples used as the undamaged model tissue and tissue destroyed by ultrasound, respectively, are measured. Experiments are performed with samples consisting of several alternating layers of raw and boiled liver of different thickness. The position and transverse size of the thermal lesion were determined from the temporal shape of the OA signals. The results of measurements are compared with the real size and position of the thermal lesion determined from the subsequent cuts of the sample. It is shown that the OA method permits the diagnostics of variations in biological tissues upon ultrasonic therapy. (special issue devoted to multiple radiation scattering in random media)

  5. Three-year experience with the Sophono in children with congenital conductive unilateral hearing loss: tolerability, audiometry, and sound localization compared to a bone-anchored hearing aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Rik C; Agterberg, Martijn J H; Hol, Myrthe K S; Snik, Ad F M

    2016-10-01

    Bone conduction devices (BCDs) are advocated as an amplification option for patients with congenital conductive unilateral hearing loss (UHL), while other treatment options could also be considered. The current study compared a transcutaneous BCD (Sophono) with a percutaneous BCD (bone-anchored hearing aid, BAHA) in 12 children with congenital conductive UHL. Tolerability, audiometry, and sound localization abilities with both types of BCD were studied retrospectively. The mean follow-up was 3.6 years for the Sophono users (n = 6) and 4.7 years for the BAHA users (n = 6). In each group, two patients had stopped using their BCD. Tolerability was favorable for the Sophono. Aided thresholds with the Sophono were unsatisfactory, as they did not reach under a mean pure tone average of 30 dB HL. Sound localization generally improved with both the Sophono and the BAHA, although localization abilities did not reach the level of normal hearing children. These findings, together with previously reported outcomes, are important to take into account when counseling patients and their caretakers. The selection of a suitable amplification option should always be made deliberately and on individual basis for each patient in this diverse group of children with congenital conductive UHL.

  6. Experiences from a pilot study on how to conduct a qualitative multi-country research project regarding use of antibiotics in Southeast Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaae, Susanne; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark; Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Wallach Kildemoes, Helle; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Jakupi, Arianit; Raka, Denis; Gürpinar, Emre Umut; Alkan, Ali; Hoxha, Iris; Malaj, Admir; Cantarero, Lourdes Arevalo

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, a qualitative multi-country research project was launched to study the reasons behind the high use of antibiotics in regions of Southeast Europe by using previously untrained national interviewers (who were engaged in other antibiotic microbial resistance-related investigations) to conduct qualitative interviews with local patients, physicians and pharmacists. Little knowledge exists about how to implement qualitative multi-country research collaborations involving previously untrained local data collectors. The aim of this paper was therefore to contribute to the knowledge regarding how to conduct these types of research projects by evaluating a pilot study of the project. Local data collectors conducted the study according to a developed protocol and evaluated the study with the responsible researcher-team from University of Copenhagen. The pilot study focused on 'local ownership', 'research quality' and 'feasibility' with regard to successful implementation and evaluation. The evaluation was achieved by interpreting 'Skype' and 'face to face' meetings and email correspondence by applying 'critical common sense'. Local data collectors achieved a sense of joint ownership. Overall, the protocol worked well. Several minor challenges pertaining to research quality and feasibility were identified, in particular obtaining narratives when conducting interviews and recruiting patients for the study. Furthermore, local data collectors found it difficult to allocate sufficient time to the project. Solutions were discussed and added to the protocol. Despite the challenges, it was possible to achieve an acceptable scientific level of research when conducting qualitative multi-country research collaboration under the given circumstances. Specific recommendations to achieve this are provided by the authors.

  7. Biological characterization and selection criteria of adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer: experience from the Italian observational NEMESI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavarezza, Matteo; Marchetti, Paolo; Gori, Stefania; Carrozza, Francesco; Maiello, Evaristo; Giotta, Francesco; Dondi, Davide; Venturini, Marco; Mustacchi, Giorgio; Casadei Gardini, Andrea; Del Mastro, Lucia; De Matteis, Andrea; Riccardi, Ferdinando; Adamo, Vincenzo; Aitini, Enrico; Amoroso, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    International treatment guidelines recommend administration of adjuvant chemotherapy in early breast cancer based on clinical, prognostic and predictive parameters. An observational study (NEMESI) was conducted in 63 Italian oncology centres in patients with early breast cancer. Age, performance status, concomitant disease, menopausal status, histology, tumor dimension (pT), axillary lymph node status (pN), grading (G), estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER and PgR), proliferative index (ki67 or MIB-1), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and type of adjuvant treatment were recorded. The primary objective of the study was to define parameters influencing the decision to prescribe adjuvant chemotherapy and the type of chemotherapy. Data for 1894 patients were available. 69.0% postmenopausal, 67.0% pT1, 22.3% pTmic/pT1a/pT1b, 61.0% pN0, 48.7% luminal A, 18.1% luminal B, 16.1% HER2 positive, 8.7% triple negative, 8.4% unknown. 57.8% received adjuvant chemotherapy: 38.1% of luminal A, 67.3% luminal B, 88.2% HER2-positive, 97.6% triple negative. Regimens administered: 9.1% CMF-like, 48.8% anthracyclines, 38.4% anthracyclines plus taxanes, 3.7% taxanes alone. Increasing pT/pN and, marginally, HER2-positive were associated with the prescription of anthracyclines plus taxanes. Suboptimal schedules (CMF-like or AC/EC or FEC-75) were prescribed in 37.3% receiving chemotherapy, even in HER2-positive and triple negative disease (36.5% and 34.0%, respectively). This study showed an overprescription of adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer, particularly referred to luminal A. pT, pN and, marginally, HER2 were the principal determinants for the choice of chemotherapy type. Suboptimal chemotherapy regimens were adopted in at least one third of HER2-positve and triple negative

  8. Behavior and reproduction of invertebrate animals during and after a long-term microgravity: space experiments using an Autonomous Biological System (ABS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijiri, K; Mizuno, R; Narita, T; Ohmura, T; Ishikawa, Y; Yamashita, M; Anderson, G; Poynter, J; MacCallum, T

    1998-12-01

    Aquatic invertebrate animals such as Amphipods, Gastropods (pond snails), Ostracods and Daphnia (water flea) were placed in water-filled cylindrical vessels together with water plant (hornwort). The vessels were sealed completely and illuminated with a fluorescent lamp to activate the photosynthesis of the plant for providing oxygen within the vessels. Such ecosystem vessels, specially termed as Autonomous Biological System or ABS units, were exposed to microgravity conditions, and the behavior of the animals and their reproduction capacity were studied. Three space experiments were carried out. The first experiment used a Space shuttle only and it was a 10-day flight. The other two space experiments were carried out in the Space station Mir (Shuttle/Mir mission), and the flight units had been kept in microgravity for 4 months. Daphnia produced their offspring during a 10-day Shuttle flight. In the first Mir experiment, no Daphnia were detected when recovered to the ground. However, they were alive in the second Mir experiment. Daphnia were the most fragile species among the invertebrate animals employed in the present experiments. All the animals, i.e., Amphipods, pond snails, Ostracods and Daphnia had survived for 4 months in space, i.e., they had produced their offspring or repeated their life-cycles under microgravity. For the two Mir experiments, in both the flight and ground control ecosystem units, an inverse relationship was noted between the number of Amphipods and pond snails in each unit. Amphipods at 10 hours after the recovery to the ground frequently exhibited a movement of dropping straight-downward to the bottom of the units. Several Amphipods had their legs bent abnormally, which probably resulted from some physiological alterations during their embryonic development under microgravity. From the analysis of the video tape recorded in space, for Ostracods and Daphnia, a half of their population were looping under microgravity. Such looping animals

  9. Space Biology in Russia Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly; Sychev, Vladimir; Ilyin, Eugene

    At present space biology research in Russia is making significant progress in several areas of high priority. Gravitational biology. In April-May 2013, a successful 30-day flight of the biological satellite (biosatellite) Bion-M1 was conducted, which carried rodents (mice and gerbils), geckos, fish, mollusks, crustaceans, microorganisms, insects, lower and higher plants, seeds, etc. The investigations were performed by Russian scientists as well as by researchers from NASA, CNES, DLR and South Korea. Foton-M4 carrying various biological specimens is scheduled to launch in 2014. Work has begun to develop science research programs to be implemented onboard Bion-M2 and Bion-M3 as well as on high apogee recoverable spacecraft. Study of the effects of microgravity on the growth and development of higher plants cultivated over several generations on the International Space Station (ISS) has been recently completed. Space radiobiology. Regular experiments aimed at investigating the effects of high-energy galactic cosmic rays on the animal central nervous system and behavior are being carried out using the Particle Accelerator in the town of Dubna. Biological (environmental) life support systems. In recent years, experiments have been performed on the ISS to upgrade technologies of plant cultivation in microgravity. Advanced greenhouse mockups have been built and are currentlyundergoing bioengineering tests. Technologies of waste utilization in space are being developed. Astrobiology experiments in orbital missions. In 2010, the Biorisk experiment on bacterial and fungal spores, seeds and dormant forms of organisms was completed. The payload containing the specimens was installed on the exterior wall of the ISS and was exposed to outer space for 31 months. In addition, Bion-M1 also carried seeds, bacterial spores and microbes that were exposed to outer space effects. The survival rate of bacterial spores incorporated into man-made meteorites, that were attached to the

  10. Thermo-hydro-mechanics of fractured rock mass in nuclear waste studies. The measurement of electrical conductivity during the thermo-hydro-mechanical experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mursu, J.; Peltoniemi, M.

    1996-12-01

    The report reviews and summarizes the present state-of-the-art knowledge about electrical conductivity measurements of rock samples in high-temperature, high-pressure conditions. The special requirements for these measurements have been studied in terms of sample preparation, instrumentation, and experimental procedures. Possibilities to utilize a MTS System 815 testing unit, currently available at the Helsinki University of Technology, for these measurements have been studied. (17 refs.)

  11. Development and Evaluation of the Tigriopus Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience: Impacts on Students’ Content Knowledge, Attitudes, and Motivation in a Majors Introductory Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olimpo, Jeffrey T.; Fisher, Ginger R.; DeChenne-Peters, Sue Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Within the past decade, course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) have emerged as a viable mechanism to enhance novices’ development of scientific reasoning and process skills in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines. Recent evidence within the bioeducation literature suggests that student engagement in such experiences not only increases their appreciation for and interest in scientific research but also enhances their ability to “think like a scientist.” Despite these critical outcomes, few studies have objectively explored CURE versus non-CURE students’ development of content knowledge, attitudes, and motivation in the discipline, particularly among nonvolunteer samples. To address these concerns, we adopted a mixed-methods approach to evaluate the aforementioned outcomes following implementation of a novel CURE in an introductory cell/molecular biology course. Results indicate that CURE participants exhibited more expert-like outcomes on these constructs relative to their non-CURE counterparts, including in those areas related to self-efficacy, self-determination, and problem-solving strategies. Furthermore, analysis of end-of-term survey data suggests that select features of the CURE, such as increased student autonomy and collaboration, mediate student learning and enjoyment. Collectively, this research provides novel insights into the benefits achieved as a result of CURE participation and can be used to guide future development and evaluation of authentic research opportunities. PMID:27909022

  12. An analysis of a historical report on experiments in physics conducted by the Dominicans in Grodno in 1793 for the Polish king (in Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Wyka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available From June to November 1793 Grodno (now Belarus was the place of the last session of Parliament of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, with the participation of king Stanisław August Poniatowski, and it was where the second partition of Poland was approved. In the days free of parliamentary debates, Grodno’s Dominicans prepared a series of physics experiments for the king. The course of the experiments and their subject matter is known from a press release (Pismo Peryodyczne Korrespondenta 2, January 9, 1794, pp. 35–42. It is a type of daily report informing about 18 meetings, each time indicating their subject matter. This report was sufficient to recreate the course and the type of the experiments. Three thematic groups presented by the Dominicans can be distinguished. The first is a presentation of the physics cabinet – the king was visited, among others, the Nooth’s apparatus to produce “carbonated water”, a geological collection and other items used in the later shows. The second series of demonstrations was devoted to issues related to electricity. The idea and nature of lightning was also demonstrated. The third series of presentations concerned the properties of gases. In addition to other demonstrations, the Dominicans prepared an experiment which presented the process of producing water from oxygen and hydrogen. The experiment lasted all day, during which the reagents were measured: the volume of gases that were used and the mass of the water obtained. The report brings a lot of important information, indicating the level of scientific knowledge and the experimental skills of the Dominicans. It is evidence of how modern physics was taught by the Dominicans with the use of appropriate instruments for this purpose. It is also a source of knowledge about school equipment in Poland. Additionally, the report is so far one of the few well-documented public demonstrations prepared for the king. It also confirms the view that the

  13. Enhancing biological nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danso, S.K.A.; Eskew, D.L. (Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, Vienna (Austria))

    1984-06-01

    Several co-ordinated research programmes (CRPs) conducted by the Soil Fertility, Irrigation and Crop Production Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division have concentrated on finding the most efficient way of applying nitrogen fertilizers to various crops, using nitrogen-15 (/sup 15/N) as a tracer. The findings of these studies have been adopted in many countries around the world, resulting in savings of nitrogen fertilizers worth many millions of dollars every year. More recently, the Section's CRPs have focused on enhancing the natural process of biological di-nitrogen fixation. The /sup 15/N isotope technique has proven to be very valuable in studies of the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis, allowing many more experiments than before to be done and yielding much new practical information. The Soils Section is now working to extend the use of the technique to other nitrogen-fixing symbioses.

  14. Systems biology approach to transplant tolerance: proof of concept experiments using RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down hub genes in Jurkat and HeLa cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, Wint Wah; Park, Ken; Wauson, Matthew; Gao, Qin; Finn, Patricia W; Perkins, David; Khanna, Ajai

    2012-07-01

    Systems biology is gaining importance in studying complex systems such as the functional interconnections of human genes [1]. To investigate the molecular interactions involved in T cell immune responses, we used databases of physical gene-gene interactions to constructed molecular interaction networks (interconnections) with R language algorithms. This helped to identify highly interconnected "hub" genes AT(1)P5C1, IL6ST, PRKCZ, MYC, FOS, JUN, and MAPK1. We hypothesized that suppression of these hub genes in the gene network would result in significant phenotypic effects on T cells and examined this in vitro. The molecular interaction networks were then analyzed and visualized with Cytoscape. Jurkat and HeLa cells were transfected with siRNA for the selected hub genes. Cell proliferation was measured using ATP luminescence and BrdU labeling, which were measured 36, 72, and 96 h after activation. Following T cell stimulation, we found a significant decrease in ATP production (P cells. However, HeLa cells showed a significant (P cell proliferation when the genes MAPK1, IL6ST, ATP5C1, JUN, and FOS were knocked down. In both Jurkat and HeLa cells, targeted gene knockdown using siRNA showed decreased cell proliferation and ATP production in both Jurkat and HeLa cells. However, Jurkat T cells and HELA cells use different hub genes to regulate activation responses. This experiment provides proof of principle of applying siRNA knockdown of T cell hub genes to evaluate their proliferative capacity and ATP production. This novel concept outlines a systems biology approach to identify hub genes for targeted therapeutics. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Operational challenges in conducting a community-based technology-enabled mental health services delivery model for rural India: Experiences from the SMART Mental Health Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulik, Pallab K; Kallakuri, Sudha; Devarapalli, Siddhardha

    2018-01-01

    Background: There are large gaps in the delivery of mental health care in low- and middle-income countries such as India, and the problems are even more acute in rural settings due to lack of resources, remoteness, and lack of infrastructure, amongst other factors. The Systematic Medical Appraisal Referral and Treatment (SMART) Mental Health Project was conceived as a mental health services delivery model using technology-based solutions for rural India. This paper reports on the operational strategies used to facilitate the implementation of the intervention. Method: Key components of the SMART Mental Health Project included delivering an anti-stigma campaign, training of primary health workers in screening, diagnosing and managing stress, depression and increased suicide risk and task sharing of responsibilities in delivering care; and using mobile technology based electronic decision support systems to support delivery of algorithm based care for such disorders. The intervention was conducted in 42 villages across two sites in the state of Andhra Pradesh in south India. A pre-post mixed methods evaluation was done, and in this paper operational challenges are reported. Results: Both quantitative and qualitative results from the evaluation from one site covering about 5000 adults showed that the intervention was feasible and acceptable, and initial results indicated that it was beneficial in increasing access to mental health care and reducing depression and anxiety symptoms. A number of strategies were initiated in response to operational challenges to ensure smoother conduct of the project and facilitated the project to be delivered as envisaged. Conclusions: The operational strategies initiated for this project were successful in ensuring the delivery of the intervention. Those, coupled with other more systematic processes have informed the researchers to understand key processes that need to be in place to develop a more robust study, that could eventually be

  16. Determination of Physical Properties of Carbon Materials by Results of Ablative Experiments Con-ducted in the Jets of Gas Dynamic Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Gorsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of hypersonic vehicles’ movement in the dense layers of the atmosphere is accompanied by the considerable combustion of heat shield, which effects on the aerodynamic, mass-inertial and centering characteristics of the product.For correct calculation of model's movement parameters it is necessary:* Using the theoretical and computation methods for determining ablative characteristics of heat-protective materials;* Taking into account all the basic physical and chemical processes, involved in their ablation, using the above mentioned methods;* Testing these techniques in the wide range of experimental data. This physic-mathematical model of carbon materials (CM aerothermochemical destruction is based on using the following:* Arrhenius equations to calculate carbon kinetic oxidation;* Langmuir-Knudsen formula to calculate the velocity of non-equilibrium carbon’s sublimation;* Carbon erosion law represented as a unique dependence of this process velocity on the gas pressure on the wall.Mathematical description of all major processes included in this formulation of the problem, contains a number of "free" parameters that can be determined only on the basis of comparison of theoretical and experimental data according to total ablation characteristics of these materials.This comparison was performed in the article applicable to the tests conditions of modern CM in the stream of electric arc plant and in combustion products of liquid-propellant rocket engines.As the result, the data of kinetic of carbon oxidation by atomic oxygen at sublimation mode of material ablation were obtained for the first time. Carbon erosion law under high pressure was established for the first time.The new approach to processing of ablation experiments is enunciated. Using this approach allows to turn this experiments for CM from comparative tests into the tests to determine ablation properties of thermal protection. Moreover, it enables us also to use the

  17. Functions in Biological Kind Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  18. Simulation with Phast of the pore water chemistry experiment results (Mont Terri Url, Switzerland), including transport, thermodynamics, kinetics, and biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournassat, C.; Gaucher, E.; Pearson, F.J.; Mettler, S.; Wersin, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The Pore water Chemistry (PC-)experiment was initially designed to determine the processes that control the redox properties of pore water in the Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri URL. However, changes in isotopic data and chemical parameters such as pH, alkalinity, dissolved methane, acetate and sulphate concentrations indicated unexpected microbial activity. The origin of the bacteria is not clear. In the light of published data, an indigenous origin cannot be ruled out. A combined biological and reactive transport model has been developed with the parallel PHAST software to simulate the processes that determine pore water chemistry. The influence of bacterial activity on the system is successfully modelled by considering different reaction pathways scenarios including aceto-genesis, methano-genesis, and methane/acetate oxidation coupled to sulphate reduction. Several conclusions can be clearly stated in the light of the simulation results: - The measured redox potentials (redox electrode) are in line with the S(-II)/S(+VI) redox system. - In the undisturbed pore water, S(-II) and S(+VI) activities are controlled by a mineral assemblage containing pyrite and a Fe carbonate (siderite or ankerite). pH is buffered by mineral phases and SO 4 2- concentration is inherited from the marine sedimentary rock. - Some local redox potentials in the sedimentary rock do not correspond to the measured redox potential; for instance, organic matter/HCO 3 - and CH 4 /HCO 3 - systems are not at equilibrium with the measured redox potential. - Redox disequilibrium can be exploited by micro-organisms as a source of energy for their metabolism. In this experiment CH 4 , acetate and other organic acids were produced and SO 4 2- was reduced to HS - . The redox properties of the system are then governed by kinetics rather than by thermodynamic equilibrium. The unexpected persistence of acetate in the borehole water is one of the consequences of these

  19. Conduction Abnormalities and Permanent Pacemaker Implantation After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Using the Repositionable LOTUS Device: The United Kingdom Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampat, Rajiv; Khawaja, M Zeeshan; Hilling-Smith, Roland; Byrne, Jonathan; MacCarthy, Philip; Blackman, Daniel J; Krishnamurthy, Arvindra; Gunarathne, Ashan; Kovac, Jan; Banning, Adrian; Kharbanda, Raj; Firoozi, Sami; Brecker, Stephen; Redwood, Simon; Bapat, Vinayak; Mullen, Michael; Aggarwal, Suneil; Manoharan, Ganesh; Spence, Mark S; Khogali, Saib; Dooley, Maureen; Cockburn, James; de Belder, Adam; Trivedi, Uday; Hildick-Smith, David

    2017-06-26

    The authors report the incidence of pacemaker implantation up to hospital discharge and the factors influencing pacing rate following implantation of the LOTUS bioprosthesis (Boston Scientific, Natick, Massachusetts) in the United Kingdom. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is associated with a significant need for permanent pacemaker implantation. Pacing rates vary according to the device used. The REPRISE II (Repositionable Percutaneous Replacement of Stenotic Aortic Valve Through Implantation of Lotus Valve System) trial reported a pacing rate of 29% at 30 days after implantation of the LOTUS device. Data were collected retrospectively on 228 patients who had the LOTUS device implanted between March 2013 and February 2015 across 10 centers in the United Kingdom. Twenty-seven patients (12%) had pacemakers implanted pre-procedure and were excluded from the analysis. Patients were aged 81.2 ± 7.7 years; 50.7% were male. The mean pre-procedural QRS duration was 101.7 ± 20.4 ms. More than one-half of the cohort (n = 111, 55%) developed new left bundle branch block (LBBB) following the procedure. Permanent pacemakers were implanted in 64 patients (32%) with a median time to insertion of 3.0 ± 3.4 days. Chief indications for pacing were atrioventricular (AV) block (n = 46, 72%), or LBBB with 1st degree AV block (n = 11, 17%). Amongst those who received a pacemaker following TAVR the pre-procedural electrocardiogram findings included: No conduction disturbance (n = 41, 64%); 1st degree AV block (n = 10, 16%); right bundle branch block (n = 6, 9%) and LBBB (n = 5, 8%). LBBB (but not permanent pacemaker) occurred more frequently in patients who had balloon aortic valvuloplasty before TAVR (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25; p = 0.03). Pre-procedural conduction abnormality (composite of 1st degree AV block, hemiblock, right bundle branch block, LBBB) was independently associated with the need for permanent pacemaker (OR: 2.54; p = 0.048). The absence of

  20. The implementation and evaluation of therapeutic touch in burn patients: an instructive experience of conducting a scientific study within a non-academic nursing setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Martine; Visser, Adriaan; Eybrechts, Maggie; van Komen, Rob; Oen, Irma; Olff, Miranda; Dokter, Jan; Boxma, Han

    2012-12-01

    Evaluation of therapeutic touch (TT) in the nursing of burn patients; post hoc evaluation of the research process in a non-academic nursing setting. 38 burn patients received either TT or nursing presence. On admission, days 2, 5 and 10 of hospitalization, data were collected on anxiety for pain, salivary cortisol, and pain medication. Interviews with nurses were held concerning research in a non-academic setting. Anxiety for pain was more reduced on day 10 in the TT-group. The TT-group was prescribed less morphine on day 1 and 2. On day 2 cortisol level before dressing changes was higher in the TT-group. The situational challenges of this study led to inconsistencies in data collection and a high patient attrition rate, weakening its statistical power. Conducting an effect study within daily nursing practice should not be done with a nursing staff inexperienced in research. Analysis of the remaining data justifies further research on TT for burn patients with pain, anxiety for pain, and cortisol levels as outcomes. Administering and evaluating TT during daily care requires nurses experienced both in TT and research, thus leading to less attrition and missing data, increasing the power of future studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biological and Pharmacological properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Biological and Pharmacological properties. NOEA inhibits Ceramidase. Anandamide inhibits gap junction conductance and reduces sperm fertilizing capacity. Endogenous ligands for Cannabinoid receptors (anandamide and NPEA). Antibacterial and antiviral ...

  2. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  3. Listening to their voices: The essence of the experience of special and regular education students as they learn monarch, Danaus plexippus, biology and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koomen, Michele Jean Hollingsworth

    This dissertation reports on a phenomenological study of nine regular and special education students as they studied insect biology and ecology in their inclusive seventh grade life science class. Three fundamental data collection methods of interpretive research (student observations, interviews and artifact analysis) framed the data collection of this study. Hermeneutic phenomenological analysis and a seven-step framework, beginning with establishment of the unit of analysis and ending in theory generation, were used to systematically analyze the data resulting in the emergence of four main themes. The essence of the lived experience of the study participants reveal a variety of ways working with others in groups supported their learning. Students reported that it was easier to share ideas, ask questions and complete their work when they worked together with other classmates. A second finding of this study, It's kind of hard in learning science, exposes some of the anxiety and the challenges that are part of the experiences of both regular and special education students in learning science. A third finding reveals that for the students in this study the practice of inquiry learning in science is fragile. Despite daily opportunities in inquiry activities, many students are fixated in finding the "right" answers and just getting their "work done." The practice of inquiry is also fragile because of the perceptions of how we go about doing and learning science. The perception of practicing science for the special education students was moderated and limited by their viewpoint that science is coupled with language arts. The last major theme describes the manner in which both student groups navigate through science learning using various strategies that contribute to their learning or engaging in behaviors that seem to conceal their learning differences. The results of this research have implication for inclusive classroom teachers, special educators, teacher educators

  4. 盗窃科研试验品行为定性探究%To Conduct Qualitative Behavior of Stealing Scientific Research Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李通

    2015-01-01

    葡萄、豆角缘何天价,莫非真的昂贵到只能用天价加以衡量?我们如何处理这类问题才能彰显公平、公正。笔者从立法原意、法理基础出发,主张此类盗窃科研试验品的行为应当认定为盗窃。该行为的主体、客体符合盗窃罪的基本构成要件,这一点毋庸置疑,因而主观方面的价值认识与客观方面的数额认定,成为该行为是否构成盗窃罪的关键。2011年新的刑法修正案(八)的正式颁布和实施,笔者尝试适用新法解旧题也成为可能。%Why grapes and beans are sold at whopping price?Are they expensive enough to sold at this price?How can we re-veal the fairness and justice when dealing this kind of problem?The author starts from the legislative intent and legal basis,ad-vocating the behavior of scientific research experiments stealing should be defined as the crime of theft.It is needless to say. But the amount of the value subjective and objective understanding becomes the key elements.In 2011 the new criminal law a-mendment (eighth edition )was published,and the author attempts to apply the new solution to old questions.

  5. The fusion of biology, computer science, and engineering: towards efficient and successful synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linshiz, Gregory; Goldberg, Alex; Konry, Tania; Hillson, Nathan J

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a nascent field that emerged in earnest only around the turn of the millennium. It aims to engineer new biological systems and impart new biological functionality, often through genetic modifications. The design and construction of new biological systems is a complex, multistep process, requiring multidisciplinary collaborative efforts from "fusion" scientists who have formal training in computer science or engineering, as well as hands-on biological expertise. The public has high expectations for synthetic biology and eagerly anticipates the development of solutions to the major challenges facing humanity. This article discusses laboratory practices and the conduct of research in synthetic biology. It argues that the fusion science approach, which integrates biology with computer science and engineering best practices, including standardization, process optimization, computer-aided design and laboratory automation, miniaturization, and systematic management, will increase the predictability and reproducibility of experiments and lead to breakthroughs in the construction of new biological systems. The article also discusses several successful fusion projects, including the development of software tools for DNA construction design automation, recursive DNA construction, and the development of integrated microfluidics systems.

  6. Attitudes toward and experiences of gender issues among physician teachers: A survey study conducted at a university teaching hospital in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westman Göran

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender issues are important to address during medical education, however research about the implementation of gender in medical curricula reports that there are obstacles. The aim of this study was to explore physician teachers' attitudes to gender issues. Methods As part of a questionnaire, physician teachers at Umeå University in Sweden were given open-ended questions about explanations for and asked to write examples why they found gender important or not. The 1 469 comments from the 243 respondents (78 women, 165 men were analyzed by way of content analysis. The proportion of comments made by men and women in each category was compared. Results We found three themes in our analysis: Understandings of gender, problems connected with gender and approaches to gender. Gender was associated with differences between women and men regarding behaviour and disease, as well as with inequality of life conditions. Problems connected with gender included: delicate situations involving investigations of intimate body parts or sexual attraction, different expectations on male and female physicians and students, and difficulty fully understanding the experience of people of the opposite sex. The three approaches to gender that appeared in the comments were: 1 avoidance, implying that the importance of gender in professional relationships was recognized but minimized by comparing gender with aspects, such as personality and neutrality; 2 simplification, implying that gender related problems were easy to address, or already solved; and 3 awareness, implying that the respondent was interested in gender issues or had some insights in research about gender. Only a few individuals described gender as an area of competence and knowledge. There were comments from men and women in all categories, but there were differences in the relative weight for some categories. For example, recognizing gender inequities was more pronounced in the comments

  7. Quantized Majorana conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Liu, Chun-Xiao; Gazibegovic, Sasa; Xu, Di; Logan, John A.; Wang, Guanzhong; van Loo, Nick; Bommer, Jouri D. S.; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Car, Diana; Op Het Veld, Roy L. M.; van Veldhoven, Petrus J.; Koelling, Sebastian; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Pendharkar, Mihir; Pennachio, Daniel J.; Shojaei, Borzoyeh; Lee, Joon Sue; Palmstrøm, Chris J.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Sarma, S. Das; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2018-04-01

    Majorana zero-modes—a type of localized quasiparticle—hold great promise for topological quantum computing. Tunnelling spectroscopy in electrical transport is the primary tool for identifying the presence of Majorana zero-modes, for instance as a zero-bias peak in differential conductance. The height of the Majorana zero-bias peak is predicted to be quantized at the universal conductance value of 2e2/h at zero temperature (where e is the charge of an electron and h is the Planck constant), as a direct consequence of the famous Majorana symmetry in which a particle is its own antiparticle. The Majorana symmetry protects the quantization against disorder, interactions and variations in the tunnel coupling. Previous experiments, however, have mostly shown zero-bias peaks much smaller than 2e2/h, with a recent observation of a peak height close to 2e2/h. Here we report a quantized conductance plateau at 2e2/h in the zero-bias conductance measured in indium antimonide semiconductor nanowires covered with an aluminium superconducting shell. The height of our zero-bias peak remains constant despite changing parameters such as the magnetic field and tunnel coupling, indicating that it is a quantized conductance plateau. We distinguish this quantized Majorana peak from possible non-Majorana origins by investigating its robustness to electric and magnetic fields as well as its temperature dependence. The observation of a quantized conductance plateau strongly supports the existence of Majorana zero-modes in the system, consequently paving the way for future braiding experiments that could lead to topological quantum computing.

  8. Space biology research development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

  9. HIV prevalence, risky behaviors, and discrimination experiences among transgender women in Cambodia: descriptive findings from a national integrated biological and behavioral survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Siyan; Ngin, Chanrith; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Chhim, Srean; Pal, Khuondyla; Mun, Phalkun; Mburu, Gitau

    2017-05-23

    Transgender people are disproportionately affected by HIV. Despite their high vulnerability to HIV, lack of adequate epidemiological and surveillance data related to this population in many countries prevents provision of appropriate services. This paper summarizes descriptive findings from a national integrated biological and behavioral survey and discusses policy implications of the findings on HIV prevention among transgender women in Cambodia. This cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2015 and February 2016. Participants were recruited from 20 sites in the capital city and 12 provinces of Cambodia using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) method. Behavioral data were collected through structured questionnaire interviews, and rapid finger-prick HIV testing was performed. Descriptive data analyses were conducted using STATA. This study included 1,375 transgender women with a mean age of 25.9 years (SD = 7.1). The overall prevalence of HIV was 5.9%. The prevalence of HIV was significantly higher among urban participants compared to their rural counterparts (6.5 vs. 2.6%, p = 0.02). Almost one in five (19.6%) had never been tested for HIV prior to the study. Overall, 45.0% reported ever using gender affirming hormones. More than one-third (39.1%) reported not using condoms in their last sex, 29.8% had engaged in sex in exchange for money/gifts, and 14.0% reported that they had experienced at least one symptom of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the past year. About one in ten (10.1%) reported having used some form of amphetamine-type stimulant drugs, while 6.5% reported having sex during or after using illicit drugs. A significant number of participants experienced sexual abuse (39.2%), losing a job (24.3%), or physical abuse (23.6%) because of their transgender identity. In addition, 82.9 and 88.9% would be willing to use the HIV self-test and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), respectively, if they become available. The high prevalence

  10. Evaluation of various substrates and supplements for biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different substrates namely wheat straw (Triticum aestivum), maize stover (Zea mays L), thatch grass (Hyparrhenia filipendula) and oil/protein rich supplements (maize bran, cottonseed hull [Gossypium hirsutum]) on biological efficiency of two oyster mushroom ...

  11. Incorporating an Interactive Statistics Workshop into an Introductory Biology Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) Enhances Students' Statistical Reasoning and Quantitative Literacy Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olimpo, Jeffrey T; Pevey, Ryan S; McCabe, Thomas M

    2018-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) provide an avenue for student participation in authentic scientific opportunities. Within the context of such coursework, students are often expected to collect, analyze, and evaluate data obtained from their own investigations. Yet, limited research has been conducted that examines mechanisms for supporting students in these endeavors. In this article, we discuss the development and evaluation of an interactive statistics workshop that was expressly designed to provide students with an open platform for graduate teaching assistant (GTA)-mentored data processing, statistical testing, and synthesis of their own research findings. Mixed methods analyses of pre/post-intervention survey data indicated a statistically significant increase in students' reasoning and quantitative literacy abilities in the domain, as well as enhancement of student self-reported confidence in and knowledge of the application of various statistical metrics to real-world contexts. Collectively, these data reify an important role for scaffolded instruction in statistics in preparing emergent scientists to be data-savvy researchers in a globally expansive STEM workforce.

  12. Incorporating an Interactive Statistics Workshop into an Introductory Biology Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) Enhances Students’ Statistical Reasoning and Quantitative Literacy Skills †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olimpo, Jeffrey T.; Pevey, Ryan S.; McCabe, Thomas M.

    2018-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) provide an avenue for student participation in authentic scientific opportunities. Within the context of such coursework, students are often expected to collect, analyze, and evaluate data obtained from their own investigations. Yet, limited research has been conducted that examines mechanisms for supporting students in these endeavors. In this article, we discuss the development and evaluation of an interactive statistics workshop that was expressly designed to provide students with an open platform for graduate teaching assistant (GTA)-mentored data processing, statistical testing, and synthesis of their own research findings. Mixed methods analyses of pre/post-intervention survey data indicated a statistically significant increase in students’ reasoning and quantitative literacy abilities in the domain, as well as enhancement of student self-reported confidence in and knowledge of the application of various statistical metrics to real-world contexts. Collectively, these data reify an important role for scaffolded instruction in statistics in preparing emergent scientists to be data-savvy researchers in a globally expansive STEM workforce. PMID:29904549

  13. Analyzing the Biology on the System Level

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Although various genome projects have provided us enormous static sequence information, understanding of the sophisticated biology continues to require integrating the computational modeling, system analysis, technology development for experiments, and quantitative experiments all together to analyze the biology architecture on various levels, which is just the origin of systems biology subject. This review discusses the object, its characteristics, and research attentions in systems biology,...

  14. Antiprotons get biological

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    After its final run in September, the first results of the Antiproton Cell Experiment (ACE) look very promising. It was the first experiment to take data on the biological effects of antiproton beams to evaluate the potential of antiprotons in radiation therapy.

  15. Modern Biology

    OpenAIRE

    ALEKSIC, Branko

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this course is to learn the philosophy, principles, and techniques of modern biology. The course is particularly designed for those who have not learned biology previously or whose major is other than biology, and who may think that they do not need to know any biology at all. The topics are covered in a rather general, overview manner, but certain level of diligence in grasping concepts and memorizing the terminology is expected.

  16. In vitro biological effectiveness of JRR-4 epithermal neutron beam. Experiment under free air beam and in water phantom. Cooperative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira; Nose, Tadao; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Kumada, Hiroaki; Kishi, Toshiaki; Hori, Naohiko; Torii, Yoshiya; Horiguchi, Yoji

    2002-05-01

    The surviving curve and the biological effectiveness factor of dose components generated in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) were separately determined in neutron beams at Japan Research Reactor No.4. Surviving fraction of V79 Chinese hamster cell with or without 10 B was obtained using an epithermal neutron beam (ENB), a mixed thermal-epithermal neutron beam (TNB-1), and a thermal neutron beam (TNB-2), which were used or planned to use for BNCT clinical trial. The cell killing effect of these neutron beams with or without the presence of 10 B depended highly on the neutron beam used, according to the epithermal and fast neutron content in the beam. The biological effectiveness factor values of the boron capture reaction for ENB, TNB-1 and TNB-2 were 3.99±0.24, 3.04±0.19 and 1.43±0.08, respectively. The biological effectiveness factor values of the high-LET dose components based on the hydrogen recoils and the nitrogen capture reaction were 2.50±0.32, 2.34±0.30 and 2.17±0.28 for ENB, TNB-1 and TNB-2, respectively. The biological effectiveness factor values of the neutron and photon components were 1.22±0.16, 1.23±0.16 and 1.21±0.16, respectively. The depth function of biological effectiveness factor in water phantom and the difference in biological effectiveness factor among boron compounds were also determined. The experimental determination of biological effectiveness factor outlined in this paper is applicable to the dose calculation for each dose component of the neutron beams and contribute to an accurate biological effectiveness factor as comparison with a neutron beam at a different facility employed in ongoing and planned BNCT clinical trials. (author)

  17. The conceptual maps in the development of the course of biology of tenth degree: An investigation experience action in the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samo Goyco, Marisol

    This investigation describes and combines the qualitative and quantitative methods of nature. The research I have work explore, observe, record and also it describes the experience to consider the education and teaching of the course. This investigation is a research that our students from the biology course, since the constructivist approach identifying and correct mistake. In this investigation there were participating twenty five students of tenth grade from a public school specialized in music. This research includes conceptual maps, computer integration, science programmed, internet, and broadcast and assessment approach. The research of conceptual maps establishes the correct method to perform capture the acknowledgement and attention of the investigators and the students which represents a significant relation between the concepts. Thought the investigator sustains on the cycle spiral of Carr and kemmis (1988) I design every unit considering the previous ideology of the student and elaborating the unit plan. Sustaining Maintain the methodology of the action research. The methodology has response to a new teaching paradigm. Situate as a principal assignment of the professor to contribute in the process of active learning to the students. Also helps to have in this process a reflection in their function or goals. During the research I analyze and wrote the observation and materials. The investigator express in her writing the final findings in every cycle. Also evaluates the map concepts the varied integration of activity and the assessment skills which are used through the socialized discussion. The socialized discussion communicates the participant concepts that should be attended. The students express between their peers and in front of the research of the investigator how they felt in terms of resources and the development of the maps. At the moment of this information I design the next cycle responding to the outstanding needs, this reflection genre a

  18. Do leaders affect ethical conduct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Adda, Giovanna; Darai, Donja; Pavanini, Nicola; Weber, Roberto A.

    2017-01-01

    We study whether leaders influence the unethical conduct of followers. To avoid selection issues present in natural environments, we use an experiment in which we create simple laboratory firms and assign leadership roles at random. In our first experiment, firms engage in competition and unethical

  19. Mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, James D

    1993-01-01

    The book is a textbook (with many exercises) giving an in-depth account of the practical use of mathematical modelling in the biomedical sciences. The mathematical level required is generally not high and the emphasis is on what is required to solve the real biological problem. The subject matter is drawn, e.g. from population biology, reaction kinetics, biological oscillators and switches, Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, reaction-diffusion theory, biological wave phenomena, central pattern generators, neural models, spread of epidemics, mechanochemical theory of biological pattern formation and importance in evolution. Most of the models are based on real biological problems and the predictions and explanations offered as a direct result of mathematical analysis of the models are important aspects of the book. The aim is to provide a thorough training in practical mathematical biology and to show how exciting and novel mathematical challenges arise from a genuine interdisciplinary involvement with the biosci...

  20. The origins of radiotherapy: discovery of biological effects of X-rays by Freund in 1897, Kienböck's crucial experiments in 1900, and still it is the dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widder, Joachim

    2014-07-01

    The discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (1845-1923) was triggered by pursuing an anomalous phenomenon: arousal of fluorescence at a distance from tubes in which cathode rays were elicited, a phenomenon which suggested the existence of a new kind of ray other than cathode rays. The discovery of biological effects of these X-rays by Leopold Freund (1868-1943) was triggered by pursuit of the purportedly useless phenomenon of epilation and dermatitis ensuing from X-ray-diagnostic experiments that others had reported. The crucial experiments performed by Robert Kienböck (1871-1953) entailed the proof that X-ray-dose, not electric phenomena, was the active agent of biological effects ensuing when illuminating the skin using Röntgen tubes. For both the discovery of X-rays and the discovery of their biological effectiveness, priority did not matter, but understanding the physical and medico-biological significance of phenomena that others had ignored as a nuisance. Present discussions about the clinical relevance of improving the dose distribution including protons and other charged particles resemble those around 1900 to a certain degree. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Data warehousing in molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbach, C; Kowalski-Saunders, P; Brusic, V

    2000-05-01

    In the business and healthcare sectors data warehousing has provided effective solutions for information usage and knowledge discovery from databases. However, data warehousing applications in the biological research and development (R&D) sector are lagging far behind. The fuzziness and complexity of biological data represent a major challenge in data warehousing for molecular biology. By combining experiences in other domains with our findings from building a model database, we have defined the requirements for data warehousing in molecular biology.

  2. [Analytical quality in biological monitoring of workers exposed to chemicals: experience of the Prevention and Safety at the Workplace Service in Modena].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpaca, R I Paredes; Migliore, A; Di Rico, R; Canali, Claudia; Rota, Cristina; Trenti, T; Cariani, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    The quality of laboratory data is one of the main factors in guaranteeing efficacy of biological monitoring. To analyze the quality of laboratory data used for biological monitoring of exposed workers. A survey involving 18 companies employing 945 workers in the area of Modena, Italy, was carried out in 2008. Most of the 9 private laboratories receiving biological samples did not perform directly part or all of the laboratory assessments requested, but this was not indicated in the final report. Major problems were observed in the application of internal quality control, and only one laboratory participated in external quality assessment for blood lead measurements. Our results raise major concerns on the traceability and reliability of laboratory assessments performed for biomonitoring of exposed workers. Systematic evaluation of the quality of analytical data would be highly recommendable.

  3. Control of the biological process through continuous measurement of the sludge age. Experiences in the WWTP Molina de Segura (Murcia, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, F.; Pradas, P.; Lardin, C.; Simon, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results obtained when a sludge age based control is incorporated in the biological process of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Greater stability of the biological process is achieved when this control is implemented in WWTP of Molina de Segura. In particular biodiversity has increased and it has been possible to reduce and stabilize the secondary sludge production. An improvement of the sludge decantation and a reduction of the specific volumetric load of secondary clarifiers have also been observed. finally, costs have been reduced dur to the decrease of cationic polyelectrolyte consumption. (Author) 16 refs.

  4. Biological therapeutics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenstein, Ben; Brook, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    This introductory textbook covers all the main categories of biological medicines, including vaccines, hormonal preparations, drugs for rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases, drugs...

  5. Biological and chemical data determined in mesocosm experiments by Dauphin Island Sea Lab in June and August of 2011 (NODC Accession 0118680)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Abundances of viruses, prokaryotes, diatoms, dinoflagellates, ciliates and heterotrophic nanoflagellates were determined over time in mesocosm experiments measuring...

  6. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  7. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  8. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological ...

  9. In vitro biological effectiveness of JRR-4 epithermal neutron beam. Experiment under free air beam and in water phantom. Cooperative research

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, T; Horiguchi, Y; Kishi, T; Kumada, H; Matsumura, A; Nose, T; Torii, Y; Yamamoto, K

    2002-01-01

    The surviving curve and the biological effectiveness factor of dose components generated in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) were separately determined in neutron beams at Japan Research Reactor No.4. Surviving fraction of V79 Chinese hamster cell with or without sup 1 sup 0 B was obtained using an epithermal neutron beam (ENB), a mixed thermal-epithermal neutron beam (TNB-1), and a thermal neutron beam (TNB-2), which were used or planned to use for BNCT clinical trial. The cell killing effect of these neutron beams with or without the presence of sup 1 sup 0 B depended highly on the neutron beam used, according to the epithermal and fast neutron content in the beam. The biological effectiveness factor values of the boron capture reaction for ENB, TNB-1 and TNB-2 were 3.99+-0.24, 3.04+-0.19 and 1.43+-0.08, respectively. The biological effectiveness factor values of the high-LET dose components based on the hydrogen recoils and the nitrogen capture reaction were 2.50+-0.32, 2.34+-0.30 and 2.17+-0.28 for EN...

  10. Factors associated with occupational exposure to biological material among nursing professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrinho, Nádia Bruna da Silva; Malaguti-Toffano, Silmara Elaine; Reis, Renata Karina; Pereira, Fernanda Maria Vieira; Gir, Elucir

    2017-01-01

    to identify factors associated with occupational exposure to biological material among nursing professionals. a cross-sectional study was conducted in a high complexity hospital of a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Nursing professionals were interviewed from March to November 2015. All ethical aspects were observed. among the 226 professionals interviewed, 17.3% suffered occupational exposure to potentially contaminated biological material, with 61.5% being percutaneous. Factors such as age (p=0.003), professional experience in nursing (p=0.015), and experience at the institution (p=0.032) were associated with the accidents with biological material. most accidents with biological material among nursing professionals were percutaneous. Age, professional experience, and experience at the institution were considered factors associated with occupational exposure.

  11. In vivo electrical conductivity imaging of a canine brain using a 3 T MREIT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Joong; Oh, Tong In; Kim, Young Tae; Lee, Byung Il; Woo, Eung Je; Lee, Soo Yeol; Seo, Jin Keun; Kwon, Ohin; Park, Chunjae; Kang, Byeong Teck; Park, Hee Myung

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) aims at producing high-resolution cross-sectional conductivity images of an electrically conducting object such as the human body. Following numerous phantom imaging experiments, the most recent study demonstrated successful conductivity image reconstructions of postmortem canine brains using a 3 T MREIT system with 40 mA imaging currents. Here, we report the results of in vivo animal imaging experiments using 5 mA imaging currents. To investigate any change of electrical conductivity due to brain ischemia, canine brains having a regional ischemic model were scanned along with separate scans of canine brains having no disease model. Reconstructed multi-slice conductivity images of in vivo canine brains with a pixel size of 1.4 mm showed a clear contrast between white and gray matter and also between normal and ischemic regions. We found that the conductivity value of an ischemic region decreased by about 10–14%. In a postmortem brain, conductivity values of white and gray matter decreased by about 4–8% compared to those in a live brain. Accumulating more experience of in vivo animal imaging experiments, we plan to move to human experiments. One of the important goals of our future work is the reduction of the imaging current to a level that a human subject can tolerate. The ability to acquire high-resolution conductivity images will find numerous clinical applications not supported by other medical imaging modalities. Potential applications in biology, chemistry and material science are also expected

  12. An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment for Upper-Level Forensic Science, Biochemistry, or Molecular Biology Courses: Human DNA Amplification Using STR Single Locus Primers by Real-Time PCR with SYBR Green Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Kelly M.; Kadunc, Raelynn E.

    2012-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) was conducted using published human TPOX single-locus DNA primers for validation and various student-designed short tandem repeat (STR) primers for Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) loci. SYBR Green was used to detect the amplification of the expected amplicons. The…

  13. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  14. Biological desulfurisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, B.J. [UOP LLC (United States); Benschop, A.; Janssen, A. [Paques Natural Solutions (Netherlands); Kijlstra, S. [Shell Global Solutions (Netherlands)

    2001-03-01

    This article focuses on the biological THIOPAQ process for removing hydrogen sulphide from refinery gases and recovering elemental sulphur. Details are given of the process which absorbs hydrogen sulphide-containing gas in alkaline solution prior to oxidation of the dissolved sulphur to elemental sulphur in a THIOPAQ aerobic biological reactor, with regeneration of the caustic solution. Sulphur handling options including sulphur wash, the drying of the sulphur cake, and sulphur smelting by pressure liquefaction are described. Agricultural applications of the biologically recovered sulphur, and application of the THIOPAQ process to sulphur recovery are discussed.

  15. Multidimensional Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Analytical theory of multidimensional heat conduction. General heat conduction equation in three dimensions. Steay state, analytical solutions. The Laplace equation. Method of separation of variables. Principle of superposition. Shape factors. Transient, multidimensional heat conduction....

  16. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    study and understand the function of biological systems, particu- larly, the response of such .... understand the organisation and behaviour of prokaryotic sys- tems. ... relationship of the structure of a target molecule to its ability to bind a certain ...

  17. The case for biological quantum computer elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Wolfgang; Pizzi, Rita

    2009-05-01

    An extension to vonNeumann's analysis of quantum theory suggests self-measurement is a fundamental process of Nature. By mapping the quantum computer to the brain architecture we will argue that the cognitive experience results from a measurement of a quantum memory maintained by biological entities. The insight provided by this mapping suggests quantum effects are not restricted to small atomic and nuclear phenomena but are an integral part of our own cognitive experience and further that the architecture of a quantum computer system parallels that of a conscious brain. We will then review the suggestions for biological quantum elements in basic neural structures and address the de-coherence objection by arguing for a self- measurement event model of Nature. We will argue that to first order approximation the universe is composed of isolated self-measurement events which guaranties coherence. Controlled de-coherence is treated as the input/output interactions between quantum elements of a quantum computer and the quantum memory maintained by biological entities cognizant of the quantum calculation results. Lastly we will present stem-cell based neuron experiments conducted by one of us with the aim of demonstrating the occurrence of quantum effects in living neural networks and discuss future research projects intended to reach this objective.

  18. 15th International Conference on Thermal Conductivity

    CERN Document Server

    1978-01-01

    Once again, it gives me a great pleasure to pen the Foreword to the Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Thermal Conductivity. As in the past, these now biannual conferences pro­ vide a broadly based forum for those researchers actively working on this important property of matter to convene on a regular basis to exchange their experiences and report their findings. As it is apparent from the Table of Contents, the 15th Conference represents perhaps the broadest coverage of subject areas to date. This is indicative of the times as the boundaries between disciplines be­ come increasingly diffused. I am sure the time has come when Con­ ference Chairmen in coming years will be soliciting contributions not only in the physical sciences and engineering', but will actively seek contributions from the earth sciences and life sciences as well. Indeed, the thermal conductivity and related properties of geological and biological materials are becoming of increasing im­ portance to our way of life. As...

  19. Biological effectiveness of antiproton annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Holzscheiter, Michael H.; Bassler, Niels; Beyer, Gerd; De Marco, John J.; Doser, Michael; Ichioka, Toshiyasu; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; Knudsen, Helge V.; Landua, Rolf; Maggiore, Carl; McBride, William H.; Møller, Søren Pape; Petersen, Jorgen; Smathers, James B.; Skarsgard, Lloyd D.; Solberg, Timothy D.; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.; Withers, H.Rodney; Vranjes, Sanja; Wong, Michelle; Wouters, Bradly G.

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment designed to determine whether or not the densely ionizing particles emanating from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in “biological dose” in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The experiment has been approved by the CERN Research Board for running at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) as AD-4/ACE (Antiproton Cell Experiment) and has begun data taking in June of 2003. The background, description and the current status of the experiment are given.

  20. Biological Methods and Manual Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA scientists conduct research to develop and evaluate analytical methods for the identification, enumeration, evaluation of aquatic organisms exposed to environmental stressors and to correlate exposures with effects on chemical and biological indicators

  1. Conducting compositions of matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides conductive compositions of matter, as well as methods for the preparation of the conductive compositions of matter, solutions comprising the conductive compositions of matter, and methods of preparing fibers or fabrics having improved anti-static properties employing the conductive compositions of matter.

  2. Biologi Hama Kumbang Penggerek Pucuk Kelapa Sawit (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Di Rumah Kassa

    OpenAIRE

    Sejahtra, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Ahmad Sejahtra, "BIOLOGY SHOOT BORERS BEETLE PEST OF COCONUT PALM (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) AT KASSA HOUSE", Under supervised by Ms Marheni and Ms Fatima Zahara. This study aims to determine biological pest of oil palm bud weevil (Oryctes rhinoceros L.) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) at home kassa. The experiment was conducted on people's plantations in PERUMNAS Simalingkar starting from September 2010 until April 2011. Research using observational methods for this resear...

  3. Proposal for an experiment at the SIN: contribution on πE3-beam dosimetry. Measurement of particle spectra after pion absorption in biologically interesting nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, H.; Boehmer, V.; Bueche, G.; Kluge, W.; Matthay, H.

    It is proposed to measure the energy spectra of light charged particles (protons, deuterons, tritons, 3 He- and 4 He-nuclei) and of neutrons, after the absorption of stopped pions in the biologically interesting hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen nuclei. In addition, the relative particle yield will be examined in tissue-like targets such as polyethylene, plexiglas, and water. Furthermore, it is proposed to measure the coincidence spectra of two particles emitted after absorption, as a function of the angle between their impulses. In the case of a pure three-body decay, these examinations may open the possibility of drawing conclusions about the heavy recoil nuclei arising during pion absorption. Particle energy and type will be determined by a combined time-of-flight/energy measurement with totally absorbent NaI or plastic detectors. The HF signal will serve as a start signal for time-of-flight measurements

  4. First operational experiences with the new biological waste water treatment plant at HKM; Erste Betriebserfahrungen mit der neuen biologischen Abwasserbehandlungsanlage der HKM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wendt; L. Nelles

    2002-07-01

    The common process of coke oven gas purification in by-product plant produces process water that is namely composed of excess flushing water from the crude tar decantation and waste water from NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S scrubbers. In 1959, the coke plant at HKM (formerly Mannesmann Huettenwerken Huckingen AG) was commissioned. This plant made use of the phenol removal process. Utilizing the phenolsolvan method the phenols toxic to microbes were removed from ammonia waste water and crude phenol recovered. The process water was subsequently steam stripped in strippers and deacidifiers. After more than 40 years of operation the need for modernization of the phenol removal plant arose. As a consequence of more stringent limits on coke plant effluents that have already been in place for several years the HKM came to a resolution to construct a new biological waste water treatment plant instead of renewing the phenol removal plant.

  5. "Mini-Array" Transcriptional Analysis of the "Listeria Monocytogenes" Lecithinase Operon as a Class Project: A Student Investigative Molecular Biology Laboratory Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Douglas; Jovic, Marko

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a molecular biotechnology-based laboratory curriculum developed to accompany an undergraduate genetics course. During the course of a semester, students researched the pathogen, developed a research question, designed experiments, and performed transcriptional analysis of a set of genes that confer virulence to the food-borne…

  6. Mathematical modeling of biological processes

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2014-01-01

    This book on mathematical modeling of biological processes includes a wide selection of biological topics that demonstrate the power of mathematics and computational codes in setting up biological processes with a rigorous and predictive framework. Topics include: enzyme dynamics, spread of disease, harvesting bacteria, competition among live species, neuronal oscillations, transport of neurofilaments in axon, cancer and cancer therapy, and granulomas. Complete with a description of the biological background and biological question that requires the use of mathematics, this book is developed for graduate students and advanced undergraduate students with only basic knowledge of ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations; background in biology is not required. Students will gain knowledge on how to program with MATLAB without previous programming experience and how to use codes in order to test biological hypothesis.

  7. Biological Effectiveness of Antiproton Annihilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggiore, C.; Agazaryan, N.; Bassler, N.

    2004-01-01

    from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in ‘‘biological dose’’ in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The background, description, and status...

  8. [Biological agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Koichi

    2009-03-01

    There are two types of biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Among the latter, etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of soluble TNF receptor and IgG was approved in 2005 in Japan. The post-marketing surveillance of 13,894 RA patients revealed the efficacy and safety profiles of etanercept in the Japanese population, as well as overseas studies. Abatacept, a recombinant fusion protein of CTLA4 and IgG, is another biological agent for RA. Two clinical trials disclosed the efficacy of abatacept for difficult-to-treat patients: the AIM for MTX-resistant cases and the ATTAIN for patients who are resistant to anti-TNF. The ATTEST trial suggested abatacept might have more acceptable safety profile than infliximab. These biologics are also promising for the treatment of RA for not only relieving clinical symptoms and signs but retarding structural damage.

  9. Biological preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P [Albuquerque, NM; Bunker, Bruce C [Albuquerque, NM; Huber, Dale L [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  10. Inference problems in structural biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Simon

    The structure and dynamics of biological molecules are essential for their function. Consequently, a wealth of experimental techniques have been developed to study these features. However, while experiments yield detailed information about geometrical features of molecules, this information is of...

  11. PAC research in biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chain, C. Y., E-mail: yamil@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP (Argentina); Ceolin, M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas, Dto de Quimica, Fac. Cs. Exactas, UNLP (Argentina); Pasquevich, A. F. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP (Argentina)

    2008-01-15

    In this paper possible applications of the Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC) technique in Biology are considered. Previous PAC experiments in biology are globally analyzed. All the work that appears in the literature has been grouped in a few research lines, just to make the analysis and discussion easy. The commonly used radioactive probes are listed and the experimental difficulties are analyzed. We also report applications of {sup 181}Hf and {sup 111}In isotopes in life sciences other than their use in PAC. The possibility of extending these studies using the PAC technique is discussed.

  12. Electron transport through supported biomembranes at the nanoscale by conductive atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casuso, I; Fumagalli, L; Samitier, J; Padros, E; Reggiani, L; Akimov, V; Gomila, G

    2007-01-01

    We present a reliable methodology to perform electron transport measurements at the nanoscale on supported biomembranes by conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM). It allows measurement of both (a) non-destructive conductive maps and (b) force controlled current-voltage characteristics in wide voltage bias range in a reproducible way. Tests experiments were performed on purple membrane monolayers, a two-dimensional (2D) crystal lattice of the transmembrane protein bacteriorhodopsin. Non-destructive conductive images show uniform conductivity of the membrane with isolated nanometric conduction defects. Current-voltage characteristics under different compression conditions show non-resonant tunneling electron transport properties, with two different conduction regimes as a function of the applied bias, in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. This methodology opens the possibility for a detailed study of electron transport properties of supported biological membranes, and of soft materials in general

  13. Electron transport through supported biomembranes at the nanoscale by conductive atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casuso, I [Department Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona and Laboratori de Nanobioenginyeria-IBEC, Parc CientIfic de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Fumagalli, L [Department Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona and Laboratori de Nanobioenginyeria-IBEC, Parc CientIfic de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Samitier, J [Department Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona and Laboratori de Nanobioenginyeria-IBEC, Parc CientIfic de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Padros, E [Unitat de BiofIsica, Departamento de BioquImica i de Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Medicina i Centre d' Estudis en BiofIsica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Reggiani, L [CNR-INFM National Nanotechnology Laboratory, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Universita di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Akimov, V [CNR-INFM National Nanotechnology Laboratory, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Universita di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Gomila, G [Department Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona and Laboratori de Nanobioenginyeria-IBEC, Parc CientIfic de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-11-21

    We present a reliable methodology to perform electron transport measurements at the nanoscale on supported biomembranes by conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM). It allows measurement of both (a) non-destructive conductive maps and (b) force controlled current-voltage characteristics in wide voltage bias range in a reproducible way. Tests experiments were performed on purple membrane monolayers, a two-dimensional (2D) crystal lattice of the transmembrane protein bacteriorhodopsin. Non-destructive conductive images show uniform conductivity of the membrane with isolated nanometric conduction defects. Current-voltage characteristics under different compression conditions show non-resonant tunneling electron transport properties, with two different conduction regimes as a function of the applied bias, in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. This methodology opens the possibility for a detailed study of electron transport properties of supported biological membranes, and of soft materials in general.

  14. Managing biological diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    viewing issues across biological, spatial, and temporal scales (Knopf and Smith 1992), natural resource managers find much conflicting information in the literature on strategies and programs for the conservation of biological diversity (Ehrlich 1992). Moreover, recommendations provided in much of the published information available for planning or decisions not only can be debated but may prove counterproductive if implemented. Current operational efforts beg for clearer focus on fundamental concepts central to daily decisions that impact native biological diversity. Recognizing that many biologists would provide different council and at the risk of oversimplification, we offer the following 4 topical issues as fundamental guidance to wise conservation action. These recommendations are based on our collective experiences working within conservation agencies since our original, collaborative essay (Samson and Knopf 1982). They are offered as initial, rather than authoritative, steps to better align research and management decisions with what we perceive as the critical issues in conserving biological diversity at the landscape and ecosystem levels of resolution.

  15. Early-warning process/control for anaerobic digestion and biological nitrogen transformation processes: Batch, semi-continuous, and/or chemostat experiments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, R. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1992-09-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and test an early-warning/process control model for anaerobic sludge digestion (AD). The approach was to use batch and semi-continuously fed systems and to assemble system parameter data on a real-time basis. Specific goals were to produce a real-time early warning control model and computer code, tested for internal and external validity; to determine the minimum rate of data collection for maximum lag time to predict failure with a prescribed accuracy and confidence in the prediction; and to determine and characterize any trends in the real-time data collected in response to particular perturbations to feedstock quality. Trends in the response of trace gases carbon monoxide and hydrogen in batch experiments, were found to depend on toxicant type. For example, these trace gases respond differently for organic substances vs. heavy metals. In both batch and semi-continuously feed experiments, increased organic loading lead to proportionate increases in gas production rates as well as increases in CO and H{sub 2} concentration. An analysis of variance of gas parameters confirmed that CO was the most sensitive indicator variable by virtue of its relatively larger variance compared to the others. The other parameters evaluated including gas production, methane production, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane concentration. In addition, a relationship was hypothesized between gaseous CO concentration and acetate concentrations in the digester. The data from semicontinuous feed experiments were supportive.

  16. The experience of biology, agriculture and health students at the Universidade Católica Dom Bosco regarding the use of animals in class practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Odalia Rímoli

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The controversy arising in connection with the use of animals in practical classes has led to serious ethical discussions at universities in Brazil and around the world. In most cases, the students themselves who feel obliged to perform acts that are against their principles initiate these discussions. The above context motivated this research, which was carried out by means of a questionnaire distributed to one hundred students enrolled in biological, health and agricultural sciences at UCDB in Campo Grande, MS. The main objective was to analyze the students' opinions regarding this problem. It was noted that in general students did not know of any teaching materials that could be used as an alternative to the use of animals. Most of them (X = 85.8 ± 9.7 would prefer not to use animals in practical classes, mainly that are phylogenetically close to humans (mammals, if alternative methods were effective or available. Moreover, it was noted that most students (X = 65.7 ± 24.7 are worried about the controversy provoked by this matter, considering that many believe that this practice is fundamental for their profession and that the university should offer alternatives to those who are against the use of animals.

  17. $^{204m}$Pb: A new Probe for TDPAC Experiments in Biology Complementing the Well Established Probes $^{111}$Cd and $^{199m}$Hg

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The short-lived nuclear probes $\\,^{111m}$Cd( t$_{1/2}$ = 49 min) , $^{199m}$Hg ( t$_{1/2}$ = 43 min) , and $^{204m}$Pb( t$_{1/2}$ = 43 min) supplied by ISOLDE are used to study the interaction of metals with biological macromolecules like, e.g., DNA and proteins. The structure and dynamics of metal sites in biomolecules are important in determining the functional efficiency of these macromolecules. Many life processes are based on such interactions. In order to study those metal sites close to physiological conditions a highly sensitive spectroscopic method is required, like Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation (TDPAC). Here, a radioactive atom is placed at the site of interest and by correlating the emitted $\\gamma$-quanta in space and on a nanosecond time scale local structural information is provided via the Nuclear Quadrupole Interaction. These investigations will allow a deeper insight into the adaptivity and rigidity of metal sites in the blue copper proteins (electron transfer proteins), th...

  18. Nerve conduction velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003927.htm Nerve conduction velocity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see ...

  19. Conducting Polymeric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The overall objective of this collection is to provide the most recent developments within the various areas of conducting polymeric materials. The conductivity of polymeric materials is caused by electrically charged particles, ions, protons and electrons. Materials in which electrons...

  20. Environmental biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschumi, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Environmental biology illustrates the functioning of ecosystems and the dynamics of populations with many examples from limnology and terrestrial ecology. On this basis, present environmental problems are analyzed. The present environmental crisis is seen as a result of the failure to observe ecological laws. (orig.) [de

  1. Biological timekeeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lloyd, David

    2016-01-01

    , the networks that connect differenttime domains and the oscillations, rhythms and biological clocks that coordinate andsynchronise the complexity of the living state.“It is the pattern maintained by this homeostasis, which is the touchstone ofour personal identity. Our tissues change as we live: the food we...

  2. Scaffolded biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  3. Biological digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the biological degradation of non-radioactive organic material occurring in radioactive wastes. The biochemical steps are often performed using microbes or isolated enzymes in combination with chemical steps and the aim is to oxidise the carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur to their respective oxides. (U.K.)

  4. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  5. Biological effectiveness of antiproton annihilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzscheiter, M.H.; Agazaryan, N.; Bassler, Niels

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment designed to determine whether or not the densely ionizing particles emanating from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in ‘‘biological dose’’ in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct...... measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The experiment has been approved by the CERN Research Board for running at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) as AD-4/ACE (Antiproton Cell Experiment) and has begun data taking in June of 2003. The background, description and the current...

  6. Currents, pressure, temperature, conductivity, salinity, and attenuation data collected from moorings during the Lydonia Canyon Dynamics Experiment deployed from platforms OCEANUS, LULU, and WHITEFOOT from October 24, 1980 to November 11, 1982 (NCEI Accession 0054154)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A major field experiment to determine the importance of submarine canyons in sediment transport along and across the continental margin. The experiment included...

  7. Professional equity as reported by biology teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Claudia B.; Lakes Matyas, Marsha; Butler Kahle, Jane

    In 1982, the National Association of Biology Teachers surveyed its membership in order to assess the role and status of women in biology education. Items describing roles, salaries, assignments, professional activities, and sexual bias were included in the survey. This paper compares the responses of male and female biology educators, draws conclusions from the data, and suggests implications for the science education profession. Inequality in several professional areas was revealed. More women than men were single and reported no dependent children. Women exceeded men in both the lower and upper ends of the distribution of years of experience. However, the percentage of men exceeded that of women in most salary brackets beyond $20,000 and more men reported paid consulting opportunities. Men tended to teach at larger institutions and, at all academic levels, more men taught advanced classes. More men than women were involved with research activities. However, neither sex felt that the other one received preferential treatment in regard to salary and promotion. The majority of education administrators as well as science and biology faculties were male. However, the recent influx of women into science education positions may produce important changes. It is recommended that a comparative study be conducted in five years.

  8. Excited states in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cilento, G.; Zinner, K.; Bechara, E.J.H.; Duran, N.; Baptista, R.C. de; Shimizu, Y.; Augusto, O.; Faljoni-Alario, A.; Vidigal, C.C.C.; Oliveira, O.M.M.F.; Haun, M.

    1979-01-01

    Some aspects of bioluminescence related to bioenergetics are discussed: 1. chemical generation of excited species, by means of two general processes: electron transference and cyclic - and linear peroxide cleavage; 2. biological systems capable of generating excited states and 3. biological functions of these states, specially the non-emissive ones (tripletes). The production and the role of non-emissive excited states in biological systems are analysed, the main purpose of the study being the search for non-emissive states. Experiences carried out in biological systems are described; results and conclusions are given. (M.A.) [pt

  9. Calibration-free electrical conductivity measurements for highly conductive slags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, Christopher J.; Gao, Huang; Pal, Uday B.; Van den Avyle, James A.; Melgaard, David K.

    2000-01-01

    This research involves the measurement of the electrical conductivity (K) for the ESR (electroslag remelting) slag (60 wt.% CaF 2 - 20 wt.% CaO - 20 wt.% Al 2 O 3 ) used in the decontamination of radioactive stainless steel. The electrical conductivity is measured with an improved high-accuracy-height-differential technique that requires no calibration. This method consists of making continuous AC impedance measurements over several successive depth increments of the coaxial cylindrical electrodes in the ESR slag. The electrical conductivity is then calculated from the slope of the plot of inverse impedance versus the depth of the electrodes in the slag. The improvements on the existing technique include an increased electrochemical cell geometry and the capability of measuring high precision depth increments and the associated impedances. These improvements allow this technique to be used for measuring the electrical conductivity of highly conductive slags such as the ESR slag. The volatilization rate and the volatile species of the ESR slag measured through thermogravimetric (TG) and mass spectroscopy analysis, respectively, reveal that the ESR slag composition essentially remains the same throughout the electrical conductivity experiments

  10. Electrically conductive composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Roger L.; Sylwester, Alan P.

    1989-01-01

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  11. Advancing the education in molecular diagnostics: the IFCC-Initiative "Clinical Molecular Biology Curriculum" (C-CMBC); a ten-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lianidou, Evi; Ahmad-Nejad, Parviz; Ferreira-Gonzalez, Andrea; Izuhara, Kenji; Cremonesi, Laura; Schroeder, Maria-Eugenia; Richter, Karin; Ferrari, Maurizio; Neumaier, Michael

    2014-09-25

    Molecular techniques are becoming commonplace in the diagnostic laboratory. Their applications influence all major phases of laboratory medicine including predisposition/genetic risk, primary diagnosis, therapy stratification and prognosis. Readily available laboratory hardware and wetware (i.e. consumables and reagents) foster rapid dissemination to countries that are just establishing molecular testing programs. Appropriate skill levels extending beyond the technical procedure are required for analytical and diagnostic proficiency that is mandatory in molecular genetic testing. An international committee (C-CMBC) of the International Federation for Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) was established to disseminate skills in molecular genetic testing in member countries embarking on the respective techniques. We report the ten-year experience with different teaching and workshop formats for beginners in molecular diagnostics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Patients receiving anti-TNF therapies experience clinically important improvements in RA-related fatigue: results from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register for Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Katie L; Jones, Gareth T; Macfarlane, Gary J; Basu, Neil

    2015-06-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α are important in the pathogenesis of fatigue in conditions such as RA. This study aimed to determine whether fatigue improved in a cohort of RA patients with clinically relevant fatigue commencing anti-TNF-α therapy and, if so, to identify predictors of improvement. Participants recruited to a long-term observational cohort study (the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register for RA) provided information on fatigue using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) vitality subscale. The prevalence of severe baseline fatigue (SF-36 vitality ≤12.5) was calculated and improvements, considered as (i) absolute values and (ii) improvement from severe to non-severe fatigue (SF-36 vitality >12.5), were examined 6 months subsequently. A comprehensive set of putative predictors of fatigue improvement were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. In 6835 participants the prevalence of severe baseline fatigue was 38.8%. Of those with severe fatigue, 70% reported clinically relevant improvement and 66% moved to the non-severe fatigue category (i.e. improvers). The mean change for improvers was three times the minimum clinically important difference for improvement (33.0 U). Independent baseline predictors of improvement were female sex [odds ratio (OR) 1.3 (95% CI 1.1, 1.7)], not being unemployed due to ill health [OR 1.5 (95% CI 1.2, 1.7)], low disability [OR 1.2 (95% CI 1.001, 1.5)], seropositivity [OR 1.2 (95% CI 0.98, 1.4)], not using steroids [OR 1.2 (95% CI 1.03, 1.5)], no history of hypertension [OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.1, 1.6)] or depression [OR 1.3 (95% CI 1.1, 1.5)] and good mental health [SF-36 mental health subscale >35; OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.2, 1.7)]. Fatigued RA patients reported substantial improvement in their fatigue after commencing anti-TNF-α therapy. Further, a number of clinical and psychosocial baseline factors identified those most likely to improve, supporting future stratified approaches to RA

  13. Biological radioprotector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu; Haulica, Ion; Bild, Walther

    2002-01-01

    According to the patent description, the biological radioprotector is deuterium depleted water, DDW, produced by vacuum distillation with an isotopic content lower than natural value. It appears as such or in a mixture with natural water and carbon dioxide. It can be used for preventing and reducing the ionizing radiation effects upon humans or animal organisms, exposed therapeutically, professionally or accidentally to radiation. The most significant advantage of using DDW as biological radioprotector results from its way of administration. Indeed no one of the radioprotectors currently used today can be orally administrated, what reduces the patients' compliance to prophylactic administrations. The biological radioprotector is an unnoxious product obtained from natural water, which can be administrated as food additive instead of drinking water. Dose modification factor is according to initial estimates around 1.9, what is a remarkable feature when one takes into account that the product is toxicity-free and side effect-free and can be administrated prophylactically as a food additive. A net radioprotective action of the deuterium depletion was evidenced experimentally in laboratory animals (rats) hydrated with DDW of 30 ppm D/(D+H) concentration as compared with normally hydrated control animals. Knowing the effects of irradiation and mechanisms of the acute radiation disease as well as the effects of administration of radiomimetic chemicals upon cellular lines of fast cell division, it appears that the effects of administrating DDW result from stimulation of the immunity system. In conclusion, the biological radioprotector DDW presents the following advantages: - it is obtained from natural products without toxicity; - it is easy to be administrated as a food additive, replacing the drinking water; - besides radioprotective effects, the product has also immunostimulative and antitumoral effects

  14. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  15. Paradigms for biologically inspired design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, T. A.; Metzea, A.-L.; Hesselberg, T.

    2018-01-01

    engineering, medical engineering, nanotechnology, photonics,environmental protection and agriculture. However, a major obstacle for the wider use of biologically inspired design isthe knowledge barrier that exist between the application engineers that have insight into how to design suitable productsand......Biologically inspired design is attracting increasing interest since it offers access to a huge biological repository of wellproven design principles that can be used for developing new and innovative products. Biological phenomena can inspireproduct innovation in as diverse areas as mechanical...... the biologists with detailed knowledge and experience in understanding how biological organisms function in theirenvironment. The biologically inspired design process can therefore be approached using different design paradigmsdepending on the dominant opportunities, challenges and knowledge characteristics...

  16. Graphene Conductance Uniformity Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a combination of micro four-point probe (M4PP) and non-contact terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) measurements for centimeter scale quantitative mapping of the sheet conductance of large area chemical vapor deposited graphene films. Dual configuration M4PP measurements......, demonstrated on graphene for the first time, provide valuable statistical insight into the influence of microscale defects on the conductance, while THz-TDS has potential as a fast, non-contact metrology method for mapping of the spatially averaged nanoscopic conductance on wafer-scale graphene with scan times......, dominating the microscale conductance of the investigated graphene film....

  17. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  18. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Structural Biology Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version (688 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is structural biology? Structural biology is the study of how biological ...

  19. Technology to prevent deposition of marine organisms by means of electrically conductive coating. Discussions on current and potential distribution by using experiments; Doden tomaku ni yoru kaiyo seibutsu fuchaku boshi gijutsu. Denryu den`i bunpu ni kansuru jikken ni yoru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, M; Masaki, T [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ueda, K

    1996-04-10

    Steel structures in sea water and surface of hulls are deposited with such marine organisms as microorganisms, algae and shellfish. The deposition causes a large problem such as occurrence of abnormal local corrosion in the structures, and increase in cruising resistance in ocean vessels. The present study has introduced a simplified equation of estimation for current and potential distribution in parts coated with an electrically conductive film, and verified its reasonability by an experiment. The equation of estimation was introduced by following a model of current flow in the electrically conductive coating. The experiment has the conductive coating applied to the interior of a concrete water tank with a length of 10.8 m, a width of 5 m and a depth of 3 m to measure potential at different locations. The conductive coating was energized from copper foils attached on each applied face, whereas the current was applied to two faces between the conductive films as a pair among the four coating applied faces to measure potential in each location. A simulated calculation revealed that the potential range in the depth direction is made smaller if specific resistance of the conductive film is decreased, and made greater if increased. Effectiveness of the equation of estimation was verified by an experiment. This method has provided a prospect of achieving optimization of the specification for application of the conductive film. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Spatial distribution of meteorological parameters around 900 hPa level over the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean regions during the IFP-99 of the INDOEX programme as revealed from the constant altitude balloon experiments conducted from Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Appu, K.S.; Nair, S.M.; Kunhikrishnan, P.K.; Moorthy, K.K.; Sarode, P.R.; Rao, L.V.G.; Bajpai, S.R.; Prakash, L.H.; Viswanathan, G.; Mitra, A.P.; Sadourny, R.; Basdevant, C.; Ethe, C.; Ovarlez, H.; Chapuis, R.; Dartiguelongue, B.; Vianeys, P.

    of the payload Operational life Electric power Helium ~ 900 hPa 100?5hPa 1350?20g ~3kg ~3kg Several days to a week Lithium batteries INDIAN OCEAN EXPERIMENT duct such experiments as was demonstrated from the balloon flights carried out during the FFP-98...

  1. Complex conductivity of soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.; Florsch, N.; Fabricus, I.L.; Deng, Y.; Delsman, J.R.; Pauw, P.S.; Karaoulis, M.; Louw, P.G.B. de; Baaren, E.S. van; Dabekaussen, W.; Menkovic, A.; Gunnink, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    The complex conductivity of soils remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hydrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including four peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hz

  2. Conducting polymer hydrogels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 269-291 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : aerogel * conducting polymers * conductivity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  3. Biologically mediated dissolution of volcanic glass in seawater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staudigel, H; Yayanos, A; Chastain, R; Davies, G.T.; Verdurmen, E.A Th; Schiffmann, P; Bourcier, R; de Baar, H.J.W.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the effects of biological mediation on the dissolution of basaltic glass in seawater. Experiments with typical seawater microbial populations were contrasted with a sterile control, and reactions were monitored chemically and isotopically. Biologically mediated experiments produce twice

  4. Conductivities from attractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmenger, Johanna [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Fernández, Daniel [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, 107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Goulart, Prieslei [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista,R. Dr. Bento T. Ferraz 271, Bl. II, São Paulo 01140-070, SP (Brazil); Witkowski, Piotr [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany)

    2017-03-28

    In the context of applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence to condensed matter physics, we compute conductivities for field theory duals of dyonic planar black holes in 3+1-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories at zero temperature. We combine the near-horizon data obtained via Sen’s entropy function formalism with known expressions for conductivities. In this way we express the conductivities in terms of the extremal black hole charges. We apply our approach to three different examples for dilaton theories for which the background geometry is not known explicitly. For a constant scalar potential, the thermoelectric conductivity explicitly scales as α{sub xy}∼N{sup 3/2}, as expected. For the same model, our approach yields a finite result for the heat conductivity κ/T∝N{sup 3/2} even for T→0.

  5. Thermal conductivity of technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, K.; Serizawa, H.; Fukuda, K.

    1998-01-01

    The thermal diffusivity of technetium was measured on a disk sample of 5 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness by the laser flash method from room temperature to 1173 K, and the thermal conductivity was determined by the measured thermal diffusivity and density, and the reported specific heat capacity. The thermal diffusivity of technetium decreases with increasing temperature though it is almost constant above 600 K. The thermal conductivity of technetium shows a minimum around 400 K, above which the thermal conductivity increases with temperature. The electronic and phonon components of the thermal conductivity were evaluated approximately. The increase in the thermal conductivity of technetium with temperature is due to the increase in the electronic component. (orig.)

  6. Biology Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, W F

    1974-12-31

    Progress is reported on the following studies in biochemistry and molecular biology: study of long pyrimidine polynucleotides in DNA; isolation of thymine dimers from Schizosaccharomyces pombe; thermal stability of high molecular weight RNA; nucleases of Micrococcus radiodurans; effect of ionizing radiation on M. radiodurans cell walls and cell membranes; chemical modification of nucleotides; exonucleases of M. radiodurans; and enzymatic basis of repair of radioinduced damage in M. radiodurans. Genetics, development, and population studies include repair pathways and mutation induction in yeast; induction of pure mutant clones in yeast; radiosensitivity of bacteriophage T4; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bacteriophage T4; radiation genetics of Dahibominus; and radiation studies on bitting flies. (HLW)

  7. The Relationships Between Epistemic Beliefs in Biology and Approaches to Learning Biology Among Biology-Major University Students in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chun; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between students' epistemic beliefs in biology and their approaches to learning biology. To this end, two instruments, the epistemic beliefs in biology and the approaches to learning biology surveys, were developed and administered to 520 university biology students, respectively. By and large, it was found that the students reflected "mixed" motives in biology learning, while those who had more sophisticated epistemic beliefs tended to employ deep strategies. In addition, the results of paired t tests revealed that the female students were more likely to possess beliefs about biological knowledge residing in external authorities, to believe in a right answer, and to utilize rote learning as a learning strategy. Moreover, compared to juniors and seniors, freshmen and sophomores tended to hold less mature views on all factors of epistemic beliefs regarding biology. Another comparison indicated that theoretical biology students (e.g. students majoring in the Department of Biology) tended to have more mature beliefs in learning biology and more advanced strategies for biology learning than those students studying applied biology (e.g. in the Department of Biotechnology). Stepwise regression analysis, in general, indicated that students who valued the role of experiments and justify epistemic assumptions and knowledge claims based on evidence were more oriented towards having mixed motives and utilizing deep strategies to learn biology. In contrast, students who believed in the certainty of biological knowledge were more likely to adopt rote learning strategies and to aim to qualify in biology.

  8. Doctoral conceptual thresholds in cellular and molecular biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldon, David F.; Rates, Christopher; Sun, Chongning

    2017-12-01

    In the biological sciences, very little is known about the mechanisms by which doctoral students acquire the skills they need to become independent scientists. In the postsecondary biology education literature, identification of specific skills and effective methods for helping students to acquire them are limited to undergraduate education. To establish a foundation from which to investigate the developmental trajectory of biologists' research skills, it is necessary to identify those skills which are integral to doctoral study and distinct from skills acquired earlier in students' educational pathways. In this context, the current study engages the framework of threshold concepts to identify candidate skills that are both obstacles and significant opportunities for developing proficiency in conducting research. Such threshold concepts are typically characterised as transformative, integrative, irreversible, and challenging. The results from interviews and focus groups with current and former doctoral students in cellular and molecular biology suggest two such threshold concepts relevant to their subfield: the first is an ability to effectively engage primary research literature from the biological sciences in a way that is critical without dismissing the value of its contributions. The second is the ability to conceptualise appropriate control conditions necessary to design and interpret the results of experiments in an efficient and effective manner for research in the biological sciences as a discipline. Implications for prioritising and sequencing graduate training experiences are discussed on the basis of the identified thresholds.

  9. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  10. Biological Control of Bacterial Wilt in South East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triwidodo Arwiyanto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum destroys many crops of different plant families in South East Asia despite many researches about the disease, and the availability of developed control method in other parts of the world. There is no chemical available for the bacterial wilt pathogen and biological control is then chosen as an alternative to save the crops. Most of the biological control studies were based on antagonism between biological control agent and the pathogen. The biological control agents were intended to reduce the initial inoculum of the pathogen. The effort to minimize the initial inoculum of the pathogen by baiting with the use of hypersensitive host-plant was only reliable when conducted in the greenhouse experiments. Various microorganisms have been searched as possible biological control agents, for instance avirulent form of the pathogen, soil or rhizosphere bacteria (Bacillus spp. and fluorescent pseudomonads, actinomycetes (Streptomyces spp., yeast (Pichia uillermondii, Candida ethanolica, and a consortium of microorganisms known as effective microorganisms (EM. None of these biological control agents has been used in field application and they need further investigation in order to effectively control bacterial wilt. Opportunities and challenges in developing biological control to combat bacterial wilt are discussed in the paper. Penyakit layu bakteri yang disebabkan oleh Ralstonia solanacearum menghancurkan banyak tanaman dalam famili yang berbeda di Asia Tenggara meskipun telah banyak penelitian tentang metode pengendaliannya. Penyakit ini sulit dikendalikan karena banyaknya variabilitas patogen dan belum tersedianya sumber ketahanan yang mapan. Di samping itu, sampai saat ini belum ada bahan kimia yang tersedia untuk patogen layu bakteri ini sehingga pengendalian biologi kemudian dipilih sebagai cara alternatif untuk menyelamatkan tanaman. Sebagian besar penelitian pengendalian biologi didasarkan

  11. Measurement of thermal conductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.

    1977-01-01

    The 6-m long, 45-kG, warm-iron superconducting magnets envisioned for the Energy Doubler stage of the Fermilab accelerator require stiff supports with minimized thermal conductances in order to keep the refrigeration power reasonable. The large number of supports involved in the system required a careful study of their heat conduction from the room temperature wall to the intercepting refrigeration at 20 0 K and to the liquid helium. For this purpose the thermal conductance of this support was measured by comparing it with the thermal conductance of a copper strap of known geometry. An association of steady-state thermal analysis and experimental thermal conductivity techniques forms the basis of this method. An important advantage is the automatic simulation of the 20 0 K refrigeration intercept by the copper strap, which simplifies the apparatus considerably. This relative resistance technique, which uses electrical analogy as a guideline, is applicable with no restrictions for materials with temperature-independent thermal conductivity. For other materials the results obtained are functions of the specific temperature interval involved in the measurements. A comprehensive review of the literature on thermal conductivity indicates that this approach has not been used before. A demonstration of its self-consistency is stressed here rather than results obtained for different supports

  12. Multivalent ion conducting solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanaka, N. [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2008-07-01

    Solid electrolytes possess important characteristics for industrial applications. Only a single ionic species can macroscopically migrate in these solids. This paper described a the new NASICON (M-Zr-Nb-P-O) type system, exhibiting an exceptionally high level of trivalent M3+ ion conductivity on polycrystalline solids. The partial substitution of the smaller higher valent Nb5+ ion for Zr4+ stabilized the NASICON phase and realized the M3+ ion conduction in the NASICON structure. It was concluded that the conductivities of the series are comparable to those of the practically applied solid electrolytes of oxide anion conductors of YSZ and CSZ. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Conducting everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Pernille

    , they are involved in preventive interventions. I conducted participatory observations with the children in their everyday life. Overall, the study stresses that even small children must be perceived as active participants who act upon and struggle with different conditions and meaning making processes across......In the paper I discuss how small children (0-4 year) develop through ‘conducting everyday life’ across contexts (Holzkamp 2013). I discuss how this process of conducting everyday life is essential when discussing the ‘good life for children’ from a child perspective. These issues are addressed...... contexts (home, day care, part-time foster family) and in relation to other co-participants....

  14. [Biologics and mycobacterial diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Tomoshige

    2013-03-01

    developing TB. Lastly, Dr. Matsumoto stressed the risk of discontinuing TNF-alpha inhibitor during treatment for tuberculosis. He showed from his clinical experience that TNF-alpha inhibitor can be safely used in active TB patient receiving effective antituberculosis chemotherapy and it is even more effective for prevention of paradoxical response. Active discussion was done about the four topics, including the matter beyond present guidelines. We hope these discussions will form the basis for the establishment of new guideline for the management of mycobacterial disease when using immunosuppressive agents including biologics. 1. The risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) and situations of screening for TB risk at administration of biologics-the case of rheumatoid arthritis: Shigeto TOHMA (Clinical Research Center for Allergy and Rheumatology, National Hospital Organization Sagamihara National Hospital) We calculated the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of TB from the clinical data on National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan (NinJa) and compared with the SIR of TB from the data of the post-marketing surveillances of five biologics. Among 43584 patient-years, forty patients developed TB. The SIR of TB in NinJa was 4.34 (95%CI: 3.00-5.69). According to the post-marketing surveillances of 5 biologics, the SIR of TB were 3.62-34.4. The incidence of TB in patients with RA was higher than general population in Japan, and was increased more by some biologics. We have to recognize the risk of TB when we start biologics therapy to patients with RA. Although the frequency of implementation of QuantiFERON test (QFT) had gradually increased, it was still limited to 41%. In order to predict the risk of developing TB and to prevent TB, it might be better to check all RA patients by QFT at time time of biologics administration. 2. Biologics and nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases: Hitoshi TOKUDA (Social Insurance Central General Hospital) Several topics about the

  15. Electrically conductive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.P.; Bosak, A.L.; McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.

    1993-09-07

    An electrically conductive material is described for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO[sub 2] formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns. 8 figures.

  16. Conductive open frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghi, Omar M.; Wan, Shun; Doonan, Christian J.; Wang, Bo; Deng, Hexiang

    2018-05-22

    The disclosure relates generally to materials that comprise conductive covalent organic frameworks. The disclosure also relates to materials that are useful to store and separate gas molecules and sensors.

  17. Sodium conducting polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    This section deals with the aspects of ionic conduction in general as well as specific experimental results obtained for sodium systems. The conductivity as a function of temperature and oxygen/metal ratio are given for the systems NaI, NaCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ and NaClO/sub 4/ plus polyethylene oxide. Attempts have been made to produce mixed phase solid electrolytes analogous to the lithium systems that have worked well. These consist of mixtures of polymer and a solid electrolyte. The addition of both nasicon and sodium beta alumina unexpectedly decreases the ionic conductivity in contrast to the lithium systems. Addition of the nonconducting silica AEROSIL in order to increase the internal surface area has the effect of retarding the phase transition at 60 deg. C, but does not enhance the conductivity. (author) 23 refs.

  18. Conductive polypropylene composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koszkul, J.

    1997-01-01

    The results of studies on polypropylene composites with three sorts of Polish-made carbon blacks were presented. It was found that composite of 20% black content had properties of an electrically conducting material

  19. Complex conductivity of soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The complex conductivity of soil remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hyrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including 4 peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hertz...... to 45 kHz. The soil samples are saturated with 6 different NaCl brines with conductivities (0.031, 0.53, 1.15, 5.7, 14.7, and 22 S m-1, NaCl, 25°C) in order to determine their intrinsic formation factor and surface conductivity. This dataset is used to test the predictions of the dynamic Stern...

  20. Simulated experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerknes, R.

    1977-01-01

    A cybernetic model has been developed to elucidate some of the main principles of the growth regulation system in the epidermis of the hairless mouse. A number of actual and theoretical biological experiments have been simulated on the model. These included simulating the cell kinetics as measured by pulse labelling with tritiated thymidine and by continuous labelling with tritiated thymidine. Other simulated experiments included steady state, wear and tear, painting with a carcinogen, heredity and heredity and tumour. Numerous diagrams illustrate the results of these simulated experiments. (JIW)

  1. Biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.

    1973-01-01

    Following an introduction into the field of cellular radiation effect considering the most important experimental results, the biological significance of the colony formation ability is brought out. The inactivation concept of stem cells does not only prove to be good, according to the present results, in the interpretation of the pathogenesis of acute radiation effects on moult tissue, it also enables chronicle radiation injuries to be interpreted through changes in the fibrous part of the organs. Radiation therapy of tumours can also be explained to a large extent by the radiation effect on the unlimited reproductiveness of tumour cells. The more or less similar dose effect curves for healthy and tumour tissue in practice lead to intermittent irradiation. The dependence of the intermittent doses and intervals on factors such as Elkind recovery, synchronisation, redistribution, reoxygenation, repopulation and regeneration are reviewed. (ORU/LH) [de

  2. Air conducted and body conducted sound produced by own voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie Østergaard

    1998-01-01

    When we speak, sound reaches our ears both through the air, from the mouth to ear, and through our body, as vibrations. The ratio between the air borne and body conducted sound has been studied in a pilot experiment where the air borne sound was eliminated by isolating the ear with a large...... attenuation box. The ratio was found to lie between -15 dB to -7 dB, below 1 kHz, comparable with theoretical estimations. This work is part of a broader study of the occlusion effect and the results provide important input data for modelling the sound pressure change between an open and an occluded ear canal....

  3. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom materials, including "diet poker" (nutrition game); an experiment on enzyme characteristics; demonstrations of yeast anaerobic respiration and color preference in Calliphora larvae; method to extract eugenol from clove oil to show antibiotic properties; and Benedict's test.…

  4. Electrically Conductive Epoxy Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Bai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Conductive adhesives are widely used in electronic packaging applications such as die attachment and solderless interconnections, component repair, display interconnections, and heat dissipation. The effects of film thickness as functions of filler volume fraction, conductive filler size, shape, as well as uncured adhesive matrix viscosity on the electrical conduction behavior of epoxy-based adhesives are presented in this work. For this purpose, epoxy-based adhesives were prepared using conductive fillers of different size, shape, and types, including Ni powder, flakes, and filaments, Ag powder, and Cu powder. The filaments were 20 μm in diameter, and 160 or 260 μm in length. HCl and H3PO4 acid solutions were used to etch and remove the surface oxide layers from the fillers. The plane resistance of filled adhesive films was measured using the four-point method. In all cases of conductive filler addition, the planar resistivity levels for the composite adhesive films increased when the film thickness was reduced. The shape of resistivity-thickness curves was negative exponential decaying type and was modeled using a mathematical relation. The relationships between the conductive film resistivities and the filler volume fractions were also derived mathematically based on the experimental data. Thus, the effects of surface treatment of filler particles, the type, size, shape of fillers, and the uncured epoxy viscosity could be included empirically by using these mathematical relations based on the experimental data. By utilizing the relations we proposed to model thickness-dependent and volume fraction-dependent conduction behaviors separately, we were able to describe the combined and coupled volume fraction-film thickness relationship mathematically based on our experimental data.

  5. Fluid conductivity sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, F. M.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for sensing the electrical conductivity of fluid which can be used to detonate an electro explosive device for operating a release mechanism for uncoupling a parachute canopy from its load upon landing in water. An operating network connected to an ignition capacitor and to a conductivity sensing circuit and connected in controlling relation to a semiconductor switch has a voltage independent portion which controls the time at which the semiconductor switch is closed to define a discharge path to detonate the electro explosive device independent of the rate of voltage rise on the ignition capacitor. The operating network also has a voltage dependent portion which when a voltage of predetermined magnitude is developed on the conductivity sensing circuit in response to fluid not having the predetermined condition of conductivity, the voltage dependent portion closes the semiconductor switch to define the discharge path when the energy level is insufficient to detonate the electro explosive device. A regulated current source is connected in relation to the conductivity sensing circuit and to the electrodes thereof in a manner placing the circuit voltage across the electrodes when the conductivity of the fluid is below a predetermined magnitude so that the sensing circuit does not respond thereto and placing the circuit voltage across the sensing circuit when the conductivity of the fluid is greater than a predetermined magnitude. The apparatus is operated from a battery, and the electrodes are of dissimilar metals so selected and connected relative to the polarity portions of the circuit to maximize utilization of the battery output voltage

  6. Review paper Personality and genes: remarks from a biological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Węgrzyn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although there is no doubt that genes’ functions influence human personality, years of studies provided no clear picture on regulation of particular traits by specific genes. In this article, an overview of the complexity of the system of genetic control of personality is presented, and the level of complications of biological processes operating in this system is underlined. The methodology of studies devoted to determine effects of genes on personality traits is discussed, and limitations of various methods in such studies are indicated. Finally, suggestions for further research are listed and commented on. It is likely that to increase the level of our understanding of genetic mechanisms that modulate human personality, researchers conducting further studies will have to focus on using large sample sizes, performing independent replications, considering experiments on animal models, integrating cross-cultural data and epigenetic measures, and performing interdisciplinary experiments which combine methods of various disciplines, such as biology and psychology.

  7. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  8. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  9. MY 20 YEARS EXPERIENCE IN CONDUCTING ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH STUDIES IN CHINA: (1) STUDIES ON LUNG CANCER AND INDOOR AIR POLLUTION IN YUNNAN AND (2) HEALTH EFFECTS OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a research health scientist at U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, I have been very fortunate to have opportunities to work as a principal investigator for two major environmental health research projects. The first study was conducted in 1983-1996 under a formal U.S.-China ...

  10. Transparent conducting oxide nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivov, Yahya; Singh, Vivek; Ding, Yuchen; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-09-01

    Thin film or porous membranes made of hollow, transparent, conducting oxide (TCO) nanotubes, with high chemical stability, functionalized surfaces and large surface areas, can provide an excellent platform for a wide variety of nanostructured photovoltaic, photodetector, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic devices. While large-bandgap oxide semiconductors offer transparency for incident light (below their nominal bandgap), their low carrier concentration and poor conductivity makes them unsuitable for charge conduction. Moreover, materials with high conductivity have nominally low bandgaps and hence poor light transmittance. Here, we demonstrate thin films and membranes made from TiO2 nanotubes heavily-doped with shallow Niobium (Nb) donors (up to 10%, without phase segregation), using a modified electrochemical anodization process, to fabricate transparent conducting hollow nanotubes. Temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics revealed that TiO2 TCO nanotubes, doped with 10% Nb, show metal-like behavior with resistivity decreasing from 6.5 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 300 K (compared to 6.5 × 10-1 Ωcm for nominally undoped nanotubes) to 2.2 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 20 K. Optical properties, studied by reflectance measurements, showed light transmittance up to 90%, within wavelength range 400 nm-1000 nm. Nb doping also improves the field emission properties of TCO nanotubes demonstrating an order of magnitude increase in field-emitter current, compared to undoped samples.

  11. Low thermal conductivity skutterudites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleurial, J P; Caillat, T; Borshchevsky, A

    1997-07-01

    Recent experimental results on semiconductors with the skutterudite crystal structure show that these materials possess attractive transport properties and have a good potential for achieving ZT values substantially larger than for state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. Both n-type and p-type conductivity samples have been obtained, using several preparation techniques. Associated with a low hole effective mass, very high carrier mobilities, low electrical resistivities and moderate Seebeck coefficients are obtained in p-type skutterudites. For a comparable doping level, the carrier mobilities of n-type samples are about an order of magnitude lower than the values achieved on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients make n-type skutterudite promising candidates as well. Unfortunately, the thermal conductivities of the binary skutterudites compounds are too large, particularly at low temperatures, to be useful for thermoelectric applications. Several approaches to the reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity in skutterudites are being pursued: heavy doping, formation of solid solutions and alloys, study of novel ternary and filled skutterudite compounds. All those approaches have already resulted in skutterudite compositions with substantially lower thermal conductivity values in these materials. Recently, superior thermoelectric properties in the moderate to high temperature range were achieved for compositions combining alloying and filling of the skutterudite structure. Experimental results and mechanisms responsible for low thermal conductivity in skutterudites are discussed.

  12. Capacitive Structures for Gas and Biological Sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Sapsanis, Christos

    2015-04-01

    The semiconductor industry was benefited by the advances in technology in the last decades. This fact has an impact on the sensors field, where the simple transducer was evolved into smart miniaturized multi-functional microsystems. However, commercially available gas and biological sensors are mostly bulky, expensive, and power-hungry, which act as obstacles to mass use. The aim of this work is gas and biological sensing using capacitive structures. Capacitive sensors were selected due to its design simplicity, low fabrication cost, and no DC power consumption. In the first part, the dominant structure among interdigitated electrodes (IDEs), fractal curves (Peano and Hilbert) and Archimedean spiral was investigated from capacitance density perspective. The investigation consists of geometrical formula calculations, COMSOL Multiphysics simulations and cleanroom fabrication of the capacitors on a silicon substrate. Moreover, low-cost fabrication on flexible plastic PET substrate was conducted outside cleanroom with rapid prototyping using a maskless laser etching. The second part contains the humidity, Volatile Organic compounds (VOCs) and Ammonia sensing of polymers, Polyimide and Nafion, and metal-organic framework (MOF), Cu(bdc)2.xH2O using IDEs and tested in an automated gas setup for experiment control and data extraction. The last part includes the biological sensing of C - reactive protein (CRP) quantification, which is considered as a biomarker of being prone to cardiac diseases and Bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein quantification, which is used as a reference for quantifying unknown proteins.

  13. CASPIAN BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Guseynov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We present the data on the biological resources of the Caspian Sea, based on the analysis of numerous scientific sources published between years of 1965 and 2011. Due to changes in various biotic and abiotic factors we find it important to discuss the state of the major groups of aquatic biocenosis including algae, crayfish, shrimp, pontogammarus, fish and Caspian seal. Methods. Long-term data has been analyzed on the biology and ecology of the main commercial fish stocks and their projected catches for qualitative and quantitative composition, abundance and biomass of aquatic organisms that make up the food base for fish. Results and discussion. It has been found that the widespread commercial invertebrates in the Caspian Sea are still poorly studied; their stocks are not identified and not used commercially. There is a great concern about the current state of the main commercial fish stocks of the Caspian Sea. A critical challenge is to preserve the pool of biological resources and the restoration of commercial stocks of Caspian fish. For more information about the state of the marine ecosystem in modern conditions, expedition on Caspian Sea should be carried out to study the hydrochemical regime and fish stocks, assessment of sturgeon stocks, as well as the need to conduct sonar survey for sprat stocks. Conclusions. The main condition for preserving the ecosystem of the Caspian Sea and its unique biological resources is to develop and apply environmentally-friendly methods of oil, issuing concerted common fisheries rules in various regions of theCaspian Sea, strengthening of control for sturgeon by all Caspian littoral states. The basic principle of the protection of biological resources is their rational use, based on the preservation of optimal conditions of their natural or artificial reproduction. 

  14. Responsible conduct of research

    CERN Document Server

    Shamoo, Adil E

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, the field of Responsible Conduct of Research has become widely recognized as essential to scientific education, investigation, and training. At present, research institutions with public funding are expected to have some minimal training and education in RCR for their graduate students, fellows and trainees. These institutions also are expected to have a system in place for investigating and reporting misconduct in research or violations of regulations in research with human subjects, or in their applications to federal agencies for funding. Public scrutiny of the conduct of scientific researchers remains high. Media reports of misconduct scandals, biased research, violations of human research ethics rules, and moral controversies in research occur on a weekly basis. Since the 2009 publication of the 2nd edition of Shamoo and Resnik's Responsible Conduct of Research, there has been a vast expansion in the information, knowledge, methods, and diagnosis of problems related to RCR and the ...

  15. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound......Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  16. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  17. Thermal Conductivity of Metallic Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hin, Celine

    2018-03-10

    This project has developed a modeling and simulation approaches to predict the thermal conductivity of metallic fuels and their alloys. We focus on two methods. The first method has been developed by the team at the University of Wisconsin Madison. They developed a practical and general modeling approach for thermal conductivity of metals and metal alloys that integrates ab-initio and semi-empirical physics-based models to maximize the strengths of both techniques. The second method has been developed by the team at Virginia Tech. This approach consists of a determining the thermal conductivity using only ab-initio methods without any fitting parameters. Both methods were complementary. The models incorporated both phonon and electron contributions. Good agreement with experimental data over a wide temperature range were found. The models also provided insight into the different physical factors that govern the thermal conductivity under different temperatures. The models were general enough to incorporate more complex effects like additional alloying species, defects, transmutation products and noble gas bubbles to predict the behavior of complex metallic alloys like U-alloy fuel systems under burnup. 3 Introduction Thermal conductivity is an important thermal physical property affecting the performance and efficiency of metallic fuels [1]. Some experimental measurement of thermal conductivity and its correlation with composition and temperature from empirical fitting are available for U, Zr and their alloys with Pu and other minor actinides. However, as reviewed in by Kim, Cho and Sohn [2], due to the difficulty in doing experiments on actinide materials, thermal conductivities of metallic fuels have only been measured at limited alloy compositions and temperatures, some of them even being negative and unphysical. Furthermore, the correlations developed so far are empirical in nature and may not be accurate when used for prediction at conditions far from those

  18. Conducting Educational Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Susan; Reeves, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Educational design research blends scientific investigation with systematic development and implementation of solutions to educational problems. Empirical investigation is conducted in real learning settings--not laboratories--to craft usable and effective solutions. At the same time, the research is carefully structured to produce theoretical…

  19. Conductance eigenchannels in nanocontacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    1997-01-01

    The electronic conductance of metal nanocontacts is analyzed in terms of eigenchannels for the transmission. The transmission through individual eigenchannels is calculated numerically for realistic models of gold point contacts based on molecular-dynamics simulation of the elongation of a contac...

  20. Conduct Disorder and Comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Nicole D.; Clarizio, Harvey F.

    1999-01-01

    Provides critical examination of research published during past ten years addressing Conduct Disorder (CD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and internalizing disorders. Concludes comorbidity varies with age, gender, informant, diagnostic criteria, and nature of the sample. Implications of comorbidity…

  1. CERN Code of Conduct

    CERN Document Server

    Department, HR

    2010-01-01

    The Code is intended as a guide in helping us, as CERN contributors, to understand how to conduct ourselves, treat others and expect to be treated. It is based around the five core values of the Organization. We should all become familiar with it and try to incorporate it into our daily life at CERN.

  2. High Thermal Conductivity Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Subhash L

    2006-01-01

    Thermal management has become a ‘hot’ field in recent years due to a need to obtain high performance levels in many devices used in such diverse areas as space science, mainframe and desktop computers, optoelectronics and even Formula One racing cars! Thermal solutions require not just taking care of very high thermal flux, but also ‘hot spots’, where the flux densities can exceed 200 W/cm2. High thermal conductivity materials play an important role in addressing thermal management issues. This volume provides readers a basic understanding of the thermal conduction mechanisms in these materials and discusses how the thermal conductivity may be related to their crystal structures as well as microstructures developed as a result of their processing history. The techniques for accurate measurement of these properties on large as well as small scales have been reviewed. Detailed information on the thermal conductivity of diverse materials including aluminum nitride (AlN), silicon carbide (SiC), diamond, a...

  3. Transient Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Analytical theory of transient heat conduction.Fourier's law. General heat conducation equation. Thermal diffusivity. Biot and Fourier numbers. Lumped analysis and time constant. Semi-infinite body: fixed surface temperature, convective heat transfer at the surface, or constant surface heat flux...

  4. Pressure dependence of conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracewell, B.L.; Hochheimer, H.D.

    1993-01-01

    The overall objectives of this work were to attempt the following: (1) Measure the pressure dependence of the electrical conductivity of several quasi-one-dimensional, charge-density-wave solids, including measurements along various crystal directions. (2) Measure photocurrents in selected MX solids at ambient and elevated pressures. (3) Measure the resonance Raman spectra for selected MX solids as a function of pressure

  5. New code of conduct

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    During his talk to the staff at the beginning of the year, the Director-General mentioned that a new code of conduct was being drawn up. What exactly is it and what is its purpose? Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources (HR) Department, talked to us about the whys and wherefores of the project.   Drawing by Georges Boixader from the cartoon strip “The World of Particles” by Brian Southworth. A code of conduct is a general framework laying down the behaviour expected of all members of an organisation's personnel. “CERN is one of the very few international organisations that don’t yet have one", explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin. “We have been thinking about introducing a code of conduct for a long time but lacked the necessary resources until now”. The call for a code of conduct has come from different sources within the Laboratory. “The Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel (read also the "Equal opportuni...

  6. Quantized Majorana conductance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Hao; Liu, Chun Xiao; Gazibegovic, Sasa; Xu, Di; Logan, John A.; Wang, Guanzhong; Van Loo, Nick; Bommer, Jouri D.S.; De Moor, Michiel W.A.; Car, Diana; Op Het Veld, Roy L.M.; Van Veldhoven, Petrus J.; Koelling, Sebastian; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Pendharkar, Mihir; Pennachio, Daniel J.; Shojaei, Borzoyeh; Lee, Joon Sue; Palmstrøm, Chris J.; Bakkers, Erik P.A.M.; Sarma, S. Das; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2018-01-01

    Majorana zero-modes - a type of localized quasiparticle - hold great promise for topological quantum computing. Tunnelling spectroscopy in electrical transport is the primary tool for identifying the presence of Majorana zero-modes, for instance as a zero-bias peak in differential conductance. The

  7. Conductive polymer composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of a conductive polymer composition comprising graphene and the articles obtained by this process. The process comprises the following steps: A) contacting graphite oxide in an aqueous medium with a water-soluble or dispersible

  8. Experiences in transferring the techniques for the economical conduction of the Mexico`s vehicular transport; Experiencias de la transferencia de las tecnicas de conduccion economica en el autotransporte en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Osorio, Francisco Javier [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) (National Commission for Energy Conservation) developed the training program that through the dictation of pilot courses of technical-economical conduction of auto-motor vehicles is addressed to private enterprises, agencies and governmental institutions. This paper presents the background and the obtained results of the same. This methodology is presented in detail and a description of the courses is also presented as well as its characteristics. The comparative results are annexed of the tests between the conduction normally performed and the technical-economical conduction. The fuel saving obtained varies from 9% to 22.5%. Then, the reasons why the training in the technical- economical conduction results in one of the actions more profitable in fuel saving are explained, but also the difficulties for its implementation are also discussed. A conclusion is offered. [Espanol] La Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) desarrollo el programa de capacitacion que a traves de la imparticion de cursos pilotos de conduccion tecnico- economica de vehiculos automotores, se dirige a las empresas privadas, dependencias e instituciones gubernamentales. En este trabajo se presentan los antecedentes y resultados obtenidos del mismo. Se detalla esta metodologia y se presenta una descripcion de los cursos y sus caracteristicas. Se anexan resultados comparativos de las pruebas entre la conduccion que se realiza normalmente y la conduccion tecnico-economica. Los ahorros de combustible obtenidos van desde 9% hasta 22.5%. Luego, se explican las razones por las que la capacitacion en conduccion tecnico-economica resulta ser una de las acciones mas rentables del ahorro de combustibles, pero tambien se discuten las dificultades para implantarla. Se ofrece una conclusion.

  9. Experiences in transferring the techniques for the economical conduction of the Mexico`s vehicular transport; Experiencias de la transferencia de las tecnicas de conduccion economica en el autotransporte en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Osorio, Francisco Javier [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) (National Commission for Energy Conservation) developed the training program that through the dictation of pilot courses of technical-economical conduction of auto-motor vehicles is addressed to private enterprises, agencies and governmental institutions. This paper presents the background and the obtained results of the same. This methodology is presented in detail and a description of the courses is also presented as well as its characteristics. The comparative results are annexed of the tests between the conduction normally performed and the technical-economical conduction. The fuel saving obtained varies from 9% to 22.5%. Then, the reasons why the training in the technical- economical conduction results in one of the actions more profitable in fuel saving are explained, but also the difficulties for its implementation are also discussed. A conclusion is offered. [Espanol] La Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) desarrollo el programa de capacitacion que a traves de la imparticion de cursos pilotos de conduccion tecnico- economica de vehiculos automotores, se dirige a las empresas privadas, dependencias e instituciones gubernamentales. En este trabajo se presentan los antecedentes y resultados obtenidos del mismo. Se detalla esta metodologia y se presenta una descripcion de los cursos y sus caracteristicas. Se anexan resultados comparativos de las pruebas entre la conduccion que se realiza normalmente y la conduccion tecnico-economica. Los ahorros de combustible obtenidos van desde 9% hasta 22.5%. Luego, se explican las razones por las que la capacitacion en conduccion tecnico-economica resulta ser una de las acciones mas rentables del ahorro de combustibles, pero tambien se discuten las dificultades para implantarla. Se ofrece una conclusion.

  10. Biology of Bilirubin Photoisomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thor Willy Ruud

    2016-06-01

    Phototherapy is the main treatment for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. In acute treatment of extreme hyperbilirubinemia, intensive phototherapy may have a role in 'detoxifying' the bilirubin molecule to more polar photoisomers, which should be less prone to crossing the blood-brain barrier, providing a 'brain-sparing' effect. This article reviews the biology of bilirubin isomers. Although there is evidence supporting the lower toxicity of bilirubin photoisomers, there are studies showing the opposite. There are methodologic weaknesses in most studies and better-designed experiments are needed. In an infant acutely threatened by bilirubin-induced brain damage, intensified phototherapy should be used expediently and aggressively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nanostructured conductive polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed H.

    Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) are a suitable alternative to metals in many applications due to their light-weight, corrosion resistance, low cost, ease of processing and design flexibility. CPCs have been formulated using different types of conductive fillers. In this PhD thesis, the focus is on CPCs for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection and electromagnetic interference (EMI) attenuation. Despite the versatility of conductive fillers, carbon black (CB) has been the dominant filler to make CPCs for ESD protection applications because CB/polymer composites have a cost advantage over all other CPCs. For EMI shielding, stainless steel fibres and metal coated fibers are the preferred fillers, however CPCs made of those fibers are not the dominant EMI shielding materials. Metal coated and polymer plated polymers are the most widely used EMI shielding options. The limited use of CPCs in the EMI shielding market is because the high filler loading required to formulate a composite with an adequate level of shielding remarkably increases the composite price. In order to increase the competitiveness of CPCs, percolation threshold should be minimized as much as possible and composites with high EMI shielding capabilities at low filler loading should be formulated because all conductive fillers are expensive compared to polymers. In this thesis, two different methodologies to reduce percolation threshold in CPCs have been successfully developed and a CPC with exceptional EMI shielding capability has been formulated using copper nanowires as conductive filler. The first percolation threshold reduction technique is based on the selective localization of CB at the interface of immiscible polymer blend. The technique requires adding a copolymer that prefers the blend's interface and for which CB nanoparticles has the highest affinity. The second method is based on producing a CPC powder and then using this powder as a conductive filler to produce composite by dry

  12. Conducting a Withdrawal Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Sue; Rowley, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    A survey at Edge Hill College of Higher Education in Canada, designed to be part of the mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the quality of the student experience, revealed that key factors influencing withdrawal were: course not as expected, traveling difficulties, institution not as expected, domestic difficulties, and financial difficulties.…

  13. Transparent Conductive Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-06-22

    The objectives of this program between UT-Battelle, LLC (the ''Contractor'') and (Battelle Memorial Institute) (the "Participant") were directed towards achieving significant improvement: in the electrical conductivity and optical/infrared transmission of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT)-based composite materials. These materials will be used in coating applications that range from aircraft canopies to display applications. The goal of the project was to obtain supported mats of SWNTs with sheet conductivities approaching 10 ohms/square combined with high optical transmission (>85% transmission at 550 nm), thereby permitting their application as a replacement for indium tin oxide (ITO) in a variety of applications such as flexible displays.

  14. Super ionic conductive glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susman, S.; Volin, K.J.

    Described is an ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A/sub 1 + x/D/sub 2-x/3/Si/sub x/P/sub 3 - x/O/sub 12 - 2x/3/, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  15. Conducting Polymer Based Nanobiosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Soon Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, conducting polymer (CP nanomaterials have been used in a variety of fields, such as in energy, environmental, and biomedical applications, owing to their outstanding chemical and physical properties compared to conventional metal materials. In particular, nanobiosensors based on CP nanomaterials exhibit excellent performance sensing target molecules. The performance of CP nanobiosensors varies based on their size, shape, conductivity, and morphology, among other characteristics. Therefore, in this review, we provide an overview of the techniques commonly used to fabricate novel CP nanomaterials and their biosensor applications, including aptasensors, field-effect transistor (FET biosensors, human sense mimicking biosensors, and immunoassays. We also discuss prospects for state-of-the-art nanobiosensors using CP nanomaterials by focusing on strategies to overcome the current limitations.

  16. 'Stuffed' conducting polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Jensen, Bjørn; Chen, Jun; West, Keld

    2005-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid. In the pres......Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid....... In the present work we demonstrate this principle on three different CP's: polypyrrole (PPy), poly-terthiophene (PTTh) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) (PEDT), using ferrocene as a model molecule to be trapped in the polymer films. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  17. Biological aspects of chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourhis, J.; Mornex, F.

    1998-01-01

    Radio-chemotherapy combinations, especially their concomitant associations, are widely used in the treatment of cancer. The development of these associations has been so far related more to clinical research than to laboratory experiments. The biological basis of the use of these agents relies on their complementarity which concerns the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in lethality (hypoxia, sensitivity throughout the cycle, DNA repair, apoptosis), spatial and temporal cooperation, etc. Laboratory experiments can determine favorable conditions for additivity, or supra-additivity, but also for infra-additive interactions as well as real antagonism which should be avoided in the clinic. It is however often difficult to transfer this information into the clinic since the conditions which allow additivity or supra-additivity are generally very narrow, and unlikely to be realised in the patient. General clinical conditions are more compatible with infra-additive interactions. (author)

  18. Biological Correlates of Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Timucin Oral

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Empathy can be defined as the capacity to know emotionally what another is experiencing from within the frame of reference of that other person and the capacity to sample the feelings of another or it can be metaphorized as to put oneself in another’s shoes. Although the concept of empathy was firstly described in psychological theories, researches studying the biological correlates of psychological theories have been increasing recently. Not suprisingly, dinamically oriented psychotherapists Freud, Kohut, Basch and Fenichel had suggested theories about the biological correlates of empathy concept and established the basis of this modality decades ago. Some other theorists emphasized the importance of empathy in the early years of lifetime regarding mother-child attachment in terms of developmental psychology and investigated its role in explanation of psychopathology. The data coming from some of the recent brain imaging and animal model studies also seem to support these theories. Although increased activity in different brain regions was shown in many of the brain imaging studies, the role of cingulate cortex for understanding mother-child relationship was constantly emphasized in nearly all of the studies. In addition to these studies, a group of Italian scientists has defined a group of neurons as “mirror neurons” in their studies observing rhesus macaque monkeys. Later, they also defined mirror neurons in human studies, and suggested them as “empathy neurons”. After the discovery of mirror neurons, the hopes of finding the missing part of the puzzle for understanding the biological correlates of empathy raised again. Although the roles of different biological parameters such as skin conductance and pupil diameter for defining empathy have not been certain yet, they are going to give us the opportunity to revise the inconsistent basis of structural validity in psychiatry and to stabilize descriptive validity. In this review, the

  19. APRENDIZAJES EN PSICOLOGÍA EDUCACIONAL. UNA EXPERIENCIA DE FORMACIÓN DOCENTE EN CIENCIAS BIOLÓGICAS / LEARNING PROCESSES IN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. A TEACHER TRAINING EXPERIENCE IN BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Duarte

    2016-06-01

    . / This article approaches the learning processes in the biological sciences through the analysis of ethnographic observations in natural sciences classes in secondary schools from Córdoba. The analysis is based on the ethnographic records made by students of the subject Educational Psychology, part of the Teacher Training program in Biological Sciences from the Universidad Nacional de Córdoba between 2008 and 2015. These ethnographic records are kept in the context of a teacher training experience that seeks that future biology teachers can approach situated learning processes in order to facilitate the processes of conceptualization, analysis and the understanding of the dynamics, the dimensions and the problems related to teaching and learning practices in secondary schools. At the beginning of the article we describe the classroom and institutional conditions in which the interactions between the students and the biological sciences contents take place in the secondary schools that have promoted this teaching experience. Then, we delve into these specific interactions in two sections. The first one focuses on the interactions between the knowledgeable subject and the natural sciences contents on the basis of the identified variations according to the type of tasks that students must solve in the classroom, the focus on previous ideas, the kinds of participation promoted, authorized or rejected by the teacher in charge, the dialogic exchanges that occur around the contents, the uses of questions and answers in class, the space where these learning activities are developed and the materials with which students interact. The second section focuses on the forms, uses and potential effects of the evaluation practices in these observed classes. Finally, we focus on some questions and reflections derived from the analysis presented.

  20. Improving Satellite Compatible Microdevices to Study Biology in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkus, Trevor; Snyder, Jessica; Paulino-Lima, Ivan; Rothschild, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    The technology for biology in space lags far behind the gold standard for biological experiments on Earth. To remedy this disparity, the Rothschild lab works on proof of concept, prototyping, and developing of new sensors and devices to further the capabilities of biology research on satellites. One such device is the PowerCell Payload System. One goal for synthetic biology in aiding space travel and colonization is to genetically engineer living cells to produce biochemicals in space. However, such farming in space presupposes bacteria retain their functionality post-launch, bombarded by radiation, and without the 1G of Earth. Our questions is, does a co-culture of cyanobacteria and protein-synthesizing bacteria produce Earth-like yields of target proteins? Is the yield sensitive to variable gravitational forces? To answer these questions, a PowerCell Payload System will spend 1 year aboard the German Aerospace Center's Euglena and Combined Regenerative Organic-food Production In Space (Eu:CROPIS) mission satellite. The PowerCell system is a pair of two 48-well microfluidic cards, each well seeded with bacteria. The system integrates fluidic, thermal, optical, electronic, and control systems to germinate bacteria spores, then measure the protein synthesized for comparison to parallel experiments conducted on the Earth. In developing the PowerCell Payload, we gained insight into the shortcomings of biology experiments on satellites. To address these issues, we have started three new prototyping projects: 1) The development of an extremely stable and radiation resistant cell-free system, allowing for the construction of proteins utilizing only cell components instead of living cells. This can be lyophilized on a substrate, like paper. (2) Using paper as a microfluidic platform that is flexible, stable, cheap, and wicking. The capillary action eliminates the need for pumps, reducing volume, mass, and potential failing points. Electrodes can be printed on the paper to

  1. Thermal contact conductance

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudana, Chakravarti V

    2013-01-01

    The work covers both theoretical and practical aspects of thermal contact conductance. The theoretical discussion focuses on heat transfer through spots, joints, and surfaces, as well as the role of interstitial materials (both planned and inadvertent). The practical discussion includes formulae and data that can be used in designing heat-transfer equipment for a variety of joints, including special geometries and configurations. All of the material has been updated to reflect the latest advances in the field.

  2. Hysteresis in conducting ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Carl S.; Winchell, Stephen D.

    2006-01-01

    Maxwell's magnetic diffusion equation is solved for conducting ferromagnetic cylinders to predict a magnetic wave velocity, a time delay for flux penetration and an eddy current field, one of five fields in the linear unified field model of hysteresis. Measured Faraday voltages for a thin steel toroid are shown to be proportional to magnetic field step amplitude and decrease exponentially in time due to maximum rather than average permeability. Dynamic permeabilities are a field convolution of quasistatic permeability and the delay function from which we derive and observe square root dependence of coercivity on rate of field change

  3. Research progress on space radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenjian; Dang Bingrong; Wang Zhuanzi; Wei Wei; Jing Xigang; Wang Biqian; Zhang Bintuan

    2010-01-01

    Space radiation, particularly induced by the high-energy charged particles, may cause serious injury on living organisms. So it is one critical restriction factor in Manned Spaceflight. Studies have shown that the biological effects of charged particles were associated with their quality, the dose and the different biological end points. In addition, the microgravity conditions may affect the biological effects of space radiation. In this paper we give a review on the biological damage effects of space radiation and the combined biological effects of the space radiation coupled with the microgravity from the results of space flight and ground simulation experiments. (authors)

  4. Operational challenges in conducting a community-based technology-enabled mental health services delivery model for rural India: Experiences from the SMART Mental Health Project [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallab K. Maulik

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are large gaps in the delivery of mental health care in low- and middle-income countries such as India, and the problems are even more acute in rural settings due to lack of resources, remoteness, and lack of infrastructure, amongst other factors. The Systematic Medical Appraisal Referral and Treatment (SMART Mental Health Project was conceived as a mental health services delivery model using technology-based solutions for rural India. This paper reports on the operational strategies used to facilitate the implementation of the intervention. Method: Key components of the SMART Mental Health Project included delivering an anti-stigma campaign, training of primary health workers in screening, diagnosing and managing stress, depression and increased suicide risk and task sharing of responsibilities in delivering care; and using mobile technology based electronic decision support systems to support delivery of algorithm based care for such disorders. The intervention was conducted in 42 villages across two sites in the state of Andhra Pradesh in south India. A pre-post mixed methods evaluation was done, and in this paper operational challenges are reported. Results: Both quantitative and qualitative results from the evaluation from one site covering about 5000 adults showed that the intervention was feasible and acceptable, and initial results indicated that it was beneficial in increasing access to mental health care and reducing depression and anxiety symptoms. A number of strategies were initiated in response to operational challenges to ensure smoother conduct of the project and facilitated the project to be delivered as envisaged. Conclusions: The operational strategies initiated for this project were successful in ensuring the delivery of the intervention. Those, coupled with other more systematic processes have informed the researchers to understand key processes that need to be in place to develop a more robust study, that

  5. Neutron instrumentation for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, S.A. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    1994-12-31

    In the October 1994 round of proposals at the ILL, the external biology review sub- committee was asked to allocate neutron beam time to a wide range of experiments, on almost half the total number of scheduled neutron instruments: on 3 diffractometers, on 3 small angle scattering instruments, and on some 6 inelastic scattering spectrometers. In the 3.5 years since the temporary reactor shutdown, the ILL`s management structure has been optimized, budgets and staff have been trimmed, the ILL reactor has been re-built, and many of the instruments up-graded, many powerful (mainly Unix) workstations have been introduced, and the neighboring European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has established itself as the leading synchrotron radiation source and has started its official user program. The ILL reactor remains the world`s most intense dedicated neutron source. In this challenging context, it is of interest to review briefly the park of ILL instruments used to study the structure and energetics of small and large biological systems. A brief summary will be made of each class of experiments actually proposed in the latest ILL proposal round.

  6. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mentus, Slavko; Ciric-Marjanovic, Gordana; Trchova, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Conducting nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the carbonization of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes protonated with sulfuric acid. Carbonization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min -1 up to a maximum temperature of 800 deg. C. The carbonized polyaniline nanotubes which have a typical outer diameter of 100-260 nm, with an inner diameter of 20-170 nm and a length extending from 0.5 to 0.8 μm, accompanied with very thin nanotubes with outer diameters of 8-14 nm, inner diameters 3.0-4.5 nm and length extending from 0.3 to 1.0 μm, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Elemental analysis showed 9 wt% of nitrogen in the carbonized product. Conductivity of the nanotubular PANI precursor, amounting to 0.04 S cm -1 , increased to 0.7 S cm -1 upon carbonization. Molecular structure of carbonized polyaniline nanotubes has been analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and their paramagnetic characteristics were compared with the starting PANI nanotubes by EPR spectroscopy.

  7. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentus, Slavko; Ciric-Marjanovic, Gordana [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Trchova, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky Square 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: gordana@ffh.bg.ac.rs

    2009-06-17

    Conducting nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the carbonization of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes protonated with sulfuric acid. Carbonization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min{sup -1} up to a maximum temperature of 800 deg. C. The carbonized polyaniline nanotubes which have a typical outer diameter of 100-260 nm, with an inner diameter of 20-170 nm and a length extending from 0.5 to 0.8 {mu}m, accompanied with very thin nanotubes with outer diameters of 8-14 nm, inner diameters 3.0-4.5 nm and length extending from 0.3 to 1.0 {mu}m, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Elemental analysis showed 9 wt% of nitrogen in the carbonized product. Conductivity of the nanotubular PANI precursor, amounting to 0.04 S cm{sup -1}, increased to 0.7 S cm{sup -1} upon carbonization. Molecular structure of carbonized polyaniline nanotubes has been analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and their paramagnetic characteristics were compared with the starting PANI nanotubes by EPR spectroscopy.

  8. Radiative thermal conduction fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, K.J.; Balbus, S.A.; Fristrom, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The discovery of the O VI interstellar absorption lines in our Galaxy by the Copernicus observatory was a turning point in our understanding of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). It implied the presence of widespread hot (approx. 10 to the 6th power K) gas in disk galaxies. The detection of highly ionized species in quasi-stellar objects' absorption spectra may be the first indirect observation of this hot phase in external disk galaxies. Previous efforts to understand extensive O VI absorption line data from our Galaxy were not very successful in locating the regions where this absorption originates. The location at interfaces between evaporating ISM clouds and hot gas was favored, but recent studies of steady-state conduction fronts in spherical clouds by Ballet, Arnaud, and Rothenflug (1986) and Bohringer and Hartquist (1987) rejected evaporative fronts as the absorption sites. Researchers report here on time-dependent nonequilibrium calculations of planar conductive fronts whose properties match well with observations, and suggest reasons for the difference between the researchers' results and the above. They included magnetic fields in additional models, not reported here, and the conclusions are not affected by their presence

  9. Multifunctional scanning ion conductance microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ashley; Unwin, Patrick R.

    2017-01-01

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is a nanopipette-based technique that has traditionally been used to image topography or to deliver species to an interface, particularly in a biological setting. This article highlights the recent blossoming of SICM into a technique with a much greater diversity of applications and capability that can be used either standalone, with advanced control (potential–time) functions, or in tandem with other methods. SICM can be used to elucidate functional information about interfaces, such as surface charge density or electrochemical activity (ion fluxes). Using a multi-barrel probe format, SICM-related techniques can be employed to deposit nanoscale three-dimensional structures and further functionality is realized when SICM is combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), with simultaneous measurements from a single probe opening up considerable prospects for multifunctional imaging. SICM studies are greatly enhanced by finite-element method modelling for quantitative treatment of issues such as resolution, surface charge and (tip) geometry effects. SICM is particularly applicable to the study of living systems, notably single cells, although applications extend to materials characterization and to new methods of printing and nanofabrication. A more thorough understanding of the electrochemical principles and properties of SICM provides a foundation for significant applications of SICM in electrochemistry and interfacial science. PMID:28484332

  10. Biological and technological characteristics of Georgian wine and table grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujmajuridze Levan

    2015-01-01

    Description of grapevine varieties implemented through the descriptors for grapevine (IPGRI OIV. Botanical, biological-technological, qualitative and quantitative marks are characterized and evaluated. Investigation conducted during the biologic development phases were studied for chemical and eno-carpological characteristics.

  11. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  12. Biologi Perbungaan Tanaman Avokad (Persea Americana Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    SUKAMTO, L. AGUS

    1985-01-01

    L. AGUS SUKAMTO 1985.The flowering biology of avocado (Persea americana Mill.). Berita Biologi 3 (1) 8 - H.- A study on the flowering biology of avocado available at Bogor Botanic Garden was made.The observation was conducted in respects to the opening and closing of the flowers, the versality of the pollen grains which are then related to the fruit production.The climatic condition as well as pollination agents which may affect on the vertilization in avocado are also discussed.

  13. Conducting polyamine nanocomposites development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, R.C.; Maciel, T.C.G.L.; Guimaraes, M.J.O.C.; Garcia, M.E.F.

    2010-01-01

    Polymeric nanocomposites are hybrid materials formed by the combination of inorganic nanoparticles dispersed in a polymeric matrix with, at least, one dimension in the nanometer range. It was used as nanoparticles layered and tubular clay minerals, and its insertion and dispersion were conducted through the in situ polymerization technique. As the polymer matrix, it was utilized a polyamine, which, later, will be inserted in a polyacrylamide gel for the development of a compound that aggregates both main characteristics. The nanocomposites were prepared in different polymerization conditions (temperature, concentration and nanoparticle type) and characterized by XRD and FTIR. It was observed that regarding the polymerization conditions, the temperature had influence on the kind of material obtained and on the reaction speed; the type of nanoparticle affected its interaction with the polymer matrix, predominantly providing the formation of nanocomposites by the intercalation mechanism in the layered clay. (author)

  14. Ion-conducting membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Sajjad, Syed Dawar; Gao, Yan; Liu, Zengcai; Chen, Qingmei

    2017-12-26

    An anion-conducting polymeric membrane comprises a terpolymer of styrene, vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x. R.sub.s is a positively charged cyclic amine group. R.sub.x is at least one constituent selected from the group consisting Cl, OH and a reaction product between an OH or Cl and a species other than a simple amine or a cyclic amine. The total weight of the vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x groups is greater than 0.3% of the total weight of the membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  15. Universal mesoscopic conductance fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelou, S.N.

    1992-01-01

    The theory of conductance fluctuations in disordered metallic systems with size large compared to the mean free path of the electron but small compared to localization length is considered. It is demonstrates that fluctuations have an universal character and are due to repulsion between levels and spectral rigidity. The basic fluctuation measures for the energy spectrum in the mesoscopic regime of disordered systems are consistent with the Gaussian random matrix ensemble predictions. Although our disordered electron random matrix ensemble does not belong to the Gaussian ensemble the two ensembles turn out to be essentially similar. The level repulsion and the spectral rigidity found in nuclear spectra should also be observed in the metallic regime of Anderson localization. 7 refs. (orig.)

  16. X-ray diffraction imaging of biological cells

    CERN Document Server

    Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2018-01-01

    In this book, the author describes the development of the experimental diffraction setup and structural analysis of non-crystalline particles from material science and biology. Recent advances in X-ray free electron laser (XFEL)-coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) experiments allow for the structural analysis of non-crystalline particles to a resolution of 7 nm, and to a resolution of 20 nm for biological materials. Now XFEL-CXDI marks the dawn of a new era in structural analys of non-crystalline particles with dimensions larger than 100 nm, which was quite impossible in the 20th century. To conduct CXDI experiments in both synchrotron and XFEL facilities, the author has developed apparatuses, named KOTOBUKI-1 and TAKASAGO-6 for cryogenic diffraction experiments on frozen-hydrated non-crystalline particles at around 66 K. At the synchrotron facility, cryogenic diffraction experiments dramatically reduce radiation damage of specimen particles and allow tomography CXDI experiments. In addition, in XFEL ex...

  17. Space Synthetic Biology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David; Roman, Monsi; Mansell, James (Matt)

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an effort to make genetic engineering more useful by standardizing sections of genetic code. By standardizing genetic components, biological engineering will become much more similar to traditional fields of engineering, in which well-defined components and subsystems are readily available in markets. Specifications of the behavior of those components and subsystems can be used to model a system which incorporates them. Then, the behavior of the novel system can be simulated and optimized. Finally, the components and subsystems can be purchased and assembled to create the optimized system, which most often will exhibit behavior similar to that indicated by the model. The Space Synthetic Biology project began in 2012 as a multi-Center effort. The purpose of this project was to harness Synthetic Biology principals to enable NASA's missions. A central target for application was to Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLS). Engineers from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) ECLS Systems Development Branch (ES62) were brought into the project to contribute expertise in operational ECLS systems. Project lead scientists chose to pursue the development of bioelectrochemical technologies to spacecraft life support. Therefore, the ECLS element of the project became essentially an effort to develop a bioelectrochemical ECLS subsystem. Bioelectrochemical systems exploit the ability of many microorganisms to drive their metabolisms by direct or indirect utilization of electrical potential gradients. Whereas many microorganisms are capable of deriving the energy required for the processes of interest (such as carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation) from sunlight, it is believed that subsystems utilizing electrotrophs will exhibit smaller mass, volume, and power requirements than those that derive their energy from sunlight. In the first 2 years of the project, MSFC personnel conducted modeling, simulation, and conceptual design efforts to assist the

  18. Enhancing biological control of basal stem rot disease (Ganoderma boninense) in oil palm plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, A; Sudharto, P S; Purba, R Y

    2005-01-01

    Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense is the most destructive disease in oil palm, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia. The available control measures for BSR disease such as cultural practices and mechanical and chemical treatment have not proved satisfactory due to the fact that Ganoderma has various resting stages such as melanised mycelium, basidiospores and pseudosclerotia. Alternative control measures to overcome the Ganoderma problem are focused on the use of biological control agents and planting resistant material. Present studies conducted at Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute (IOPRI) are focused on enhancing the use of biological control agents for Ganoderma. These activities include screening biological agents from the oil palm rhizosphere in order to evaluate their effectiveness as biological agents in glasshouse and field trials, testing their antagonistic activities in large scale experiments and eradicating potential disease inoculum with biological agents. Several promising biological agents have been isolated, mainly Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, Gliocladium viride, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bacillus sp. A glasshouse and field trial for Ganoderma control indicated that treatment with T. harzianum and G. viride was superior to Bacillus sp. A large scale trial showed that the disease incidence was lower in a field treated with biological agents than in untreated fields. In a short term programme, research activities at IOPRI are currently focusing on selecting fungi that can completely degrade plant material in order to eradicate inoculum. Digging holes around the palm bole and adding empty fruit bunches have been investigated as ways to stimulate biological agents.

  19. The acquisition of biological knowledge during childhood: Cognitive conflict or tabula rasa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Clinical interviews were conducted with three elementary school children, who varied in age but not in family or school environment, to determine the extent to which they held naive misconceptions about important biological topics and to determine agewise trends in the development of biological knowledge. Does early biological knowledge acquisition follow a pattern of spontaneous naive theory construction and cognitive conflict or does it follow a pattern of gradual accretion to an initially blank slate? Contrary to findings in the physical sciences, little evidence was found for biological misconceptions as knowledge acquisition appeared to more directly follow the gradual accretion hypothesis with the primary source of that knowledge adult authority rather than personal experience. However, conceptual change teaching is still advocated due to its ability to provoke students to consider and test alternative conceptions (even if they are not their own) as a means of encouraging the development of important general reasoning patterns utilized in the testing of causal hypotheses.

  20. Haldane's Contributions to Biological Research in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Industrial Research, New Delhi, he moved to Bhubaneswar to start his own ... Brown, Foreign Secretary, US National Academy of Sciences, in. 1964, upon .... lectures contained new ideas for biological research that could be conducted in ...