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Sample records for biology clinical significance

  1. Clinical and biological significance of precursor lesions ofintrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is primarily a malignant tumorof older adults most prevalent in Southeast Asia, whereliver fluke infestation is high. However the etiology inwestern countries is unknown. Although the incidence ofextrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma has remained constant,incidence of intrahepatic CC (ICC) which differs inmorphology, pathogenesis, risk factors, treatment andprognosis is increasing. While this increase is associatedwith hepatitis C virus infection, chronic nonalcoholicliver disease, obesity, and smoking, the pathogenesisof ICC and molecular alterations underlying the carcinogenesisare not completely elucidated. Benignbiliary lesions such as biliary intraepithelial neoplasia,intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct, vonMeyenburg complex or bile duct hamartoma, and bileduct adenoma have been associated with ICC. For eachof these entities, evidence suggests or supports a roleas premalignant lesions. This article summarized theimportant biological significance of the precursor lesionsof ICC and the molecular mechanisms that may beinvolved in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinogenesis.

  2. The clinical and biological significance of MICA in clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Yan, Lei; Jiao, Wei; Ren, Juchao; Xing, Naidong; Zhang, Yongzhen; Zang, Yuanwei; Wang, Jue; Xu, Zhonghua

    2016-02-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I-related chains A (MICA), a ligand of Natural killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) receptor, is broadly upregulated in epithelial originated tumor cells. MICA plays a critical role in the immune surveillance against tumor cells and is associated with the prognosis of several malignancies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical and biological significance of MICA in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). The expression of MICA was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Both MICA mRNA and protein levels were upregulated in ccRCC tissues, compared with normal tissues. IHC staining revealed a homogenous pattern of MICA staining within each tumor, which combined both membrane staining and granular cytoplasmic staining. Furthermore, high MICA expression was associated with lymph node metastasis and advanced clinical stage and predicted poor prognosis in patients with ccRCC. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed using RNA-sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network (TCGA) to elucidate the biological role of MICA in ccRCC and revealed that MICA was significantly associated with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) gene set, which was further confirmed by qRT-PCR. Our findings contribute to the studies on biomarkers of kidney cancers and the mechanism of renal cancer progression driven by EMT pathway.

  3. Angiostrongylus cantonensis: a review of its distribution, molecular biology and clinical significance as a human pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Joel; Chan, Douglas; Sandaradura, Indy; Malik, Richard; Spielman, Derek; Lee, Rogan; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien

    2016-08-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a metastrongyloid nematode found widely in the Asia-Pacific region, and the aetiological agent of angiostrongyliasis; a disease characterized by eosinophilic meningitis. Rattus rats are definitive hosts of A. cantonensis, while intermediate hosts include terrestrial and aquatic molluscs. Humans are dead-end hosts that usually become infected upon ingestion of infected molluscs. A presumptive diagnosis is often made based on clinical features, a history of mollusc consumption, eosinophilic pleocytosis in cerebral spinal fluid, and advanced imaging such as computed tomography. Serological tests are available for angiostrongyliasis, though many tests are still under development. While there is no treatment consensus, therapy often includes a combination of anthelmintics and corticosteroids. Angiostrongyliasis is relatively rare, but is often associated with morbidity and sometimes mortality. Recent reports suggest the parasites' range is increasing, leading to fatalities in regions previously considered Angiostrongylus-free, and sometimes, delayed diagnosis in newly invaded regions. Increased awareness of angiostrongyliasis would facilitate rapid diagnosis and improved clinical outcomes. This paper summarizes knowledge on the parasites' life cycle, clinical aspects and epidemiology. The molecular biology of Angiostrongylus spp. is also discussed. Attention is paid to the significance of angiostrongyliasis in Australia, given the recent severe cases reported from the Sydney region. PMID:27225800

  4. The biological significance and clinical applications of exosomes in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorayappan, Kalpana Deepa Priya; Wallbillich, John J; Cohn, David E; Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah

    2016-07-01

    Exosomes are nano-sized (20-100nm) vesicles released by a variety of cells and are generated within the endosomal system or at the plasma membrane. There is emerging evidence that exosomes play a key role in intercellular communication in ovarian and other cancers. The protein and microRNA content of exosomes has been implicated in various intracellular processes that mediate oncogenesis, tumor spread, and drug resistance. Exosomes may prime distant tissue sites for reception of future metastases and their release can be mediated by the tumor microenvironment (e.g., hypoxia). Ovarian cancer-derived exosomes have unique features that could be leveraged for use as biomarkers to facilitate improved detection and treatment of the disease. Further, exosomes have the potential to serve as targets and/or drug delivery vehicles in the treatment of ovarian cancer. In this review we discuss the biological and clinical significance of exosomes relevant to the progression, detection, and treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:27058839

  5. Biological and clinical significance of epigenetic silencing of MARVELD1 gene in lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Shi; Shan Wang; Yuanfei Yao; Yiqun Li; Hao Zhang; Fang Han; Huan Nie; Jie Su; Zeyu Wang; Lei Yue; Jingyan Cao; Yu Li

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic silence in cancer frequently altered signal-transduction pathways during the early stages of tumor development. Recent progress in the field of cancer epigenetics has led to new opportunities for diagnosis and treatment of cancer. We previously demonstrated that novel identified nuclear factor MARVELD1 was widely expressed in human tissues, but down-regulated by promoter methylation in multiple cancers. This study was carried out to determine the biological and clinical significanc...

  6. Clinical Significance of Biological Markers at Primary Operation for Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhenhuan; YAMASHITA Hiroko; TOYAMA Tatsuya; YAMAMOTO Yutaka; IWASE Hirotaka

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the prognostic value of biological markers at initial operation for metastatic breast cancer, we measured the presence of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα), progesterone receptor (PgR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2),and histological grade (HG) of tumors. Methods: One-hundred and seventy-six patients, aged 29 to 90 (median: 51 years), with recurrent breast cancer underwent primary operation at our department during the period from 1983 to 2000. Clinicopathological factors examined at primary operation included menopausal symptoms, presence of axillary lymph node metastasis, tumor size, HG, HER2, ERα and PgR.Factors examined at recurrence included site of primary recurrence, disease-free interval(DFI) and tumor markers, such as CEA and CA15-3. The relationship between these factors and prognosis following recurrence was assessed. Results: Menopausal status, axillary lymph node metastasis and tumor size at primary operation had no significant effect on prognosis. Patients with low HG, positive expession of ERα and PgR, and low HER2 expression had a good prognosis, similar to those with long DFI and distant metastases. After distant metastases, HER2 was found to be the most important prognostic factor following recurrence and in predicting response to drug therapy.Conclusion: Biological factors indicating tumor malignancy at the time of the first operation are also important prognostic factors following tumor recurrence.

  7. The protolobar structure of the human kidney: Its biologic and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book depicts the uniqueness of each kidney as a result of the interaction of the process of nephronogenesis with the random variability of vascular channels within the bounds of a limited space. The fields of anatomy, developmental biology, comparative morphology, embryology, nephrology, pathology, physiology, radiology, and urologic surgery are treated

  8. Clinical and Biological Significance of Clonal Macrophage Detection in Hemophagocytic Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雯; 肖燕; 费洪宝

    2002-01-01

    Summary: By using the method of clonal analysis the evidence to prove that Hemophagocytic syn drome (HPS) is reactive or malignant was investigated to probe into the pathogenesis of HPS and its relations with clinical prognosis. The macrophages abnormally proliferated in bone marrow were iso lated. Electrophoresis analysis was made after DNA extraction, enzyme restriction of human ardro gen receptor (HUMARA) genetic locus, and PCR amplification. In the 9 specimens, clonal prolifer ation was found in 2 cases and nonclonal proliferation in 7. Among the 7 cases of nonclonal prolifera tion, 3 were voluntarily discharged without clinical outcome, 2 cases fully recovered after 2-3 week treatment of large dose gamma globulin intravenous drip and hormone therapy, 1 case died at the 43th day after the hormone and anti-infection therapy, and one case was found to have granular leukoblast in peripheral blood after 3 weeks and diagnosed as having M2a after bone puncture. For the two patients with clonal proliferation, one obtained remission after chemotherapy and the other was died after 32 days without chemotherapy. It was concluded that there do exist clonal or malig nant proliferation in HPS, so not every case is reactive.

  9. Aberrations of chromosome 8 in myelodysplastic syndromes: Clinical and biological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisavljević Dragomir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rearrangements of any single chromosome in human karyotype have been reported in patients with pMDS. Objective: To examine the role of aberrations of chromosome 8 in pathogenesis, clinical presentation and progression of myelodysplastic syndromes. Method: Cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow cells was carried out by direct method and by means of 24- and/or 48-hour unstimulated cell culture. Chromosomes were obtained by modified method of HG-bands. Results: On presentation, 109 out of 271 successfully karyotyped patients (40,2% had abnormal karyotypes. Among them, 22 patients (10.9% had aberrations of chromosome 8. Ten patients had trisomy 8 as "simple" aberration whilst additional three cases had trisomy 8 included in "complex" karyotypes (≥3 chromosomes. Cases with constitutional trisomy 8 mosaicism (CT8M were excluded using the chromosome analyses of PHA-stimulated blood cultures. On the contrary, monosomy (seven patients or deletion of chromosome 8 (two patients were exclusively found in "complex" karyotypes. During prolonged cytogenetic follow-up, trisomy 8 was not recorded in evolving karyotypes. In contrast, trisomy 8 disappeared in two cases during subsequent cytogenetic studies, i.e. 23 and 72 months from diagnosis, accompanied in one patient with complete hematological remission. No difference regarding age, sex, cytopenia, blood and marrow blast count or response to treatment was found between patients with trisomy 8 as the sole aberration compared to those with normal cytogenetics. Median survival of patients with trisomy 8 as the sole aberration was 27 months, as compared to 32 months in patients with normal cytogenetics (p=0.468, whilst median survival of patients with aberrations of chromosome 8 included in "complex" karyotypes was only 4 months. Conclusion: Aberrations of chromosome 8 are common in patients with pMDS. The presence of a clone with trisomy 8 is not always the sign of disease progression or poor

  10. Radiation-induced bystander effect in healthy G{sub 0} human lymphocytes: Biological and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belloni, Paola; Latini, Paolo [Department of Agrobiology and Agrochemistry, University of Tuscia, Via San Camillo De Lellis, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy); Palitti, Fabrizio, E-mail: palitti@unitus.it [Department of Agrobiology and Agrochemistry, University of Tuscia, Via San Camillo De Lellis, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy)

    2011-08-01

    To study the bystander effects, G{sub 0} human peripheral blood lymphocytes were X-irradiated with 0.1, 0.5 and 3 Gy. After 24 h, cell-free conditioned media from irradiated cultures were transferred to unexposed lymphocytes. Following 48 h of medium transfer, viability, induction of apoptosis, telomere shortening, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and micronuclei (after stimulation) were analyzed. A statistically significant decrement in cell viability, concomitant with the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, telomere shortening, increases in hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup -}) with depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) level, and higher frequencies of micronuclei, were observed in bystander lymphocytes incubated with medium from 0.5 and 3 Gy irradiated samples, compared to lymphocytes unexposed. Furthermore, no statistically significant difference between the response to 0.5 and 3 Gy of irradiation in bystander lymphocytes, was found. However, when lymphocytes were irradiated with 0.1 Gy, no bystander effect with regard to viability, apoptosis, telomere length, and micronuclei was observed, although a high production of ROS level persisted. Radiation in the presence of the radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) suppressed oxidative stress induced by 3 Gy of X-rays with the effective elimination of bystander effects, suggesting a correlation between ROS and bystander signal formation in irradiated cells. The data propose that bystander effect might be mostly due to the reactions of radiation induced free radicals on DNA, with the existence of a threshold at which the bystander signal is not operative (0.1 Gy dose of X-rays). Our results may have clinical implications for health risk associated with radiation exposure.

  11. Clinical significance of cumulative biological effective dose and overall treatment time in the treatment of carcinoma cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Abhijit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this retrospective study is to report the radiotherapy treatment response of, and complications in, patients with cervical cancer on the basis of cumulative biologic effective dose (BED and overall treatment time (OTT. Sixty-four (stage II - 35/64; stage III - 29/64 patients of cervical cancer were treated with combination of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT and low dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT. The cumulative BED was calculated at Point A (BED 10 ; and bladder, rectal reference points (BED 2.5 using the linear-quadratic BED equations. The local control (LC rate and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS rate in patients of stage II were comparable for BED 10 < 84.5 and BED 10 > 84.5 but were much higher for BED 10 > 84.5 than BED 10 < 84.5 ( P < 0.01 in stage III patients. In the stage II patients, The LC rate and 5-year DFS rate were comparable for OTT < 50 days and for OTT> 50 days but were much higher in stage III patients with OTT < 50 than OTT> 50 days ( P < 0.001. It was also observed that patients who received BED 2.5 < 105 had lesser rectal ( P < 0.001 and bladder complications than BED 2.5 > 105. Higher rectal complication-free survival (CFS R rate, bladder complication-free survival (CFS B rate and all-type late complication-free survival rate were observed in patients who received BED 2.5 < 105 than BED 2.5 > 105. A balanced, optimal and justified radiotherapy treatment schedule to deliver higher BED 10 (>84.5 and lower BED 2.5 (< 105 in lesser OTT (< 50 days is essential in carcinoma cervix to expect a better treatment outcome in all respects.

  12. The biological difference between CD13+CD133+ and CD13¬CD133¬liver cancer cells and its clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-long JIN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare the biological difference between CD13+CD133+ and CD13-CD133- hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cells in HuH7 cell line and its clinical significance. Methods The status of proliferation, phase of the cell cycle, tumor formation in vivo, differentiation, and their chemoresistance to 5-FU and pirarubicin of CD13+CD133+ and CD13-CD133-HCC cells were studied to analyze the clinical implication of CD13+CD133+HCC cell subset. Results The proliferation rate of CD13+CD133+HCC cells was significantly higher than that of CD13-CD133-HCC cells. The cell-cycle phase study showed that 78.45% of the CD13+CD133+HCC cells were in the G0/G1 phase, 2.19% in G2/M phase, and 19.36% in S phase, while 62.18% CD13-CD133-HCC cells were in the G0/G1 phase, 11.88% in G2/M phase, and 25.95% in S phase. Limiting dilution analysis of HuH7 cells revealed that 1×103 CD13+CD133+ cells could form the tumor, while 1×105 CD13-CD133- cells did. CD13+CD133+ cells showed chemoresistance to 5-FU and pirarubicin, while other three subsets succumbed to the drugs. Conclusion CD13+CD133+ cancer cells in HuH7 showed the characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs, which might contribute to the relapse and metastasis of liver cancer, and they may be the main target for chemotherapy in human liver cancer.

  13. Biological and clinical significance of NAC1 expression in cervical carcinomas: a comparative study between squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeasmin, Shamima; Nakayama, Kentaro; Rahman, Mohammed Tanjimur; Rahman, Munmun; Ishikawa, Masako; Katagiri, Atsuko; Iida, Kouji; Nakayama, Naomi; Otuski, Yoshiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Satoru; Miyazaki, Kohji

    2012-04-01

    This study examined the biological and clinical significance of NAC1 (nucleus accumbens associated 1) expression in both cervical squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas. Using immunohistochemistry, the frequency of positive NAC1 expression in adenocarcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas (31.0%; 18/58) was significantly higher than that in squamous cell carcinomas (16.2%; 12/74) (P = .043). NAC1 gene amplification was identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 5 (7.2%) of 69 squamous cell carcinomas. NAC1 amplification was not identified in the adenocarcinomas (0%; 0/58). Positive NAC1 expression was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival in squamous cell carcinomas (P NAC1 expression in squamous cell carcinomas was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival after standard radiotherapy (P = .0003). In contrast to squamous cell carcinomas, positive NAC1 expression did not correlate with shorter overall survival in adenocarcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas (P = .317). Profound growth inhibition, increased apoptosis, decreased cell proliferation, and decreased cell migration and invasion were observed in silencing RNA-treated cancer cells with NAC1 overexpression compared with cancer cells without NAC1 expression. NAC1 overexpression stimulated proliferation, migration, and invasion in the cervical cancer cell lines TCS and Hela P3, which normally lack NAC1 expression. These findings indicate that NAC1 overexpression is critical to the growth and survival of cervical carcinomas irrespective of histologic type. Furthermore, they suggest that NAC1 silencing RNA-induced phenotypes depend on the expression status of the targeted cell line. Therefore, cervical carcinoma patients with NAC1 expression may benefit from a targeted therapy irrespective of histologic type.

  14. Clinical significance of HIV-1 coreceptor usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusso Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of phenotypically distinct HIV-1 variants with different prevalence during the progression of the disease has been one of the earliest discoveries in HIV-1 biology, but its relevance to AIDS pathogenesis remains only partially understood. The physiological basis for the phenotypic variability of HIV-1 was elucidated with the discovery of distinct coreceptors employed by the virus to infect susceptible cells. The role of the viral phenotype in the variable clinical course and treatment outcome of HIV-1 infection has been extensively investigated over the past two decades. In this review, we summarize the major findings on the clinical significance of the HIV-1 coreceptor usage.

  15. Clinical significance of complement deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, H David; Teuber, Suzanne S; Gershwin, M Eric

    2009-09-01

    The complement system is composed of more than 30 serum and membrane-bound proteins, all of which are needed for normal function of complement in innate and adaptive immunity. Historically, deficiencies within the complement system have been suspected when young children have had recurrent and difficult-to-control infections. As our understanding of the complement system has increased, many other diseases have been attributed to deficiencies within the complement system. Generally, complement deficiencies within the classical pathway lead to increased susceptibility to encapsulated bacterial infections as well as a syndrome resembling systemic lupus erythematosus. Complement deficiencies within the mannose-binding lectin pathway generally lead to increased bacterial infections, and deficiencies within the alternative pathway usually lead to an increased frequency of Neisseria infections. However, factor H deficiency can lead to membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Finally, deficiencies within the terminal complement pathway lead to an increased incidence of Neisseria infections. Two other notable complement-associated deficiencies are complement receptor 3 and 4 deficiency, which result from a deficiency of CD18, a disease known as leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1, and CD59 deficiency, which causes paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Most inherited deficiencies of the complement system are autosomal recessive, but properidin deficiency is X-linked recessive, deficiency of C1 inhibitor is autosomal dominant, and mannose-binding lectin and factor I deficiencies are autosomal co-dominant. The diversity of clinical manifestations of complement deficiencies reflects the complexity of the complement system. PMID:19758139

  16. Clinical significance of adaptive thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, G C; Doucet, E; Trayhurn, P; Astrup, A; Tremblay, A

    2007-02-01

    The epidemic of obesity is developing faster than the scientific understanding of an efficient way to overcome it, as reflected by the low success rate of short- and long-term weight loss interventions. From a clinical standpoint, this suggests that the body tends to defend a set point of possible genetic origin in the context of a weight-reducing program. As described in this paper, this limited therapeutic success may depend on adaptive thermogenesis, which represents in this case the decrease in energy expenditure (EE) beyond what could be predicted from the changes in fat mass or fat-free mass under conditions of standardized physical activity in response to a decrease in energy intake. This issue has been documented in recent studies that have shown in obese individuals adhering to a weight reduction program a greater than predicted decrease in EE, which in some cases was quantitatively sufficient to overcome the prescribed energy restriction, suggesting a role for adaptive thermogenesis in unsuccessful weight loss interventions and reduced body weight maintenance. As also discussed in this paper, this 'adaptive thermogenesis' can be influenced by environmental factors, which have not been frequently considered up to now. This is potentially the case for plasma organochlorine concentration and oxygen desaturation in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. It is concluded that health professionals should be aware that in some vulnerable individuals, adaptive thermogenesis can be multi-causal, and has the capacity to compensate, at least partly, for the prescribed energy deficit, possibly going beyond any good compliance of some patients. PMID:17260010

  17. Clinical significance of monocyte heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Brian K; Ingram, David A

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes are primitive hematopoietic cells that primarily arise from the bone marrow, circulate in the peripheral blood and give rise to differentiated macrophages. Over the past two decades, considerable attention to monocyte diversity and macrophage polarization has provided contextual clues into the role of myelomonocytic derivatives in human disease. Until recently, human monocytes were subdivided based on expression of the surface marker CD16. "Classical" monocytes express surface markers denoted as CD14(++)CD16(-) and account for greater than 70% of total monocyte count, while "non-classical" monocytes express the CD16 antigen with low CD14 expression (CD14(+)CD16(++)). However, recognition of an intermediate population identified as CD14(++)CD16(+) supports the new paradigm that monocytes are a true heterogeneous population and careful identification of specific subpopulations is necessary for understanding monocyte function in human disease. Comparative studies of monocytes in mice have yielded more dichotomous results based on expression of the Ly6C antigen. In this review, we will discuss the use of monocyte subpopulations as biomarkers of human disease and summarize correlative studies in mice that may yield significant insight into the contribution of each subset to disease pathogenesis. PMID:25852821

  18. Pseudogene redux with new biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmena, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    The study of pseudogenes, originally dismissed as genomic relics of evolutionary selection, has seen a resurgence in scientific literature, in addition to being a peculiar topic of discussion in theological debates. For a long time, pseudogenes have been touted as a beacon of natural selection and a definitive proof of evolution due to the slow mutation rate that differentiated them from their parental genes and ultimately caused their genetic demise as functional genes. It now seems that "creationists" have co-opted some recent reports identifying unheralded biological functions to pseudogens and other noncoding RNAs as evidence to undermine the existence of evolution and supporting intelligent design. This issue of Methods in Molecular Biology focused on pseudogenes will certainly not end, nor enter this debate; however, scientists who are also genomics and pseudogene enthusiasts will certainly appreciate that many scientists are thinking about these particular genetic elements in new and interesting ways. With this new interest in a biological significance and "non-junk" role for pseudogenes and other noncoding RNAs, new methods and approaches are being developed to unlock the mystery of these ancient artifacts we know as pseudogenes. In this brief introductory chapter we highlight the renewed interest in pseudogenes and review a rationale for intensification of pseudogene-related research.

  19. Biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Caruso

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A NUMBER of receptors for growth factors and differentiation antigens have been found to be secreted or released by cells. Following mononuclear cell (MNC activation and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R expression, a soluble form of the Alpha;-chain of IL-2R (sIL-2R is released. The sIL-2R has been shown to be present in the culture supernatants of activated MNCs as well as in normal sera and, in higher amounts, in sera from subjects affected by several diseases including neoplastic, infectious and autoimmune ones, and in sera from transplanted patients suffering allograft rejection. The blood sIL-2R levels depend on the number of producing cells and the number of molecules per cell, so that sIL-2R blood values may represent an index of the number and the functional state of producing cells, both normal and neoplastic. Thus, monitoring of the immune system, mostly T-cells and haematological malignancies might be targets for the measurement of sIL-2R. Since many conditions may influence sIL-2R production, little diagnostic use may result from these measurements. However, since blood sIL-2R levels may correlate with disease progression and/or response to therapy, their measurement may be a useful index of activity and extent of disease. The precise biological role of the soluble form of the IL-2R is still a matter of debate. However, we know that increased sIL-2R levels may be observed in association with several immunological abnormalities and that sIL-2R is able to bind IL-2. It is conceivable then that in these conditions the excess sIL-2R released in vivo by activated lymphoid cells or by neoplastic cells may somehow regulate IL-2-dependent processes. On the other hand, it cannot exclude that sIL-2R is a by-product without biological significance. Finally, it is puzzling that in many conditions in which an increase of blood sIL-2R values has been observed, MNCs display a decreased in vitro capacity to produce sIL-2R. These seemingly contrasting

  20. Dietary Polyphenols and Their Biological Significance

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    Hongxiang Lou

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietary polyphenols represent a wide variety of compounds that occur in fruits,vegetables, wine, tea, extra virgin olive oil, chocolate and other cocoa products. They aremostly derivatives and/or isomers of flavones, isoflavones, flavonols, catechins andphenolic acids, and possess diverse biological properties such as antioxidant, antiapoptosis,anti-aging, anticarcinogen, anti-inflammation, anti-atherosclerosis, cardiovascularprotection, improvement of the endothelial function, as well as inhibition of angiogenesisand cell proliferation activity. Most of these biological actions have been attributed to theirintrinsic reducing capabilities. They may also offer indirect protection by activatingendogenous defense systems and by modulating cellular signaling processes such asnuclear factor-kappa B (NF-кB activation, activator protein-1(AP-1 DNA binding,glutathione biosynthesis, phosphoinositide 3 (PI3-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt pathway,mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK proteins [extracellular signal-regulated proteinkinase (ERK, c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and P38 ] activation, and the translocationinto the nucleus of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2. This paper covers themost recent literature on the subject, and describes the biological mechanisms of action andprotective effects of dietary polyphenols.

  1. The thresholds for statistical and clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian; Winkel, Per;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thresholds for statistical significance are insufficiently demonstrated by 95% confidence intervals or P-values when assessing results from randomised clinical trials. First, a P-value only shows the probability of getting a result assuming that the null hypothesis is true and does...... not reflect the probability of getting a result assuming an alternative hypothesis to the null hypothesis is true. Second, a confidence interval or a P-value showing significance may be caused by multiplicity. Third, statistical significance does not necessarily result in clinical significance. Therefore...... of the probability that a given trial result is compatible with a 'null' effect (corresponding to the P-value) divided by the probability that the trial result is compatible with the intervention effect hypothesised in the sample size calculation; (3) adjust the confidence intervals and the statistical significance...

  2. Capturing clinically significant eating pathology in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmus Isomaa; Anna-Lisa Isomaa; Mauri Marttunen; Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Several large-scale studies on adolescent mental health have used questionnaire items derived from DSM-IV criteria to assess eating disorders. The aim of the present brief report was to analyse the capacity of self-reported eating disorder symptoms to capture clinically significant eating disorders. Methods: All pupils in the ninth grade (N = 606, response rate 98.2%, mean age = 15.4) of comprehensive school in a defined area were invited to participate in the study...

  3. Quantifying the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Allsop

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV. This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. METHODS AND RESULTS: A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p=0.0001. Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p=0.03. Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p=0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes.

  4. Clinical significance of granuloma in Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamás Molnár; László Tiszlavicz; Csaba Gyulai; Ferenc Nagy; János Lonovics

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Granuloma is considered the hallmark of microscopic diagnosis in Crohn's disease (CD), but granulomas can be detected in only 21-60% of CD patients. The aim of this studywas to evaluate the frequency of granulomas by multiple endoscopic biopsies in patients with CD and to examine whether group of patients with or without granuloma exhibit a different clinical course.METHODS: Fifty-six patients with newly diagnosed Cdwere included in the study. Jejunoscopy, enteroclysis and ileo-colonoscopy were performed in all patients. At least two biopsy specimens from each examined gastrointestinal segment were examined microscopically searching granuloma. The clinical course was followed in all patients, and extraintestinal manifestations as well as details of any immunosuppressive therapy and surgical intervention were noted.RESULTS: Granuloma was found in 44.6% of the cases (25 patients). Patients with granuloma had higher activity parameters at the time of the biopsies. Extraintestinal manifestations were observed and surgical interventions were performed more often in the granuloma group. The need of immunosuppressive therapy was significantly more frequent in the patients with granuloma. Granuloma formation is more often seen in younger patients, and mainly in the severe, active penetrating disease. CONCLUSION: The significantly higher frequency of surgical interventions and immunosuppressive therapy suggests that granuloma formation is associated with a more severe disease course during the first years of CD.

  5. Clinical significance of MET in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mikito; Inokuchi; Sho; Otsuki; Yoshitaka; Fujimori; Yuya; Sato; Masatoshi; Nakagawa; Kazuyuki; Kojima

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy has become the global standard treatment for patients with metastatic or unresectable gastric cancer(GC),although outcomes remain unfavorable.Many molecular-targeted therapies inhibiting signaling pathways of various tyrosine kinase receptors have been developed,and monoclonal antibodies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 or vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 have become standard therapy for GC.Hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor,c-MET(MET),play key roles in tumor growth through activated signaling pathways from receptor in GC cells.Genomic amplification of MET leads to the aberrant activation found in GC tumors and is related to survival in patients with GC.This review discusses the clinical significance of MET in GC and examines MET as a potential therapeutic target in patients with GC.Preclinical studies in animal models have shown that MET antibodies or smallmolecule MET inhibitors suppress tumor-cell proliferation and tumor progression in MET-amplified GC cells.These drugs are now being evaluated in clinical trials as treatments for metastatic or unresectable GC.

  6. Capturing clinically significant eating pathology in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Isomaa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Several large-scale studies on adolescent mental health have used questionnaire items derived from DSM-IV criteria to assess eating disorders. The aim of the present brief report was to analyse the capacity of self-reported eating disorder symptoms to capture clinically significant eating disorders. Methods: All pupils in the ninth grade (N = 606, response rate 98.2%, mean age = 15.4 of comprehensive school in a defined area were invited to participate in the study. Adolescents who reported some form of eating pathology (n = 126 were invited to an interview (RAB. Results: Anorexia based on the self-report resulted in a positive predictive value of 60.0% for lifetime and 20% for current eating disorder, when compared to the results in the RAB. No case of BN was detected by the RAB, but self-reported BN symptoms were predictive of both EDNOS and subclinical eating pathology. Conclusions: Self-reported eating disorder symptoms seem to be relatively good predictors of broadly defined eating pathology, but may result in overestimation of clinical conditions.

  7. Significance of FISH in clinical cytogenetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal Rao, V.V.N.; Harris, S.; Roop, H. [H.A. Chapman Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Ever since its discovery, FISH technology has become an invaluable adjunct to conventional cytogenetics. FISH has been instrumental in resolving previously unresolved cytogenetic dilemmas. FISH has been used to elucidate complex as well as subtle chromosomal translocations, in detection of microdeletions, to confirm duplications and inversions and to identify marker chromosomes. We report a few selected cases where FISH proved to be invaluable in not only confirming the anomaly, but also in arriving at an accurate diagnosis and appropriate counseling of the patients. These include 3 cases of prenatal and 3 cases of postnatal diagnosis. The results clearly demonstrate the significance of FISH in identifying and interpreting the difficult karyotype in clinical cytogenetics. In addition, FISH has been used to rule out microdeletions in Prader-Willi (16), Angelman (3), Miller-Dieker (7), DiGeorge (4) and Smith-Magenis (1) syndrome patients. Without FISH in the majority of these cases, it would not have been possible to accurately identify the karyotype and interpret the results. Hence, we recommend that FISH be used as a powerful adjunct to conventional cytogenetics in order to arrive at an accurate interpretation of the results but not to replace routine cytogenetic studies.

  8. The diagnosis and clinical significance of polyautoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are chronic and heterogeneous conditions that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. The chronic nature of these diseases places a significant burden on the utilization of medical care, direct and indirect economic costs, and quality of life. ADs are observed in genetically susceptible individuals in whom their clinical expression is modified by permissive and protective environments occurring over time. These are complex traits, meaning that their inheritance does not follow a single-gene dominant or single-gene recessive Mendelian law, and thus that they are polygenic. ADs are often diagnosed according to classification criteria, however they share similar subphenotypes including signs and symptoms, non-specific autoantibodies and other immune changes, which are prone to taxonomic problems. Polyautoimmunity is defined as the presence of more than one AD in a single patient. When three or more ADs coexist, this condition is called multiple autoimmune syndrome (MAS), which represents the best example of polyautoimmunity as well as the effect of a single genotype on diverse autoimmune phenotypes. Its study will provide important clues to elucidate the common mechanisms of ADs (i.e., the autoimmune tautology).

  9. Clinical significance and taxonomy of Actinobacillus hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Alice; Christensen, J J; Fussing, V;

    2001-01-01

    Clinical findings in 36 immunosuppressed patients with lower respiratory tract infection or bacteremia with Actinobacillus hominis are described. Animal contact was only recorded for three patients; nine patients died despite appropriate antimicrobial treatment. Although infections with this micr...

  10. [The significance of biobanks for clinical development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Marlene; Kiermaier, Astrid; Cannarile, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Access to samples in biobanks and collection of samples for evaluation of biomarkers in clinical trials are an essential basis for the identification and development of biomarkers. From the perspective of a research-based pharmaceutical company identification of biomarkers and the accompanying diagnostics are an essential prerequisite for the further evolution of personalised healthcare-and the key to more effective and efficient healthcare. Research-based pharmaceutical companies can basically use four types of biobanks: biobanks of university hospitals, commercial providers, collaborative groups and company-owned biobanks. Areas of application, arising from the use of biobanks in the context of clinical development, are collection of prevalence data, evaluation of biomarker stability in different disease stages, technical validation of assays, an optimized course of clinical studies by focusing on defined, biomarker-stratified groups of patients and pharmacogenetic research. Challenges are, in particular, the availability of clinically annotated samples and tissue matching blood samples, in addition to sample quality, number and amount. An acceptable legal and regulatory framework, as well as the positive perception of biomarker data by politicians and the public, are important prerequisites for translational research for identification of biomarkers in clinical studies. Also, the early establishment of research alliances between academia and the pharmaceutical industry are required to transfer research results in new strategies for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of patients. PMID:26847235

  11. Medulloblastoma: clinical and biologic aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    Packer, R. J.; Cogen, P.; Vezina, G.; Rorke, L. B.

    1999-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common childhood primary CNS tumor, and treatment approaches have evolved over the past three decades. The biologic underpinnings of medulloblastoma are not fully characterized, but recent work has identified new, important directions for research. Stratification of patients with medulloblastoma into risk groups is the backbone of most ongoing therapeutic studies. Patients are usually characterized as being either average risk or poor risk, although an intermediate...

  12. Testosterone in women-the clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Susan R; Jacobsen, Sarah Wåhlin

    2015-01-01

    the widespread use of testosterone by women-either off-label or as compounded therapy. Observational studies indicate that testosterone has favourable cardiovascular effects measured by surrogate outcomes; however, associations between endogenous testosterone and the risk of cardiovascular disease and total...... in postmenopausal women. Unmet needs include the availability of approved testosterone formulations for women and studies to elucidate the contribution of testosterone to cardiovascular, cognitive, and musculoskeletal health and the risk of cancer....... mortality, particularly in older women, are yet to be established. Adverse cardiovascular effects have not been seen in studies of transdermal testosterone therapy in women. Clinical trials suggest that exogenous testosterone enhances cognitive performance and improves musculoskeletal health...

  13. [Clinical significance of the placebo effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeltjenbruns, J; Schäfer, M

    2008-05-01

    Placebo controlled studies examining clinical problems, e.g. in pain therapy, are considered the "gold standard" for evidence-based medicine. In these studies the placebo effect itself is not the main focus of interest, but serves more as a control for the specificity of the effect of a certain treatment. What physicians in this context often do not realize is that the placebo effect itself represents a true measurable correlate of an organism's psycho-neurobiological response and, thereby, influences the healing process, e.g. the pain relief. Placebo is, therefore, not equivalent to "no treatment". The number of placebo responders, the degree and the duration of the placebo effect is not fixed, but are subject to a much greater variability then hitherto believed. The myth that placebo responders have a certain personality has not been proven correct; instead, the relationships between physicians and patients as well as sociocultural factors have a considerable impact on the placebo effect. Psychological theories explain that classical conditioning, enhanced expectation and motivation of the patient determine the degree of the placebo effect. These directly influence neurobiological systems such as the endogenous opioids which according to modern brain imaging are predominantly activated in pain-relevant areas and contribute to the effect of placebo analgesia. Placebo effects that should be deliberately excluded in controlled clinical trials, can be desirable in clinical practice to optimize the total therapeutic effect. This should mean that the context effect of each therapeutic intervention is maximized towards an improved therapeutic effect, as outlined in the recent AWMF guidelines for postoperative pain therapy, but should not include the administration of an inert substance. The latter is controlled by rigorous ethical guidelines and is only permitted in the context of ethically approved controlled clinical trials. A possible alternative is suggested by

  14. Macroprolactinemia: Diagnostic, Clinical, and Pathogenic Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Shimatsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroprolactinemia is characterized by a large molecular mass of PRL (macroprolactin as the main molecular form of PRL in sera, the frequent elevation of serum PRL (hyperprolactinemia, and the lack of symptoms. Macroprolactin is largely a complex of PRL with immunoglobulin G (IgG, especially anti-PRL autoantibodies. The prevalence of macroprolactinemia is 10–25% in patients with hyperprolactinemia and 3.7% in general population. There is no gender difference and a long-term followup demonstrates that macroprolactinemia develops before middle age and is likely a chronic condition. Polyethylene-glycol- (PEG- precipitation method is widely used for screening macroprolactinemia, and gel filtration chromatography, protein A/G column, and I125-PRL binding studies are performed to confirm and clarify its nature. The cross-reactivity of macroprolactin varies widely according to the immunoassay systems. The epitope on PRL molecule recognized by the autoantibodies is located close to the binding site for PRL receptors, which may explain that macroprolactin has a lower biological activity. Hyperprolactinemia frequently seen in macroprolactinemic patients is due to the delayed clearance of autoantibody-bound PRL. When rats are immunized with rat pituitary PRL, anti-PRL autoantibodies are produced and hyperprolactinemia develops, mimicking macroprolactinemia in humans. Screening of macroprolactinemia is important for the differential diagnosis of hyperprolactinemia to avoid unnecessary examinations and treatments.

  15. Clinical pharmacology considerations in biologics development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang ZHAO; Tian-hua REN; Diane D WANG

    2012-01-01

    Biologics,including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and other therapeutic proteins such as cytokines and growth hormones,have unique characteristics compared to small molecules.This paper starts from an overview of the pharmacokinetics (PK) of biologics from a mechanistic perspective,the determination of a starting dose for first-in-human(FIH) studies,and dosing regimen optimisation for phase Ⅱ/Ⅲ clinical trials.Subsequently,typical clinical pharmacology issues along the corresponding pathways for biologics development are summarised,including drug-drug interactions,QTc prolongation,immunogenicity,and studies in specific populations.The relationships between the molecular structure of biologics,their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics,and the corresponding clinical pharmacology strategies are summarised and depicted in a schematic diagram.

  16. Macrolide antibacterials. Drug interactions of clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rosensteil, N A; Adam, D

    1995-08-01

    Macrolide antibiotics can interact adversely with commonly used drugs, usually by altering metabolism due to complex formation and inhibition of cytochrome P-450 IIIA4 (CYP3A4) in the liver and enterocytes. In addition, pharmacokinetic drug interactions with macrolides can result from their antibiotic effect on microorganisms of the enteric flora, and through enhanced gastric emptying due to a motilin-like effect. Macrolides may be classified into 3 different groups according to their affinity for CYP3A4, and thus their propensity to cause pharmacokinetic drug interactions. Troleandomycin, erythromycin and its prodrugs decrease drug metabolism and may produce drug interactions (group 1). Others, including clarithromycin, flurithromycin, midecamycin, midecamycin acetate (miocamycin; ponsinomycin), josamycin and roxithromycin (group 2) rarely cause interactions. Azithromycin, dirithromycin, rikamycin and spiramycin (group 3) do not inactivate CYP3A4 and do not engender these adverse effects. Drug interactions with carbamazepine, cyclosporin, terfenadine, astemizole and theophylline represent the most frequently encountered interactions with macrolide antibiotics. If the combination of a macrolide and one of these compounds cannot be avoided, serum concentrations of concurrently administered drugs should be monitored and patients observed for signs of toxicity. Rare interactions and those of dubious clinical importance are those with alfentanil and sufentanil, antacids and cimetidine, oral anticoagulants, bromocriptine, clozapine, oral contraceptive steroids, digoxin, disopyramide, ergot alkaloids, felodipine, glibenclamide (glyburide), levodopa/carbidopa, lovastatin, methylprednisolone, phenazone (antipyrine), phenytoin, rifabutin and rifampicin (rifampin), triazolam and midazolam, valproic acid (sodium valproate) and zidovudine. PMID:7576262

  17. Arcuate foramen and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study determines the degree of ossification of the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane in dry bone, plane lateral cervical spine radiographs and computer tomography (CT). The average length, width and the area of the arcuate foramen were measured on dry bone and on cervical CT. Further, age, gender and complaints of the patients of shoulder and arm pain, neck pain, headache, vertigo, and lacrimation in relation to the presence of bony complete or incomplete arcuate foramen were evaluated. From February 2004 to January 2005 60 dry atlases were obtained from the Anatomy Department, University of Marmara, Istanbul, Turkey and 416 lateral cervical spine radiographs were obtained from the Radiology department for neurological and orthopedic evaluations. Each complete arcuate foramen was calculated with the aid of Clemex Vision PE demo version computer program. Among the 60 dry atlases examined 7 (11.7%) had complete and 2 (3.3 %) had incomplete bony bridge formation. Of the 416 plane lateral cervical spine radiographs examined, 30 (7.2%) had complete and 26 (6.25%) had incomplete bony bridge formation. Of the 30 complete arcuate foramen 24 (80%) were females and 6 (20%) were males. The frequency of having a complete arcuate foramen in females was 8.45%, and in males it was 4.55%. Further, of the 26 incomplete arcuate foramen 20 (76.9%) were females and 6 (23.1%) were males. The frequency of having an incomplete arcuate foramen in females was 7%, and in males was 4.55%. The statistical evaluations showed that patients with complete arcuate foramen had significant complaints of shoulder-arm pain (p=0.0072), neck pain (p=0.0072) and vertigo (p=0.0598) compared to patients with incomplete arcuate foramen. The patients with complete arcuate foramen had a headache ratio of 12:30 and this ratio was 2:26 in patients with incomplete arcuate foramen and the difference between complete and incomplete arcuate foramen was statistically significant (p=0.0062). Further

  18. Ki-67 Proliferation Index in Gastric Cancer - Biologic Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Nabais, C.; Caldeira Fradique, A; Oliveira, M.; Quaresma, L.; Gualdino Silva, J; Vasconcelos, V.; Sacadura, J.; Costa, L; Cabrita, F; Mateus Marques, R; Esteves, J.; Fernandez, G.; Guedes da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Objectives/Introdution: Ki-67 protein has been used as an indicator of proliferation activity in tumor cells. In gastric cancer the prognostic value has not been fully understood. This study was designed to assess the biologic significance of Ki-67 proliferation index (PI) in gastric cancer. Material/Methods: Seventy-two patients with gastric cancer were evaluated. These patients underwent gastric resection, and the tumor tissue was stained immunohistochemically. Ki-67 PI was defi...

  19. Sibling Competition & Growth Tradeoffs. Biological vs. Statistical Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Karen L.; Veile, Amanda; Otárola-Castillo, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood growth has many downstream effects on future health and reproduction and is an important measure of offspring quality. While a tradeoff between family size and child growth outcomes is theoretically predicted in high-fertility societies, empirical evidence is mixed. This is often attributed to phenotypic variation in parental condition. However, inconsistent study results may also arise because family size confounds the potentially differential effects that older and younger siblings can have on young children’s growth. Additionally, inconsistent results might reflect that the biological significance associated with different growth trajectories is poorly understood. This paper addresses these concerns by tracking children’s monthly gains in height and weight from weaning to age five in a high fertility Maya community. We predict that: 1) as an aggregate measure family size will not have a major impact on child growth during the post weaning period; 2) competition from young siblings will negatively impact child growth during the post weaning period; 3) however because of their economic value, older siblings will have a negligible effect on young children’s growth. Accounting for parental condition, we use linear mixed models to evaluate the effects that family size, younger and older siblings have on children’s growth. Congruent with our expectations, it is younger siblings who have the most detrimental effect on children’s growth. While we find statistical evidence of a quantity/quality tradeoff effect, the biological significance of these results is negligible in early childhood. Our findings help to resolve why quantity/quality studies have had inconsistent results by showing that sibling competition varies with sibling age composition, not just family size, and that biological significance is distinct from statistical significance. PMID:26938742

  20. Formalized prediction of clinically significant prostate cancer: is it possible?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carvell T Nguyen; Michael W Kattan

    2012-01-01

    Greater understanding of the biology and epidemiology of prostate cancer in the last several decades have led to significant advances in its management.Prostate cancer is now detected in greater numbers at lower stages of disease and is amenable to multiple forms of efficacious treatment.However,there is a lack of conclusive data demonstrating a definitive mortality benefit from this earlier diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.It is likely due to the treatment of a large proportion of indolent cancers that would have had little adverse impact on health or lifespan if left alone.Due to this overtreatment phenomenon,active surveillance with delayed intervention is gaining traction as a viable management approach in contemporary practice.The ability to distinguish clinically insignificant cancers from those with a high risk of progression and/or lethality is critical to the appropriate selection of patients for surveillance protocols versus immediate intervention.This chapter will review the ability of various prediction models,including risk groupings and nomograms,to predict indolent disease and determine their role in the contemporary management of clinically localized prostate cancer.

  1. Microvessel Density in Thyroid Carcinoma and Its Clinical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Gang(薛刚); YAO Zhenxiang(姚榛祥)

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationships between angiogenesis and development, metastasis as well as prognosis of thyroid carcinoma. Methods:48 cases of thyroid carcinoma and 5 cases of thyroid adenoma were studied.Density of microvessels of the tumors were identified by immunohistochemical staining in formalin -fixed and paraffin-embedded sections with anti-CD34 monoclonal antibody, and counted microscopically (×200).Results :The mean value of MVD in tumors>2cm in diameter was (174.92±72.63)/field, while that in tumors≤2cm was ( 117.40± 39.95)/field ( t = 3.3298, P = 0.0026).The number of microvessels was also significantly different in respect to the histotype of the thyroid carcinomas, such as papillary thyroid carcinoma(PTC), follicular thyroid carcinoma(FTC)and medullary thyroid carcinoma(MTC) ( F = 14. 95, P = 0. 0001), but not significantly different in respect to patients'age nor sex ( P>0.05). Conclusions:By studying microvessel density (MVD) of thyroid arcinomas and correlated with their clinical features and biological behaviors, it is concluded that ngiogenesis is important in tumor growth and metastasis as well as prognosis of thyroid carcinomas. Measures to combat angiogenesis may be beneficial in the treatment for thyroid carcinomas.

  2. The Biologic Basis of Clinical Heterogeneity in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Simon W M; Duong, Trang T; Rosenberg, Alan M; Morris, Quaid; Yeung, Rae S M

    2014-01-01

    Objective Childhood arthritis encompasses a heterogeneous family of diseases. Significant variation in clinical presentation remains despite consensus-driven diagnostic classifications. Developments in data analysis provide powerful tools for interrogating large heterogeneous data sets. We report a novel approach to integrating biologic and clinical data toward a new classification for childhood arthritis, using computational biology for data-driven pattern recognition. Methods Probabilistic principal components analysis was used to transform a large set of data into 4 interpretable indicators or composite variables on which patients were grouped by cluster analysis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine key variables in determining indicators and cluster assignment. Results were validated against an independent validation cohort. Results Meaningful biologic and clinical characteristics, including levels of proinflammatory cytokines and measures of disease activity, defined axes/indicators that identified homogeneous patient subgroups by cluster analysis. The new patient classifications resolved major differences between patient subpopulations better than International League of Associations for Rheumatology subtypes. Fourteen variables were identified by sensitivity analysis to crucially determine indicators and clusters. This new schema was conserved in an independent validation cohort. Conclusion Data-driven unsupervised machine learning is a powerful approach for interrogating clinical and biologic data toward disease classification, providing insight into the biology underlying clinical heterogeneity in childhood arthritis. Our analytical framework enabled the recovery of unique patterns from small cohorts and addresses a major challenge, patient numbers, in studying rare diseases. PMID:25200124

  3. Selenium: environmental significance, pollution, and biological treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lea Chua; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element needed for all living organisms. Despite its essentiality, selenium is a potential toxic element to natural ecosystems due to its bioaccumulation potential. Though selenium is found naturally in the earth's crust, especially in carbonate rocks and volcanic and sedimentary soils, about 40% of the selenium emissions to atmospheric and aquatic environments are caused by various industrial activities such as mining-related operations. In recent years, advances in water quality and pollution monitoring have shown that selenium is a contaminant of potential environmental concern. This has practical implications on industry to achieve the stringent selenium regulatory discharge limit of 5μgSeL(-1) for selenium containing wastewaters set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Over the last few decades, various technologies have been developed for the treatment of selenium-containing wastewaters. Biological selenium reduction has emerged as the leading technology for removing selenium from wastewaters since it offers a cheaper alternative compared to physico-chemical treatments and is suitable for treating dilute and variable selenium-laden wastewaters. Moreover, biological treatment has the advantage of forming elemental selenium nanospheres which exhibit unique optical and spectral properties for various industrial applications, i.e. medical, electrical, and manufacturing processes. However, despite the advances in biotechnology employing selenium reduction, there are still several challenges, particularly in achieving stringent discharge limits, the long-term stability of biogenic selenium and predicting the fate of bioreduced selenium in the environment. This review highlights the significance of selenium in the environment, health, and industry and biotechnological advances made in the treatment of selenium contaminated wastewaters. The challenges and future perspectives are overviewed considering recent

  4. Selenium: environmental significance, pollution, and biological treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lea Chua; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element needed for all living organisms. Despite its essentiality, selenium is a potential toxic element to natural ecosystems due to its bioaccumulation potential. Though selenium is found naturally in the earth's crust, especially in carbonate rocks and volcanic and sedimentary soils, about 40% of the selenium emissions to atmospheric and aquatic environments are caused by various industrial activities such as mining-related operations. In recent years, advances in water quality and pollution monitoring have shown that selenium is a contaminant of potential environmental concern. This has practical implications on industry to achieve the stringent selenium regulatory discharge limit of 5μgSeL(-1) for selenium containing wastewaters set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Over the last few decades, various technologies have been developed for the treatment of selenium-containing wastewaters. Biological selenium reduction has emerged as the leading technology for removing selenium from wastewaters since it offers a cheaper alternative compared to physico-chemical treatments and is suitable for treating dilute and variable selenium-laden wastewaters. Moreover, biological treatment has the advantage of forming elemental selenium nanospheres which exhibit unique optical and spectral properties for various industrial applications, i.e. medical, electrical, and manufacturing processes. However, despite the advances in biotechnology employing selenium reduction, there are still several challenges, particularly in achieving stringent discharge limits, the long-term stability of biogenic selenium and predicting the fate of bioreduced selenium in the environment. This review highlights the significance of selenium in the environment, health, and industry and biotechnological advances made in the treatment of selenium contaminated wastewaters. The challenges and future perspectives are overviewed considering recent

  5. [Disseminated intravascular coagulation: clinical and biological diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touaoussa, Aziz; El Youssi, Hind; El Hassani, Imane; Hanouf, Daham; El Bergui, Imane; Zoulati, Ghizlane; Amrani Hassani, Moncef

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by the systemic activation of blood coagulation. Its pathophysiological mechanisms are complex and dependent on the underlying pathology, making the clinical and biological expression of quite variable DIC. Among the various biological parameters disrupted, most are not specific, and none of them allows in itself to make the diagnosis. All this does not facilitate the task of the practitioner for diagnosis of overt DIC, much less that of the non-overt DIC, early stage whose treatment would improve the prognosis. These considerations have led to develop scores, combining several parameters depending on their availability in daily practice, as well as their diagnostic relevance. Of all the scores, the ISTH (International society of thrombosis and hemostasis) remains the most used.

  6. Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Clinical significance and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease describes the recognition and diagnosis in patients with very mild dementia. Internationally accepted diagnostic criteria support the diagnosis based on clinical evaluation. Recent advances in structural and functional neuroimaging as well as studies on specific proteins in the cerebro-spinal fluid that are related to distinct pathophysiological disease processes are most promising approaches to defining biological markers of Alzheimer's disease. (orig.)

  7. Significance of subjective memory complaints in the clinical setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Silva; M. Guerreiro; C. Faria; J. Maroco; B.A. Schmand; A. de Mendonça

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The clinical significance of subjective memory complaints in the elderly participants, particularly regarding liability of subsequent progression to dementia, has been controversial. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that severity or type of subjective memory complaints repor

  8. Polar UV measurements-Ozone depletion and biological significance

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, C. R./Tusson, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    Man-made CFCs have been banned largely because of fears that increasing amounts of these chemicals in the atmosphere would lead to elevated levels of ultraviolet flux on the earth with resulting adverse biological effects. The link between ozone depletion and elevated levels of UV is clearly demonstrated with data from the National Science Foundation's UV Monitoring Network for Polar Regions. This network of six sites (recently expanded with a seventh, affiliated site), ranging from the South...

  9. Patient-reported outcomes in lupus clinical trials with biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annapureddy, N; Devilliers, H; Jolly, M

    2016-09-01

    Therapeutic advances in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are greatly needed. Despite advances in our knowledge of pathogenesis of the disease and targets, treatment remains a significant challenge. Finding effective and relatively safe medications remains one of the top priorities. SLE significantly impairs quality of life (QoL), and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) measure a unique aspect of the disease not captured by disease activity. Inclusion of PRO measurements is encouraged in SLE clinical trials, as they allow capturing benefits of a proposed intervention in language patients can relate to and in areas deemed pertinent and important to and by patients. Availability of patient-reported and patient-centric clinical trials data may facilitate patients in informed and shared decision making, and allow for comparative cost-effectiveness evaluation for future resource allocation and reimbursements. Herein we review clinical trials with biologic therapies wherein PRO tools were included in the study design. PMID:27497256

  10. Posttranslational modifications of proopiomelanocortin in vertebrates and their biological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi eTakahashi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Proopiomelanocortin (POMC is the precursor of several peptide hormones generated in the pituitary gland. After biosynthesis, POMC undergoes several posttranslational modifications, including proteolytic cleavage, acetylation, amidation, phosphorylation, glycosylation, and disulfide linkage formation, which generate mature POMC-derived peptides. Therefore, POMC is a useful model for the investigation of posttranslational modifications. These processes have been extensively investigated in mammals, primarily in rodents. In addition, over the last decade, much information has been obtained about the posttranslational processing of POMC in non-mammalian animals such as fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds through sequencing and peptide identification by mass spectrometry. One POMC modification, acetylation, is known to modulate the biological activities of POMC-derived alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH having an acetyl group at N-terminal through potentiation or inhibition. This bidirectional regulation depends on its intrinsic roles in the tissue or cell; for example, alpha-MSH, as well as desacety-alpha-MSH, stimulates pigment dispersion in the xanthophores of a flounder. In contrast, alpha-MSH does not stimulate pigment dispersion in the melanophores of the same species, whereas desacetyl-alpha-MSH does. Regulation of pigment-dispersing activities may be associated with the subtle balance in the expression of receptor genes. In this review, we consider the posttranslational modifications of POMC in vertebrates from an evolutionary aspect, with a focus on the relationship between acetylation and the biological activities of alpha-MSH as an important consequence of posttranslational modification.

  11. Thymomodulin: biological properties and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouttab, N M; Prada, M; Cazzola, P

    1989-01-01

    Thymomodulin (Ellem Industria Farmaceutica s.p.a., Milan, Italy) is a calf thymus acid lysate derivative, composed of several peptides with a molecular weight range of 1-10 kD. Thymomodulin did not exhibit any mutagenic effect. Furthermore, thymomodulin used in animal studies showed no toxicity even when used at high concentrations. Of major significance are the observations in murine and human systems that thymomodulin remains active when administered orally. In vitro and in vivo administered thymomodulin was able to induce the maturation of T-lymphocytes. Additionally, studies in vitro showed that this thymic derivative can enhance the functions of mature T-lymphocytes with cascading effects on B-cell and macrophage functions. Extensive human clinical trials with thymomodulin showed that this agent can improve the clinical symptoms observed with various disease processes, including infections, allergies and malignancies, and can improve immunological functions during ageing. PMID:2657249

  12. Biological Significance of Seed Oil and Polyphenolic of Olea europaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asif

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The olive tree Olea europaea have beneficial properties. Mainly used parts of the olive tree are fruits and seeds. Seeds oil of olive is used as a major component of the “diet.” Chief active components of olive oil include oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, polyphenolics and squalene. These main phenolic components are hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein, which occur in highest amounts in virgin olive oil and have antioxidant properties. Olive oil has shown activity in against cancer, mainly in colon and breast cancer prevention, while individual component of olive oil, oleic acid and squalene has also been identified as anticancer agent. The olive oil has effects on coronary heart disease, due to its ability to reduce blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein level. Some components (such as hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein of olive oil exhibited antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganism in intestinal and respiratory infections. The oleic acid, polyphenolics, squqlenes are dependable for a number of biological activities as well as whole olive plant also gives health benefits.

  13. Emerging Bacterial Infection: Identification and Clinical Significance of Kocuria Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandi, Venkataramana; Palange, Padmavali; Vaish, Ritu; Bhatti, Adnan Bashir; Kale, Vinod; Kandi, Maheshwar Reddy; Bhoomagiri, Mohan Rao

    2016-01-01

    Recently there have been reports of gram-positive cocci which are morphologically similar to both Staphylococci and the Micrococci. These bacteria have been identified as Kocuria species with the help of automated identification system and other molecular methods including 16S rRNA (ribosomal ribonucleic acid) evaluation. Kocuria belongs to the family Micrococcaceae which also includes Staphylococcus species and Micrococcus species. Isolation and clinical significance of these bacteria from human specimens warrant great caution as it does not necessarily confirm infection due to their ubiquitous presence, and as a normal flora of skin and mucous membranes in human and animals. Most clinical microbiology laboratories ignore such bacteria as laboratory and specimen contaminants. With increasing reports of infections associated with these bacteria, it is now important for clinical microbiologists to identify and enumerate the virulence and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of such bacteria and assist clinicians in improving the patient care and management. We review the occurrence and clinical significance of Kocuria species. PMID:27630804

  14. Serum lipoprotein lipase mass: Clinical significance of its measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Junji; Nohara, Atsushi; Kawashiri, Masaaki; Inazu, Akihiro; Koizumi, Junji; Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Mabuchi, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a lipolytic enzyme involved in catalyzing hydrolysis of triglycerides (TG) in chylomicrons and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles. Over the last decade, increasing attention has been paid to the clinical significance of measuring serum LPL protein mass without heparin injection to the study subjects. In earlier studies, this marker was utilized to classify LPL deficient subjects, which is an extremely rare metabolic disorder with a frequency of one in on...

  15. Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Immunosensors for Clinically Significant Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina J. Ronkainen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has played a crucial role in the development of biosensors over the past decade. The development, testing, optimization, and validation of new biosensors has become a highly interdisciplinary effort involving experts in chemistry, biology, physics, engineering, and medicine. The sensitivity, the specificity and the reproducibility of biosensors have improved tremendously as a result of incorporating nanomaterials in their design. In general, nanomaterials-based electrochemical immunosensors amplify the sensitivity by facilitating greater loading of the larger sensing surface with biorecognition molecules as well as improving the electrochemical properties of the transducer. The most common types of nanomaterials and their properties will be described. In addition, the utilization of nanomaterials in immunosensors for biomarker detection will be discussed since these biosensors have enormous potential for a myriad of clinical uses. Electrochemical immunosensors provide a specific and simple analytical alternative as evidenced by their brief analysis times, inexpensive instrumentation, lower assay cost as well as good portability and amenability to miniaturization. The role nanomaterials play in biosensors, their ability to improve detection capabilities in low concentration analytes yielding clinically useful data and their impact on other biosensor performance properties will be discussed. Finally, the most common types of electroanalytical detection methods will be briefly touched upon.

  16. Has Modern Biology Entered the Mouth? The Clinical Impact of Biological Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Three areas of biological research that are beginning to have an impact on clinical medicine are examined, including molecular biology, cell biology, and biotechnology. It is concluded that oral biologists and educators must work cooperatively to bring rapid biological and biomedical advances into dental training in a meaningful way. (MSE)

  17. Significance and Biological Importance of Pyrimidine in the Microbial World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbes are unique creatures that adapt to varying lifestyles and environment resistance in extreme or adverse conditions. The genetic architecture of microbe may bear a significant signature not only in the sequences position, but also in the lifestyle to which it is adapted. It becomes a challenge for the society to find new chemical entities which can treat microbial infections. The present review aims to focus on account of important chemical moiety, that is, pyrimidine and its various derivatives as antimicrobial agents. In the current studies we represent more than 200 pyrimidines as antimicrobial agents with different mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrasubstituted classes along with in vitro antimicrobial activities of pyrimidines derivatives which can facilitate the development of more potent and effective antimicrobial agents.

  18. The hydrolytic products of aluminum and their biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, P M

    1990-03-01

    The relative distribution of Al between its various organic and inorganic complexes dictates its mobility in the environment, bioavailability, and toxicity. In recent years, there has been significant progress made in understanding the differential bioavailability and toxicity of various chemical species of Al to plants and certain aquatic organisms. Far less information concerning chemical speciation and differential uptake and transport of Al in humans is available. Among the important inorganic complexes of interest are the hydrolyzed-Al species, particularly the nonequilibrium, metastable polynuclear complexes, which form readily, have a fairly wide stability range, and have been demonstrated toxic to plants and fish. In recent years(27)Al NMR spectroscopy has provided significant direct information on the polynuclear complexes existing in a wide range of aqueous solutions. The [Al12O4(OH)24+n(H2O)12-n]((7-n)+) polynuclear complex is often found to be the predominant species in partially neutralized Al solutions and has recently been demonstrated to be more toxic to certain plants than the hexaaqua Al cation. It is also the principal component of Al-chlorohydrate, a highly soluble antiperspirant, present in many hydrolyzed Al solutions utilized in water and waste water treatment, and, as hypothesized herein, a primary constituent of many hydroxide gels utilized as antacids. This polynuclear has a wide pH stability range, reportedly forms copolynuclears with Si, and contains tetrahedrally coordinated Al within its structure, all features that may be relevant to the recently reported properties of Al associated with neuritic plaque cores.

  19. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite in the presence of biologically significant molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In bone mineralization non-collagenous phosphoproteins containing polycarboxylate sequences are thought to control crystal nucleation and to subsequently modify crystal growth. Invertebrate calcified tissues may also contain significant amounts of phosphoserine and/or acidic amino acid residues together with chitin (a polysaccharide). The present study investigated the effect of synthetic phosphorylated compounds as well as monomeric/polymeric carboxylic acid compounds on the formation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) under conditions of physiological pH, temperature and ionic strength. Poly-L-sodium aspartate was found to have the greatest inhibitory effect; only octacalcium phosphate (a known precursor of hydroxyapatite) could be detected in the presence of this polymer. Resultant minerals showed a variety of aggregation states. The biomimetically formed calcium phosphate minerals were identified and characterised by a variety of analytical thechniques, including laser Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. In addition, a series of experiments were performed to induce the formation of HAp on biogenic substrates, such as chitin and its derivatives, chitosan, reconstituted chitin and phosphorylated chitin. Granular aggregates of hydroxyapatite could be induced to form directly on phosphorylated chitin surfaces, but not on other biogenically-derived substrates. Copyright (2000) The Australian Ceramic Society

  20. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF "TREATING VITALITY" AND "RESERVING VITALITY"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    "Treating vital ity "and" reserving vital ity"are very important manipulations during acupuncture treatment of diseases. "Treating vitality" comprises adjusting and treating both the acupuncture doctor's and the patient's vitality; while "reserving vitality" demands the acupuncture doctor carefully to experience the sponses, and then perform reducing or reinforcing needling manipulations in accordance with the state of excess- or deficiency- syndrome. "Treating vitality" and "reserving vitality" impenetrate the whole process of acupuncture treatment all along. Through years' clinical practice, the author of the present paper discusses the functions of the two aspects in every stage of acupuncture treatment, including before acupuncture, during needle insertion, during retention and withdrawal of the needle. The purpose of this paper is to explain the clinical significance of treating and reserving vitality and arouse many acupuncture doctors' attention.

  1. Extensor digitorum brevis manus: Its clinical significance and morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolla SR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous muscles are often a matter of concern to clinicians as they mislead the diagnosis. Knowledge of such variant muscles is important clinically to avoid misdiagnosis. In this report we present an anomalous muscle on the dorsum of hand, extensor digitorum brevis manus an uncommon variation present as a swelling on the dorsum. It is originated from the dorsal wrist capsule within the compartment deep to the extensor retinaculum for the extensor digitorum and inserted into the extensor hood of the index finger, this variant muscle often cause dorsal wrist pain and often confused as ganglion, soft tissue tumor, synovial cyst or tenovaginitis. The presence of such variant muscles on dorsum of hand, their clinical significance and literature has been reviewed.

  2. Clinical significance of Phosphatidyl Inositol Synthase overexpression in oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reported increased levels of Phosphatidyl Inositol synthase (PI synthase), (enzyme that catalyses phosphatidyl inositol (PI) synthesis-implicated in intracellular signaling and regulation of cell growth) in smokeless tobacco (ST) exposed oral cell cultures by differential display. This study determined the clinical significance of PI synthase overexpression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and premalignant lesions (leukoplakia), and identified the downstream signaling proteins in PI synthase pathway that are perturbed by smokeless tobacco (ST) exposure. Tissue microarray (TMA) Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, Confocal laser scan microscopy, RT-PCR were performed to define the expression of PI synthase in clinical samples and in oral cell culture systems. Significant increase in PI synthase immunoreactivity was observed in premalignant lesions and OSCCs as compared to oral normal tissues (p = 0.000). Further, PI synthase expression was significantly associated with de-differentiation of OSCCs, (p = 0.005) and tobacco consumption (p = 0.03, OR = 9.0). Exposure of oral cell systems to smokeless tobacco (ST) in vitro confirmed increase in PI synthase, Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and cyclin D1 levels. Collectively, increased PI synthase expression was found to be an early event in oral cancer and a target for smokeless tobacco

  3. Ferritin. Radioimmunological determination in serum and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferritin is an iron storage protein which has been shown to be present in blood serum only recently. An immunoradiometric determination of ferritin in 324 subjects with different iron stores is reported. In healthy men and women a ferritin concentration of 131 μg/l (SD: 1.59) and 67 μg/l (SD: 1.79) was found respectively. In male and female blood donors as well as patients with iron deficiency and iron overload significant differences of serum ferritin concentration could be demonstrated. In clinical practice the determination of serum ferritin is a valuable method for the estimation of body iron stores. (orig.)

  4. The significance of mammographic signs in clinically occult disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The significance of various radiographic signs in 183 patients with clinically occult breast disease is described. 30.6% hat a carcinoma of the breast or a carcinoma in situ. The radiological features have varying predictive values and there is variation in the incidence of lymph node metastases. It is considered useful to classify the radiological appearances under the headings of round foci, star-shaped opacities, diffuse opacities, opacities with calcification and groups of micro-calcification. Despite the early diagnosis, 24% of patients already had lymph node metastases. (orig.)

  5. Clinical significance of hepatitis B surface antigen mutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicola; Coppola; Lorenzo; Onorato; Carmine; Minichini; Giovanni; Di; Caprio; Mario; Starace; Caterina; Sagnelli; Evangelista; Sagnelli

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection is a major public health problem in many countries, with nearly 300 million people worldwide carrying HBV chronic infection and over 1 million deaths per year due to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Several hepatitis B surface antigen(HBs Ag) mutations have been described, most frequently due to a single amino acid substitution and seldom to a nucleotide deletion. The majority of mutations are located in the S region, but they have also been found in the pre-S1 and pre-S2 regions. Single amino acid substitutions in the major hydrophilic region of HBs Ag, called the "a" determinant, have been associated with immune escape and the consequent failure of HBV vaccination and HBs Ag detection, whereas deletions in the pre-S1 or pre-S2 regions have been associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. This review article will focus on the HBs Ag mutants and their biological and clinical implications.

  6. Clinical significance of hepatic derangement in severe acute espiratory syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henry Lik-Yuen Chan; Ambrose Chi-Pong Kwan; Ka-Fai To; Sik-To Lai; Paul Kay-Sheung Chan; Wai-Keung Leung; Nelson Lee; Alan Wu; Joseph Jao-Yiu Sung

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level iscommonly seen among patients suffering from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). We report the progression and clinical significance of liver derangement in a large cohort of SARS patient.METHODS: Serial assay of serum ALT was followed in patients who fulfilled the WHO criteria of SARS. Those with elevated ALT were compared with those with normal liver functions for clinical outcome. Serology for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was checked. Adverse outcomes were defined as oxygen desaturation, need of intensive care unit (ICU) and mechanical ventilation and death.RESULTS: Two hundred and ninety-four patients wereincluded in this study. Seventy (24%) patients had elevatedserum ALT on admission and 204 (69%) patients hadelevated ALT during the subsequent course of illness. Using peek ALT >5xULN as a cut-off and after adjusting for potential confounding factors, the odds ratio of peek ALT >5x ULN for oxygen desaturation was 3.24 (95%CI 1.23-8.59, P = 0.018), ICU care was 3.70 (95%CT 1.38-9.89, P = 0.009), mechanical ventilation was 6.64 (95%CI 2.22-19.81, P = 0.001) and death was 7.34 (95%CI 2.28-24.89, P = 0.001). Ninety-three percent of the survived patients had ALT levels normalized or were on the improving trend during follow-up. Chronic hepatitis B was not associated with worse clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION: Reactive hepatitis is a common complication of SARS-coronavirus infection. Those patients with severehepatitis had worse clinical outcome.

  7. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF P-GLYCOPROTEIN EXPRESSION IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI En-xiao; LI Rong; ZHANG Zhen-hua; WANG Jian-bo

    1999-01-01

    Objective: to study the clinical significance of Pglycoprotein (P-gp) in breast cancer. Methods: Expression of P-gp in 60 cases of breast cancer was examined by immunohistochemistry. P-gp expression and response to chemotherapy were comparatively investigated in 19 patients with metastatic breast cancer. Results: The P-gp was positive in 48.3% of the 60 cases of breast cancer. P-gp expression was not related to patients' age, menstruation status, number of axillary lymph nodes involved, clinical stage, histological type, and hormonal receptor status (P>0.05). The frequency of metastasis (62.1%) and mortality (51.7%) were higher in P-gp positive cases than in negative cases (16.1% vs 12.9%, P<0.005). The 5-year survival rate of P-gp positive cases (48.3%) was significantly lower than that of negative cases (87.1%) (P<0.05). In patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy distant metastasis occurred more frequently in the P-gp positive cases (94.7%) than in the P-gp negative cases (57.1%) (P=0.0468). More P-gp negative patients (7/9) than positive patients (1/10) were responsive to chemotherapy (P=0.0055).Conclusion: Immunohistochemical examination of P-gp expression is useful in predicting response to chemotherapy and prognosis in breast cancer patients. P-gp positivity is associated with poor prognosis.

  8. The Clinical Significance of Unknown Sequence Variants in BRCA Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calò, Valentina; Bruno, Loredana; Paglia, Laura La; Perez, Marco; Margarese, Naomi [Department of Surgery and Oncology, Regional Reference Center for the Biomolecular Characterization and Genetic Screening of Hereditary Tumors, University of Palermo, Via del Vespro 127, 90127 Palermo (Italy); Gaudio, Francesca Di [Department of Medical Biotechnologies and Legal Medicine, University of Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Russo, Antonio, E-mail: lab-oncobiologia@usa.net [Department of Surgery and Oncology, Regional Reference Center for the Biomolecular Characterization and Genetic Screening of Hereditary Tumors, University of Palermo, Via del Vespro 127, 90127 Palermo (Italy)

    2010-09-10

    Germline mutations in BRCA1/2 genes are responsible for a large proportion of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancers. Many highly penetrant predisposition alleles have been identified and include frameshift or nonsense mutations that lead to the translation of a truncated protein. Other alleles contain missense mutations, which result in amino acid substitution and intronic variants with splicing effect. The discovery of variants of uncertain/unclassified significance (VUS) is a result that can complicate rather than improve the risk assessment process. VUSs are mainly missense mutations, but also include a number of intronic variants and in-frame deletions and insertions. Over 2,000 unique BRCA1 and BRCA2 missense variants have been identified, located throughout the whole gene (Breast Cancer Information Core Database (BIC database)). Up to 10–20% of the BRCA tests report the identification of a variant of uncertain significance. There are many methods to discriminate deleterious/high-risk from neutral/low-risk unclassified variants (i.e., analysis of the cosegregation in families of the VUS, measure of the influence of the VUSs on the wild-type protein activity, comparison of sequence conservation across multiple species), but only an integrated analysis of these methods can contribute to a real interpretation of the functional and clinical role of the discussed variants. The aim of our manuscript is to review the studies on BRCA VUS in order to clarify their clinical relevance.

  9. Clinical Significance of CK19 Negative Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisue, Mamiko, E-mail: nishimura.reiki@cityhosp-kumamoto.jp; Nishimura, Reiki; Okumura, Yasuhiro [Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan); Tashima, Rumiko [Department of Surgery, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan); Nishiyama, Yasuyuki; Osako, Tomofumi [Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan); Toyozumi, Yasuo; Arima, Nobuyuki [Department of Pathology, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan)

    2012-12-21

    Analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) by means of One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA) is gaining widespread use as a quick and accurate method. This assay detects the expression level of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) which is present in some but not all breast tumors. In this study, the clinical significance of negative CK19 was investigated in 219 cases of primary breast cancer. In 179 patients with clinically negative nodes, OSNA and imprint smear cytology of SLN were performed simultaneously. The OSNA revealed a node-positive rate of 24.6%. Negative CK19 correlated significantly with negative ER/PgR and higher Ki-67 values, and marginally with higher nuclear grade and p53 overexpression. The triple negative subtype showed lower CK19 expression. OSNA revealed that one of the negative CK19 cases was actually a false negative but this was corrected with the use of the imprint smear cytology. In conclusion, CK19 negativity reflected the aggressiveness of primary breast cancer. OSNA assay used to analyze SLN was useful, but there is a possibility that it will mistakenly detect false negatives in CK19 negative tumors. Therefore, in tumors with negative CK19, the imprint smear cytology may be more useful in cases with macrometastasis.

  10. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF HEMOSTATIC MOLECULAR MARKERS IN ACUTE LEUKEMIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴方; 王学锋; 璩斌; 王鸿利; 沈志祥; 王振义

    2002-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the clinical significance of hemostatic molecular markers changes in acute leukemia (AL). Methods A series of hemostatic molecular markers including tissue factor ( TF) , tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), plasmin anti-plasmin complex (PAP), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA), and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor ( uPAR) were measured in AL. Results The plasma level of TF, TAT, u-PA and u-PAR was significantly elevated before treatment, while in acute myeloid leukemia ( AML ) , only the level of TFPl and PAP increased.After treatment, TF and TAT remained at high level in AML, u-PA and u-PAR were still abnormal except in patients who obtained complete remission ( CR ). PAP and u-PA elevated remarkably in patient with severe hemorrhage. Conclusion The results indicated that there was hemostatic abnormal as well as hyperfibrinolysis in AL, which varied with different type of AL and can be ameliorated with clinical improvement. The measurement of TF, TAT, PAP may provide useful information for the diagnosis of DIC ; u-PA, u-PAR may be considered as useful markers for prognosis. Patient with sever hemorrhage should be treated with antifibrinolysis drugs, and great attention should be paid to prevent hypercoagulability in patients with AML after chemotherapeutic treatment.

  11. Clinical Significance of CK19 Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Arima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs by means of One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA is gaining widespread use as a quick and accurate method. This assay detects the expression level of cytokeratin 19 (CK19 which is present in some but not all breast tumors. In this study, the clinical significance of negative CK19 was investigated in 219 cases of primary breast cancer. In 179 patients with clinically negative nodes, OSNA and imprint smear cytology of SLN were performed simultaneously. The OSNA revealed a node-positive rate of 24.6%. Negative CK19 correlated significantly with negative ER/PgR and higher Ki-67 values, and marginally with higher nuclear grade and p53 overexpression. The triple negative subtype showed lower CK19 expression. OSNA revealed that one of the negative CK19 cases was actually a false negative but this was corrected with the use of the imprint smear cytology. In conclusion, CK19 negativity reflected the aggressiveness of primary breast cancer. OSNA assay used to analyze SLN was useful, but there is a possibility that it will mistakenly detect false negatives in CK19 negative tumors. Therefore, in tumors with negative CK19, the imprint smear cytology may be more useful in cases with macrometastasis.

  12. The questioned p value: clinical, practical and statistical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Paneque, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    The use of p-value and statistical significance have been questioned since the early 80s in the last century until today. Much has been discussed about it in the field of statistics and its applications, especially in Epidemiology and Public Health. As a matter of fact, the p-value and its equivalent, statistical significance, are difficult concepts to grasp for the many health professionals some way involved in research applied to their work areas. However, its meaning should be clear in intuitive terms although it is based on theoretical concepts of the field of Statistics. This paper attempts to present the p-value as a concept that applies to everyday life and therefore intuitively simple but whose proper use cannot be separated from theoretical and methodological elements of inherent complexity. The reasons behind the criticism received by the p-value and its isolated use are intuitively explained, mainly the need to demarcate statistical significance from clinical significance and some of the recommended remedies for these problems are approached as well. It finally refers to the current trend to vindicate the p-value appealing to the convenience of its use in certain situations and the recent statement of the American Statistical Association in this regard. PMID:27636600

  13. Clinical significance of the corpus callosum in cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Kim, Ji Chang [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Chul [School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); And Others

    2000-10-01

    To evaluate, using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the clinal significance of the corpus callosum by measuring the size of various portions of the corpus callosum in children with cerebral palsy, and in paired controls. Fifty-two children (30 boys and 22 girls aged between six and 96 (median, 19) months) in whom cerebral palsy was clinically diagnosed underwent MR imaging. There were 23 term patients and 29 preterm, and the control group was selected by age and sex matching. Clinal subtypes of cerebral palsy were classified as hemiplegia (n=14), spastic diplegia (n=22), or spastic quadriplegia (n=16), and according to the severity of motor palsy, the condition was also classified as mild (n=26), moderate (n=13), or severe (n=13). In addition to the length and height of the corpus callosum, the thickness of its genu, body, transitional zone and splenium, as seen on midsagittal T1-weighted MR images, were also measured. Differences in the measured values of the two groups were statistically analysed and differences in the size of the corpus callosum according to the clinical severity and subtypes of cerebral palsy, and gestational age, were also assessed. Except for height, the measured values of the corpus callosum in patients with cerebral palsy were significantly less than those of the control group (p less than 0.05). Its size decreased according to the severity of motor palsy. Compared with term patients, the corpus callosum in preterm patients was considerably smaller (p less than 0.05). There was statistically significant correlation between the severity of motor palsy and the size of the corpus callosum. Quantitative evaluation of the corpus callosum might be a good indicator of neurologic prognosis, and a sensitive marker for assessing the extent of brain injury.

  14. Clinical significance of the corpus callosum in cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate, using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the clinal significance of the corpus callosum by measuring the size of various portions of the corpus callosum in children with cerebral palsy, and in paired controls. Fifty-two children (30 boys and 22 girls aged between six and 96 (median, 19) months) in whom cerebral palsy was clinically diagnosed underwent MR imaging. There were 23 term patients and 29 preterm, and the control group was selected by age and sex matching. Clinal subtypes of cerebral palsy were classified as hemiplegia (n=14), spastic diplegia (n=22), or spastic quadriplegia (n=16), and according to the severity of motor palsy, the condition was also classified as mild (n=26), moderate (n=13), or severe (n=13). In addition to the length and height of the corpus callosum, the thickness of its genu, body, transitional zone and splenium, as seen on midsagittal T1-weighted MR images, were also measured. Differences in the measured values of the two groups were statistically analysed and differences in the size of the corpus callosum according to the clinical severity and subtypes of cerebral palsy, and gestational age, were also assessed. Except for height, the measured values of the corpus callosum in patients with cerebral palsy were significantly less than those of the control group (p less than 0.05). Its size decreased according to the severity of motor palsy. Compared with term patients, the corpus callosum in preterm patients was considerably smaller (p less than 0.05). There was statistically significant correlation between the severity of motor palsy and the size of the corpus callosum. Quantitative evaluation of the corpus callosum might be a good indicator of neurologic prognosis, and a sensitive marker for assessing the extent of brain injury

  15. Clinical and prognostic significance of plasma fibrinogen in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen YS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Hyperfibrinogenemia is a common problem associated with various carcinomas. The recent studies have shown that high plasma fibrinogen concentration is associated with invasion, growth and metastases of cancer. Furthermore, the recent studies focus on the prognostic significance of fibrinogen in the patients with advanced NSCLC (stage IIIB -IV. However, the prognostic significance of the plasma fibrinogen levels in early stage NSCLC patients (stage I -IIIA still remains unclear. In addition, it remains unclear whether or not chemotherapy-induced changes in fibrinogen level relate to the prognosis. The aims of this study were to 1 further explore the relationship between the plasma fibrinogen concentration and the stage and metastases of lung cancer 2 evaluate the prognostic significance of the basal plasma fibrinogen level in patients with lung cancer 3 explore the prognostic value of the change in fibrinogen levels between pre and post-chemotherapy. Methods: In this retrospective study, the data from 370 patients with lung cancer were enrolled into this study. The plasma fibrinogen levels were compared with the clinical and prognostic significance of lung cancer. The association between the plasma fibrinogen level and clinical-prognostic characteristics were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 software. Results: 1 The median pre-treatment plasma fibrinogen levels were 4.20g/L. Pre-treatment plasma fibrinogen levels correlated significantly with gender (p = 0.013. A higher plasma fibrinogen concentration was associated with squamous cell carcinoma versus adenocarcinoma (4.83±1.50 g/L versus 4.15±1.30 g/L; P<0.001, there was a significant association between plasma fibrinogen level and metastases of lung cancer, pointing a higher plasma fibrinogen level in lymph nodes or distant organ metastases (p < 0.001. 2 Patients with low plasma fibrinogen concentration demonstrates higher overall survival compared with those with high plasma fibrinogen

  16. Clinical significance of computed tomography assessment for third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamori, Kenji; Tomihara, Kei; Noguchi, Makoto

    2014-07-28

    Surgical extraction of the third molar is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the clinical practice of oral surgery. Third molar surgery is warranted when there is inadequate space for eruption, malpositioning, or risk for cyst or odontogenic tumor formation. Preoperative assessment should include a detailed morphologic analysis of the third molar and its relationship to adjacent structures and surrounding tissues. Due to developments in medical engineering technology, computed tomography (CT) now plays a critical role in providing the clear images required for adequate assessment prior to third molar surgery. Removal of the maxillary third molar is associated with a risk for maxillary sinus perforation, whereas removal of the mandibular third molar can put patients at risk for a neurosensory deficit from damage to the lingual nerve or inferior alveolar nerve. Multiple factors, including demographic, anatomic, and treatment-related factors, influence the incidence of nerve injury during or following removal of the third molar. CT assessment of the third molar prior to surgery can identify some of these risk factors, such as the absence of cortication between the mandibular third molar and the inferior alveolar canal, prior to surgery to reduce the risk for nerve damage. This topic highlight presents an overview of the clinical significance of CT assessment in third molar surgery. PMID:25071882

  17. The clinical significance of lung hypoexpansion in acute childhood asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spottswood, Stephanie E. [Department of Radiology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, Box 980615, 23298-0615, Richmond, VA (United States); Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of the King' s Daughters, 601 Children' s Lane, Norfolk, VA 23507 (United States); Allison, Kelley Z.; Narla, Lakshmana D.; Lowry, Patricia A. [Department of Radiology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, Box 980615, 23298-0615, Richmond, VA (United States); Lopatina, Olga A.; Sethi, Narinder N. [School of Medicine, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, Richmond, VA (United States); Nettleman, Mary D. [Department of Internal Medicine, B-427 Clinical Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Many children experiencing acute asthmatic episodes have chest radiographs, which may show lung hyperinflation, hypoinflation, or normal inflation. Lung hypoinflation may be a sign of respiratory fatigue and poor prognosis. To compare the clinical course in children with asthma according to the degree of lung inflation on chest radiographs. We conducted a retrospective study during a 24-month period (from July 1999 to July 2001) of children aged 0-17 years, who presented to a pediatric emergency department or outpatient clinic with an asthma exacerbation. Chest radiographs obtained at presentation were reviewed independently by three pediatric radiologists who were blinded to the admission status of the patient. The correlation between hypoinflation and hospital admission was assessed in three age groups: 0-2 years, 3-5 years, and 6-17 years. Hypoinflation on chest radiographs was significantly correlated with hospital admission for children aged 6-17 years (odds ratio 16.00, 95% confidence interval 1.89-135.43). The inter-reader agreement for interpretation of these radiographs was strong, with a kappa score of 0.76. Hypoinflation was not correlated with admission in younger children. Lung hypoinflation is associated with a greater likelihood of hospital admission in children aged 6 years or older. Therefore, hypoinflation was a poor prognostic sign and may warrant more aggressive therapy. (orig.)

  18. The clinical significance of lung hypoexpansion in acute childhood asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many children experiencing acute asthmatic episodes have chest radiographs, which may show lung hyperinflation, hypoinflation, or normal inflation. Lung hypoinflation may be a sign of respiratory fatigue and poor prognosis. To compare the clinical course in children with asthma according to the degree of lung inflation on chest radiographs. We conducted a retrospective study during a 24-month period (from July 1999 to July 2001) of children aged 0-17 years, who presented to a pediatric emergency department or outpatient clinic with an asthma exacerbation. Chest radiographs obtained at presentation were reviewed independently by three pediatric radiologists who were blinded to the admission status of the patient. The correlation between hypoinflation and hospital admission was assessed in three age groups: 0-2 years, 3-5 years, and 6-17 years. Hypoinflation on chest radiographs was significantly correlated with hospital admission for children aged 6-17 years (odds ratio 16.00, 95% confidence interval 1.89-135.43). The inter-reader agreement for interpretation of these radiographs was strong, with a kappa score of 0.76. Hypoinflation was not correlated with admission in younger children. Lung hypoinflation is associated with a greater likelihood of hospital admission in children aged 6 years or older. Therefore, hypoinflation was a poor prognostic sign and may warrant more aggressive therapy. (orig.)

  19. Clinical manifestations and significance of post-traumatic thoracolumbar syringomyelia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱勇; 朱泽章; 吕锦瑜; 王斌; 李卫国; 朱丽华

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the pathogenic mechanism and the clinical significance of post-traumatic thoracolumbar syringomyelia through reviewing the clinical manifestations. Methods: The data of 15 patients (14 males and 1 female, aged from 28 to 56 years, with an average of 36 years) with post-traumatic syringomyelia treated in our hospital from December 1997 to February 2002 were studied retrospectively. Two patients suffered from T11 fractures, 7 from T12 fractures and 6 from L1 fractures. There were 12 patients with burst fractures and 3 with fracture dislocations. Anterior decompression, bone graft, bone fusion and internal fixation were made on 6 patients, posterior decompression, bone graft, bone fusion and internal fixation on 1 patient, and non-surgical treatment on 8 patients. Results: Syringomyelia of the patients was diagnosed accurately with magnetic resonance imaging at 0.5-4 years after the original thoracolumbar fracture. The cavern was round in 6 cases, elliptic in 6 cases, and irregular in 3 cases. The patients also suffered from pain (80%), myodynamia attenuation in lower extremities (66.7%), aggravated spasm (46.7%), sensation loss or hypesthesia (46.7%), decreased coordinate function of lower extremities (20%) and autonomic nerve symptom (6.7%).Conclusions: Post-traumatic thoracolumbar syringomyelia should be suspected if the patient has new neurological symptoms, such as myodynamia attenuation in lower extremities, after the neural function becomes stable for certain time.

  20. Clinical significance of computed tomography assessment for third molar surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenji; Nakamori; Kei; Tomihara; Makoto; Noguchi

    2014-01-01

    Surgical extraction of the third molar is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the clinical practice of oral surgery.Third molar surgery is warranted when there is inadequate space for eruption,malpositioning,or risk for cyst or odontogenic tumor formation.Preoperative assessment should include a detailed morphologic analysis of the third molar and its relationship to adjacent structures and surrounding tissues.Due to developments in medical engineering technology,computed tomography(CT)now plays a critical role in providing the clear images required for adequate assessment prior to third molar surgery.Removal of the maxillary third molar is associated with a risk for maxillary sinus perforation,whereas removal of the mandibular third molar can put patients at risk for a neurosensory deficit from damage to the lingual nerve or inferior alveolar nerve.Multiple factors,including demographic,anatomic,and treatment-related factors,influence the incidence of nerve injury during or following removal of the third molar.CT assessment of the third molar prior to surgery can identify some of these risk factors,such as the absence of cortication between themandibular third molar and the inferior alveolar canal,prior to surgery to reduce the risk for nerve damage.This topic highlight presents an overview of the clinical significance of CT assessment in third molar surgery.

  1. Clinical significance of scoring system for systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jian; LIANG Hua-ping

    2006-01-01

    The concepts of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and scoring system were defined by the journal of Bone in 1992. SIRS was described as occurrence of two or more clinical criteria in four ones (fever or hypothermia, tachypnea, tachycardia, and leukocytosis).An early diagnosis and estimation of systemic inflammation in patients is helpful for treatment selection. This paper reviews the application of SIRS scoring system, which has been extensively validated for large groups of critical care patients with severe injury and critical surgical diseases.Recent studies have documented SIRS score as a significant predictive parameter of adverse outcome in critical care patients. Furthermore, some studies also give us a suggestion on how to reduce the overload systemic response.

  2. Expression and clinical significance of aquaglyceroporins in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Feng; Li, Chuan-Fei; Lü, Lin; Mei, Zhe-Chuan

    2016-06-01

    Aquaglyceroporins (AQPs) are a subset of the aquaporin family, and are permeable to water and glycerol. The aim of the present study was to determine the expression and clinical significance of three AQPs, AQP3, 7 and 9 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Fresh HCC and adjacent non‑tumorous liver tissues were collected from 68 patients diagnosed with HCC. The expression levels of AQP3, 7 and 9 were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. The association between the expression of AQPs and clinicopathological parameters of HCC were investigated. Compared with non‑tumorous liver tissue, HCC tissues exhibited a significant (P<0.05) increase in the expression of AQP3 and a concomitant reduction in the expression levels of AQP7 and AQP9, at both the mRNA and protein levels. Immunohistochemistry revealed that AQP9 was dominantly localized on the plasma membrane of hepatocytes, while AQP3 and AQP7 exhibited a predominantly cytoplasmic and nuclear distribution. High expression of AQP3 was significantly (P<0.05) associated with low expression levels of AQP7 and AQP9. High expression of AQP3 was correlated with tumor grade (P=0.017), tumor stage (P=0.010) and lymphatic metastasis (P=0.031). Low expression of AQP7 was correlated with tumor grade (P=0.043). AQP3 was upregulated, and AQP7 and AQP9 were downregulated in HCC. A high expression of AQP3 and low expression of AQP7 was significantly associated with the aggressive features of HCC. PMID:27121567

  3. Clinical significance of clusterin expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Junshuo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clusterin is known to be expressed in many human neoplasms, and is believed to participate in the regeneration, migration, and anti-apoptosis of tumor cells. However, few reports have addressed the relationship between the manifestation of clusterin and clinicopathologic parameters in pancreas cancer patients. In the present study, the authors investigated the expression of clusterin and its clinical significance in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Methods Immunohistochemical staining was performed for clusterin in tumor tissues obtained from patients who received pancreatic resection with radical intent, and the associations of clusterin expression with various clinicopathologic parameters were analyzed in addition to the relation between its expression and survival. Results Immunoreactivity for clusterin was observed in 17 of the 52 (33% pancreatic adenocarcinomas examined. In addition, clusterin positivity was found to be associated with preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen level, perineural invasion, and, most strongly, lymph node metastasis. The survival analysis identified tumor differentiation and lymph node metastasis as the only significant prognostic factors. Conclusion Although not an independent prognostic factor, clusterin immunoreactivity can be used in conjunction with lymph node metastasis to predict survival in cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  4. Clinical Significance of Evaluating Antihypertensive Effect with Arterial Compliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新立; 倪春辉; 王震震

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical significance of antihypertensive effect witharterial compliance. Methods In males, 72 cases were control group, 35 cases were EH-controlled,and 35 cases were EH-uncontrolled groups. Blood pressure and arterial compliance (C1 and C2) weredetected by HDI DO-2020. Results In the EH-uncontrolled group,the values of systolic blood pres-sure (SBP) , diastolic blood pressure (DBP) , mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure(PP) were significantly higher than those of the control and the EH-controlled groups (P<0.01),however ,there was no difference between the control and the EH-controlled groups. In the EH-uncon-trolled group,the values of C1 and C2 were lower tlan those of both the control and the EH-controlledgroups (P<0.01) ,again,with no difference between the control and the EH-controlled groups. Con-clttsion Arterial compliance (C1 and C2) measurements may serve as a sensitive indicator of evalu-ating antihypertensive effect.

  5. Clinical significance of metallothioneins in cell therapy and nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sushil Sharma,1 Afsha Rais,1 Ranbir Sandhu,1 Wynand Nel,1 Manuchair Ebadi21Saint James School of Medicine, Bonaire, The Netherlands; 2Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Therapeutics, Center of Excellence in Neuroscience, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USAAbstract: Mammalian metallothioneins (MTs are low molecular weight (6–7 kDa cysteine-rich proteins that are specifically induced by metal nanoparticles (NPs. MT induction in cell therapy may provide better protection by serving as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic agents, and by augmenting zinc-mediated transcriptional regulation of genes involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. Liposome-encapsulated MT-1 promoter has been used extensively to induce growth hormone or other genes in culture and gene-manipulated animals. MTs are induced as a defensive mechanism in chronic inflammatory conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and infections, hence can serve as early and sensitive biomarkers of environmental safety and effectiveness of newly developed NPs for clinical applications. Microarray analysis has indicated that MTs are significantly induced in drug resistant cancers and during radiation treatment. Nutritional stress and environmental toxins (eg, kainic acid and domoic acid induce MTs and aggregation of multilamellar electron-dense membrane stacks (Charnoly body due to mitochondrial degeneration. MTs enhance mitochondrial bioenergetics of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide–ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex-1, a rate-limiting enzyme complex involved in the oxidative phosphorylation. Monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors (eg, selegiline inhibit α-synuclein nitration, implicated in Lewy body formation, and inhibit 1-methyl 4-phenylpyridinium and 3-morpholinosydnonimine-induced apoptosis in cultured human dopaminergic neurons and mesencephalic fetal stem cells. MTs

  6. Photocoagulation treatment for clinically significant radiation macular oedema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinyoun, J.L.; Zamber, R.W.; Lawrence, B.S.; Barlow, W.E.; Arnold, A.M. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Macular oedema is a leading cause of vision loss in patients with radiation retinopathy. In an effort to find an effective treatment for this vision threatening complication, 12 eyes (eight patients) were treated with photocoagulation for clinically significant radiation macular oedema (CSRMO) defined as central macular thickening, exudates threatening the macular centre, or one disc area of thickening in the macula. Median visual acuity improved from 20/100 pre-operatively to 20/90 at the initial post-operative examination (mean follow up 5 months) and to 20/75 at the final post-operative examination (mean follow up 39 months). At the final post-operative examination, visual acuity had improved in eight (67%) eyes and six (50%) eyes had complete resolution of the CSRMO; two (17%) other eyes had improved anatomically in that fewer CSRMO criteria were present. These results suggest that macular photocoagulation is effective in decreasing macular oedema and improving vision in eyes with CSRMO. (author).

  7. Bacterial resistance to tetracycline: mechanisms, transfer, and clinical significance

    OpenAIRE

    Speer, B S; Shoemaker, N. B.; Salyers, A A

    1992-01-01

    Tetracycline has been a widely used antibiotic because of its low toxicity and broad spectrum of activity. However, its clinical usefulness has been declining because of the appearance of an increasing number of tetracycline-resistant isolates of clinically important bacteria. Two types of resistance mechanisms predominate: tetracycline efflux and ribosomal protection. A third mechanism of resistance, tetracycline modification, has been identified, but its clinical relevance is still unclear....

  8. Construction of databases: advances and significance in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Erping; Huang, Bingjie; Wang, Liming; Lin, Xiaoyu; Lin, Haotian

    2015-12-01

    Widely used in clinical research, the database is a new type of data management automation technology and the most efficient tool for data management. In this article, we first explain some basic concepts, such as the definition, classification, and establishment of databases. Afterward, the workflow for establishing databases, inputting data, verifying data, and managing databases is presented. Meanwhile, by discussing the application of databases in clinical research, we illuminate the important role of databases in clinical research practice. Lastly, we introduce the reanalysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cloud computing techniques, showing the most recent advancements of databases in clinical research. PMID:27215009

  9. Acute chorioamnionitis and funisitis: definition, pathologic features, and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chong Jai; Romero, Roberto; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiyasit, Noppadol; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Kim, Yeon Mee

    2015-10-01

    -term complications (ie, sterile inflammation in fetuses, neonatal sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, periventricular leukomalacia, and cerebral palsy). This article reviews the definition, pathogenesis, grading and staging, and clinical significance of the most common lesions in placental disease. Illustrations of the lesions and diagrams of the mechanisms of disease are provided. PMID:26428501

  10. Athletic Training Students' Perception of Significant Clinical Instructor Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Carlen; Martin, Malissa

    2010-01-01

    Context: Characteristics of a model clinical instructor (CI) continue to be defined. However, certain characteristics are still unknown. Objective: To more fully define and describe quality clinical instruction by examining the impact of employment status, years of experience as a certified athletic trainer (AT), and employment setting on athletic…

  11. Primary varicose veins: Frequency, clinical significance and surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Dragan M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION According to the definition of the World Health Organization, varicose veins represent abnormally enlarged superficial veins having baggy or cylindrical shape. The most frequent cause of primary varicose veins is the insufficiency of long saphenous vein (LSV, but especially the basin of its connection with femoral vein and perforating veins. OBJECTIVE The objectives of these investigations were: the determination of insufficiency incidence of SSV in cases of LSV insufficiency; the establishment of association of insufficiency of perforating veins of the basin of LSV and SSV; the study of the results of surgical treatment of insufficiency and varicosity of both short and long saphenous veins. METHODS In this study, 100 patients (66 women and 34 men, average age 52.1 years, with clinical symptoms showing the insufficiency and varicosity of long saphenous vein with no change of deep vein system were examined. Ultrasonographic examinations were made using Color Doppler probes - 7.5 and 3.75 MHz (Toshiba Corevison SSA 350 A; the development of incompetence of long saphenous vein (LSV and short saphenous vein (SSV at the level of the junction as well as other incompetent valves were examined. The reflux was defined as a retrograde flow of the duration longer than 0.5 seconds. RESULTS The insufficiency of short saphenous vein was determined by ultrasonographic examination in 34%, while the insufficiency of perforating veins in 80% of patients. 40% of patients were operated (33.3% of females, and 52.9% of males. The most frequent indications for surgical treatment of superficial veins insufficiency were: strong varicosities, clear symptoms and signs, superficial thrombophlebitis and conditions after superficial thrombophlebitis. Surgical treatment was applied in 16% of patients due to recurrence in the basin of long saphenous vein, and in 6% of cases because of the recurrence in the basin of short saphenous vein. Data analysis failed to

  12. Clinical significance of PHPT1 protein expression in lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU An-jian; XIA Xiang-hou; DU Song-tao; GU Jun-chao

    2010-01-01

    Background in our previous studies, we found the expression of 14-kD phosphohistidine phosphatase (PHPT1) was associated with lung cancer cells migration and invasion, and PHPT1 mRNA expression level in lung cancer tissues clinically correlated with lymph node metastasis. in the present study, we aimed to further investigate the expression of PHPT1 protein in lung cancer.Methods Expression of PHPT1 protein in tissue samples from 146 lung cancers and 30 normal tissues adjacent to lung cancers was assessed using immunohistochemical method. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze expression patterns of PHPT1 protein in these tissue types. Meanwhile, we studied the correlation between expression of PHPT1 protein and clinicopathological features in lung cancer.Results Significantly higher expression levels of PHPT1 protein were found in lung cancer samples (53.42%) than in normal tissues adjacent to lung cancer (23.33%) (P=0.003). Fisher's exact test showed that lung cancer stage positively correlated with expression of PHPT1 protein (P=0.02), and lung cancer samples with lymph node metastasis showed higher PHPT1 protein expression (P=0.016) than the samples without lymph node metastasis.Conclusions The results of this study agree with findings from our previous study of PHPT1 mRNA expression in lung cancer tissues, and strongly suggest that PHPT1 protein is closely associated with the carcinogenesis and metastasis of lung cancer. Thus, therapy targeting PHPT1 (inhibition or silencing) could be potentially benefited for lung cancer patients.

  13. The clinical significance of fatty acid binding proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Choromańska

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Excessive levels of free fatty acids are toxic to cells. The human body has evolved a defense mechanism in the form of small cytoplasmic proteins called fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs that bind long-chain fatty acids (LCFA, and then refer them to appropriate intracellular disposal sites (oxidation in mitochondria and peroxisomes or storage in the endoplasmic reticulum. So far, nine types of these proteins have been described, and their name refers to the place in which they were first identified or where they can be found in the greatest concentration. The most important FABPs were isolated from the liver (L-FABP, heart (H-FABP, intestine (I-FABP, brain (B-FABP, epidermis (E-FABP and adipocytes (A-FABP. Determination of H-FABP is used in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, and L-FABP in kidney lesions of different etiologies. It is postulated that FABPs play an important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Elevated levels of A-FABP have been found in the pericardial fat tissue and were associated with cardiac dysfunction in obese people. A rise in A-FABP has been observed in patients with type II diabetes. I-FABP is known as a marker of cell damage in the small intestine. Increased concentration of B-FABP has been associated with human brain tumors such as glioblastoma and astrocytoma, as well as with neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and other disorders of cognitive function. The aim of this work was to present current data on the clinical significance of fatty acid binding proteins.

  14. The clinical significance of CA-125 in pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sun; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, JungHan; Lim, Hyo-Jeong; Cho, Young-Jae; Yoon, Hoil; Lee, JaeHo; Lee, Choon-Taek; Park, Jong Sun

    2013-03-01

    Cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) is usually elevated in ovarian cancer. However, there are several reports that serum CA-125 is elevated in tuberculosis. This study investigated the clinical significance of serum CA-125 measurements in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Between September 2008 and March 2011, Serum CA-125 was measured in patients with active pulmonary TB before treatment (baseline), and 6 and 12 months after initiation of anti-TB treatment. Patients with pulmonary TB confirmed by culture or polymerase chain reaction for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB-PCR) were included. The study enrolled 100 patients. The mean serum CA-125 was 38.9 ± 41.4 U/ml (reference value, lesions on chest X-ray (p = 0.004). Elevated CA-125 was independently associated with female gender (OR = 12.5, 95% CI: 3.4-45.2), positive acid-fast staining of sputum (OR = 6.0, 95% CI: 1.8-19.7), cavitary lung lesion (OR = 4.0, 95% CI: 1.2-12.9), and involvement of more than one lung on chest X-ray (OR = 9.4, 95% CI: 2.2-40.1). The CA-125 level decreased with anti-TB treatment (p = 0.001). Serum CA-125 was related to the activity and severity of pulmonary TB, and it may be useful in the monitoring of therapeutic responses in certain cases of active pulmonary TB, especially in female patients of active pulmonary TB. PMID:23414674

  15. VARIABILITY OF ORIGIN OF OBTURATOR ARTERY AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthivel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obturator artery is a branch of anterior division of internal iliac artery. It normally runs anteroinferiorly on the lateral wall of pelvis to the upper part of the obturator foramen and leaves the pelvis by passing through the obturator canal. On its course, the artery is accompanied by the obturator nerve and vein. It supplies the muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh. A severe and potentially lethal complication in pelvic injuries is arterial bleeding commonly involving the branches of the internal iliac artery, namely the lateral sacral, iliolumbar, obturator, vesical and inferior gluteal arteries. A sound knowledge of retro-pubic pelvic vascular anatomy is pivotal for successful performance of endoscopic procedures such as total extra-peritoneal inguinal hernioplasty or laparoscopic herniorraphy. The context and purpose of the study: This study is an attempt to analyse the origin, course, distribution of obturator artery in pelvis and their clinical implication. Result: out of 60 formalin fixed pelvic halves 36.6% of the specimens, (26.67% in males and 10% in females the origin of obturator artery was found to be normal from anterior division of internal iliac artery. About 63.63% from various other sources. Conclusion: This knowledge of variation in the origin of obturator artery is important while doing pelvic and groin surgeries requiring appropriate ligation. Such aberrant origins may be a significant source for persistent bleeding in the setting of acute trauma. Knowledge regarding the variations of obturator artery is useful during surgeries of fracture and direct or indirect inguinal, femoral and obturator hernias.

  16. Clinical and biological features of familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高健

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical and biological features of familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma(FNMTC).Methods Clinical data of 66 FNMTC cases of 32pedigrees was retrospectively analyzed,compared with that of 182 control cases taken randomly from the patients with sporadic papillary thyroid carcinoma(SPTC),who

  17. [Combination biological therapy for fistular Crohn's disease: clinical demonstration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, O V; Parfenov, A I; Shcherbakov, P L; Konoplyannikov, A G; Ruchkina, I N; Lischchinskaya, A A

    2014-01-01

    Perianal fistulas are the most common and frequently encountered types of fistulas in Crohn's disease (CD). They are incurable, may worsen quality of life in a patient and increase the risk of total bowel resection. Despite the significant impact of biological (anticytokine) therapy for fistular CD, treatment in this category of patients remains a difficult task with the high risk of recurrent CD. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) having immunomodulatory properties and a great regenerative potential are currently also used to treat fistulas in CD and perianal fistulas of another etiology. The given clinical case demonstrates that complete fistula healing could be achieved only after a few local administrations of MSCs in combination with infliximab and azathioprine. World and our experiences indicate that there is a need for randomized controlled trials with a sufficient number of patients to prove the efficacy of MSCs in the combination therapy of fistulas in CD. PMID:24772517

  18. Do glycine-extended hormone precursors have clinical significance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Half of the known peptide hormones are C-terminally amidated. Subsequent biogenesis studies have shown that the immediate precursor is a glycine-extended peptide. The clinical interest in glycine-extended hormones began in 1994, when it was suggested that glycine-extended gastrin stimulated cancer...... and clinical effects of glycine-extended precursors for most other amidated hormones than gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK). The idea of glycine-extended peptides as independent messengers was interesting. But clinical science has to move ahead from ideas that cannot be supported at key points after decades...

  19. RNA interference - From Biology to clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available I strongly advice the readers to go to the Nobel foundation web site and read the Nobel lectures by Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello, the two 2006 Nobel laureates "for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA" (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2006/. Well, it is impressive how both the Nobel laureates clearly anticipate the immense possibility the phenomenon they discovered is giving to Biology and its applications. That is to say, they clearly visioned the great chance to both advance our theoretical understanding of gene expression regulation (i.e., how the gene networks and circuiteries are finely tuned by RNA interference, and its critical role in ontogeny and make use in biotechnological applications of this formidable tool, notably in translational medicine. Here we go to the............

  20. Analysis of clinical significance on the special thromboelastograph graphics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小利

    2013-01-01

    Objective Through the analysis of the special thromboelastography (TEG) graphics to improve the ability of analysis and identification the TEG and provide more valuable results for clinical practice.Methods This study is a retrospective study.Retrospective analysis of

  1. Overview on fosfomycin and its current and future clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chudzik-Rzad Beata

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fosfomycin is an old antibiotic with a unique chemical structure and with broadspectrum activity against numerous bacterial pathogens, both Gram-positive and Gramnegative, including resistant and multi-resistant strains. This antibiotic was accepted into clinical practice in the early 1970s. Its use, however, has been limited for several years for treating mainly lower uncomplicated urinary tract infections (in the form of fosfomycin trometamol taken orally. Nowadays, many clinicians and scientists are looking at this antibacterial drug for its employment in the treatment of severe infections caused by multi-resistant bacteria. Fosfomycin as an intravenous formulation (fosfomycin disodium achieves clinically relevant concentrations in the serum and the cerebrospinal fluid, in kidney, bladder wall, prostate, lungs, bone and heart valves tissues, as well as in inflamed tissues and abscess fluid. The available clinical studies confirmed the efficacy of intravenous fosfomycin for the management of severe infections caused by multiresistant pathogens.

  2. Clinical significance of mast cells and IL-9 in B-NHL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封丽丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of mast cells and interleukin-9 (IL-9) in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) development and its clinical significance.Methods The expression level of CD117 in tumor tissues of 32 B-NHL patients was determined by Western blot.The infiltration of CD117+mast cells (MCs) in human B-NHL tumor tissues was observed by immunohistochemistry staining.To evaluate the correlations between the data from CD117+MCs and biological markers of human B-NHL,a Spearman correlation coefficient (rs) was cal-

  3. 联合应用实时荧光定量PCR和噬菌体生物扩增法在结核性脑膜炎诊断中的意义%The clinical significance of joint use of real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and phage amplified biologically assay in the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵卫

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析联合应用实时荧光定量PCR和噬菌体生物扩增法在结核性脑膜炎诊断中的意义.方法 取该院于2007年4月至2011年4月收治的经临床确诊的结核性脑膜炎患者76例,随机分为观察组与对照组各38例.对照组患者使用涂片法进行结核分枝杆菌的检查,观察组联合使用实时荧光定量PCR和噬菌体生物扩增法,比较两者检测结果的真阳性率情况.结果 观察组阳性检出率为97.37%(37/38),对照组阳性检出率为57.89%(22/38),两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 联合应用实时荧光定量PCR和噬菌体生物扩增法可以快速准确检测出早期结核性脑膜炎患者,改善其预后,值得推广使用.%Objective To explore the diagnostic value of joint use of real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and phage amplified biologically assay in the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis .Methods 76 patients with tuberculous meningitis in our hospital from April 2007 to April 2011,which were clinically diagnosed and randomly divided into the observation group and the control group with 38 cases in each group .Patients in the control group using the smear method for Mycobacterium tuberculosis screening,the observation group used a combination of real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and phage amplified biologically assay,comparing detection results of true positive rate .Results The observation group positive rate was 97 .37/o (37/38) .The control groups positive rate was 57 .89% (22/38) .There was significant difference between two groups (P<0 .05) .Conclusion There were important values for early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis in joint use of real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and phage amplified biologically assay .

  4. [Clinical and biological aspects of chronic brucellosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buşilă, V T; Vasilescu, I; Popian, R; Fitărău, A; Teodorescu, R; Sarlău, A; Alexandrescu, R; Stamboliu, W

    1975-01-01

    The present study refers to 53 cases of chronic brucellosis admitted to the clinic or followed up in an out-patient unit for ten years (1962-1971). There was a total of 946 days in hospital and 1688 days of occupational disability, about 40% of the patients necessitating repeated hospitalization because of the relapsing course of the disease. This group of cases presented the classical dominant features of an occupational anthropozoonoses (90.5%). Elements of visceral and tissular pathology, obviously conditioned in their structure by the stage of the disease, were found in cardiovascular, hepatic, nervous, osteoarticular, orchitic, ocular, cutaneous localizations, etc. Their associated character particularize the polyvisceral forms. The immunopathology of chronic brucellosis is marked by its dynamics and frequently dissociated character of the sero-allergic diagnostic reactions. Blood proteins behave unequally (hypoalbuminemia, hyperalpha1-, hyperalpha2- and hypergammaglobulinemia). There is still debate about the terapeutic attempts, although sigmamycin associated with cortisone derivatives reduce or temporize the relapsing evolution, opening up new therapeutical perspectives. PMID:128800

  5. 胃癌组织Pokemon和p14ARF表达率及其在临床生物学行为中的意义%EXPRESSIONS OF PROTEIN POKEMON AND p14ARF IN GASTRIC CARCINOMA TISSUES AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE IN CLINICAL BIOLOGICAL BEHAVIOUR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾楠; 刘月平; 李勇

    2012-01-01

    between the expression of Pokemon and pl4ARF and the clinical histopathologic characters were retrospectively analyzed, including patients'sex and age, tumor location and size, gross type, differentiation degree, infiltration depth, lymph node metastasis, and clinical stage, etc. Results The expressions of both Pokemon protein and pl4ARF were located in cellular nucleus in gastric carcinoma and normal gastric mucosa which showed buffy granulation in positive staining cellular nucleus. The expression rates of Pokemon in gastric carcinoma and adjacent noncancerous gastric tissue were 78% and 45% respectively, in which the difference was statistically significant ( P <0. 05 ). The expression rates of pl4ARF protein ingastric carcinoma and adjacent noncancerous gastric tissue were 42% and 90% , respectively. The difference also was statistically significant( P < 0. 05 ). ;Pokemon protein expression rates of gastric carcinoma tissue were 87. 5% and 40% in the presence and absence of lymph node metastasis, which was significantly different ( P < 0. 05 ); Pokemon protein expressions were increased with the increases in tumor size,depth of invasion, and clinical stage. ④The expression rates of pl4ARF protein were 37. 5% and 80% in gastric carcinoma tissues with and without lymph node metastasis, and the latter was significantly higher than the former ( P < 0. 05 ). pl4ARF protein expressions were decreased with the decrease in the degree of tumor differentiation and increases in the depth of invasion and clinical stage. (4) There was a significant negative correlation between the positive nuclear Pokemon expression and the positive nuclear pl4ARF expression ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Pokemon overexpression and pl4ARF low expression in gastric carcinoma tissues can indicate the extent of clinical biological behaviour, such as the carcinogenesis, development, invasion, and metastasis of gastric carcinoma.

  6. Clinical significance of microembolus detection by transcranial Doppler sonography in cardiovascular clinical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudorović, Narcis

    2006-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler can detect microembolic signals, which are characterized by unidirectional high intensity increase, short duration, and random occurrence, producing a "whistling" sound. Microembolic signals have been proven to represent solid or gaseous particles within the blood flow. Microemboli have been detected in a number of clinical cardiovascular settings: carotid artery stenosis, aortic arch plaques, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, prosthetic heart valves, patent foramen ovale, valvular stenosis, during invasive procedures (angiography, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty) and surgery (carotid, cardiopulmonary bypass). Despite numerous studies performed so far, clinical significance of microembolic signals is still unclear. This article provides an overview of the development and current state of technical and clinical aspects of microembolus detection. PMID:17462357

  7. Clinical significance of occult hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miriam Romero; Antonio Madejón; Conrado Fernández-Rodríguez; Javier García-Samaniego

    2011-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is defined as the presence of HBV DNA in the liver (with or without detectable HBV DNA in serum) for individuals testing HBV surface antigen negative. Until recently, the clinical effect of OBI was unclear on the progression of liver disease; on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma; and on the risk for reactivation or transmission of HBV infection. Several studies suggest a high prevalence of OBI among patients with cryptogenic chronic liver disease, but its role in the progression to cirrhosis remains unclear. Although OBI has been well documented in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients, especially among those coinfected with hepatitis C virus, further studies are needed to determine its current clinical impact in HIV setting.

  8. Granulocyte antigen systems and antibodies and their clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCullough, J.

    1983-03-01

    Granulocyte alloantibodies and autoantibodies have a key role in the pathophysiology of several clinical problems. These include febrile transfusion reactions, severe pulmonary reactions to transfusion, isoimmune neonatal neutropenia, failure of effective granulocyte transfusion, autoimmune neutropenia, drug-induced neutropenia, and neutropenias secondary to many other diseases. Although many techniques are available for detecting granulocyte antibodies, the optimal in-vitro tests for predicting the antibodies' clinical effects are not established. Use of indium-111-labeled granulocytes may provide valuable information regarding the in-vivo effects of different granulocyte antibodies. Granulocyte transfusions continue to be used for a limited number of severely infected neutropenic patients who do not respond to antibiotic therapy.

  9. Treatment-resistant panic disorder: clinical significance, concept and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2016-10-01

    Panic disorder is commonly prevalent in the population, but the treatment response for panic disorder in clinical practice is much less effective than that in our imagination. Increasing evidence suggested existence of a chronic or remitting-relapsing clinical course in panic disorder. In this systematic review, we re-examine the definition of treatment-resistant panic disorder, and present the potential risk factors related to the treatment resistance, including the characteristics of panic disorder, other psychiatric and physical comorbidities, and psychosocial stresses. Furthermore, we summarize the potential pathophysiologies, such as genetic susceptibility, altered brain functioning, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and long-term inflammation, to explain the treatment resistance. Finally, we conclude the current therapeutic strategies for treating treatment-resistant panic disorder from pharmacological and non-pharmacological views. PMID:26850787

  10. Airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma: Mechanisms, Clinical Significance and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    JohnDanielBrannan; M. DianeLougheed

    2012-01-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation are key pathophysiological features of asthma. Bronchial provocation tests (BPTs) are objective tests for AHR that are clinically useful to aid in the diagnosis of asthma. BPTs can be either ‘direct’ or ‘indirect’, referring to the mechanism by which a stimulus mediates bronchoconstriction. Direct BPTs refer to the administration of pharmacological agonist (e.g., methacholine or histamine) that act on specific receptors on the airway sm...

  11. Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Asthma: Mechanisms, Clinical Significance, and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Brannan, John D; Lougheed, M Diane

    2012-01-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation are key pathophysiological features of asthma. Bronchial provocation tests (BPTs) are objective tests for AHR that are clinically useful to aid in the diagnosis of asthma in both adults and children. BPTs can be either “direct” or “indirect,” referring to the mechanism by which a stimulus mediates bronchoconstriction. Direct BPTs refer to the administration of pharmacological agonist (e.g., methacholine or histamine) that act on specifi...

  12. Hyperprolactinemia with normal serum prolactin: Its clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manika Agarwal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Amenorrhea and infertility with an added feature of galactorrhea makes a provisional diagnosis of hyperprolactinemia. But again, normal serum prolactin with all clinical features of hyperprolactinemia might question the diagnosis and further management. The answer lies in the heterogeneity of the peptide hormone - the immunoactive and the bioactive forms. This has been further illustrated with the help of a case which had been treated with cabergoline.

  13. Hyperprolactinemia with normal serum prolactin: Its clinical significance

    OpenAIRE

    Manika Agarwal; Ananya Das; Singh, Santa A.

    2010-01-01

    Amenorrhea and infertility with an added feature of galactorrhea makes a provisional diagnosis of hyperprolactinemia. But again, normal serum prolactin with all clinical features of hyperprolactinemia might question the diagnosis and further management. The answer lies in the heterogeneity of the peptide hormone - the immunoactive and the bioactive forms. This has been further illustrated with the help of a case which had been treated with cabergoline.

  14. Resistance to antivirals in human cytomegalovirus: mechanisms and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, J L

    1997-09-01

    Long term therapies needed for managing human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections in immunosupressed patients provided the background for the emergence of the resistance to antivirals active against HCMV. In addition, laboratory selected mutants have also been readily achieved. Both clinical and laboratory resistant strains share the same determinants of resistance. Ganciclovir resistance may be due to a few mutations in the HCMV UL97 gene and/or viral DNA pol gene, the former being responsible for about 70% of clinical resistant isolates. Among them, V464, V594, S595 and F595 are the most frequent mutations. Because of their less extensive clinical use, much less is known about resistance to foscarnet and cidofovir (formerly, HPMPC) but in both cases, it has been associated to mutations in the DNA pol. Ganciclovir resistant strains showing DNA pol mutations are cross-resistant to cidofovir and their corresponding IC50 are normally higher than those from strains harboring only mutations at the UL97 gene. To date, foscarnet resistance seems to be independent of both ganciclovir and cidofovir resistance.

  15. BIOFILM DETECTION AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS ISOLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Rani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis . AIMS : To detect biofilm among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis . MATERIAL AND METHODS : 50 Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates were collected from clinical samples like blood, IV catheter tips, catheterized urine, wound swabs and exudates received from various clinical departments. Biofilm formation was studied in these isolates. The study was carried out over a period o f one year i. e from March 2011 - February 2012. The specimens received were processed by conventional methods. Tissue Culture plate method was used for detection of biofilm. RESULTS: IV catheter tip samples revealed 25%, implant device associated infection s revealed 20%, the Catheterized urine samples showed 16%, blood culture 8%, ventilator associated infections 10%, post - operative wound infections 11% & exudates 5% of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates. Isolates with O. D. values more than 0. 2 were consi dered as high biofilm producers. 40% of S. epidermidis isolates were weak biofilm producers, 24% were moderate biofilm producers and 36% were high biofilm producers. Isolates from IV catheter tips showed high biofilm formation. CONCLUSIONS: In the modern h ealth care set up, various devices such as IV catheters, urine catheters, shunts, implanted prosthetic devices etc are being increasingly used thereby causing the device associated infections particularly of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Device associated in fections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis are mainly due to biofilm formation which ultimately makes the treatment difficult.

  16. Clinical significance of pain in patients with chronic heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Qian; ZHANG Feng-ru; ZHOU Qing-fen; DAI Li-ying; LIU Ye-hong; CHAI Xi-chen; WU Fang; SHEN Wei-feng

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of studies investigating the clinical and biochemical characteristics of pain in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients.This study aimed to determine the clinical and biochemical characteristics and outcomes in Chinese patients with CHF and symptoms of pain.Methods Sociodemographics,serum levels of creatinine,NT-proBNP,high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP),tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α,interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10,and two-dimensional echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were determined in 305 patients with CHF.A questionnaire packet including the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) was used to assess the degree of pain rated on a 0-10 scale and the quality of life (QOL).A six-minute walking test was performed during routine clinic visits.Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were recorded; including all-cause or cardiac mortality and rehospitalization because of myocardial infarction,worsening heart failure or stroke at follow-up.Results Pain occurred in 25.6% of CHF patients,and was more common when the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class was worse.More patients with pain were female in gender,and had more co-morbidities,lower LVEF,and shorter distance during the 6-minute walking test.Despite similar serum levels of creatinine,N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP),IL-6 and IL-10,the TNF-α levels were higher and MLHFQ scores were greater in CHF patients with pain.At follow-up,CHF patients with moderate to severe pain (≥4 scale) had higher rates of all-cause and cardiac mortality and rehospitalization because of myocardial infarction,worsening heart failure or stroke.Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the presence of pain was an independent risk factor for MACE and reduced QOL in CHF patients.Conclusions Pain occurs in all stages of the CHF trajectory,and its incidence increases as clinical

  17. Airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma: Mechanisms, Clinical Significance and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Daniel Brannan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR and airway inflammation are key pathophysiological features of asthma. Bronchial provocation tests (BPTs are objective tests for AHR that are clinically useful to aid in the diagnosis of asthma. BPTs can be either ‘direct’ or ‘indirect’, referring to the mechanism by which a stimulus mediates bronchoconstriction. Direct BPTs refer to the administration of pharmacological agonist (e.g., methacholine or histamine that act on specific receptors on the airway smooth muscle. Airway inflammation and/or airway remodeling may be key determinants of the response to direct stimuli. Indirect BPTs are those in which the stimulus causes the release of mediators of bronchoconstriction from inflammatory cells (e.g., exercise, allergen, mannitol. Airway sensitivity to indirect stimuli is dependent upon the presence of inflammation (e.g., mast cells, eosinophils, which responds to treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS. Thus, there is a stronger relationship between indices of steroid-sensitive inflammation (e.g., sputum eosinophils, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide and airway sensitivity to indirect compared to direct stimuli. Regular treatment with ICS does not result in the complete inhibition of responsiveness to direct stimuli. AHR to indirect stimuli identifies individuals that are highly likely to have a clinical improvement with ICS therapy in association with an inhibition of airway sensitivity following weeks to months of treatment with ICS. To comprehend the clinical utility of direct or indirect stimuli in either diagnosis of asthma or monitoring of therapeutic intervention requires an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of AHR and mechanisms of action of both stimuli.

  18. Gut in diseases: Physiological elements and their clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian-An Ding; Jie-Shou Li

    2003-01-01

    The intestinal barrier function of GI tract is very important in the body except for the function of digestion and absorption. The functional status of gut barrier basically reflects the stress severity when body suffers from trauma and various stimulations. Many harmful factors such as drugs,illnesses, trauma and burns can damage the gut barrier,which can lead to the barrier dysfunction and bacterial/endotoxin translocation. The paper discusses and reviews the concepts, anatomy, pathophysiology of gut barrier and its clinical relations.

  19. The DSA appearance and its clinical significance in renovascular hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the DSA appearance of renovascular hypertension and the feasible necessity of dilatation of stenotic renal artery. Methods: DSA data of bilateral renal arteries of 21 patients, with suspected renovascular hypertension were analyzed. Results: Among those 21 patients, 11 did have stenoses in renal artery or its branches. Balloon dilatation were performed successfully in 6 patients. The successful rate was 54.55%. Conclusions: DSA is the preferable method for the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension, and offers reliable clinical data for interventional therapy

  20. BILATERAL ANOMALOUS MUSCLE IN THE POPLITEAL FOSSA & ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Muscle variation may occur due to genetic or developmental causes. Some variations may compromise the vascular, muscular or nervous system in the region. Bilateral muscle variation in popliteal fossa is very rare. In present study an instance of bilateral muscle variation in popliteal fossa, arising from different muscles like gastrocnemius and from biceps femoris is recorded. There is no report of such variations. These observations are rare of its kind because of bilateral asymmetrical presence and difference in the origins in different legs. This is the first report as for the literatures available. Clinical and functional importance of such variation is discussed with the morphological aspects of this anomalous muscle.

  1. Brain death in ICU patients: Clinical significance of endocrine changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have been carried out among patients admitted in intensive care unit (ICU having primary endocrine pathology, endocrine manifestations of systemic diseases or post-endocrine tissue surgery. However, minimal literary evidence is available highlighting the endocrine changes occurring during brain death in critically ill patients. A precise and timely diagnosis of brain death is required to convey the relatives about the prognosis and also to possibly plan for organ retrieval for transplantation purposes. The diagnosis of this condition as of today remains largely a clinical one. Brain death is associated with a multitude of endocrinological alterations which are yet to be completely unraveled and understood. Evaluating these endocrinological modifications lends us an added vista to add to the existing clinical parameters which might help us to confirm the diagnosis of brain death with a higher degree of precision. Moreover, since the efficacy of hormone replacement therapy to benefit in organ retrieval remains yet unproven, newer diagnostic modalities and research studies are definitely called for to strategize the optimal dosage and duration of such therapies.

  2. Clinical significance of the isolation of Candidaspecies from hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankee C. Magalhães

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we isolated and phenotypically identified 108 yeast strains from various clinical specimens collected from 100 hospitalized patients at three tertiary hospitals in São Luís-Maranhão, Brazil, from July to December 2010. The isolates were analyzed for their susceptibility to four of the most widely used antifungal agents in the surveyed hospitals, amphotericin B, fluconazole, 5-flucytosine and voriconazole. The species identified were Candida albicans (41.4%, Candida tropicalis (30.1%, C. glabrata (7.4%, Candida parapsilosis(5.5%, Candida krusei (4.6%, Cryptococcus neoformans (4.6%, Trichosporonspp. (3.7%, Candida norvegensis (0.9%, Rhodotorula glutinis (0.9% and Pichia farinosa (0.9%. A higher isolation rate was observed in the following clinical specimens: urine (54 isolates; 50%, respiratory tract samples (21 isolates; 19.4% and blood (20 isolates; 18.6%. Candida albicans isolates were 100% sensitive to all antifungal agents tested, whereas Candida krusei and Crytococcus neoformans displayed intermediate resistance to 5-flucytosine, with Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC values of 8 mg/mL and 16 mg/mL, respectively. Both strains were also S-DD to fluconazole with an MIC of 16 mg/mL. C. tropicalis was resistant to 5-flucytosine with an MIC of 32 μg/mL. This study demonstrates the importance of identifying the yeast species involved in community and nosocomial infections.

  3. Allergy related to dental implant and its clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaturvedi TP

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available TP ChaturvediFaculty of Dental Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, IndiaAbstract: The oral cavity provides an ideal and unique environment for study of biological processes involving metallic dental aids. Dental materials within the mouth interact continually with physiological fluids. Oral tissues are exposed to a veritable bombardment of both chemical and physical stimuli as well as the metabolism of many species of bacteria; yet, for the most part, oral tissues remain healthy. The pH of saliva varies from 5.2 to 7.8. Teeth, restorations, or any prosthesis including dental implants in the oral cavity have to function in one of the most inhospitable environments in the human body. They are subject to larger temperature and pH variations than most other parts of the body. Corrosion, the graded degradation of materials by electrochemical attack, is of concern particularly when dental implants are placed in the hostile electrolytic environment provided by the human mouth. Allergic reactions may occur from the presence of ions produced from the corrosion of implants. The present article describes various manifestations of allergic reactions due to implant material in the oral cavity.Keywords: dental implant, allergy, titanium, corrosion

  4. Studies in the radiobiology of osteoradionecrosis and their clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, R.E.; Johnson, R.P.

    1987-10-01

    The radiobiology of osteoradionecrosis is a complex of cellular death and cellular functional impairments from radiation energy transfers. Four studies of irradiated patients and a data base from 536 patients with osteoradionecrosis revealed separate pathophysiologic conditions for osteoradionecrosis induced by early trauma, osteoradionecrosis induced by late trauma, and spontaneous osteoradionecrosis. A large body of data suggested useful clinical guidelines for the management of irradiated patients. The guidelines, in part, include a recommendation for deferring radiation treatment for 21 days after tissue wounding, if possible; a relative contraindication to wounding tissue during a radiation course; a recommendation for the use of hyperbaric oxygen before wounding; and a strong recommendation to provide comprehensive dental care to the irradiated patient.

  5. Synthetic Biology and the Moral Significance of Artificial Life: A Reply to Douglas, Powell and Savulescu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    I discuss the moral significance of artificial life within synthetic biology via a discussion of Douglas, Powell and Savulescu's paper 'Is the creation of artificial life morally significant'. I argue that the definitions of 'artificial life' and of 'moral significance' are too narrow. Douglas, Powell and Savulescu's definition of artificial life does not capture all core projects of synthetic biology or the ethical concerns that have been voiced, and their definition of moral significance fails to take into account the possibility that creating artificial life is conditionally acceptable. Finally, I show how several important objections to synthetic biology are plausibly understood as arguing that creating artificial life in a wide sense is only conditionally acceptable.

  6. Synthetic Biology and the Moral Significance of Artificial Life: A Reply to Douglas, Powell and Savulescu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    I discuss the moral significance of artificial life within synthetic biology via a discussion of Douglas, Powell and Savulescu's paper 'Is the creation of artificial life morally significant'. I argue that the definitions of 'artificial life' and of 'moral significance' are too narrow. Douglas, Powell and Savulescu's definition of artificial life does not capture all core projects of synthetic biology or the ethical concerns that have been voiced, and their definition of moral significance fails to take into account the possibility that creating artificial life is conditionally acceptable. Finally, I show how several important objections to synthetic biology are plausibly understood as arguing that creating artificial life in a wide sense is only conditionally acceptable. PMID:26833578

  7. Clinical significance of serum adipokines levels in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerenidi, Theodora; Lada, Martha; Tsaroucha, Agori; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Mystridou, Parthena; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I

    2013-06-01

    Adipokines have a significant effect on metabolism, immunoinflammatory responses as well as on carcinogenesis; therefore, we aimed at evaluating their potential predictive and prognostic significance in lung cancer. Eighty patients--mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years--with previously untreated lung cancer (61 NSCLC and 19 SCLC) of all stages and 40 healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin were measured using human Radioimmunoassay kits. Serum leptin levels in lung cancer patients were lower compared to control (p < 0.0001), while adiponectin and ghrelin levels were significantly increased in patients (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.0043, respectively). Additionally, the leptin/adiponectin ratio was significantly lower in the patients group compared to controls (p < 0.0001]. There was no association between serum levels of adipokines and any of the patient clinicopathological characteristics or response to therapy. Nevertheless, patients with lower values of serum leptin had shorter overall survival (p = 0.014), whereas multivariate analysis revealed leptin levels as an independent prognostic factor for survival (p = 0.024, HR 0.452, CI 95 % 0.232-0.899). These results suggest that adipokines may play a role in the pathogenesis of lung cancer, while leptin serum levels might provide useful prognostic information. PMID:23430445

  8. The expression and clinical significance of survivin gene in leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of survivin in leukemia and the prognostic significance in acute leukemia(AL). Methods The expression of survivin mRNA was measured in 105 AL and 21 chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients with semi-quantity reverse transcription (RT)-PCR.15 adults were tested as normal

  9. Considerations for clinical pharmacology studies for biologics in emerging markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Bharat; White, Robert; Wang, Huifen Faye

    2015-03-01

    Registration of innovative biologics in Emerging Markets (EMs) poses many opportunities and challenges. The BRIC-MT countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, Mexico, and Turkey) that are the fastest growing markets and regulators in these countries have imposed certain requirements, including the need for local clinical studies, for registration of biologics. The regulatory landscape in these countries is rapidly evolving, which necessitates an up-to-date understanding of such requirements. There is growing evidence which suggests that race, after accounting for body weight differences, may not influence the pharmacokinetics of biologics to the same extent that it does for small molecules. Thus, the requirements for clinical pharmacology trials in EMs are driven mainly by regulatory needs set forth by local Ministry of Health. In addition to the clinical Phase I to III studies done in the global program that supports registration in large geographies, countries such as China require local single and multiple dose Phase I studies. Participating in global studies with clinical sites within their country may be sufficient for some markets, while other regulators may be satisfied with a Certificate of Pharmaceutical Product. This paper discusses the current requirements for registration of innovative biologics in key EMs. PMID:25707959

  10. Computational Biology in Clinical Proteomics and Chromatin Genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuleman, W.

    2012-01-01

    The work in this thesis is concerned with two very distinct biological fields. The first part pertains to the development of techniques to aid in the search for clinical biomarkers for use in the early detection of cancer. The second part aims to elucidate in what way a genome is organised in a cell

  11. Biological variation in 32 clinical laboratory routine tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈政君

    2012-01-01

    Objective To set quality goals of conventional biochemical tests through the research of biological variation of the 32 routine items in Chinese population to provide the basis for Chinese clinical and laboratory standards. Methods According to the experimental designs and computing methods

  12. Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate: immunohistochemical findings and clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha JJ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Jianjun Sha,1,2 Juanjie Bo,1 Jiahua Pan,1 Lianhua Zhang,1 Hanqing Xuan,1 Wei Chen,1 Dong Li,1 Zhaoliang Wang,1 Dongming Liu,1 Yiran Huang1,2 1Department of Urology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 2School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China Introduction: To investigate the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Methods: The clinicopathological and immunohistochemical data of seven patients with ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, bone scan, cystoscopy, and computed tomography (CT scan. The level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA before and after surgery was assessed. Different prostate cancer markers were used for immunohistochemical staining. Results: The mean age of the seven patients diagnosed with prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma in this study was 76.2 years (range 57–88. Five patients presented with intermittent and painless gross hematuria, one patient with progressive dysuria, and one patient with elevated serum PSA on routine health examination. The level of PSA before surgery ranged from 1.3 to 45.0 ng/mL. Immunohistochemical staining results of the prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma confirmed positivity for PSA, prostatic acid phosphatase, androgen receptor, and alpha-methyacyl co-enzyme A (CoA-reductase markers. Two of the patients underwent bilateral orchiectomy combined with anti-androgen therapy, three underwent transurethral resection of prostate, one received radical prostatectomy, and one received medical castration therapy. The clinical outcomes of all patients were satisfactory, based on follow-up data. The symptoms of hematuria and dysuria were ameliorated well, and the postoperative PSA level decreased below 4.0 ng/mL. Recurrence or metastasis of disease was

  13. Left-sided gallbladder: Its clinical significance and imaging presentations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the importance of preoperative diagnosis and presentation of left-sided gallbladder using ultrasound (US), CT and angiography.METHODS: Retrospective review of 1482 patients who underwent enhanced CT scanning was performed. Left-sided gallbladder was diagnosed if a right-sided ligamentum teres was present. The image presentations on US, CT and angiography were also reviewed.RESULTS: Left-sided gallbladder was diagnosed in nine patients. The associated abnormalities on CT imaging included portal vein anomalies, absence of umbilical portion of the portal vein in the left lobe of the liver,club-shaped portal vein in the right lobe of the liver, and difficulty in identifying segment Ⅳ. Angiography in six of nine patients demonstrated abnormal portal venous system (trifurcation type in four of six patients). The main hepatic arteries followed the portal veins in all six patients. The segment Ⅳ artery was identified in four of six patients using angiography, although segment Ⅳ was difficult to define on CT imaging. Hepatectomy was performed in three patients with concomitant liver tumor and the diagnosis of left-sided gallbladder was confirmed intraoperatively.CONCLUSION: Left-sided gallbladder is an important clinical entity in hepatectomy due to its associated portal venous and biliary anomalies. It should be considered in US, CT and angiography images that demonstrate no definite segment IV, absence of umbilical portion of the portal vein in the left lobe, and club-shaped right anterior portal vein.

  14. Clinical significance of T cell metabolic reprogramming in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel, Christoph; Patsoukis, Nikolaos; Bardhan, Kankana; Seth, Pankaj; Weaver, Jessica D; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A

    2016-12-01

    Conversion of normal cells to cancer is accompanied with changes in their metabolism. During this conversion, cell metabolism undergoes a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, also known as Warburg effect, which is a hallmark for cancer cell metabolism. In cancer cells, glycolysis functions in parallel with the TCA cycle and other metabolic pathways to enhance biosynthetic processes and thus support proliferation and growth. Similar metabolic features are observed in T cells during activation but, in contrast to cancer, metabolic transitions in T cells are part of a physiological process. Currently, there is intense interest in understanding the cause and effect relationship between metabolic reprogramming and T cell differentiation. After the recent success of cancer immunotherapy, the crosstalk between immune system and cancer has come to the forefront of clinical and basic research. One of the key goals is to delineate how metabolic alterations of cancer influence metabolism-regulated function and differentiation of tumor resident T cells and how such effects might be altered by immunotherapy. Here, we review the unique metabolic features of cancer, the implications of cancer metabolism on T cell metabolic reprogramming during antigen encounters, and the translational prospective of harnessing metabolism in cancer and T cells for cancer therapy. PMID:27510264

  15. Molecular Biology of Pancreatic Cancer: How Useful Is It in Clinical Practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George H Sakorafas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Context During the recent two decades dramatic advances of molecular biology allowed an in-depth understanding of pancreatic carcinogenesis. It is currently accepted that pancreatic cancer has a genetic component. The real challenge is now how these impressive advances could be used in clinical practice. Objective To critically present currently available data regarding clinical application of molecular biology in pancreatic cancer. Methods Reports about clinical implications of molecular biology in patients with pancreatic cancer were retrieved from PubMed. These reports were selected on the basis of their clinical relevance, and the data of their publication (preferentially within the last 5 years. Emphasis was placed on reports investigating diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications. Results Molecular biology can be used to identify individuals at high-risk for pancreatic cancer development. Intensive surveillance is indicated in these patients to detect pancreatic neoplasia ideally at a preinvasive stage, when curative resection is still possible. Molecular biology can also be used in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, with molecular analysis on samples of biologic material, such as serum or plasma, duodenal fluid or preferentially pure pancreatic juice, pancreatic cells or tissue, and stools. Molecular indices have also prognostic significance. Finally, molecular biology may have therapeutic implications by using various therapeutic approaches, such as antiangiogenic factors, purine synthesis inhibitors, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, factors modulating tumor-stroma interaction, inactivation of the hedgehog pathway, gene therapy, oncolytic viral therapy, immunotherapy (both passive as well as active etc. Conclusion Molecular biology may have important clinical implications in patients with pancreatic cancer and represents one of the most active areas on cancer research. Hopefully clinical applications of molecular biology

  16. Molecular biology of breast cancer metastasis: Clinical implications of experimental studies on metastatic inefficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent technological advances have led to an increasing ability to detect isolated tumour cells and groups of tumour cells in patients' blood, lymph nodes or bone marrow. However, the clinical significance of these cells is unclear. Should they be considered as evidence of metastasis, necessitating aggressive treatment, or are they in some cases unrelated to clinical outcome? Quantitative experimental studies on the basic biology of metastatic inefficiency are providing clues that may help in understanding the significance of these cells. This understanding will be of use in guiding clinical studies to assess the significance of isolated tumour cells and micrometastases in cancer patients

  17. Clinical Significance of Immuno phenotypic Markers in Pediatric T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Cell-marker profiling has led to conflicting conclusions about its prognostic significance in T-ALL. Aim: To investigate the prevalence of the expression of CD34, CD10 and myeloid associated antigens (CD13/ CD33) in childhood T-ALL and to relate their presence to initial clinical and biologic features and early response to therapy. Patients and Methods: This study included 67 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed T-ALL recruited from the Children's Cancer Hospital in Egypt during the time period from July 2007 to June 2008. Immuno phenotypic markers and minimal residual disease (MRD) were studied by five-color flow cytometry. Results: The frequency of CD34 was 34.9%, CD10 33.3%, while CD13/CD33 was 18.8%. No significant association was encountered between CD34, CD10 or myeloid antigen positivity and the presenting clinical features as age, sex, TLC and CNS leukemia. Only CD10+ expression had significant association with initial CNS involvement (p=0.039). CD34 and CD13/CD33 expression was significantly associated with T-cell maturation stages (p<0.05). No relationship was observed for age, TLC, gender, NCI risk or CNS involvement with early response to therapy illustrated by BM as well as MRD day 15 and day 42. CD34+, CD13/CD33+ and early T-cell stage had high MRD levels on day 15 that was statistically highly significant (p<0.01), but CD10+ had statistically significant lower MRD level on day 15 (p=0.049). However, only CD34 retained its significance at an MRD cut-off level of 0.01%. Conclusion: CD34, CD10, CD13/CD33 expression, as well as T-cell maturation stages, may have prognostic significance in pediatric T-ALL as they have a significant impact on early clearance of leukemic cells detected by MRD day 15.

  18. Clinical significance of lactate in acute cardiac patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chiara; Lazzeri; Serafina; Valente; Marco; Chiostri; Gian; Franco; Gensini

    2015-01-01

    Lactate, as a metabolite of easy and quick assessment, has been studied over time in critically ill patients in order to evaluate its prognostic ability. The present review is focused on the prognostic role of lactate levels in acute cardiac patients(that is with acute coronary syndrome, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, non including post cardiac surgery patients). In patients with STelevation myocardial infarction treated with mechanical revascularization, hyperlactatemia identified a subset of patients at higher risk for early death and in-hospital complications, being strictly related mainly to hemodynamic derangement. The prognostic impact of hyperlactatemia on mortality has been documented in patients with cardiogenic shock and in those with cardiac arrest even if there is no cut-off value of lactate to be associated with worse outcome or to guide resuscitation or hemodynamic management. Therapeutic hypothermia seems to affect per se lactate values which have been shown to progressively decrease during hypothermia. The mechanism(s) accounting for lactate levels during hypothemia seem to be multiple ranging from the metabolic effects of reduced temperatures to the hemodynamic effects of hypothermia(i.e., reduced need of vasopressor agents). Serial lactate measurements over time, or lactate clearance, have been reported to be clinically more reliable than lactate absolute value also in acute cardiac patients. Despite differences in study design, timing of lactate measurements and type of acute cardiac conditions(i.e., cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, refractory cardiac arrest), available evidence strongly suggests that higher lactate levels can be observed on admission in non-survivors and that higher lactate clearance is associated with better outcome.

  19. Rational classification of portal vein thrombosis and its clinical significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqin Ma

    Full Text Available Portal vein thrombosis (PVT is commonly classified into acute (symptom duration <60 days and absence of portal carvernoma and portal hypertension and chronic types. However, the rationality of this classification has received little attention. In this study, 60 patients (40 men and 20 women with PVT were examined using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT. The percentage of vein occlusion, including portal vein (PV and superior mesenteric vein (SMV, was measured on CT image. Of 60 patients, 17 (28.3% met the criterion of acute PVT. Symptoms occurred more frequently in patients with superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (SMVT compared to those without SMVT (p<0.001. However, there was no significant difference in PV occlusion between patients with and without symptoms. The frequency of cavernous transformation was significantly higher in patients with complete PVT than those with partial PVT (p<0.001. Complications of portal hypertension were significantly associated with cirrhosis (p<0.001 rather than with the severity of PVT and presence of cavernoma. These results suggest that the severity of PVT is only associated with the formation of portal cavernoma but unrelated to the onset of symptoms and the development of portal hypertension. We classified PVT into complete and partial types, and each was subclassified into with and without portal cavernoma. In conclusion, neither symptom duration nor cavernous transformation can clearly distinguish between acute and chronic PVT. The new classification system can determine the pathological alterations of PVT, patency of portal vein and outcome of treatment in a longitudinal study.

  20. Lipoprotein ratios: Physiological significance and clinical usefulness in cardiovascular prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Millán

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Jesús Millán1, Xavier Pintó2, Anna Muñoz3, Manuel Zúñiga4, Joan Rubiés-Prat5, Luis Felipe Pallardo6, Luis Masana7, Alipio Mangas8, Antonio Hernández-Mijares9, Pedro González-Santos10, Juan F Ascaso11, Juan Pedro-Botet121Hospital Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain; 2Hospital Universitario Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; 3Solvay Pharma, Barcelona, Spain; 4Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, Spain; 5Hospital Vall d’Hebrón, Barcelona, Spain; 6Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain; 7Hospital Sant Joan, Reus, Tarragona, Spain; 8Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, Cádiz, Spain; 9Hospital Universitario Dr Peset, Valencia, Spain; 10Hospital Clínico Universitario Virgen de la Victoria, Málaga, Spain; 11Hospital Clínico Universitario, Valencia, Spain; 12Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol concentration has been the prime index of cardiovascular disease risk and the main target for therapy. However, several lipoprotein ratios or “atherogenic indices” have been defined in an attempt to optimize the predictive capacity of the lipid profile. In this review, we summarize their pathophysiological aspects, and highlight the rationale for using these lipoprotein ratios as cardiovascular risk factors in clinical practice, specifying their cut-off risk levels and a target for lipid-lowering therapy. Total/high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and LDL/HDL cholesterol ratios are risk indicators with greater predictive value than isolated parameters used independently, particularly LDL. Future recommendations regarding the diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia, including instruments for calculating cardiovascular risk or action guidelines, should include the lipoprotein ratios with greater predictive power which, in view of the evidence-based results, are none other than those which include HDL cholesterol.Keywords: apolipoproteins

  1. 3D Pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling in routine clinical practice: A review of clinically significant artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amukotuwa, Shalini A; Yu, Caroline; Zaharchuk, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a completely noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) perfusion method for quantitatively measuring cerebral blood flow utilizing magnetically labeled arterial water. Advances in the technique have enabled the major MRI vendors to make the sequence available to the clinical neuroimaging community. Consequently, ASL is being increasingly incorporated into the routine neuroimaging protocol. Although a variety of ASL techniques are available, the ISMRM Perfusion Study Group and the European ASL in Dementia Consortium have released consensus guidelines recommending standardized implementation of 3D pseudocontinuous ASL with background suppression. The purpose of this review, aimed at the large number of neuroimaging clinicians who have either no or limited experience with this 3D pseudocontinuous ASL, is to discuss the common and clinically significant artifacts that may be encountered with this technique. While some of these artifacts hinder accurate interpretation of studies, either by degrading the images or mimicking pathology, there are other artifacts that are of clinical utility, because they increase the conspicuity of pathology. Cognizance of these artifacts will help the physician interpreting ASL to avoid potential diagnostic pitfalls, and increase their level of comfort with the technique.

  2. TRP channels in skin: from physiological implications to clinical significances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ji-Chen; Lee, Chih-Hung

    2015-01-01

    TRP channels are expressed in various cells in skin. As an organ system to border the host and environment, many nonneuronal cells, including epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes, express several TRP channels functionally distinct from sensory processing. TRPV1 and TRPV3 in keratinocytes of the epidermis and hair apparatus inhibit proliferation, induce terminal differentiation, induce apoptosis, and promote inflammation. Activation of TRPV4, 6, and TRPA1 promotes regeneration of the severed skin barriers. TRPA1 also enhances responses in contact hypersensitivity. TRPCs in keratinocytes regulate epidermal differentiation. In human diseases with pertubered epidermal differentiation, the expression of TRPCs are altered. TRPMs, which contribute to melanin production in melanocytes, serve as significant prognosis markers in patients with metastatic melanoma. In summary, not only act in sensory processing, TRP channels also contribute to epidermal differentiation, proliferation, barrier integration, skin regeneration, and immune responses. In diseases with aberrant TRP channels, TRP channels might be good therapeutic targets. PMID:27493510

  3. Clinical significance of intramammary arterial calcifications in diabetic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Zorica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that intramammary arterial calcifications diagnosed by mammography as a part of generalized diabetic macroangiopathy may be an indirect sign of diabetes mellitus. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of intramammary arterial calcifications, the patient’s age when the calcifications occur, as well as to observe the influence of diabetic polineuropathy, type, and the duration of diabetes on the onset of calcifications, in comparison with nondiabetic women. Methods. Mammographic findings of 113 diabetic female patients (21 with type 1 diabetes and 92 with type 2, as well as of 208 nondiabetic women (the control group were analyzed in the prospective study. The data about the type of diabetes, its duration, and polineuropathy were obtained using the questionnaire. Statistical differences were determined by Mann-Whitney test. Results. Intramammary arterial calcifications were identified in 33.3% of the women with type 1 diabetes, in 40.2% with type 2, and in 8.2% of the women from the control group, respectively. The differences comparing the women with type 1, as well as type 2 diabetes and the controls were statistically significant (p=0.0001. Women with intramammary arterial calcifications and type 1 diabetes were younger comparing to the control group (median age 52 years, comparing to 67 years of age, p=0.001, while there was no statistically significant difference in age between the women with calcifications and type 2 diabetes (61 years of age in relation to the control group (p=0.176. The incidence of polineuropathy in diabetic women was higher in the group with intramammary arterial calcifications (52.3% in comparison to the group without calcifications (26.1%, (p=0.005. The association between intramammary arterial calcifications and the duration of diabetes was not found. Conclusion. The obtained results supported the theory that intramammary arterial calcifications, detected by

  4. Avulsion Fractures of the Knee: Imaging Findings and Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Sanei

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The knee is an intricate joint with numerous tendinous, ligamentous, and meniscal attachments, which make it particularly vulnerable to complex injuries after trauma. A variety of avulsion fractures of the knee can occur, including Segond and reverse Segond fractures; avulsions of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments; arcuate complex avulsion; iliotibial band avulsion; avulsions of the biceps femoris, semimembranous, and quadriceps tendons; Sinding-Larsen-Johansson syndrome; and Osgood- Schlatter disease. These fractures often have a subtle appearance at conventional radiography, which is typically the first imaging modality performed in these cases. Advanced imaging modalities, particularly magnetic resonance imaging, are helpful and can provide valuable additional information for adequately defining the extent of damage. The onus is on the radiologist to identify the pattern of injury and to understand the substantial underlying damage that it frequently represents. Conveying this information to the referring clinician is crucial and represents the first step toward additional evaluation and probable orthopedic referral. By recognizing the significance of these injuries at initial presentation, radiologists can facilitate appropriate patient work-up and prevent the chronic morbidity associated with delayed treatment.

  5. Independent component analysis reveals new and biologically significant structures in micro array data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerla Srinivas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An alternative to standard approaches to uncover biologically meaningful structures in micro array data is to treat the data as a blind source separation (BSS problem. BSS attempts to separate a mixture of signals into their different sources and refers to the problem of recovering signals from several observed linear mixtures. In the context of micro array data, "sources" may correspond to specific cellular responses or to co-regulated genes. Results We applied independent component analysis (ICA to three different microarray data sets; two tumor data sets and one time series experiment. To obtain reliable components we used iterated ICA to estimate component centrotypes. We found that many of the low ranking components indeed may show a strong biological coherence and hence be of biological significance. Generally ICA achieved a higher resolution when compared with results based on correlated expression and a larger number of gene clusters with significantly enriched for gene ontology (GO categories. In addition, components characteristic for molecular subtypes and for tumors with specific chromosomal translocations were identified. ICA also identified more than one gene clusters significant for the same GO categories and hence disclosed a higher level of biological heterogeneity, even within coherent groups of genes. Conclusion Although the ICA approach primarily detects hidden variables, these surfaced as highly correlated genes in time series data and in one instance in the tumor data. This further strengthens the biological relevance of latent variables detected by ICA.

  6. [Clinical significance of analysis of immunoglobulin A levels in saliva].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokor-Bratić, M

    2000-01-01

    SALIVA COLLECTION: Whole saliva is a product of secretion of 3 major glands (parotid, submandibular, sublingual) and many minor glands (labial, buccal, palatal). Unstimulated saliva is usually obtained as the patient spits out every 60 sec. or by forward bended head the patient allows saliva to drip off the lower lip into a cylinder. By collection of saliva in the tube the flow rate per unit time can be measured. When volume measurement is not required the saliva can be collected on cotton rolls, gauze or filter paper. For evaluating salivary gland function or when large volumes of saliva are required for analytic purposes, stimulated whole saliva is used. Method of collection is the same as for unstimulated saliva. The usual masticatory stimuli are paraffin wax or a washed rubber band. A standard gustatory stimulus is obtained by 2% citric acid applied directly to the tongue every 15 to 60 sec. Parotid saliva can be collected by aspiration from the duct opening with a micropipette. Parotid saliva is best collected with Lashley's vacuum chamber. Submandibular and sublingual saliva can be collected by cannulation of the duct with micropipette, but in practice this is both uncomfortable for the patients and technically difficult since the duct orifice is mobile and has a strong sphincter. Because of that, alginate and silicone impression material is used for retention of the collecting tube. As alternative and simple technique is to block off secretion from the parotid glands with absorbent swabs and collect mixed submandibular and sublingual saliva by pipette from the floor of the mouth. Saliva from labial and palatal glands can be collected by filter paper disc or disc of other synthetic materials. SALIVARY IMMUNOGLOBULIN A: The most significant characteristics of the salivary immunoglobulin system are quantitative domination of immunoglobulin A, local synthesis and specific structure. Immunofluorescence studies have shown that immunoglobulin A is produced by

  7. Periodic Table Target: A Game that Introduces the Biological Significance of Chemical Element Periodicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, Richard S.; McGinty, Ragan L.; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    Periodic Table Target, a game for middle school or high school students, familiarizes students with the form of the periodic table and the biological significance of different elements. The Periodic Table Target game board is constructed as a class project, and the game is played to reinforce the content. Students are assigned several elements…

  8. Biological Characteristics and Etiological Significance of Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus(PRCV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xiuping; FENG Li; SHI Hongyan; CHEN Jianfei

    2009-01-01

    Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), a spike (S) gene natural deletion mutant of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), causes porcine respiratory disease complex. Research advances on porcine respiratory coronavirus were reviewed from four aspects of biological character, the model function for SARS-CoV research, contribution of the immunity to PRCV to protection against TGEV challenge exposure and other etiological significance.

  9. Overexpression of annexin 1 in pancreatic cancer and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Feng Bai; Kun Wang; Yong-Qiang Xie; Young-Fu Shao; Xiao-Hang Zhao; Xiao-Guang Ni; Ping Zhao; Shang-Mei Liu; Hui-Xin Wang; Bing Guo; Lan-Ping Zhou; Fang Liu; Jin-Sheng Zhang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of annexin Ⅰ in pancreatic cancer and its relationship with the clinicopathologic factors,and to evaluate its potential clinical significance.METHODS: Annexin T expression was analyzed by Western blot and immunohistochemical staining in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and multi-tissue microarrays (MTAs).RESULTS: Western blot analysis showed that annexin Ⅰ was overexpressed in 84.6% (11/13) pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. Tmmunohistochemistry analysis of pancreatic cancer in MTAs showed that annexin Ⅰ protein was 71.4%(30/42) positive which was markedly increased compared with that in the tumor matched normal pancreas tissues 18.4%(7/38) (P<0.01). Tn the meantime, the high expression of annexin 1 was correlated with the poor differentiation of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.CONCLUSION: Annexin 1 overexpression is a frequent biological marker and correlates with the differentiation of pancreatic cancer during tumorigenesis.

  10. Implants for the aged patient: biological, clinical and sociological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartold, P Mark; Ivanovski, Saso; Darby, Ivan

    2016-10-01

    Until recently, age, particularly old age, was considered a contraindication to the placement of dental implants. However, this was based largely on anecdotal dogma rather than on empirical information. This review considers the biological, clinical and socio-economic implications of implants placed in the aged population. Aging has been shown to have an influence on the biological aspects of soft- and hard-tissue wound healing and tissue remodeling, which may influence the establishment and maintenance of implant integration. However, information to date indicates that age should not be an a priori contraindication for implant placement and there is good evidence to indicate that dental implants can be placed successfully in the elderly with good clinical and socio-economic outcomes. PMID:27501495

  11. Clinical laboratories, the select agent program, and biological surety (biosurety).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastel, Ross H; Demmin, Gretchen; Severson, Grant; Torres-Cruz, Rafael; Trevino, Jorge; Kelly, John; Arrison, Jay; Christman, Joy

    2006-06-01

    The threat of bioterrorism has led to increased concerns over the availability of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT). Congress has implemented several public laws that have led to the development of federal regulations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the US Department of Agriculture. The CDC regulation 42 CFR 73 has a direct impact on all clinical laboratories that may at some time identify BSAT in a clinical specimen. The Department of Defense has imposed a more stringent layer of regulation called biological surety (biosurety) on top of the requirements of 42 CFR 73 for military laboratories that possess BSAT. However,42 CFR 73 falls into the framework of biosurety. Both sets of regulations have four pillars (safety, physical security, agent account-ability, and personnel reliability) that are built on a foundation of training and covered by a roof of management (operations and plans).

  12. Using biological markers to inform a clinically meaningful treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Bierer, Linda M; Pratchett, Laura C; Pelcovitz, Michelle

    2010-10-01

    Combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) demonstrate less robust improvement following treatments than do civilians with PTSD. This paper discusses a theoretical model for evaluating treatment response based on the extent of change in biological markers of symptom severity or resilience between treatment initiation and termination. Such analysis permits a determination of biological change associated with the liberal criteria commonly used to determine treatment response in combat PTSD, and a comparison of this to the biological change associated with clinical response determined according to the conservative definition more appropriate to civilian PTSD. Interim data supporting the utility of this approach is presented based on preliminary analyses from our work in progress. We propose that future studies consider the unique consequences of combat trauma and develop treatments that incorporate the complex nature of the exposure and response characteristic of a veteran population. PMID:20955338

  13. Update on Human Herpesvirus 6 Biology, Clinical Features, and Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    de Bolle, Leen; Naesens, Lieve; De Clercq, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a betaherpesvirus that is closely related to human cytomegalovirus. It was discovered in 1986, and HHV-6 literature has expanded considerably in the past 10 years. We here present an up-to-date and complete overview of the recent developments concerning HHV-6 biological features, clinical associations, and therapeutic approaches. HHV-6 gene expression regulation and gene products have been systematically characterized, and the multiple interactions between HHV-6...

  14. Androgen Receptor Expression in Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistelli, Mirco, E-mail: mirco.pistelli@alice.it; Caramanti, Miriam [Clinica di Oncologia Medica, AO Ospedali Riuniti-Ancona, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona 60020 (Italy); Biscotti, Tommasina; Santinelli, Alfredo [Anatomia Patologica, AO Ospedali Riuniti-Ancona, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona 60020 (Italy); Pagliacci, Alessandra; De Lisa, Mariagrazia; Ballatore, Zelmira; Ridolfi, Francesca; Maccaroni, Elena; Bracci, Raffaella; Berardi, Rossana; Battelli, Nicola; Cascinu, Stefano [Clinica di Oncologia Medica, AO Ospedali Riuniti-Ancona, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona 60020 (Italy)

    2014-06-27

    Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are characterized by aggressive tumour biology resulting in a poor prognosis. Androgen receptor (AR) is one of newly emerging biomarker in TNBC. In recent years, ARs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the genesis and in the development of breast cancer, although their prognostic role is still debated. In the present study, we explored the correlation of AR expression with clinical, pathological and molecular features and its impact on prognosis in early TNBC. Patients and Methods: ARs were considered positive in case of tumors with >10% nuclear-stained. Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The difference among variables were calculated by chi-square test. Results: 81 TNBC patients diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in the analysis. Slides were stained immunohistochemically for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67, ALDH1, e-cadherin and AR. Of the 81 TNBC samples, 18.8% showed positive immunostaining for AR, 23.5% and 44.4% of patients were negative for e-cadherin and ALDH1, respectively. Positive AR immunostaining was inversely correlated with a higher Ki-67 (p < 0.0001) and a lympho-vascular invasion (p = 0.01), but no other variables. Univariate survival analysis revealed that AR expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.72) or overall survival (p = 0.93). Conclusions: The expression of AR is associated with some biological features of TNBC, such as Ki-67 and lympho-vascular invasion; nevertheless the prognostic significance of AR was not documented in our analysis. However, since ARs are expressed in a significant number of TNBC, prospective studies in order to determine the biological mechanisms and their potential role as novel treatment target.

  15. Androgen Receptor Expression in Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Pistelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC are characterized by aggressive tumour biology resulting in a poor prognosis. Androgen receptor (AR is one of newly emerging biomarker in TNBC. In recent years, ARs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the genesis and in the development of breast cancer, although their prognostic role is still debated. In the present study, we explored the correlation of AR expression with clinical, pathological and molecular features and its impact on prognosis in early TNBC. Patients and Methods: ARs were considered positive in case of tumors with >10% nuclear-stained. Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The difference among variables were calculated by chi-square test. Results: 81 TNBC patients diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in the analysis. Slides were stained immunohistochemically for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67, ALDH1, e-cadherin and AR. Of the 81 TNBC samples, 18.8% showed positive immunostaining for AR, 23.5% and 44.4% of patients were negative for e-cadherin and ALDH1, respectively. Positive AR immunostaining was inversely correlated with a higher Ki-67 (p < 0.0001 and a lympho-vascular invasion (p = 0.01, but no other variables. Univariate survival analysis revealed that AR expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.72 or overall survival (p = 0.93. Conclusions: The expression of AR is associated with some biological features of TNBC, such as Ki-67 and lympho-vascular invasion; nevertheless the prognostic significance of AR was not documented in our analysis. However, since ARs are expressed in a significant number of TNBC, prospective studies in order to determine the biological mechanisms and their potential role as novel treatment target.

  16. Androgen Receptor Expression in Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistelli, Mirco; Caramanti, Miriam; Biscotti, Tommasina; Santinelli, Alfredo; Pagliacci, Alessandra; De Lisa, Mariagrazia; Ballatore, Zelmira; Ridolfi, Francesca; Maccaroni, Elena; Bracci, Raffaella; Berardi, Rossana; Battelli, Nicola; Cascinu, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are characterized by aggressive tumour biology resulting in a poor prognosis. Androgen receptor (AR) is one of newly emerging biomarker in TNBC. In recent years, ARs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the genesis and in the development of breast cancer, although their prognostic role is still debated. In the present study, we explored the correlation of AR expression with clinical, pathological and molecular features and its impact on prognosis in early TNBC. Patients and Methods: ARs were considered positive in case of tumors with >10% nuclear-stained. Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The difference among variables were calculated by chi-square test. Results: 81 TNBC patients diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in the analysis. Slides were stained immunohistochemically for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67, ALDH1, e-cadherin and AR. Of the 81 TNBC samples, 18.8% showed positive immunostaining for AR, 23.5% and 44.4% of patients were negative for e-cadherin and ALDH1, respectively. Positive AR immunostaining was inversely correlated with a higher Ki-67 (p < 0.0001) and a lympho-vascular invasion (p = 0.01), but no other variables. Univariate survival analysis revealed that AR expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.72) or overall survival (p = 0.93). Conclusions: The expression of AR is associated with some biological features of TNBC, such as Ki-67 and lympho-vascular invasion; nevertheless the prognostic significance of AR was not documented in our analysis. However, since ARs are expressed in a significant number of TNBC, prospective studies in order to determine the biological mechanisms and their potential role as novel treatment target. PMID:24978437

  17. Hubs of knowledge: using the functional link structure in Biozon to mine for biologically significant entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isganitis Timothy

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing biological databases support a variety of queries such as keyword or definition search. However, they do not provide any measure of relevance for the instances reported, and result sets are usually sorted arbitrarily. Results We describe a system that builds upon the complex infrastructure of the Biozon database and applies methods similar to those of Google to rank documents that match queries. We explore different prominence models and study the spectral properties of the corresponding data graphs. We evaluate the information content of principal and non-principal eigenspaces, and test various scoring functions which combine contributions from multiple eigenspaces. We also test the effect of similarity data and other variations which are unique to the biological knowledge domain on the quality of the results. Query result sets are assessed using a probabilistic approach that measures the significance of coherence between directly connected nodes in the data graph. This model allows us, for the first time, to compare different prominence models quantitatively and effectively and to observe unique trends. Conclusion Our tests show that the ranked query results outperform unsorted results with respect to our significance measure and the top ranked entities are typically linked to many other biological entities. Our study resulted in a working ranking system of biological entities that was integrated into Biozon at http://biozon.org.

  18. Biological Significance of Gene Expression Data using Similarity based Biclustering Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Bagyamani J; Thangavel; Rathipriya R

    2011-01-01

    Unlocking the complexity of a living organism’s biological processes, functionsand genetic network is vital in learning how to improve the health of humankind.Genetic analysis, especially biclustering, is a significant step in this process.Though many biclustering methods exist, only few provide a query basedapproach for biologists to search the biclusters which contain a certain gene ofinterest. This proposed query based biclustering algorithm SIMBIC+ firstidentifies a functionally rich quer...

  19. Biomarkers of treatment outcome in schizophrenia: Defining a benchmark for clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen Z; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Uher, Rudolf; Kapur, Shitij

    2015-10-01

    Emerging data from on imaging and genetic studies have generated interest in "clinically significant" biomarkers to predict response and prognosis. What constitutes "clinical significance" and how a biomarker would reach that threshold are unclear. To develop a benchmark we reviewed different approaches for defining "clinical significance" applied in schizophrenia research and identified that an improvement of 15 points on the PANSS Total is considered meaningful in clinical settings. Using this benchmark and we simulated thousands of schizophrenia trials, using characteristics derived from the NEWMEDS database with over 8000 patients with schizophrenia, to the kind of imaging, genetic, and other biomarkers that could attain clinical significance. We plotted the interaction between frequency-of-occurrence, the effect size of biomarkers and their relationship to the clinical significance threshold. Results show that categorical biomarkers are likely to attain clinical significance when they occur in 20-50% of the clinical population, and can predict at least a 8-10 point PANSS scale difference. Genetic markers are likely to have clinical significance when they occur in 20-50% of the population and can predict 7-9 points on the PANSS scale. A marker with a lower frequency or lesser effect size would find it hard to meet clinical significance thresholds for schizophrenia. The assumptions and limitations of this approach are discussed. Compared with standards in the rest of medicine, biomarkers that can attain this benchmark will be cost-effective and are likely to be adopted by clinical systems. PMID:26145487

  20. Biomarkers of treatment outcome in schizophrenia: Defining a benchmark for clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen Z; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Uher, Rudolf; Kapur, Shitij

    2015-10-01

    Emerging data from on imaging and genetic studies have generated interest in "clinically significant" biomarkers to predict response and prognosis. What constitutes "clinical significance" and how a biomarker would reach that threshold are unclear. To develop a benchmark we reviewed different approaches for defining "clinical significance" applied in schizophrenia research and identified that an improvement of 15 points on the PANSS Total is considered meaningful in clinical settings. Using this benchmark and we simulated thousands of schizophrenia trials, using characteristics derived from the NEWMEDS database with over 8000 patients with schizophrenia, to the kind of imaging, genetic, and other biomarkers that could attain clinical significance. We plotted the interaction between frequency-of-occurrence, the effect size of biomarkers and their relationship to the clinical significance threshold. Results show that categorical biomarkers are likely to attain clinical significance when they occur in 20-50% of the clinical population, and can predict at least a 8-10 point PANSS scale difference. Genetic markers are likely to have clinical significance when they occur in 20-50% of the population and can predict 7-9 points on the PANSS scale. A marker with a lower frequency or lesser effect size would find it hard to meet clinical significance thresholds for schizophrenia. The assumptions and limitations of this approach are discussed. Compared with standards in the rest of medicine, biomarkers that can attain this benchmark will be cost-effective and are likely to be adopted by clinical systems.

  1. Expression of RECK Gene and MMP-9 in Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma and Its Clinical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the expression of transformation suppressor gene RECK and MMP-9 in hilar cholangiocarcinomas and its clinical significance, and explore the roles of RECK gene in metastasis and invasion of hilar cholangiocarcinoma, the expression levels of RECK, and MMP-9 mRNA were detected by using reverse transcription-polymerase reaction in 42 paraffin-embedded samples of hilar cholangiocarcinomas and 10 samples of benign bile duct diseases. The results showed that in hilar cholangiocarcinoma tissues, the expression of RECK gene was 0. 235± 0. 062, significantly lower than in normal bile duct tissues (0. 533±0. 024, P<0.05). In hilar cholangiocarcinoma tissues, the expression of MMP-9 (0. 528±0. 039) was significantly higher than in the normal tissues (0. 311±0. 032, P<0.05). The expression of RECK gene was closely related to the intrahepatic and surrounding organs invasion (P<0.05). It was concluded that RECK gene could inhibit the expression of MMP-9 in hilar cholangiocarcinomas and closely correlated with the biological behaviors. The abnormal expression of RECK gene might be one of the molecular mechanisms of hilar cholangiocarcinoma metastasis.

  2. Natural Killer Cells: Biology and Clinical Use in Cancer Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William H. D. Hallett; William J. Murphy

    2004-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have the ability to mediate both bone marrow rejection and promote engraftment, as well as the ability to elicit potent anti-tumor effects. However the clinical results for these processes are still elusive. Greater understanding of NK cell biology, from activating and inhibitory receptor functions to the role of NK cells in allogeneic transplantation, needs to be appreciated in order to draw out the clinical potential of NK cells. Mechanisms of bone marrow cell (BMC) rejection are known to be dependant on inhibitory receptors specific for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and on activating receptors that have many potential ligands. The modulation of activating and inhibitory receptors may hold the key to clinical success involving NK cells. Pre-clinical studies in mice have shown that different combinations of activating and inhibitory receptors on NK cells can reduce graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), promote engraftment, and provide superior graft-versus-tumor (GVT) responses. Recent clinical data have shown that the use of KIR-ligand incompatibility produces tremendous graft-versus-leukemia effect in patients with acute myeloid leukemia at high risk of relapse. This review will attempt to be a synthesis of current knowledge concerning NK cells, their involvement in BMT, and their use as an immunotherapy for cancer and other hematologic malignancies. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(1):12-21.

  3. Natural Killer Cells: Biology and Clinical Use in Cancer Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WilliamH.D.Hallett; WilliamJ.Murphy

    2004-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have the ability to mediate both bone marrow rejection and promote engraftment, as well as the ability to elicit potent anti-tumor effects. However the clinical results for these processes are still elusive. Greater understanding of NK cell biology, from activating and inhibitory receptor functions to the role of NK cells in allogeneic transplantation, needs to be appreciated in order to draw out the clinical potential of NK cells. Mechanisms of bone marrow cell (BMC) rejection are known to be dependant on inhibitory receptors specific for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and on activating receptors that have many potential ligands. The modulation of activating and inhibitory receptors may hold the key to clinical success involving NK cells. Pre-clinical studies in mice have shown that different combinations of activating and inhibitory receptors on NK cells can reduce graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), promote engraftment, and provide superior graft-versus-tumor (GVT) responses. Recent clinical data have shown that the use of KIR-ligand incompatibility produces tremendous graft-versus-leukemia effect in patients with acute myeloid leukemia at high risk of relapse. This review will attempt to be a synthesis of current knowledge concerning NK cells, their involvement in BMT, and their use as an immunotherapy for cancer and other hematologic malignancies. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(1):12-21.

  4. New Developments in Mast Cell Biology: Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Greer; Bradding, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are present in connective tissue and at mucosal surfaces in all classes of vertebrates. In health, they contribute to tissue homeostasis, host defense, and tissue repair via multiple receptors regulating the release of a vast stockpile of proinflammatory mediators, proteases, and cytokines. However, these potentially protective cells are a double-edged sword. When there is a repeated or long-term stimulus, MC activation leads to tissue damage and dysfunction. Accordingly, MCs are implicated in the pathophysiologic aspects of numerous diseases covering all organs. Understanding the biology of MCs, their heterogeneity, mechanisms of activation, and signaling cascades may lead to the development of novel therapies for many diseases for which current treatments are lacking or are of poor efficacy. This review will focus on updates and developments in MC biology and their clinical implications, with a particular focus on their role in respiratory diseases.

  5. Translating biological parameters into clinically useful diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Carney, Stuart; Boutros, Nash N

    2009-08-01

    Psychiatry has lagged behind other specialties in developing diagnostic laboratory tests for the purpose of confirming or ruling out a diagnosis. Biological research into the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders has, however, yielded some highly replicable abnormalities that have the potential for development into clinically useful diagnostic tests. To achieve this goal, a process for systematic translation must be developed and implemented. Building on our previous work, we review a proposed process using four clearly defined steps. We conclude that biological parameters currently face challenges in their pathways to becoming diagnostic tests because of both the premature release and premature abandonment of tests. Attention to a systematic translation process aided by these principles may help to avoid these problems.

  6. Overview of significant challenges in molecular biology amenable to computational methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaeser, R M

    1994-01-01

    Many challenging but significant opportunities exist for the development of theoretical approaches in modern Cell and Molecular Biology. The creation of data bases which contain extremely large amounts of information has proven to be an unexpectedly important facto-tin gaining acceptance and respectability for theoretical work that builds on nothing more than what is in the data base itself, such as theoretical work involving the analysis of known protein structures, or the development of more powerful homology searches. Other opportunities, not yet accepted by a broad community, involve work on complex networks (metabolic, genetic, immunologic and neural networks) and work on the "physics of how things work." The DOE National Laboratory System represents the ideal institution that would be well suited to the role of being an "incubator" for the creation of a theoretical and computational discipline within modern biology. PMID:7755540

  7. Expression of RhoE in lung and breast cancer and its clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng BI

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective Rho family is closely related with the growth , differentiation and metastasis of tumer cells. The objective of this work is to investigate the expression of RhoE in lung and breast carcinoma and their corresponding adjacent tissues, as well as its relationship between the expression and clinical pathological grades. The results of this study provide evidences for exploring the biological functions and clinical significance of RhoE. Methods The expression of RhoE was detected by immunohistochemistry in 62 lung carcinoma samples and 34 breast carcinoma samples, and their corresponding adjacent tissues were taken as control.Results RhoE was generally expressed in normal tissues, but the expression level of RhoE in carcerous tissueswas decreased or absent. The stained value of breast carcinoma was 3.65+/-0.62, but the adjacent cancerous tissueswas 10.53+/-0.44, significantly higher than that of the adjacent cancerous tissues (t=12.402, P<0.001. While the stained value of lung carcinoma was 2.19+/-0.19, lower than that of the adjacent cancerous tissues (4.11+/-0.24, t =7.123,P<0.005. Moreover, there is a declining tendency of the stained value as the poor differentiation of the carcinoma (Chi-square=26.536, P<0.005. Conclusion The expression of RhoE in carcerous tissues was remarkbaly decreased. Considering the recent research achievement and our early experimental results about RhoE, we inferred that RhoE may play a negative role in the development and progression of lung and breast carcinoma. So further research on RhoE would provide a new target for the molecular targeting therapy of cancer.

  8. Results of efforts by the Convention on Biological Diversity to describe ecologically or biologically significant marine areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Nicholas J; Cleary, Jesse; Donnelly, Ben; Dunn, Daniel C; Dunstan, Piers K; Fuller, Mike; Halpin, Patrick N

    2016-06-01

    In 2004, Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) addressed a United Nations (UN) call for area-based planning, including for marine-protected areas that resulted in a global effort to describe ecologically or biologically significant marine areas (EBSAs). We summarized the results, assessed their consistency, and evaluated the process developed by the Secretariat of the CBD to engage countries and experts in 9 regional workshops held from 2011 to 2014. Experts from 92 countries and 79 regional or international bodies participated. They considered 250 million km(2) of the world's ocean area (two-thirds of the total). The 204 areas they examined in detail differed widely in area (from 5.5 km(2) to 11.1 million km(2) ). Despite the initial focus of the CBD process on areas outside national jurisdiction, only 31 of the areas examined were solely outside national jurisdiction. Thirty-five extended into national jurisdictions, 137 were solely within national jurisdictions, and 28 included the jurisdictions of more than 1 country (1 area lacked precise boundaries). Data were sufficient to rank 88-99% of the areas relative to each of the 7 criteria for EBSAs agreed to previously by Parties to the CBD. The naturalness criterion ranked high for a smaller percentage of the EBSAs (31%) than other criteria (51-70%), indicating the difficulty in finding relatively undisturbed areas in the ocean. The highly participatory nature of the workshops, including easy and consistent access to the relevant information facilitated by 2 technical teams, contributed to the workshop participants success in identifying areas that could be ranked relative to most criteria and areas that extend across jurisdictional boundaries. The formal recognition of workshop results by the Conference of Parties to the CBD resulted in these 204 areas being identified as EBSAs by the 196 Parties. They represent the only suite of marine areas recognized by the international community for their

  9. Biological Significance of Gene Expression Data using Similarity based Biclustering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagyamani J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Unlocking the complexity of a living organism’s biological processes, functionsand genetic network is vital in learning how to improve the health of humankind.Genetic analysis, especially biclustering, is a significant step in this process.Though many biclustering methods exist, only few provide a query basedapproach for biologists to search the biclusters which contain a certain gene ofinterest. This proposed query based biclustering algorithm SIMBIC+ firstidentifies a functionally rich query gene. After identifying the query gene, sets ofgenes including query gene that show coherent expression patterns acrosssubsets of experimental conditions is identified. It performs simultaneousclustering on both row and column dimension to extract biclusters using Topdown approach. Since it uses novel ‘ratio’ based similarity measure, biclusterswith more coherence and with more biological meaning are identified. SIMBIC+uses score based approach with an aim of maximizing the similarity of thebicluster. Contribution entropy based condition selection and multiple row /column deletion methods are used to reduce the complexity of the algorithm toidentify biclusters with maximum similarity value. Experiments are conducted onYeast Saccharomyces dataset and the biclusters obtained are compared withbiclusters of popular MSB (Maximum Similarity Bicluster algorithm. Thebiological significance of the biclusters obtained by the proposed algorithm andMSB are compared and the comparison proves that SIMBIC+ identifies biclusterswith more significant GO (Gene Ontology.

  10. Models to Study NK Cell Biology and Possible Clinical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Anthony E; Grossenbacher, Steven K; Aguilar, Ethan G; Murphy, William J

    2015-08-03

    Natural killer (NK) cells are large granular lymphocytes of the innate immune system, responsible for direct targeting and killing of both virally infected and transformed cells. NK cells rapidly recognize and respond to abnormal cells in the absence of prior sensitization due to their wide array of germline-encoded inhibitory and activating receptors, which differs from the receptor diversity found in B and T lymphocytes that is due to the use of recombination-activation gene (RAG) enzymes. Although NK cells have traditionally been described as natural killers that provide a first line of defense prior to the induction of adaptive immunity, a more complex view of NK cells is beginning to emerge, indicating they may also function in various immunoregulatory roles and have the capacity to shape adaptive immune responses. With the growing appreciation for the diverse functions of NK cells, and recent technological advancements that allow for a more in-depth understanding of NK cell biology, we can now begin to explore new ways to manipulate NK cells to increase their clinical utility. In this overview unit, we introduce the reader to various aspects of NK cell biology by reviewing topics ranging from NK cell diversity and function, mouse models, and the roles of NK cells in health and disease, to potential clinical applications. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Detecting modules in biological networks by edge weight clustering and entropy significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecca, Paola; Re, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Detection of the modular structure of biological networks is of interest to researchers adopting a systems perspective for the analysis of omics data. Computational systems biology has provided a rich array of methods for network clustering. To date, the majority of approaches address this task through a network node classification based on topological or external quantifiable properties of network nodes. Conversely, numerical properties of network edges are underused, even though the information content which can be associated with network edges has augmented due to steady advances in molecular biology technology over the last decade. Properly accounting for network edges in the development of clustering approaches can become crucial to improve quantitative interpretation of omics data, finally resulting in more biologically plausible models. In this study, we present a novel technique for network module detection, named WG-Cluster (Weighted Graph CLUSTERing). WG-Cluster's notable features, compared to current approaches, lie in: (1) the simultaneous exploitation of network node and edge weights to improve the biological interpretability of the connected components detected, (2) the assessment of their statistical significance, and (3) the identification of emerging topological properties in the detected connected components. WG-Cluster utilizes three major steps: (i) an unsupervised version of k-means edge-based algorithm detects sub-graphs with similar edge weights, (ii) a fast-greedy algorithm detects connected components which are then scored and selected according to the statistical significance of their scores, and (iii) an analysis of the convolution between sub-graph mean edge weight and connected component score provides a summarizing view of the connected components. WG-Cluster can be applied to directed and undirected networks of different types of interacting entities and scales up to large omics data sets. Here, we show that WG-Cluster can be

  12. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated from Adipose and Other Tissues: Basic Biological Properties and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Orbay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are adult stem cells that were initially isolated from bone marrow. However, subsequent research has shown that other adult tissues also contain MSCs. MSCs originate from mesenchyme, which is embryonic tissue derived from the mesoderm. These cells actively proliferate, giving rise to new cells in some tissues, but remain quiescent in others. MSCs are capable of differentiating into multiple cell types including adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteocytes, and cardiomyocytes. Isolation and induction of these cells could provide a new therapeutic tool for replacing damaged or lost adult tissues. However, the biological properties and use of stem cells in a clinical setting must be well established before significant clinical benefits are obtained. This paper summarizes data on the biological properties of MSCs and discusses current and potential clinical applications.

  13. Evidence-Based Clinical Significance in Health Care: Toward an Inferential Analysis of Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Dousti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence-based dental practice requires the developmment and evaluation of protocols that en-sure translational effectiveness: that is, the efficient incorporation of the best available efficacy and effec-tiveness findings in specific clinical dentistry settings and environments. Evidence-based dentistry predi-cates the synthesis of research for obtaining the best available evidence in a validated, stringent, systematic and unbiased fashion. Research synthesis is now established as a science in its own right, precisely because it adheres to the scientific process that is driven by a research question and a hypothesis, follows through clearly defined methodology and design, yielding quantifiable data that are analyzed statistically, and from which stringent statistical inferences are drawn. The conclusions from the protocol of research synthesis define the best available evidence, which is used in the process of evidence-based revision of clinical practice guidelines. One important hurdle of the process of applying research synthesis in evidence-based dentistry lies in the fact that the statistical inferences produced by research must be translated into clinical relevance. Here, we present a model to circumvent this limitation by means of text analysis/mining protocols, which could lead the path toward a novel, valid and reliable ap-proach for the inferential analysis of clinical relevance.

  14. Yoga & cancer interventions: a review of the clinical significance of patient reported outcomes for cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culos-Reed, S Nicole; Mackenzie, Michael J; Sohl, Stephanie J; Jesse, Michelle T; Zahavich, Ashley N Ross; Danhauer, Suzanne C

    2012-01-01

    Limited research suggests yoga may be a viable gentle physical activity option with a variety of health-related quality of life, psychosocial and symptom management benefits. The purpose of this review was to determine the clinical significance of patient-reported outcomes from yoga interventions conducted with cancer survivors. A total of 25 published yoga intervention studies for cancer survivors from 2004-2011 had patient-reported outcomes, including quality of life, psychosocial or symptom measures. Thirteen of these studies met the necessary criteria to assess clinical significance. Clinical significance for each of the outcomes of interest was examined based on 1 standard error of the measurement, 0.5 standard deviation, and relative comparative effect sizes and their respective confidence intervals. This review describes in detail these patient-reported outcomes, how they were obtained, their relative clinical significance and implications for both clinical and research settings. Overall, clinically significant changes in patient-reported outcomes suggest that yoga interventions hold promise for improving cancer survivors' well-being. This research overview provides new directions for examining how clinical significance can provide a unique context for describing changes in patient-reported outcomes from yoga interventions. Researchers are encouraged to employ indices of clinical significance in the interpretation and discussion of results from yoga studies. PMID:23125870

  15. Yoga & Cancer Interventions: A Review of the Clinical Significance of Patient Reported Outcomes for Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nicole Culos-Reed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited research suggests yoga may be a viable gentle physical activity option with a variety of health-related quality of life, psychosocial and symptom management benefits. The purpose of this review was to determine the clinical significance of patient-reported outcomes from yoga interventions conducted with cancer survivors. A total of 25 published yoga intervention studies for cancer survivors from 2004–2011 had patient-reported outcomes, including quality of life, psychosocial or symptom measures. Thirteen of these studies met the necessary criteria to assess clinical significance. Clinical significance for each of the outcomes of interest was examined based on 1 standard error of the measurement, 0.5 standard deviation, and relative comparative effect sizes and their respective confidence intervals. This review describes in detail these patient-reported outcomes, how they were obtained, their relative clinical significance and implications for both clinical and research settings. Overall, clinically significant changes in patient-reported outcomes suggest that yoga interventions hold promise for improving cancer survivors' well-being. This research overview provides new directions for examining how clinical significance can provide a unique context for describing changes in patient-reported outcomes from yoga interventions. Researchers are encouraged to employ indices of clinical significance in the interpretation and discussion of results from yoga studies.

  16. Comparison of 5 health care professionals’ratings of the clinical significance of drug related problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Christine; Hojsted, Jette; Kjeldsen, Lene Juel;

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients have medicines reviews conducted by different health care professionals in different settings. Introducing a clinical panel to drug related problems (DRPs) to evaluate their clinical significance is common practice. The clinical panel discuss the potential consequences and come...... reviews conducted by a clinical pharmacist. Two hospital pharmacists, a general practitioner and two specialists in pain management from hospital care (the Panel) evaluated each DRP considering the potential clinical outcome for the patient. The DRPs were rated either nil, low, minor, moderate or highly...... each profession. Take into account the profession and setting when clinical relevance of DRPs is discussed in the literature and when choosing a method for evaluating the clinical significance of DRPs.Acknowledgement Many thanks to Grünenthalfonden and Actavisfonden, participants in the project ‘Drug...

  17. Clinical significance of preoperative regional intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Wu Zhang; Shou-Chun Zou; Dun Shi; Da-Jian Zhao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Preoperative intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy could increase the radical resection rate of advanced gastric cancer, but its effect on the long-term survival has not been assessed. This study was designed to evaluate the clinical significance of preoperative intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer.METHODS: Clinicopathological data of 91 patients who underwent curative resection for advanced gastric cancer were collected. Among them, 37 patients undertaken preoperative intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy were used as the interventional chemotherapy group, and the remaining 54 patients as the control group. Eleven factors including clinicopathological variables, treatment procedures and molecular biological makers that might contribute to the long-term survival rate were analyzed using Cox multivariate regression analysis.RESULTS: The 5-year survival rate was 52.5% and 39.8%,respectively, for the interventional group and the control group (P<0.05). Cox multivariate regression analysis revealed that the TNM stage (P<0.001), preoperative intraarterial infusion chemotherapy (P = 0.029) and growth pattern (P = 0.042) were the independent factors for the long-term survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer.CONCLUSION: Preoperative intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy plays an important role in improving the prognosis of advanced gastric cancer.

  18. Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Other Clinically Significant Body Image Concerns in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients: Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyl, Jennifer; Kittler, Jennifer; Phillips, Katharine A.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study assessed prevalence and clinical correlates of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders (ED), and other clinically significant body image concerns in 208 consecutively admitted adolescent inpatients. It was hypothesized that adolescents with BDD would have higher levels of depression, anxiety, and suicidality.…

  19. Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes: Compliance and Clinical Significance in the "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgaard, Eric C.; Fowler, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In 2005, the "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" ("JCCP") became the first American Psychological Association (APA) journal to require statistical measures of clinical significance, plus effect sizes (ESs) and associated confidence intervals (CIs), for primary outcomes (La Greca, 2005). As this represents the single largest…

  20. The biology and clinical development of MEK inhibitors for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Jason J; Ott, Patrick A; Shapiro, Geoffrey I

    2014-12-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKK) MEK1 and MEK2 are integral members of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway and are of interest in the development of anti-cancer therapeutics. The MAPK/ERK pathway is dysregulated in more than 30 % of cancers, predominately by mutations in RAS and BRAF proteins, and MEK serves as a potential downstream target for both of these. The biology of MEK inhibition is complex, as the molecule is differentially regulated by upstream RAS or RAF. This has impacted on the past development of MEK inhibitors as treatments for cancer and may be exploited in more rational, molecularly selected drug development plans in the future. The role of MEK in cancer and the mechanism of action of MEK inhibitors is reviewed. Furthermore, MEK inhibitors that are available in standard practice, as well as those most advanced in clinical development, are discussed. Finally, next steps in the development of MEK inhibitors are considered.

  1. Correlating novel variable and conserved motifs in the Hemagglutinin protein with significant biological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Mark

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in the influenza Hemagglutinin protein contributes to antigenic drift resulting in decreased efficiency of seasonal influenza vaccines and escape from host immune response. We performed an in silico study to determine characteristics of novel variable and conserved motifs in the Hemagglutinin protein from previously reported H3N2 strains isolated from Hong Kong from 1968–1999 to predict viral motifs involved in significant biological functions. Results 14 MEME blocks were generated and comparative analysis of the MEME blocks identified blocks 1, 2, 3 and 7 to correlate with several biological functions. Analysis of the different Hemagglutinin sequences elucidated that the single block 7 has the highest frequency of amino acid substitution and the highest number of co-mutating pairs. MEME 2 showed intermediate variability and MEME 1 was the most conserved. Interestingly, MEME blocks 2 and 7 had the highest incidence of potential post-translational modifications sites including phosphorylation sites, ASN glycosylation motifs and N-myristylation sites. Similarly, these 2 blocks overlap with previously identified antigenic sites and receptor binding sites. Conclusion Our study identifies motifs in the Hemagglutinin protein with different amino acid substitution frequencies over a 31 years period, and derives relevant functional characteristics by correlation of these motifs with potential post-translational modifications sites, antigenic and receptor binding sites.

  2. The biological dressing versus conventional treatment in massive burns: a prospective clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini S.N

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burns are a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Today biological dressings have become an integral part of modern burn care. Using this method, in otherwise healthy young adults, the size of burn relative to the total body surface area (TBSA correlating with a 50% mortality rate has increased from 30% to 80%. Due to a lack of experience and an interest in using biological dressings in Iran, as a developing country, the aim of this study was to compare patient outcome using the biological dressing vs. conventional treatment in patients with massive burns.Methods: In this clinical trial study, 118 burn patients (30 to 75% TBSA were enrolled. The patients were divided in two groups. Those in the conventional treatment group had not accepted treatment with a biological dressing.  The second group agreed to treatment with biological dressing, a pig skin xenograft known as Xenoderm. Significant differences were evaluated using the unpaired Student's t test, the Mann-Whitney U test and the χ2 test.  Results: Mortality rates in the conventional treatment group (n=53 and biological dressing group (n=65 were 35% (19 and 10.8% (7, respectively (p=0.001. Excluding those patients who died, the mean hospital stay was 31.3 days in the conventional treatment group versus 18.2 days in the biological dressing group (p=0.0005, and number of dressings was 22.1 versus 9.9 (p=0.0005, respectively. Three patients in the conventional treatment group were transferred to a tertiary-care hospital after three weeks of treatment. The most commonly burned areas were the upper limb, lower limb and trunk.Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that biological dressings give a better outcome and decrease the hospital stay and the number of dressings. A randomized clinical trial is warranted.

  3. Heterocyclyl linked anilines and benzaldehydes as precursors for biologically significant new chemical entities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raman K Verma; Vijay Kumar; Prithwish Ghosh; Lalit K Wadhwa

    2012-09-01

    Benzylidene and benzyl thiazolidinediones, oxazolidinediones, isoxazolidinediones and their acyclic analogs like alpha alkylthio/alkoxy phenylpropanoic acids, beta-keto esters and tyrosine-based compounds possess broad therapeutic potential in general and as Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors (PPARs) agonists in particular in the management of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidaemia for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). We have synthesised and characterized some novel and suitably substituted heterocyclyl linked benzaldehydes and anilines, which can be easily and very readily derivatized to all the above mentioned classes to generate new chemical entities of broader biological significance. Synthesis of their benzylidene thiazolidinedione and diethyl malonate and also benzyl diethyl malonate and alpha-bromoesters derivatives is reported in some of the cases in the present work.

  4. The clinical significance of radionuclide bone and gallium scanning in osteomyelitis of the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyek, A.M.; Kirsh, J.C.; Greyson, N.D.; Wortzman, G.; Jazrawy, H.; Freeman, J.L.; Blair, R.L.; Chapnik, J.S.

    1984-05-01

    Osteomyelitis of the head and neck remains a difficult clinical problem both in diagnosis and treatment evaluation. The purpose of this manuscript is to review our clinical experience with 25 cases of osteomyelitis distributed evenly among the temporal bone and skull base, the paranasal sinuses, and the mandible. Radionuclide bone and gallium scan images accurately depicted the biologic activity of the disease process and permitted accurate treatment evaluation and patient monitoring. This work demonstrates the potentials and limitations of radionuclide imaging with bone and gallium scan agents and attempts to define a role for their contemporary use in the management of osteomyelitis of the head and neck.

  5. The prognostic significance of apoptosis-related biological markers in Chinese gastric cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The prognosis varied among the patients with the same stage, therefore there was a need for new prognostic and predictive factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of apoptosis-related biological markers such as p53, bcl-2, bax, and c-myc, and clinicopathological features and their prognostic value. METHODS: From 1996 to 2007, 4426 patients had undergone curative D2 gastrectomy for gastric cancer at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. Among 501 patients, the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax, and c-myc were examined by immunohistochemistry. The prognostic value of biological markers and the correlation between biological markers and other clinicopathological factors were investigated. RESULTS: There were 339 males and 162 females with a mean age of 57. The percentages of positive expression of p53, bcl-2, bax, and c-myc were 65%, 22%, 43%, and 58%, respectively. There was a strong correlation between p53, bax, and c-myc expression (P=0.00. There was significant association between bcl-2, and bax expression (P<0.05. p53 expression correlated with histological grade (P=0.01; bcl-2 expression with pathological stage (P=0.00; bax expression with male (P=0.02, histological grade (P=0.01, Borrmann type (P=0.01, tumor location (P=0.00, lymph node metastasis (P=0.03, and pathological stage (P=0.03; c-myc expression with Borrmann type (P=0.00. bcl-2 expression was related with good survival in univariate analysis (P=0.01. Multivariate analysis showed that bcl-2 expression and pathological stage were defined as independent prognostic factors. There were significant differences of overall 5-year survival rates according to bcl-2 expression or not in stage IIB (P=0.03. CONCLUSION: The expression of bcl-2 was an independent prognostic factor for patients with gastric cancer; it might be a candidate for the gastric cancer staging system.

  6. Expression level of CDX2 gene in acute myeloid leukemia and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆瀆

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the expression and clinical significance of Caudal-type homeobox transcription factor 2(CDX2) gene in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Methods Real time quantitative PCR(RQ-PCR) was used to test the expression level of CDX2 gene in 108 de novo AML patients and the clinical features

  7. Prevalence and clinical significance of extravascular incidental findings in patients undergoing CT cervico-cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, Matthew Thomas, E-mail: crockettmt@gmail.com; Murphy, Blathnaid, E-mail: blathnaidmurphy@hotmail.com; Smith, Jennifer, E-mail: jennifer.js.smith@gmail.com; Kavanagh, Eoin Carl, E-mail: kavanaghec@gmail.com

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • CT cervico-cerebral angiography (CTCCA) is a commonly performed study for assessment of vascular pathologies of head and neck. • This study assessed the prevalence, clinical significance and management of extravascular incidental findings detected on CTCCA. • This study demonstrated the presence of clinically significant incidental findings in 14% of patients undergoing CTCCA with 8% of these findings deemed to be highly significant. 19% of patients with highly clinically significant findings did not receive appropriate follow up. • A standardised method of reporting incidental findings, such as that used in this paper is suggested to aid radiologists and referring physicians in recording and communicating these findings. - Abstract: Introduction: CT cervico-cerebral angiography (CTCCA) is now the first line diagnostic imaging modality for the majority of vascular pathologies of the head and neck with diagnostic value comparable to or better than traditional angiographic techniques. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, clinical significance and management of extravascular incidental findings detected on CTCCA. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of the CTCCA reports of 302 consecutive patients from 2009 to 2013 was undertaken. Extravascular incidental findings were classified, according to an adaptation of the CT colonography data and reporting system (CRADS), as EV1–EV4. EV1 = no incidental findings, EV2 = clinically insignificant incidental finding, EV3 = incidental finding of intermediate clinical significance, EV4 = highly clinically significant finding. Follow up of the electronic medical records of patients with EV3 or EV4 findings was undertaken to determine subsequent management. Results: Potentially clinically significant findings were demonstrated in 14.2% of patients with 8.6% of patients having a highly clinically significant finding. 4 incidental findings were confirmed to be malignant lesions and 5

  8. Clinical significance of Staphylococcus saprophyticus identified on blood culture in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang-Ho; Woo, Jun Hee; Jeong, Jin-Yong; Kim, Nam Joong; Kim, Mi-Na; Kim, Yang Soo; Ryu, Jiso

    2006-11-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a well-known cause of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in young women. However, the clinical significance of this organism isolated from blood culture has not been determined. We assessed the clinical significance and characteristics of S. saprophyticus identified on blood culture. A total of 24 patients were identified, and 7 patients (29.2%) were considered to have clinically significant bacteremia. Of the 7 patients with clinically significant bacteremia, hematologic malignancy was the most common underlying illness (5 patients), and tunneled-central venous catheter was the most common portal of entry (4 patients). In no case did S. saprophyticus bacteremia originate from the urinary tract. One patient died during hospitalization. However, the death was not directly related to bacteremia. In conclusion, our data suggest that bacteremia caused by S. saprophyticus is most commonly associated with tunneled-central venous catheter in patients with hematologic malignancies and may be associated with a lower risk of mortality.

  9. Clinical significance of expression of Klotho and β-Catenin in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤小伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of expression of Klotho and β-Catenin in esophageal carcinoma. Methods Tissue microarray technique and immunohistochemistry were used to examine Klotho and β-Catenin expression in 75 esophageal carcinoma tissue

  10. The biology, pathogenesis and clinical aspects of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P; Bhansali, R; Izraeli, S; Hijiya, N; Crispino, J D

    2016-09-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at a 20-fold increased risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (DS-ALL). Although the etiology of this higher risk of developing leukemia remains largely unclear, the recent identification of CRLF2 (cytokine receptor like factor 2) and JAK2 mutations and study of the effect of trisomy of Hmgn1 and Dyrk1a (dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A) on B-cell development have shed significant new light on the disease process. Here we focus on the clinical features, biology and genetics of ALL in children with DS. We review the unique characteristics of DS-ALL on both the clinical and molecular levels and discuss the differences in treatments and outcomes in ALL in children with DS compared with those without DS. The identification of new biological insights is expected to pave the way for novel targeted therapies. PMID:27285583

  11. Clinical significance of serum triglyceride elevation at early stage of acute biliary pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Long; Luo, Zhulin; Xiang, Ke; Ren, Jiandong; Huang, Zhu; Tang, Lijun; Tian, Fuzhou

    2015-01-01

    Background Pancreatitis induced by hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) has gained much attention. However, very limited numbers of studies have focused on the clinical significance of TG elevation in non-HTG induced pancreatitis, such as acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP). This study aimed to study the clinical significances of triglyceride (TG) elevation in patients with ABP. Methods We retrospectively analyzed a total of 426 ABP cases in our research center. According to the highest TG level within 72...

  12. Identifying Adult Dengue Patients at Low Risk for Clinically Significant Bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua G X Wong

    Full Text Available Clinically significant bleeding is important for subsequent optimal case management in dengue patients, but most studies have focused on dengue severity as an outcome. Our study objective was to identify differences in admission parameters between patients who developed clinically significant bleeding and those that did not. We sought to develop a model for discriminating between these patients.We conducted a retrospective study of 4,383 adults aged >18 years who were hospitalized with dengue infection at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore from 2005 to 2008. Patients were divided into those with clinically significant bleeding (n = 188, and those without (n = 4,195. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables on admission were compared between groups to determine factors associated with clinically significant bleeding during hospitalization.On admission, female gender (p38°C (p38°C (aOR 1.81; 95% CI: 1.27-2.61, nausea/vomiting (aOR 1.39; 95% CI: 0.94-2.12, ANC (aOR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.15-1.46, ALC (aOR 0.4; 95% CI: 0.25-0.64, hematocrit percentage (aOR 0.96; 95% CI: 0.92-1.002 and platelet count (aOR 0.993; 95% CI: 0.988-0.998. At the cutoff of -3.919, the model achieved an AUC of 0.758 (sensitivity:0.87, specificity: 0.38, PPV: 0.06, NPV: 0.98.Clinical risk factors associated with clinically significant bleeding were identified. This model may be useful to complement clinical judgement in triaging adult dengue patients given the dynamic nature of acute dengue, particularly in pre-identifying those less likely to develop clinically significant bleeding.

  13. Biological marker distribution and significance in oils and rocks of the Monterey Formation, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiale, Joseph A.; Cameron, Douglas; Davis, Dean V.

    1985-01-01

    The biological marker distributions of several oils, core extracts and solid bitumens of the Monterey Formation of California have been studied. Sterane, terpane and monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbons were analyzed in samples from the San Joaquin, Los Angeles, Ventura and Santa Maria Basins. The sterane patterns of both oils and extracts are characterized by (a) low relative concentrations of diasteranes, (b) low 20S/20R-5α,14α,17α-ethylcholestane ratios, (c) relatively high concentrations of cholestane ( vs. methyl- and ethylcholestane) isomers. San Joaquin Basin samples contain significant amounts of the 5β isomer, which is generally absent in samples from other basins. The carbon number distribution of 5α,14α,17α,20R steranes is similar for all oils, regardless of API gravity, depth or basin location, and is suggestive of open marine depositional conditions for the source material involved. 17α(H),l8α(H),21β(H)-28,30-Bisnorhopane is present in almost all samples. Certain San Joaquin Basin oils and extracts contain (a) a series of 25-nor hopanes, including 25,28,30-trisnorhopane, (b) a distinctive monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbon distribution, (c) an aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction devoid of n-paraffins. Biological marker characteristics suggest that the Monterey oils examined originated early in the maturational sequence, from elastics-poor source material. API gravities of the Monterey Formation oils examined vary monotonically with (a) bisnorhopane/hopane ratios, (b) aromatized/regular sterane ratios and (c) the concentration of monoaromatized steranes relative to terpanes and regular steranes. These oil gravity correlations exist regardless of sample depth or basin location.

  14. THE CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF TUMOR ANGIOGENESIS AND NVASIVENESS-RELATED GENE EXPRESSIONS IN GASTRIC CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏向前; 黄信孚; 王怡; 谢玉泉; 李吉友

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the correlation among tumor angiogenesis, expressions of p53, nm23-I1, CD44v6, c-erbB-2 proteins and biological behavior and clinical outcome of gastric cancer. Methods: The intratumoral microvessel density (MVD) and expressions of p53, nm23-H1, CD44v6, c-erbB-2 were analyzed semiquantitively by immunohistochemical staining (S-P) of 59 paraffin-embedded gastric tumor specimens that were radically resected at the Department of surgery, Beijing Institute for Cancer Research, between January 1990 and December 1992. The median follow-up period was 75 month (range: 60~96 months). The significdance of these indicators was analyzed retrospectively. Results: MVD for tumors with lymph node metastasis and vascular invasion was significantly higher than those without (P=0.0168 and 0.0176, respectively). The levels of p53, CD44v6, c-erbB-2 expression were significantly higher in the groups of lymph node metastasis, serosal infiltration and vascular invasion than in those without. All differences reached the statistically significant levels (P<0.01~<0.05). The low expression of nm23-H1 was negatively correlated with lymph node metastasis, serosal infiltration and vascular invasion (P<0.01; <0.05 and <0.01, respectively). Univariate analysis showed that the overall survival of patients with higher MVD, or overexpressions of p53, CD44v6, c-erbB-2, or low expression of nm23-H1 were significantly worse than those with opposite conditions (P=0.0214, 0.0062, 0.0045, 0.0159, and 0.0162, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that expression of p53 in this series was an independent prognostic indicator. Conclusion: The data suggested that the above-mentioned factors might be helpful in evaluating the metastatic potential of gastric cancer and making more effective assessment of prognosis for individual patient. Further study with larger samples and prospective investigation of these results would be worthwhile.

  15. Clinical significance of vascular endothelial growth factor in hepatitis C related hepatocellular carcinoma in Egyptian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta MM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed Magdi El-Sadek Ali Atta,1,2 Hazem Mahmoud Atta,3,4 Magdy Abdel-Mawgoud Gad,2 Laila Ahmad Rashed,4 Ebada M Said,2 Sharaf El-Sayed Ali Hassanien,2 Ahmed O Kaseb5 1Department of Medicine, Rabigh Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Hepatology, Gastroenterology and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt; 3Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Rabigh Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 5Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Background and aims: Several angiogenic factors are involved in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, a hypervascular tumor. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a primary driving force for angiogenesis, and its overexpression has been reported in HCC. However, the significance of plasma and tissue VEGF levels in HCC in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC infection is understudied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of VEGF (measured in plasma and liver tissue in patients with hepatitis C virus-related HCC and to assess its significance in the diagnosis and prognosis of HCC. Materials and methods: A total of 90 subjects were studied. Among 90 subjects, 60 with CHC were examined and were subdivided into two groups: 30 patients with CHC-related HCC (HCC group and 30 patients with CHC without HCC (non-HCC group. Thirty apparently healthy subjects served as the control group. VEGF was estimated in plasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and its expression in liver tissue was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. VEGF expression level and its relationship to tumor parameters, patients' liver function profile, and patients' clinical

  16. Space radiation-induced bystander effect: kinetics of biologic responses, mechanisms, and significance of secondary radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widespread evidence indicates that exposure of cell cultures to a particles results in significant biological changes in both the irradiated and non-irradiated bystander cells in the population. The induction of non-targeted biological responses in cell cultures exposed to low fluences of high charge (Z) and high energy (E) particles is relevant to estimates of the health risks of space radiation and to radiotherapy. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the induction of stressful effects in confluent normal human fibroblast cultures exposed to low fluences of 1000 MeV/u iron ions (linear energy transfer (LET) 151 keV/μm), 600 MeV/u silicon ions (LET 50 keV/μm) or 290 MeV/u carbon ions (LET 13 keV/μm). We compared the results with those obtained in cell cultures exposed, in parallel, to low fluences of 0.92 MeV/u a particles (LET 109 keV/μm). Induction of DNA damage, changes in gene expression, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation during 24 h after exposure of confluent cultures to mean doses as low as 0.2 cGy of iron or silicon ions strongly supported the propagation of stressful effects from irradiated to bystander cells. At a mean dose of 0.2 cGy, only 1 and 3 % of the cells would be targeted through the nucleus by an iron or silicon ion, respectively. Within 24 h post-irradiation, immunoblot analyses revealed significant increases in the levels of phospho-TP53 (serine 15), p21Waf1 (also known as CDKN1A), HDM2, phospho-ERK1/2, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation. The magnitude of the responses suggested participation of non-targeted cells in the response. Furthermore, when the irradiated cell populations were subcultured in fresh medium shortly after irradiation, greater than expected increases in the levels of these markers were also observed during 24 h. Together, the results imply a rapidly propagated and persistent bystander effect. In situ analyses in confluent cultures showed 53BP1 foci formation, a marker of DNA damage, in

  17. Measurement and biological significance of the volatile sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in various biological matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangerman, Albert

    2009-01-01

    This review deals with the measurement of the volatile Sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in various biological matrices of rats and humans (blood, serum, tissues, urine, breath, feces and flatus). Hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol both contain the active thiol (-SH

  18. Measurement and biological significance of the volatile sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in various biological matrices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangerman, A.

    2009-01-01

    This review deals with the measurement of the volatile sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in various biological matrices of rats and humans (blood, serum, tissues, urine, breath, feces and flatus). Hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol both contain the active thiol (-SH

  19. 76 FR 13597 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Hawkweeds AGENCY: Animal... subterminalis, into the continental United States as a biological control agent to reduce the severity...

  20. Radiation damage and repair in cells and cell components. Part 2. Physical radiations and biological significance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report comprises a teaching text, encompassing all physical radiations likely to be of biological interest, and the relevant biological effects and their significance. Topics include human radiobiology, delayed effects, radiation absorption in organisms, aqueous radiation chemistry, cell radiobiology, mutagenesis, and photobiology

  1. Biological significance of the focus on DNA damage checkpoint factors remained after irradiation of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews recent reports on the focus formation and participation to checkpoint of (such phosphorylated (P-d) as below) ATM and H2AX, MDC1, 53BP1 and NBS1, and discusses their role in DNA damage checkpoint induction mainly around authors' studies. When the cell is irradiated by ionizing radiation, the subtype histone like H2AX is P-d and the formed focus', seen in the nucleus on immuno-fluorographic observation, represents the P-d H2AX at the damaged site of DNA. The role of P-d ATM (the product of causative gene of ataxia-telangiectasia mutation, a protein kinase) has been first shown by laser beam irradiation. Described are discussions on the roles and functions after irradiation in focus formation and DNA damage checkpoint of P-d H2AX (a specific histone product by the radiation like γ-ray as above), P-d ATM, MDC1 (a mediator of DNA damage check point protein 1), 53BP1, (a p53 binding protein) and NBS1 (the product of the causative gene of Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome). Authors have come to point out the remained focal size increase as implications of the efficient repair of damaged DNA, and the second cycled p53 accumulation, of tumor suppression. Thus evaluation of biological significance of these aspects, scarcely noted hitherto, is concluded important. (S.I.)

  2. Phospholipids in Milk Fat: Composition, Biological and Technological Significance, and Analytical Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Contarini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids are quantitatively the most important phospholipids (PLs in milk. They are located on the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM and in other membranous material of the skim milk phase. They include principally phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine, while sphingomyelin is the dominant species of sphingolipids There is considerable evidence that PLs have beneficial health effects, such as regulation of the inflammatory reactions, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity on some types of cancer, and inhibition of the cholesterol absorption. PLs show good emulsifying properties and can be used as a delivery system for liposoluble constituents. Due to the amphiphilic characteristics of these molecules, their extraction, separation and detection are critical points in the analytical approach. The extraction by using chloroform and methanol, followed by the determination by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC, coupled with evaporative light scattering (ELSD or mass detector (MS, are the most applied procedures for the PL evaluation. More recently, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR was also used, but despite it demonstrating high sensitivity, it requires more studies to obtain accurate results. This review is focused on milk fat phospholipids; their composition, biological activity, technological properties, and significance in the structure of milk fat. Different analytical methodologies are also discussed.

  3. Clinical significance of isometric bite force versus electrical activity in temporal and masseter muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, Merete; Michler, L; Han, K;

    1989-01-01

    significant with respect to unilateral, but not to bilateral force measurements. Only in the masseter muscle was strength of dynamic contractions during chewing significantly correlated to bite force. With the present method it was demonstrated that unilateral bite force is a simple clinical indicator...

  4. Isolation of a significant fraction of non-phototroph diversity from a desert Biological Soil Crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses eNunes da Rocha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs are organosedimentary assemblages comprised of microbes and minerals in topsoil of terrestrial environments. BSCs strongly impact soil quality in dryland ecosystems (e.g., soil structure and nutrient yields due to pioneer species such as Microcoleus vaginatus; phototrophs that produce filaments that bind the soil together, and support an array of heterotrophic microorganisms. These microorganisms in turn contribute to soil stability and biogeochemistry of BSCs. Non-cyanobacterial populations of BSCs are less well known than cyanobacterial populations. Therefore, we attempted to isolate a broad range of numerically significant and phylogenetically representative BSC aerobic heterotrophs. Combining simple pre-treatments (hydration of BSCs under dark and light and isolation strategies (media with varying nutrient availability and protection from oxidative stress we recovered 402 bacterial and one fungal isolate in axenic culture, which comprised 116 phylotypes (at 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence homology, 115 bacterial and one fungal. Each medium enriched a mostly distinct subset of phylotypes, and cultivated phylotypes varied due to the BSC pre-treatment. The fraction of the total phylotype diversity isolated, weighted by relative abundance in the community, was determined by the overlap between isolate sequences and OTUs reconstructed from metagenome or metatranscriptome reads. Together, more than 8% of relative abundance of OTUs in the metagenome was represented by our isolates, a cultivation efficiency much larger than typically expected from most soils. We conclude that simple cultivation procedures combined with specific pre-treatment of samples afford a significant reduction in the culturability gap, enabling physiological and metabolic assays that rely on ecologically relevant axenic cultures.

  5. Expressions of Cyr61 and WISP-3 in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and Its Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfa LV

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61 plays a role as a tumor suppressor in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Cyr61 and WISP-3 have a very significant sequence homology, belonging to the same CCN gene family. The aim of this study is to investigate the expressions of Cyr61 and WISP-3 in NSCLC, and explore the relationship between their expressions and tumor's clinicopathological characteristics. Methods The expressions of Cyr61 and WISP-3 were detected in 54 cases with primary NSCLC and their corresponding normal lung tissues in control group by immunohistochemical staining (SP, and the clinical data were analyzed. Results Down-regulation of Cyr61 and up-regulation of WISP-3 were both found in lung cancer tissue compared with the corresponding normal lung tissue (both P < 0.001; The expression of Cyr61 was negatively correlated with the expression of WISP-3 (r=-0.395, P=0.003; Cyr61 expression levels was closely correlated with tumor grade, tumor type, clinical stage, family history, smoking and metastasis (P < 0.05. Also, WISP-3 was closely correlated with tumor grade, clinical stage and age (P < 0.05. Conclusion The expressions of Cyr61 and/or WISP-3 may be important biological markers in reflecting the progression, biological behaviors, metastatic potential and prognosis of NSCLC.

  6. Skeletal types: key to unraveling the mystery of facial beauty and its biologic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Y

    1996-06-01

    In random studies, some faces will deviate toward Type II skeletal and some toward Type III. Some will deviate toward a skeletally short vertical while some toward long. In their study, Langlois and Roggman digitized individual faces through a computer. As more and more faces were entered, the composite of these faces became more and more attractive. From this, they concluded that attractive faces are only average. The "average" face may very well conform to the divine proportion. However, some faces are strikingly beautiful, and Alley and Cunningham in their study attempted to explain these attributes. Individuals who are blessed with attractive features are treated differently in our society. Ackerman states, "Attractive people do better: in school, where they receive more help, better grades and less punishment; at work, where they are rewarded with higher pay, more prestigious jobs and faster promotions; in finding mates, where they tend to be in control of the relationship and make most of the decisions; and among strangers, who assume them to be more interesting, honest, virtuous and successful." Many would find this special treatment objectionable and unfair. The irony is that beautiful individuals make up a very small percentage of the population; they have very little power to dictate how society should act and behave. Various disciplines have studied the nature of facial beauty. Individually, they provide partial answers; however, when viewed together, they begin to weave provocative insights as to its biologic significance. It is intricately related to divine proportion, and all living creatures have the genetic potential to develop toward it. The appreciation for this proportion is primitive and inborn; it is a biologic mechanism by which all living creatures are attracted to potential mates who conform to this strict proportion because they are biologically strong, healthy, and fertile. To date, there is no other profession other than ours that has the

  7. Clinical Significance of Lymphoscintigraphy Findings in the Evaluation of Lower Extremity Lymphedema

    OpenAIRE

    Seyhan Karaçavuş; Yunus Keser Yılmaz; Hasan Ekim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of lymphoscintigraphy imaging in the evaluation of lower extremity lymphedema. Methods: Technetium-99m-labeled nanocolloid was injected subcutaneously in the first web spaces of both feet of 123 patients (M/F: 43/80, mean age 57.5±13.1 years, range 16-78 years) who had clinical evidence of lower extremity swelling with suspicion of lymphedema, and were referred for routine lymphoscintigraphy. Lymphos...

  8. Clinical Significance of Mutant P53 Protein Expression in Lung Adenocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chun’an BIAN; Li, Zhongyou; Youtao XU; Wang, Jie; Xu, Lin; Shen, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective P53 is a tumor protein that acts as a tumor suppressor. The mutation of P53 may cause loss of tumor suppressor functions and gain of functions favoring cellular proliferation and apoptosis inhibition. The clinical implications of the tumor protein P53 gene (TP53) mutation in lung adenocarcinoma are indefinite. The aim of this study is to explore the clinical significance of the mutant P53 protein expression in lung adenocarcinoma tissues. Methods The clinicopathologic...

  9. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for depression following psychosis: an examination of clinically significant change

    OpenAIRE

    White, R G; Gumley, A.I.; McTaggart, J.; Rattrie, L.; McConville, D; Cleare, S.; McLeod, H.J.; Mitchell, G

    2015-01-01

    Depression following psychosis is common and can impact negatively on individuals’ quality of life. This study conducted post-hoc analyses on 14 participants with psychosis from a larger randomised controlled trial who presented with clinically important levels of depression at baseline. Eight of the participants received Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), whilst the remaining six individuals received treatment as usual (TAU). The focus was on investigating clinically significant change...

  10. The Clinical Significance of Vitamin D in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sakthiswary, Rajalingham; Raymond, Azman Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D deficiency is more prevalent among SLE patients than the general population. Over the past decade, many studies across the globe have been carried out to investigate the role of vitamin D in SLE from various clinical angles. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to summarise and evaluate the evidence from the published literature; focusing on the clinical significance of vitamin D in SLE. Methods The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Kno...

  11. Inpatient Treatment for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa: Clinical Significance and Predictors of Treatment Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegl, Sandra; Diedrich, Alice; Neumayr, Christina; Fumi, Markus; Naab, Silke; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the clinical significance as well as predictors of outcome for adolescents with severe anorexia nervosa (AN) treated in an inpatient setting. Body mass index (BMI), eating disorder (ED) symptoms [Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2)], general psychopathology and depression were assessed in 238 patients at admission and discharge. BMI increased from 14.8 + 1.2 to 17.3 + 1.4 kg/m(2). Almost a fourth (23.6%) of the patients showed reliable changes, and 44.7% showed clinically significant changes (EDI-2). BMI change did not significantly differ between those with reliable or clinically significant change or no reliable change in EDI-2. Length of stay, depression and body dissatisfaction were negative predictors of a clinically significant change. Inpatient treatment is effective in about two thirds of adolescents with AN and should be considered when outpatient treatment fails. About one third of patients showed significant weight gain, but did not improve regarding overall ED symptomatology. Future studies should focus on treatment strategies for non-responders. PMID:26603278

  12. Evidence that DNA excision-repair in xeroderma pigmentosum group A is limited but biologically significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The loss of pyrimidine dimers in nondividing populations of an excision-repair deficient xeroderma pigmentosum group. A strain (XP12BE) was measured throughout long periods (up to 5 months) following exposure to low doses of ultraviolet light (UV, 254 nm) using a UV endonuclease-alkaline sedimentation assay. Excision of about 90% of the dimers induced by 1 J/m2 occurred during the first 50 days. The rate curve has some similarities with that of normal excision-repair proficient cultures that may not be coincidental. Rate curves for both XP12BE and normal cultures are characterized by a fast and slow component, with both rate constants for the XP12BE cultures (0.15 day-1 and 0.025 day-1) a factor of 10 smaller than those observed for the respective components of normal cell cultures. The slow components for both XP12BE and normal cultures extrapolate to about 30% of the initial number of dimers. No further excision was detected throughout an additional 90-day period even though the cultures were capable of excision-repair of other newly-introduced pyrimidine dimers. We conclude that nondividing XP12BE cells in addition to having a slower repair rate, cannot repair some of the UV-induced DNA damage. The repair in XP12BE is shown to have biological significance as detected by a cell-survival assay and dose-fractionation techniques. Nondividing XP12BE cells are more resistant to UV when irradiated chronically than when irradiated acutely with the same total dose. (orig.)

  13. About the significance of biological factors affecting pregnancy a married couple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Yarman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A brief review of the literature analysis of the importance and interdependence of the main factors influencing the occurrence of pregnancy as a pair in the treatment of infertility, such as the woman's age, ovarian reserve, the semen of a man and the duration of infertility. The review also presents the data concerning the practical implications of sexual constitution and sexual maturation in men and women in the pubertal period. When evaluating male fertility invariably significant factor in the prediction of pregnancy are, impregnating ability to ejaculate. Infertility is more common in males with delayed development in the pubertal period with a weak type of sexual constitution. Results of treatment of male infertility, the dynamics of the semen and pregnancy of the couple on the background of pathogenetic therapy correlates with the type of sexual constitution. Widely deployed discussion about the existence of the male equivalent of female menopause mainly concerns the problems of men's sexual health. Of exceptional importance for the prediction of treatment of infertility has ovarian reserve, which is closely associated with age women. Formation of menstrual function occurs in the pubertal period of sexual development, in this age of menarche is the leading symptom of type of sexual constitution of women that do not change throughout the life hereafter. The presence of menstrual function and even ovulation does not reflect the reproductive capacity of women. Insufficient information content of the chronological age of a woman, as an indicator of the reproductive capacity of ovarian dictates the necessity of the development of tests that determine individual biological age of a woman, perhaps connected with the type of sexual constitution. In this regard, the study of sexual constitution partners is of great scientific and practical interest.

  14. Biological significance of complex N-glycans in plants and their impact on plant physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Strasser, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Asparagine (N)-linked protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous co- and post-translational modification which can alter the biological function of proteins and consequently affects the development, growth, and physiology of organisms. Despite an increasing knowledge of N-glycan biosynthesis and processing, we still understand very little about the biological function of individual N-glycan structures in plants. In particular, the N-glycan-processing steps mediated by Golgi-resident enzymes create...

  15. Current Understanding of the Binding Sites, Capacity, Affinity, and Biological Significance of Metals in Melanin

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Lian; Simon, John D.

    2007-01-01

    Metal chelation is often invoked as one of the main biological functions of melanin. In order to understand the interaction between metals and melanin, extensive studies have been carried out to determine the nature of the metal binding sites, binding capacity and affinity. These data are central to efforts aimed at elucidating the role metal binding plays in determining the physical, structural, biological, and photochemical properties of melanin. This article examines the current state of u...

  16. Detecting modules in biological networks by edge weight clustering and entropy significance

    OpenAIRE

    Lecca, Paola; Re, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Detection of the modular structure of biological networks is of interest to researchers adopting a systems perspective for the analysis of omics data. Computational systems biology has provided a rich array of methods for network clustering. To date, the majority of approaches address this task through a network node classification based on topological or external quantifiable properties of network nodes. Conversely, numerical properties of network edges are underused, even though the informa...

  17. Clinical significance of corpus callosum atrophy in a mixed elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, C.; Rostrup, E.; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille;

    2007-01-01

    Corpus callosum (CC) is the main tract connecting the hemispheres, but the clinical significance of CC atrophy is poorly understood. The aim of this work was to investigate clinical and functional correlates of CC atrophy in subjects with age-related white matter changes (ARWMC). In 569 elderly......) score, history of depression, geriatric depression scale (GDS) score, subjective gait difficulty, history of falls, walking speed, and total score on the short physical performance battery (SPPB) were analyzed. Significant correlations between CC atrophy and MMSE, SPPB, and walking speed were identified...

  18. Clinical, biological and genetic analysis of anorchia in 26 boys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Brauner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anorchia is defined as the absence of testes in a 46,XY individual with a male phenotype. The cause is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the clinical and biological presentation, and family histories of 26 boys with anorchia, and sequenced their SRY, NR5A1, INSL3, MAMLD1 genes and the T222P variant for LGR8. RESULTS: No patient had any associated congenital anomaly. At birth, testes were palpable bilaterally or unilaterally in 13 cases and not in 7; one patient presented with bilateral testicular torsion immediately after birth. The basal plasma concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH, n = 15, inhibin B (n = 7 and testosterone (n = 19 were very low or undetectable in all the patients evaluated, as were the increases in testosterone after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, n = 12. The basal plasma concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH were increased in 20/25, as was that of luteinising hormone in 10/22 cases. Family members of 7/26 cases had histories of primary ovarian failure in the mother (n = 2, or sister 46,XX, together with fetal malformations of the only boy with microphallus and secondary foot edema (n = 1, secondary infertility in the father (n = 2, or cryptorchidism in first cousins (n = 2. The sequences of all the genes studied were normal. CONCLUSION: Undetectable plasma concentrations of AMH and inhibin B and an elevated plasma FSH, together with 46,XY complement are sufficient for diagnosis of anorchia. The hCG test is unnecessary. NR5A1 and other genes implicated in gonadal development and testicle descent were not mutated, which suggests that other genes involved in these developments contribute to the phenotypes.

  19. Evaluating research for clinical significance: using critically appraised topics to enhance evidence-based neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Stephen C; Harrison, Elise J; Loring, David W

    2014-01-01

    Meehl's (1973, Psychodiagnosis: Selected papers. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press) distinction between statistical and clinical significance holds special relevance for evidence-based neuropsychological practice. Meehl argued that despite attaining statistical significance, many published findings have limited practical value since they do not inform clinical care. In the context of an ever expanding clinical research literature, accessible methods to evaluate clinical impact are needed. The method of Critically Appraised Topics (Straus, Richardson, Glasziou, & Haynes, 2011, Evidence-based medicine: How to practice and teach EBM (4th ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill-Livingstone) was developed to provide clinicians with a "toolkit" to facilitate implementation of evidence-based practice. We illustrate the Critically Appraised Topics method using a dementia screening example. We argue that the skills practiced through critical appraisal provide clinicians with methods to: (1) evaluate the clinical relevance of new or unfamiliar research findings with a focus on patient benefit, (2) help focus of research quality, and (3) incorporate evaluation of clinical impact into educational and professional development activities.

  20. Factors influencing the outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI): age, clinical variables and significant thresholds

    OpenAIRE

    Speyer, B.; Abramov, B.; Saab, W.; Doshi, A.; Sarna, U.; Harper, J. C.; Serhal, P

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the influence of various biological factors upon the outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI). The total IUI history (856 cycles) of 352 couples was studied. Live-birth showed a strong negative correlation with female age but no correlation with male age. Antimullerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC) correlated negatively with female age, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) correlated positively. Significant thresholds were found for all three var...

  1. The significance of clinical experience on learning outcome from resuscitation training-a randomised controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Lind; Lippert, Freddy; Hesselfeldt, Rasmus;

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: The impact of clinical experience on learning outcome from a resuscitation course has not been systematically investigated. AIM: To determine whether half a year of clinical experience before participation in an Advanced Life Support (ALS) course increases the immediate learning outcome ...... but statistically significant impact on the retention of learning, but not on the immediate learning outcome Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/4......CONTEXT: The impact of clinical experience on learning outcome from a resuscitation course has not been systematically investigated. AIM: To determine whether half a year of clinical experience before participation in an Advanced Life Support (ALS) course increases the immediate learning outcome...... and retention of learning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective single blinded randomised controlled study of the learning outcome from a standard ALS course on a volunteer sample of the entire cohort of newly graduated doctors from Copenhagen University. The outcome measurement was ALS...

  2. Uncovering biologically significant lipid isomers with liquid chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, Jennifer E.; Zhang, Xing; Weitz, Karl K.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Moore, Ronald J.; Cha, Jeeyeon; Sun, Xiaofei; Lovelace, Erica S.; Wagoner, Jessica; Polyak, Stephen J.; Metz, Thomas O.; Dey, Sudhansu K.; Smith, Richard D.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin S.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how biological molecules are generated, metabolized and eliminated in living systems is important for interpreting processes such as immune response and disease pathology. While genomic and proteomic studies have provided vast amounts of information over the last several decades, interest in lipidomics has also grown due to improved analytical technologies revealing altered lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes, cancer, and lipid storage disease. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurements are currently the dominant approach for characterizing the lipidome by providing detailed information on the spatial and temporal composition of lipids. However, interpreting lipids’ biological roles is challenging due to the existence of numerous structural and stereoisomers (i.e. distinct acyl chain and double-bond positions), which are unresolvable using present LC-MS approaches. Here we show that combining structurally-based ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) with LC-MS measurements distinguishes lipid isomers and allows insight into biological and disease processes.

  3. Elizabethkingia anophelis bacteremia is associated with clinically significant infections and high mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susanna K. P.; Chow, Wang-Ngai; Foo, Chuen-Hing; Curreem, Shirly O. T.; Lo, George Chi-Shing; Teng, Jade L. L.; Chen, Jonathan H. K.; Ng, Ricky H. Y.; Wu, Alan K. L.; Cheung, Ingrid Y. Y.; Chau, Sandy K. Y.; Lung, David C.; Lee, Rodney A.; Tse, Cindy W. S.; Fung, Kitty S. C.; Que, Tak-Lun; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, the clinical importance of E. anophelis is poorly understood. We determined the clinical and molecular epidemiology of bacteremia caused by Elizabethkingia-like species from five regional hospitals in Hong Kong. Among 45 episodes of Elizabethkingia-like bacteremia, 21 were caused by Elizabethkingia, including 17 E. anophelis, three E. meningoseptica and one E. miricola; while 24 were caused by other diverse genera/species, as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Of the 17 cases of E. anophelis bacteremia, 15 (88%) were clinically significant. The most common diagnosis was pneumonia (n = 5), followed by catheter-related bacteremia (n = 4), neonatal meningitis (n = 3), nosocomial bacteremia (n = 2) and neutropenic fever (n = 1). E. anophelis bacteremia was commonly associated with complications and carried 23.5% mortality. In contrast, of the 24 episodes of bacteremia due to non-Elizabethkingia species, 16 (67%) were clinically insignificant. Compared to non-Elizabethkingia bacteremia, Elizabethkingia bacteremia was associated with more clinically significant infections (P < 0.01) and positive cultures from other sites (P < 0.01), less polymicrobial bacteremia (P < 0.01), and higher complication (P < 0.05) and mortality (P < 0.05) rates. Elizabethkingia bacteremia is predominantly caused by E. anophelis instead of E. meningoseptica. Elizabethkingia bacteremia, especially due to E. anophelis, carries significant morbidity and mortality, and should be considered clinically significant unless proven otherwise. PMID:27185741

  4. PATHOLOGIC AND IMPENDING FRACTURES: BIOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL ASPECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, M S; Campi, S; Sacchetti, F M; Rossi, B; Di Martino, A; Giannini, S; Piccioli, A

    2015-01-01

    Bone metastases from carcinomas are epidemiologically rising because of the increased survival rate of oncologic patients, related to several factors such as improvement of primary and secondary screening, advancement of medical research and technology and the better understanding of mechanisms underlying bone metastases origination from primary tumor. Skeletal Related Events (SREs) can seriously affect quality of life in patients with metastatic disease. These events include the necessity of radiotherapy or bone surgery, malignant hypercalcemia, pathologic fractures and spinal cord compression. Among the SREs, pathologic fractures are the most disabling events and represent an emergency in these delicate patients. A pathologic fracture is defined as a fracture that occurs at the level of a pre-existing bone lesion (that is often a tumor), spontaneously or as the result of low-energy trauma (1). The pre-existence of the metastatic lesion in the bone, its evaluation and the assessment of progression can make these complications predictable and preventable. Pathologic fractures imply several severe consequences, including patient immobilization (in the case of fractures involving the lower limbs), loss of autonomy, anaemia, need of blood transfusion, discontinuation of medical therapies or radiotherapy and protracted hospitalization. Secondary effects of prolonged immobilization and loss of autonomy further lengthen this list of complications in patients who are already significantly limited in their activities. In the present paper, the authors present a review on the main aspects involved in bone metastastic disease: biology, quality of life, economic impact and survival. PMID:26652492

  5. Clinically Significant Change to Establish Benchmarks in Residential Drug and Alcohol Treatment Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingham, Daniel D.; Kelly, Peter J.; Deane, Frank P.; Crowe, Trevor P.; Buckingham, Mark S.; Craig, Fiona L.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis on the use routine outcome assessment measures to inform quality assurance initiatives. The calculation of reliable and clinically significant change indices is one strategy that organizations could use to develop both internal and externally focused benchmarking processes. The current study aimed to develop reliable…

  6. Expression of Sema4D in patients with cerebral infarction and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the expression and clinical significance of Semaphorin4D (Sema4D) mRNA in peripheral blood lymphocyte,Sema4D on platelet surface, soluble Sema4D (sSema4D) in plasma in patients with cerebral infarction. Methods Taking 299 patients with cerebral infarction

  7. Reliability and Clinical Significance of Mobility and Balance Assessments in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmonth, Yvonne C.; Paul, Lorna; McFadyen, Angus K.; Mattison, Paul; Miller, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the test-retest reliability, clinical significance and precision of four mobility and balance measures--the Timed 25-Foot Walk, Six-minute Walk, Timed Up and Go and the Berg Balance Scale--in individuals moderately affected by multiple sclerosis. Twenty four participants with multiple sclerosis (Extended…

  8. Risk Factors for Clinically Significant Intimate Partner Violence among Active-Duty Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith Slep, Amy M.; Foran, Heather M.; Heyman, Richard E.; Snarr, Jeffery D.

    2011-01-01

    Hypothesized risk factors for men's and women's clinically significant intimate partner violence (CS-IPV) from four ecological levels (i.e., individual, family, workplace, community) were tested in a representative sample of active-duty U.S. Air Force members (N = 42,744). When considered together, we expected only individual and family factors to…

  9. Differential expression and clinical significance of three inflammation-related microRNAs in gangliogliomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prabowo, A. S.; van Scheppingen, J.; Iyer, A. M.; Anink, J. J.; Spliet, W. G M; van Rijen, P. C.; Meeteren, A. Y N Schouten van; Aronica, E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: miR21, miR146, and miR155 represent a trio of microRNAs which has been shown to play a key role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. In the present study, we investigated the differential expression and clinical significance of these three miRNAs in glioneuronal tumors (g

  10. Differential expression and clinical significance of three inflammation-related microRNAs in gangliogliomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Prabowo; J. van Scheppingen; A.M. Iyer; J.J. Anink; W.G.M. Spliet; P.C. van Rijen; A.Y.N. Schouten-van Meeteren; E. Aronica

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: miR21, miR146, and miR155 represent a trio of microRNAs which has been shown to play a key role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. In the present study, we investigated the differential expression and clinical significance of these three miRNAs in glioneuronal tumors (g

  11. Detection of KRAS gene mutation and its clinical significance in colorectal adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晨

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical significance of KRAS mutation detection in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Methods Paraffin-embedded tissue specimens were obtained from 440 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. The genomic DNA was extracted. Mutations of exon 2 of KRAS gene were examined by PCR and

  12. The Widespread Prevalence and Functional Significance of Silk-Like Structural Proteins in Metazoan Biological Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Carmel; Woodcroft, Ben J; Degnan, Bernard M

    2016-01-01

    In nature, numerous mechanisms have evolved by which organisms fabricate biological structures with an impressive array of physical characteristics. Some examples of metazoan biological materials include the highly elastic byssal threads by which bivalves attach themselves to rocks, biomineralized structures that form the skeletons of various animals, and spider silks that are renowned for their exceptional strength and elasticity. The remarkable properties of silks, which are perhaps the best studied biological materials, are the result of the highly repetitive, modular, and biased amino acid composition of the proteins that compose them. Interestingly, similar levels of modularity/repetitiveness and similar bias in amino acid compositions have been reported in proteins that are components of structural materials in other organisms, however the exact nature and extent of this similarity, and its functional and evolutionary relevance, is unknown. Here, we investigate this similarity and use sequence features common to silks and other known structural proteins to develop a bioinformatics-based method to identify similar proteins from large-scale transcriptome and whole-genome datasets. We show that a large number of proteins identified using this method have roles in biological material formation throughout the animal kingdom. Despite the similarity in sequence characteristics, most of the silk-like structural proteins (SLSPs) identified in this study appear to have evolved independently and are restricted to a particular animal lineage. Although the exact function of many of these SLSPs is unknown, the apparent independent evolution of proteins with similar sequence characteristics in divergent lineages suggests that these features are important for the assembly of biological materials. The identification of these characteristics enable the generation of testable hypotheses regarding the mechanisms by which these proteins assemble and direct the construction of

  13. The Widespread Prevalence and Functional Significance of Silk-Like Structural Proteins in Metazoan Biological Materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel McDougall

    Full Text Available In nature, numerous mechanisms have evolved by which organisms fabricate biological structures with an impressive array of physical characteristics. Some examples of metazoan biological materials include the highly elastic byssal threads by which bivalves attach themselves to rocks, biomineralized structures that form the skeletons of various animals, and spider silks that are renowned for their exceptional strength and elasticity. The remarkable properties of silks, which are perhaps the best studied biological materials, are the result of the highly repetitive, modular, and biased amino acid composition of the proteins that compose them. Interestingly, similar levels of modularity/repetitiveness and similar bias in amino acid compositions have been reported in proteins that are components of structural materials in other organisms, however the exact nature and extent of this similarity, and its functional and evolutionary relevance, is unknown. Here, we investigate this similarity and use sequence features common to silks and other known structural proteins to develop a bioinformatics-based method to identify similar proteins from large-scale transcriptome and whole-genome datasets. We show that a large number of proteins identified using this method have roles in biological material formation throughout the animal kingdom. Despite the similarity in sequence characteristics, most of the silk-like structural proteins (SLSPs identified in this study appear to have evolved independently and are restricted to a particular animal lineage. Although the exact function of many of these SLSPs is unknown, the apparent independent evolution of proteins with similar sequence characteristics in divergent lineages suggests that these features are important for the assembly of biological materials. The identification of these characteristics enable the generation of testable hypotheses regarding the mechanisms by which these proteins assemble and direct the

  14. The Widespread Prevalence and Functional Significance of Silk-Like Structural Proteins in Metazoan Biological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Carmel; Woodcroft, Ben J.

    2016-01-01

    In nature, numerous mechanisms have evolved by which organisms fabricate biological structures with an impressive array of physical characteristics. Some examples of metazoan biological materials include the highly elastic byssal threads by which bivalves attach themselves to rocks, biomineralized structures that form the skeletons of various animals, and spider silks that are renowned for their exceptional strength and elasticity. The remarkable properties of silks, which are perhaps the best studied biological materials, are the result of the highly repetitive, modular, and biased amino acid composition of the proteins that compose them. Interestingly, similar levels of modularity/repetitiveness and similar bias in amino acid compositions have been reported in proteins that are components of structural materials in other organisms, however the exact nature and extent of this similarity, and its functional and evolutionary relevance, is unknown. Here, we investigate this similarity and use sequence features common to silks and other known structural proteins to develop a bioinformatics-based method to identify similar proteins from large-scale transcriptome and whole-genome datasets. We show that a large number of proteins identified using this method have roles in biological material formation throughout the animal kingdom. Despite the similarity in sequence characteristics, most of the silk-like structural proteins (SLSPs) identified in this study appear to have evolved independently and are restricted to a particular animal lineage. Although the exact function of many of these SLSPs is unknown, the apparent independent evolution of proteins with similar sequence characteristics in divergent lineages suggests that these features are important for the assembly of biological materials. The identification of these characteristics enable the generation of testable hypotheses regarding the mechanisms by which these proteins assemble and direct the construction of

  15. Surgery and radiation therapy of triple-negative breast cancers: From biology to clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Jacques; Poortmans, Philip M P

    2016-08-01

    Triple negative breast cancer refers to tumours lacking the expression of the three most used tumour markers, namely oestrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). These cancers are known to carry a more dismal prognosis than the other molecular subtypes. Whether a more aggressive local-regional treatment is warranted or not in patients with triple-negative breast cancer is still a matter of debate. Indeed there remain a number of grey zones with respect to the optimization of the extent and the timing of surgery and radiation therapy (RT) in this patient population, also in consideration of the significant heterogeneity in biological behaviour and response to treatment identified for these tumours. The objective of this review is to provide an insight into the biological and clinical behaviour of triple-negative breast cancers and revisit the most recent advances in their management, focussing on local-regional treatments. PMID:27318170

  16. Streptococcus pyogenes biofilms – formation, biology,and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas eFiedler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci, GAS is an exclusive human bacterial pathogen. The virulence potential of this species is tremendous. Interactions with humans range from asymptomatic carriage over mild and superficial infections of skin and mucosal membranes up to systemic purulent toxic-invasive disease manifestations. Particularly the latter are a severe threat for predisposed patients and lead to significant death tolls worldwide. This places GAS among the most important Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. Many recent reviews have highlighted the GAS repertoire of virulence factors, regulators and regulatory circuits/networks that enable GAS to colonize the host and to deal with all levels of the host immune defense. This covers in vitro and in vivo studies, including animal infection studies based on mice and more relevant, macaque monkeys. It is now appreciated that GAS, like many other bacterial species, do not necessarily exclusively live in a planktonic lifestyle. GAS is capable of microcolony and biofilm formation on host cells and tissues. We are now beginning to understand that this feature significantly contributes to GAS pathogenesis. In this review we will discuss the current knowledge on GAS biofilm formation, the biofilm-phenotype associated virulence factors, regulatory aspects of biofilm formation, the clinical relevance, and finally contemporary treatment regimens and future treatment options.

  17. Biological significance of metals partitioned to subcellular fractions within earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, Martina G; Gestel, Cornelis A M van; Straalen, Nico M van; Lanno, Roman P; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2006-01-01

    Metal ions in excess of metabolic requirements are potentially toxic and must be removed from the vicinity of important biological molecules to protect organisms from adverse effects. Correspondingly, metals are sequestrated in various forms, defining the accumulation pattern and the magnitude of st

  18. 76 FR 4859 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... Health Inspection Service has prepared an environmental assessment and finding of no significant...

  19. Prevalence and clinical significance of cathepsin G antibodies in systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Favaro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of cathepsin G antibodies in patients affected with systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma. Methods: 115 patients affected by SSc, 55 (47,8% with diffuse scleroderma (dSSc and 60 (52,2% with limited scleroderma (lSSc, were tested for cathepsin G antibodies by ELISA method. Moreover these sera were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF on ethanol and formalin fixed human neutrophils. Results: By means of the ELISA method 16 (13,9% patients were found to be sera positive for anti-cathepsin G, 2 (12.5% of which showed a perinuclear fluorescence pattern (P-ANCA and 4 (25% an atypical ANCA staining, while 10 (62,5% were negative on IIF. The IIF on scleroderma sera revealed 5 (4,3% P-ANCA and 18 (15,7% atypical ANCA patterns. The anti-cathepsin G antibodies significantly prevailed in scleroderma sera (p=0.02 when their frequency was compared with that of healthy controls; while they were not significantly associated to any clinical or serological features of SSc patients. Conclusions: The anti-cathepsin G antibodies were significantly frequent in scleroderma sera; however, no clinical correlations were found. Thus, the significance of their presence in SSc still needs to be clarified.

  20. Clinical significance of white matter hyperintensities in MRI in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, Masashi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1996-08-01

    To elucidate clinical significance of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in MRI, fifty patients with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) and twenty normal controls were studied. Twenty nine patients with SDAT (58.0%) had periventricular hyperintensities (PVH) and twenty three patients with SDAT (46.0%) had deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMH). Eight controls (40.0%) had PVH and ten controls (50.0%) had DWMH. There were no significant differences in frequency of WMH between patients with SDAT and normal controls. Past history of hypertension was more frequent in patients with PVH or DWMH than in patients without them. Serum cholesterol level was higher in patients with DWMH than in patients without them. However there were no significant differences in the other clinical features between patients with WMH and patients without them. The results of present study suggest that DWMH in patients with SDAT is associated with cerebrovascular risk factors such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia. (author)

  1. Clinical significance of plasma level of AT-Ⅲ determination in sepsis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Chen; Zhi-Hua Hu; Chen-Mian

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Through measure changes of anticoagulant enzyme (AT-Ⅲ) activity in plasma in sepsis patients, this paper discusses the clinical significance of AT-Ⅲ activity changes in predicting sepsis occurrence and prognosis.Methods: The non-sepsis 30 cases, with sepsis 76 cases, including 25 cases of severe sepsis, use method of thrombin gelatum lacuna for determining activity of AT-Ⅲ in plasma, platelet count and APACHEⅢ score simultaneously. Results:Sepsis group, severe sepsis groups contrast with the non-sepsis group respectively, activity of AT-Ⅲ reduced significantly (P<0.01), severe sepsis group lower than sepsis group (P=0.055).Conclusion:AT-Ⅲ activity reduced early in sepsis patients, with patient's condition aggravat, its value further reduced, hints measurement of AT-Ⅲ activity has certainly clinical significance in predicting sepsis occurrence and prognosis.

  2. Molecular Biology of Pancreatic Cancer: How Useful Is It in Clinical Practice?

    OpenAIRE

    Sakorafas, George H; Vasileios Smyrniotis

    2012-01-01

    Context During the recent two decades dramatic advances of molecular biology allowed an in-depth understanding of pancreatic carcinogenesis. It is currently accepted that pancreatic cancer has a genetic component. The real challenge is now how these impressive advances could be used in clinical practice. Objective To critically present currently available data regarding clinical application of molecular biology in pancreatic cancer. Methods Reports about clinical implications of molecular bio...

  3. Clinical significance of serum CYFRA 21-1 in gastric cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakata, B.; Chung, Y. S.; Kato, Y.; Ogawa, M; Ogawa, Y; Inui, A.; Maeda, K; Sawada, T; Sowa, M.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the clinical significance of the soluble cytokeratin 19 fragment detected with monoclonal antibody CYFRA 21-1 in the sera of patients with histologically proven gastric cancer. Sera of 110 patients with gastric cancer were analysed for CYFRA 21-1 levels by a two-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay. There were no significant differences between CYFRA 21-1 levels and the histotype, depth of invasion or vessel invasion. However, CYFRA 21-1 was significantly higher in the presence of peri...

  4. Biological activity of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii from clinical and environmental isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcio Barbosa Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are encapsulated basidiomycetous yeasts with worldwide distribution. They cause cryptococcosis with features of systemic infection, affecting the central nervous system, lungs and skin in humans and animals. These fungi present numerous virulence factors that allow them to invade the host and multiply, among which extracellular enzyme capacity and microbial adaptation to different temperatures are worth mentioning. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the production of protease and investigate possible differences in thermotolerance and urease activity in clinical and environmental yeast isolates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Culture methods and Pz analysis were applied to assess urease and protease, whereas the optical density method was used to analyze biological activity in thermotolerance. RESULTS: There was no significant results as to microbial growth at the tested temperatures (25º, 37º and 42ºC. It was observed that clinical specimens grew better than environmental ones at elevated temperatures. As to C. neoformans, the moderate production of urease enzyme prevailed in both clinical and environmental isolates within 24h or 48h. Moreover, there was significant production on the seventh day of reading. The best reading time for viewing protease production in both isolates and species was the seventh day: 96% clinical samples and 94% environmental isolates. CONCLUSION: Further studies are required in order to investigate the virulence factors of C. neoformans and C. gattii cerebrospinal isolates from patients with meningoencephalitis and environmental samples from Sergipe. Furthermore, a higher technical accuracy and statistical precision are indispensable.

  5. On the necessity and biological significance of threshold-free regulon prediction outputs

    OpenAIRE

    Rigali, Sébastien; Nivelle, Renaud; Tocquin, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The in silico prediction of cis-acting elements in a genome is an efficient way to quickly obtain an overview of the biological processes controlled by a trans-acting factor, and connections between regulatory networks. Several regulon prediction web tools are available, designed to identify DNA motifs predicted to be bound by transcription factors using position weight matrix-based algorithms. In this paper we expose and discuss the conflicting objectives of software creators (bioinformatici...

  6. The Prognostic Significance of Apoptosis-Related Biological Markers in Chinese Gastric Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaowen; Cai, Hong; Huang, Hua; Long, Ziwen; Shi, Yingqiang; Wang, Yanong

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective The prognosis varied among the patients with the same stage, therefore there was a need for new prognostic and predictive factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of apoptosis-related biological markers such as p53, bcl-2, bax, and c-myc, and clinicopathological features and their prognostic value. Methods From 1996 to 2007, 4426 patients had undergone curative D2 gastrectomy for gastric cancer at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. Among 5...

  7. Postprocedural percutaneous transhepatic billiary drainage alterations of right hemidiaphragm: Clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiographic findings, occurrence, and clinical significance of altered right hemidiaphragm dynamics in percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PBD) patients was evaluated. Preprocedural and postprocedural chest radiographs, PBD procedural notes, and medical records were reviewed in 87 PBD patients. Radiographically, 37 patients had immediate post-PBD elevation of the right hemidiaphragm that failed to resolve in 28 patients with chronic external catheters. Clinically, 15 of 37 patients developed right lower lobe pneumonia or right pleural effusion on the initial or subsequent hospital admissions. Ten of these 15 patients had diabetes, chronic renal failure, or were immunosuppressed and had prolonged hospital stays. The authors' initial data suggest percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage may cause unfavorable alteration in right hemidiaphragm dynamics, and alternative methods including left-sided PBD, endoscopic, or combined PBD/endoscopic catheter placement may be advisable in certain clinical situations

  8. Clinical Significance of Histological Features of Thrombi in Patients with Myocardial Infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebben, Juliana Canedo; Cambruzzi, Eduardo; Avena, Luisa Martins; Gazeta, Cristina do Amaral; Gottschall, Carlos Antonio Mascia; Quadros, Alexandre Schaan de, E-mail: quadros.pesquisa@gmail.com [Instituto de Cardiologia / Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia - IC/FUC, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-12-15

    Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) is the most common strategy for the treatment of Acute ST segment elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI), and thromboaspiration has been increasingly utilized for removal of occlusive thrombi. To analyze the influence of histopathological features of coronary thrombi in clinical outcomes of patients with STEMI, and the association of these variables with clinical, angiographic, and laboratory features and medications used in hospitalization. Prospective cohort study. All patients were monitored during hospitalization and thirty days after the event. Aspirated thrombi were preserved in formalin and subsequently stained with hematoxylin-eosin and embedded in paraffin. Thrombi were classified as recent and old. The primary outcome was the occurrence of major cardiovascular events within thirty days. During the study period, 1,149 patients were evaluated with STEMI, and 331 patients underwent thrombi aspiration, leaving 199 patients available for analysis. It was identified recent thrombi in 116 patients (58%) and old thrombi in 83 patients (42%). Recent thrombi have greater infiltration of red blood cells than old thrombi (p = 0.02), but there were no statistically significant differences between other clinical, angiographic, laboratory, and histopathological features and medications in both group of patients. The rates of clinical outcomes were similar in both groups. Recent thrombi were identified in 58% of patients with STEMI and it was observed an association with infiltration of red blood cells. There was no association between histopathological features of thrombi and clinical variables and cardiovascular outcomes.

  9. Clinically significant skeletal variations of the shoulder and the wrist: role of MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellado, J.M.; Sauri, A. [Institut de Diagnostic per la Imatge, Hospital Universitari de Tarragona Joan XXIII, Carrer Doctor Mallafre Guasch, 4, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Calmet, J.; Domenech, S. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital Universitari de Tarragona Joan XXIII, Carrer Doctor Mallafre Guasch, 4, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    Several skeletal variations of the upper extremity may cause painful conditions or precipitate early degenerative changes, either spontaneously or in response to overuse and trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging has proved particularly useful for accurate interpretation of many of these clinically significant skeletal variations; however, the widespread use of MR imaging may have contributed to over-emphasizing their clinical importance, which is still controversial in many cases. We review, illustrate, and discuss clinically significant skeletal variations of the upper extremity as seen on MR images, particularly those involving the shoulder and the wrist. In the shoulder region, we evaluate variations of acromial and coracoid processes as well as variations and minor dysplastic deformities of the glenoid fossa. We also review different skeletal variations of the carpal region, including ulnar variance, ulnar styloid, lunate morphology, carpal coalition, and carpal accessory ossicles. The role of MR imaging in assessing the clinical importance of such conditions, whether potential, controversial, or well established, is emphasized in this review. (orig.)

  10. Integrative approach to pre-operative determination of clinically significant prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatylko T.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: improvement of early diagnostics of prostate cancer by developing a technique, which makes possible to predict its clinical significance in outpatient setting before initiation of invasive procedures. Material and Methods. Clinical data of 398 patients who underwent transrectal prostate biopsy in 2012-2014 in SSMU S. R. Mirotvortsev Clinical Hospital, was used to build an artificial neural network, while its output allowed to determine whether the tumour corresponds to Epstein criteria and which D'Amico risk group it belongs to. Internal validation was performed on 80 patients, who underwent prostate biopsy in September 2014 — December 2014. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of artificial neural network were calculated. Results. Accuracy of predicting adenocarcinoma presence in biopsy specimen was 93,75%; accuracy of predicting whether the cancer meets active surveillance criteria was 90%. Accuracy of predicting T stage (T1c, T2a, T2b, T2cwas 57,1%. Prediction of D'Amico risk group was accurate in 70% of cases; for low-risk cancer accuracy was 81,2%. Conclusion. Artificial neural networks may be responsible for prostate cancer risk stratification and determination of its clinical significance prior to biopsy.

  11. Expression and clinical significance of MMP-2, MVD, MEK-2 in endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Qian-Qian Hu; Lu Wang; Meng Shen; Sheng Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the expression and clinical significance of MMP-2, MVD, MEK-2in the endometriosis.Methods:A total of 42 endometrial endometriosis patients with surgery were selected in our hospital obstetrics and gynecology from September 1, 2008 to December 18, 2014. Endometriosis were removed during surgery and served as ectopic group. A total of 42 examples of the above-described patients with endometriosis eutopic were taken out as the eutopic group. Another 34 patients with uterine fibroids were selected in our hospital obstetrics and gynecology during the same period. Normal endometrium were taken as the normal endometrium group. Clinical expression of MMP-2, MVD, MEK-2 of three groups were analyzed.Results:MVD in ectopic endometrium group were significantly higher than those in eutopic and normal endometrium (P<0.05). MEK-2 expression in normal endometrial tissue mainly was negative and weakly positive. The expression was positive in ectopic endometrium and eutopic. The expression of ectopic endometrium MEK-2and MMP-2 were the highest, followed by the reign of endometrium, and the expression of normal endometrium were the lowest.Conclusions: MMP-2, MVD, MEK-2 in ectopic endometrium show high expression, detection of MMP-2, MVD, MEK-2-clinical expression in endometriosis can help in pathogenesis, clinical diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Progesterone and adiponectin receptor family member 3 expression and clinical significance in breast cancer tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qiang Dai; Hai-Liang Zhang; Hong-Mei Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To discuss progesterone and adiponectin receptor family member 3 expression and clinical significance in breast cancer tissues. Method:A total of 90 cases with breast cancer who were admitted in our hospital from Jan 2000 to Jan 2010 were selected. Meanwhile, normal tumor-adjacent breast tissues were selected as comparison. Diagnosis of all patients was confirmed by postoperative pathological examinations. Immunohistochemistry method was adopted to detect PAQR3 protein expression in breast cancer tissues and normal tumor-adjacent breast tissues and its clinical significance was discussed. Results:PAQR3 protein positive expression rate in breast cancer tissues was 25.6%, which was significantly lower than that (78.9%) in normal tumor-adjacent breast tissues;PAQR3 protein positive expression rate had nothing to do with age, tumor size, pathological types and differentiated degree of patients, but had significant correlation with TNM staging and lymphatic metastasis existence of patients. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis results showed that five years survival rate of patients with PAQR3 protein positive expression was significantly higher than whom with negative expression. Conclusion:PAQR3 protein expression in breast cancer tissues was significantly reduced, which indicated that PAQR3 protein possibly played an important role in pathogenesis of breast cancer.

  13. Frequency, types, and potential clinical significance of medication-dispensing errors

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Bohand; Laurent Simon; Eric Perrier; Hélène Mullot; Leslie Lefeuvre; Christian Plotton

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Many dispensing errors occur in the hospital, and these can endanger patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the rate of dispensing errors by a unit dose drug dispensing system, to categorize the most frequent types of errors, and to evaluate their potential clinical significance. METHODS: A prospective study using a direct observation method to detect medication-dispensing errors was used. From March 2007 to April 2007, “errors detected by pharmacists” ...

  14. Expression of O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and its clinical significance in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Qiu-chen; Wang, Yu-Hong; Lin, Yuan; Xue, Ling; Chen, Yuan-Jia; Chen, Min-hu; Chen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is a widespread DNA repair enzyme defending against mutation caused by guanine O6-alkylating agents. Until now, we know only little about the expression of MGMT in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm (GEP-NEN). To study the expression of MGMT and its clinical significance in GEP-NEN, 174 specimens of GEP-NEN were examined, of which 152 specimens came from The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University during October 1995 to Novem...

  15. Recent Trends in Clinically Significant Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolates at a Korean General Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Yangsoon; Lee, Sangsun; Kim, Young Ah; Sun, Young-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Lung disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) represents an increasing proportion of all mycobacterial diseases. We investigated recent occurrences of NTM and evaluated the clinical significance of NTM isolates from 752 respiratory specimens collected from patients at National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital between January 2007 and May 2011. Specimens were incubated on solid and liquid media (BACTEC MGIT 960, BD, USA) for 6-8 weeks, and PCR and reverse blot hybridization w...

  16. Concise Review: Quiescence in Adult Stem Cells: Biological Significance and Relevance to Tissue Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumman, Mohammad; Dhawan, Jyotsna; Kassem, Moustapha

    2015-10-01

    Adult stem cells (ASCs) are tissue resident stem cells responsible for tissue homeostasis and regeneration following injury. In uninjured tissues, ASCs exist in a nonproliferating, reversibly cell cycle-arrested state known as quiescence or G0. A key function of the quiescent state is to preserve stemness in ASCs by preventing precocious differentiation, and thus maintaining a pool of undifferentiated ASCs. Recent evidences suggest that quiescence is an actively maintained state and that excessive or defective quiescence may lead to compromised tissue regeneration or tumorigenesis. The aim of this review is to provide an update regarding the biological mechanisms of ASC quiescence and their role in tissue regeneration.

  17. Monoscopic versus stereoscopic photography in screening for clinically significant macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Christopher J; Agarwal, Anita; Merin, Lawrence M; Chomsky, Amy

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether monoscopic photography could serve as an accurate tool when used to screen for clinically significant macular edema. In a masked randomized fashion, two readers evaluated monoscopic and stereoscopic retinal photographs of 100 eyes. The photographs were evaluated first individually for probable clinically significant macular edema based on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study criteria and then as stereoscopic pairs. Graders were evaluated for sensitivity and specificity individually and in combination. Individually, reader one had a sensitivity of 0.93 and a specificity of 0.77, and reader two had a sensitivity of 0.88 and a specificity of 0.94. In combination, the readers had a sensitivity of 0.91 and a specificity of 0.86. They correlated on 0.76 of the stereoscopic readings and 0.92 of the monoscopic readings. These results indicate that the use of monoscopic retinal photography may be an accurate screening tool for clinically significant macular edema. PMID:17152553

  18. Monoscopic versus stereoscopic photography in screening for clinically significant macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Christopher J; Agarwal, Anita; Merin, Lawrence M; Chomsky, Amy

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether monoscopic photography could serve as an accurate tool when used to screen for clinically significant macular edema. In a masked randomized fashion, two readers evaluated monoscopic and stereoscopic retinal photographs of 100 eyes. The photographs were evaluated first individually for probable clinically significant macular edema based on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study criteria and then as stereoscopic pairs. Graders were evaluated for sensitivity and specificity individually and in combination. Individually, reader one had a sensitivity of 0.93 and a specificity of 0.77, and reader two had a sensitivity of 0.88 and a specificity of 0.94. In combination, the readers had a sensitivity of 0.91 and a specificity of 0.86. They correlated on 0.76 of the stereoscopic readings and 0.92 of the monoscopic readings. These results indicate that the use of monoscopic retinal photography may be an accurate screening tool for clinically significant macular edema.

  19. Clinical significance of serum alanine aminotransferase and lifestyle intervention in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyoung Ah; Chun, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the effect of lifestyle intervention on NAFLD. Methods The clinical data of 86 children diagnosed with NAFLD were reviewed retrospectively. Forty-six patients belonged to the elevated ALT group and 40 to the normal ALT group. The clinical parameters of patients with NAFLD were also compared based on the status of ALT levels after lifestyle intervention. Results Patients with elevated ALT had significantly higher body mass index (BMI) scores than those with normal ALT (P<0.05). Of all the patients with elevated ALT, 89% exhibited moderate or severe degree of fatty change in the liver on ultrasonographic examination, whereas most patients with normal ALT exhibited mild or moderate degree changes. Liver biopsy was performed in 15 children with elevated ALT and all showed mild histological changes. Of all patients with elevated ALT, 49% achieved normal ALT levels after lifestyle intervention. Those with more severe histological changes tended to have continuously increasing ALT levels. There was no correlation between the normalization of posttreatment ALT level and BMI, as well as ultrasonographic findings at diagnosis. Conclusion ALT elevation in NAFLD is highly associated with higher BMI scores and more severe degree of fatty changes on ultrasonographic examination. Lifestyle intervention can significantly improve ALT in children with NAFLD. The degree of histologic changes appears to be a predictor of the treatment response to NAFLD.

  20. Expression of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor in differentiated thyroid carcinoma and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清怀

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the expression of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor in differentiated thyroid carcinoma and its clinical significance.Methods Seventy-four patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma treated in our department from January 2009 to January 2011were selected as the observation group,and 28 patients with nodular goiter were selected as the control group.Expression of TSH receptor in the two groups were detected by immunohistochemistry.Results The positive rate of TSH receptor expression in the observation group was55.4 (41/74) ,significantly lower than that of the control

  1. QT Dispersion Level and Its Clinical Significance.in Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical significance of QT dis persion (QTd, QTcd) in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Methods QTd and QTcd were measured on simultaneously recording 12-lead electrocardiograms ( ECGs) in 60 DCM patients and cormpared with 60 healthy subjects. Results The values of QTd and QTcd in DCM were significantly higher than those in control group ( P 110 ms and QTd≤110 ms(P0.05). Conclusion The values of QTd and QTcd increased in DCM patients were susceptive index for monitoring maligant VA in DCM, also important prognostic markers of CSD. QTd was correlated with NY HA functional class but not with EF and FS.

  2. Clinical significance of microRNAs in chronic and acute human leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Moles, Ramona; Nicot, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) are epigenetic regulators that target specific cellular mRNA to modulate gene expression patterns and cellular signaling pathways. miRNAs are involved in a wide range of biological processes and are frequently deregulated in human cancers. Numerous miRNAs promote tumorigenesis and cancer progression by enhancing tumor growth, angiogenesis, invasion and immune evasion, while others have tumor suppressive effects (Hayes, et al., Trends Mol Med 20(8): 460-9, 2014; Stahlhut and Slack, Genome Med 5 (12): 111, 2013). The expression profile of cancer miRNAs can be used to predict patient prognosis and clinical response to treatment (Bouchie, Nat Biotechnol 31(7): 577, 2013). The majority of miRNAs are intracellular localized, however circulating miRNAs have been detected in various body fluids and represent new biomarkers of solid and hematologic cancers (Fabris and Calin, Mol Oncol 10(3):503-8, 2016; Allegra, et al., Int J Oncol 41(6): 1897-912, 2012). This review describes the clinical relevance of miRNAs, lncRNAs and snoRNAs in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment response in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). PMID:27179712

  3. Serum Interleukin-6 Expression Level and Its Clinical Significance in Patients with Dermatomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze serum interleukin-6 (IL-6 expression level and its clinical significance in patients with dermatomyositis. Methods. Blood samples from 23 adult patients with dermatomyositis (DM, 22 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, 22 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, 16 with Sjögren's syndrome (SS, and 20 healthy controls were collected. The IL-6 concentration was detected by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Correlations between IL-6 expression levels and clinical features or laboratory findings in patients with DM were investigated. Results. IL-6 expression level of DM patients was significantly higher than that of normal controls, significantly lower than that of RA patients, and slightly lower than that of SLE or SS patients with no significant differences. The incidence of fever was significantly higher in the IL-6 elevated group. Serum ferritin (SF and C-reactive protein (CRP were positively correlated with IL-6. Conclusions. IL-6 plays a less important role in DM than in RA. IL-6 monoclonal antibodies may have poor effect in patients with DM.

  4. The clinical significance of axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy in different clinical stages breast cancer patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Xu; Xinhong Wu; Yaojun Feng; Feng Yuan; Wei Fan

    2013-01-01

    Objective:We aimed to study the success and false negative rate of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in dif-ferent clinical stages breast cancer patients being carried out with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), and the clinical signifi-cance of SLNB, we conducting this trial. Methods:One hunderd and thirty-seven cases were enrol ed in this clinical research from March 2003 to March 2007. Al of the patients’ sentinel lymph nodes were detected with 99mTc-Dx and methylene blue. There were 61 patients with stage T1-2N0M0 carried SLNB without NAC (group A), 76 cases were carried out NAC 3-4 cycles before SLNB, including 39 T2-4N0-1M0 cases (group B) and 27 T2-4N2-3M0 cases (group C). The success and false negative rate of SLNB were analysed with chi-square test. Results:In group A, the successful and false negative rate of SLNB were 92.31%(36/39), 8.57%(3/35), and in group B and C were 92.31%(36/39), 8.57%(3/35) and 74.07%(20/27), 18.52%(5/27), respectively. The successful rate of group C decreased and false negative rate increased significantly compared with group A and B (P0.05). Conclusion:The SLNB can accurately predict lymph node status of axil ary lymph node in N0-1 stage patients with NAC, but in N2-3 stage patients the success rate decreased and false rate increased negative significantly.

  5. Metabolic disposition and biological significance of simple phenols of dietary origin: hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Boronat, Anna; Kotronoulas, Aristotelis; Pujadas, Mitona; Pastor, Antoni; Olesti, Eulalia; Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Khymenets, Olha; Fitó, Montserrat; Farré, Magí; de la Torre, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol are dietary phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil and wine. Both compounds are also endogenously synthesized in our body as byproducts of dopamine and tyramine metabolisms, respectively. Over the last decades, research into hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol has experienced an increasing interest due to the role that these compounds may play in the prevention of certain pathologies (e.g. cardiovascular, metabolic, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer). The translation of promising in vitro and in vivo biological effects from preclinical studies to the context of human disease prevention initially depends on whether the dose ingested becomes available at the site of action. In this regard, information regarding the bioavailability and metabolic disposition of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol is of most importance to evaluate the impact they may have on human health. In this review, we discuss and summarize the state of the art of the scientific evidence regarding the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of both hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. We also examine the impact of these compounds and their metabolites on biological activity in terms of beneficial health effects. Finally, we evaluate the different analytical approaches that have been developed to measure the plasma and urinary levels of hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and their metabolites. PMID:27186796

  6. Biological significance of local TGF-β activation in liver diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromitsu eHayashi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The cytokine transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β plays a pivotal role in a diverse range of cellular responses, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration, adhesion, angiogenesis, stimulation of extracellular matrix (ECM synthesis, and downregulation of ECM degradation. TGF-β and its receptors are ubiquitously expressed by most cell types and tissues in vivo. In intact adult tissues and organs, TGF-β is secreted in a biologically inactive (latent form associated in a noncovalent complex with the ECM. In response to injury, local latent TGF-β complexes are converted into active TGF-β according to a tissue- and injury type-specific activation mechanism. Such a well and tightly orchestrated regulation in TGF-β activity enables an immediate, highly localized response to type-specific tissue injury. In the pathological process of liver fibrosis, TGF-β plays as a master pro-fibrogenic cytokine in promoting activation and myofibroblastic differentiation of hepatic stellate cells, a central event in liver fibrogenesis. Continuous and/or persistent TGF-β signaling induces sustained production of ECM components and of metalloproteinase synthesis. Therefore, the regulation of locally activated TGF-β levels is increasingly recognized as a therapeutic target for liver fibrogenesis. This review summarizes our present knowledge of the activation mechanisms and bioavailability of latent TGF-β in biological and pathological processes in the liver.

  7. The Halogenated Metabolism of Brown Algae (Phaeophyta, Its Biological Importance and Its Environmental Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane La Barre

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Brown algae represent a major component of littoral and sublittoral zones in temperate and subtropical ecosystems. An essential adaptive feature of this independent eukaryotic lineage is the ability to couple oxidative reactions resulting from exposure to sunlight and air with the halogenations of various substrates, thereby addressing various biotic and abiotic stresses i.e., defense against predators, tissue repair, holdfast adhesion, and protection against reactive species generated by oxidative processes. Whereas marine organisms mainly make use of bromine to increase the biological activity of secondary metabolites, some orders of brown algae such as Laminariales have also developed a striking capability to accumulate and to use iodine in physiological adaptations to stress. We review selected aspects of the halogenated metabolism of macrophytic brown algae in the light of the most recent results, which point toward novel functions for iodide accumulation in kelps and the importance of bromination in cell wall modifications and adhesion properties of brown algal propagules. The importance of halogen speciation processes ranges from microbiology to biogeochemistry, through enzymology, cellular biology and ecotoxicology.

  8. Biological significance of complex N-glycans in plants and their impact on plant physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eStrasser

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Asparagine (N-linked protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous co- and post-translational modification which can alter the biological function of proteins and consequently affects the development, growth and physiology of organisms. Despite an increasing knowledge of N-glycan biosynthesis and processing, we still understand very little about the biological function of individual N-glycan structures in plants. In particular, the N-glycan processing steps mediated by Golgi-resident enzymes create a structurally diverse set of protein-linked carbohydrate structures. Some of these complex N-glycan modifications like the presence of beta1,2-xylose, core alpha1,3-fucose or the Lewis a-epitope are characteristic for plants and are evolutionary highly conserved. In mammals, complex N-glycans are involved in different cellular processes including molecular recognition and signalling events. By contrast, the complex N-glycan function is still largely unknown in plants. Here, in this short review I focus on important recent developments and discuss their implications for future research in plant glycobiology and plant biotechnology.

  9. Acid-soluble breakdown of homologous deoxyribonucleic acid adsorbed by Haemophilus influenzae: its biological significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuy, J.H.

    1974-11-01

    Competent bacteria of Haemophilus influenzae strain Rd were exposed to various kinds of radioactive deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for short periods of time and at relatively low temperature. The fate of phage HP1 DNA was studied most extensively. Adsorbed DNA was partially acid solubilized by lysogens and by nonlysogens with very similar kinetics. The biological activity of the DNA decreased extensively in both lysogenic and nonlysogenic recipients. 2,4-Dinitrophenol had no effect on the acid solubilization but largely abolished the biological inactivation. Inactivation kinetics for three different markers and for the triple combination were roughly the same. The presence of 2,4-dinitrophenol in the medium, or the HP1 prophage in the chromosome, did not alter this observation. This suggests that acid solubilization involves the destruction of whole DNA molecules. In view of the absence of DNA homology between phage and host, it is concluded that acid-soluble breakdown of adsorbed transforming DNA is not an integral part of the donor DNA integration process. Behavior of mutant bacteria indicates that neither exonuclease III nor exonuclease V is involved.

  10. Clinical significance of determination of serum cortisol and insulin levels in neonates with asphyxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of the changes of serum cortisol and insulin levels in neonates with asphyxia. Methods: Serum cortisol levels were determined with CLIA and serum insulin levels with RIA in 38 neonates with asphyxia (mild degree 20, advanced 18) and 30 controls. Results: 1) In mild cases, serum insulin levels were significantly higher than those in controls (p<0.01) and serum cortisol levels were very significantly higher (p<0.001). 2) In advanced cases, both serum insulin and cortisol levels were very significantly higher than those in the controls (p<0.001). Conclusion: Hypoxia in the neonates with asphyxia is a very severe stress and will induce hypersecretion of cortisol and hyperglycemia which is detrimental to the patients. However hypersecretion of insulin will result in hypoglycemia, which is also very damaging. Physicians in charge should be aware of these possibilities and deal with them appropriately

  11. Clinical significance of serum neuropeptide Y levels changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of serum neuropeptide Y level changes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Methods: The serum neuropeptide Y levels were determined by radioimmunoassay in 40 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and 30 patients without COPD. Results: Mean serum neuropeptide Y level in patients with COPD was significantly higher than that in patients without COPD (130.36 ± 20.58 pg/ml vs 86.62 ± 13.02 pg/ml; t=10.201, p<0.01). Moreover, the levels in patients of the different stages (I, II, III) of COPD were significantly different from one another (F=20.334, p<0.01). Conclusion: the serum neuropeptide Y levels increased significantly in patients with COPD and were correlated to the different disease stages

  12. Evolving approach and clinical significance of detecting DNA mismatch repair deficiency in colorectal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shia, Jinru

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen significant advancement in our understanding of colorectal tumors with DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency. The ever-emerging revelations of new molecular and genetic alterations in various clinical conditions have necessitated constant refinement of disease terminology and classification. Thus, a case with the clinical condition of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer as defined by the Amsterdam criteria may be one of Lynch syndrome characterized by a germline defect in one of the several MMR genes, one of the yet-to-be-defined “Lynch-like syndrome” if there is evidence of MMR deficiency in the tumor but no detectable germline MMR defect or tumor MLH1 promoter methylation, or “familial colorectal cancer type X” if there is no evidence of MMR deficiency. The detection of these conditions carries significant clinical implications. The detection tools and strategies are constantly evolving. The Bethesda guidelines symbolize a selective approach that uses clinical information and tumor histology as the basis to select high-risk individuals. Such a selective approach has subsequently been found to have limited sensitivity, and is thus gradually giving way to the alternative universal approach that tests all newly diagnosed colorectal cancers. Notably, the universal approach also has its own limitations; its cost-effectiveness in real practice, in particular, remains to be determined. Meanwhile, technological advances such as the next-generation sequencing are offering the promise of direct genetic testing for MMR deficiency at an affordable cost probably in the near future. This article reviews the up-to-date molecular definitions of the various conditions related to MMR deficiency, and discusses the tools and strategies that have been used in detecting these conditions. Special emphasis will be placed on the evolving nature and the clinical importance of the disease definitions and the detection strategies. PMID:25716099

  13. The biology and significance of human papillomavirus infections in the genital tract.

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, R; Campion, M J

    1988-01-01

    A variety of human papillomavirus (HPV) types infect the anogenital mucosa, giving rise to lesions that differ in clinical appearance, histology, and risk of malignant progression. Certain high-risk types (HPVs 16, 18, 31, 33, 35 and 39) have a strong association with high-grade epithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinomas of the anogenital tract. Cancer appears to have a multifactorial etiology, and HPV infection alone is probably insufficient for malignant transformation. The consistent ass...

  14. Misidentification of airflow obstruction: prevalence and clinical significance in an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pothirat C

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chaicharn Pothirat, Warawut Chaiwong, Nittaya Phetsuk, Chalerm Liwsrisakun Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: The fixed threshold criterion for the ratio of forced expiratory volume in the first second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC <0.7 is widely applied for diagnosis of airflow obstruction (AO. However, this fixed threshold criterion may misidentify AO, because thresholds below the fifth percentile of normal FEV1/FVC (lower limit of normal; LLN vary with age. This study aims to identify the prevalence of AO misidentification and its clinical significance.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted to identify the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases in adults older than 40 years of age who live in municipal areas of Chiang Mai province, Thailand. All randomly selected subjects underwent face-to-face interviews and examinations by pulmonologists, and received chest radiographs and post-bronchodilator spirometry. AO misidentification was classified into under- or overestimated AO subgroups. Underestimated AO was defined as ratio of FEV1/FVC greater than the fixed threshold, but below the LLN criteria. Overestimated AO was defined as the ratio of FEV1/FVC below the fixed threshold but greater than the LLN criteria. The clinical significance of each misidentified subject was then explored.Results: There were 554 subjects with a mean age of 52.9±10.1 years and a percent predicted FEV1 of 85.5%±15.4%. The prevalence of AO misidentification was 5.6% (31/554, and all subjects belonged to the underestimated subgroup. Clinical significance of underestimated subjects included clinical AO disease of 22.6% (7/31 (three subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] and four subjects with asthma; chronic respiratory symptoms of 54.8% (17/31 (mostly associated with chronic

  15. The clinical significance evaluation of serum β2-microglobulin for thyroid cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shihong Ma; Qinjiang Liu; Kesheng Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical value and relevance on the serum β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) of patients with thyroid cancer. Methods: One thousand and two normal cases, 95 thyroid cancer patients and 243 nodular goiter patients were selected to measure serum β2-MG levels using double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immu-nosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The positive rate of 7.78% in normal population (78/1002) and 31.57% in thyroid cancer patients (30/95). There were significant differences between the normal population and thyroid cancer patients (χ2 = 55.352; P = 0.000). The positive rate of 7.81% in nodular goiter patients (19/243) and there were no significant differences between the normal population and nodular goiter patients (χ2 = 0.0004; P = 0.986), but significant differences between nodular goiter patients and thyroid cancer patients (χ2 = 31.106; P = 0.000). Meanwhile, the significant difference of the positive rate existed in between the various pathological types of thyroid cancer (χ2 = 10.015; P = 0.007), anaplastic thyroid cancer patients with the highest positive rate and The significant difference was found between the positive lymph node metastasis groups and negative lymph node metastasis groups (χ2 = 4.441; P = 0.035), the presence of distant metastasis group and absence of distant metastasis group (χ2 = 9.795; P = 0.002). Conclusion: Serum β2-MG levels and prognosis of thyroid cancer patients was negatively correlated. It showed important clinical value to detect the level of β2-MG in the early diagnosis, prognosis and the clinical observation for thyroid cancer patients.

  16. Hierarchy of evidence in interpretation of clinical significance of drug interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Božana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Since drug interactions may result in serious adverse effects or failure of therapy, it is of huge importance that health professionals base their decisions about drug prescription, dispensing and administration on reliable research evidence, taking into account the hierarchy of data sources for evaluation. Clinical Significance of Potential Interactions - Information Sources. The sources of data regarding drug interactions are numerous, beginning with various drug reference books. However, they are far from uniformity in the way of choosing and presenting putative clinically relevant interactions. Clinical Significance of Potential Interactions - Interpretation of Information. The difficulties in interpretation of drug interactions are illustrated through the analysis of a published example involving assessment made by two different groups of health professionals. Systematic Evaluation of Drug-Drug Interaction. The potential for interactions is mainly investigated before marketing a drug. Generally, the in vitro, followed by in vivo studies are to be performed. The major metabolic pathways involved in the metabolism of a new molecular entity, as well as the potential of induction of human enzymes involved in drug metabolism are to be examined. In the field of interaction research it is possible to make use of the population pharmacokinetic studies as well as of the pharmacodynamic assessment, and also the postregistration monitoring of the reported adverse reactions and other literature data. Conclusion. In vitro and in vivo drug metabolism and transport studies should be conducted to elucidate the mechanisms and potential for drug-drug interactions. The assessment of their clinical significance should be based on well-defined and validated exposure-response data.

  17. Factors influencing the outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI): age, clinical variables and significant thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speyer, B E; Abramov, B; Saab, W; Doshi, A; Sarna, U; Harper, J C; Serhal, P

    2013-10-01

    The aim was to investigate the influence of various biological factors upon the outcome of intrauterine insemination (IUI). The total IUI history (856 cycles) of 352 couples was studied. Live-birth showed a strong negative correlation with female age but no correlation with male age. Antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC) correlated negatively with female age, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) correlated positively. Significant thresholds were found for all three variables, and also for total motile count (TMC) in the prepared sperm. Calculating pregnancy losses per positive pregnancy showed a strong correlation with increasing female age. This was highly significant for biochemical losses but not for fetal heart miscarriages. Male age had no effect on rate of pregnancy loss. In conclusion, female age, FSH, AMH and TMC are good predictive factors for live-birth and therefore relate to essential in vivo steps in the reproductive process. PMID:24127958

  18. Family structure and wellbeing of out-of-wedlock children: The significance of the biological parents' relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley H. Liu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of the relationship between the biological parents in determining child wellbeing using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS. We extend prior research by considering children born to unmarried parents in an investigation of the effect of the relationship structure between the biological parents on infant health and behavior. The main findings are that children born to cohabiting biological parents (i realize better outcomes, on average, than those born to mothers who are less involved with the child's biological father, and (ii whose parents marry within a year after childbirth do not display significantly better outcomes than children of parents who continue to cohabit. Furthermore, children born to cohabiting or visiting biological parents who end their relationship within the first year of the child's life are up to 9 percent more likely to have asthma compared to children whose biological parents remain (romantically involved. The results are robust to a rich set of controls for socioeconomic status, health endowments, home investments, and relationship characteristics.

  19. Vitamin D biology and heart failure : Clinical and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meems, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, vitamin D biology has been studied more extensively than ever before.. The use of vitamin D supplements is common, and so is determination of plasma vitamin D status. Besides its role in bone homeostasis, vitamin D is thought to be an important player in the development and treat

  20. [Analysis of PTPN11 mutation in children leukemia and its clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, San-Zhen; Chen, Bing-Qiang; Lu, Su-Ying; Zhang, Bi-Hong; Xue, Hong-Man; Chen, Chun

    2012-02-01

    This study was aimed to explore the frequency of PTPN11 mutation in children with leukemia and its clinical significance. Genomic DNAs were extracted from peripheral leukocytes of 131 patients with leukemia, including 101 cases of ALL, 26 cases of AML, 3 cases of CML and 1 case of juvenil myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). The sequences of PTPN11 exons 3, 8, 13 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the clinical characteristics of positive patients were analyzed. The results indicated that the PTPN11 mutation was found in 10 cases (9.9%) from newly diagnosed 101 cases of ALL. Grouping the newly diagnosed ALL children by various clinical features, it was found that the PTPN11 mutation did not show associations with sex, age, white blood cell (WBC) count, prednisone test sensitivity, clinical risk and disease recurrences at the first visit (P > 0.05). PTPN11 mutations were found in 2 cases out of 26 AML patients, including one AML-M(2) and one AML-M(4). No PTPN11 mutation in 3 CML patients was found. Exon 13 mutation of PTPN11 gene was found in 1 case of JMML. It is concluded that the E76 of exon 3 is the hot spot of PTPN11 mutation in children leukemia. The novel G503E (1508G > A) mutation is detected in one JMML patient. The PTPN11 mutation does not associate with the sex, age, WBC count, prednisone sensitive test and early recurrence.

  1. The universality and biological significance of signal molecules with intracellular-extracellular compatible functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Generally,cell signal molecules are classified into the extracellular signal molecules (the first messengers) and the intracellular signal ones (the second messengers).Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP),calcium ions and calmodulin (CaM) are the traditional intracellular messengers,but they are also present in extracellular matrix (ECM).Some of them have been discovered to act as the first messengers through cell surface receptors.Other second messengers,such as cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP),cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPR) and annexin,are also found existing outside animal and plant cells.The existence of these messengers with intracellular-extracellular compatible functions in cells may be a regular biological phenomenon.These compatible messengers might be the communication factors between intracellular and extracellular regions or among the cell populations,and are also important in regulating cell development procedure.

  2. Evidence for the possible biological significance of the igf-1 gene alternative splicing in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastassios ePhilippou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I has been implicated in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer (PCa, since it plays a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The IGF-I actions are mediated mainly via its binding to the type I IGF receptor (IGF-IR, however IGF-I signaling via insulin receptor (IR and hybrid IGF-I/IR is also evident. Different IGF-I mRNA splice variants, namely IGF-IEa, IGF-IEb and IGF-IEc, are expressed in human cells and tissues. These transcripts encode several IGF-I precursor proteins which contain the same bioactive product (mature IGF-I, however, they differ by the length of their signal peptides on the amino-terminal end and the structure of the extension peptides (E-peptides on the carboxy-terminal end. There is an increasing interest in the possible different role of the IGF-I transcripts and their respective non-(matureIGF-I products in the regulation of distinct biological activities. Moreover, there is strong evidence of a differential expression profile of the IGF-I splice variants in normal vs. PCa tissues and PCa cells, implying that the expression pattern of the various IGF-I transcripts and their respective protein products may possess different functions in cancer biology. Herein, the evidence that the IGF-IEc transcript regulates PCa growth via Ec-peptide specific and IGF-IR/IR-independent signaling is discussed.

  3. Clinical and Biological Principles of Cold Atmospheric Plasma Application in Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay-Mimbrera, Jesús; García, Maria Carmen; Isla-Tejera, Beatriz; Rodero-Serrano, Antonio; García-Nieto, Antonio Vélez; Ruano, Juan

    2016-06-01

    Plasma-based electrosurgical devices have long been employed for tissue coagulation, cutting, desiccation, and cauterizing. Despite their clinical benefits, these technologies involve tissue heating and their effects are primarily heat-mediated. Recently, there have been significant developments in cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) science and engineering. New sources of CAP with well-controlled temperatures below 40 °C have been designed, permitting safe plasma application on animal and human bodies. In the last decade, a new innovative field, often referred to as plasma medicine, which combines plasma physics, life science, and clinical medicine has emerged. This field aims to exploit effects of mild plasma by controlling the interactions between plasma components (and other secondary species that can be formed from these components) with specific structural elements and functionalities of living cells. Recent studies showed that CAP can exert beneficial effects when applied selectively in certain pathologies with minimal toxicity to normal tissues. The rapid increase in new investigations and development of various devices for CAP application suggest early adoption of cold plasma as a new tool in the biomedical field. This review explores the latest major achievements in the field, focusing on the biological effects, mechanisms of action, and clinical evidence of CAP applications in areas such as skin disinfection, tissue regeneration, chronic wounds, and cancer treatment. This information may serve as a foundation for the design of future clinical trials to assess the efficacy and safety of CAP as an adjuvant therapy for skin cancer.

  4. Significant alterations in reported clinical practice associated with increased oversight of organ transplant center performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schold, Jesse D; Arrington, Charlotte J; Levine, Greg

    2010-09-01

    In the past several years, emphasis on quality metrics in the field of organ transplantation has increased significantly, largely because of the new conditions of participation issued by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. These regulations directly associate patients' outcomes and measured performance of centers with the distribution of public funding to institutions. Moreover, insurers and marketing ventures have used publicly available outcomes data from transplant centers for business decision making and advertisement purposes. We gave a 10-question survey to attendees of the Transplant Management Forum at the 2009 meeting of the United Network for Organ Sharing to ascertain how centers have responded to the increased oversight of performance. Of 63 responses, 55% indicated a low or near low performance rating at their center in the past 3 years. Respondents from low-performing centers were significantly more likely to indicate increased selection criteria for candidates (81% vs 38%, P = .001) and donors (77% vs 31%, P < .001) as well as alterations in clinical protocols (84% vs 52%, P = .007). Among respondents indicating lost insurance contracts (31%), these differences were also highly significant. Based on respondents' perceptions, outcomes of performance evaluations are associated with significant changes in clinical practice at transplant centers. The transplant community and policy makers should practice vigilance that performance evaluations and regulatory oversight do not inadvertently lead to diminished access to care among viable candidates or decreased transplant volume. PMID:20929114

  5. Expression and clinical significance of sulfiredoxin expression in cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-yan CHEN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To inquire into the expression and its clinical significance of sulfiredoxin (Srx in cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissue. Methods SABC immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression levels of Srx in specimens of 104 cervical squamous cell carcinoma and the corresponding adjacent tissues, 15 cervical intraepithelial neoplasm (CIN Ⅲ, and 20 normal cervical squamous cell epithelium tissue. The relationship between the expression of Srx protein and clinical pathological parameters of the cancer was also analyzed. Results The positive expression rates of Srx in CIN Ⅲ and cervical squamous cell carcinoma [73.3%(11/15 and 82.7%(86/104, respectively] were significantly higher than that in normal cervical tissue [35.0%(7/20, χ2=17.778, P=0.000]. Meanwhile, Srx expression in cervical cancer specimens was significantly higher than that in normal adjacent tissues (χ2=56.224, P=0.000. The positive expression of Srx in cervical squamous cell carcinoma was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis, the depth of cancer invasion, and the infiltration of blood vessels (P0.05. Conclusion The higher expression of Srx protein might be a valuable marker for the early diagnosis and evaluation of prognosis in patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.08.11

  6. Treatment targets in systemic lupus erythematosus: biology and clinical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Marian, Valentin; Anolik, Jennifer H.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex disease characterized by numerous autoantibodies and clinical involvement in multiple organ systems. The immunological events triggering the onset and progression of clinical manifestations are also complex and multi-step, including breach of tolerance in the adaptive immune system, amplification of autoimmunity through innate and adaptive immune system dysregulation, and end-organ damage. Studies of murine genetic manipulations and human risk v...

  7. Clinical significance of patterns of incidental thyroid uptake at 18F-FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incidental uptake of 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) in the thyroid gland is not uncommonly encountered in day-to-day practice of oncological 18F-FDG positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). These are often felt to be “nuisance lesions” by referring clinicians and radiologists alike. However, recognition of the importance of different patterns of FDG uptake in the thyroid gland and knowledge of the possible underlying aetiologies are crucial in ensuring that patients are managed appropriately in the clinical context of their primary diagnosis, as the underlying pathological condition may be clinically important in a significant minority of such cases. This review describes the various patterns of 18F-FDG uptake within the thyroid and discusses the clinical significance and possible impact on patient management. Incidental low-grade homogeneous diffuse increased thyroid 18F-FDG uptake is usually seen in the patients with chronic thyroiditis, Grave's disease, and hypothyroidism. Thyroid function tests and antibody profiling are advised in these patients. Incidental focal 18F-FDG thyroid uptake should raise the possibility of underlying malignancy. Ultrasound with or without fine-needle aspiration cytology is usually recommended for the evaluation of these lesions. Heterogeneous uptake with prominent focal uptake in the thyroid should be further evaluated to exclude malignancy

  8. Insights into the clinical and functional significance of cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Junqueira Junior

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Exclusive or associated lesions in various structures of the autonomic nervous system occur in the chronic forms of Chagas disease. In the indeterminate form, the lesions are absent or mild, whereas in the exclusive or combined heart and digestive disease forms, they are often more pronounced. Depending on their severity these lesions can result mainly in cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction but also in sympathetic dysfunction of variable degrees. Despite the key autonomic effect on cardiovascular functioning, the pathophysiological and clinical significance of the cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Chagas disease remains unknown. METHODS: Review of data on the cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Chagas disease and their potential consequences, and considerations supporting the possible relationship between this disturbance and general or cardiovascular clinical and functional adverse outcomes. RESULTS: We hypothesise that possible consequences that cardiac dysautonomia might variably occasion or predispose in Chagas disease include: transient or sustained arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death, adverse overall and cardiovascular prognosis with enhanced morbidity and mortality, an inability of the cardiovascular system to adjust to functional demands and/or respond to internal or external stimuli by adjusting heart rate and other hemodynamic variables, and immunomodulatory and cognitive disturbances. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired cardiac autonomic modulation in Chagas disease might not be a mere epiphenomenon without significance. Indirect evidences point for a likely important role of this alteration as a primary predisposing or triggering cause or mediator favouring the development of subtle or evident secondary cardiovascular functional disturbances and clinical consequences, and influencing adverse outcomes.

  9. The clinical significance of circulating tumor cells in non-metastatic colorectal cancer - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, M; Jess, Per

    2011-01-01

    with metastatic disease, but the prognostic role of CTC in non-metastatic colorectal cancer is less clear. The aim of this review is to examine the possible clinical significance of circulating tumor cells in non-metastatic colorectal cancer (TNM-stage I-III) with the primary focus on detection methods......BACKGROUND: Finding a clinical tool to improve the risk stratification and identifying those colorectal cancer patients with an increased risk of recurrence is of great importance. The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in peripheral blood can be a strong marker of poor prognosis in patients...... and prognosis. METHODS: The PubMed and Cochrane database and reference lists of relevant articles were searched for scientific literature published in English from January 2000 to June 2010. We included studies with non-metastatic colorectal cancer (TNM-stage I-III) and CTC detected pre- and/or post...

  10. Clinical Significance of Detection of Serum TBA and ALP in Diagnosis of Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the clinical value of serum total bile acid (TBA) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in diagnosis of intahrpatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), the serum levels of TBA, ALP and cholyglycine (CG) in 47 cases with intahrpatic cholestasis of pregnancy and 60 normal pregnant women were tested by biochemistry analysis and radioimmunoassay. The results showed that the serum levels of TBA and ALP in patients with intahrpatic cholestasis of pregnancy were significantly higher than that of normal pregnancy women. There was a positively correlation between TBA and ALP with CG. The combined determination of serum TBA and ALP could be useful in the diagnosis of intahrpatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Automatic biochemistry analysis of TBA and ALP is more simple and rapid than CG detected by radioimmunoassay,and it is suitable for clinical laboratory application. (authors)

  11. Procedure-related complications of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and its clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Hyun Han; Byun, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Tae Gwon; Kang, Duk Sik; Kim, Yong Joo [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-15

    The purpose who to evaluate the procedure-related complications of the TIPS and its clinical significance. The materials consisted of 52 patients who had 57 TIPS procedures for the management of variceal bleeding due to portal hypertension. To detect the occurrence of complications during transhepatic needle puncture (from hepatic vein to the portal vein), contrast material was injected with the with drawl of the puncture needle. Procedure-related complications occurred in 28 patients (54%) among 52 patients. The complications were biliary tree puncture (15 cases), transperitoneal puncture (14 cases), stent malposition (3 cases), stent migration (1 case), hepatic arteries puncture (1 case), splenic vein perforation (1 case), and paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia (1 case). Three patients had acute stent thrombosis with rebleeding immediately after the procedure. The procedure was repeated in two patients. One patient was expired due to rebleeding. The procedure related complications were clinically insignificant in most instances, except when stent thrombosis or proxysmal ventricular tachycardia was developed.

  12. Clinical significance of serum ferritin and transferrin assay in patients with liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the clinical significance of serum ferritin (FE) and transferrin (TF) in patients with liver cirrhosis. The serum ferritin and transferrin levels in 68 patients with liver cirrhosis were detected by RIA and by ELISA respectively. The results showed that FE levels in patients with liver cirrhosis were significantly higher than that of in control group and turned to increase with the rank of Child-Pugh A,B and C. The TF levels in patients were significantly lower than that of in control group and turned to decrease with the rank of Child-Pugh. The FE and TF levels could be regarded as a reference index in forecasting the degree of liver cirrhosis state. The overload of iron may enhance the hepatocyte damage induced by HBV. (authors)

  13. Clinical significance of changes of serum gastrin levels in patients with chronic eczema or chronic urticaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum levels of gastrin in patients with chronic eczema or chronic urticaria. Methods: Serum gastrin levels were, 37 patients with chromic urticaria and 43 controls. Results: Serum gastrin levels in patients with chronic exzema (102.95 ± 27.33 ng/L) and patients with chronic urticaria (109.87 ± 33.64 ng/L) were both significantly higher than those in controls (61.72 ± 20.38 ng/L, both P<0.01). Difference between the levels in the two patients groups was not significant. Conclusion: The high gastrin levels in those patients might reflect the presence of helicobacter pylori infections; eradication of which might be helpful for treatment of these chronic dermatologic disorders. (authors)

  14. Tracking the 2015 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium: bridging cancer biology to clinical gastrointestinal oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprile G

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Aprile,1 Francesco Leone,2,3 Riccardo Giampieri,4 Mariaelena Casagrande,1 Donatella Marino,2,3 Luca Faloppi,4 Stefano Cascinu,4 Gianpiero Fasola,1 Mario Scartozzi5,6 1Department of Oncology, University and General Hospital, Udine, Italy; 2Medical Oncology Department, University of Turin, 3Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo, Turin, Italy; 4Medical Oncology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; 5Medical Oncology Department, University of Cagliari, 6General Hospital, Cagliari, Italy Abstract: The 2015 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium (San Francisco, CA, USA; January 15–17 is the world-class conference co-sponsored by the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the American Society for Radiation Oncology, the American Gastroenterological Association Institute, and the Society of Surgical Oncology, in which the most innovative research results in digestive tract oncology are presented and discussed. In its twelfth edition, the meeting has provided new insights focusing on the underpinning biology and clinical management of gastrointestinal malignancies. More than 3,400 health care professionals gathered from all over the world to share their experiences on how to bridge the recent novelties in cancer biology with everyday medical practice. In this article, the authors report on the most significant advances, didactically moving on three different anatomic tracks: gastroesophageal malignancies, pancreatic and biliary cancers, and colorectal adenocarcinomas. Keywords: colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, ramucirumab, pembrolizumab, target therapy, onartuzumab, AMG 337

  15. Clinical Significance of Auditory Target P300 Subcomponents in Psychosis: Differential Diagnosis, Symptom Profiles, and Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Greg; Foti, Dan; Jackson, Felicia; Kotov, Roman; Constantino, Eduardo; Hajcak, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Background Reduced auditory target P300 amplitude is a leading biomarker for psychotic disorders, although its relevance for differential diagnosis and link to specific clinical features (symptom profiles, functional impairment, and course) is unclear. This study aims to clarify the clinical significance of auditory target P300 using concurrent and retrospective clinical data from a longitudinal cohort with psychosis. Methods 92 cases from an epidemiological study of first-admission psychosis were assessed using an auditory oddball paradigm at 15-year follow-up along with 44 never-psychotic adults. Subcomponents of auditory target P300 amplitude (i.e., a central positive P3a, a parietal positive P3b, and a frontal negative slow wave) were isolated using temporal-spatial principal components analysis. Results P3a amplitude was blunted across psychotic disorders relative to non-psychotic adults. P3b amplitude was reduced in schizophrenia specifically, including cases initially misclassified at baseline. The frontal negative slow wave did not distinguish among groups. P3b amplitude reduction was associated with several clinical features at the concurrent assessment, as well as previous time points, including recovery from psychosis even 5 years earlier and functioning even 15 years earlier. Conclusions Auditory target P300 amplitude yields both a schizophrenia-specific component (i.e., P3b) and a transdiagnostic psychosis component (i.e., P3a). The P3b component may also shed light on prognosis, real-world functioning, and course, as well as help to reduce misdiagnosis of psychotic disorders. Prospective studies are needed to test whether P3b tracks or predicts clinical status. PMID:25934167

  16. Integration of basic biological sciences and clinical dentistry in the dental curriculum. A clinically orientated approach to teaching oral and dental anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotjamanos, T

    1990-06-01

    Although dental curricula have undergone significant revision during the past three decades, the problem of linking basic science with clinical dentistry often remains an unmet challenge in dental education. This paper describes the content and method of presentation of a course in oral and dental anatomy which aims to integrate closely basic biological science and clinical dental practice. The course holds considerable promise for overcoming one of the major deficiencies of the horizontally structured curriculum by presenting basic science information and detailing its clinical relevance simultaneously. The academic background, clinical experience, and educational philosophy of the course co-ordinator and assisting teaching staff are undoubtedly important factors in determining the extent to which integration between basic and clinical science can be achieved.

  17. EXPRESSION AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF CD44 IN THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD OF PATIENTS WITH CASTRIC CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of cell adhesive molecule (CD44) expression on periphery blood (PB) of patients with gastric cancer. Methods: Both the level of CD44 and the immunocyte phenotype of the lymphocytes of 110 patients with gastric cancer and 100 healthy subjects were examined by flow cytometry, and the results were analyzed pathologically and statistically. Results: The mean of the CD44% in PB of the healthy subjects was 46.14±13.4 and there were no statistic differences for their age and sex. Site of tumor growth: The significant difference (P 10 cm mass (P<0.0l) and 7-10 cm mass (P<0.05). Degree of tumor differentiation: The significant difference (P<0.01) was present between the patients with low differentiation gastric cancer and normal individuals. The significant difference (P<0.01) was present between patients with metastatic stage: The significant difference (P<0.0l) was present lymph node gastric cancer and normal individuals. Clinical between the patients with advanced or relapsed gastric cancer and normal individuals. Age: The significant difference (P<0.01) was present between the gastric cancer patients under 59 years and normal individuals. Conclusion: The increased level of CD44 in the PB of patients with gastric cancer indicated the possible existence of relapse, advance or metastasis of tumors. When the tumor was poorly differentiated and bigger in tumor mass, the level of CD44% would be higher. Examining the level of CD44 by flow cytometry in the periphery blood of patients with gastric cancer was useful for the prognosis.

  18. [Biological roles of complement and recent topics in clinical medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamiya, Nobutaka

    2012-08-01

    The complement has been identified as a complementation factor to compensate for the function of an antibody. The complement consists of C1-C9, a complement-related molecule, and its regulating molecules. Three major biological roles of the complement have been classified: First: opsonization following phagocytosis and the elimination of microbes; second: direct destruction of bacteria due to membrane attack complex (MAC); third: complement activation following the induction of anaphylactoid factors and local recruitment and activation of neutrophilic leukocytes. In this review, the basic findings and recent treatments of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and hereditary angioedema (HAE) are summarized. Finally, there is a short review of a rare autosomal recessive disorder of 3MC syndrome and new biological functions of complement factors except for that of innate immunity are proposed.

  19. Significant Deregulated Pathways in Diabetes Type II Complications Identified through Expression Based Network Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukil, Sanchaita; Sinha, Meenakshee; Varshney, Lavneesh; Agrawal, Shipra

    Type 2 Diabetes is a complex multifactorial disease, which alters several signaling cascades giving rise to serious complications. It is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The present research work describes an integrated functional network biology approach to identify pathways that get transcriptionally altered and lead to complex complications thereby amplifying the phenotypic effect of the impaired disease state. We have identified two sub-network modules, which could be activated under abnormal circumstances in diabetes. Present work describes key proteins such as P85A and SRC serving as important nodes to mediate alternate signaling routes during diseased condition. P85A has been shown to be an important link between stress responsive MAPK and CVD markers involved in fibrosis. MAPK8 has been shown to interact with P85A and further activate CTGF through VEGF signaling. We have traced a novel and unique route correlating inflammation and fibrosis by considering P85A as a key mediator of signals. The next sub-network module shows SRC as a junction for various signaling processes, which results in interaction between NF-kB and beta catenin to cause cell death. The powerful interaction between these important genes in response to transcriptionally altered lipid metabolism and impaired inflammatory response via SRC causes apoptosis of cells. The crosstalk between inflammation, lipid homeostasis and stress, and their serious effects downstream have been explained in the present analyses.

  20. Biological significance of GPCR heteromerization in the neuro-endocrine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf eJockers

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Clustering of proteins in higher order complexes is a common theme in biology and profoundly influences protein function. The idea that seven-transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs might form dimers or higher order oligomeric complexes has been formulated more than 20 years ago. Since then, this phenomenon has been investigated with many different biochemical and biophysical techniques. The more recent notion of GPCR heteromerization describes the specific association of two different GPCRs. GPCR heteromerization may be of primary importance in neuroendocrinology, as this may explain at least some of the functional crosstalks described between different hormonal systems. Importantly, many GPCR heteromers have distinct functional properties compared to their corresponding homomers. Heteromer-specific pharmacological profiles might be exploited for drug design and open new therapeutic options. GPCR heteromerization has been first studied in heterologous expression systems. Today, increasing evidence for the existence of GPCR heteromers in endogenous systems is emerging providing crucial evidence for the physiological function of GPCR heteromerization.

  1. Mad2 and p53 expression profiles in colorectal cancer and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang-Qiang Li; Hao Li; Hong-Fu Zhang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of tumor suppressor gene p53 and spindle checkpoint gene Mad2, and to demonstrate their expression difference in colorectal cancer and normal mucosa and to evaluate its clinical significance.METHODS: Westemn blot and immunohistochemistry methods were used to analyze the expression of Mad2 in colorectal cancer and its corresponding normal mucosa. The expression of p53 was detected by immunohistochemistry method in colorectal cancer and its corresponding normal mucosa.RESULTS: Mad2 was significantly overexpressed in colorectal cancer compared with corresponding normal mucosa (P<0.001), and it was not related to the differentiation of adenocarcinoma and other dinical factors (P>0.05).The ratio of Mad2 protein in cancer tissue (C) to that in its normal mucosa tissue (N) was higher than 2, which was more frequently observed in patients with lymph gland metastasis (P<0.05). p53 protein expression was not observed in normal mucosa. The rate of p53 positive expression in adenocarcinomas was 52.6%. There was a significant difference between adenocarcinomas and normal mucosa(P<0.001), which was not related to the differentiation degree of adenocarcinoma and other clinical factors (P>0.05).CONCLUSION: Defect of spindle checkpoint gene Mad2and mutation of p53 gene are involved mainly in colorectal carcinogenesis and C/N>2 is associated with prognosis of colorectal cancer.

  2. Prevalence, characterization and clinical significance of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    : Sarita Nayak, Suman Singh, Soeb Jankhwala, Riddhi Pradhan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella peumoniae, a capsulated gram negative bacillus is responsible for causing life threatening infections in humans. Carbapenems are the drug of choice for serious infection caused by multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. The emergence of carbapenem resistance has made it extremely difficult to treat such infections resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Aims: To study the prevalence of carbapenem resistance using ertapenem as a marker and to detect Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC producing Klebsiella pneumoniae as a mechanism of resistance. Material and Methods: The study included 102 patients from which Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated. Identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed on miniAPI (Analytical Profile Index, Semiautomated bacterial identification system according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines of 2011. The modified Hodge test was performed for detection of Carbapenemase production. Patient’s clinical and demographic details along with risk factors and co-morbid conditions, type of response to antimicrobial therapy and mortality were collected. Results: The prevalence of carbapenem resistance was found to be 30.41% with 16.6% KPC producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. The co-morbid conditions like immunocompromised state (p =0.042, prior antibiotics therapy (p=0.047, previous hospitalization (p =0.021, intensive care unit stay (p=0.047 and use of indwelling devices (p =0.013 were found to be significantly associated with carbapenem resistance. Adverse clinical outcomes (death or worsening among patients infected with ertapenem resistant patients was found to be statistically significant than ertapenem sensitive strains (p =0.008. Conclusions: A high degree of carbapenem resistance in present study is alarming and poses therapeutic dilemmas for clinicians. Initiating timely and appropriate infection control measures along with a

  3. Clinically significant behavior problems among young children 2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Fujiwara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On March 11, 2011, a massive undersea earthquake and tsunami struck East Japan. Few studies have investigated the impact of exposure to a natural disaster on preschool children. We investigated the association of trauma experiences during the Great East Japan Earthquake on clinically significant behavior problems among preschool children 2 years after the earthquake. METHOD: Participants were children who were exposed to the 2011 disaster at preschool age (affected area, n = 178; unaffected area, n = 82. Data were collected from September 2012 to June 2013 (around 2 years after the earthquake, thus participants were aged 5 to 8 years when assessed. Severe trauma exposures related to the earthquake (e.g., loss of family members were assessed by interview, and trauma events in the physical environment related to the earthquake (e.g. housing damage, and other trauma exposure before the earthquake, were assessed by questionnaire. Behavior problems were assessed by caregivers using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, which encompasses internalizing, externalizing, and total problems. Children who exceeded clinical cut-off of the CBCL were defined as having clinically significant behavior problems. RESULTS: Rates of internalizing, externalizing, and total problems in the affected area were 27.7%, 21.2%, and 25.9%, respectively. The rate ratio suggests that children who lost distant relatives or friends were 2.36 times more likely to have internalizing behavior problems (47.6% vs. 20.2%, 95% CI: 1.10-5.07. Other trauma experiences before the earthquake also showed significant positive association with internalizing, externalizing, and total behavior problems, which were not observed in the unaffected area. CONCLUSIONS: One in four children still had behavior problems even 2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Children who had other trauma experiences before the earthquake were more likely to have behavior problems. These

  4. Clinical significance of detection of human telomerase reverse transcriptase in colorectal cancer and its precancerous lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the expression and clinical significance of human telomerase reverse transcriptase(h TERT)in colorectal cancer and its precancerous lesion.Methods The levels of h TERT expression were detected by immunohistochemistry in colorectal cancers(n=95),colorectal adenomatous polyposis(n=30)and normal colorectal tissues(n=30).The relationship between the expression of h TERT in colorectal cancer tissues and the pathologic features and prognosis were analyzed.Results The positive rate of h TERT expression

  5. Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli isolates from Danish children: clinical significance and microbiological characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Ethelberg, S; Olesen, B;

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence, clinical manifestations and microbiological characteristics of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli isolates, i.e., enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) belonging to the classical EPEC serotypes, non-EPEC attaching and effacing E. coli (A/EEC) and verocytotoxin......-producing E. coli (VTEC), isolated in a case-control study of Danish children aged ... encoding the bundle-forming pilus (bfpA) and enteroaggregative heat-stable enterotoxin (astA) were rare among all isolates, and seemed to be of limited pathogenic importance in this population. Virulence characterisation of A/EEC isolates did not reveal any significant differences between cases...

  6. [The pathogenetic and clinical significance of disorders in hemostatic homeostasis in diabetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapchyns'ka, I I; Bielits'ka, H O; Kovalenko, S O

    1997-01-01

    DM patients who do not present with clinical manifestations of nephropathy exhibited significant reduction of urine fibrinolytic activity which is regarded as suggesting a preclinical stage of renal lesion in DM as well as hyperaggregation of platelets, enhanced activity of coagulative link of hemostasis and changes of different directions in the system of fibrinolysis. Among coagulologic methods, of most informative value is the turbidimetric method. In DM and low tolerability to glucosa, there is an increased incidence of gastroduodenal abnormalities, ulcer disease included, which fact warrants a gastroenterologic evaluation to be done in this patient population prior to prescribing anticoagulants. PMID:9491703

  7. The significance of indirect costs—application to clinical laboratory test economics using computer facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Hindriks, F. R.; Bosman, A.; Rademaker, P. F.

    1989-01-01

    The significance of indirect costs in the cost price calculation of clinical chemistry laboratory tests by way of the production centres method has been investigated. A cost structure model based on the ‘production centres’ method, the Academisch Ziekenhuis Groningen (AZG) 1-2-3 model, is used for the calculation of cost and cost prices as an add-in tool to the spreadsheet program Lotus 1-2-3. The system specifications of the AZG 1-2-3 cost structure model have been extended with facilities t...

  8. Environmental pollution and DNA methylation: carcinogenesis, clinical significance, and practical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi

    2015-09-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the main causes of human cancer. Exposures to environmental carcinogens result in genetic and epigenetic alterations which induce cell transformation. Epigenetic changes caused by environmental pollution play important roles in the development and progression of environmental pollution-related cancers. Studies on DNA methylation are among the earliest and most conducted epigenetic research linked to cancer. In this review, the roles of DNA methylation in carcinogenesis and their significance in clinical medicine were summarized, and the effects of environmental pollutants, particularly air pollutants, on DNA methylation were introduced. Furthermore, prospective applications of DNA methylation to environmental pollution detection and cancer prevention were discussed.

  9. The Clinical Significance and Potential Therapeutic Role of GPx3 in Tumor Recurrence after Liver Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiang; Ng, Kevin Tak-Pan; Shao, Yan; Li, Chang Xian; Geng, Wei; Ling, Chang Chun; Ma, Yuen Yuen; Liu, Xiao Bing; Liu, Hui; Liu, Jiang; Yeung, Wai Ho; Lo, Chung Mau; Man, Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Our previous study showed that small-for-size liver graft may provide favorable micro-environment for tumor growth. GPx3, an anti-oxidant, not only attenuates oxidative stress, but also suppresses liver tumor growth in our recent study. Here, we aimed to characterize the clinical significance and explore the functional role of GPx3 in HCC recurrence after liver transplantation. Methods: To explore the association between GPx3 expression and HCC invasiveness, a rat orthotopic liver transplantation model with tumor development was established. To investigate the clinical relevance of GPx3, 105 HCC patients who underwent liver transplantation were recruited. The suppressive role of GPx3 in HCC cells was studied using wound healing, Matrigel invasion assay and lung metastasis model. The real-time intravital imaging system was applied to directly visualize the tumor cells invasion in a living animal. The underlying mechanism was further explored. Results: GPx3 was identified as a down-regulated protein in small-for-size liver graft and significantly associated with invasive phenotype of tumor growth in a rat model. Plasma GPx3 was significantly lower in small-for-size graft group post-transplantation (day1: 33 vs 1147; day3: 3209 vs 4459; day7: 303 vs 2506; mU/mL, Ptransplantation (day1: 4.16 vs 8.99 µg/mL, Ptransplantation. Over-expression of GPx3 significantly suppressed migration, invasiveness and metastasis of HCC cells. Real-time intravital imaging showed that GPx3 significantly suppressed HCC invasiveness in a live animal. GPx3 suppressed the tumor invasiveness through inhibition of JNK-cJun-MMP2 pathway. Conclusion: GPx3 may possess prognostic and therapeutic value for HCC patients after liver transplantation.

  10. The Significance of Pneumococcal Type Transformation in the History of Molecular Biology and Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxby, Derrick

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a brief review of the historical importance and knowledge of pneumonia which emphasizes the importance of type transformation. The results of a survey of textbook coverage of this topic are given. The significance of type transformations are discussed. (CW)

  11. Interaction of hepatitis B virus with tumor suppressor gene p53: its significance and biological function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism of the interaction of hepatitis B virus (HBV) with tumor suppressor p53 and its role in the hepatocarcinogenesis have been studied by PCR-directed sequencing, gel shift assays and in situ ultraviolet cross-linking assay. The biological function of the interaction of HBV with p53 gene was investigated by co-transfection of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene, p53 and HBV DNA, and quantitative PCR. Among the 16 primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC) samples, 13 were HBV-DNA positive,10 HBxAg positive and 9 p53 protein positive. The p53 gene point mutation was found in 5 samples, one of which had a G to T substitution located at codon 249. After analyzing the HBV genome by a computer program, a p53 response element binding sequence was found in HBV genome at upstream of enhancer I, from 1047 to 1059 nucleotides. This sequence could specifically bind to p53 protein, increase p53 protein accumulation in the PHC cells and stimulate the transactivating activity of p53 and HBV replication .The results also revealed that HBxAg could combine with p53 protein to form a complex in the cells and enhance CAT expression. Immunocytochemical staining showed that p53 protein complex was located in the cytoplasm and the process of p53 entry to nuclei was, in part, blocked. From our results, we conclude that the mutation of p53 gene at codon 249 is infrequent in HBV-associated PHC, the DNA-protein binding between HBV and p53, and the protein-protein binding between HBxAg and p53 might lead to the reduction or inactivation of p53 protein, which in turn resulting in HBV-associated hepatocarcinogenesis.

  12. Brain herniations into the dural venous sinus or calvarium: MRI findings, possible causes and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine frequency, imaging features and clinical significance of herniations of brain parenchyma into dural venous sinuses (DVS) and/or calvarium found on MRI. A total of 6160 brain MRI examinations containing at least one high-resolution T1- or T2-weighted sequence were retrospectively evaluated to determine the presence of incidental brain herniations into the DVS or calvarium. MRI sequences available for review were evaluated according to their capability to demonstrate these herniations. Patients' symptoms and clinical findings were recorded. Twenty-one (0.32 %) brain parenchyma herniations into the DVS (n = 18) or calvarium (n = 3) in 20 patients were detected. The most common locations of the herniations were the transverse sinuses (n = 13) and those involving inferior gyrus of the temporal lobe (n = 9). High-resolution T1- and T2-weighted sequences were equally useful in the detection of these brain herniations. According to clinical symptoms, brain herniations were considered to be incidental but headaches were present in nine patients. Brain herniations with surrounding cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into the DVS and/or calvarium are incidental findings and not proven to be associated with any symptoms. Although rare, these herniations are more common than previously recognized and should not be confused with arachnoid granulations, clots or tumours. (orig.)

  13. Brain herniations into the dural venous sinus or calvarium: MRI findings, possible causes and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battal, Bilal; Hamcan, Salih; Akgun, Veysel; Sari, Sebahattin; Tasar, Mustafa [Gulhane Military Medical School, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Oz, Oguzhan [Gulhane Military Medical School, Department of Neurology, Ankara (Turkey); Castillo, Mauricio [University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    To determine frequency, imaging features and clinical significance of herniations of brain parenchyma into dural venous sinuses (DVS) and/or calvarium found on MRI. A total of 6160 brain MRI examinations containing at least one high-resolution T1- or T2-weighted sequence were retrospectively evaluated to determine the presence of incidental brain herniations into the DVS or calvarium. MRI sequences available for review were evaluated according to their capability to demonstrate these herniations. Patients' symptoms and clinical findings were recorded. Twenty-one (0.32 %) brain parenchyma herniations into the DVS (n = 18) or calvarium (n = 3) in 20 patients were detected. The most common locations of the herniations were the transverse sinuses (n = 13) and those involving inferior gyrus of the temporal lobe (n = 9). High-resolution T1- and T2-weighted sequences were equally useful in the detection of these brain herniations. According to clinical symptoms, brain herniations were considered to be incidental but headaches were present in nine patients. Brain herniations with surrounding cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into the DVS and/or calvarium are incidental findings and not proven to be associated with any symptoms. Although rare, these herniations are more common than previously recognized and should not be confused with arachnoid granulations, clots or tumours. (orig.)

  14. Serological pattern "anti-HBc alone": Characterization of 552 individuals and clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antje Kn(o)ll; Arndt Hartmann; Harald Hamoshi; Karin Weislmaier; Wolfgang Jilg

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence and clinical significance of "anti-HBc alone" in an unselected population of patients and employees of a university hospital in southern Germany.METHODS: All individuals with the pattern "anti-HBc alone" were registered over a time span of 82 mo. HBV-DNA was measured in serum and liver samples, and clinical charts were reviewed.RESULTS: Five hundred and fifty two individuals were "anti-HBc alone" (of 3004 anti-HBc positive individuals;18.4%), and this pattern affected males (20.5%) more often than females (15.3%; P< 0.001). HBV-DNA was detected in serum of 44 of 545 "anti-HBc alone" individuals (8.1%), and in paraffin embedded liver tissue in 16of 39 patients tested (41.0%). There was no association between the detection of HBV genomes and the presence of biochemical, ultrasonic or histological signs of liver damage. Thirty-eight "anti-HBc alone" patients with cirrhosis or primary liver carcinoma had at least one additional risk factor. HCV-coinfection was present in 20.4%of all individuals with "anti-HBc alone" and was the only factor associated with a worse clinical outcome.CONCLUSION: In an HBV low prevalence area, no evidence is found that HBV alone causes severe liver damage in individuals with "anti-HBc alone". Recommendations for the management of these individuals are given.

  15. Detection methods and clinical significance of free peritoneal tumor cells found during colorectal cancer surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simone; Sibio; Cristina; Fiorani; Carmine; Stolfi; Andrea; Divizia; Roberto; Pezzuto; Fabrizio; Montagnese; Giulia; Bagaglini; Paolo; Sammartino; Giuseppe; Sigismondo; Sica

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal washing is now part of the standard clinical practice in several abdominal and pelvic neoplasias. However, in colorectal cancer surgery, intra-peritoneal free cancer cells(IFCC) presence is not routinely investigated and their prognostic meaning is still unclear. When peritoneal washing results are positive for the presence of IFCC a worse outcome is usually expected in these colorectal cancer operated patients, but it what is not clear is whether it is associated with an increased risk of local recurrence. It is authors’ belief that one of the main reasons why IFCC are not researched as integral part of the routine staging system for colon cancer is that there still isn’t a diagnostic or detection method with enough sensibility and specificity. However, the potential clinical implications of a routine research for the presence IFCC in colon neoplasias are enormous: not only to obtain a more accurate clinical staging but also to offer different therapy protocols, based on the presence of IFCC. Based on this, adjuvant chemotherapy could be offered to those patients found to be positive for IFCC; also, protocols of proactive intraperitoneal chemotherapy could be applied. Although presence of IFCC appears to have a valid prognostic significance, further studies are needed to standardize detection and examination procedures, to determine if there are and which are the stages more likely to benefit from routine search for IFCC.

  16. [Yeasts of the genus Malassezia: taxonomic classification and significance in (veterinary and) clinical medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, R; Raabe, P; Mayser, P

    2000-01-01

    The historical development of the taxonomic classification of Malassezia yeasts until today yielded the description of seven different species based upon molecularbiological, morphological and biochemical parameters (M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. restricta, M. slooffiae). Tests like Cremophor EL assimilation, esculin degradation, catalase test, pigment production and determination of polidocanol sensitivity appear to be suitable procedures for routine identification of the different species. Their colonization of clinically healthy humans (in particular M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa) and animals (M. pachydermatis) skin renders interpretation difficulties, when isolating Malassezia spp. from clinical specimens. Out of the seven species, in man the clinical significance of M. furfur for pityriasis versicolor and systemic infections appears to be accepted largely. In dogs and cats M. pachydermatis has been regarded as cause of otitis externa and seborrhoeic dermatitis. But, due to geno- and phenotypic variabilities described for M. pachydermatis field isolates further investigations concerning the taxonomic uniformity of the species are necessary. PMID:11098629

  17. Clinical significance of central corneal thickness and comparison of central corneal thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Çakıcı

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Significance of central corneal thickness has been increasing in ophthalmology practice. It is an important clinical evaluation tool especially prior to refractive surgery and in diagnosis of glaucoma and keratoconus. Refractive surgery is planned according to preoperative central corneal thickness measurements. Besides, in order to determine actual intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness is measured and corrected eye pressure is obtained. Today, devices used in measurement of central corneal thickness do the measurement according to two principles. First and relatively older method is ultrasonic method. Optic method is the second and more recent method. In daily practice, the most commonly used clinical method in measurement of central corneal thickness is ultrasound pachymeter. However, this measurement technique requires contact between cornea and probe and gives thinner measurement results compared to the methods that use optic principle. Recently, several technologic methods based on optics have been put in use; they provide advantages of non-contact technique and objective determination of central corneal thickness. Of these methods, most commonly used include Specular Microscopy, Optical coherence tomography, Laser Doppler Interferometry, Optical low coherence reflectometry pachymetry, Optic based topographic mapping (also called screening section pachymetry and Pentacam. In this article, it was aimed to evaluate importance of central corneal thickness in clinical use and compare measurement methods. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 153-158

  18. Biological and clinical aspects of autoimmune inner ear disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, A J

    1992-01-01

    The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of autoimmune inner ear disease are reviewed. Recent studies indicating an autoimmune etiology and pathogenesis are discussed, along with a comparative analysis of several promising new animal models. Further studies to define the natural history, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of the disease are suggested.

  19. Cranial suture biology and dental development: genetic and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coster, P J; Mortier, G; Marks, L A; Martens, L C

    2007-09-01

    Premature fusion of the calvarial bones at the sutures, or craniosynostosis (CS), is a relatively common birth defect (1:2000-3000) frequently associated with limb deformity. Patients with CS may present oral defects, such as cleft soft palate, hypodontia, hyperdontia, and delayed tooth eruption, but also unusual associations of major dental anomalies such as taurodontism, microdontia, multiple dens invaginatus, and dentin dysplasia. The list of genes that are involved in CS includes those coding for the different fibroblast growth factor receptors and a ligand of ephrin receptors, but also genes encoding transcription factors, such as MSX2 and TWIST. Most of these genes are equally involved in odontogenesis, providing a pausible explanation for clinical associations of CS with dental agenesis or tooth malformations. On the basis of the present knowledge on genes and transcription factors that are involved in craniofacial morphogenesis, and from dental clinics of CS syndromes, the molecular mechanisms that control suture formation and suture closure are expected to play key roles in patterning events and development of teeth. The purpose of this article is to review and merge the recent advances in the field of suture research at the genetic and cellular levels with those of tooth development, and to apply them to the dental clinics of CS syndromes. These new perspectives and future challenges in the field of both dental clinics and molecular genetics, more in particular the identification of possible candidate genes involved in both CS and dental defects, are discussed.

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells: biological characteristics and potential clinical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha

    2004-01-01

    are among the first stem cell types to be introduced in the clinic. Several studies have demonstrated the possible use of MSC in systemic transplantation for systemic diseases, local implantation for local tissue defects, as a vehicle for genes in gene therapy protocols or to generate transplantable tissues...

  1. Establishing clinically significant change : increment of precision and the distinction between individual and group level of analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, WJJM; Arrindell, WA

    1999-01-01

    Some essential adaptations to the method for determining clinically significant change originally introduced by Jacobson, Follette and Revenstorf [Jacobson, N. S., Follette, W. C. & Revenstorf, D. (1984a). Psychotherapy outcome research: methods for reporting variability and evaluating clinical sign

  2. Clinical significance of conventional rib series in patients with minor thoracic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Conventional rib series (RS) represent a dedicated radiographic technique to visualize the bony parts of the chest wall. The method is commonly used to evaluate minor thoracic trauma, frequently in combination with chest radiographs (CRs). The aim of this study is to asses the clinical relevance of rib fractures diagnosed by RS in minor thoracic trauma. Methods: Retrospective study of 669 patients who received RS for the evaluation of minor thoracic trauma. 405 of the 669 patients received an additional CR. Radiological reports were classified into fracture versus no fracture. Patients were divided into four groups depending on the clinical follow-up. The findings of RS and CR were analyzed using the McNemar test. The statistical significance between the results of the radiographic examinations and the clinical follow-up was analyzed by the Chi-Square test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: We included 669 patients (61.4% men, 38.6% women, median age: 51 years, range: 13-92 years). Analyzing the reports of 669 patients who received RS, 157 (23.5%) patients were diagnosed with at least one fractured rib while no fracture was found in 512 (76.5%) patients. Considering the 157 patients with fractured ribs, 73 (46.8%) had a single fracture, 38 (24.4%) and two fractures and 45 (28.8%) had more than two fractures. When assessing the 405 CRs, we detected 69 (17%) fractures while the corresponding RS of the same patients revealed 87 (21.5%) fractures (p < 0.05). Concerning all patients with rib fractures, 63.1% received medical therapy, while 64.5% of those patients without a radiologically documented fracture also received therapy (p = 0.25). Conclusion: Our results suggest a limited clinical value of detected rib fractures based on RS. Despite being superior compared to CR in diagnosing rib fractures, the results from RS seem to have no significant influence on further clinical management and therapeutic measures. Minor thoracic trauma should be evaluated

  3. Clinical significance of conventional rib series in patients with minor thoracic trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffstetter, P.; Dornia, C. [Asklepios Medical Center, Bad Abbach (Germany). Radiology; University Medical Center Regensburg (Germany). Radiology; Wagner, M.; Niessen, C.; Dendl, L.M.; Stroszczynski, C.; Schreyer, A.G. [University Medical Center Regensburg (Germany). Radiology; Al Suwaidi, M.H. [Asklepios Medical Center, Bad Abbach (Germany). Rheumatology/Clinical Immmunology

    2014-09-15

    Background: Conventional rib series (RS) represent a dedicated radiographic technique to visualize the bony parts of the chest wall. The method is commonly used to evaluate minor thoracic trauma, frequently in combination with chest radiographs (CRs). The aim of this study is to asses the clinical relevance of rib fractures diagnosed by RS in minor thoracic trauma. Methods: Retrospective study of 669 patients who received RS for the evaluation of minor thoracic trauma. 405 of the 669 patients received an additional CR. Radiological reports were classified into fracture versus no fracture. Patients were divided into four groups depending on the clinical follow-up. The findings of RS and CR were analyzed using the McNemar test. The statistical significance between the results of the radiographic examinations and the clinical follow-up was analyzed by the Chi-Square test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: We included 669 patients (61.4% men, 38.6% women, median age: 51 years, range: 13-92 years). Analyzing the reports of 669 patients who received RS, 157 (23.5%) patients were diagnosed with at least one fractured rib while no fracture was found in 512 (76.5%) patients. Considering the 157 patients with fractured ribs, 73 (46.8%) had a single fracture, 38 (24.4%) and two fractures and 45 (28.8%) had more than two fractures. When assessing the 405 CRs, we detected 69 (17%) fractures while the corresponding RS of the same patients revealed 87 (21.5%) fractures (p < 0.05). Concerning all patients with rib fractures, 63.1% received medical therapy, while 64.5% of those patients without a radiologically documented fracture also received therapy (p = 0.25). Conclusion: Our results suggest a limited clinical value of detected rib fractures based on RS. Despite being superior compared to CR in diagnosing rib fractures, the results from RS seem to have no significant influence on further clinical management and therapeutic measures. Minor thoracic trauma should be evaluated

  4. Expression, clinical significance and mechanism of Slit2 in papillary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rong-Liang; Qu, Ning; Liao, Tian; Wang, Yu-Long; Wang, Yu; Sun, Guo-Hua; Ji, Qing-Hai

    2016-05-01

    Thyroid cancer is a common endocrine malignancy. The last decade has seen exciting progress in understanding thyroid cancer molecular pathogenesis. Several major signaling pathways and related molecular derangements have been elucidated, which represent novel diagnostic and prognostic molecular markers for thyroid cancer. Based on the molecular biology of thyroid cancer, a series of therapeutic targets have been developed, which provide unprecedented opportunities. Thus, histological characterization of subgroups of patients and the correct molecular characterization of patients are thought to be key aspects for future clinical management of these patients. In the present study, we identified Slit2 as a prognostic marker for thyroid cancer oncogenesis and recurrence. Mechanistically, Slit2 regulated Warburg effect in thyroid cancer cells through regulation of HIF1α and HIF1α transcriptional activity. Taken together, our present data uncovered Slit2 as a novel predictive marker for thyroid cancer. The mechanism study indicated that Slit2 regulated the Warburg effect. Additional study on the function of Slit2 in thyroid cancer is required to provide new insights into the potential mechanisms of oncogenesis and recurrence potential of thyroid cancer.

  5. Significant Modules and Biological Processes between Active Components of Salvia miltiorrhiza Depside Salt and Aspirin

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    Yuan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine and compare the similarities and differences between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin using perspective of pharmacological molecular networks. Active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin’s related genes were identified via the STITCH4.0 and GeneCards Database. A text search engine (Agilent Literature Search 2.71 and MCODE software were applied to construct network and divide modules, respectively. Finally, 32, 2, and 28 overlapping genes, modules, and pathways were identified between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin. A multidimensional framework of drug network showed that two networks reflected commonly in human aortic endothelial cells and atherosclerosis process. Aspirin plays a more important role in metabolism, such as the well-known AA metabolism pathway and other lipid or carbohydrate metabolism pathways. S. miltiorrhiza depside salt still plays a regulatory role in type II diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and adipocytokine signaling pathway. Therefore, this study suggests that aspirin combined with S. miltiorrhiza depside salt may be more efficient in treatment of CHD patients, especially those with diabetes mellitus or hyperlipidemia. Further clinical trials to confirm this hypothesis are still needed.

  6. Clinical Significances of Serum Vitamin B12, Folate and Ferritin Levels in Patients with Malignant Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the clinical significances of the serum vitamin B12, folate and ferritin levels in patients with malignant tumors, the levels were measured in 10 normal control subjects, 70 patients with malignant tumors, 7 patients with liver cirrhosis and 25 patients with other benign diseases. The results are as follows: 1) In normal control subjects, mean serum values for vitamin B12, folate and ferritin level were 588.80±131.58 pg/ml, 5.59±1.52 ng/ml and 89.22±42.78 ng/ml retrospectively. 2) There was no significant difference in serum levels between patients with benign diseases and normal control subjects. 3) The serum vitamin B12 and ferritin levels in patients with liver cirrhosis were significantly higher than in normal control, and the serum folate levels in these patients were lower than in normal control subjects. 4) The serum vitamin B12 and ferritin levels in patients with malignant tumors were significantly higher than in normal control subjects, and the serum folate levels in these patients were significantly lower than in normal control subjects. The above results suggest that the serum vitamin B12 and ferritin may be useful as tumor markers in patients with malignant tumors.

  7. Expression and Clinical Significance of p27kip1 Protein in Primary Liver Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史光军; 杨鹏; 陈孝平

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the expression and clinical significance of p27kip1 protein in primary liver cancer, the expression of p27kip1 protein and the relationship with clinicopathological factors were studied in primary liver cancer by using SABC immunohistochemical staining in specimens of 40 cases of primary liver cancer and 20 cases of liver cirrihosis. Our results showed that positive expression rate of p27kip1 protein in primary liver cancer was 37.5 % (15/40), which was lower than that in benign lesion of liver 80.0 % (16/20, P<0.01). The expression level of p27kip1 protein in primary liver cancer showed significant differences in tumor size, Edmonson histological grade, portal invasion, lymph node metastasis, TNM stage (P<0.05, for all), but not significantly correlated with patient's age and histological types. Log rank test showed that the p27kip1 expression was significantly related with prognosis of the patients (P<0.05), and the prognosis of the patients with p27kip1 positive expression was markedly better than that of those with p27kip1 negative expression. It is concluded that the expression of p27kip1 was significantly related clinicopathological factors of primary liver cancer. p27kip1 protein may be used as a novel tumor marker for primary liver cancer.

  8. Clinical significance of changes of plasma CGRP and VIP levels in infants with bronchiolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) levels in infants (2-24months) with bronchiolitis. Methods: Plasma levels of CGRP and VIP were determined with RIA in 31 infants with bronchiolitis both during acute infection and convalescence as well as in 35 controls. Results: Plasma CGRP levels in patients during acute infection were significantly higher than those in patients during convalescence and in controls (P<0.05). Levels of CGRP dropped during convalescence, but still remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). The reverse was true for the plasma VIP levels. The plasma VIP levels in patients during acute infection were significantly lower than those in patients during convalescence and in controls (P<0.05). During convalescence, the plasma VIP levels rose but remained significantly lower than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: There were dynamic changes of plasma CGRP and VIP levels in the course of infant bronchiolitis and the two peptides played opposite roles. (authors)

  9. Expression and Clinical Significance of HMGB1 and RAGE in Cervical Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the expression level and clinical significance of HMGB1 and RAGE in cervical squamous epithelial carcinoma.METHODS Real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)was employed to examine the expression of HMGB1 (high mobility group box protein1), and RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation endproducts)in 60 cervical squamous epithelial carcinomas (CSEC), their paraneoplastic tissues (PS) and 30 normal cervix tissues (NCS).RESULTS The expression of HMGB1 in the CSEC samples and PS was similar (P>0.05), but higher compared to NCS (P<0.05). Overexpression of HMGB1 in the CESC tissues was significantly correlated with the tumor (P<0.05), and the presence of metastasis (P<0.01), but not correlated with the tumor diameter or tumor grade. RAGE expression was not significantly different among these tissue types, and showed no significant correlation with the the tumor stage, diameter or grade. But there was a significant positive correlation between RAGE expression and CSEC metastasis.CONCLUSION The results suggest that HMGB1 may be related to the proliferation, progression and metastasis of CSEC. The relationship of HMGB1/RAGE may be of importance for CSEC metastasis. HMGB1 presents a new potential gene target for prevention and treatment of CSEC.Study of HMGB1/RAGE expression will offer an experimental foundation for understanding the pathogenesis of CSES.

  10. Familial monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma: epidemiology, risk factors, and biological characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Alexandra J.; Rajkumar, S. Vincent; Vachon, Celine M.

    2012-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), a precursor to multiple myeloma (MM), is one of the most common premalignant conditions in the general population. The cause of MGUS is largely unknown. Recent studies show that there is an increased prevalence of MGUS in blood relatives of persons with lymphoproliferative and plasma cell proliferative disorders, suggesting presence of shared underlying genetic influences. In the past few years, additional studies have examined risk f...

  11. Rapid biological oxidation of methanol in the tropical Atlantic: significance as a microbial carbon source

    OpenAIRE

    J. L. Dixon; Beale, R; P. D. Nightingale

    2011-01-01

    Methanol is the second most abundant organic gas in the atmosphere after methane, and is ubiquitous in the troposphere. It plays a significant role in atmospheric oxidant chemistry and is biogeochemically active. Large uncertainties exist about whether the oceans are a source or sink of methanol to the atmosphere. Even less is understood about what reactions in seawater determine its concentration, and hence flux across the sea surface interface. We report here concentrations of methanol up t...

  12. Rapid biological oxidation of methanol in the tropical Atlantic: significance as a microbial carbon source

    OpenAIRE

    J. L. Dixon; Beale, R; P. D. Nightingale

    2011-01-01

    Methanol is the second most abundant organic gas in the atmosphere after methane, and is ubiquitous in the troposphere. It plays a significant role in atmospheric oxidant chemistry and is biogeochemically active. Large uncertainties exist about whether the oceans are a source or sink of methanol to the atmosphere. Even less is understood about what reactions in seawater determine its concentration, and hence flux across the sea surface interface. We report here concentrations of methanol betw...

  13. Clinical significance of radioimmunological HPL findings in long-term management of premature delivery risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruckhaeberle, K.E.; Bilek, K.; Viehweg, B.; Kuehndel, K.; Colditz, U.; Baer, G.

    1981-01-01

    Premature birth is not only characterized by premature delivery action but it is ever more frequently interpreted as the disturbed fetoplacental unit syndrome. In an attempt to therapeutically prevent premature delivery the placental function should be monitored. Possible intrauterine survival should be assessed as accurately as possible against extrauterine survival in order that the necessary tocolysis time could be determined. In our observations, clinical significance was studied of radioimmunologically determined HPL values in the serum under tocolysis conditions at premature birth risk on the basis of postnatal classification of the postnatal condition and of the particularity of the adaptation phase of the neonates. The significance of HPL determination in checking the fetoplacental unit during tocolysis should be arrived at while also using other diagnostic techniques, such as oxytocinase or estriol, ultrasound biometry, cardiotocography.

  14. Clinical significance of radioimmunological HPL findings in long-term management of premature delivery risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premature birth is not only characterized by premature delivery action but it is ever more frequently interpreted as the disturbed fetoplacental unit syndrome. In an attempt to therapeutically prevent premature delivery the placental function should be monitored. Possible intrauterine survival should be assessed as accurately as possible against extrauterine survival in order that the necessary tocolysis time could be determined. In our observations, clinical significance was studied of radioimmunologically determined HPL values in the serum under tocolysis conditions at premature birth risk on the basis of postnatal classification of the postnatal condition and of the particularity of the adaptation phase of the neonates. The significance of HPL determination in checking the fetoplacental unit during tocolysis should be arrived at while also using other diagnostic techniques, such as oxytocinase or estriol, ultrasound biometry, cardiotocography. (author)

  15. Clinical significance of serum gastrin level changes in helicobacter pylori associated gastroduodenal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of gastrin expression in Helicobacter pylori (Hp) associated gastro-duodenal diseases and the relationship between Hp infection and serum gastrin level in patients. Methods: Serum gastrin levels were determined with RIA in 46 patients with Hp infection and 33 patients without Hp infection. In Hp+ patients, serum gastrin levels were again determined after Hp eradication. Results: Serum gastrin levels in patients with Hp infection were obviously higher than those in patients without Hp infection (p<0.05). The serum gastrin levels decreased significantly after Hp eradication (p<0.05). Conclusion: Hp infection could result in increased levels of serum gastrin, which in turn could serve as an indicator of presence of Hp infection

  16. Clinical significance of survivin in the diagnosis and prognosis of endometrial carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanxiang Cheng; Gantao Chen; Yanjun Cheng; Demin Pu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of survivin in endometrial carcinoma and to investigate the relationship between the expression of survivin and Ki-67. Methods: Immunohistochemical S-P (streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex)method was performed to detect the expression of survivin and Ki-67 antigen in 15 cases of normal endometrium, 21 cases of endometrial simple and complex hyperplasia, 22 cases of endometrial atypical hyperplasia, and 61 cases of endometrial carcinoma. Results: Survivin was hardly detected in some normal endometrium in the proliferative phase and in the secretory phase. However, the level of survivin expression in atypical hyperplasia endometrium(72.73%)was higher than that in normal endometrium (7.14%)(P < 0.05), including simple and complex hyperplasia (42.38%)(P < 0.01), and was lower than that in endometrial carcinoma (90.17%)(P < 0.05). Moreover, significant correlation was present between the expression of survivin and the characteristics of endometrial carcinoma, including clinical stage, histological grade and the presence of invasion to myometrium (P < 0.05). In addition, Ki-67 antigen expression was positively correlated with survivin expression in all specimen. Ki-67 labeled indexes (LIs)in hyperplasia endometrium were significantly lower than those in atypical hyperplasia endometrium and endometrial carcinoma (P < 0.01 ), while there was no significant difference in Ki-67 LIs between atypical hyperplasia endometrium and endometrial carcinoma(P > 0.05). There was no significant relationship between Ki-67 LIs and the characteristics of endometrial carcinoma, including histological grade, clinical stage or the invasion to myometrium(P > 0.05). Conclusion: Survivin may participate in the onset and progression of endometrial carcinoma through inhibiting apoptosis and promoting proliferation. Survivin expression is correlated with the malignant degree and prognosis of tumor. Ki-67 is also associated with

  17. Theileriosis in six dogs in South Africa and its potential clinical significance

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    Chantal T. Rosa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Theileriosis is a tick-borne disease caused by a piroplasma of the genus Theileria that can causeanaemia and thrombocytopenia. Its clinical importance for dogs’ remains poorly understood,as only some develop clinical signs. In this study, physical and laboratory findings, treatment and outcomes of six client-owned diseased dogs presented at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital are described retrospectively. In the dogs, Theileria species (n = 4and Theileria equi (n = 2 were detected by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR-reverse blothybridisation assay in blood samples, whilst PCR for Babesia, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia were negative. The most common physical findings were pale mucous membranes (five out of six dogs, bleeding tendencies (five out of six dogs and lethargy (three out of six dogs. All dogs were thrombocytopenic [median 59.5 x 109/L (range 13–199] and five out of six dogs were anaemic [median haematocrit 18% (range 5–32]. Bone marrow core biopsies performed in two dogs showed myelofibrosis. Theileriosis was treated with imidocarb dipropionate and the suspected secondary immune-mediated haematological disorders with prednisolone and azathioprine. Five dogs achieved clinical cure and post-treatment PCR performed in three out of five dogs confirmed absence of circulating parasitaemia. An immune-mediated response to Theileria species is thought to result in anaemia and/or thrombocytopenia in diseased dogs with theileriosis. A bleeding tendency, most likely secondary to thrombocytopenia and/or thrombocytopathy, was the most significant clinical finding in these cases. The link between thrombocytopenia, anaemia and myelofibrosis in theileriosis requires further investigation and theileriosis should be considered a differential diagnosis for dogs presenting with anaemia and/or thrombocytopenia in endemic tick-borne disease areas.

  18. Posterior cerebral artery--variation in the origin and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodevski, Ace; Tosovska Lazarova, Dobrila; Mitreska, Nadica; Aliji, Vjolca; Stojovska Jovanovska, Elizabeta

    2014-01-01

    With the introduction of new techniques in diagnostic and interventional radiology and progress in micro-neurosurgery, accurate knowledge of the brain blood vessels is essential in daily clinical work. The aim of this study was to describe the different types of PCA origin, their diameter, and to emphasize their clinical significance. In this study we examined radiographs of 53 patients who had CT angiography undertaken for a variety of clinical reasons, performed as a part of their medical treatment at the University Radiology Clinic in Skopje, R. Macedonia. This study included 24 females and 29 males, ranging in age from 32 to 73 years; mean age 55.3±11.5 years. The results showed that the diameter of the posterior cerebral artery was 1.74±0.317 mm on the right side and 1.98±0.408 mm on the left side. The adult configuration was present in 37 (69.81%); foetal configuration was present in 12 (22.64%) and transitional configuration was present in 4 (7.54%) of the patients. We found two patients with bilateral foetal type and ten with unilateral foetal type (six on the right side and four on the left side). Despite the limitations of the study, we found that the foetal variant was presented in 22.64% of patients. Thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the intracranial vessels is important to clinicians as well as basic scientists who deal with problems related to intracranial vasculature on a daily basis. PMID:24798602

  19. Speciation and Biofilm Production of Coagulase Negative Staphylococcal Isolates from Clinically Significant Specimens and their Antibiogram

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    S. S. Vijayasri Badampudi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CONS are increasingly recognized as significant nosocomial pathogens. Their ability of biofilm formation and multiple drug resistance are causing serious human infections. Aim and Objectives: To isolate, identify, speciate clinically significant CONS from various specimens, to study antibiotic resistance pattern and biofilm production. Material and Methods: Specimens were collected aseptically, processed and identified upto the species level by a simple scheme of tests urease, novobiocin resistance, mannose and mannitol fermentation, ornithine decarboxylase. Antibiotic sensitivity was done with special reference to methicillin resistance. Biofilm formation was detected by Congo Red Agar (CRA method and Tube Method (TM. Results: Study groupOf 100 isolates majority were pus (40, followed by urine (28, blood (16, CSF (5, body fluids (4 and catheter tips and implants (7. The most common species isolated was S. epidermidis (40% followed by S. haemolyticus (26%, S. saprophyticus (15%, S. schleiferi (13%, S. simulans (2%, S. cohnii (2% and S. warneri and S. capitis each 1%. Resistance to penicillin was 91% followed by ampicillin (79%, cotrimoxazole (67%. Methicillin resistance was 72%. Biofilm producers were 69% by CRAmethod and 33% by TM with majority species S. epidermidis (82.5%- CRA and 55%-TM. Biofilm production was significantly associated with MRCONS (p value 0.0036. Control group-Of 30 isolates were S. epidermidis 66.6% followed by S. haemolyticus (16.66%. Biofilm producers were 53.33% by CRA method and 26.65% by TM with majority species S. epidermidis (65%-CRA and 30%-TM.Methicillin resistance was 26.6%. Conclusion: Clinical significance of CONS is increasing day by day, so there is a need for accurate identification to species level and their antibiogram to avoid multidrug resistance. Biofilm producing CONS species pose a risk and CRA method for screening biofilm can be used in all conventional

  20. Expression and clinical significance of fibroblast growth factor 1 in gastric adenocarcinoma

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    Liu NQ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Naiqing Liu,1,2,* Jingyu Zhang,2,* Shuxiang Sun,2 Liguang Yang,2 Zhongjin Zhou,2 Qinli Sun,2 Jun Niu11Department of General Surgery, Qilu Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of General Surgery, Yishui Central Hospital, Linyi, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The clinical significance of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1 has been revealed in several cancers, including ovarian cancer, breast cancer, and bladder cancer. However, the clinical significance of FGF1 in gastric adenocarcinoma has not been explored.Patients and methods: In our experiments, we systematically evaluated FGF1 expression in 178 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma with immunohistochemistry, and subsequently analyzed the correlation between FGF1 expression and clinicopathologic features. Moreover, FGF1 expression in tumor tissue and corresponding adjacent tissue was detected and compared by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The Kaplan–Meier method and the Cox-regression model were used with univariate and multivariate analysis, respectively, to evaluate the prognostic value of FGF1 in gastric adenocarcinoma.Results: Higher FGF1 expression rate is 56.7% (101/178 in gastric adenocarcinoma. FGF1 expression in gastric adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than adjacent tissue (P<0.0001. Expression of FGF1 is significantly associated with lymph node invasion (P<0.001, distant metastasis (P=0.013, and differentiation (P=0.015. Moreover, FGF1 overexpression was closely related to unfavorable overall survival rate (P=0.021, and can be identified to be an independent unfavorable prognostic factor (P=0.004.Conclusion: FGF1 is an independent prognostic factor, indicating that FGF1 could be a potential molecular drug target in gastric adenocarcinoma.Keywords: fibroblast growth factor 1, gastric adenocarcinoma, prognosis, biomarker, lymph node, gene fusion

  1. The clinical significance of vitamin D in systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review.

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    Rajalingham Sakthiswary

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is more prevalent among SLE patients than the general population. Over the past decade, many studies across the globe have been carried out to investigate the role of vitamin D in SLE from various clinical angles. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to summarise and evaluate the evidence from the published literature; focusing on the clinical significance of vitamin D in SLE. METHODS: THE FOLLOWING DATABASES WERE SEARCHED: MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Knowledge and CINAHL, using the terms "lupus", "systemic lupus erythematosus", "SLE and "vitamin D". We included only adult human studies published in the English language between 2000 and 2012.The reference lists of included studies were thoroughly reviewed in search for other relevant studies. RESULTS: A total of 22 studies met the selection criteria. The majority of the studies were observational (95.5% and cross sectional (90.9%. Out of the 15 studies which looked into the association between vitamin D and SLE disease activity, 10 studies (including the 3 largest studies in this series revealed a statistically significant inverse relationship. For disease damage, on the other hand, 5 out of 6 studies failed to demonstrate any association with vitamin D levels. Cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia were related to vitamin D deficiency, according to 3 of the studies. CONCLUSION: There is convincing evidence to support the association between vitamin D levels and SLE disease activity. There is paucity of data in other clinical aspects to make firm conclusions.

  2. Expression of interleukin-2 in Candidal balanoposthitis and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jun; ZHOU Yun-xiao; JIN Xiao-dong; CHEN Shan-wen

    2011-01-01

    Background Candidal balanoposthitis (CB) is a common male genital infection.Autoimmune mechanisms may play an important role in the pathogenesis of CB.Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an important molecule in cell-mediated immunity.Methods One hundred and one patients were diagnosed with CB using mycology culture in the dermatology and urology clinics in our hospital.Ninety-four healthy males were randomly selected as controls.We studied serum levels of IL-2 of patients with CB using ELISA and analyzed the correlations between serum IL-2 and clinical data.Results Serum IL-2 concentrations in CB patients were significantly lower than that in the control group ((7.80±4.78) vs.(15.44±7.90) ng/L;t=2.27,P <0.05).The incidence of CB in the low-level group was significantly higher than that in the high-level group (70% (71/101) vs.36% (30/84),P <0.05).Low levels of serum IL-2,comorbidity with other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs),and sexual partners with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) increased the risk of CB.Conclusion The pathogenesis of CB is a complex procedure that includes internal autoimmune factors.

  3. Clinical significance of pharmacogenomic studies in tardive dyskinesia associated with patients with psychiatric disorders

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    Chang FC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Florence CF Chang, Victor SC Fung Movement Disorders Unit, Department of Neurology, Westmead Hospital, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Pharmacogenomics is the study of the effects of genetic polymorphisms on medication pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. It offers advantages in predicting drug efficacy and/or toxicity and has already changed clinical practice in many fields of medicine. Tardive dyskinesia (TD is a movement disorder that rarely remits and poses significant social stigma and physical discomfort for the patient. Pharmacokinetic studies show an association between cytochrome P450 enzyme-determined poor metabolizer status and elevated serum antipsychotic and metabolite levels. However, few prospective studies have shown this to correlate with the occurrence of TD. Many retrospective, case-control and cross-sectional studies have examined the association of cytochrome P450 enzyme, dopamine (receptor, metabolizer and transporter, serotonin (receptor and transporter, and oxidative stress enzyme gene polymorphisms with the occurrence and severity of TD. These studies have produced conflicting and confusing results secondary to heterogeneous inclusion criteria and other patient characteristics that also act as confounding factors. This paper aims to review and summarize the pharmacogenetic findings in antipsychotic-associated TD and assess its clinical significance for psychiatry patients. In addition, we hope to provide insight into areas that need further research. Keywords: pharmacogenomics, tardive dyskinesia, cytochrome P450, pharmacogenetic, schizophrenia

  4. Lipoprotein Subfractions in Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Clinical Significance and Therapeutic Approaches

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    Manfredi Rizzo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Small, dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL represents an emerging cardiovascular risk factor, since these particles can be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD independently of established risk factors, including plasma lipids. Obese subjects frequently have atherogenic dyslipidaemia, including elevated sdLDL levels, in addition to elevated triglycerides (TG, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL and apolipoprotein-B, as well as decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels. Obesity-related co-morbidities, such as metabolic syndrome (MetS are also characterized by dyslipidaemia. Therefore, agents that favourably modulate LDL subclasses may be of clinical value in these subjects. Statins are the lipid-lowering drug of choice. Also, anti-obesity and lipid lowering drugs other than statins could be useful in these patients. However, the effects of anti-obesity drugs on CVD risk factors remain unclear. We review the clinical significance of sdLDL in being overweight and obesity, as well as the efficacy of anti-obesity drugs on LDL subfractions in these individuals; a short comment on HDL subclasses is also included. Our literature search was based on PubMed and Scopus listings. Further research is required to fully explore both the significance of sdLDL and the efficacy of anti-obesity drugs on LDL subfractions in being overweight, obesity and MetS. Improving the lipoprotein profile in these patients may represent an efficient approach for reducing cardiovascular risk.

  5. Clinical significance of OXA-10-type ESBL producing MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Seniha Senbayrak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the clinical significance of OXA-10-type ESBL producing P. aeruginosa in hospital setting. The study was conducted during 2006 and 2007 in the ICU of a teaching hospital with 725 beds. OXA-10-type ESBLs were screened by PCR and sequencing while the expression of the enzyme was verified by isoelectric focusing. Clinical data were obtained from the database of records. A total of 59 P. aeruginosa were identified as the cause of nosocomial infections during the study period. Of these 15 were producing OXA-14, which is a well defined ESBL variant of OXA-10. Among these 15 patients 10 were died. Most infections were ventilator-associated pneumonia (11/15. However, neither co-morbidities nor infection types seems to be strongly related to the adverse outcome in this cohort. All these adverse outcomes were attributed to ESBL producing P. aeruginosa infection. This study suggested that OXA-10 type ESBL variants appear sporadically among P. aeruginosa isolates in hospital settings and cause significant infections in terms of outcome. [Dis Mol Med 2015; 3(1.000: 1-4

  6. Clinical significance of DVM and its prevalence in pre-gestational diabetes cases versus normal pregnancies

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    Farideh Akhlaghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pre-gestational diabetes mellitus affects less than 1% of all pregnancies and is a significant cause of fetal morbidity and mortality. It is hypothesized that impaired placental function, in the form of abnormal placental weight and/or abnormal placental histology, may be responsible for this event in such pregnancies. Delayed villous maturation of placental villi, which is one of the findings associated with pre-gestational diabetes increases the rate of perinatal mortality. There is limited literature regarding the delayed maturation of placental villous. This review included trials (randomized and non-randomized, cohort and case-control studies registered in Medline/PubMed database, from January 2001 to September 2012 that evaluated the clinical significance of delayed villous maturation and its prevalence in pre-gestational diabetic cases compared to normal pregnancies.It emphasizes that further studies with focus on possible clinical or ultrasound markers of placental delayed villous maturation, especially in a high risk-group such as women with pre-gestational diabetes mellitus are highly recommended.

  7. Clinical, functional and health-related quality of life correlates of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with systemic sclerosis: a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Nguyen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify clinical, functional and health-related quality of life (HRQoL correlates of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc. METHODS: Three-hundred-and-eighty-one patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology and/or the Leroy and Medsger criteria for SSc were assessed for visceral involvement, disability and HRQoL (assessed by SF-36. Clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression were evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HAD (defined cut-off≥8. RESULTS: 9.2% the patients had limited SSc, 50.5% limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc, and 40.3% diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc. Overall, 40.4% and 58.8% of the patients had clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. Compared to patients without clinically significant symptoms of depression, patients with clinically significant symptoms of depression had poorer health status, HRQoL mental and physical component, and greater global disability, hand disability and aesthetic impairment. Compared to patients without clinically significant symptoms of anxiety, patients with clinically significant symptoms of anxiety had poorer SF-36 mental and physical component scores. On multivariable analysis, excluding mental component score of SF-36, variables independently associated with clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety were global disability and physical component of SF-36, plus female gender for clinically significant symptoms of anxiety only. Remarkably, patients with and without clinically significant psychiatric symptoms were comparable for all disease-related clinical features assessed. CONCLUSION: High levels of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression are observed among SSc patients. Clinically significant psychiatric symptoms are rather associated with increased disability and altered HRQoL, than with disease-specific organ

  8. Possible prebiotic significance of polyamines in the condensation, protection, encapsulation, and biological properties of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Isabel; Ibanez, Miguel; Wong, Carlos; Chavez, Pedro; Gariglio, Patricio; Oro, J.

    1992-01-01

    While DNA which has undergone ionic condensation with Co(3+)(NH3)6 is resistant to the action of the endonuclase DNAse I, in much the same way as DNA condensed with spermidine, it was significantly less active in transcription with the E. coli RNA polymerase than DNA-spermidine condensed forms. Although both compacted forms of DNA were more efficiently encapsulated into neutral liposomes, negatively charged liposomes were seldom formed in the presence of the present, positive ion-condensed DNA; spermidine is accordingly proposed as a plausible prebiotic DNA-condensing agent. Attention is given to the relevance of the polyimide-nucleic acids complexes in the evolution of life.

  9. Recent data on biological and clinical properties of radiosensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce the radioresistance due, among others, to hypoxia in solid tumors, research on radiosensitizers (especially the electron-affinic sensitizers) has been active for many years. The radiosensitization efficiency and the cytotoxic and transforming effects of a great number of substances was first studied in vitro. Then two drugs, metronidazole and misonidazole, were tested especially in vivo in animals; this research concerned their effect both on tumors and on normal tissues. After presenting an overwiew of the experimental results, we summarize the preliminary results of the first clinical trials with misonidazole. The general tolerance to this drug is now well known: its local influence on tumors and also normal tissues radiosensitivity is the object of most of the present clinical trials

  10. Expressions of cysteine-rich61, connective tissue growth factor and Nov genes in hepatocellular carcinoma and their clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Jun Zeng; Lian-Yue Yang; Xiang Ding; Wei Wang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of cysteine-rich61 (Cyr61),connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and nephroblastoma overexpressed gene (Nov) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC),and to evaluate the relationship between Cyr61, CTGF and Nov genes expression with invasion and metastasis of HCC.METHODS: Thirty-one HCC specimens were divided into small hepatocellular carcinoma (SHCC), nodular hepatocellular carcinoma (NHCC), solitary large hepatocellular carcinoma (SLHCC) according to their diameter and number of nodes. Reverse transcription polymerse chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of Cyr61, CTGF and Nov genes in 31 resected specimens of hepatocellular carcinoma and para-cancerous normal liver tissues semi-quantitatively and the relation between their expression levels and clinical pathological parameters were compared.RESULTS: The expressions of Cyr61 and CTGF mRNA in carcinoma tissues were significantly higher than those in para-cancerous normal liver tissues (P<0.01). The expressions of Cyr61 and CTGF mRNA in HCC with venous invasion were higher than those in HCC without venous invasion. CTGF expression in HCC Edmondson's grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ was significantly higher than that in HCC Edmondson's grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ (P = 0.022). There was no obvious correlation between Nov mRNA and clinical-pathological features.Compared to NHCC, SLHCC had better cell differentiation,easier capsule formation, less microscopic venous invasion,milder liver cirrhosis. The expressions of Cyr61 and CTGF mRNA in NHCC were significantly higher than those in SLHCC and SHCC.CONCLUSION: Cyr61 and CTGF genes may play an important role in hepatocellular carcinogenesis and correlate with recurrence and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.SLHCC has better biological behaviors than NHCC.

  11. Clinical significance of B7-H6 protein expression in astrocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo JG

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jian-gui Guo,1,* Cheng-cheng Guo,2,* Zhen-qiang He,2 Zhi-gang Liu,3 Yang Wang,2 Yong-gao Mou21Department of Radiation Oncology, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Radiation Oncology, Key Laboratory of Translational Radiation Oncology, Hunan Cancer Hospital, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, People’s Republic of China*These authors have contributed equally to this workAbstract: Currently, immunotherapy by blocking the immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as anti-PD-1, has been carried out in many clinical studies on recurrent glioma, and the preliminary results are satisfactory, which provides a rationale for the exploration of immune checkpoint inhibitors in glioma. B7-H6 is a newly discovered member of the B7 family, which triggers antitumor of natural killer cell cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion by binding the NKp30 receptor. B7-H6 mRNA and protein expressions, which are not detected in normal tissues, are expressed mainly on the cell surface of various primary tumors and cell lines. However, up until now, there is no data about the clinical significance of B7-H6 expression in astrocytoma patients. The present study provides an investigation on the relationship between prognostic and clinical value of B7-H6 protein in astrocytoma tissues. All the astrocytic glioma tissues were stained for B7-H6. Immunohistochemistry stain of 122 astrocytoma samples showed that immunoreactivity of B7-H6 was seen predominantly in the cytoplasm. The B7-H6 expression did not show significant relevance with patient age, sex distribution, Karnofsky performance status score, extent of resection, and tumor location in astrocytoma patients, but B7-H6 positive expression is significantly associated with World Health

  12. Expression of transcription factor Pokemon in non-small cell lung cancer and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhi-hong; WANG Sheng-fa; YU Liang; WANG Ju; CHANG Hao; YAN Wei-li; FU Kai; ZHANG Jian

    2008-01-01

    Background Transcription factor Pokemon,a central regulation gene of the important tumor suppressor ARF gene,exerted its activity by acting upstream of many tumor-suppressing genes and proto-oncogenes.Its expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)and its clinical significance remains unclear.The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of Pokemon in NSCLC and to explore its correlation with the clinical pathological characteristics and its influence on patients'prognosis.Methods Fifty-five cases of NSCLC were involved in this study.The expression of Pokemon in the tumor tissue,the corresponding tumor adjacent tissue and the surrounding tissue was detected via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR)and Western blotting,with the aim of investigating the correlation between the expression of Pokemon in tumor tissue of NSCLC and its clinicaI pathological characteristics.Moreover,a prognostic analysis was carried out based upon the immunohistochemical(IHC)detection of the expression of Pokemon gene in archival tumor specimens (5 years ago) of 62 cases of NSCLC.Results Statistical significance of the expression of Pokemon mRNA and protein was determined in the tumor tissue,the tumor adjacent tissue and the surrounding tissue (P<0.05).The expression of Pokemon was determined not to be associated with the patients'sex,age,smoking condition,tumor differentiation degree,histology and lymph node metastasis condition.However,its relationship with TNM staging was established(P<0.05).Furthermore,it was shown that the suwival rate of patients with negative Pokemon expression was significantly higher than that of those with positive Pokemon expression(P=0.004),therefore,the expression of Pokemon is believed to be an independent factor affectinq prognosis (P=0.034).Concluaion Pokemon was over-expressed in NSCLC tissue and the expression of Pokemon might be of clinical significance in non-small cell lung cancer prognostic evaluation.

  13. Biological and Prognostic Significance of the Morphological Types and Vascular Patterns in Colorectal Liver Metastases (CRLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardana, Pulathis N.; Luong, Tu Vinh; Watkins, Jennifer; Turley, Helen; Ghazaley, Mohamed; Gatter, Kevin; Harris, Adrian L.; Hochhauser, Daniel; Davidson, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with encapsulated colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) have a better prognosis than those without a capsule. The reason for the encapsulation is unknown. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) increases tumor angiogenesis and tumor tissue expression is associated with reduced survival. Our aim was to determine whether the good prognosis of encapsulated CRLM is associated with reduced HIF-1α expression by the cancer. The study selected only patients who had not undergone neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to a potentially curative hepatectomy for CRLM. From 30 selected patients, serial sections were cut from a single randomly selected metastasis. Morphology was assessed following H&E staining. Tumor hypoxia, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), proliferation, and microvascular density (MVD) were assessed by immunostaining for HIF-1α and carbonic anhydrase-9 (CA-9), VEGF, Ki67, and cluster of differentiation-31, respectively. MVD was calculated in the vascular hot spots. Pathology was reported without clinical outcome information. Actual long-term survival was recorded. Thirteen (43%) of the cancers were encapsulated CRLM containing glands which were large, complex, and cribriform. Thirteen (43%) were infiltrative CRLM and their glands were small, closely packed, and rounded with vessels in the interglandular fibrous tissue with no capsule; 3 (10%) had a mixed picture. Encapsulated CRLM had a higher expression of HIF-1α (58% vs 8%, P = 0.03), CA-9 (42% vs 0%, P = 0.04), and VEGF (92% vs 25%, P = 0.02). MVD was lower in the encapsulated CRLM group (37 mm2 vs 143 mm2, P < 0.001). The median follow-up was 115 months. The encapsulated CRLM group had a better overall and 5-year survival (relative hazard: 0.58, P = 0.057 and hazard ratio: 0.52, P = 0.044). There are 2 main morphological appearances of CRLM which have very different long-term survival following liver resection surgery. The morphology is associated with

  14. Clinical significance of radiation therapy in breast recurrence and prognosis in breast-conserving surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant risk factors for recurrence of breast cancer after breast-conserving therapy, which has become a standard treatment for breast cancer, are positive surgical margins and the failure to perform radiation therapy. In this study, we evaluated the clinical significance of radiation therapy after primary surgery or breast recurrence. In 344 cases of breast-conserving surgery, disease recurred in 43 cases (12.5%), which were classified as follows: 17 cases of breast recurrence, 13 cases of breast and distant metastasis, and 13 cases of distant metastasis. Sixty-two patients (16.7%) received radiation therapy. A positive surgical margin and younger age were significant risk factors for breast recurrence in patients not receiving postoperative radiation therapy but not in patients receiving radiation therapy. Radiation therapy may be beneficial for younger patients with positive surgical margins. Furthermore, radiation therapy after recurrence was effective in the cases not treated with postoperative radiation but not in cases with inflammatory recurrence. Patients with breast recurrence alone had significantly higher survival rates than did patients with distant metastases regardless of breast recurrence. These findings suggest that the adaptation criteria of radiation therapy for local control must be clarified. (author)

  15. Clinical significance of radiation therapy in breast recurrence and prognosis in breast-conserving surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Reiki; Nagao, Kazuharu; Miyayama, Haruhiko [Kumamoto City Hospital (Japan)] [and others

    1999-03-01

    Significant risk factors for recurrence of breast cancer after breast-conserving therapy, which has become a standard treatment for breast cancer, are positive surgical margins and the failure to perform radiation therapy. In this study, we evaluated the clinical significance of radiation therapy after primary surgery or breast recurrence. In 344 cases of breast-conserving surgery, disease recurred in 43 cases (12.5%), which were classified as follows: 17 cases of breast recurrence, 13 cases of breast and distant metastasis, and 13 cases of distant metastasis. Sixty-two patients (16.7%) received radiation therapy. A positive surgical margin and younger age were significant risk factors for breast recurrence in patients not receiving postoperative radiation therapy but not in patients receiving radiation therapy. Radiation therapy may be beneficial for younger patients with positive surgical margins. Furthermore, radiation therapy after recurrence was effective in the cases not treated with postoperative radiation but not in cases with inflammatory recurrence. Patients with breast recurrence alone had significantly higher survival rates than did patients with distant metastases regardless of breast recurrence. These findings suggest that the adaptation criteria of radiation therapy for local control must be clarified. (author)

  16. Clinical significance of color Doppler ultrasound in detection of hepatic cirrhosis and splenic venous hemodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xia Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical significance of color Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis patients with portal and splenic venous hemodynamics.Methods:Select from August 2014 to August 2015 60 cases of liver cirrhosis in our hospital were liver cirrhosis, according to the standard of grading of liver function in Child-Pauh points A, B, C grade and healthy people as healthy group comparative study, the use of color Doppler ultrasound in portal vein diameter (DPV), blood flow velocity (VPV), blood flow (QPV) and splenic vein (DSV), blood flow velocity (VSV), blood flow (QSV) were measured, and calculated DSV/DPV.Results:DPV, DSV, QPV, QSV in liver cirrhosis group were significantly higher than those in the healthy group, VSV and VPV were significantly lower than those in the healthy group (P0.05).Conclusions: Color Doppler ultrasound in portal vein hemodynamics detection has is a simple, noninvasive, repeated operation and other advantages, has an important significance in the evaluation of liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  17. DETECTION AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THROMBOMODULIN IN BOTH PLASMA AND TISSUE EXTRACTS OF CANCER PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓华; 卢兴国; 徐根波; 朱蕾; 黄连生

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of thrombomodulin (TM) in both plasma and tissue extracts of cancer patients for evaluating its clinical significance. Methods: Plasma TM levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in both plasma of 188 cancer patients and 24 cancer tissue extracts including their adjacent non-cancer tissues. Results: The plasma TM levels both in cancer patients and in metastasis patients were significantly higher than that in controls [(33.47±14.25)μg/L, (41.68±16.96)μg/L, vs(20.40±7.22)μg/L,P0.05). The TM levels in cancer tissue extracts were significantly lower than that in their adjacent non-cancer tissue extracts [(647.71±317.51)μg/L vs (1455.63±772.22)μg/L, P<0.01]. On the contrary, the plasma TM levels in these cancers were significantly higher than that in controls. Conclusion: The rise of plasma TM levels in cancer patients was associated with metastasis and diffusion of cancers. The TM levels can be served as an sensitive index for judging progression and metastasis of cancers.

  18. EXPRESSION AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF p73A IN BREAST CARCINOMA TISSUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xin; SUN Zhi-jun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the expression and clinical significance of p73( in breast carcinomas. Methods: The expression of p73( was detected by immunohistochemistry in 41 breast carcinoma tissues, 13 benign breast tumor tissues and 8 normal tissues and 8 normal breast tissues, respectively. Results: The positive expression of p73( was found in 20/41 (48.8%) of breast carcinoma tissues, 1/13 (7.7%) of benign breast tumor tissues. The positive expression rate of p73( in breast carcinoma tissues was significant1y higher than that in benign breast tumor tissues and normal breast tissues (P<0.05). The expression intensity of p73( increased significantly in breast carcinoma tissues compared with benign breast tumor tissues and normal breast tissues (P<0.05). Significant association of the expression of p73( with lymph node metastases and TNM stages of the carcinoma was found (P<0.05). The expression of p73( displayed a positive correlation with p53 (P<0.05). Conclusion: These results suggest that there is an up-regulation of p73( expression in breast carcinoma tissues, which may be implicated in the tumorigenesis of breast carcinoma as a molecular alteration.

  19. Biological and clinical dosimetry, July 1, 1964 to December 31, 1984. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal was to develop systems for the determination of absorbed dose in biological research and clinical applications. The primary method under study is the local absorbed dose calorimeter. In addition, secondary dosimetric systems such as ionization chambers, chemical dosimeters and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) are being developed and applied to provide an absolute basis for the evaluation and comparison of experiments, treatments and other procedures using radiation. In keeping with these objectives this project has accomplished significant advances in the following areas: (1) local absorbed dose calorimetry; (2) neutron dosimetry; (3) dosimetry of ultra-high intensity radiation sources; (4) solid state detector and germanium gamma camera program; (5) dosimetry for brachytherapy; and (6) ''non-isolated sensor'' calorimeters

  20. Cancer-Specific Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT Promoter Mutations: Biological and Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiantian Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The accumulated evidence has pointed to a key role of telomerase in carcinogenesis. As a RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA at the end of linear chromosomes, and attenuates or prevents telomere erosion associated with cell divisions. By lengthening telomeres, telomerase extends cellular life-span or even induces immortalization. Consistent with its functional activity, telomerase is silent in most human normal somatic cells while active only in germ-line, stem and other highly proliferative cells. In contrast, telomerase activation widely occurs in human cancer and the enzymatic activity is detectable in up to 90% of malignancies. Recently, hotspot point mutations in the regulatory region of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT gene, encoding the core catalytic component of telomerase, was identified as a novel mechanism to activate telomerase in cancer. This review discusses the cancer-specific TERT promoter mutations and potential biological and clinical significances.

  1. Cancer-Specific Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT) Promoter Mutations: Biological and Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tiantian; Yuan, Xiaotian; Xu, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    The accumulated evidence has pointed to a key role of telomerase in carcinogenesis. As a RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA at the end of linear chromosomes, and attenuates or prevents telomere erosion associated with cell divisions. By lengthening telomeres, telomerase extends cellular life-span or even induces immortalization. Consistent with its functional activity, telomerase is silent in most human normal somatic cells while active only in germ-line, stem and other highly proliferative cells. In contrast, telomerase activation widely occurs in human cancer and the enzymatic activity is detectable in up to 90% of malignancies. Recently, hotspot point mutations in the regulatory region of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene, encoding the core catalytic component of telomerase, was identified as a novel mechanism to activate telomerase in cancer. This review discusses the cancer-specific TERT promoter mutations and potential biological and clinical significances. PMID:27438857

  2. Cancer-Specific Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT) Promoter Mutations: Biological and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tiantian; Yuan, Xiaotian; Xu, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    The accumulated evidence has pointed to a key role of telomerase in carcinogenesis. As a RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA at the end of linear chromosomes, and attenuates or prevents telomere erosion associated with cell divisions. By lengthening telomeres, telomerase extends cellular life-span or even induces immortalization. Consistent with its functional activity, telomerase is silent in most human normal somatic cells while active only in germ-line, stem and other highly proliferative cells. In contrast, telomerase activation widely occurs in human cancer and the enzymatic activity is detectable in up to 90% of malignancies. Recently, hotspot point mutations in the regulatory region of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene, encoding the core catalytic component of telomerase, was identified as a novel mechanism to activate telomerase in cancer. This review discusses the cancer-specific TERT promoter mutations and potential biological and clinical significances. PMID:27438857

  3. Rapid biological oxidation of methanol in the tropical Atlantic: significance as a microbial carbon source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Dixon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Methanol is the second most abundant organic gas in the atmosphere after methane, and is ubiquitous in the troposphere. It plays a significant role in atmospheric oxidant chemistry and is biogeochemically active. Large uncertainties exist about whether the oceans are a source or sink of methanol to the atmosphere. Even less is understood about what reactions in seawater determine its concentration, and hence flux across the sea surface interface. We report here concentrations of methanol between 151–296 nM in parts of the oligotrophic North Atlantic, with corresponding microbial uptake rates between 2–146 nM d−1, suggesting turnover times as low as 1 day (1–25 days in surface waters of the oligotrophic tropical North East Atlantic. Methanol is mainly (≥97% used by microbes for obtaining energy in oligotrophic regions, which contrasts with shelf and coastal areas where between 20–50% can be used for cell growth. Comparisons of microbial methanol oxidation rates with parallel determinations of bacterial leucine uptake suggest that methanol contributes on average 13% to bacterial carbon demand in the central northern Atlantic gyre (maximum of 54%. In addition, the contribution that methanol makes to bacterial carbon demand varies as a power function of chlorophyll a concentrations; suggesting for concentrations <0.2 μg l−1 that methanol can make a significant contribution to bacterial carbon demand. However, our low air to sea methanol flux estimates of 7.2–13 μmol m−2 d−1 suggest that the atmosphere is not a major methanol source. We conclude that there must be a major, as yet unidentified, in situ oceanic methanol source in these latitudes which we suggest is sunlight driven decomposition of organic matter.

  4. Clinical significance of pulmonary nodules detected on abdominal CT in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical significance of a pulmonary nodule that is detected incidentally on CT studies in children is unknown. In addition, there is limited information regarding the management of incidentally detected pulmonary nodules discovered on abdominal CT studies in children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of incidental pulmonary nodules detected on abdominal CT studies in children. This was a retrospective study performed following institutional review board approval. Abdominal CT reports in patients younger than 18 years of age from July 2004 to June 2011 were reviewed for the terms ''nodule,'' ''nodular'' or ''mass'' in reference to the lung bases. The study population included those pediatric patients in whom pulmonary nodules were initially detected on abdominal CT studies. The largest pulmonary nodules detected on CT studies were evaluated for their features (size, shape, margin, attenuation, location, and presence of calcification and cavitation). Follow-up CT studies and clinical records were reviewed for demographic information, history of underlying malignancies and the clinical outcome of the incidental pulmonary nodules. Comparison of malignant versus benign pulmonary nodules was performed with respect to the size of the nodule, imaging features on CT, and patient history of malignancy using the Student's t-test and Fisher exact test. Youden J-index in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off size for suggesting a high risk of malignancy of incidentally detected pulmonary nodules. Pulmonary nodules meeting inclusion criteria were detected in 62 (1.2%) of 5,234 patients. The mean age of patients with nodules was 11.2 years (range: 5 months-18 years). Thirty-one patients (50%) had follow-up CT studies and two of these patients (6%) were subsequently found to have malignant pulmonary nodules. Both of these

  5. Clinical significance of pulmonary nodules detected on abdominal CT in pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, Micheal; Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Zurakowski, David [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Departments of Anesthesiology and Surgery, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The clinical significance of a pulmonary nodule that is detected incidentally on CT studies in children is unknown. In addition, there is limited information regarding the management of incidentally detected pulmonary nodules discovered on abdominal CT studies in children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of incidental pulmonary nodules detected on abdominal CT studies in children. This was a retrospective study performed following institutional review board approval. Abdominal CT reports in patients younger than 18 years of age from July 2004 to June 2011 were reviewed for the terms ''nodule,'' ''nodular'' or ''mass'' in reference to the lung bases. The study population included those pediatric patients in whom pulmonary nodules were initially detected on abdominal CT studies. The largest pulmonary nodules detected on CT studies were evaluated for their features (size, shape, margin, attenuation, location, and presence of calcification and cavitation). Follow-up CT studies and clinical records were reviewed for demographic information, history of underlying malignancies and the clinical outcome of the incidental pulmonary nodules. Comparison of malignant versus benign pulmonary nodules was performed with respect to the size of the nodule, imaging features on CT, and patient history of malignancy using the Student's t-test and Fisher exact test. Youden J-index in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off size for suggesting a high risk of malignancy of incidentally detected pulmonary nodules. Pulmonary nodules meeting inclusion criteria were detected in 62 (1.2%) of 5,234 patients. The mean age of patients with nodules was 11.2 years (range: 5 months-18 years). Thirty-one patients (50%) had follow-up CT studies and two of these patients (6%) were subsequently found to have malignant pulmonary nodules. Both of these

  6. [Clinic-epidemiological significance of drug hepatotoxicity in liver disease consultation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jmelnitzky, A C; Guidi, M; Bologna, A; Viola, M; Soccini, C; Barbero, R; Belloni, P; Apraiz, M

    2000-01-01

    To assess epidemiological and clinical significance of drug hepatotoxicity in the setting of liver diseases consultation, ten thousand and three hundred forty two prospectively designed clinical records from patient cared for in our Liver Unit in the period 1988-1998 were incorporated into the study; 58 out of 10,342 (prevalence = 5.6%) fulfilled at least the first three of the following causality requirements: 1.--Liver injury associated in time to drug exposition; 2.--Negative evaluation of more common other etiologies; (alcohol, viruses, immunologic, metabolic, etc) 3.--Favourable response to drug withdrawal (ALT 75%), moderate (presence of clinical complications, bilirubin > 5 mg/dl and prothrombin concentration between 50-75%), and severe (major clinical complications with bilirubin > 5 mg/dl and prothrombin concentration hypersensibility (fever, adenomegalies, rush, mononucleosis like syndrome, eosinophilia) in 29.3%. Acute injury represented 91.4% of the cases: 41.4% acute hepatitis, 15.5% "pure" cholestasis, 24.1% cholestatic hepatitis, and 10.3% indeterminate type. Four patients (4.5% of acute injury cases) were presented as severe acute liver failure, leading to liver transplant in one of them, drug association (INH-rifampicin and carbamazepine-phenobarbital) and inadverted challenge (sulphonamides and pemoline) were associated to clinical severity. Chronic injury were found in five patient (8.6%), four of them associated to chronic hepatitis and the other one to a ductopenic syndrome. Six drugs represented 53.4% of our cases; oral contraceptives (7 cases), INH alone or combined with rifampicin (6 cases), sulfonamides and clorpropamida (5 cases each), carbamazepine and amiodarone (4 cases each). Normalization of liver enzymes after drug suppression took 2 to 8 weeks in acute hepatitis type (X = 4 weeks), 4 to 20 in "pure" cholestasis (X = 12 weeks) and 8 to 24 weeks in cholestatic hepatitis or mixed type (X = 16 weeks). Two cases of chronic hepatitis

  7. Prognostic significance of clinical and pathological stages on locally advanced rectal carcinoma after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate prognostic significance of clinical and pathological stages in patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (neo-CRT) and total mesorectal excision. 210 patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma (cT3-4 or cN+) treated with neo-CRT followed by total mesorectal excision. Treatment outcomes were compared according to clinical and pathological stage. Overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS) among patients with different clinical stage and pathological stage after neo-CRT. The median follow-up time was 47 months (range, 14–98 months). Clinical T stage was associated with 5 year OS (p = 0.042) and 5 year DFS (p = 0.014) while clinical N stage was not associated with 5 year OS (p = 0.440), 5 year DFS (p = 0.711). Pathological T stage was associate with 5 year OS (p = 0.001) and 5 year DFS (p = 0.046); and N stage was associated with 5 year OS (p = 0.001), 5 year DFS (p = 0.002). The pathological stage was further classified into three groups: ypT0–2N0 in 91 patients (43.3 %), ypT3–4N0 in 69 patients (32.9 %) and ypT0–4N+ in 50 patients (23.8 %). While pathological stage (ypT0–2 vs ypT3–4N0 vs ypT0–4N+) was associated with 5 year OS (87.9 %, 75.5 %, 56.7 %, p = 0.000), 5 year DFS (74.5 %, 77.4 %, 50.5 %, p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that ypN stage was an independent prognostic factor for patients 5 year DFS. Pathological stage is strongly associated with treatment outcomes in patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma treated with neo-CRT followed by total mesorectal excision, which may be used as guidance for further individualized treatment

  8. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM): novel biological insights and development of early treatment strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Korde, Neha; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.; Landgren, Ola

    2011-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) are asymptomatic plasma cell dyscrasias, with a propensity to progress to symptomatic MM. In recent years there have been improvements in risk stratification models (involving molecular markers) of both disorders, which have led to better understanding of the biology and probability of progression of MGUS and SMM. In the context of numerous molecular events and heterogeneous risk of progression, develop...

  9. Clinical significance of laryngopharyngeal reflux in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung YH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Young Ho Jung,1* Doh Young Lee,2* Dong Wook Kim,1 Sung Soo Park,3 Eun Young Heo,3 Hee Soon Chung,3 Deog Kyeom Kim3 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Anam Hospital, Korea University Medical Center, 3Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is closely associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, the clinical significance of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR is not fully understood in COPD.Methods: Prospective cohorts were established among 118 patients with COPD from March 2013 to July 2014. Thirty-two age-matched and sex-matched normal controls, who had routine health check-ups during the study period, were included. Laryngopharyngeal reflux finding scores (RFS and reflux symptom index (RSI for LPR were subjected to association analysis with severity and acute exacerbation of COPD during the 1-year follow-up.Results: The mean age of patients enrolled in the study was 69.2±8.8 years, with 93.2% being male. Positive RFS (>7 and RSI (>13 were observed in 51 (42.5% and six patients (5.0%, respectively. RFS and RSI were significantly higher in patients with COPD than in normal, healthy patients (P<0.001. RFS was significantly correlated with residual volume/total lung capacity (%, P=0.048. Scores for diffuse laryngeal edema, erythema, and hyperemia were significantly higher in the high-risk group (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease classification C and D; P=0.025 and P=0.049, respectively, while RSI was significantly

  10. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  11. Frequency, types, and potential clinical significance of medication-dispensing errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Bohand

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Many dispensing errors occur in the hospital, and these can endanger patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the rate of dispensing errors by a unit dose drug dispensing system, to categorize the most frequent types of errors, and to evaluate their potential clinical significance. METHODS: A prospective study using a direct observation method to detect medication-dispensing errors was used. From March 2007 to April 2007, "errors detected by pharmacists" and "errors detected by nurses" were recorded under six categories: unauthorized drug, incorrect form of drug, improper dose, omission, incorrect time, and deteriorated drug errors. The potential clinical significance of the "errors detected by nurses" was evaluated. RESULTS: Among the 734 filled medication cassettes, 179 errors were detected corresponding to a total of 7249 correctly fulfilled and omitted unit doses. An overall error rate of 2.5% was found. Errors detected by pharmacists and nurses represented 155 (86.6% and 24 (13.4% of the 179 errors, respectively. The most frequent types of errors were improper dose (n = 57, 31.8% and omission (n = 54, 30.2%. Nearly 45% of the 24 errors detected by nurses had the potential to cause a significant (n = 7, 29.2% or serious (n = 4, 16.6% adverse drug event. CONCLUSIONS: Even if none of the errors reached the patients in this study, a 2.5% error rate indicates the need for improving the unit dose drug-dispensing system. Furthermore, it is almost certain that this study failed to detect some medication errors, further arguing for strategies to prevent their recurrence.

  12. Dehydroepiandrosterone biosynthesis, metabolism, biological effects, and clinical use (analytical review

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    N. P. Goncharov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the fundamental information on the metabolism of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, its biological role and possibilities of its use for replacement therapy. There were studied species differences in the synthesis of DHEA in the adrenal cortex. It was found that DHEA and DHEA-sulfate are produced only by the adrenal glands of humans and monkeys, including lower monkeys. Their biosynthesis involves the following steps: cholesterol → pregnenolone → 17-hydroxypregnenolone → DHEA. The adrenal glands of other species, including rats and mice do not synthesize DHEA. At the same time, in certain brain structures not only in man and monkey, but also in other animals DHEA and its precursors are synthesized de novo which are denoted as neurosteroids. It was demonstrated that Purkinje cells which play an important role in memory formation and learning are mainly place neurosteroid formation in mammals and other vertebrates. To establish the relationship of age and the level of DHEA and other steroids we studied the dynamics of their levels at different periods of postnatal development of people. Peak concentration DHEA observed in aged 25–30 years. In the interval from 20 to 90 years in humans the level falls approximately for 90 %. Cortisol levels in blood does not vary with age, leading to an imbalance in the ratio of cortisol/DHEA. Proved a major role of DHEA as a source (precursor for the synthesis of biologically active sex steroids – testosterone, estradiol and estrone in peripheral tissues. This review presents the bioavailability of DHEA in various physiological and pathological processes in humans and animals. In animal experiments has shown a higher bioavailability of DHEA in transdermal administration as compared with oral administration as in this case there is no steroid rapid inactivation in the liver during its first passage. According to recent studies there is a pronounced dependence of bioavailability of DHEA

  13. [General introduction to clinical chronobiology and the therapeutic manipulation of biological rhythms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carpio, Pere A; Corominas, August

    2004-07-10

    In humans, most clinical variables follow biological rhythms approaching to a mathematical function defined by the cosmic-climatic rhythm. Chronophysiology, chronopathology, chronopharmacology, chronotherapy and phototherapy have common elements frequently studied in a disperse manner, thus making it difficult a global understanding of clinical chronobiology as a unitary and well-characterized discipline. This review focuses on medical chronobiology, which is much more technical since it only gathers those directives of clinical chronobiology having a health-care impact on daily practice.

  14. Rapid biological oxidation of methanol in the tropical Atlantic: significance as a microbial carbon source

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    J. L. Dixon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Methanol is the second most abundant organic gas in the atmosphere after methane, and is ubiquitous in the troposphere. It plays a significant role in atmospheric oxidant chemistry and is biogeochemically active. Large uncertainties exist about whether the oceans are a source or sink of methanol to the atmosphere. Even less is understood about what reactions in seawater determine its concentration, and hence flux across the sea surface interface. We report here concentrations of methanol up to 300 nM, with corresponding microbial uptake rates between 2–146 nM d−1, suggesting turnover times as low as 1 day in surface waters of the oligotrophic tropical North East Atlantic. Comparisons with parallel determinations of bacterial leucine uptake suggest that methanol contributes on average 13% to bacterial carbon demand in the central northern Atlantic gyre (maximum of 54%. However, our low air to sea methanol flux estimates of 7.2–13 μmol m−2 d−1 suggest that the atmosphere is not a major source. We conclude that there must be a major, as yet unidentified, in situ oceanic methanol source in these latitudes which we suggest is sunlight driven decomposition of organic matter.

  15. [Refsum's disease. Epidemiologic, clinical and biological correlation. 6 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, H; Leys, D; Skjeldal, O H; Caron, J C; Lambert, P; Lehembre, P; Hache, J C

    1986-01-01

    Nine patients with symptoms and signs of Refsum's disease are reported. In 6 a systemic accumulation of phytanic acid was demonstrated, together with low phytanic acid oxidase activity in skin fibroblasts in 5 of them. In 3, no disorder of phytanic acid metabolism was demonstrated. In 3, the diagnosis was made during the pre-clinical period. The disease seems more frequent in Northern France, which agrees with the hypothesis of a genetic mutation which would have taken place in Scandinavia some centuries ago and was subsequently spread by the Vikings. The effects of a dietary treatment on serum phytanic acid levels and clinical disorders are reported. The general condition of the patients improved remarkably but only partially. The diet is unpalatable and in some patients the level of serum phytanic acid increased, due to the mobilization of body fat. Patients with very high levels of phytanic acid might be initially treated by plasmapheresis. For the same reason, the diet should supply enough calories to keep body weight unchanged, and body weight loss whatever its cause should be avoided.

  16. Mutation and clinical significance of c-fms oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance and relationshipbetween c-fms oncogene and hepatocellular carcinogenesis, to further clarify the occurring mechanism of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: PCR-SSCP technique was used to analyse mutation of c-fms oncogene in 30 cases of HCC tissues. Sequencing the PCR products after cloning to prove the mutations, meanwhile the relationship between c-fms mutations and clinical pathology of HCC was investigated. Results: Two abnormal single strands were observed in l0% (3/30) HCC tissues from c-fms DNA corres-ponding to 301st codon of c-fms amino acids. PCR products of abnormal single strands were sequenced after cloning, it demonstrated that there was transition of T? C at nucleic acid 14855 of c-fms DNA, which corresponded to transition of Leu (TTG)? Ser (TCG) at 301st codon of c-fms amino acids. The mutation was related to malignant degree and type of HCC tissues as well as patient's age. Conclusion: Mutation of c-fms codon at site 301 implied a molecular mechanism contributing to hepatocellular carcinogenesis.

  17. Clinically Significant Minor Blood Group Antigens amongst North Indian Donor Population

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    Divjot Singh Lamba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Racial differences in blood group antigen distribution are common and may result in striking and interesting findings. These differences in blood group antigen distribution are important due to their influence on the clinical practice of transfusion medicine. Study Design and Methods. This is a prospective study, involving 1000 healthy regular repeat voluntary blood donors associated with the department. The clinically significant minor blood group antigens of these donors were studied. Results. Out of 1000 healthy regular repeat voluntary blood donors, 93% were D positive and 2.8% were K positive. Amongst the Rh antigens, e was the most common (99%, followed by D (93%, C (85.1%, c (62.3%, and E (21.5%. Within the MNS blood group system, antigen frequency was M (88%, N (57.5%, S (57.8%, and s (87.5%. Within the Duffy blood group system, antigen frequency was Fya (87.3% and Fyb (58.3%. Conclusions. This data base will help us to prevent alloimmunisation in young females, pregnant women, and patients who are expected to require repeated transfusions in life by providing them with antigen matched blood. Antigen negative blood can also be made available without delay to already alloimmunized multitransfused patients.

  18. Clinical significance of hepatic artery variations originating from the superior mesenteric artery in abdominal tumor surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yuan; LIU Chao; LIN Jin-ling

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatic artery variations are frequent clinical occurrences.The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristic course of variant hepatic arteries originating from the superior mesenteric artery for the purpose of providing instructions for abdominal tumor surgery.Methods The course of variant hepatic arteries originating from the superior mesenteric artery was studied in 400 patients with liver cancer confirmed by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and multi-slice spiral computed tomography angiography (MSCTA),and 86 patients with gastric cancer confirmed by preoperative MSCTA between June 2008 and June 2010 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University.Results Hepatic artery variations originating from the superior mesenteric artery were noticed in 49 liver cancer patients and 14 gastric cancer patients (total 63 cases),with a variation rate of 12.96%,including two cases (3.17%) where the hepatic arteries ran along the anterior pancreas,and 61 cases (96.83%) where the hepatic arteries ran along the posterior pancreas.Conclusions Hepatic artery variations originating from the superior mesenteric artery present as two types:the pre-pancreas type and the post-pancreas type with the latter predominating.This finding is of clinical significance in abdominal tumor surgeries where clearance of portal lymph nodes is needed.

  19. Clinical significance of sleep bruxism on several occlusal and functional parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ommerborn, Michelle A; Giraki, Maria; Schneider, Christine; Fuck, Lars Michael; Zimmer, Stefan; Franz, Matthias; Raab, Wolfgang Hans-michael; Schaefer, Ralf

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between various functional and occlusal parameters and sleep bruxism. Thirty-nine (39) sleep bruxism patients and 30 controls participated in this investigation. The assessment of sleep bruxism was performed using the Bruxcore Bruxism-Monitoring Device (BBMD) combined with a new computer-based analyzing method. Sixteen functional and/or occlusal parameters were recorded. With a mean slide of 0.95 mm in the sleep bruxism group and a mean slide of 0.42 mm in the control group (Mann Whitney U test; p<0.003), results solely demonstrated a significant group difference regarding the length of a slide from centric occlusion to maximum intercuspation. The results suggest that the slightly pronounced slide could be of clinical importance in the development of increased wear facets in patients with current sleep bruxism activity. Following further evaluation including polysomnographic recordings, the BBMD combined with this new analyzing technique seems to be a clinically feasible instrument that allows the practitioner to quantify abrasion over a short period. PMID:21032978

  20. The Mechanism of Resistance of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa to β-lactam Antibiotics and Clinical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋建新; 阮秋蓉; 齐俊英; 高美英; 王以光

    2002-01-01

    Summary: To study the resistant mechanism and clinical significance of pseudomonas aeruginosato β-lactam antibiotics, the outer membrane permeability rate of 30 P. aeruginosa strains to 5 β-lactam antibiotics was measured and their production of β-lactamase and the β-lactamase genes theycarried detected. Furthermore, the relationship between the permeability, β-lactamase and theclinical effects of β-lactam antibiotics was observed. By using 14C-penicillin and liquid-scintillantisotope assay, the affinity of penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) was measured and their roles inthe resistant mechanism studied. It was revealed that the permeability rate was higher in sensitivestrains than in resistant ones (P<0. 05). All strains harbored 1-4 β-lactamase genes and producedβ-lactamase. Higher permeability rate and higher degree of stability to β-lactamase indicated betterclinical therapeutic effects. The affinity of PBPs changed little without regard to the permeabilityand β-lactamase. These results suggested that the permeability of outer membrane and β-lacta-mase, but not PBPs, played important roles in the resistant mechanism of P. aeruginosa to β-lac-tam antibiotics and affected the clinical therapeutic effectiveness of some patients.

  1. Clinical Significance of Lymphoscintigraphy Findings in the Evaluation of Lower Extremity Lymphedema

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    Seyhan Karaçavuş

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of lymphoscintigraphy imaging in the evaluation of lower extremity lymphedema. Methods: Technetium-99m-labeled nanocolloid was injected subcutaneously in the first web spaces of both feet of 123 patients (M/F: 43/80, mean age 57.5±13.1 years, range 16-78 years who had clinical evidence of lower extremity swelling with suspicion of lymphedema, and were referred for routine lymphoscintigraphy. Lymphoscintigraphy scan was started as dynamic viewing followed by static whole body imaging at 10 minute, 1 hour and 4 hours after injection. Results: Eighty-seven patients had lymphedema. Patients who had lymphedema were divided into two groups according to their scintigraphy findings: Group I included 58 patients without uptake in the popliteal nodes, and group II included 29 patients with positive popliteal nodes. The rate of popliteal node visualization was higher in patients with dermal backflow as compared to those without dermal backflow (p<0.001. The duration of lymphedema was also longer in patients with dermal backflow and popliteal nodes (p<0.004. Conclusion: Lymphoscintigraphy is a reliable, easily applied and well-tolerated objective method to diagnose lower extremity lymphedema. Uptake by popliteal lymph nodes and the presence of dermal backflow on lymphoscintigraphy, which is performed for evaluation of the lower limb lymphedema, were important signs indicating longer disease duration and higher severity of lymphatic dysfunction.

  2. Expression of growth hormone and its receptor in chronic atrophic gastritis and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Min Si; Qian Cao; Min Gao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the growth hormone (GH) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) expression of and its clinical significance in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG).METHODS:A total of 90 cases were enrolled in the study.Thirty were healthy controls,the other 60 patients were divided into two groups according to the endoscopical and histological diagnosis.Blood samples were drawn in the morning (menarche did not occur during the blood extraction in female patients),gastric mucosa was obtained by endoscopy.Serum GH and gastrice mucosal GHR levels were measured using radioimmunoassay (RIA) and En Vinsion technique.RESULTS:The average GH level was 1.021±0.132μ/L in CAG patients,in controls it was 2.869 0.512μ/L.There was a significant difference between these two groups(P<0.01).The positive rate of GHR in CAG patients was 10%,in controls the rate was 100%.There was a significant difference (P<0.01).There was no significant change of GH level (3.176±0.421μ/L) in patients with gastric carcinoma compared with controls (P>0.05).CONCLUSION:The study shows that levels of GH and GHR expression are low in CAG patients.CAG pathogenesis has a correlation with mucosal nutrient deficiency,decreased levels of GH and GHR have an adverse effect on the repair and regeneration of CAG.There is no significant change of GH in gastric carcinorma patients,GH dose not play a role in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer.

  3. Change in sleep construction and its clinical significance in patients with epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao zhongxin; Dong Xiaoli; Wu Weihua; Shao Fuyuan; Dong Shuzhen

    2000-01-01

    ObjectiveAnalyzing change of sleep construction and its clinical significance in patients with epilepsy Methods The 24h ambulatory EEGs(AEEG) during interictal were monitored in 58 patients with epilepsy and control group (58 normal persons). Results 1. The sleep period tiae and time of REM (rapid eye movement sleep)were no marked difference between the epilepsy and control groups, 479.98±67. 4 min in epilepsy, 496. 33±57.62 min in control. 2. In coaparison with those of the control, the epilepsy group showed that the NREM ( non rapid eye movement sleep) stage Ⅰ- Ⅱ was longer(68±6.61% and 56.33±7.01 % respectively), the NREM stage Ⅲ-Ⅳ was shorter (7. 03±5. 41% and 18.42±6. 94 % respectively) . There were a significance difference between the two groups (P<0。 01) . 3. The arousal times (268 times) in epilepsy were higher than those (15 times) of the control (P<0.01). 4. The results of correlated analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the arousal times and the frequency of epileptifora discharges in epilepsy (r=0.639, P<0. 01). 5. The sleep spindles in 12 patients (21%) decreased and asymmetrical, normal in the control. Conclusion: There were the sleep disorders in patients with epilepsy . The epileptic activity during interictal can obvious influences on sleep quality in patients with epilepsy.

  4. Clinical Significance of Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content in the Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency Anemia

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    Mustafa Karagülle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia (IDA and to compare it with other conventional iron parameters. METHODS: A total of 32 female patients with IDA (serum hemoglobin 120 g/L and serum ferritin <20 ng/mL were enrolled. RESULTS: CHr was 24.95±3.92 pg in female patients with IDA and 29.93±2.96 pg in female patients with iron deficiency. CHr showed a significant positive correlation with hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, serum iron, and transferrin saturation and a significant negative correlation with transferrin and total iron-binding capacity. The cut-off value of CHr for detecting IDA was 29 pg. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that CHr is a useful parameter that can be confidently used in the diagnosis of IDA, and a CHr cut-off value of 29 pg predicts IDA.

  5. Mad2 and p27 expression profiles in colorectal cancer and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang-Qiang Li; Hong-Fu Zhang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of tumor suppressor gene p27 and spindle checkpoint gene Mad2 and to demonstrate their expression difference in colorectal cancerand normal mucosa and to evaluate its clinical significance.METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining was used for detection of expression of Mad2 and p27in colorectal cancer and its corresponding normal mucosa.RESULTS: Mad2 was significantly overexpressed in colorectal cancer compared with corresponding normal mucosa (P<0.01, χ2= 7.5), and it was related to the differentiation of adenocarcinoma, lymph node metastasis and survival period after excision (P<0.05, χ2 = 7.72, χ2 = 4.302,χ2= 6.234). The rate of p27 positive expression in adenocarcinomas and normal mucosa was 40% and 80%respectively. There was a significant difference in p27expression between adenocarcinomas and normal mucosa (P<0.001, χ2 = 13.333), which was related to the differentiation degree of adenoca rcinoma and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05, χ2 = 8.901 χ2 = 4). The positive expression of p27was not correlated with survival period after excision.CONCLUSION: Defect of spindle checkpoint gene Mad2and mutation of p27 gene are involved mainly in colorectal carcinogenesis and associated with prognosis of colorectal cancer.

  6. QT Dispersion Level and Its Clinical Significance.in Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical significance of QT dis persion (QTd, QTcd) in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Methods QTd and QTcd were measured on simultaneously recording 12-lead electrocardiograms ( ECGs) in 60 DCM patients and cormpared with 60 healthy subjects. Results The values of QTd and QTcd in DCM were significantly higher than those in control group ( P < 0. 01 ). With subgroup analysis, QTd and QTcd in patients uith cardiac sudden death (CSD) were longer than those in survivors and those died of progressive heart failure ( P < 0. 05), patients with ventricular tachycardia (VT) or with severe heart failure than those without (compared uith patients with ventricular premature beats [V PB], P<0.05, compared with patients without ventricular arrhythmia [VA], P<0. 01) or with mild heart failure (P<0. 01). The values of QTd and QTcd in patients with VPB were greater than those in patients without VA( P< 0. 05). There were significant differences in the rates of VT, CSD and heart failure between the groups of QTd> 110 ms and QTd≤110 ms(P<0. 01 or P<0.05), in contrast to ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS)( P>0.05). Conclusion The values of QTd and QTcd increased in DCM patients were susceptive index for monitoring maligant VA in DCM, also important prognostic markers of CSD. QTd was correlated with NY HA functional class but not with EF and FS.

  7. Significance of Evidence-based Medicine in the Assessment of Chinese Medicine Clinical Efficacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji-yao

    2010-01-01

    @@ Evidence-based medicine (EBM) requires the integration of the best research evidence with our clinical expertise and our patient's unique values and circumstances.The best evidence is valid and clinically relevant,especially from patient-centered clinical research.The clinical expertise means the ability to use our clinical skills and past experiences to rapidly identify each patient's unique health state and diagnosis,their individual risks,and the benefits of interventions (1)..

  8. Clinical significance of elevated serum and urine amylase levels in patients with appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swensson, E E; Maull, K I

    1981-12-01

    During the 45 month period beginning January 1977, 251 patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of acute appendicitis underwent celiotomy at the Medical College of Virginia Hospital. A preoperative serum or urine amylase determination was recorded in 155 of the patients (62 percent). Of this group, 15 patients (10 percent) had elevation of serum amylase or 2 hour urine amylase. Hyperamylasemia or hyperamylasuria directly led to misdiagnosis or treatment delay in 5 of the 15 patients. Appendiceal rupture occurred in three patients, two of whom had prolonged (greater than 1 month) hospitalizations directly attributable to the misdiagnosis. As a result of this study, we conclude that (1) acute appendicitis and elevated amylase levels may occur concurrently, (2) hyperamylasemia or hyperamylasuria should not dissuade the surgeon from early operation if other clinical features suggest appendicitis, and (3) abdominal pain and elevation of amylase level define significant intraabdominal disease, not specifically pancreatic disease.

  9. Clinical Significance of Monitoring Serum β-HCG in the Conservative Treatment of Ectopic Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the clinical value of the serum β-HCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin) in the conservative treatment of ectopic pregnancy, the serum β-HCG levels in 118 patients with ectopic pregnancy were measured with RIA. The results showed that the serum β-HCG levels in patients with successful conservative treatment of ectopic pregnancy were all less than 200mIU/mL. The patients require a surgical treatment to reach <200mIU/mL serum β-HCG concentration were only 26.3%. There was significant difference between two groups (P<0.01). The monitoring of serum β-HCG was very useful in the diagnosis, the choice of treatment measures and the evaluation of conservative treatment effect of ectopic pregnancy. In the course of treatment of ectopic pregnancy, serum β-HCG is a good marker in determining the success or failure of treatment. (authors)

  10. CT value analysis and clinical significance before and after percutaneous lumbar discectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雷; 裴福兴; 宋跃明; 沈彬; 周宗科; 宋文锴; 张聪

    2002-01-01

    To provide theoretical basis for effect and mechanism of percutaneous lumbar discectomy in clinic. Methods: A total of 180 patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation were evaluated by CT on the fifth day before and after operation. Meanwhile, CT value was measured in the determined level and region. Results: After operation, CT value of the central and posterior determined point of herniated intervertebral disc was lower significantly than that before operation (P<0.01), but CT value of the anterior determined point was different insignificantly. The excellent and good results of the patients together were 83% postoperatively. Conclusions: The curative effect of percutaneous lumbar discectomy is achieved through reduction of lumbar intradiscal pressure.

  11. Clinical significance of elevated serum and urine amylase levels in patients with appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swensson, E E; Maull, K I

    1981-12-01

    During the 45 month period beginning January 1977, 251 patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of acute appendicitis underwent celiotomy at the Medical College of Virginia Hospital. A preoperative serum or urine amylase determination was recorded in 155 of the patients (62 percent). Of this group, 15 patients (10 percent) had elevation of serum amylase or 2 hour urine amylase. Hyperamylasemia or hyperamylasuria directly led to misdiagnosis or treatment delay in 5 of the 15 patients. Appendiceal rupture occurred in three patients, two of whom had prolonged (greater than 1 month) hospitalizations directly attributable to the misdiagnosis. As a result of this study, we conclude that (1) acute appendicitis and elevated amylase levels may occur concurrently, (2) hyperamylasemia or hyperamylasuria should not dissuade the surgeon from early operation if other clinical features suggest appendicitis, and (3) abdominal pain and elevation of amylase level define significant intraabdominal disease, not specifically pancreatic disease. PMID:6172043

  12. Prognostic Significance of Lymphovascular Invasion in Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer after Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Ertoy Baydar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether lymphovascular invasion (LVI is an independent prognostic factor in prostate cancer is still controversial. We retrospectively investigated its predictive role in disease progression following radical prostatectomy. The histological sections of radical prostatectomies from 71 clinically localized, prostatic adenocarcinoma patients were reviewed for LVI. Pre- and postoperative follow-up data were collected. LVI was identified in 15.5% of cases. Univariate analysis showed a significant association between LVI and advanced pathological stage, higher Gleason score, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension, seminal vesicle invasion, and lymph node metastasis (each p < 0.05. Multivariate analyses pointed to vascular involvement as a strong and independent predictor for PSA failure (p = 0.023, and reduced biochemical progression-free survival (p = 0.019. LVI in radical prostatectomy is an adverse prognostic finding that must be recorded in the pathology report.

  13. Cystitis: From Urothelial Cell Biology to Clinical Applications

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    Gilho Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystitis is a urinary bladder disease with many causes and symptoms. The severity of cystitis ranges from mild lower abdominal discomfort to life-threatening haemorrhagic cystitis. The course of disease is often chronic or recurrent. Although cystitis represents huge economical and medical burden throughout the world and in many cases treatments are ineffective, the mechanisms of its origin and development as well as measures for effective treatment are still poorly understood. However, many studies have demonstrated that urothelial dysfunction plays a crucial role. In the present review we first discuss fundamental issues of urothelial cell biology, which is the core for comprehension of cystitis. Then we focus on many forms of cystitis, its current treatments, and advances in its research. Additionally we review haemorrhagic cystitis with one of the leading causative agents being chemotherapeutic drug cyclophosphamide and summarise its management strategies. At the end we describe an excellent and widely used animal model of cyclophosphamide induced cystitis, which gives researches the opportunity to get a better insight into the mechanisms involved and possibility to develop new therapy approaches.

  14. The new biology of cancer: future clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbro, J W

    1989-06-01

    Our recognition that cancer evolves by clonal selection and that the basis for this selection is the growth advantage provided by the inappropriate expression or suppression of genes present in all normal cells allows us to anticipate that the pathways of this evolutionary process may be discovered. If a finite number of such pathways exist with some commonality between various tumors, there is the possibility to anticipate the mechanisms that cell clones might use for both carcinogenesis and tumor progression and to deal with evolving clones before their survival potential becomes overwhelming. As our biochemical understanding increases we may develop the capability to do the following: to identify individuals who have inherited or acquired defective cancer suppressor genes; to identify precursor lesions more exactly; to characterize the degree of progression of a newly diagnosed tumor (has the metastatic phenotype evolved?); to develop antibodies against cell membrane proteins necessary to tumor progression; to produce immune probes that carry cytotoxins or isotopes to specific cell populations; and to take advantage of cell signals to modify tumor growth. The potential for application of the New Biology to cancer medicine seems endless.

  15. Targeting cancer epigenetics: Linking basic biology to clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinjo, Keiko; Kondo, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies provide compelling evidence that epigenetic dysregulation is involved in almost every step of tumor development and progression. Differences in tumor behavior, which ultimately reflects clinical outcome, can be explained by variations in gene expression patterns generated by epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation. Therefore, epigenetic abnormalities are considered potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets. DNA methylation is stable at certain specific loci in cancer cells and predominantly reflects the characteristic clinicopathological features. Thus, it is an ideal biomarker for cancer screening, classification and prognostic purposes. Epigenetic treatment for cancers is based on the pharmacologic targeting of various core transcriptional programs that sustains cancer cell identity. Therefore, targeting aberrant epigenetic modifiers may be effective for multiple processes compared with using a selective inhibitor of aberrant single signaling pathway. This review provides an overview of the epigenetic alterations in human cancers and discusses about novel therapeutic strategies targeting epigenetic alterations.

  16. In-111-labeled leukocyte brain SPECT imaging. Clinical significance in evaluating acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many experimental studies have demonstrated that leukocyte infiltration plays an important role in the progression of ischemic cellular damage or post perfusion brain injury. However, only a few clinical studies have been reported. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of leukocyte accumulation in the ischemic brain tissue. Seventy six patients (49 men, 27 women; mean age: 65.5±13.9 years) with acute ischemic stroke were studied by leukocyte brain SPECT imaging. A diagnosis included cardioembolism (n=46), atherothrombotic infarction (n=24), TIA (n=3) and lacuna (n=3). Immediately after the CBF study using Tc-99m-ECD (600 MBq), indium-111-labeled autologous leukocytes were injected. A brain scan for leukocytes was performed 48 hours later. The leukocyte-SPECT study was made 11.1±7.7 days after the onset of stroke. Regional accumulation of leukocytes in the ischemic tissue was evaluated both by visual assessment and by measuring the hemispheric asymmetry index for leukocyte (AI-leuko), and was evaluated by comparison with variable factors including age, gender, infarction size, hemorrhagic transformation, timing of study after the onset, type of stroke and functional outcome. Of the 61 patients with acute ischemic stroke within 2 weeks of onset, 28 patients showed the accumulation of leukocytes in the central zone of ischemia. Six of 7 patients with repeated studies showed a reduction in leukocyte accumulation with time after the onset. Factors significantly associated with the higher accumulation of leukocyte included cardioembolic stroke, larger size of infarct, presence of hemorrhagic transformation and significant reduction in flow. In the 61 patients within 2 weeks of onset, the functional outcome was significantly correlated with the accumulation of leukocyte (p<0.001). The accumulation of leukocytes was seen more in patients with embolic stroke, larger infarction, and hemorrhagic transformation. The higher accumulation correlated

  17. In-111-labeled leukocyte brain SPECT imaging. Clinical significance in evaluating acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinuma, Kunihiko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-02-01

    Many experimental studies have demonstrated that leukocyte infiltration plays an important role in the progression of ischemic cellular damage or post perfusion brain injury. However, only a few clinical studies have been reported. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of leukocyte accumulation in the ischemic brain tissue. Seventy six patients (49 men, 27 women; mean age: 65.5{+-}13.9 years) with acute ischemic stroke were studied by leukocyte brain SPECT imaging. A diagnosis included cardioembolism (n=46), atherothrombotic infarction (n=24), TIA (n=3) and lacuna (n=3). Immediately after the CBF study using Tc-99m-ECD (600 MBq), indium-111-labeled autologous leukocytes were injected. A brain scan for leukocytes was performed 48 hours later. The leukocyte-SPECT study was made 11.1{+-}7.7 days after the onset of stroke. Regional accumulation of leukocytes in the ischemic tissue was evaluated both by visual assessment and by measuring the hemispheric asymmetry index for leukocyte (AI-leuko), and was evaluated by comparison with variable factors including age, gender, infarction size, hemorrhagic transformation, timing of study after the onset, type of stroke and functional outcome. Of the 61 patients with acute ischemic stroke within 2 weeks of onset, 28 patients showed the accumulation of leukocytes in the central zone of ischemia. Six of 7 patients with repeated studies showed a reduction in leukocyte accumulation with time after the onset. Factors significantly associated with the higher accumulation of leukocyte included cardioembolic stroke, larger size of infarct, presence of hemorrhagic transformation and significant reduction in flow. In the 61 patients within 2 weeks of onset, the functional outcome was significantly correlated with the accumulation of leukocyte (p<0.001). The accumulation of leukocytes was seen more in patients with embolic stroke, larger infarction, and hemorrhagic transformation. The higher accumulation

  18. Clinical Significance of Positive Pelvic Washings in Uterine Papillary Serous Carcinoma Confined to an Endometrial Polyp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Krisztina Z; Fadare, Oluwole; Fisher, Kevin E; Atkins, Kristen A; Mosunjac, Marina B

    2016-05-01

    Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) represents 10% of endometrial carcinomas. Significant number of patients initially present with extrauterine disease. The role of adjuvant treatment in low stage, especially polyp-confined UPSC is controversial. This multi-institutional study evaluated the significance of positive pelvic washing (PW) and adjuvant treatment on disease recurrence in a setting of endometrial polyp-confined UPSC. Surgical pathology files from 3 institutions were searched for cases of endometrial polyp-confined UPSC. Following histologic review, cases were clinically staged as Stage I, without myoinvasion or lymphovascular invasion. Clinicopathologic characteristics, results of PW, and type of adjuvant therapy were recorded. Statistical analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method for survival and Fisher exact test were performed. Thirty-three patients were included in the study. All patients were diagnosed with polyp-confined UPSC. The size of the polyp ranged from 0.3 to 4.3 cm. PW was positive for tumor cells in 8/33 (24%) patients. Twenty-two patients (66.6%) received some type of adjuvant treatment. Six patients (18%) developed recurrent disease. There was no significant difference in disease-free survival in the patients receiving adjuvant treatment versus not (P=0.375). However, there was significant association (P=0.0013) between positive PW and disease recurrence. Data are conflicting whether positive PW affects prognosis in low-stage endometrial carcinomas. Our study showed that in UPSC, malignant cells can be present in PW without lymphovascular invasion or myoinvasion and may have negative prognostic implication. Our data also reflect the controversies in the role of adjuvant treatment in endometrium-confined UPSC. PMID:26535985

  19. Reticulocyte production index as a predictor of clinically significant anemia in chronic hepatitis C patients receiving pegylated interferon combination therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Lei Yan

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Besides old age and low pretreatment hemoglobin level, our study showed that a reticulocyte production index < 0.9% at Week 4 was a significant factor associated with clinically significant anemia during pegylated interferon combination treatment.

  20. Clinical evaluation of the biological width following surgical crown-lengthening procedure: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the positional changes of the periodontal tissues, particularly the biological width, following surgical crown-lengthening in human subjects. Materials and Methods: A clinical trial study involving 15 patients was carried out for a period of 6 months. Sites were divided into 3 groups: treated (TT sites, adjacent (AD sites and nonadjacent (NAD sites. Free gingival margin [FGM], attachment level, pocket depth, bone level, biological width [BW] were recorded at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months. Direct bone level after flap reflection was recorded before and after osseous resection at baseline only. Level of osseous crest was lowered based on BW, and supracrestal tooth structure needed using a combination of rotary and hand instruments. Statistical Analysis: Student t test and ANOVA were used. Results: Overall, apical displacement of FGM at TT, AD and NAD sites was statistically significant compared to baseline. The apical displacement of FGM at TT site was more when compared to that at AD and NAD sites at 3 and 6 months. The BW at the TT site was smaller at 1, 3 and 6 months compared to that at baseline. However, at all sites, BW was reestablished to the baseline value at the end of 6 months. Interpretation and Conclusion: The BW at TT sites was reestablished to its original vertical dimension by 6 months. In addition, a consistent 2-mm gain of coronal tooth structure was observed at the 1, 3 and 6-month examinations.

  1. Clinical and Biological Risk Factors for Neuropsychological Impairment in Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Ludivine; Coulbault, Laurent; Lannuzel, Coralie; Boudehent, Céline; Segobin, Shailendra; Eustache, Francis; Vabret, François; Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The effects of alcoholism on cognitive and motor functioning are heterogeneous. While the role of some factors (patterns of alcohol consumption, eating habits or associated liver disease) has been hypothesized, the origins of this heterogeneity remain difficult to establish. The goals of the present study were thus to identify the clinical and biological risk factors for alcohol-related neuropsychological impairments and to determine the threshold beyond which these risk factors can be considered significant. Thirty alcoholic patients and 15 healthy controls had a blood test and underwent a neuropsychological examination. Alcohol severity measures, and liver, thiamine and malnutrition variables, were included in logistic regression models to determine the risk factors for cognitive and motor impairments (executive functions, visuospatial abilities, verbal episodic memory, ataxia), as well as those related to the severity of patients' overall neuropsychological profile (moderate or severe impairments). Liver fibrosis was found to be a risk factor for executive impairments and also for ataxia, when it was associated with long-term alcohol misuse and symptoms of withdrawal. Altered thiamine metabolism was solely predictive of verbal episodic memory impairments. This combination of biological abnormalities was associated with a profile of moderate neuropsychological impairments. Malnutrition was associated with a profile of more severe impairments. Malnutrition, altered liver function and thiamine metabolism explain, at least partially, the heterogeneity of alcohol-related neuropsychological impairments. Our findings could allow clinicians to identify patients at particular risk of severe neuropsychological impairments before the onset of irreversible and debilitating neurological complications. PMID:27617840

  2. Relationship between ultrasound elastography and myofibroblast distribution in breast cancer and its clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yi; Guo, Xia; Ma, Binlin; Zhu, Lin; Liu, Lisha

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between ultrasound elastography (USE) scoring and myofibroblast distribution with expression features of α-SMA +/CD34- in patients of Uyghur and Han ethnicities with breast masses in Xinjiang, China. The data was used to evaluate its clinical significance in the early diagnosis of breast cancer. A total of 300 patients with breast masses were included in the study, which involved conventional sonography and USE, with histopathologic diagnosis as the reference standard. Myofibroblast distribution was investigated by detecting the expression levels of α-SMA and CD34 in lesions using immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. Out of 300 lesions, 185 were histologically malignant and 115 benign. The mean elasticity score for malignant lesions was significantly higher than for benign lesions. The expression level of α-SMA was elevated while the expression level of CD34 was lower in malignancies, compared with benign lesions. The expression of α-SMA was positively associated with the USE scores, while a negative relationship was observed between CD34 expression and USE scoring. The combination of USE and molecular diagnosis provides a promising modality for the early diagnosis and evaluation of the risks in particular types of breast cancer. PMID:26846996

  3. Pulmonary spheral tuberculosis: features and clinical significance of spiral dynamic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the features and clinical significance of spiral dynamic CT in patients with pulmonary spheral tuberculosis. Methods: The 54 foci in 42 patients with pulmonary spheral tuberculosis were studied. Thin-sections at 2 mm thickness and 2 mm interval through the nodular center were obtained before and after administration of contrast material. Results: In 54 pulmonary spheral tuberculosis, maximum enhanced CT value in 51 (94.4%, 51/54) foci was less than 20 HU, and more than 20 HU in the other 3(5.6%, 3/54) foci. 27(50.0%, 27/54) foci showed no any enhancement, 24, (44%, 24/54) foci showed capsular enhancement, 1(1.9%, 1/54) focus showed peripheral enhancement and 2(3.7%, 2/54) foci showed extensive enhancement. The accuracy of the correct diagnosis was 25.9% in terms of plain CT and 94.4% in terms of enhanced CT scanning. The difference was significant (x2 = 50.1, P < 0.05). The curative effect of extensive enhanced foci and peripheral enhanced foci was optimal, capsular enhanced foci was second, and non-enhanced foci was barely satisfactory. Conclusion: Spiral dynamic CT technique may improve the accuracy of diagnosing pulmonary spheral tuberculosis. No enhancement and/or capsular enhancement were suggestive of tuberculosis. The enhancing character of foci might contribute to assess the curative effect of anti-tuberculosis

  4. Clinical significance of mucosal suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 expression in ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshihiro Miyanaka; Yoshitaka Ueno; Shinji Tanaka; Kyoko Yoshioka; Tsuyoshi Hatakeyama; Masaru Shimamoto; Masaharu Sumii; Kazuaki Chayama

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical significance of mucosal expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1)and SOCS3 in human ulcerative colitis (UC).METHODS: Biopsy specimens for histological analysis and mRNA detection were obtained endoscopically from the rectum of 62 patients with UC (36 men; age 13-76 years). The patients were classified endoscopically according to Matts' grade (grade 1 to 4). Expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 mRNAs was quantified in samples by competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). GAPDH was used as an internal control for efficiency of RT-PCR and amount of RNA.RESULTS: SOCS3 mRNA expression was significantly higher in inflamed mucosa of UC than in inactive mucosa.The level of expression was well correlated with the degree of both endoscopic and histologic inflammation.Interestingly, among the patients in remission, the group with relatively low expression of SOCS3 showed a higher rate of remission maintenance over a 12-mo period. In contrast, SOCS1 mRNA was expressed in both inflamed and non-inflamed colonic mucosa and was not correlated with the activity of colonic mucosa or prognosis.CONCLUSION: These observations suggest that increased expression of mucosal SOCS3, but not of SOCS1, may play a critical role in the development of the colonic inflammation of UC.

  5. Clinical significance of CT-defined minimal ascites in patients with gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Kyung Chang; Ji Won Kim; Byung Kwan Kim; Kook Lae Lee; Chi Sung Song; Joon Koo Han; In Sung Song

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the clinical significance of minimal ascites,which was only defined by the CT and whose nature was not determined preoperatively, in the relationship with the peritoneal carcinomatosis.METHODS: The medical records and the dynamic CT films of 118 patients with gastric cancer were reviewed.Factors associated with peritoneal carcinomatosis were analyzed in 40 patients who had CT-defined ascites of which the nature was surgically confirmed.RESULTS: Only 12.5-25% of the CT-defined minimal ascites, whose volume was estimated to be less than 50 mL, were associated with peritoneal carcinomatosis.When the estimated CT-defined ascitic volume was 50 mL or more, peritoneal carcinomatosis was identified in 75-100%. When CT-defined lymph node enlargements were not found beyond the regional gastric area,perigastricinvasions were not suspected, and the size of tumor was less than 3 cm, peritoneal carcinomatosis seemed significantly less accompanied at the univariate analysis. However, except for the minimal volume of CTdefined ascites in comparison with the mild or more,other factors were not confirmed multivariately.CONCLUSION: In the patients with gastric cancer, CTdefined minimal ascites alone is rarely associated with peritoneal carcinomatosis, if it does not accompany other signs suggestive of malignant seeding. Therefore,consideration of active curative resection should not be hesitated, if CT-defined minimal ascites is the only delusive sign.

  6. Expression of O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and its clinical significance in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiu-Chen; Wang, Yu-Hong; Lin, Yuan; Xue, Ling; Chen, Yuan-Jia; Chen, Min-Hu; Chen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is a widespread DNA repair enzyme defending against mutation caused by guanine O6-alkylating agents. Until now, we know only little about the expression of MGMT in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm (GEP-NEN). To study the expression of MGMT and its clinical significance in GEP-NEN, 174 specimens of GEP-NEN were examined, of which 152 specimens came from The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University during October 1995 to November 2013, 22 specimens came from Peking Union Medical College Hospital during September 2004 to April 2010. MGMT protein was detected with EnVision immunohistochemical staining method. Clinicopathological factors were also collected and analyzed. We observed that the overall expression rate of MGMT was 83.9%. Over expression of MGMT protein was not associated with sex, age, functional status, primary tumor location, grading, classification, TNM stage and metastasis (P > 0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in survival between MGMT-positive and MGMT-negative tumors of GEP-NEN patients (χ2 = 0.887, P = 0.346). In multivariate analyses carried out by Cox proportional hazards regression model, MGMT expression was also not an independent predictors of survival. These results demonstrated that MGMT protein was highly expressed in GEP-NEN. MGMT deficiency rate was similar in pancreatic NEN and in gastrointestinal NEN. MGMT expression was not correlated with prognosis of GEP-NEN. PMID:25120800

  7. THE CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE GENE (mdr1) EXPRESSION IN ACUTE LEUKEMIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Zuoren; Cong Bin; Luo Jianmin; Xu Wenxin; Wang Fuxu; Guo Xiaonan; Zhang Xuejun; Yao Ergu; Xu Shirong; Ren Jinhai

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of multidrug resistance gene expression in acute leukemia.Methods: The relationships between drug resistance of leukemia cells and prognosis, multidrug resistance gene (mdr1) were examined in 85 patients with acute leukemia and 20 normal controls by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: The mdr1 positive rate in untreated group was 44.7 %. The complete remission (CR) rate of mdr1 positive patients (23.9 %) was significantly lower than that of mdr1 negative patients(88.5 %) (P<0.005). The mdr1 expression level in relapsedrefractory group was higher than that of CR group. A gradually increased mdr1 mRNA level in CR patients indicated early relapse. Conclusion: The mdr1 positive rate in normal control and long-term survival patients was very low. The mdr1 expression was correlated with French-American-British Cooperative Group (FAB)classification. The mdr1 expression level was correlated with chemotherapeutic effect and prognosis. It is an unfavorable prognostic factor for patients with acute leukemia.

  8. Clinical significance of plasma mannose concentrations in healthy and diabetic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, A; Sato, T; Lee, P; Furuuchi, M; Tazaki, H; Katayama, K; Mizutani, H; Sako, T; Arai, T

    2009-06-01

    Circulating levels of monosaccharides can act as a reflection of systemic glucose/ energy metabolism. Characteristic changes observed in these levels can be seen in patients with diabetes and other metabolic disorders. There have been a few reports describing the significance of mannose metabolism as an energy source under physiological and pathological conditions. However, the relationship between circulating levels of mannose and the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus are unknown in dogs. This study examined circulating levels of mannose between healthy control and diabetic dogs and evaluated the clinical significance of mannose levels in dogs. Diabetic dogs demonstrated a higher circulating level of mannose in comparison to normal healthy control dogs. Plasma mannose was positively correlated with plasma glucose and fructosamine, respectively. Interestingly, plasma mannose levels were affected by plasma insulin levels. In the context of feeding and glucose tolerance tests, plasma mannose levels responded to changes in circulating insulin levels. Circulating plasma mannose levels decreased after feeding in both control and diabetic animals in spite of observed insulin level differences. However, when glucose tolerance tests were given, a positive correlation between mannose levels and insulin levels was observed. Therefore, plasma mannose levels obtained via glucose tolerance testing may be used as a new diagnostic method for evaluating insulin resistance or deficiency in diabetic dogs.

  9. KAI1 gene expression in colonic carcinoma and its clinical significances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Hua Wu; Li Liu; Long-Hua Chen; Yan-Qing Ding

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate KAI1 gene expression in the progression of human colonic carcinoma and its clinical significances.METHODS: KAI1 expression was detected by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in the 4 established cell lines of colorectal carcinoma with different metastatic potentials, and in 80 specimens of colonic carcinoma, 21 colonic carcinoma specimens with lymphatic metastasis and 20 controls of normal colonic mucosa.RESULTS: The expressions of KAI1 in HT29 and SW480 cell lines were higher than those in LoVo and SW620. The expression of KAI1 gene was significantly higher in colorectal carcinoma compared with normal colonic mucosa and lymphatic metastasis (X2=46.838, P<0.01). The expression of KAI1 gene had no relationship with histological grade.The KAI1 expressions in Dukes A and B carcinoma were higher at both mRNA and protein levels compared to Dukes C carcinoma (X2=16.061, P<0.05). The expression of KAI1 in colonic carcinoma specimens with lymphatic metastasis was almost lost. The results of in situ hybridization were in concordance with immunohistochemistry.CONCLUSION: KAI1 is highly related to the metastasis of colonic carcinoma and may be a useful indicator of metastasis in colonic carcinoma.

  10. Detection of Anticardiolipin Antibody in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Its Clinical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANGHong; XUShizheng; 等

    2002-01-01

    Obuective To determine the frequency and the clinical significance of anticardiolipin antibodies(ACA) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE). Methods The serum ACA in 30 patients with SLE and 30 sera from healthy volunteers was detected by the enzyme linked immunosorbend assay(ELISA). Results In normal group the binding index(BI)of IgG,IgM and IgA type of ACA was 1.48±0.43,1.46±0.43,1.00±0.33 respec-tively .In SLE groups the BI of IgG-ACA, IgA-ACA was 3.04±1.25,3.07±1.61,1.96±1.05 respectively with the differ-ences being significant(P<0.05).ACA had relations with part ofclinical manifestations such as blood vessel inflammation,thrombocy-topenia,renal lesions,Raynaud's phenomenon,damage of nerve center system and alboratory noms as low complement C3.There were linear correlation between ANA and IgG-ACA or IgM-ACA with r=0.912,0.870,0.758 respectively,all P<0.01.Conclusio ACA could be used as a marker to evaluate the activity of SLE.

  11. Low levels of C-peptide have clinical significance for established Type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhtreiber, W. M.; Washer, S. L. L.; Hsu, E.; Zhao, M.; Reinhold, P.; Burger, D.; Zheng, H.; Faustman, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To determine whether the low C-peptide levels (diabetes have clinical significance. Methods We evaluated fasting C-peptide levels, duration of disease and age of onset in a large cross-sectional series (n=1272) of people with Type 1 diabetes. We then expanded the scope of the study to include the relationship between C-peptide and HbA1c control (n=1273), as well as diabetic complications (n=324) and presence of hypoglycaemia (n=323). The full range of C-peptide levels was also compared with 1,5-Anhydroglucitol, a glucose responsive marker. Results C-peptide levels declined for decades after diagnosis, and the rate of decline was significantly related to age of onset (P 10 pmol/l were associated with protection from complications (e.g. nephropathy, neuropathy, foot ulcers and retinopathy; P=0.03). Low C-peptide levels were associated with poor metabolic control measured by HbA1c (Pdiabetes. PMID:26172028

  12. LMNA cardiomyopathy: cell biology and genetics meet clinical medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan T. Lu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes A-type nuclear lamins (intermediate filament proteins expressed in most differentiated somatic cells, cause a diverse range of diseases, called laminopathies, that selectively affect different tissues and organ systems. The most prevalent laminopathy is cardiomyopathy with or without different types of skeletal muscular dystrophy. LMNA cardiomyopathy has an aggressive clinical course with higher rates of deadly arrhythmias and heart failure than most other heart diseases. As awareness among physicians increases, and advances in DNA sequencing methods make the genetic diagnosis of LMNA cardiomyopathy more common, cardiologists are being faced with difficult questions regarding patient management. These questions concern the optimal use of intracardiac cardioverter defibrillators to prevent sudden death from arrhythmias, and medical interventions to prevent heart damage and ameliorate heart failure symptoms. Data from a mouse model of LMNA cardiomyopathy suggest that inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways are beneficial in preventing and treating cardiac dysfunction; this basic research discovery needs to be translated to human patients.

  13. The clinical significance of Epitrochlear lymphadenopathy on elbow radiographs in rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Bae Ju; Joo, Kyung Bin; Lee, Hak Soo; Song, Ho Taek; Park, Dong Woo; Lee, Seung Ro; Hahm, Chang Kok [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    To evaluate the radiographic findings of epitrochlear lymphadenopathy with regard to the distribution and severity of the disease and clinal parameters in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Forty six patients with rheumatoid arthritis in whom epitrochlear oval-shaped densities were seen on radiographs were involved in this study. There were 14 cases of unilateral epitrochlear lymphadenopathy in which bilateral arthritic evidence was revealed by radiographs (mixed group), and 32 of bilateral lymphadenopathy in which there was arthritic evidence (positive group). Twenty-three patients in whom lymphadenopathy was not seen on radiographs of the elbow and who were diagnosed as suffering from rheumatoid arthritis functioned as controls (negative group).For scoring the degree of arthritis using the simplified scoring method proposed by Kaye et al., joints were divided into six groups, as follows: Joint 1, elbow; Joint 2, wrist; Joint 3, radial (1st and 2nd) PIP and MCP; Joint 4, ulnar (3rd, 4th, 5th) PIP and MCP; Joint 5, Joints 1 + 2+ 3 + 4; Joint 6, Joints 1 + 4. For each joint, scores were compared with those on the contralateral side in the mixed group. Differences in clinical parameters ( disease duration, rheumatoid factor, ESR, and CRP), and scores for each joint in each arm were statistically compared between be positive and negative group. The number, mean diameter, and maximal diameter of epitrochlear lymph nodes were calculated and correlated with clinical parameters and scores for each joint. To evaluate the incidence of epitrochlear lymphadenopathy without radiographic evidence of arthritis in 46 patients (78 arms) with lymphadenopathy, the frequency of cases in which the score for the joint was zero was assessed. In the mixed group, the mean score for Joint 6 of the arm with epitrochlear lymphadenopathy was significantly higher than that for the contralateral side in the mixed group (p=3D0.022). Only CRP was significantly higher in the positive group than

  14. The expression of HER-2/neu gene in colon cancer tissues and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Jin; Yuxuan Che; Qimin Wang; Fang Liu; Man Li; Lifen Wang; Xiuhua Sun; Yang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The article aims to detect the expression of HER-2/neu gene in colon cancer tissues and adjacent tissues, to analyze the relationship between dif erent pathologic types and clinical features, also to invest the distribution of patients with positive expression of HER-2 gene. Methods:The expression of HER-2 gene in the 223 samples with colon can-cer was detected by immunochemical approach. The expression of HER-2 gene in colon cancer tissues and adjacent tissues and dif erent pathologic types was analyzed byχ2 test. The correlation between the expression of HER-2 gene and clinical features was analyzed by Spearman. Results:The number of positive expression of HER-2 gene in colon cancer tissues and adjacent tissues were 74 and 0 respectively, the dif erence has statistical significance. The number of papil ary or tubular adenocarcinoma was 182, among them, 60 cases were positive expression. The number of mucinous adenocarcinoma was 41, among them, 14 cases were positive expression. The expression of HER-2/neu gene has no correlation with sex, age, the maximum diameter, general classification, degree of dif erentiation and depth of invasion, which has no statistical significance. However, the expression of HER-2/neu gene has correlation with metastasis of lymph node and Dukes stage, which has statistical significance. The expression of HER-2/neu gene was positive correlation with metastasis of lymph node and Dukes stage. The correlated coef icient index was 0.320 and 0.320 respectively. In the 74 patients with positive expression of HER-2 gene, 59.4%of them were 60-74 years old. And there was 97.3%of the patients without family history of adenocarcinoma. Conclusion:The expression of HER-2/neu gene in colon cancer tissues was higher than in adjacent tissues. The expression of HER-2/neu gene has no correlation with sex, age, the maximum diameter, general classification, degree of dif erentiation and depth of invasion, but has correlation with metastasis of

  15. CLINICAL AND BIOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF NEUROGENIC TUMOR AFTER PREOPERATIVE CHEMOTHERAPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Jiechun; Dong Kuiran; Jing Baixiang

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To study the significance of preoperative chemotherapy for the treatment of neurogenic tumor in children. Methods: VMA, MYCN gene and DNA content of 21 cases of neuroblastoma treated with preoperative chemotherapy were studied with a control group. Results: Resection rate was 95.5%. Mean survival time was 28.1±10.2 months, which was significantly higher than the control group (8.8±6.8 months, P<0.01).Post chemotherapeutic VMA was lower. DNA index was also reduced and the percentage of cells in G0+G1 phases was elevated. The MYCN expression was suppressed.Conclusion: Preoperative chemotherapy can induce the apoptosis of neurogenic tumor cells and inhibit its proliferative activity.

  16. Correlation analyses of clinical and molecular findings identify candidate biological pathways in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xuefeng B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinicians have long appreciated the distinct phenotype of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA compared to polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (POLY. We hypothesized that gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from children with each disease would reveal distinct biological pathways when analyzed for significant associations with elevations in two markers of JIA activity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and number of affected joints (joint count, JC. Methods PBMC RNA from SJIA and POLY patients was profiled by kinetic PCR to analyze expression of 181 genes, selected for relevance to immune response pathways. Pearson correlation and Student's t-test analyses were performed to identify transcripts significantly associated with clinical parameters (ESR and JC in SJIA or POLY samples. These transcripts were used to find related biological pathways. Results Combining Pearson and t-test analyses, we found 91 ESR-related and 92 JC-related genes in SJIA. For POLY, 20 ESR-related and 0 JC-related genes were found. Using Ingenuity Systems Pathways Analysis, we identified SJIA ESR-related and JC-related pathways. The two sets of pathways are strongly correlated. In contrast, there is a weaker correlation between SJIA and POLY ESR-related pathways. Notably, distinct biological processes were found to correlate with JC in samples from the earlier systemic plus arthritic phase (SAF of SJIA compared to samples from the later arthritis-predominant phase (AF. Within the SJIA SAF group, IL-10 expression was related to JC, whereas lack of IL-4 appeared to characterize the chronic arthritis (AF subgroup. Conclusions The strong correlation between pathways implicated in elevations of both ESR and JC in SJIA argues that the systemic and arthritic components of the disease are related mechanistically. Inflammatory pathways in SJIA are distinct from those in POLY course JIA, consistent with

  17. Clinical, biological, histological features and treatment of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oral mucositis is a main side effect of radiotherapy on head and neck, initiating two weeks after the beginning of the treatment. It is characterized by sensation of local burning to intense pain, leading in several cases, to the interruption of the treatment. The purpose of this work is to review the main published studies that discuss the clinical, biological and histopathological features of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy and to describe the main approaches recommended to prevent or to treat it. Although the clinical features of mucositis are intensively described in the literature, few studies address the histopathological alterations in oral mucositis and only recently, its biological processes have been investigated. The biological mechanisms involved in the radiation tissue damage have been only recently discussed and there is no consensus among treatment modalities. Yet, the progressive knowledge in the histopathology and biological characteristics of oral mucositis probably will lead to more effective in prevention and control strategies. (author)

  18. The clinical and functional significance of c-Met in breast cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho-Yen, Colan M; Jones, J Louise; Kermorgant, Stephanie

    2015-04-08

    c-Met is a receptor tyrosine kinase that upon binding of its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), activates downstream pathways with diverse cellular functions that are important in organ development and cancer progression. Anomalous c-Met signalling has been described in a variety of cancer types, and the receptor is regarded as a novel therapeutic target. In breast cancer there is a need to develop new treatments, particularly for the aggressive subtypes such as triple-negative and basal-like cancer, which currently lack targeted therapy. Over the last two decades, much has been learnt about the functional role of c-Met signalling in different models of breast development and cancer. This work has been complemented by clinical studies, establishing the prognostic significance of c-Met in tissue samples of breast cancer. While the clinical trials of anti-c-Met therapy in advanced breast cancer progress, there is a need to review the existing evidence so that the potential of these treatments can be better appreciated. The aim of this article is to examine the role of HGF/c-Met signalling in in vitro and in vivo models of breast cancer, to describe the mechanisms of aberrant c-Met signalling in human tissues, and to give a brief overview of the anti-c-Met therapies currently being evaluated in breast cancer patients. We will show that the HGF/c-Met pathway is associated with breast cancer progression and suggest that there is a firm basis for continued development of anti-c-Met treatment, particularly for patients with basal-like and triple-negative breast cancer.

  19. The clinical significance of antibody determination to cyclic citrullinated peptides in systemic sclerosis

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    Stamenković Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Anti-citrullinated peptides antibodies (ACPA are present in 80% of sera of rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients with high specificity for diagnosis and prediction for the development of early erosive arthritis. A few studies have reported a low frequency ACPA in systemic sclerosis (SSc patients with the presence of arthritis. Objective. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of ACPA in systemic sclerosis (SSc patients, their correlation with clinical manifestations and radiographic features. Methods. The study included 82 patients with SSc, mean age 54.4 years, 59 with the limited (lSSc and 23 with the diffuse (dSSc form of the disease. The control group included 28 healthy age and sex matched subjects. ACPA and rheumatoid factor (RF were determined in all SSc patients and healthy subjects in whom standard radiography of hands and wrists was also done. Results. The presence of ACPA was detected in 11 (13.4% of SSc patients. Their level was not increased in any of the controls. Positive RF was found in 15.9% of SSc patients. Arthritis was present in 17.1%, as well as marginal bone erosions. There was a statistically significant association between positive ACPA and arthritis (p<0.0001 and positive ACPA and marginal bone erosions (p=0.0002. Conclusion. The research confirmed the correlation between ACPA with clinical signs of arthritis and radiographic damage of hand joints. ACPA is a useful diagnostic marker in the identification of SSc patients with arthritis and anatomic bone damage enabling the use of adequate therapy in order to prevent joint damage and poor quality of life.

  20. Clinical significance in detection of inflammatory cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-Qian Wang; Yang Tang; Xiu-Yang Li; Da-Jun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between inflammatory cytokines and rheumatoid arthritis, and explore the clinical application value of cytokines in the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of rheumatoid arthritis.Methods:A total of 136 cases of patients with rheumatoid arthritis were regarded as the RA group. Among them, 62 patients were in remission and 74 patients were in the active phase of the disease. Besides, 53 cases of healthy volunteers were considered as the control group. The changes of the IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IFN-γ of the three groups were compared and the correlation of the inflammatory cytokines in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, DSA28 score and C-reactive protein would be explored. Results:The IL-1β and IFN-γ of patients in remission in the RA group showed no statistical differences as compared with those of the control group; the IL-1β and IFN-γ of patients in the active phase of the disease in the RA group presented statistical differences as compared with those of patients in the control group and patients in remission in the RA group; The IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 were compared in pairs and all showed statistical differences; CRP and DSA28 score and IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 were positively correlated, while IL-1β, IFN-γ and CRP and DSA 28 score had no correlations.Conclusions:It is of important significance in the clinic to detect inflammatory cytokines in the early diagnosis, disease evaluation and prognostic prediction of rheumatoid arthritis.

  1. Identification of major rice allergen and their clinical significance in children

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    You Hoon Jeon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Recently, an increase in the number of patients sensitized to rice allergen with or without clinical symptoms has been reported. This study was designed to determine the major allergens in rice and their clinical significance. Methods : Twenty-four children (15 boys and 9 girls; mean age, 16.3 months with allergic disease, who were sensitized to rice antigen (by UniCAP in the Pediatric Allergy Respiratory Center at Soonchunhyang University Hospital, were enrolled in this study. The allergenicity of various types of rice (raw, cooked, and heat-treated, simulated gastric fluid [SGF], and simulated intestinal fluid [SIF] was investigated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and immunoglobulin E (IgE immunoblots. The patients’ medical records, including laboratory data and allergy symptoms after ingestion of rice were reviewed. Results : Patients were sensitized to an average of 13.5 food antigens and their mean total IgE was 6,888.7 kU/L. In SDS-PAGE, more than 16 protein bands were observed in the raw rice, whereas only 14-16 kDa and 31-35 kDa protein bands were observed in cooked rice. The common SDS-PAGE protein bands observed in SGF-, SIF-, and heattreated rice were 9, 14, and 31 kDa. In a heated-rice IgE immunoblot, protein bands of 9, 14, and 31-33 kDa were found in 27.8%, 38.9%, and 38.9% of all sera, respectively, and in 50%, 50%, and 75%, of ser a from the 4 symptomatic patients, respectively. Conclusion : The 9-, 14-, and 31-kDa protein bands appeared to be the major allergens responsible for rice allergy symptoms.

  2. Serum midkine expression in breast cancer patients and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study serum midkine expression in breast cancer patients and its clinical significance.Methods: A total of 45 cases of patients with breast cancer and 45 cases of patients with benign breast tumor were selected for study, breast tumor specimens were collected to detect mRNA content of MK and serum was collected to detect protein content of MK; breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines were cultured and transfected with varying concentrations of MK expression plasmid, and then cell proliferation and apoptosis, VEGF expression in media as well as MMPs and TIMPs expression in cells was detected.Results:MK expression in breast tissue and serum MK content of breast cancer patients were higher than those of benign breast tumor patients, and MK expression in breast tissue and serum MK content of breast cancer patients with TNMⅢ/Ⅳ stage, low/un-differentiation and lymph node metastasis were higher than those of breast cancer patients with TNMⅠ/Ⅱ stage, medium/high differentiation and without lymph node metastasis; MK expression plasmid could dose-dependently increase mRNA content and protein content of MK in breast cancer cell lines, increase cell viability and decrease apoptosis percentage; VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC contents in media as well as MMP2 and MMP9 contents in cells of 100.0 μg/mL plasmid group were significantly higher than those of 0 μg/mL plasmid group, and contents of TIMP1 and TIMP2 in cells were significantly lower than those of 0 μg/mL plasmid group.Conclusion:Serum midkine content in breast cancer patients abnormally rises, and high expression of MK can induce breast cancer cell proliferation, inhibit breast cancer cell apoptosis and promote angiogenesis and cell invasion.

  3. Study on the Clinical Significance and Related Factors of Thirst and Xerostomia in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

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    Wei-Feng Fan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To analyse the clinical significance and related factors of thirst and xerostomia and to find methods to alleviate thirst and xerostomia in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD patients. Methods: Forty-two MHD patients were included for observational study and eleven patients were enrolled for crossover trial. Thirst was assessed by 100-mm visual analog scales (VAS and dialysis thirst inventory (DTI. Meanwhile, xerostomia was assessed by VAS and xerostomia inventory (XI. Depression, kidney disease quality of life (KDQOL, salivary flow rates and inter dialytic weight gain (IDWG were measured. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlations between continuous variables. The results of crossover trial were investigated by two-sample T-tests. Results: Strong positive correlations among DTI, VAS thirst score, XI and VAS xerostomia score were found (P=0.000. Daily IDWG was positively correlated with VAS thirst score (r=0.315, P=0.042 and DTI(r=0.391, P=0.010. UWS (unstimulated whole saliva was negatively correlated with VAS xerostomia score (r=-0.308, P=0.048. Residual urine output was negatively correlated with DTI (r=-0.402, P=0.008, VAS xerostomia score (r=-0.461, P=0.002 and XI (r=-0.403, P=0.008. In the crossover trial, DTI, XI, IDWG2d, IDWG3d, VAS thirst and xerostomia score were significantly reduced by the use of chewing gum (P=0.000, 0.001, 0.009, 0.017, 0.038, 0.001. The VAS thirst score, DTI and IDWG3d were significantly reduced by receiveing straw (P=0.016, 0.003, 0.049. Conclusion: Thirst and xerostomia might affect the quality of life in MHD patients. Both chewing gum and straw could decrease thirst and IDWG.

  4. The clinical significance of forkhead box protein A1 and its role in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenqi; Jiang, Jue; Li, Miao; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Hongli; He, Xin; Huang, Lili; Zhou, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Forkhead box protein A1 (FOXA1) is a transcription factor; recent studies have reported that FOXA1 has an oncogenic or tumor suppressive role in human malignancies, and its expression is associated with the prognosis of patients with cancer. However, further studies are required to determine the clinical significance of FOXA1 and its role in colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, FOXA1 expression was detected in 90 samples of CRC tissues and matched noncancerous tissues using immunohistochemistry. In these cases, FOXA1 expression was detected in 57.8% (52/90) of the CRC samples, whereas only 37.8% (34/90) of the noncancerous specimens exhibited a positive FOXA1 signal. In addition, the present study demonstrated that the mRNA expression levels of FOXA1 were significantly increased in CRC tissues compared with in matched tumor-adjacent tissues. Furthermore, the positive expression of FOXA1 was associated with poor clinicopathological characteristics of CRC, including poor tumor differentiation, large tumor size, lymph node metastases and advanced tumor-node-metastasis tumor stage. Notably, patients with CRC with positive FOXA1 expression exhibited a significantly reduced 5-year survival rate compared with those with negative FOXA1 expression. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that FOXA1 expression was an independent prognostic indicator for patients with CRC. In addition, FOXA1 knockdown evidently inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in SW480 and HCT116 CRC cells. Notably, FOXA1 knockdown also prominently reduced the expression of yes-associated protein (YAP) in SW480 and HCT116 cells. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that FOXA1 may be considered a potential prognostic marker, and may promote tumor growth of CRC by upregulating YAP expression. PMID:27484093

  5. Identification, characterization and biological significance of very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guowei; Cui, Jian; Zheng, Yizhou; Han, Zhongchao; Xu, Yong; Li, Zongjin

    2012-07-01

    The progress of stem cell research, along with technological innovation, has brought researchers to focus on the potential role of stem cells in regenerative medicine. Ethical and technological issues have limited the applications of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in this field. As a promising candidate, very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) express a multitude of pluripotent stem cell markers and demonstrate the ability to differentiate into three germ-layer lineages in vitro. Optimized methods for isolation and expansion of VSELs have aroused the scientific community's interest in use of this kind of cells for regenerative purposes. In this review, we will focus on the biological characteristics, as well as the potentiality and remaining challenges in clinical application of VSELs. Moreover, a comparison among VSELs and the other pluripotent stem cells will be illustrated to highlight the unique advantages of VSELs.

  6. Clinical significance of brain SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in cerebral palsy with normal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cerebral palsy(CP) encephalopathies are often of uncertain etiology and various functional image findings comparing with anatomical image findings have been reported. However, only a few have mentioned its clinical implications. The purpose of our report is to compare clinical severity and functional SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in CP patients with normal MRI. Thirty six CP patients with bilateral spastic palsy who had normal MRI and brain SPECT were studied from July 1996 to September 1997. The patients' age at the time of SPECT was 22.84±17.69 months. The patients were divided into two groups according to motor quotient(MQ); moderate defect (>50MQ : n=27 MQ=22.78±10.36), mild defect (2 test. Brain SPECT was performed following IV administration of 0.05-0.1 mCi/kg (minimum 2.0 mCi) of Tc-99m ECD and chloral hydrate sedation (50-80 mg/kg p.o) using a triple head system (MS 3, Siemens). Interpretation of brain SPECT was visual analysis: severe decrease is defined when the defect is moderate to marked and mild decrease in rCBF as mild. Seven of 36 (19.4%) showed unilateral or bilateral moderate decrease in rCBF in thalami, 20(55.6%) showed mild decrease, and 9(25.0%) showed no decreased rCBF. All 7 who had moderate thalamic defect reveled moderate motor defect clinically. Ten of 36(27.9%) revealed unilateral or bilateral moderate rCBF defect, 23 (63.9%) depicted mild defect, and 3(8.3%) showed no defect. Sixteen with moderate thalamic rCBF defect showed moderate motor defect in 15 patients. There was statistically significant (p=0.02605) relationship between rCBF defect and motor defect in our CP patients. In conclusion, brain SPECT appears sensitive, non-invasive tool in the evaluation as well as in the prognostication of bilateral spastic cerebral palsy patients and deserves further study using larger number of patients

  7. Clinical significance of brain SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in cerebral palsy with normal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. H.; Lim, S. Y.; Lee, I. Y.; Kim, O. H.; Bai, M. S.; Kim, S. J.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W. [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The cerebral palsy(CP) encephalopathies are often of uncertain etiology and various functional image findings comparing with anatomical image findings have been reported. However, only a few have mentioned its clinical implications. The purpose of our report is to compare clinical severity and functional SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in CP patients with normal MRI. Thirty six CP patients with bilateral spastic palsy who had normal MRI and brain SPECT were studied from July 1996 to September 1997. The patients' age at the time of SPECT was 22.84{+-}17.69 months. The patients were divided into two groups according to motor quotient(MQ); moderate defect (>50MQ : n=27 MQ=22.78{+-}10.36), mild defect (<50MQ : n=9, MQ=66.11{+-}13.87). The degree of rCBF decrease between the two groups was evaluated by {chi}{sup 2} test. Brain SPECT was performed following IV administration of 0.05-0.1 mCi/kg (minimum 2.0 mCi) of Tc-99m ECD and chloral hydrate sedation (50-80 mg/kg p.o) using a triple head system (MS 3, Siemens). Interpretation of brain SPECT was visual analysis: severe decrease is defined when the defect is moderate to marked and mild decrease in rCBF as mild. Seven of 36 (19.4%) showed unilateral or bilateral moderate decrease in rCBF in thalami, 20(55.6%) showed mild decrease, and 9(25.0%) showed no decreased rCBF. All 7 who had moderate thalamic defect reveled moderate motor defect clinically. Ten of 36(27.9%) revealed unilateral or bilateral moderate rCBF defect, 23 (63.9%) depicted mild defect, and 3(8.3%) showed no defect. Sixteen with moderate thalamic rCBF defect showed moderate motor defect in 15 patients. There was statistically significant (p=0.02605) relationship between rCBF defect and motor defect in our CP patients. In conclusion, brain SPECT appears sensitive, non-invasive tool in the evaluation as well as in the prognostication of bilateral spastic cerebral palsy patients and deserves further study using larger number of patients.

  8. Trends in Clinically Significant Pain Prevalence Among Hospitalized Cancer Patients at an Academic Hospital in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Yun; Ho, Shung-Tai; Wu, Shang-Liang; Chu, Chi-Ming; Sung, Chun-Sung; Wang, Kwua-Yun; Liang, Chun-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Clinically significant pain (CSP) is one of the most common complaints among cancer patients during repeated hospitalizations, and the prevalence ranges from 24% to 86%. This study aimed to characterize the trends in CSP among cancer patients and examine the differences in the prevalence of CSP across repeated hospitalizations. A hospital-based, retrospective cohort study was conducted at an academic hospital. Patient-reported pain intensity was assessed and recorded in a nursing information system. We examined the differences in the prevalence of worst pain intensity (WPI) and last evaluated pain intensity (LPI) of ≥4 or ≥7 points among cancer inpatients from the 1st to the 18th hospitalization. Linear mixed models were used to determine the significant difference in the WPI and LPI (≥4 or ≥7 points) at each hospitalization. We examined 88,133 pain scores from the 1st to the 18th hospitalization among cancer patients. The prevalence of the 4 CSP types showed a trend toward a reduction from the 1st to the 18th hospitalization. There was a robust reduction in the CSP prevalence from the 1st to the 5th hospitalization, except in the case of LPI ≥ 7 points. The prevalence of a WPI ≥ 4 points was significantly higher (0.240-fold increase) during the 1st hospitalization than during the 5th hospitalization. For the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th hospitalizations, there was a significantly higher prevalence of a WPI ≥ 4 points compared with the 5th hospitalization. We also observed significant reductions in the prevalence of a WPI ≥ 7 points during the 1st to the 4th hospitalizations, an LPI ≥ 4 points during the 1st to the 3rd hospitalizations, and an LPI ≥ 7 points during the 1st to the 2nd hospitalization. Although the prevalence of the 4 CSP types decreased gradually, it is impossible to state the causative factors on the basis of this observational and descriptive study. The next step will examine the factors that determine the CSP prevalence among

  9. Comparison between full and tapered dosages of biologic therapies in psoriatic arthritis patients: clinical and ultrasound assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janta, Iustina; Martínez-Estupiñán, Lina; Valor, Lara; Montoro, María; Baniandres Rodriguez, Ofelia; Hernández Aragüés, Ignacio; Bello, Natalia; Hernández-Flórez, Diana; Hinojosa, Michelle; Martínez-Barrio, Julia; Nieto-González, Juan Carlos; Ovalles-Bonilla, Juan Gabriel; González, Carlos Manuel; López-Longo, Francisco Javier; Monteagudo, Indalecio; Naredo, Esperanza; Carreño, Luis

    2015-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to describe and compare clinical and musculoskeletal (MS) ultrasound (US) features between psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients treated with full and tapered dosage of biologic (b) disease-modified antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). The secondary objective was to compare clinical and MSUS features between PsA patients treated with bDMARDs with and without concomitant synthetic (s) DMARDs. We evaluated 102 patients with PsA treated with bDMARDs. The bDMARD dosage tapering had been made in patients with a maintained remission or minimal disease activity (MDA) according to their attending rheumatologist and with the patient acceptance. The bDMARD tapering consisted of the following: increase the interval between doses for subcutaneous bDMARDs or reduction of the dose for intravenous bDMARDs. The clinical evaluation consisted of a dermatologic and rheumatologic assessment of disease activity. The presence of B-mode and Doppler synovitis, tenosynovitis, enthesopathy, and paratenonitis was investigated by a rheumatologist blinded to drug dosage, clinical assessments, and laboratory results. Seventy-four (72.5 %) patients received full dosage of bDMARDs and 28 (27.5 %) received tapered dosage. The duration with biologic therapy and with current biologic therapy was significantly higher in patients with tapered dosages (p = 0.008 and p = 0.001, respectively). We found no significant differences between clinical, laboratory, and US variables, both for BM and CD between patients with full and tapered dosage and between patients with and without concomitant sDMARD. Clinical assessment, MSUS variables, and MDA status are similar in patients receiving full and tapered dosage of bDMARDs. PMID:25636779

  10. The Relationship between Stress Levels and Biological Responses in a Clinical Nursing Practicum

    OpenAIRE

    Chikamura, Chiho; Iida, Tadayuki; Ishizaki, Fumiko; Aoi, Satomi; Kobayashi, Toshio; Kataoka, Tsuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the association between the stress levels and biological responses of nursing students in a clinical practicum. The subjects consisted of 28 third-year nursing students at the nursing department of College A. The degree of stress was evaluated using the Japanese version of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). As parameters of biological responses, serum estrogen, salivary cortisol, and salivary IgA were measured. These measurements were performed twice (before and during the...

  11. Clinical significance of plasma lysophosphatidic acid levels in the differential diagnosis of ovarian cancer

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    Yun-Jie Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the value of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Materials and Methods: We first performed a hospital-based, case-control study involving 123 ovarian cancer patients and 101 benign ovarian tumor patients, and then conducted a meta-analysis with 19 case-control studies to assess the correlation between ovarian cancer and plasma LPA levels. Results: The case-control study results demonstrated that ovarian cancer patients have increased LPA and cancer antigen (CA-125 levels compared to patients with benign ovarian tumor (LPA: Ovarian cancer vs benign ovarian tumor: 5.28 ± 1.52 vs 1.82 ± 0.77 μmol/L; CA-125: Ovarian cancer vs benign ovarian tumor: 87.17 ± 45.81 vs. 14.03 ± 10.14 U/mL, which showed statistically significant differences (both P < 0.05. LPA with advanced sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy rate of diagnosis excelled CA-125 in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (both P < 0.05. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (LPA: 0.983; CA-125: 0.910 were statistically significant compared with the reference (both P < 0.001 and the difference of the areas of ROC curve between LPA and CA-125 in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer showed statistically significant difference (P < 0.05. The meta-analysis results suggested that plasma LPA levels were higher in ovarian cancer tissues than in benign tissues (standardized mean difference (SMD =2.36, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.61-3.11, P < 0.001 and normal tissues (SMD = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.77-2.87, P < 0.001. Conclusion: LPA shows greater value in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer compared to CA-125 and may be employed as a biological index to diagnose ovarian cancer.

  12. Significant Decline in Galactomannan Signal during Storage of Clinical Serum Samples

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    Samir G. Agrawal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Galactomannan (GM is widely used for detection of invasive aspergillosis in high-risk haemato-oncology patients. Recent publications have reported a lack of repeatability of GM detection. The objective of this retrospective study was to assess the repeatability of GM levels during storage of clinical samples. In a GM screening strategy, positive sera were repeat tested as per manufacturer’s recommendations. Short-term (ST storage of samples was at +4 °C while long-term (LT storage was at −80 °C. Bronchoalveolar (BAL fluid was also repeating tested after ST storage and LT storage. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test was employed to assess the repeatability of GM levels. In a subset of 14 GM positive sera, repeat testing was performed on both the original serum and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA pre-treated sample. There was a significant reduction in GM signals on repeat testing following ST storage (median GM index: 0.65 vs. 0.19; p < 0.001 and LT storage (median GM index: 0.56 vs. 0.10; p < 0.001 of serum samples. Of samples that were initially GM positive, an average GM index reduction of 50% was seen, with approximately two-thirds becoming GM negative on repeat testing of the same sample. In contrast, GM signal loss was not seen on repeat testing of BAL fluid following ST or LT storage. When GM positive serum samples were repeat tested using EDTA pre-treated serum from the first step of the testing protocol, all samples remained GM positive. In contrast, when the same samples were repeat tested from the original collected serum, 9 samples (64% became GM negative. The significant reduction in GM signals during ST and LT storage of serum samples has implications for clinical management. Although the reasons for GM decline are unknown, they occur prior to the EDTA pre-treatment stage, indicating that the time from phlebotomy to testing should be minimized. BAL fluid GM index values remain stable.

  13. Endogenous erythroid colony assay in patients with polycythemia vera and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白洁; 邵宗鸿; 刘鸿; 施均; 何广胜; 曹燕然; 崔振珠; 吴玉红; 孙娟; 田征; 贾海蓉; 钱林生; 杨天楹; 杨崇礼

    2004-01-01

    Background Polycythemia vera (PV) is a malignant disorder of hemaopoietic stem cells which is characterized by clonal hyperproliferation and a low rate of apoptosis. This study was to assess endogenous erythroid colony (EEC) formation in the bone marrow of PV patients and determine its clinical significance.Methods The bone marrow mononuclear cells of 26 patients with PV, 2 patients with secondary erythrocytosis (SE), and 19 normal controls were cultured by Marsh's method for EEC evaluation, and the clinical significance was evaluated.Results EECs appeared in 25 patients with PV but not in 2 patients with SE and 19 normal controls. The number of EECs and the EEC ratio [EEC/erythropoietin (EPO)-dependent colony forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E)] in PV patients positively correlated with hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Their EEC number did not correlate with white blood cell (WBC) counts, platelet (PLT) counts, or leukocyte alkaline phosphatase (LAP) scores. Their EEC did not correlate with serum EPO levels. Fifteen patients with PV were treated with hydroxyurea (Hu) and/or interferon-alpha (IFN-α). Their EEC ratio before treatment positively correlated with the treatment time required for complete remission (CR) and negatively correlated with the time before relapse. The EEC numbers of 7 PV patients treated with Hu/IFN-α decreased after the blood cell counts dropped to normal levels. There was a positive correlation between the EEC ratio and the incidence of attacks of vascular thrombosis in PV patients. The numbers of apoptosised bone marrow mononuclear cells in PV patients were lower than those in normal controls. The EEC numbers of PV patients negatively correlated with the rate of apoptosis of bone marrow mononuclear cells.Conclusions EEC formation is characteristic in PV patients. EEC number in PV patients positively correlates with Hb levels, the time required for CR, and the incidence of attacks of vascular thrombosis. EEC number negatively correlates with the time

  14. EEG spectral analysis and its clinical significance for patients with non-occupationalchronic mercury poisoning

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    Bin-bin SUN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the features of EEG spectrum and its clinical significance for patients with non-occupational chronic mercury poisoning.  Methods Eighteen patients with chronic mercury poisoning were collected continuously as poisoning group at Affiliated Hospital of Academy of Military Medical Sciences from March 2012 to September 2013. At the same time, 12 age- and sex-matched healthy people were selected as control group. All patients underwent video EEG, and EEGLAB in Matlab 2013 software was used to analyze their EEG data. Relevant spectrum data of the 2 groups were compared and analyzed.  Results The frequency-energy curves of 12 normal subjects were similar to sine curve, with obvious energy peak at α band. The frequency-energy curves of 18 patients showed as follows: 5 cases had the peak at slow δ wave, and the energy curve decreased since δ band appeared, with α band peak disappearing. The curve of 10 cases had 2 peaks respectively at α and δ band, and δ peak was higher than α peak. The spectrum in other 3 cases was normal. The quantitative analysis of EEG revealed the proportion of δ band for the total energy. The proportion of δ band for total energy of the poisoning group in right middle temporal (P = 0.018 and left posterior temporal (P = 0.039 channel was significantly higher than that of the normal group, while the proportion of δ band in middle frontal (P = 0.003, right frontal (P = 0.016 and right anterior temporal (P = 0.024, left middle temporal (P = 0.036 and right posterior temporal (P = 0.031 was lower than that of the normal group. Conclusions EEG examination plays an important role in assessing the severity of brain injury for patients with non-occupational chronic mercury poisoning. Spectrum analysis is an intuitive and simple method, and can provide some help for clinical diagnosis and treatment. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.02.013

  15. EXPRESSION AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF CD44 IN THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD OF PATIENTS WITH CASTRIC CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Shen-hua

    2001-01-01

    [1]Li XY, Hu JL. Relationship between the expression of CD44 and tumor of digestive tract & metastasis [J]. Chin J Dig 1999; 19:196.[2]Washington K, Gottfried MR, Telen MJ, et al. Expression of the cell adhesion molecule CD44 in gastric adenocarcinomas [J]. Human Pathol 1994; 25:1043.[3]Tran TA, Kallakury BV, Sheehan CE, et al. Expression of CD44 standard from and variant isoforms in non-small cell lung carcinomas [J]. Human Pathol 1997; 28:809.[4]Wimmel A, Schilli M, Kaiser U, et al. Preferential histiotypic expression of CD44 isoforms in human lung cancer [J]. Lung Cancer 1997; 16:151.[5]Lu GO, Xu SH, Feng JG, et al. Expression and clinical significance of CD44 in peripheral blood in esophageal cancer [J]. Chin J Clin Oncol 1992; 26:500.[6]Xu SH, Feng JG, Li DC, et al. Relationship between CD44 in the peripheral blood of patients with colorectal cancer and clinico-pathological features [J]. Shijie Huaren Xiaohua Zazhi 2000; 8:432.[7]Matsumura Y, Hanbury D, Smith J, et al. Non-invasive detection of malignancy by identification of unusual CD44 gene activity in exfoliated cancer cells [J]. BMJ 1994; 308:619.[8]Reter Herrlich, Margot Zoller, Steven T Pals, et al. CD44 splice variants: metastases meet lymphocytes [J]. Immunology Today 1993; 14:395.[9]Pituch-Noworolska-A, et al. Evaluation of circulating tumor cells expressing CD44 variants in the blood of gastric cancer patients by flow cytometry [J]. Anticancer Res 1998; 18:3747.[10]Guo YJ, Liu GL, Wang XN, et al. Potential use of soluble CD44 in serum as indicator of tumor burden and metastasis in patients with gastric or colon cancer [J]. Cancer Res 1994; 54: 422.[11]Harn HJ, Ho LI, Chang JY, et al. Soluble CD44 isoforms in serum as potential markers of metastatic gastric carcinoma [J]. J Clin Gastroenterol 1996; 22:107.[12]Harn HJ, Ho LI, Chang JY, et al. Differential expression of the human metastasis adhesion molecule CD44 in normal and carcinomatous stomach mucosa

  16. Clinical significance of cerebral microbleeds locations in CADASIL with R544C NOTCH3 mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Seok Lee

    Full Text Available Although cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL is the most common single-gene disorder of cerebral small blood vessels caused by NOTCH3 mutations, little has been described about the variation in the clinical findings between its underlying types of mutations. In particular, the presence of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs has been an increasingly recognized magnetic resonance imaging finding in CADASIL, but their clinical significance is not clear. The purpose of this study is to assess whether CMBs are associated with symptomatic stroke in the CADASIL patients with R544C mutation and to compare the cerebral distribution of CMBs between CADASIL patients with and without symptomatic stroke.This is a cohort study of patients who were diagnosed with genotype-confirmed R544C-mutation CADASIL. Primary neurologic symptoms were recorded. Symptomatic strokes were defined as transient ischemic attack, ischemic strokes and hemorrhagic strokes. CMBs were defined as focal areas of round signal loss on T2*-weighted gradient echo planar images with a diameter of less than 10 mm. The locations of CMBs were divided into lobar, basal ganglia, thalamus, brain stem and cerebellum. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to identify the epidemiologic or vascular risk factors associated with symptomatic stroke in patients with CADASIL.Among total of 51 subjects in this cohort, CMBs were present in 20 of 32 patients (64.5% in the symptomatic stroke-group and in 8 of 19 patients (42.1% in the non-stroke group (p = 0.16. CMBs were observed more frequently in the basal ganglia (p<0.001 and the cerebellum (p<0.018 in the symptomatic stoke group compared to the non-stroke group. The mean number of CMBs was significantly higher in the symptomatic stroke group (15.4±18.0 lesions per patients with CMBs versus those without symptomatic stroke (3.3±3.0 lesions per patients with CMBs (p = 0.003. Hypertension was an

  17. Clinical and biological characteristics of colorectal cancer with familial predisposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bao-ping; ZHANG Ya-li; ZHOU Dian-yuan; GAO Chun-fang; LAI Zhuo-sheng

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the microsatellite instability (MSI), expression of mismatch repair (MMR) gene (hMLH1, hMSH2) and proliferation kinetics in colorectal cancer (CRC) with familial predisposition. Method:Forty-six cases of CRC were studied using silver staining polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique, streptavidin-peroxidase (SP) immunohistochemical method and flow cytometry. Results: In CRC patients with familial predisposition, the MSI-positive rate was higher than in sporadic CRC (P<0.05). Familial predisposition and positive MSI were strongly related to early age of cancer onset, the proclivity for proximal colonic cancer, poor differentiated and extracolorectaln malignancies (P<0.01, P<0.05). The incidence of negative expression ofhMLH1 in tumor tissue and hMLH1, hMSH2 in normal colorectal tissues was significantly higher (P<0.05). The negative expression of hMLH1 together with hMSH2 was related with positive MSI (P<0.05).In MSI-positive CRC cells, the proliferation cell nucleus antigen (PCNA) expression, proliferation index and S-phase cells decreased obviously (P<0.01, P<0.05). Conclusion: In CRC with familial predisposition, MSI might be an important contributor. The rate ofhMLH1 and hMSH2 mutation increased in tumor and normal tissue, and the proliferation activity of their cancer cell was lower.

  18. Clinical significance of connective tissue growth factor in hepatitis B virus-induced hepatic fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-Li Piao; David R Brigstock; Jie Zhu; Man-Li Zhang; Run-Ping Gao

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To determine the utility of connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF) for assessing hepatic fibrosis in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-induced chronic liver diseases (CLD-B).METHODS:Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure CCN2 in sera from 107 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 39 patients with HBVinduced active liver cirrhosis and 30 healthy individuals.Liver samples from 31 patients with CHB,8 patients with HBV-induced liver cirrhosis and 8 HBV carriers with normal liver histology were examined for transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1) or CCN2 mRNA levels by in situ hybridization,and computer image analysis was performed to measure integrated optimal density (IOD) of CCN2 mRNA-positive cells in liver tissues.Histological inflammation grading and fibrosis staging were evaluated by H and E staining and Van Gieson's method.RESULTS:Serum CCN2 concentrations were,respectively,4.0-or 4.9-fold higher in patients with CHB or active liver cirrhosis as compared to healthy individuals (P < 0.01).There was good consistency between the levels of CCN2 in sera and CCN2 mRNA expression in liver tissues (r =0.87,P < 0.01).The levels of CCN2 in sera were increased with the enhancement of histological fibrosis staging in patients with CLD-B (r =0.85,P < 0.01).Serum CCN2 was a reliable marker for the assessment of liver fibrosis,with areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) of 0.94 or 0.85 for,respectively,distinguishing normal liver controls from patients with F1 stage liver fibrosis or discriminating between mild and significant fibrosis.CONCLUSION:Detection of serum CCN2 in patients with CLD-B may have clinical significance for assessment of severity of hepatic fibrosis.

  19. Extended radical operation of pancreatic head cancer: Appraisal of its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Qing Mu; Shu-You Peng; Guo-Feng Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the significance of extended radical operation and its indications.METHODS: Between January 1995 and December 1998, 56inpatients with pancreatic head cancer received operation.Among them 35 patients (group 1) experienced the Whipple operation, and 21 patients (group 2) received the extended radical operation. The 1-, 2-, 3-year cumulative survival rates were used to evaluate the efficacy of the two operative procedures. Clinical stage (CS) was assessed retrospectively with the help of CT. The indications for extended radical operation were discussed.RESULTS: There was no difference in hospital mortality and morbidity rates. Whereas the 1-, 2-, 3-year cumulative survival rates were 84.8%, 62.8%, 39.9% in the extended radical operation group, and were 70.8%, 47.6%, 17.2%in the Whipple operation group, there was a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.001, P<0.001,P<0.001, respectively). Most of the deaths within 3 years after operation were due to recurrence in the two groups.However, the 1-, 2-, 3-year cumulative rates of death due to local recurrence were decreased from 37.4% in patients that received the Whipple procedure to 23.8% in those who received by extended radical operation. Patients who survived for more than 3 years were only noted in those with CS1 in the Whipple procedure group and were founded in cases with CS1, CS2 and part of CS3 in the extended radical operation group.CONCLUSION: The extended radical operation appears to benefit patients with pancreatic head carcinoma which was indicated in CS1, CS2 and part of CS3 without severe invasion.

  20. Clinical significance of detection of antibodies to fetal and adult acetylcholine receptors in myasthenia gravis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Guang Shi; Zhi-Hong Wang; Xiao-Wei Ma; Da-Qi Zhang; Chun-Sheng Yang; Fu-Dong Shi; Li Yang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the frequency,distribution and clinical significance of the antibodies to the fetal and/or adult acetylcholine receptor (AChR) in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG).Methods AChR antibodies were detected by cell-based assay in the serum of ocular MG (OMG) (n =90) and generalized MG (GMG) patients (n =110).The fetaltype (2α∶ β∶ γ∶ δ) and adult-type (2α∶ β∶ ε∶ δ) AChR were used as antigens,and their relevance to disease presentation was assessed.Results The overall frequencies of anti-adult and anti-fetal AChR antibodies were similar in all 200 patients examined,with 14 having serum specific to the AChR-γ subunit,and 22 to the AChR-ε subunit.The overall sensitivity when using the fetal and adult AChR antibodies was higher than that when using the fetal AChR antibody only (P =0.015).Compared with OMG patients,the mean age at disease onset and the positive ratio of antibodies to both isoforms of the AChR were significantly higher in patients who subsequently progressed to GMG.Older patients and patients with both anti-fetal and anti-adult AChR antibodies had a greater risk for developing generalized disease [odds ratio (OR),1.03;95% confidence interval (CI),1.01-1.06 and OR,5.09;95% CI,2.23-11.62].Conclusion Using both fetal-and adulttype AChRs as the antigens may be more sensitive than using either subtype.Patients with serum specific to both isoforms are at a greater risk of progressing to GMG.Patients with disease onset at an advanced age appear to have a higher frequency of GMG conversion.

  1. Assay of serum ferritin by two different immunoradiometric methods and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of body iron stores is important in diagnosis and differentiation of anaemias and iron overload. Serum ferritin, which can be measured immunoradiometrically, provides a new means for the quantitation of iron stores. In the present study two different immunoradiometric ferritin assays were compared. The correlations between serum ferritin and other parameters for storage iron (bone-marrow iron, intestinal iron absorption, quantitative phlebotomy) were evaluated. The clinical significance of serum ferritin is discussed. The intra- and inter-assay variations of both immunoradiometric assays used are comparable. In 50 serum samples with ferritin concentrations ranging from 1 to 8000μg/l, the correlation coefficient between the two methods was found to be 0.98. Significant differences (p<0.001) between the serum ferritin concentrations of normal males (mean value 131μg/l; SD 1.59) and normal females (mean value 67μg/l; SD 1.79) could be observed. In patients with iron-deficiency anaemia, ferritin concentrations are below 20μg/l and in patients with iron overload, concentrations of more than 1 mg/l may be found. A direct correlation was found between serum ferritin and storage iron measured by phlebotomy (r=0.90, p<0.001). There is also a direct relation to stainable bone-marrow iron. An inverse correlation could be demonstrated between serum ferritin and intestinal iron absorption (r=0.83, p<0.001). Therefore, serum ferritin assay provides the practical advantage of a virtually non-invasive method for the measurement of body iron stores. It is particularly useful in distinguishing different stages of iron deficiency and iron overload as well as in the control of iron therapy. (author)

  2. LSIL/ASC-H (LSIL-H in Cervicovaginal Smear: Histopathological Outcomes and Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecmel IŞIK KAYGUSUZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Conventional Pap smears exhibiting unequivocal features of ‘low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion' (LSIL are occasionally mixed with some cells suspicious for, but not diagnostic of ‘high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion' (HSIL on daily routine. The 2001 Bethesda System does not address the significance of such cytological entities. We have referred to these changes in our laboratory as ‘LSIL, atypical squamous cells cannot exclude HSIL' (LSIL/ASC-H. In this study, we aimed to compare the cytology and biopsy results of LSIL/ ASC-H to LSIL, ASC-H and HSIL.Material and Method: Out of 37884 cases which were evaluated between 2005-2009 in our laboratory, cases interpreted as LSIL, LSIL/ ASC-H, HSIL and ASC-H were reevaluated and 153 cases for which biopsy materials were available were selected.Results: The rate of histological CIN2 or worse associated with LSIL/ ASC-H (45% was between the rates of LSIL (10% and HSIL (65%, but not significantly different from ASC-H (50%. However, LSIL/ ASC-H was more frequently associated with a definitive histological diagnosis of any CIN2 than ASC-H (30% vs. 8%.Conclusion: Based on our results, we recommend LSIL/ASC-H to be added to Bethesda System, and Pap test cases of LSIL/ASC-H may need to be clinically followed-up in a manner similar to ASC-H, i.e., with colposcopy for all patients.

  3. Clinical significance and frequency of Blastocystis hominis in Turkish patients with hematological malignancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taşova Y

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised subjects has been the subject of debate in recent years, mostly in response to its unknown pathogenicity and frequency of occurrence. We performed a non-randomised, open labelled, single institute study in our hospital in order to investigate the clinical significance and frequency of B. hominis in patients suffering from hematological malignancy (HM who displayed symptoms of gastrointestinal diseases during the period of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. The presence and potential role of other intestinal inclusive of parasites were also studied. At least 3 stool samples from each of 206 HM patients with gastrointestinal complaints (the HM group were studied. These were compared with stool samples from a control group of 200 patients without HM who were also suffering from gastrointestinal complaints. Samples were studied with saline-lugol, formalin-ether, and trichome staining methods. Groups were comparable in terms of gender, age and type of gastrointestinal complaints. In the HM group, the most common parasite was B. hominis. In this group, 23 patients (13% had B. hominis, while in the control group only 2 patients (1% had B. hominis. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Symptoms were non-specific for B. hominis or other parasites in the HM group. The predominant symptoms in both groups were abdominal pain (87-89.5%, diarrhea (70-89.5%, and flatulence (74-68.4%. Although all patients with HM were symptom-free at the end of treatment with oral metranidazol (1,500 mg per day for 10 days 2 patients with HM had positive stool samples containing an insignificant number of parasites (< 5 cells per field. In conclusion, it appears that B. hominis is not rare and should be considered in patients with HM who have gastrointestinal complaints while being treated with chemotherapy. Furthermore, metranidazol appears to be effective in

  4. Clinical Significance of IGFBP-3 Methylation in Patients with Early Stage Gastric Cancer

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    Seung Tae Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IGFBP-3 is a multifunctional protein that inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of cancer cells. Hypermethylation of the promoter represses expression of the IGFBP-3 gene. We undertook this study to assess the impact of IGFBP-3 methylation on survival of early stage gastric cancer patients. METHODS: Of the 482 tissue samples from gastric cancer patients who underwent curative surgery, IGFBP-3 methylation was tested in 138 patients with stage IB/II gastric cancer. We also analyzed IGFBP-3 methylation in 26 gastric cancer cell lines. IGFBP-3 methylation was evaluated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MethyLight. Statistical analyses, all two-sided, were performed to investigate the prognostic effects of methylation status of the IGFBP-3 promoter on various clinical parameters. RESULTS: Hypermethylation of IGFBP-3 was observed in 26 (19% of the 138 stage IB/II gastric cancer patients. Clinicopathological factors such as age, Lauren classification, sex, tumor infiltration, lymph node metastasis, and histologic grade did not show a statistically significant association with the methylation status of the IGFBP-3 promoter. Patients with a hypermethylated IGFBP-3 promoter had similar 8-year disease-free survival compared with those without a hypermethylated IGFBP-3 promoter (73% vs 75%, P = .78. In subgroup analyses, females, but not males, seemed to have poorer prognosis for DFS and OS in the subset of patients with IGFBP-3 methylation as compared with those without IGFBP-3 methylation (8-year DFS: 55.6% vs 71.6%, P = .3694 and 8-year overall survival: 55.6% vs 68.4%, P = .491, respectively even with no statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The status of IGFBP-3 methylation as measured by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction proposed the modest role for predicting survival in specific subgroups of patients with early-stage gastric cancer who undergo curative surgery. However, this needs further investigation.

  5. In vivo EPR dosimetry to quantify exposures to clinically significant doses of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of terrorism, accident or war, populations potentially can be exposed to doses of ionising radiation that could cause direct clinical effects within days or weeks. There is a critical need to determine the magnitude of the exposure to individuals so that those with significant risk can have appropriate procedures initiated immediately, while those without a significant probability of acute effects can be reassured and removed from the need for further consideration in the medical/emergency system. It is extremely unlikely that adequate dosemeters will be worn by the potential victims, and it also will be unlikely that prompt and accurate dose reconstruction at the level of individuals will be possible. Therefore, there is a critical need for a method to measure the dose from radiation-induced effects that occur within the individual. In vivo EPR measurements of radiation-induced changes in the enamel of teeth is a method, perhaps the only such method, which can differentiate among doses sufficiently to classify individuals into categories for treatment with sufficient accuracy to facilitate decisions on medical treatment. In its current state, the in vivo EPR dosemeter can provide estimates of absorbed dose of ± 0.5 Gy in the range from 1 to >10 Gy. The lower limit and the precision are expected to improve, with improvements in the resonator and the algorithm for acquiring and calculating the dose. In its current state of development, the method is already sufficient for decision-making action for individuals with regard to acute effects from exposure to ionising radiation for most applications related to terrorism, accidents or nuclear warfare. (authors)

  6. Expression and Clinical Significance of SHP2 in the Tumor Tissues of Smokers with Lung Cancer

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    Xuemei ZHAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proved that protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation were important mechanisms in lung cancer development, and tobacco smoking is an important risk factor of lung cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression and clinical significance of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and small cell lung cancer (SCLC; the relationship between tobacco smoking and the expression of SHP2 is also studied. Methods Immunohistochemistry (Invision and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH were used to detect the expression of SHP2 and the augment of SHP2 mRNA in the 53 lung cancer specimens. Results The weak positive rate of SHP2 was 80% (which was also the total positive rate in normal bronchial epithelium. The weak, moderate and strong positive rates were 35.4%, 43.8% and 6.2% (total positive rate was 85.4% in 48 NSCLC patients, 0%, 80% and 20% (total positve rate was 100% in 5 SCLC patients, 40.7%, 37.4% and 3.7% (total positive rate was 81.5% in the tumor tissues of 27 NSCLC patients who didn’t smoke and 23.8%, 71.4% and 4.7% (total positive rate was 100% in the tumor tissues of 21 NSCLC patients whose smoking indexes were ≥400. Significant differences of SHP2 expression were observed between tumor tissues and normal bronchial epithelium, NSCLC and SCLC, and between different smoking indexes (P < 0.05. Conclusion The enhancement of SHP2 expression in the tumor tissues of NSCLC patients who smoke may be correlated with tobacco smoking; SHP2 may play certain role in the development of lung cancer; SHP2 prospectively provides new ideas for the drug research and development of lung cancer treatment.

  7. Clinical significance of posterior cerebral artery stenosis/occlusion in moyamoya disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Houkin, Kiyohiro [Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    The present study was aimed at clarifying the clinical significance of posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stenosis/occlusion in pediatric and adult moyamoya disease. This study included a total of 132 patients (52 children and 80 adults) who were diagnosed as by cerebral angiography having moyamoya disease. CT or MRI was performed to examine the location of cerebral infarction in all subjects. Cerebral blood flow and vasoreactivity to acetazolamide were measured in 80 patients before surgery, using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Three-dimensional MR angiography (3D-MRA) was repeated in 32 pediatric patients after surgery in order to clarify the natural course of the PCA stenosis/occlusion. Of 264 sides in 132 patients, PCA stenosis/occlusion was observed in 50 sides of 40 patients (30.3%). Its incidence was significantly higher in ischemic-type patients than in hemorrhagic-type and asymptomatic patients, and was higher in patients in the advanced stage of the disease. The hemisphere ipsilateral to PCA stenosis/occlusion had higher incidence of ischemic symptoms, cerebral infarction, and impaired cerebral hemodynamics. Transient ischemic attack (TIA) (hemianopsia) or cerebral infarction in the occipital lobe was noted in 4 (10%) of 40 patients during follow-up periods after bypass surgery for anterior circulation. Of 32 pediatric patients, none showed progression of PCA stenosis on 3D-MRA during follow-up periods. The present study showed that the involvement of PCA could increase the risk of TIA and/or cerebral infarction in both anterior and posterior circulation areas, suggesting that the PCA plays an important collateral role in moyamoya disease. (author)

  8. Clinical significance of main pancreatic duct dilation on computed tomography: Single and double duct dilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark D Edge; Maarouf Hoteit; Amil P Patel; Xiaoping Wang; Deborah A Baumgarten; Qiang Cai

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the patients with main pancreatic duct dilation on computed tomography (CT) and thereby to provide the predictive criteria to identify patients at high risk of significant diseases, such as pancreatic cancer, and to avoid unnecessary work up for patients at low risk of such diseases.METHODS: Patients with dilation of the main pancreatic duct on CT at Emory University Hospital in 2002 were identified by computer search. Clinical course and ultimate diagnosis were obtained in all the identified patients by abstraction of their computer database records.RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients were identified in this study. Chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer were the most common causes of the main pancreatic duct dilation on CT. Although the majority of patients with isolated dilation of the main pancreatic duct (single duct dilation) had chronic pancreatitis, one-third of patients with single duct dilation but without chronic pancreatitis had pancreatic malignancies, whereas most of patients with concomitant biliary duct dilation (double duct dilation) had pancreatic cancer.CONCLUSION: Patients with pancreatic double duct dilation need extensive work up and careful follow up since a majority of these patients are ultimately diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. Patients with single duct dilation, especially such patients without any evidence of chronic pancreatitis, also need careful follow-up since the possibility of pancreatic malignancy, including adenocarcinoma and intraductal papillary mucinous tumors, is still high.

  9. Expression of CD40 and CD40L in Gastric Cancer Tissue and Its Clinical Significance

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    Rui Li

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To study expression of CD40 and CD40L in gastric cancer tissue we assessed gastric cancer patients admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology of The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University and control subjects. Gastric cancer and normal (from around tumours tissue samples were obtained from patients. Venous blood samples (gastric cancer and ulcer groups were drawn on the morning of the day before surgery for the measurement of peripheral sCD40L. The expression of CD40 in gastric carcinoma specimens was examined immuno-histochemically. The clinicopathological factors, including age, sex, tumor size, gross appearance, degree of cellular differentiation, histological classification, depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, peritoneal dissemination, and TNM stage were analyzed according to the different expression of CD40. The results indicated a high CD40 expression in gastric cancer tissues. This positive expression of CD40 revealed a significant (P < 0.05 correlation with lymphatic metastasis and tumor TNM stage in gastric cancer patients. It is concluded that higher CD40 expression existed in expanding type tumors and could play an important role in clinical diagnosis of gastric cancer patients.

  10. Clinical Significance of Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Bone Marrow in Patients with Leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; ZHANG Xiaohui; NIU Jinliang

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of bone marrow in patients with acute leukemia, the femoral and pelvic marrow were evaluated by using MRI with a T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) method and a short T1 inversion recovery (STIR) technique.Normal bone marrow examination was performed with coronal T1-weighted MRI of pelvis and femurs, and showed persistent red marrow. There was a bright signal of fatty marrow in the femoral epiphyses and apophyses. MRI pattern of bone marrow in the 54 cases of acute leukemia showed abnormal signal patterns of femoral and pelvic marrow: (1) grade Ⅰ ( n= 4 ) , ( 2 ) grade Ⅱ (n=11), (3) grade Ⅲ (n=8), (4)grade Ⅳ (n=17), and (5) graded Ⅴ (n=14). Leukemic cells had infiltration onseted by red marrow in adult patients with leukemia. The marrow of femur had infiltration from diaphysis to epiphysis, and to femoral head and greater trochanter. The lower grades(grade Ⅳ, Ⅴ ) of leukemic marrow supported the diagnosis of AML in MRI, which achieved higher complete remission. The adult patients with ALL had higher grades (grade I - Ⅲ ) in MRI. Our findings indicated that MRI of femoral marrow is an important tool for accurate diagnosis and management of patients with leukemia that may function as an adjunct to bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. The pattern of MRI in patients with newly diagnosed leukemia predicted the prognosis and CR of leukemia.

  11. Clinical significance of activity of ALT enzyme in patients with hepatitis C virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in relation to the clinical, biochemical,ultrasonographic and histological characteristics of patients with hepatitis C virus.METHODS: Duration of disease, HCV-RNA, liver steatosis, and the hepatitis activity index (HAI) were correlated with serum ALT in 36 patients with HCV. ALT values were also investigated in 16 control subjects without any liver diseases.RESULTS: In bivariate analyses, ALT levels correlated with duration of HCV infection (P< 0.01), HCV-RNA (P<0.05), and the HAI(P<0.01). Among the components of the HAI, ALT concentrations were significantly associated with pedportal bridging/necrosis (P<0.01) and fibrosis (P<0.05). In multivariate analysis, periportal bridging/necrosis (β = 0.508; P < 0.01), duration of HCV infection (β = 0.413; P < 0.01), and HCV-RNA (β= 0.253; P < 0.05)were independently associated with ALT activity. The normal ALT activity for men and women was < 23 IU/L and < 22 IU/L, respectively.CONCLUSION: In patients with HCV, alterations in the liver tissue as reflected by ALT elevation are mainly associated with periportal bridging/necrosis, viral load and duration of disease. A cut-off value < 23 IU/L distinguished with high diagnostic accuracy healthy controls from patients with HCV.

  12. Multiscale analysis of heart beat interval increment series and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG XiaoLin; NING XinBao; WANG XinLong

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of multiscale entropy (MSE) and multiscale standard deviation (MSD) are performed for both the heart rate interval series and the interval increment series. For the interval series, it is found that, it is impractical to discriminate the diseases of atrial fibrillation (AF) and congestive heart failure (CHF) unambiguously from the healthy. A clear discrimination from the healthy, both young and old, however, can be made in the MSE analysis of the increment series where we find that both CHF and AF sufferers have significantly low MSE values in the whole range of time scales investigated, which reveals that there are common dynamic characteristics underlying these two different diseases. In addition, we propose the sample entropy (SE) corresponding to time scale factor 4 of increment series as a diag-nosis index of both AF and CHF, and the reference threshold is recommended. Further indication that this index can help discriminate sensitively the mild heart failure (cardiac function classes 1 and 2) from the healthy gives a clue to early clinic diagnosis of CHF.

  13. Clinical significance of post-interventional cerebral hyperdensities after endovascular mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischaemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikoubashman, Omid [Uniklinik Aachen, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Aachen (Germany); Uniklinik Aachen, Klinik fuer Neurologie, Aachen (Germany); Reich, Arno; Gindullis, Mirco; Schulz, Joerg B. [Uniklinik Aachen, Klinik fuer Neurologie, Aachen (Germany); Frohnhofen, Katharina; Pjontek, Rastislav; Brockmann, Marc-Alexander; Wiesmann, Martin [Uniklinik Aachen, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Aachen (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    This study aims to investigate the clinical significance of post-interventional cerebral hyperdensities (PCHD) after endovascular mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischaemic stroke. Data of 102 consecutive patients who received post-interventional CT scans within 4.5 h after mechanical thrombectomy were analysed retrospectively. Sixty-two of 102 patients (60.8 %) had PCHD on their post-interventional CT scans. The most common site of PCHD was the basal ganglia. PCHD were persisting in 13 of 62 patients (21.0 %), and transient in the remaining 49 patients (79.0 %) within 24 h. Four patients with PCHD and four patients without PCHD suffered from parenchymal haemorrhage. Neither ASA nor Clopidogrel, Tirofiban or rtPA were risk factors for PCHD. Final infarction size was congruent with or bigger than areas of PCHD in 93.3 % of cases in our series. PCHD was not a risk factor for parenchymal haemorrhage in our series. The occurrence of PCHD was strongly related to the prior presence of infarction. PCHD was also a strong predictor for final infarction size. (orig.)

  14. The clinical significance of anti-H in an individual with the Oh (Bombay) phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, R J; Tourault, M A; Holland, P V

    1978-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of anti-H present in individuals with the Oh (Bombay) phenotype, red blood cell 51chromium survival studies and related serological tests were undertaken in an Oh (Bombay) individual. A small sample of group O donor red blood cells was labeled with 51chromium and infused into the patient. The T 1/2 of the infused cells was six minutes, with two percent of the cells surviving at 24 hours. A similar study using the patient's own labeled red blood cells demonstrated 100 per cent survival at 24 hours. Initial laboratory studies indicated that the anti-H was active in saline at 4, 22 and 37 C and by the indirect antiglobulin test. Analysis of the antibody in both preand posttransfusion specimens showed it to have both IgM and IgG components. The anti-H titer at 37 C rose from 1:4 prior to the infusion of the O cells to 1:32 one week postinfusion, and a partial hemolysin appeared. Saliva inhibition studies demonstrated that the antibody was neutralizable prior to the group O exposure but was not neutralizable one week post exposure. We conclude that the anti-H present in this individual rapidly destroyed infused group O red blood cells. Individuals with the Oh (Bombay) phenotype should be transfused only with Oh (Bombay) blood.

  15. Expression of SOCS-1 in the liver tissues of chronic hepatitis B and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Xin Zhao; Qing-Xian Cai; Xiao-Mou Peng; Yu-Tian Chong; Zhi-Liang Gao

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1) in the liver tissues of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and the clinical significance of this expression.METHODS: The expression of SOCS-1 in liver tissues of 45 cases of CHB was investigated by immunohistochemical staining, and its correlations with inflammation grades and fibrosis stage were analyzed by SPSS statistics software.RESULTS: The result showed SOCS-1 expressing could be observed in the liver tissue of CHB. The expression of SOCS-1 was mainly distributed near the portal area in the liver tissue of mild inflammation CHB group, and was diffusely distributed in the liver tissue of moderate and severe inflammation groups. SOCS-1 positive stains mainly appear in the hepatocytes, only a few of liver interstitial cells were involved. Inside the hepatocyte, SOCS-1 positive stains are mainly distributed in the plasma. Some of the staining was observed on the membrane. The inclusion bodies in the plasma of hepatocytes were observed occasionally. There were both obvious correlations between the expression of SOCS-1 and the inflammatory grade, and that between the expression of SOCS-1 and the fibrosis stage.CONCLUSION: The distribution of SOCS-1 in the liver tissue of CHB is variable. This expression was correlated with the inflammation grade and fibrosis stage.

  16. Mesenteric Lymphadenopathy in Childhood Epidemic Aseptic Meningitis: Sonographic Features and Clinical Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Sung Hee; Park, Young Chan; Lee, Young Hwan [Catholic University of Daegu, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    To evaluate the sonographic features of mesenteric lymphadenopathy in childhood epidemic aseptic meningitis and to assess their clinical significance. Thirty-three patients (25 male, 8 female: mean age, 8.6 years) with a diagnosis of aseptic meningitis were prospectively evaluated with abdominal ultrasonography for the presence of enlarged mesenteric nodes. The size and number of enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were analyzed in relationship with the patient's age, between the patients with abdominal pain or diarrhea (16 cases, 48%) and asymptomatic patients (17 cases, 52%). Mesenteric lymphadenopathy was seen in 31 patients (94%), all 16 symptomatic and 15 of the 17 asymptomatic patients. The number of enlarged nodes was most prevalent between 6-10, seen in 16 patients (52%) and the largest node ranged in size from 4 to 8 mm. Among the 31 patients with mesenteric lymphadenopathy, the mean size of the largest node was statistically different between the symptomatic (6.0 mm) and asymptomatic (5.0 mm) groups (p = 0.021). The number of enlarged nodes and the patient's age were not statistically different between the two groups. Mesenteric lymphadenopathy was seen in almost all cases of childhood epidemic aseptic meningitis, and may be related to the mesenteric lymphadenitis caused by enterovirus

  17. Markers of Collagen Remodeling Detect Clinically Significant Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette J; Kazankov, Konstantin; Leeming, Diana J;

    2015-01-01

    .75 and AUC = 0.86. Combination of Pro-C3 and C4M with age, BMI and gender in a multiple ordered logistic regression model improved the diagnostic value for detecting ≥F2 and ≥F3 with AUC = 0.80 and AUC = 0.88. CONCLUSION: The Pro-C3 protein fragment provided clinically relevant diagnostic accuracy......BACKGROUND AND AIM: Detection of advanced fibrosis (Metavir F≥3) is important to identify patients with a high urgency of antiviral treatments vs. those whose treatment could be deferred (F≤2). The aim was to assess the diagnostic value of novel serological extracellular matrix protein fragments...... the markers C3M, C4M, C6M and P4NP7S were significantly elevated in patients with advanced fibrosis (≥F3) compared to F0-F2 (pdetecting ≥F2 and ≥F3 was Pro-C3 with AUC = 0...

  18. Expression of midkine and its clinical significance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Jia Ren; Qing-Yun Zhang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of midkine in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and analyze its relationship with clinicopathological features.METHODS: RT-PCR and immunocytochemical staining were used to detect the expression of midkine mRNA and protein in EC109 cells, respectively. Then the expression of midkine in 66 cases of ESCC samples were detected by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against human midkine. RESULTS: Midkine was expressed in EC109 cell by RTPCR and immunocytochemistry. The immunoreactivity was detected in 56.1% (37/66) of the ESCC samples.The expression of midkine was found in cytoplasm of tumor cells. Notably, the intensity of midkine was stronger at the area abundant in vessels and the invading border of the tumors. Midkine was more intensely expressed in well differentiated tumors (76.9%)than in moderately and poorly differentiated tumors (43.1% and 41.2%, respectively) (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant correlation between midkine expression and gender, age, clinical stage, lymph node metastasis or survival in ESCC.CONCLUSION: Midkine is overexpressed in ESCC. It may play a role in tumor angiogenesis and invasion.The expression of midkine is correlated with tumor cell differentiation in ESCC. The more poorly tumor cells differentiate, the weaker midkine expresses.

  19. Clinical significance, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular identification of Nocardia species isolated from children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betrán, Ana; Villuendas, M Cruz; Rezusta, Antonio; Pereira, Javier; Revillo, M José; Rodríguez-Nava, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia is an opportunistic pathogen that causes respiratory infections in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiology, clinical significance and antimicrobial susceptibility of Nocardia species isolated from eight children with cystic fibrosis. The isolated species were identified as Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia transvalensis, Nocardia pneumoniae, Nocardia veterana and Nocardia wallacei. N. farcinica was isolated in three patients and all of them presented lung affectation with a chronic colonization and pneumonia. N. farcinica showed resistance against gentamicin, tobramycin, cefotaxime, but was susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and amikacin. N. transvalensis, which was isolated from two patients, showed an association with chronic colonization. N. transvalensis was resistant to tobramycin and amikacin, but susceptible to ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and cefotaxime. N. veterana, N. pneumoniae and N. wallacei were isolated from three different patients and appeared in transitory lung colonization. N. veterana and N. pneumoniae were susceptible to imipenem, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amikacin, tobramycin, and cefotaxime. N. wallacei was resistant to amikacin, tobramycin, imipenem, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and susceptible to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime. All the isolates were identified up to species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence of Nocardia in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis is not always an indication of an active infection; therefore, the need for a treatment should be evaluated on an individual basis. The detection of multidrug-resistant species needs molecular identification and susceptibility testing, and should be performed for all Nocardia infections. PMID:27155949

  20. CT evaluation of pulmonary parenchymal injury due to blunt chest trauma and its clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimi, Hiroshi (St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1990-10-01

    The CT findings of pulmonary parenchymal injury due to blunt chest trauma in 73 patients and their clinical significance were analyzed. CT was obtained within 6 hours after trauma. Findings were analyzed according to the number of injured segments and severity which was classified into three grades. A correlation was also made with arterial blood PaO{sub 2} and thoracic complications. Pulmonary parenchymal injury was identified in multisegmental portions bilaterally in most cases. It was most frequently observed in the posterior portion of the lung such as segment 6. More than 50% of lesions were classified as Grade 1. Pulmonary laceration, defined as patchy density with the cavitary lesion (Grade 3), was noted in 9.2%. There was a good correlation between extent of pulmonary injury and degree of hypoxia. The correlation of pneumothorax was also found with extensive lesion and frequency of Grade 3 lesion. Cases with pulmonary laceration tend to have extensive injury, and be related to the degree of hypoxia. In conclusion, CT evaluation of pulmonary parenchymal injury is valuable not only for morphological evaluation but also for estimation of hypoxia. (author).

  1. Significance of Nueroelectrophysiological Tests in the Early Diagnosis of Sub-clinical Neuropathay with Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhijun; HU Xiaoqing; TANG Nai

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the application of nueroelectrophysiological tests in early diagnosis of sub-clinical neuropathy in diabetes mellitus (DM), The routine nerve conductive velocity (NCV),F-wave and sympathetic skin response (SSR) were detected in 27 patients with diabetes mellitus but without symptoms and signs of lesions of nerve system. Our results showed that 48.1%, 44.4 %, 51.9 % of the patients were found to have abnormal NCV, F-wave and SSR respectively. The abnormalities were mainly characterized by prolonged latency, reduced velocity and absence of wave-form.There were significant differences between the controls and the DM group (P<0.05). Both the distal and proximal segments of nerves were affected and the distal lesions took place earlier than proximal ones and the changes in low extremities were more severe than those of upper extremities. F-wave can be used as a sensitive indicator for the early diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy and it can help to detect the subclincial lesions. SSR can be used for the evaluation of functional status of autonomic nerves in DM patients.

  2. Inflammatory Cytokine Secretion Status of Bone Marrow Cells and Clinical Significance in Immune-related Hematocytopenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the expression of inlfammatory molecules in bone marrow immune cells of patients with immune-related hematocytopenia (IRH), and to investigate the immune mechanism and clinical signiifcance of the disease. Methods Total of 36 IRH patients were selected as observation group and 30 healthy people were taken as control group. Serum cytokines levels, activity of immunocytes and expression of HLA-DR were detected. Immune lfuorescence was applied to observe the expression state of immunologic molecules and cytokines in IRH patients. Results Serum cytokines were elevated in various degrees in observation group. Compared with the control group, the cytokines levels were significantly higher (P Conclusions It is demonstrated that antibodies or self-reactive lymphocytes were produced in IRH marrow, which would cause lesions of hemocytes, and lead to pathological process ifnally. Structure of hematopoietic cells mutated and these cells might be acted as target cells of immunocytes in the pathological process. Immunocytes could secrete inlfammatory factors and lead to immunologic injury of hemocyte.

  3. [Clinical significance of Helicobacter pylori in children with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying; Wang, Shu-Chun; Wang, Lu-Juan; Liu, Yong; Wang, Hai-Ying; Wang, Zhan-Ju

    2013-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the clinic significance of helicobacter pylori (HP) in children with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The infection of HP in 92 ITP children was determined by (13) C-Urea Breath Test, the same test was also performed on 66 healthy children. The 68 children infected with HP were randomly divided into 2 groups: single drug group treated only with corticosteroid and; combined drug group treated with corticosteroid and anti-helicobacter pylori treatment. The results showed that 68 patients infected with HP were found in 92 ITP children (74.7%), 26 patients infected with HP were observed in 66 healthy children (39.4%), which was lower than that in ITP children (74.7%, P helicobacter pylori therapy, the total effective rate and cure rate of ITP patients increased respectively from 73.5% to 94.1%, and the total recurrence rate (17.0%) was much lower than single drug group (47.1%, P helicobacter pylori group was higher than that in the single drug group (P helicobacter pylori therapy would help to improve the therapeutic efficacy and reduce the recurrence of ITP children.

  4. Immune reactions in tuberculous and chronic constrictive pericarditis. Clinical data and diagnostic significance of antimyocardial antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisch, B; Maisch, S; Kochsiek, K

    1982-11-01

    Humoral immune reactions were analyzed in 12 patients with exudative tuberculous pericarditis, 10 patients with constrictive pericarditis due to former tuberculosis, 10 patients with viral pericarditis, 20 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, and 98 healthy donors. Pericarditis occurred in 12.5% of the patients with tuberculosis, whereas the incidence of tuberculosis in the 149 patients with pericarditis was 8%. Repeated pericardial puncture and pericardial effusions of greater than 500 ml with impending cardiac tamponade had to be performed in 4 patients. Clinical data indicated probable myocardial involvement in 4 of 12 patients. Antimyolemmal antibodies, which are a muscle-specific subtype of antisarcolemmal antibodies, were found in all patients with exudative tuberculous pericarditis and viral perimyocarditis, in only 1 of 12 patients with constrictive pericarditis, and in no patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Antifibrillary antibodies--primarily of the antimyosin type--were missed in patients with viral heart disease but were demonstrated in 75% of patients with tuberculous pericarditis. Only sera with complement-fixing antimyolemmal antibodies of the IgG type in titers greater than 1:40 induced cytolysis of vital adult heterologous cardiocytes isolated and enriched by silica sol gradient centrifugation. These findings suggest not only that antimyolemmal antibodies are diagnostic indicators of perimyocardial involvement in tuberculous pericarditis, but also that they may play a significant role in its pathogenesis. PMID:6753555

  5. Thyrotoxic storm during sepsis: study of a rare complication, clinical and biological observations

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdinando Dodi; Monica Centanaro; Elisa Porcile; Elisabetta Riccò; Anna Di Noto; Angelo Gratarola

    2016-01-01

    We describe an uncommon severe clinical complication of sepsis – thyrotoxic storm (TS). Common biologic, pathogenic, clinical conditions that can determine sepsis can cause a TS. High circulating values of vascular cellular adhesive molecules-1 and various pro-inflammatory citochines are related with thyroid damage. During sepsis, moderate dysfunctions are not expression of actual disease, but severe damage in pituitary-thyroid hormonal axis. Thyroid stimulated hormon release, and consequent ...

  6. Fear of hypoglycemia and its clinical significance: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Georgievna Starostina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the prevalence of fear of hypoglycemia, its clinical features and influence on diabetes compensation.Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 200 sequentially enrolled participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; n=139 and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM; n=61. Patients were screened for psychiatric disorders with appropriate inventory and examined by a psychiatrist. Subjects identified as those with fear of hypoglycemia (n=12 formed the study group, while control group was assembled of individuals without phobic signs, matched for gender, age, type and duration of diabetes and concomitant psychiatric disorders.Results. Prevalence of fear of hypoglycemia was estimated at 6%, being consistently higher in patients with T1DM (16.1% vs. T2DM (1%; p=0.0002. Fear of hypoglycemia was associated with higher median HbA1c (9.4% [8.6 ; 9.9] vs. 8.2% [6.8 ; 9.3], p<0.05. These findings are in agreement with considerably higher prevalence of proliferative retinopathy (33% observed in study group (0% in control group, p<0.05. Phobic patients with T1DM had higher occurrence of ketoacidosis (41.7% of subjects, 7 cases than control subjects (16.6% of subjects, 2 cases. Similar trend was observed for severe hypoglycemic events. There was no significant difference between the groups in sensitivity to hypoglycemia, cognitive functions, educational level or social status. Patients with fear of hypoglycemia tend to regard hypoglycemia as primary, highly hazardous challenge of diabetes mellitus and perceive its symptoms as «extremely unpleasant». However, in this study phobic patients maintained the same level of self-monitoring as their control counterparts and demonstrated comparable knowledge of the causes of hypoglycemia. None of the participants reported a habit of carrying carbohydrates for hypoglycemia management.Conclusion. Fear of hypoglycemia is highly prevalent among patients with T1DM and is often

  7. Biological designer self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffolds significantly enhance osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and 3-D migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Horii

    Full Text Available A class of self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffolds has been shown to be an excellent biological material for 3-dimension cell culture and stimulating cell migration into the scaffold, as well as for repairing tissue defects in animals. We report here the development of several peptide nanofiber scaffolds designed specifically for osteoblasts. We designed one of the pure self-assembling peptide scaffolds RADA16-I through direct coupling to short biologically active motifs. The motifs included osteogenic growth peptide ALK (ALKRQGRTLYGF bone-cell secreted-signal peptide, osteopontin cell adhesion motif DGR (DGRGDSVAYG and 2-unit RGD binding sequence PGR (PRGDSGYRGDS. We made the new peptide scaffolds by mixing the pure RAD16 and designer-peptide solutions, and we examined the molecular integration of the mixed nanofiber scaffolds using AFM. Compared to pure RAD16 scaffold, we found that these designer peptide scaffolds significantly promoted mouse pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation. Moreover, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and osteocalcin secretion, which are early and late markers for osteoblastic differentiation, were also significantly increased. We demonstrated that the designer, self-assembling peptide scaffolds promoted the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1. Under the identical culture medium condition, confocal images unequivocally demonstrated that the designer PRG peptide scaffold stimulated cell migration into the 3-D scaffold. Our results suggest that these designer peptide scaffolds may be very useful for promoting bone tissue regeneration.

  8. Markers of stem cells in human ovarian granulosa cells: is there a clinical significance in ART?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varras Michail

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence of gene expression of Oct-4 and DAZL, which are typical markers for stem cells, in human granulosa cells during ovarian stimulation in women with normal FSH levels undergoing IVF or ICSI and to discover any clinical significance of such expression in ART. Methods Twenty one women underwent ovulation induction for IVF or ICSI and ET with standard GnRH analogue-recombinant FSH protocol. Infertility causes were male and tubal factor. Cumulus–mature oocyte complexes were denuded separately and granulosa cells were analyzed for each patient separately using quantitative reverse-transcription–polymerase chain reaction analysis for Oct-4 and DAZL gene expression with G6PD gene as internal standard. Results G6PD and Oct-4 mRNA was detected in the granulosa cells in 47.6% (10/21. The median of Oct-4 mRNA/G6PD mRNA was 1.75 with intra-quarteral range from 0.10 to 98.21. The OCT-4 mRNA expression was statistically significantly correlated with the number of oocytes retrieved; when the Oct-4 mRNA expression was higher, then more than six oocytes were retrieved (p=0.037, Wilcoxon rank-sum. No detection of DAZL mRNA was found in granulosa cells. There was no additional statistically significant correlation between the levels of Oct-4 expression and FSH basal levels or estradiol peak levels or dosage of FSH for ovulation induction. No association was found between the presence or absence of Oct-4 mRNA expression in granulosa cells and ovarian response to gonadotropin stimulation. Also, no influence on pregnancy was observed between the presence or absence of Oct-4 mRNA expression in granulosa cells or to its expression levels accordingly. Conclusions Expression of OCT-4 mRNA, which is a typical stem cell marker and absence of expression of DAZL mRNA, which is a typical germ cell marker, suggest that a subpopulation of luteinized granulosa cells in healthy ovarian follicles (47

  9. The Clinical Significance of Cathepsin D and p53 Expression in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun-Sang; Lee, Sheng-Jin; Kim, Jin-Man; Cho, Moon-June [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    Cathepsin D (CD) is a lysosomal acid proteinase that is related to malignant progression, invasion, and a poor prognosis in several tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic clinical significance of CD and p53 expression in pretreatment biopsy specimens from patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were treated with preoperative chemoradiation. Eighty-nine patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (cT3/T4 or N+) were included in this study. Preoperative chemoradiation consisted of a dose of 50.4 Gy of pelvic radiation and two concurrent cycles of administration of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin. Surgery was performed six weeks after chemoradiation. CD and p53 expression in pretreatment formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor biopsy specimens were assessed by immunohistochemical staining using a CD and p53 monoclonal antibodies. The threshold value for a positive stain in tumor tissue and stromal cells was 1+ intensity in 10% of the tumors or stromal cells, respectively. Positive CD expression was found in 57 (64%) of the tumors and 32 (35%) of the stromal cell specimens. There was no association with CD expression of the tumor or stromal cells and patient characteristics. There was a correlation between tumor CD expression with stromal cell CD expression (p=0.01). Overexpression of p53 was not a significant prognostic factor. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were not different between tumor CD-negative and positive patient biopsy samples (69% vs. 65%, 60% vs. 61%, respectively). The 5-year OS rates in the tumor-negative/stromal cell-negative, tumor-negative/stromal cell-positive, tumor-positive/stromal cell-negative and tumor-positive/ stromal cell-positive biopsy samples were 75%, 28%, 62%, and 73%, respectively. Stromal cell staining only without positive tumor staining demonstrated the worst overall survival prognosis for patients (p=0.013). Overexpression of p53 in rectal biopsy tissue was not

  10. [Similarity of monozygotic twins regarding vocal performance and acoustic markers and possible clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, M; Oeken, J; Hotopp, T; Täschner, R; Hentschel, B; Behrendt, W

    2000-06-01

    Auditory similarities in voices of monozygotic twins have already been described in the literature. However, is there a clinical relevance? Thus, the present study was designed to identify parameters of vocal performance and acoustic features which are significantly more similar in monozygotic twins than in non-related persons. In our hypothesis, comparable prerequisites for an increased vocal load in a profession or in an artistic education of the voice could be due to these similarities. We compared intra-pair differences with data from a control group. Moreover, we examined the correlation of intra-pair differences with the age of the monozygotic twins. A greater difference in older twin pairs than in younger pairs could show the effect of an exogene influence. In addition to the few phoniatric studies in twins in the literature, we used current methods for acoustic analysis. We examined seven parameters of vocal performance and three acoustic features in 31 monozygotic twin pairs (median age 36 years, range 18-75 years) and compared them with 30 control group pairs, which consisted of non-related persons of the same age and sex, newly combined from the group of monozygotic twins ("statistical twins"). We found significant differences in seven of ten parameters (vocal range, highest and lowest vocal fundamental frequency, fundamental speaking frequency, maximum voice intensity, number of partials, vibrato of intensity; U-test by Mann-Whitney). No correlation of the differences of the identical twins with age was found in the examined parameters. The voices of identical twins are significantly more similar than those of non-related persons regarding the above mentioned features. Thus, the suitability of the voices of monozygotic twins for professions with a high demand on voice is comparable. Results of the group comparison correlate largely with the literature. The missing correlation with age could be due to the fact that the environmental effects were not

  11. Detection of CK20mRNA in peripheral blood of pancreatic cancer and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Li Zhang; Jian-Guo Feng; Jian-Min Gou; Li-Xin Zhou; Ping Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To detect the expression of CK20mRNA in peripheral blood of Pancreatic cancer and evaluate its clinical significance.METHODS: Expression of CK20mRNA in peripheral blood was detected by fluorogenic qualitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 40cases of pancreatic cancer at the night before operation,in 5 cases of benign pancreatic diseases, in 5 cases of healthy individuals. The relationships were investigated between CK20mRNA expression and the clinicopathological variables, and clinical follow-up outcome in those patients with pancreatic cancer having undergone radical resection.RESULTS: Of the 40 patients with pancreatic cancer, 23(57.5%) cases were positive for CK20mRNA expression.CK20mRNA expression was significantly correlated with lymphatic metastasis (P = 0.008), histopathological grading (P = 0.009), and pathological stage (P = 0.021);there was no significant correlation between CK20mRNA expression and age, gender, tumor diameter, and depth of invasion. The cumulative metastasis rates of patients with CK20mRNA expression were higher than those of patients with no CK20mRNA expression within 6 mo (34.7%vs5.9%, P= 0.043) or 12 mo (73.9% vs35.3%, P= 0.02)after operation. CK20mRNA expression in peripheral blood of pancreatic cancer indicated poorer prognosis. The survival rate of patients with CK20mRNA expression was lower than that of patients with negative CK20mRNA expression (Log-Rank = 13.31, P = 0.0003).CONCLUSION: CK20mRNA is a sensitive and specific molecular marker for the detection of micrometastasis in peripheral blood of patients with pancreatic cancer. The CK20mRNA expression in peripheral blood is correlated with biological characteristic of pancreatic cancer. It can help to predict the prognosis of pancreatic cancer after operation, and to determine which patient will benefit from aggressive adjuvant therapies.

  12. Expression of mucins and E-cadherin in gastric carcinoma and their clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Kai Zhang; Qiu-Min Zhang; Tie-Hua Zhao; Yuan-Yuan Li; Yong-Fen Yi

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of three types of mucin (MUC1, MUC2, MUCSAC) and E-cadherin in human gastric carcinomas and their clinical significance.METHODS: Ninety-four gastric cancer specimens were classified according to WHO criteria and detected by immunohistochemical assay of expression of mucins and E-cadherin.RESULTS: The positive expression rates of MUC1, MUC2,MUC5AC and E-cadherin were 82% (77/94), 84% (79/94),40% (38/94) and 56% (53/94) respectively. MUC1 expression was significantly correlated with the types of cancer (the positive rates of MUC1 in well and moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma,signet-ring cell carcinoma and mucinous carcinoma were 91%, 87%, 71%, 71%, respectively, P<0.05), age of patients (the positive rates of it among the people who are younger than 40 years, between 40-60 years and over 60 year were 74%, 81%, 89%, P<0.05), lymph nodes involvement (the positive rates in the non-interfered group and the interfered group were 78%, 85%, P<0.05) and tumor size (the positive rates in the tumors with the size less than 3 cm, 3-6 cm and larger than 6 cm were 69%, 92%, 69%, P<0.05); MUC2expression was significantly associated with types of cancers and had the strongest expression in mucinous carcinomas (the positive rates of MUC2 in well and moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma,signet-ring cell carcinoma and mucinous carcinoma were 94%, 70%, 81%, 100%, P<0.05), but it had no obvious relation to age, gender, tumor location, lymph nodes involvement,depth of invasion and metastasis to extra-gastric organs (P>0.05); MUC5AC expression was not related to any of the characteristics investigated except that it had relation to gender, whereas MUC5AC showed the tendency to higher expression in less invasive lesions and lower expression in advanced stage cancers (P>0.05); No significant difference was found for E-cadherin expression

  13. Clinical significance of TOAST typing of ischemic stroke in young adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke in young adults brings extremely hurts for their families and society, and the etiological factors and risk factors are different in the world.OBJECTIVE: To analyze and evaluate clinical significance of ischemic stroke in young adults by using TOAST typing.DESIGN: Case analysis.SETTING: Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi Medical University.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 64 young adults with acute ischemic stroke were selected from the Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi Medical University from September 2005 to June 2006.There were 44 males and 20 females and their age ranged from 15 to 45 years. All patients met with the diagnostic criteria of the Fourth National Cerebrovarscular Academic Meeting and certainly diagnosed with CT or MRI examination. In addition, all patients provided the confirmed consent.METHODS: ① TOAST typing: Based on X-ray of thoracic part, electrocardiography, blood routine, blood glucose, electrolure, lipid, blood coagulation test, anticardiolipin antibody, antinuclear antibody, anti-double chain DNA, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, crook agglutination test, syphilis antibody and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody test, patients received TOAST typing, including large-artery atherosclerotic stroke (LA), small-artery occlusion lacunar (SA), cardioembolism (CE), stroke of other demonstrated etiology (SOE), and stroke of other undemonstrated etiology (SUE). ② Risk factors: Stages of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipemia, smoking and drinking of patients were observed. Blood pressure was measured twice after onset of acute stroke, and values of total cholesterol (TC) and/or triacylglycerol (TG) were measured more than twice to finally diagnose hyperlipemia. Diagnostic criteria of diabetes mellitus: fasting≥7.0 mmol/L; 2 hours after administrating glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/L. Risk factor of smoking defined as more than 10 smokes every day in the

  14. Clinical significance of human kallikrein 12 gene expression in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    En-Hao Zhao; Zhi-Yong Shen; Hua Liu; Xin Jin; Hui Cao

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate whether the expression of kallikrein 12 (KLK12) is related to the development of gastric cancer (GC) and to determine the role of KLK12 in gastric cancer cells growth,invasion and migration.METHODS:Between September 2007 and March 2008,133 patients with histologically confirmed GC were recruited for the study.Expression of KLK12 was detected in samples from GC patients by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry.The relationship between KLK12 protein expression and clinicopathological features of GC was analyzed.The difference in 5-year survival rates between the high KLK12 protein expression group and the low KLK12 expression group was compared.Additionally,the expression of KLK12 was examined in various human GC cell lines,including MKN-28,SGC-7901 and MKN-45.Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to inhibit KLK12 expression in MKN-45 cells.Cell clones stably transfected with KLK12 siRNA were tested for KLK12 expression by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting.Furthermore,a series of functional assays were performed in this study to assess the biological features of transfected cells.Cell proliferation was assessed using the methylthiazolyltetrazoliumassay.Finally,cell migration and invasion were assessed using transwell chamber assays.RESULTS:Of the 133 GC patients induded in the study,126 (94.7%) showed a higher expression level of KLK12 mRNA when compared to noncancerous tissue specimens.Expression of KLK12 mRNA was significantly higher in GC tissues than in normal tissue (P < 0.001).KLK12 protein expression was detected in 96 of 133 (72.2%) GC samples with moderate or strong staining primarily in the cytoplasm.In contrast,negative immunostaining for KLK12 protein was observed in the corresponding normal gastric mucosal tissue.Overexpression of KLK12 protein was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P =0

  15. Sequence variations of the hypervariable region of hepatitis C virus and their clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To understand the clinical significance of sequence variations in the hypervariable region (HVR) of hepatitis C virus during infection. Methods Eight patients with acute hepatitis C and 20 patients with chronic hepatitis C were followed up for two years. Blood samples were taken at intervals of six months for analysis of HCV-HVR sequences by reverse transcription-pelymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and direct sequencing methods. Results HCV-HVR sequences of the 28 patients changed in various degrees. 92% of these nuclentide substitutions led to changes of corresponding amino acid sequence. Only 8% of changed nucleotide were synonymous substitutions. Of 27 amino acids variation of amino acid ranged from 1 to 20 (mean 8, 30%). The most common nucleotide substitution (62%) occurred in the first position of codon, 31% in the second and the rest in the third. HVR variation rate wes 0.89×10-1 per genome site per year in acute hepatitis C, compared with 2.31×10-1 per genome site per year in chronic hepatitis C (P<0.05), but had no relafian to HCV subtype. Variation of HVR in the flare up type (ALT>150 μ/L) was much more than that in the quiescent type (ALT<100 μ/L). Conclusion Our results suggested that sequence variation of HVR during HCV chronic infection seems to be an adaptive response to HCV to evade the host immune pressure and might play a major role in the establishment of persistent infection as well as in the flare-up of hepatitis.

  16. Clinical Significance of Myocardial Uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT Performed in Oncologic Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Ho Jin; Cho, Eung Hyuck; Lee, Jong Doo; Kang, Won Jun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake of myocardium is influenced by various factors. Increased glycolysis, and subsequent increased F-18 FDG uptake has been reported in ischemic cardiomyopathy. However, clinical significance of incidentally found myocardial F-18 FDG uptake has not been clarified. We retrospectively reviewed the degree and pattern of myocardial uptake in patients without history of ischemic heart disease who underwent torso F-18 FDG PET/CT for evaluation of neoplastic disease. From January 2005 to June 2009, 77 patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT and Tc-99m sestamibi stress/rest SPECT within 3 months were enrolled. Of 77 patients, 55 (71.4%) showed increased F-18 FDG uptake in the myocardium. In this population, 40 showed uniform uptake pattern, while 15 showed focal uptake. In patients with uniform uptake, 17 showed decreased uptake in the septum without perfusion defect on myocardial SPECT. Remaining 23 patients showed uniform uptake, with 1 reversible perfusion defect and 1 fixed perfusion defect. In 15 patients with focal uptake, 9 showed increased F-18 FDG uptake in the base, and only 1 of them showed reversible perfusion defect on myocardial SPECT. In the remaining 6 focal uptake group, 4 had reversible perfusion defect in the corresponding wall, and 1 had apical hypertrophy. We demonstrated that septal defect pattern and basal uptake pattern in the myocardium may represent normal variants. Focal myocardial uptake other than normal variants on oncologic torso F-18 FDG PET/CT with routine fasting protocol may suggest ischemic heart disease, thus further evaluation is warranted.

  17. Clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluation of the extension of uterine cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, Masaru (Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 62 patients with uterine cervical cancer and the preoperative MRI findings were compared with the pathological findings following surgery. The surgical stages of 62 patients were 2 at stage 0, 18 at stage Ia, 19 at stage Ib, 9 at stage IIa, 11 at stage IIb, 2 at stage IIIa, and 1 at stage IIIb. The MRI findings in the present study included: (1) the existence of a high intensity area (HIA) in the uterine cervix or minimum thickness of residual normal cervical tissue, (2) necrotic cavity, (3) pyometra, (4) irregular margin of the cervix, (5) parametrial invasion, (6) vaginal invasion, (7) bladder invasion, and (8) lymph node enlargement. No HIA was observed in any patient with stage 0 or stage Ia, in 8 patients with stage Ib, and in 2 patients with stage IIa, while all patients with cancer tissues greater than 10 mm in diameter had a HIA. In 39 patients in whom hysterectomy was undergone without conization, the findings of MRI correlated significantly (r=0.929, p<0.001) with the minimum thickness of residual normal cervical tissue by the pathological measurement. When the irregular margin of the cervix was regarded as a disruption of the cervical myo-metrium by cancer tissue, accuracy was 87%. Furthermore, the degrees of accuracy for parametrial invasion, vaginal invasion and bladder invasion were 92%, 90% and 94%, respectively. When lymphnodes greater than 15 mm in diameter were regarded as a positive in MRI, accuracy was 88%. The present results indicate that MRI is clinically effective in preoperatively evaluating the extension of uterine cervical cancer. (author).

  18. Detection of multiple antibodies in myasthenia gravis and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-wei; HAO Hong-jun; GAO Feng

    2010-01-01

    Background Antibodies against acetylcholine receptor, acetylcholinesterase, ryanodine receptor and titin have been found in patients with myasthenia gravis. However, the relations between these antibodies and character of myasthenia gravis are unknown. This study aimed to detect multiple antibodies in myasthenia gravis and to investigate its clinical significance.Methods These antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay in 89 cases of myasthenia gravis,66 cases of other neurological diseases and 66 healthy controls. The incidences of antibodies were compared using the chi-square test.Results Acetylcholine receptor, acetylcholinesterase, titin and ryanodine receptor antibodies were detected in 53.9%,20.2%, 64.0% and 55.0% of myasthenia gravis patients respectively, higher than in patients of other neurological diseases and controls groups. The combination of the four antibodies assays provided 94.4% sensitivity and 84.0% specificity for the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. Acetylcholinesterase antibody occurred more frequently in acetylcholine receptor antibody negative patients with adverse reactions to neostigmine test. Titin antibody provided 82.1% sensitivity and 52.5% specificity for myasthenia gravis with thymoma. Incidences of titin and of ryanedine receptor antibody were higher in late onset myasthenia gravis than in early onset myasthenia gravis. The proportion of titin antibody positive patients increased with the severity of myasthenia gravis as graded by a modified Osserman scale.Conclusions Testing for acetylcholine receptor, acetylcholinesterase, titin and ryanodine receptor antibodies can offer a better diagnostic method for myasthenia gravis than each antibody test alone. Titin antibody combined with computed tomography was better for the diagnosis of thymoma. Titin antibody occurred most frequently in severe myasthenia gravis.

  19. Clinical significance of antinucleosome antibodies in patients with “early” systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kotovskaya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess clinical and diagnostic value of antibodies to nucleosom e in «early» systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE.Material and methods. 37 pts with «early « SLE were included. The control groups consisted of 36 pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, 31 pts with primary Sjogren›s syndrom e (SS and 45 healthy subjects. Concentration of antibodies to nucleosom e and to double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA was measured with enzyme immunoassay (EIA.Results. The level of antinucleosom e antibodies in SLE pts (64,5 ± 53,7 U/ml was significantly higher than in RA and SS pts (JO, 9 ±23,7 U/ml; p<0,05 и 15,7 ±11,5 U/ml respectively; p<0,05 or in donors (8,3 ± 5,2 U/ml; p<0,05. Correlation was found between level of antibodies to nucleosom e and antibodies to dsDNA (χ2 = 14,4; p<0,05. Sensitivity (87,5% and specificity (95% of antinucleosom e antibodies were similar to anti-dsDNA antibodies (85,2% и 93% respectively. Simultaneous evaluation of antibodies to nucleosom e and dsDNA provided 97 % specificity. There was a correlation between the level of antibodies to nucleosom e and disease activity in SLE (p<0,0001.Conclusion. Evaluation of antinucleosom e antibodies with EIA is a sensitive and specific serological test for early SLE diagnosis. The antibodies to nucleosom e reflect activity of SLE

  20. Clinical Significance of Myocardial Uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT Performed in Oncologic Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake of myocardium is influenced by various factors. Increased glycolysis, and subsequent increased F-18 FDG uptake has been reported in ischemic cardiomyopathy. However, clinical significance of incidentally found myocardial F-18 FDG uptake has not been clarified. We retrospectively reviewed the degree and pattern of myocardial uptake in patients without history of ischemic heart disease who underwent torso F-18 FDG PET/CT for evaluation of neoplastic disease. From January 2005 to June 2009, 77 patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT and Tc-99m sestamibi stress/rest SPECT within 3 months were enrolled. Of 77 patients, 55 (71.4%) showed increased F-18 FDG uptake in the myocardium. In this population, 40 showed uniform uptake pattern, while 15 showed focal uptake. In patients with uniform uptake, 17 showed decreased uptake in the septum without perfusion defect on myocardial SPECT. Remaining 23 patients showed uniform uptake, with 1 reversible perfusion defect and 1 fixed perfusion defect. In 15 patients with focal uptake, 9 showed increased F-18 FDG uptake in the base, and only 1 of them showed reversible perfusion defect on myocardial SPECT. In the remaining 6 focal uptake group, 4 had reversible perfusion defect in the corresponding wall, and 1 had apical hypertrophy. We demonstrated that septal defect pattern and basal uptake pattern in the myocardium may represent normal variants. Focal myocardial uptake other than normal variants on oncologic torso F-18 FDG PET/CT with routine fasting protocol may suggest ischemic heart disease, thus further evaluation is warranted

  1. Clinical Significance of the Degree of Fatty Liver Diagnosed by Ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Kyun [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Koeralife Daejeon Healthcare Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    Fatty liver is one of the most commonly found disease by abdominal ultrasonography. The status of fatty liver is classified into mild, moderate and severe degrees. The study was conducted to investigate the clinical significance of fatty liver using ultrasonography. Test set consisted of 2,185 patients who visited D healthcare center in Daejeon to receive an abdominal ultrasonic test from January to December 2007. Out of the 2185 patients, 524 patients was diagnosed as fatty liver (290 male and 234 female patients). They were divided into three groups, group I for mild degree. II for moderate degree, and III for severe degree, depending on the echo of liver parenchyma, the sound attenuation, and the visibility of intrahepatic blood vessels and diaphragm. Then the correlation of obesity indices, liver function tests and metabolic syndrome was analyzed for males and females separately. As for the degree of fatty liver, 350 cases (66.8%) were classified as group I, 153 cases (29.2%) as group II, and 21 cases (4.1%) as group III. In addition, severe degree of fatty liver was more frequently found in males than in females. The mean ages of three groups for males were 46.1, 44.5, and 39.1, and those for females were 48.8, 50.2, 52.4, respectively. Males with lower mean ages have severely of fatty liver for both males and females. The results in this study show that the classification into three degrees of fatty liver in ultrasonography practice is helpful to treat and observe the progress of fatty liver. In addition, careful examination is required to measure the severity of fatty liver as well as detection of it. A standardized method to classify the degree of fatty liver is also needed for more objective measurement.

  2. The MR diagnosis and clinical significance of bone contusion of knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate MRI in the diagnosis of the bone contusion of the knee .joint and its clinical significance. Methods: Using special coil for knee joint, coronal, sagittal, axial and oblique sagittal plane scanning with fast spin-echo sequence(T1WI, T2WI, PDWI + FS) was performed on knee joint in 205 patients in three days after injury. According the distributing bone marrow edema and injury mechanism, bone contusion were classified five types as pivot shift injury, clip injury, dashboard injury, hyperextension injury and lateral patellar dislocation. Results: One hundred and forty-five cases of the 205 patients were found bone marrow edema without fracture on X-ray films. Among them, pivot shift injury was found in 43 cases accompanied with anterior cruciate ligament rupture in 30 cases, tear of the posterior horn of the lateral or medial meniscus in 12 and tears of the medial collateral ligament in 8 cases; clip injury in 53 cases accompanied with anterior cruciate ligament rupture in 10 cases, tear of the posterior horn of the lateral or medial meniscus in 15 and tears of the medial collateral ligament in 38 cases; dashboard injury 40 cases accompanied with posterior cruciate ligament rupture in 16 cases, hyperextension injury. 9 cases accompanied with anterior cruciate ligament rupture in 2 cases, posterior cruciate ligament rupture in 3 cases. No lateral patellar dislocation was found. Forty-eight of 145 patients had undergone arthroscopy, 43 cases (89.6%) of them were in accordance with Mill diagnosis. Bone contusion were defined as geographic regions of abnormal signal intensity, that is, low signal intensity in T1-weighted images and high signal intensity in PD-weighted or T2-weigeted images with fat saturation. Conclusion: MRI can accurately display the location and area of bone contusion of the knee joint as well as its adjunctive structure injury and deduce their injury mechanism. MRI should be used routinely for knee trauma. (authors)

  3. The prognostic significance of clinical and pathological features in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lun-Xiu Qin; Zhao-You Tang

    2002-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with HCC still remains dismal. The life expectancy of HCC patients is hard to predict because of the high possibility of postoperative recurrence. Many factors, such as patient's general conditions, macroscopic tumor morphology, as well as tumor hictopathology features, have been proven of prognostic significance. Female HCC patient often has a better prognosis than male patient, which might be due to the receptor of sex hormones. Younger patients often have tumors with higher invasiveness and metastatic potentials, and their survival and prognosis are worse than the older ones. Co-existing hepatitis status and hepatic functional reserve have been confirmed as risk factors for recurrence. Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is useful not only for diagnosis, but also as a prognostic indicator for HCC patients. AFP mRNA has been proposed as a predictive marker of HCC cells disseminated into the circulation and for metastatic recurrence. Many pathologic features,such as tumor size, number, capsule state, cell differentiation, venous invasion, intrahepatic spreading, and advanced pTNM stage, are the best-established risk factors for recurrence and important aspects affecting the prognosis of patients with HCC. Marked inflammatory cell infiltration in the tumor could predict a better prognosis. Clinical stage is still the most important factor influencing on the prognosis. Extratumor spreading and lymph nodal metastasis are independent predictors for poor outcome. Soma new predictive systems have recently been proposed. Different strategies of treatment might have significant different effects on the patients'prognosis. To date, surgical resection is still the only potentially curative treatment for HCC,including localized postoperative recurrences.Extent of resection, blood transfusion, occlusion of porta hepatis, and blood loss affect the survival and prognosis of HCC patients. Regional therapies provide alternative ways to improve the prognosis of

  4. Clinical significance of expression of apoptotic signal proteins in gastric carcinoma tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Han Zhao; Shan-Zhi Gu; Hong-Gang Tian; Ping Quan; Bo-Rong Pan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the expressions of apoptotic signal proteins FADD, TRADD, FasL, Fas, and NFκB in gastric carcinoma tissues and their clinical significance.METHODS: Western blot immune trace method was adopted to detect the expressions of apoptotic signal proteins FADD, TRADD, FasL, Fas, and NFκB in 55 tissue specimens of gastric carcinoma.RESULTS: Five apoptotic signal proteins had different expressions in the gastric carcinoma samples and their expressions were not correlated to age (P = 0.085).Expressions of the FADD, FasL, Fas, and NFκB proteins reduced with increase of the volume of tumor with the exception of increased expression the TRADD protein (64.7-71.1%, P = 0.031). With gradual increase of the malignancy of gastric carcinoma tissues, expressions of the FADD, FasL, and Fas proteins decreased (78.6-28.0%,P= 0.008; 78.6-65.9%, P= 0.071; 100.0-46.3%, P= 0.014),while expressions of the TRADD and NFκB proteins increased (42.9-78.1%, P= 0.063; 78.6-79.1%, P= 0.134).With gradual increase of serum CEA, expression of the FADD protein decreased (62.5-34.0%, P = 0.073), but expressions of the TRADD, FasL, Fas, and NFκB proteins increased (0.0-80.8%, P = 0.005; 62.5-70.2%, P = 0.093;0.0-70.2%, P = 0.003; 62.5-80.9%, P = 0.075). When compared to the tissues of gastric carcinoma without metastasis, the positive rate of expressions of the FADD and FasL proteins increased, whereas expressions of the TRADD, FADD, and NFκB proteins decreased. There was no significant difference between them (P = 0.095).CONCLUSION: Gastric carcinoma is endurable to Fasrelated apoptosis and apoptotic signal proteins are differently expressed in gastric carcinoma.

  5. Allelic polymorphism of glucocorticoid receptor NR3C1 (GR: from molecular biology to clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlovsky M. A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphism of stress-related genes is a key factor determining difference in the stress reactivity and resistance among humans. Glucocorticoid receptors are important actors of stress responses. This review is focused on the molecular biology and clinical implications of glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphism.

  6. Clinically significant and practical! Enhancing precision does make a difference. Reply to McGlinchey and Jacobson, Hsu, and Speer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, WJJM; Arrindell, WA

    1999-01-01

    Based on a secondary analysis of the Jacobson and Truax [Jacobson, N.S. & Truax, P. (1991). Clinical significance: a statistical approach to defining meaningful change in psychotherapy research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 12-19.] data using both their own traditional approach

  7. BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF CHRONIC SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MEDIA AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE IN RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Middle ear infection is one of the most common condition in ENT practice, particularly in our country. Its significance lies in its chronicity and its dreaded complications like hearing loss and cholesteatoma. Chronic suppurative Otitis media and its complications are among the most common conditions seen by both the otologist and pediatrician. Both gram positive and negative organisms are responsible for infection of the middle ear. AIMS: The study was primarily carried out in 200 cases of C.S.O.M. to determine the bacteriological flora and to study the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the organisms isolated on culture from discharging ears. RESULTS: In our study Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be the most common isolated bacteria (40.65% [100/246], followed by Staphylococcus aureus (14.63%[36/246], Klebsiella aerogenes (11.78%[29/246] and Proteus Mirabilis (10.56%[26/246]. Among the anerobic organisms Peptostreptococcus (5.69% was the most common followed by Propionibacterium (4.06% and Bacteroids spp. (3.65%. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic in the present study. It was effective against maximum number of strains 97(95.48% followed by Gentamycin 95(92.36% and Ciprofloxacin 93(91.30%. Cefoperazone 88(86.42%, Cefotaxime 78(74.54% and Ofloxacin 64(62.68%. CONCLUSION: Efficient and effective treatment of CSOM is based on the knowledge of causative micro-organisms and thus their antimicrobial sensitivity ensures proper clinical recovery and avoidance of the possible dreaded complications. It has been observed that human negligence is one of the main factor responsible for the development of antibiotic resistance. Along with the indiscriminate use of antibiotics by the treating physician the lack of compliance on part of the patient also results in emergence of resistance and thus in treatment failure. It has been frequently encountered that as soon as the symptoms subside and improvement in condition occurs, many

  8. BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF CHRONIC SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MEDIA AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE IN RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Srivatsava

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Middle ear infection is one of the most common condition in ENT practice, particularly in our country. Its significance lies in its chronicity and its dreaded complications like hearing loss and cholesteatoma. Chronic suppurative Otitis media and its complications are among the most common conditions seen by both the otologist and pediatrician. Both gram positive and negative organisms are responsible for infection of the middle ear. Aims: The study was primarily carried out in 200 cases of C.S.O.M. to determine the bacteriological flora and to study the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the organisms isolated on culture from discharging ears. Results: In our study Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be the most common isolated bacteria (40.65% [100/246], followed by Staphylococcus aureus (14.63% [36/246], Klebsiella aerogenes (11.78% [29/246] and Proteus Mirabilis (10.56% [26/246]. Among the anerobic organisms Peptostreptococcus (5.69% was the most common followed by Propionibacterium (4.06% and Bacteroids spp. (3.65%. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic in the present study. It was effective against maximum number of strains 97 (95.48% followed by Gentamycin 95 (92.36% and Ciprofloxacin 93 (91.30%. Cefoperazone 88 (86.42%, Cefotaxime 78 (74.54% and Ofloxacin 64 (62.68%. Conclusion: Efficient and effective treatment of CSOM is based on the knowledge of causative micro-organisms and thus their antimicrobial sensitivity ensures proper clinical recovery and avoidance of the possible dreaded complications. It has been observed that human negligence is one of the main factor responsible for the development of antibiotic resistance. Along with the indiscriminate use of antibiotics by the treating physician the lack of compliance on part of the patient also results in emergence of resistance and thus in treatment failure. It has been frequently encountered that as soon as the symptoms subside and improvement in condition occurs

  9. A model for estimating body shape biological age based on clinical parameters associated with body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bae CY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chul-Young Bae,1 Young Gon Kang,2 Young-Sung Suh,3 Jee Hye Han,4 Sung-Soo Kim,5 Kyung Won Shim61MediAge Research Center, Seoul, Korea; 2Chaum Power Aging Center, College of Medicine, CHA University, Seoul, Korea; 3Health Promotion Center, Keimyung University Dongsam Medical Center, Daegu, Korea; 4Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, Eulji University, Seoul, Korea; 5Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea; 6Department of Family Medicine, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, KoreaBackground: To date, no studies have attempted to estimate body shape biological age using clinical parameters associated with body composition for the purposes of examining a person's body shape based on their age.Objective: We examined the relations between clinical parameters associated with body composition and chronological age, and proposed a model for estimating the body shape biological age.Methods: The study was conducted in 243,778 subjects aged between 20 and 90 years who received a general medical checkup at health promotion centers at university and community hospitals in Korea from 2004 to 2011.Results: In men, the clinical parameters with the highest correlation to age included the waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.786, P < 0.001, hip circumference (r = −0.448, P < 0.001, and height (r = −0.377, P < 0.001. In women, the clinical parameters with the highest correlation to age include the waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.859, P < 0.001, waist circumference (r = 0.580, P < 0.001, and hip circumference (r = 0.520, P < 0.001. To estimate the optimal body shape biological age based on clinical parameters associated with body composition, we performed a multiple regression analysis. In a model estimating the body shape biological age, the coefficient of determination (R2 was 0.71 in men and 0.76 in women.Conclusion: Our model for estimating body shape biological age

  10. 75 FR 8968 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Adaptive Design Clinical Trials for Drugs and Biologics; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... entitled ``Adaptive Design Clinical Trials for Drugs and Biologics.'' The draft guidance provides sponsors... Evaluation and Research (CBER) with information regarding adaptive design clinical trials when used in drug... design clinical trials (i.e., clinical, statistical, regulatory) call for special consideration, when...

  11. Selective biologics for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease – clinical utility of vedolizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petkau JM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Jill MV Petkau, Bertus Eksteen Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD encompasses a cluster of different disease phenotypes which are broadly classified into ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Disease pathogenesis is driven by abnormal host immune responses to their resident gut microbiome in genetically susceptible individuals. Clinical disease features and outcomes are heterogenous and not unexpected as over 163 genetic loci are associated with disease susceptibility, and there are great variability in environmental exposures. Despite this variability, there has been relatively few efficacious therapies for particularly moderate-to-severe IBD. Treatment has been dominated by antitumor necrosis alpha agents with significant success but equally potentially serious adverse events. Therapeutic targeting of leucocyte trafficking has emerged as a viable alternative therapy, with vedolizumab being the lead compound. This review focuses primarily on its biological function as a selective gut immunotherapy, its safety and efficacy, and its emerging role as a mainstream therapy in managing IBD. Keywords: adhesion molecule antagonist, anti-α4β7 integrin, inflammatory bowel disease, leukocyte trafficking, monoclonal antibody, selective gut immunotherapy, tumor necrosis factor alpha

  12. [Epidemiological, clinical and biological features of infantile visceral leishmaniasis at Kairouan hospital (Tunisia): about 240 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissi, W; Ben Hellel, K; Habboul, Z; Ben Sghaier, I; Harrat, Z; Bouratbine, A; Aoun, K

    2015-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important health problem in Tunisia. It is most common in children under five years of age. The governorate of Kairouan (central Tunisia) is one of the most affected foci. The aim of this study was to update the epidemiological, clinical and biological features of the disease. The study concerned all VL cases admitted in the pediatric department of Kairouan hospital during 10 years (from 2004 to 2013). For every patient included in this study and when available, data such as sex, age, geographical origin and the condition of the patient at admission (clinical and biological findings) were collected. The myelogram results were also exploited as well as results of serology, culture, Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and isoenzymatic typing of Leishmania isolates. Two hundred and forty cases were recorded. Rural cases (87.1%) were more prevalent than urban ones (12.9%). Age ranged from 2 months to 13 years (median, 18 months). The female/male sex ratio was 1.03. The diagnosis delays ranged from 1 day to 8 months (median, 15 days). The most common clinical symptoms at admission were splenomegaly (97.9%), fever (79.9%) and hepatomegaly (47.3%). The principal biological disturbances were anemia (91.7%), thrombocytopenia (83.9%) and leucopenia (56.1%). Among the different biological tools used for diagnosis confirmation, PCR was the most sensitive (100%). All 43 typed stocks corresponded to Leishmania (L.) infantum species. Although zymodeme MON-1 was predictably the most frequent (27 cases), L. infantum MON-24 and MON-80 were responsible of no negligible numbers of cases (11 and 5 cases respectively). The present study gave an updated epidemiological, clinical and biological profile of infantile VL in Tunisia. The diagnosis delays were considerably shortened compared to previous reports. However, an even earlier diagnosis of cases is needed to improve the disease prognosis. Real-Time PCR showed to be helpful in VL management.

  13. Differential expression patterns and clinical significance of estrogen receptor-α and β in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is markedly higher in women than men during the reproductive years. In vitro studies have suggested that estrogen may play an important role in the development and progression of PTC through estrogen receptors (ERs). This study aimed to investigate the expression patterns of the two main ER subtypes, α and β1 (wild-type ERβ), in PTC tissue and their clinical significance. Immunohistochemical staining of thyroid tissue sections was performed to detect ER expression in female patients with PTC (n = 89) and nodular thyroid goiter (NTG; n = 30) using the Elivision™ plus two-step system. The relationships between ER subtype expression and clinicopathological/biological factors were further analyzed. The positive percentage and expression levels of ERα were significantly higher in female PTC patients of reproductive age (18–45 years old; n = 50) than age-matched female NTG patients (n = 30), while ERβ1 exhibited the opposite pattern. There was no difference in ERα or ERβ1 expression between female PTC patients of reproductive age and those of advanced reproductive age (>45 years old; n = 39). In the female PTC patients of reproductive age, ERα expression level was positively correlated with that of Ki-67, while ERβ1 was negatively correlated with mutant P53. Furthermore, more patients with exclusively nuclear ERα expression had extrathyroidal extension (ETE) as compared with those with extranuclear ERα localization. VEGF expression was significantly decreased in female PTC patients of reproductive age with only nuclear ERβ1 expression when compared with those with extranuclear ERβ1 localization. In PTC patients of advanced reproductive age, neither ERα nor ERβ1 expression showed any correlation with that of Ki-67, mutant P53, VEGF, tumor size, TNM stage, ETE, or lymph node metastases. The differential expression patterns of the two ER subtypes between PTC and NTG indicate that ERα may be a useful

  14. Statistical, Practical, Clinical, and Personal Significance: Definitions and Applications in Speech-Language Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothe, Anne K.; Richardson, Jessica D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss constructs and methods related to assessing the magnitude and the meaning of clinical outcomes, with a focus on applications in speech-language pathology. Method: Professionals in medicine, allied health, psychology, education, and many other fields have long been concerned with issues referred to variously as practical…

  15. The clinical relevance and management of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Donk, Niels W C J; Palumbo, Antonio; Johnsen, Hans Erik;

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance is one of the most common pre-malignant disorders. IgG and IgA monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance are precursor conditions of multiple myeloma; light-chain monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance of light-chain multiple...

  16. Microaneurysm turnover in the macula is a biomarker for development of clinically significant macular edema in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Luisa Ribeiro, Sandrina Nunes, José Cunha-VazAssociation for Innovation and Biomedical Research on Light and Image and Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, PortugalAbstract: The evolution and progression of diabetic retinopathy varies between individuals and does not necessarily progress to vision loss in every patient. However, it is difficult in clinical practice to predict the clinical course and to identify which eyes will develop vision-threatening complications, ie, clinically significant macular edema or proliferative retinopathy. There is a clear need to identify biomarkers of disease progression. Microaneurysm turnover computed automatically in digital color fundus photography images using the RetmarkerDR is a good biomarker for worsening of retinopathy and development of clinically significant macular edema. For long-term prediction (ten years, a microaneurysm formation rate higher than two per year predicts development of clinically significant macular edema.