WorldWideScience

Sample records for biology clinical significance

  1. Clinical and biological significance of precursor lesions ofintrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is primarily a malignant tumorof older adults most prevalent in Southeast Asia, whereliver fluke infestation is high. However the etiology inwestern countries is unknown. Although the incidence ofextrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma has remained constant,incidence of intrahepatic CC (ICC) which differs inmorphology, pathogenesis, risk factors, treatment andprognosis is increasing. While this increase is associatedwith hepatitis C virus infection, chronic nonalcoholicliver disease, obesity, and smoking, the pathogenesisof ICC and molecular alterations underlying the carcinogenesisare not completely elucidated. Benignbiliary lesions such as biliary intraepithelial neoplasia,intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct, vonMeyenburg complex or bile duct hamartoma, and bileduct adenoma have been associated with ICC. For eachof these entities, evidence suggests or supports a roleas premalignant lesions. This article summarized theimportant biological significance of the precursor lesionsof ICC and the molecular mechanisms that may beinvolved in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinogenesis.

  2. Endocannabinoid system as a regulator of tumor cell malignancy – biological pathways and clinical significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyszniak, Maria; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek; Łuszczki, Jarogniew J

    2016-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) comprises cannabinoid receptors (CBs), endogenous cannabinoids, and enzymes responsible for their synthesis, transport, and degradation of (endo)cannabinoids. To date, two CBs, CB1 and CB2, have been characterized; however, orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR55 has been suggested to be the third putative CB. Several different types of cancer present abnormal expression of CBs, as well as other components of ECS, and this has been shown to correlate with the clinical outcome. Although most effects of (endo)cannabinoids are mediated through stimulation of classical CBs, they also interact with several molecules, either prosurvival or proapoptotic molecules. It should be noted that the mode of action of exogenous cannabinoids differs significantly from that of endocannabinoid and results from the studies on their activity both in vivo and in vitro could not be easily compared. This review highlights the main signaling pathways involved in the antitumor activity of cannabinoids and the influence of their activation on cancer cell biology. We also discuss changes in the expression pattern of the ECS in various cancer types that have an impact on disease progression and patient survival. A growing amount of experimental data imply possible exploitation of cannabinoids in cancer therapy. PMID:27486335

  3. Endocannabinoid system as a regulator of tumor cell malignancy – biological pathways and clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyszniak M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Maria Pyszniak,1–3 Jacek Tabarkiewicz,1,2 Jarogniew J Łuszczki4,5 1Centre for Innovative Research in Medical and Natural Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rzeszów, Rzeszów, 3Postgraduate School of Molecular Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Warszawa, 4Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Lublin, 5Isobolographic Analysis Laboratory, Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Lublin, Poland Abstract: The endocannabinoid system (ECS comprises cannabinoid receptors (CBs, endogenous cannabinoids, and enzymes responsible for their synthesis, transport, and degradation of (endocannabinoids. To date, two CBs, CB1 and CB2, have been characterized; however, orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR55 has been suggested to be the third putative CB. Several different types of cancer present abnormal expression of CBs, as well as other components of ECS, and this has been shown to correlate with the clinical outcome. Although most effects of (endocannabinoids are mediated through stimulation of classical CBs, they also interact with several molecules, either prosurvival or proapoptotic molecules. It should be noted that the mode of action of exogenous cannabinoids differs significantly from that of endocannabinoid and results from the studies on their activity both in vivo and in vitro could not be easily compared. This review highlights the main signaling pathways involved in the antitumor activity of cannabinoids and the influence of their activation on cancer cell biology. We also discuss changes in the expression pattern of the ECS in various cancer types that have an impact on disease progression and patient survival. A growing amount of experimental data imply possible exploitation of cannabinoids in cancer therapy. Keywords: cannabinoids, cancer, cell signaling, cannabinoid receptor, delta-9-tetrahy­drocannabinol

  4. Clinical Significance of Biological Markers at Primary Operation for Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhenhuan; YAMASHITA Hiroko; TOYAMA Tatsuya; YAMAMOTO Yutaka; IWASE Hirotaka

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the prognostic value of biological markers at initial operation for metastatic breast cancer, we measured the presence of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα), progesterone receptor (PgR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2),and histological grade (HG) of tumors. Methods: One-hundred and seventy-six patients, aged 29 to 90 (median: 51 years), with recurrent breast cancer underwent primary operation at our department during the period from 1983 to 2000. Clinicopathological factors examined at primary operation included menopausal symptoms, presence of axillary lymph node metastasis, tumor size, HG, HER2, ERα and PgR.Factors examined at recurrence included site of primary recurrence, disease-free interval(DFI) and tumor markers, such as CEA and CA15-3. The relationship between these factors and prognosis following recurrence was assessed. Results: Menopausal status, axillary lymph node metastasis and tumor size at primary operation had no significant effect on prognosis. Patients with low HG, positive expession of ERα and PgR, and low HER2 expression had a good prognosis, similar to those with long DFI and distant metastases. After distant metastases, HER2 was found to be the most important prognostic factor following recurrence and in predicting response to drug therapy.Conclusion: Biological factors indicating tumor malignancy at the time of the first operation are also important prognostic factors following tumor recurrence.

  5. The protolobar structure of the human kidney: Its biologic and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inke, G.

    1988-01-01

    This book depicts the uniqueness of each kidney as a result of the interaction of the process of nephronogenesis with the random variability of vascular channels within the bounds of a limited space. The fields of anatomy, developmental biology, comparative morphology, embryology, nephrology, pathology, physiology, radiology, and urologic surgery are treated.

  6. Clinical and Biological Significance of Clonal Macrophage Detection in Hemophagocytic Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雯; 肖燕; 费洪宝

    2002-01-01

    Summary: By using the method of clonal analysis the evidence to prove that Hemophagocytic syn drome (HPS) is reactive or malignant was investigated to probe into the pathogenesis of HPS and its relations with clinical prognosis. The macrophages abnormally proliferated in bone marrow were iso lated. Electrophoresis analysis was made after DNA extraction, enzyme restriction of human ardro gen receptor (HUMARA) genetic locus, and PCR amplification. In the 9 specimens, clonal prolifer ation was found in 2 cases and nonclonal proliferation in 7. Among the 7 cases of nonclonal prolifera tion, 3 were voluntarily discharged without clinical outcome, 2 cases fully recovered after 2-3 week treatment of large dose gamma globulin intravenous drip and hormone therapy, 1 case died at the 43th day after the hormone and anti-infection therapy, and one case was found to have granular leukoblast in peripheral blood after 3 weeks and diagnosed as having M2a after bone puncture. For the two patients with clonal proliferation, one obtained remission after chemotherapy and the other was died after 32 days without chemotherapy. It was concluded that there do exist clonal or malig nant proliferation in HPS, so not every case is reactive.

  7. [Clinical significance of dissociated cholestasis as a biological syndrome (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardellach, F; Sierra, J; Coca, A; Villalta, J; Martinez-Orozco, F; Ingelmo, M; Balcells-Gorina, A

    1981-10-10

    The case histories of 1200 patients admitted to our hospital over a 20 month period were reviewed to determine the degree, frequency and cause of dissociated cholestasis as a biological syndrome. Patients were divided into two groups: group I with 80 cases, included all patients whose gamma-GT levels were more than 30 mU/ml and serum-bilirubin less than 1.2 mg/ml, with alkaline phosphatase levels between 90-180 mU/ml. Group II included those with alkaline phosphatase levels higher than 180 mU/ml (57 cases). All over incidence of dissociated cholestasis was 13.82%. Main causes in group I were infectious diseases, mainly pneumonias and urinary infections and congestive cardiac failure. In group II, neoplasias such as Hodgkin's disease and epithelial metastases and obstructions of the biliary tract such as vesicular or choledocal litiasis were the main causes. Transaminase levels underwent variable increases according to the different entities, without there being any difference between the two groups. The physiopathology as well as the anatomopathological aspects which could originate the syndrome are discussed.

  8. Aberrations of chromosome 8 in myelodysplastic syndromes: Clinical and biological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisavljević Dragomir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rearrangements of any single chromosome in human karyotype have been reported in patients with pMDS. Objective: To examine the role of aberrations of chromosome 8 in pathogenesis, clinical presentation and progression of myelodysplastic syndromes. Method: Cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow cells was carried out by direct method and by means of 24- and/or 48-hour unstimulated cell culture. Chromosomes were obtained by modified method of HG-bands. Results: On presentation, 109 out of 271 successfully karyotyped patients (40,2% had abnormal karyotypes. Among them, 22 patients (10.9% had aberrations of chromosome 8. Ten patients had trisomy 8 as "simple" aberration whilst additional three cases had trisomy 8 included in "complex" karyotypes (≥3 chromosomes. Cases with constitutional trisomy 8 mosaicism (CT8M were excluded using the chromosome analyses of PHA-stimulated blood cultures. On the contrary, monosomy (seven patients or deletion of chromosome 8 (two patients were exclusively found in "complex" karyotypes. During prolonged cytogenetic follow-up, trisomy 8 was not recorded in evolving karyotypes. In contrast, trisomy 8 disappeared in two cases during subsequent cytogenetic studies, i.e. 23 and 72 months from diagnosis, accompanied in one patient with complete hematological remission. No difference regarding age, sex, cytopenia, blood and marrow blast count or response to treatment was found between patients with trisomy 8 as the sole aberration compared to those with normal cytogenetics. Median survival of patients with trisomy 8 as the sole aberration was 27 months, as compared to 32 months in patients with normal cytogenetics (p=0.468, whilst median survival of patients with aberrations of chromosome 8 included in "complex" karyotypes was only 4 months. Conclusion: Aberrations of chromosome 8 are common in patients with pMDS. The presence of a clone with trisomy 8 is not always the sign of disease progression or poor

  9. Radiation-induced bystander effect in healthy G{sub 0} human lymphocytes: Biological and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belloni, Paola; Latini, Paolo [Department of Agrobiology and Agrochemistry, University of Tuscia, Via San Camillo De Lellis, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy); Palitti, Fabrizio, E-mail: palitti@unitus.it [Department of Agrobiology and Agrochemistry, University of Tuscia, Via San Camillo De Lellis, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy)

    2011-08-01

    To study the bystander effects, G{sub 0} human peripheral blood lymphocytes were X-irradiated with 0.1, 0.5 and 3 Gy. After 24 h, cell-free conditioned media from irradiated cultures were transferred to unexposed lymphocytes. Following 48 h of medium transfer, viability, induction of apoptosis, telomere shortening, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and micronuclei (after stimulation) were analyzed. A statistically significant decrement in cell viability, concomitant with the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, telomere shortening, increases in hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup -}) with depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) level, and higher frequencies of micronuclei, were observed in bystander lymphocytes incubated with medium from 0.5 and 3 Gy irradiated samples, compared to lymphocytes unexposed. Furthermore, no statistically significant difference between the response to 0.5 and 3 Gy of irradiation in bystander lymphocytes, was found. However, when lymphocytes were irradiated with 0.1 Gy, no bystander effect with regard to viability, apoptosis, telomere length, and micronuclei was observed, although a high production of ROS level persisted. Radiation in the presence of the radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) suppressed oxidative stress induced by 3 Gy of X-rays with the effective elimination of bystander effects, suggesting a correlation between ROS and bystander signal formation in irradiated cells. The data propose that bystander effect might be mostly due to the reactions of radiation induced free radicals on DNA, with the existence of a threshold at which the bystander signal is not operative (0.1 Gy dose of X-rays). Our results may have clinical implications for health risk associated with radiation exposure.

  10. Clinical significance of cumulative biological effective dose and overall treatment time in the treatment of carcinoma cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Abhijit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this retrospective study is to report the radiotherapy treatment response of, and complications in, patients with cervical cancer on the basis of cumulative biologic effective dose (BED and overall treatment time (OTT. Sixty-four (stage II - 35/64; stage III - 29/64 patients of cervical cancer were treated with combination of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT and low dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT. The cumulative BED was calculated at Point A (BED 10 ; and bladder, rectal reference points (BED 2.5 using the linear-quadratic BED equations. The local control (LC rate and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS rate in patients of stage II were comparable for BED 10 < 84.5 and BED 10 > 84.5 but were much higher for BED 10 > 84.5 than BED 10 < 84.5 ( P < 0.01 in stage III patients. In the stage II patients, The LC rate and 5-year DFS rate were comparable for OTT < 50 days and for OTT> 50 days but were much higher in stage III patients with OTT < 50 than OTT> 50 days ( P < 0.001. It was also observed that patients who received BED 2.5 < 105 had lesser rectal ( P < 0.001 and bladder complications than BED 2.5 > 105. Higher rectal complication-free survival (CFS R rate, bladder complication-free survival (CFS B rate and all-type late complication-free survival rate were observed in patients who received BED 2.5 < 105 than BED 2.5 > 105. A balanced, optimal and justified radiotherapy treatment schedule to deliver higher BED 10 (>84.5 and lower BED 2.5 (< 105 in lesser OTT (< 50 days is essential in carcinoma cervix to expect a better treatment outcome in all respects.

  11. The biological difference between CD13+CD133+ and CD13¬CD133¬liver cancer cells and its clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-long JIN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare the biological difference between CD13+CD133+ and CD13-CD133- hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cells in HuH7 cell line and its clinical significance. Methods The status of proliferation, phase of the cell cycle, tumor formation in vivo, differentiation, and their chemoresistance to 5-FU and pirarubicin of CD13+CD133+ and CD13-CD133-HCC cells were studied to analyze the clinical implication of CD13+CD133+HCC cell subset. Results The proliferation rate of CD13+CD133+HCC cells was significantly higher than that of CD13-CD133-HCC cells. The cell-cycle phase study showed that 78.45% of the CD13+CD133+HCC cells were in the G0/G1 phase, 2.19% in G2/M phase, and 19.36% in S phase, while 62.18% CD13-CD133-HCC cells were in the G0/G1 phase, 11.88% in G2/M phase, and 25.95% in S phase. Limiting dilution analysis of HuH7 cells revealed that 1×103 CD13+CD133+ cells could form the tumor, while 1×105 CD13-CD133- cells did. CD13+CD133+ cells showed chemoresistance to 5-FU and pirarubicin, while other three subsets succumbed to the drugs. Conclusion CD13+CD133+ cancer cells in HuH7 showed the characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs, which might contribute to the relapse and metastasis of liver cancer, and they may be the main target for chemotherapy in human liver cancer.

  12. Biological and clinical significance of NAC1 expression in cervical carcinomas: a comparative study between squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeasmin, Shamima; Nakayama, Kentaro; Rahman, Mohammed Tanjimur; Rahman, Munmun; Ishikawa, Masako; Katagiri, Atsuko; Iida, Kouji; Nakayama, Naomi; Otuski, Yoshiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Satoru; Miyazaki, Kohji

    2012-04-01

    This study examined the biological and clinical significance of NAC1 (nucleus accumbens associated 1) expression in both cervical squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas. Using immunohistochemistry, the frequency of positive NAC1 expression in adenocarcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas (31.0%; 18/58) was significantly higher than that in squamous cell carcinomas (16.2%; 12/74) (P = .043). NAC1 gene amplification was identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 5 (7.2%) of 69 squamous cell carcinomas. NAC1 amplification was not identified in the adenocarcinomas (0%; 0/58). Positive NAC1 expression was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival in squamous cell carcinomas (P NAC1 expression in squamous cell carcinomas was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival after standard radiotherapy (P = .0003). In contrast to squamous cell carcinomas, positive NAC1 expression did not correlate with shorter overall survival in adenocarcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas (P = .317). Profound growth inhibition, increased apoptosis, decreased cell proliferation, and decreased cell migration and invasion were observed in silencing RNA-treated cancer cells with NAC1 overexpression compared with cancer cells without NAC1 expression. NAC1 overexpression stimulated proliferation, migration, and invasion in the cervical cancer cell lines TCS and Hela P3, which normally lack NAC1 expression. These findings indicate that NAC1 overexpression is critical to the growth and survival of cervical carcinomas irrespective of histologic type. Furthermore, they suggest that NAC1 silencing RNA-induced phenotypes depend on the expression status of the targeted cell line. Therefore, cervical carcinoma patients with NAC1 expression may benefit from a targeted therapy irrespective of histologic type.

  13. Clinical significance of HIV-1 coreceptor usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusso Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of phenotypically distinct HIV-1 variants with different prevalence during the progression of the disease has been one of the earliest discoveries in HIV-1 biology, but its relevance to AIDS pathogenesis remains only partially understood. The physiological basis for the phenotypic variability of HIV-1 was elucidated with the discovery of distinct coreceptors employed by the virus to infect susceptible cells. The role of the viral phenotype in the variable clinical course and treatment outcome of HIV-1 infection has been extensively investigated over the past two decades. In this review, we summarize the major findings on the clinical significance of the HIV-1 coreceptor usage.

  14. New insight on the biological role of p53 protein as a tumor suppressor: re-evaluation of its clinical significance in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Min-Sun; Park, In Ae; Kim, Ji Young; Chung, Yul Ri; Im, Seock-Ah; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Ryu, Han Suk

    2016-08-01

    While p53 mutation is found in the majority of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and despite recent developments in p53-targeting agents, their therapeutic application is still limited by the absence of standard biomarkers and ambiguousness of its essential biological role in cancer. Whole sections from 305 TNBC cases were stained for p53 to determine the correlation with lymph node metastasis and clinical outcomes in the whole cohort as well as in stratified patient groups according to AJCC stage and the use of adjuvant chemotherapy. Reduced immunohistochemical expression of p53 was an independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis. p53 overexpression was predictive of better clinical outcome in all patients (P = 0.012, disease-free survival and P = 0.008, overall survival) and the stratified cohorts of those who had early breast cancer and received adjuvant chemotherapy. Suppression of endogenous mutant p53 by siRNA and induction of wild-type p53 repressed TNBC cell invasion in vitro. In TNBC, increased immunohistochemical expression of p53 may reflect the accumulation of wild-type p53 rather than the mutant form. Strong p53 protein expression may serve as a favorable prognostic indicator and provide evidence for the use of specific agents targeting p53.

  15. Pseudogene redux with new biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmena, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    The study of pseudogenes, originally dismissed as genomic relics of evolutionary selection, has seen a resurgence in scientific literature, in addition to being a peculiar topic of discussion in theological debates. For a long time, pseudogenes have been touted as a beacon of natural selection and a definitive proof of evolution due to the slow mutation rate that differentiated them from their parental genes and ultimately caused their genetic demise as functional genes. It now seems that "creationists" have co-opted some recent reports identifying unheralded biological functions to pseudogens and other noncoding RNAs as evidence to undermine the existence of evolution and supporting intelligent design. This issue of Methods in Molecular Biology focused on pseudogenes will certainly not end, nor enter this debate; however, scientists who are also genomics and pseudogene enthusiasts will certainly appreciate that many scientists are thinking about these particular genetic elements in new and interesting ways. With this new interest in a biological significance and "non-junk" role for pseudogenes and other noncoding RNAs, new methods and approaches are being developed to unlock the mystery of these ancient artifacts we know as pseudogenes. In this brief introductory chapter we highlight the renewed interest in pseudogenes and review a rationale for intensification of pseudogene-related research.

  16. Biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Caruso

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A NUMBER of receptors for growth factors and differentiation antigens have been found to be secreted or released by cells. Following mononuclear cell (MNC activation and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R expression, a soluble form of the Alpha;-chain of IL-2R (sIL-2R is released. The sIL-2R has been shown to be present in the culture supernatants of activated MNCs as well as in normal sera and, in higher amounts, in sera from subjects affected by several diseases including neoplastic, infectious and autoimmune ones, and in sera from transplanted patients suffering allograft rejection. The blood sIL-2R levels depend on the number of producing cells and the number of molecules per cell, so that sIL-2R blood values may represent an index of the number and the functional state of producing cells, both normal and neoplastic. Thus, monitoring of the immune system, mostly T-cells and haematological malignancies might be targets for the measurement of sIL-2R. Since many conditions may influence sIL-2R production, little diagnostic use may result from these measurements. However, since blood sIL-2R levels may correlate with disease progression and/or response to therapy, their measurement may be a useful index of activity and extent of disease. The precise biological role of the soluble form of the IL-2R is still a matter of debate. However, we know that increased sIL-2R levels may be observed in association with several immunological abnormalities and that sIL-2R is able to bind IL-2. It is conceivable then that in these conditions the excess sIL-2R released in vivo by activated lymphoid cells or by neoplastic cells may somehow regulate IL-2-dependent processes. On the other hand, it cannot exclude that sIL-2R is a by-product without biological significance. Finally, it is puzzling that in many conditions in which an increase of blood sIL-2R values has been observed, MNCs display a decreased in vitro capacity to produce sIL-2R. These seemingly contrasting

  17. The thresholds for statistical and clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian; Winkel, Per

    2014-01-01

    threshold if the trial is stopped early or if interim analyses have been conducted; (4) adjust the confidence intervals and the P-values for multiplicity due to number of outcome comparisons; and (5) assess clinical significance of the trial results. CONCLUSIONS: If the proposed five-step procedure...... not reflect the probability of getting a result assuming an alternative hypothesis to the null hypothesis is true. Second, a confidence interval or a P-value showing significance may be caused by multiplicity. Third, statistical significance does not necessarily result in clinical significance. Therefore......, assessment of intervention effects in randomised clinical trials deserves more rigour in order to become more valid. METHODS: Several methodologies for assessing the statistical and clinical significance of intervention effects in randomised clinical trials were considered. Balancing simplicity...

  18. A REVIEW: BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCES OF HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtyar. S. Saini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Heterocyclic chemistry offers an example for the lack of distinct demarcations; in fact, it pervades the plurality of the other chemical disciplines. Heterocycles are inextricably woven into the life processes. The vital interest of the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries in heterocycles is often connected with their natural occurrence. Synthetic chemistry provides cornucopia of heterocyclic systems. More than 90% of new drugs contain heterocycles and the interface between chemistry and biology, at which so much new scientific insight, discovery and application is taking place is crossed by heterocyclic compounds. This review article covers the most active heterocycles that have shown considerable biological actions as antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticonvulsant, antiallergic, herbicidal, anticancer activity

  19. Dietary Polyphenols and Their Biological Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Lou

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietary polyphenols represent a wide variety of compounds that occur in fruits,vegetables, wine, tea, extra virgin olive oil, chocolate and other cocoa products. They aremostly derivatives and/or isomers of flavones, isoflavones, flavonols, catechins andphenolic acids, and possess diverse biological properties such as antioxidant, antiapoptosis,anti-aging, anticarcinogen, anti-inflammation, anti-atherosclerosis, cardiovascularprotection, improvement of the endothelial function, as well as inhibition of angiogenesisand cell proliferation activity. Most of these biological actions have been attributed to theirintrinsic reducing capabilities. They may also offer indirect protection by activatingendogenous defense systems and by modulating cellular signaling processes such asnuclear factor-kappa B (NF-кB activation, activator protein-1(AP-1 DNA binding,glutathione biosynthesis, phosphoinositide 3 (PI3-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt pathway,mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK proteins [extracellular signal-regulated proteinkinase (ERK, c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and P38 ] activation, and the translocationinto the nucleus of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2. This paper covers themost recent literature on the subject, and describes the biological mechanisms of action andprotective effects of dietary polyphenols.

  20. Clinical significance of feline heartworm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, R

    1998-11-01

    The clinical signs and diagnostic approach are different in the cat as compared with the dog, which has impaired the veterinarian's ability to detect this parasite in the cat. New techniques and methodologies have enabled the cat owner and veterinarian to recognize this potentially severe disease. Although much is now known about the pathophysiology and biology of this parasite in the cat, the practical application and rapid development of this information to daily practice has led to confusion.

  1. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND PROGNOSIS OF FETAL ARRHYTHMIAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-bo Fan; Ming-ying Gai; Jian-qiu Yang; Fei-fei Xing

    2004-01-01

    Objective To explore fetal arrhythmia clinical significance and its correlation with fetal prognosis.Methods Twenty-six cases of fetal arrhythmia detected among 12 799 pregnant women recorded over a ten-year period in Peking Uinon Medical College (PUMC) Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Fetal arrhythmia was diagnosed by fetal auscultation, ultrasonography, electric fetal heart monitoring, and fetal echocardiography.Results Twenty-six fetuses were documented with fetal arrhythmia (3 tachycardia, 4 bradycardia, 19 normal heart rate with irregular fetal cardiac rhythm). The incidence of fetal arrhythmia in our hospital was 0.2%. They were diagnosed at the average of 35 weeks' gestation (15 to 41 weeks). Twenty-two cases were diagnosed by antenatal fetal auscultation, 1 case was diagnosed by ultrasonography, and 3 cases were diagnosed by electric fetal heart monitoring. Fetal echocardiograms were performed on 17 fetuses, 6 cases (35.3%) of which showed that ventricular premature beats with normal structure of fetal heart.All neonates survived postnatally and 24 of them (92.3%) were followed up. Echocardiograms were performed for 16 neonates and 2 of them were identified as atrial septal defects with normal heart rhythms. The results of follow-up showed that the two patients had no apparent clinical manifestation. The echocardiogram showed that atrial septal defect obliterated already.Conclusion The prognosis is well for most of the fetuses with arrhythmias, with low incidence of heart deformation.

  2. Clinical significance of MET in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mikito; Inokuchi; Sho; Otsuki; Yoshitaka; Fujimori; Yuya; Sato; Masatoshi; Nakagawa; Kazuyuki; Kojima

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy has become the global standard treatment for patients with metastatic or unresectable gastric cancer(GC),although outcomes remain unfavorable.Many molecular-targeted therapies inhibiting signaling pathways of various tyrosine kinase receptors have been developed,and monoclonal antibodies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 or vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 have become standard therapy for GC.Hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor,c-MET(MET),play key roles in tumor growth through activated signaling pathways from receptor in GC cells.Genomic amplification of MET leads to the aberrant activation found in GC tumors and is related to survival in patients with GC.This review discusses the clinical significance of MET in GC and examines MET as a potential therapeutic target in patients with GC.Preclinical studies in animal models have shown that MET antibodies or smallmolecule MET inhibitors suppress tumor-cell proliferation and tumor progression in MET-amplified GC cells.These drugs are now being evaluated in clinical trials as treatments for metastatic or unresectable GC.

  3. Significance of FISH in clinical cytogenetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal Rao, V.V.N.; Harris, S.; Roop, H. [H.A. Chapman Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Ever since its discovery, FISH technology has become an invaluable adjunct to conventional cytogenetics. FISH has been instrumental in resolving previously unresolved cytogenetic dilemmas. FISH has been used to elucidate complex as well as subtle chromosomal translocations, in detection of microdeletions, to confirm duplications and inversions and to identify marker chromosomes. We report a few selected cases where FISH proved to be invaluable in not only confirming the anomaly, but also in arriving at an accurate diagnosis and appropriate counseling of the patients. These include 3 cases of prenatal and 3 cases of postnatal diagnosis. The results clearly demonstrate the significance of FISH in identifying and interpreting the difficult karyotype in clinical cytogenetics. In addition, FISH has been used to rule out microdeletions in Prader-Willi (16), Angelman (3), Miller-Dieker (7), DiGeorge (4) and Smith-Magenis (1) syndrome patients. Without FISH in the majority of these cases, it would not have been possible to accurately identify the karyotype and interpret the results. Hence, we recommend that FISH be used as a powerful adjunct to conventional cytogenetics in order to arrive at an accurate interpretation of the results but not to replace routine cytogenetic studies.

  4. The diagnosis and clinical significance of polyautoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are chronic and heterogeneous conditions that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. The chronic nature of these diseases places a significant burden on the utilization of medical care, direct and indirect economic costs, and quality of life. ADs are observed in genetically susceptible individuals in whom their clinical expression is modified by permissive and protective environments occurring over time. These are complex traits, meaning that their inheritance does not follow a single-gene dominant or single-gene recessive Mendelian law, and thus that they are polygenic. ADs are often diagnosed according to classification criteria, however they share similar subphenotypes including signs and symptoms, non-specific autoantibodies and other immune changes, which are prone to taxonomic problems. Polyautoimmunity is defined as the presence of more than one AD in a single patient. When three or more ADs coexist, this condition is called multiple autoimmune syndrome (MAS), which represents the best example of polyautoimmunity as well as the effect of a single genotype on diverse autoimmune phenotypes. Its study will provide important clues to elucidate the common mechanisms of ADs (i.e., the autoimmune tautology).

  5. Clinical significance and taxonomy of Actinobacillus hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Alice; Christensen, J J; Fussing, V;

    2001-01-01

    Clinical findings in 36 immunosuppressed patients with lower respiratory tract infection or bacteremia with Actinobacillus hominis are described. Animal contact was only recorded for three patients; nine patients died despite appropriate antimicrobial treatment. Although infections with this micr...

  6. Synthetic biology and the moral significance of artificial life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    I discuss the moral significance of artificial life within synthetic biology via a discussion of Douglas, Powell and Savulescu's paper 'Is the creation of artificial life morally significant’. I argue that the definitions of 'artificial life’ and of 'moral significance’ are too narrow. Douglas......, Powell and Savulescu's definition of artificial life does not capture all core projects of synthetic biology or the ethical concerns that have been voiced, and their definition of moral significance fails to take into account the possibility that creating artificial life is conditionally acceptable....... Finally, I show how several important objections to synthetic biology are plausibly understood as arguing that creating artificial life in a wide sense is only conditionally acceptable....

  7. The clinical significance of pancreatic steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Mark M; van Geenen, Erwin J M

    2011-03-01

    More research is now focused on pancreatic steatosis. Multiple definitions, clinical associations and synonyms for pancreatic steatosis are described in the literature and can be confusing. The integration and comparison of several studies concerning this topic is therefore challenging. In the past, pancreatic steatosis was considered an innocuous condition, a bystander of many underlying diseases (such as congenital syndromes, hemochromatosis and viral infection). However, evidence that pancreatic steatosis (strongly associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome) has a role in type 2 diabetes mellitus, pancreatic exocrine dysfunction, acute pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and the formation of pancreatic fistula after pancreatic surgery is emerging. This Review focuses on the different etiological factors and the clinical consequences of pancreatic steatosis.

  8. [Clinical significance of the placebo effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeltjenbruns, J; Schäfer, M

    2008-05-01

    Placebo controlled studies examining clinical problems, e.g. in pain therapy, are considered the "gold standard" for evidence-based medicine. In these studies the placebo effect itself is not the main focus of interest, but serves more as a control for the specificity of the effect of a certain treatment. What physicians in this context often do not realize is that the placebo effect itself represents a true measurable correlate of an organism's psycho-neurobiological response and, thereby, influences the healing process, e.g. the pain relief. Placebo is, therefore, not equivalent to "no treatment". The number of placebo responders, the degree and the duration of the placebo effect is not fixed, but are subject to a much greater variability then hitherto believed. The myth that placebo responders have a certain personality has not been proven correct; instead, the relationships between physicians and patients as well as sociocultural factors have a considerable impact on the placebo effect. Psychological theories explain that classical conditioning, enhanced expectation and motivation of the patient determine the degree of the placebo effect. These directly influence neurobiological systems such as the endogenous opioids which according to modern brain imaging are predominantly activated in pain-relevant areas and contribute to the effect of placebo analgesia. Placebo effects that should be deliberately excluded in controlled clinical trials, can be desirable in clinical practice to optimize the total therapeutic effect. This should mean that the context effect of each therapeutic intervention is maximized towards an improved therapeutic effect, as outlined in the recent AWMF guidelines for postoperative pain therapy, but should not include the administration of an inert substance. The latter is controlled by rigorous ethical guidelines and is only permitted in the context of ethically approved controlled clinical trials. A possible alternative is suggested by

  9. Macroprolactinemia: Diagnostic, Clinical, and Pathogenic Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Shimatsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroprolactinemia is characterized by a large molecular mass of PRL (macroprolactin as the main molecular form of PRL in sera, the frequent elevation of serum PRL (hyperprolactinemia, and the lack of symptoms. Macroprolactin is largely a complex of PRL with immunoglobulin G (IgG, especially anti-PRL autoantibodies. The prevalence of macroprolactinemia is 10–25% in patients with hyperprolactinemia and 3.7% in general population. There is no gender difference and a long-term followup demonstrates that macroprolactinemia develops before middle age and is likely a chronic condition. Polyethylene-glycol- (PEG- precipitation method is widely used for screening macroprolactinemia, and gel filtration chromatography, protein A/G column, and I125-PRL binding studies are performed to confirm and clarify its nature. The cross-reactivity of macroprolactin varies widely according to the immunoassay systems. The epitope on PRL molecule recognized by the autoantibodies is located close to the binding site for PRL receptors, which may explain that macroprolactin has a lower biological activity. Hyperprolactinemia frequently seen in macroprolactinemic patients is due to the delayed clearance of autoantibody-bound PRL. When rats are immunized with rat pituitary PRL, anti-PRL autoantibodies are produced and hyperprolactinemia develops, mimicking macroprolactinemia in humans. Screening of macroprolactinemia is important for the differential diagnosis of hyperprolactinemia to avoid unnecessary examinations and treatments.

  10. Testosterone in women-the clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Susan R; Jacobsen, Sarah Wåhlin

    2015-01-01

    action and the effects of testosterone deficiency and replacement in women are scarce. The primary indication for the prescription of testosterone for women is loss of sexual desire, which causes affected women substantial concern. That no formulation has been approved for this purpose has not impeded...... the widespread use of testosterone by women-either off-label or as compounded therapy. Observational studies indicate that testosterone has favourable cardiovascular effects measured by surrogate outcomes; however, associations between endogenous testosterone and the risk of cardiovascular disease and total...... mortality, particularly in older women, are yet to be established. Adverse cardiovascular effects have not been seen in studies of transdermal testosterone therapy in women. Clinical trials suggest that exogenous testosterone enhances cognitive performance and improves musculoskeletal health...

  11. Clinical pharmacology considerations in biologics development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang ZHAO; Tian-hua REN; Diane D WANG

    2012-01-01

    Biologics,including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and other therapeutic proteins such as cytokines and growth hormones,have unique characteristics compared to small molecules.This paper starts from an overview of the pharmacokinetics (PK) of biologics from a mechanistic perspective,the determination of a starting dose for first-in-human(FIH) studies,and dosing regimen optimisation for phase Ⅱ/Ⅲ clinical trials.Subsequently,typical clinical pharmacology issues along the corresponding pathways for biologics development are summarised,including drug-drug interactions,QTc prolongation,immunogenicity,and studies in specific populations.The relationships between the molecular structure of biologics,their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics,and the corresponding clinical pharmacology strategies are summarised and depicted in a schematic diagram.

  12. Small colony variants and their clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataramana Venkataramana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the many factors that contribute to bacterial colonization, persistence and development of infection, the ability of microorganisms to form small colony variants (SCVs assumes great significance. Although bacteria require intrinsic virulence factors to cause pathogenesis, some of them regularly evolve mechanisms to evade immune mechanisms, become resistant to antibiotics, and sustain in the human/animal cells to cause chronic infections. This mini review highlights the recent advances in the study of SCVs.

  13. Clinical significance of suprascapular nerve mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodily, Kale D; Spinner, Robert J; Shin, Alexander Y; Bishop, Allen T

    2005-11-01

    The anatomy of the suprascapular nerve is important to surgeons when focal nerve lesions necessitate surgical repair. Recent experience with a patient who had a complete suprascapular nerve lesion in the retroclavicular region (combined with axillary and musculocutaneous nerve lesions) is presented to illustrate that successful direct nerve repair is possible despite resection of a neuroma. Specifically, we found that neurolysis and mobilization of the suprascapular nerve and release of the superior transverse scapular ligament provided the necessary nerve length to achieve direct nerve repair after the neuroma was removed. A combined supraclavicular and infraclavicular approach to the suprascapular nerve provided excellent visualization, especially in the retroclavicular region. Postoperatively, the patient recovered complete shoulder abduction and external rotation with the direct repair, an outcome uncommonly achieved with interpositional grafting. Based on our operative experience, we set out to quantify the length that the suprascapular nerve could be mobilized with neurolysis. Mobilization of the nerve and release of the superior transverse scapular ligament generated an average of 1.6 cm and 0.7 cm of extra nerve length respectively, totaling 2.3 cm of additional usable nerve length overall. The ability to expose the suprascapular nerve in the retroclavicular/infraclavicular region and to mobilize the suprascapular nerve for possible direct repair has not been previously emphasized and is clinically important. This surgical approach and technique permits direct nerve repair after resection of a focal neuroma in the retroclavicular or infraclavicular region, thus avoiding interpositional grafting, and improving outcomes.

  14. Postmenopausal osteoporosis - clinical, biological and histopathological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Oana Roxana; Popescu, Mihaela; Novac, Liliana; Mogoantă, LaurenŢiu; Pavel, LaurenŢiu Petrişor; Vicaş, Răzvan Marius; Trăistaru, Magdalena Rodica

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the most common disorders in postmenopausal women, affecting the quality of life and increasing the risk for fractures in minor traumas. Changes in the bone microarchitecture causes static changes in the body and affects motility. In this study, we analyzed two groups of women, one with physiological menopause and one with surgically induced menopause. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was suspected based on the clinical symptoms and confirmed by assessing bone mineral density by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Comparing some clinical and biological aspects there was noted that a much higher percentage of women with surgically induced menopause exhibited increases in body mass index, changes in serum lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, blood glucose, serum calcium, magnesemia and osteocalcin. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in the histopathological aspects of bone tissue examined from these two groups. In all patients, there was identified a significant reduction in the number of osteocytes and osteoblasts, the expansion of haversian channels, reducing the number of trabecular bone in the cancellous bone with wide areola cavities often full of adipose tissue, non-homogenous demineralization of both the compact bone and the cancellous bone, atrophy and even absence of the endosteal, and the presence of multiple microfractures. Our study showed that early surgically induced menopause more intensely alters the lipid, carbohydrate and mineral metabolism, thus favoring the onset of osteoporosis.

  15. Splitting the BLOSUM Score into Numbers of Biological Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tossi Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical tools developed in the context of Shannon information theory were used to analyze the meaning of the BLOSUM score, which was split into three components termed as the BLOSUM spectrum (or BLOSpectrum. These relate respectively to the sequence convergence (the stochastic similarity of the two protein sequences, to the background frequency divergence (typicality of the amino acid probability distribution in each sequence, and to the target frequency divergence (compliance of the amino acid variations between the two sequences to the protein model implicit in the BLOCKS database. This treatment sharpens the protein sequence comparison, providing a rationale for the biological significance of the obtained score, and helps to identify weakly related sequences. Moreover, the BLOSpectrum can guide the choice of the most appropriate scoring matrix, tailoring it to the evolutionary divergence associated with the two sequences, or indicate if a compositionally adjusted matrix could perform better.

  16. ADP-ribosylation of proteins: Enzymology and biological significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althaus, F.R.; Richter, C.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the molecular and biological consequences of the posttranslational modification of proteins with ADP-ribose monomers and polymers. Part one focuses on chromatin-associated poly ADP-ribosylation reactions which have evolved in higher eukaryotes as modulators of chromatin functions. The significance of poly ADP-ribosylation in DNA repair, carcinogenesis, and gene expression during terminal differentiation is discussed. Part two reviews mono ADP-ribosylation reactions which are catalyzed by prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes. Consideration is given to the action of bacterial toxins, such as cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and diphtheria toxin. These toxins have emerged as tools for the molecular probing of proteins involved in signal transduction and protein biosynthesis.

  17. Formalized prediction of clinically significant prostate cancer: is it possible?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carvell T Nguyen; Michael W Kattan

    2012-01-01

    Greater understanding of the biology and epidemiology of prostate cancer in the last several decades have led to significant advances in its management.Prostate cancer is now detected in greater numbers at lower stages of disease and is amenable to multiple forms of efficacious treatment.However,there is a lack of conclusive data demonstrating a definitive mortality benefit from this earlier diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.It is likely due to the treatment of a large proportion of indolent cancers that would have had little adverse impact on health or lifespan if left alone.Due to this overtreatment phenomenon,active surveillance with delayed intervention is gaining traction as a viable management approach in contemporary practice.The ability to distinguish clinically insignificant cancers from those with a high risk of progression and/or lethality is critical to the appropriate selection of patients for surveillance protocols versus immediate intervention.This chapter will review the ability of various prediction models,including risk groupings and nomograms,to predict indolent disease and determine their role in the contemporary management of clinically localized prostate cancer.

  18. Selenium: environmental significance, pollution, and biological treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lea Chua; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element needed for all living organisms. Despite its essentiality, selenium is a potential toxic element to natural ecosystems due to its bioaccumulation potential. Though selenium is found naturally in the earth's crust, especially in carbonate rocks and volcanic and sedimentary soils, about 40% of the selenium emissions to atmospheric and aquatic environments are caused by various industrial activities such as mining-related operations. In recent years, advances in water quality and pollution monitoring have shown that selenium is a contaminant of potential environmental concern. This has practical implications on industry to achieve the stringent selenium regulatory discharge limit of 5μgSeL(-1) for selenium containing wastewaters set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Over the last few decades, various technologies have been developed for the treatment of selenium-containing wastewaters. Biological selenium reduction has emerged as the leading technology for removing selenium from wastewaters since it offers a cheaper alternative compared to physico-chemical treatments and is suitable for treating dilute and variable selenium-laden wastewaters. Moreover, biological treatment has the advantage of forming elemental selenium nanospheres which exhibit unique optical and spectral properties for various industrial applications, i.e. medical, electrical, and manufacturing processes. However, despite the advances in biotechnology employing selenium reduction, there are still several challenges, particularly in achieving stringent discharge limits, the long-term stability of biogenic selenium and predicting the fate of bioreduced selenium in the environment. This review highlights the significance of selenium in the environment, health, and industry and biotechnological advances made in the treatment of selenium contaminated wastewaters. The challenges and future perspectives are overviewed considering recent

  19. Expression of Shh in sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma and its clinical biological significance%Shh在散发性甲状腺髓样癌中的表达及其临床意义研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边学海; 张广; 张大奇; 周乐; 李世杰; 孙辉

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过检测Sonic Hedgehog信号通路关键分子Shh在散发性甲状腺髓样癌表达情况,探讨其与散发性甲状腺髓样癌临床病理特征的关系及临床意义.方法 应用免疫组织化学方法检测11例甲状腺髓样癌患者癌组织及其癌旁组织病理蜡块标本中Shh的表达情况,分析其与临床病理特征的关系.结果 Shh蛋白主要表达于细胞膜与细胞质中.甲状腺髓样癌组织中Shh阳性表达率72.7% (8/11)明显高于癌旁组织的9.1%(1/11).癌组织中Shh的表达与患者性别及年龄均无关(P>0.05),而与肿瘤的TNM分期有关(P<0.05).Shh在肿瘤直径≥1 cm和直径<1 cm的表达阳性率分别为100%和20%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).Shh在有淋巴结转移的肿瘤组织中和无淋巴结转移的肿瘤组织中的表达阳性率分别为100%和40%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 Shh信号通路的主要配体Shh蛋白在散发性甲状腺髓样癌中表达升高,并与肿瘤发生、分期及淋巴结转移有关,提示Shh信号通路的异常激活在散发性甲状腺髓样癌中发挥一定的作用,Shh蛋白为散发性甲状腺髓样癌预后判断指标及潜在的治疗靶点.%Objective To define the expression of Shh,the key elements of Hedgehog signaling pathway in sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (SMTC) and to explore the relationship between the expression of Shh and clinical significance. Methods The expression of Shh was examined in 11 cases of SMTC tissues and corresponding adjacent-tumor thyroid tissues as control by immunohistochemistry. Analyze the relationship between the expression of Shh and clinical characteristics of SMTC patients. Results The positive rate of the cytoplasm of Shh expression was 72. 7%. Significant difference was found between normal thyroid tissues and SMTC. The research showed that the expression of Shh was related to the tumor size,clinical stages and lymph node metastasis, Shh was more significant in

  20. Microvessel Density in Thyroid Carcinoma and Its Clinical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Gang(薛刚); YAO Zhenxiang(姚榛祥)

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationships between angiogenesis and development, metastasis as well as prognosis of thyroid carcinoma. Methods:48 cases of thyroid carcinoma and 5 cases of thyroid adenoma were studied.Density of microvessels of the tumors were identified by immunohistochemical staining in formalin -fixed and paraffin-embedded sections with anti-CD34 monoclonal antibody, and counted microscopically (×200).Results :The mean value of MVD in tumors>2cm in diameter was (174.92±72.63)/field, while that in tumors≤2cm was ( 117.40± 39.95)/field ( t = 3.3298, P = 0.0026).The number of microvessels was also significantly different in respect to the histotype of the thyroid carcinomas, such as papillary thyroid carcinoma(PTC), follicular thyroid carcinoma(FTC)and medullary thyroid carcinoma(MTC) ( F = 14. 95, P = 0. 0001), but not significantly different in respect to patients'age nor sex ( P>0.05). Conclusions:By studying microvessel density (MVD) of thyroid arcinomas and correlated with their clinical features and biological behaviors, it is concluded that ngiogenesis is important in tumor growth and metastasis as well as prognosis of thyroid carcinomas. Measures to combat angiogenesis may be beneficial in the treatment for thyroid carcinomas.

  1. [Disseminated intravascular coagulation: clinical and biological diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touaoussa, Aziz; El Youssi, Hind; El Hassani, Imane; Hanouf, Daham; El Bergui, Imane; Zoulati, Ghizlane; Amrani Hassani, Moncef

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by the systemic activation of blood coagulation. Its pathophysiological mechanisms are complex and dependent on the underlying pathology, making the clinical and biological expression of quite variable DIC. Among the various biological parameters disrupted, most are not specific, and none of them allows in itself to make the diagnosis. All this does not facilitate the task of the practitioner for diagnosis of overt DIC, much less that of the non-overt DIC, early stage whose treatment would improve the prognosis. These considerations have led to develop scores, combining several parameters depending on their availability in daily practice, as well as their diagnostic relevance. Of all the scores, the ISTH (International society of thrombosis and hemostasis) remains the most used.

  2. Clinical significance of Bacillus species isolated from blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, D J; Saviteer, S M; Rutala, W A; Thomann, C A

    1989-06-01

    To determine the clinical significance of blood isolates of Bacillus, we reviewed all blood cultures obtained at North Carolina Memorial Hospital between 1981 and 1985. Over the five-year study period the number of patients (incidence per 10,000 hospital admissions) from whom Bacillus was isolated increased from 4.97 in 1981 to 12.5 in 1985. The incidence per 1,000 blood cultures also increased from 1.12 in 1981 to 2.33 in 1985. Review of the medical records of 78 of the 95 patients (82%) with positive cultures allowed retrospective classification of five isolates (6.4%) as clinically significant, 33 isolates (42.3%) as possibly significant, and 40 isolates (51.3%) as nonsignificant. Underlying diseases in patients with clinically significant Bacillus bacteremia included burn trauma in two, leukemia in one, carcinoma in one, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage in one. All isolates judged to be clinically significant and the majority of possibly significant isolates were B cereus. We conclude that the isolation of Bacillus species from blood cultures is clinically significant in 5% to 10% of cases, that the incidence of Bacillus bacteremia is increasing, and that burn trauma should be added to the list of conditions known to predispose to clinically significant Bacillus bacteremia.

  3. Induction, regulation, degradation, and biological significance of mammalian metallothioneins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A T; Hawksworth, G M; Beattie, J H; Rodilla, V

    2000-01-01

    MTs are small cysteine-rich metal-binding proteins found in many species and, although there are differences between them, it is of note that they have a great deal of sequence and structural homology. Mammalian MTs are 61 or 62 amino acid polypeptides containing 20 conserved cysteine residues that underpin the binding of metals. The existence of MT across species is indicative of its biological demand, while the conservation of cysteines indicates that these are undoubtedly central to the function of this protein. Four MT isoforms have been found so far, MT-1, MT-2, MT-3, and MT-4, but these also have subtypes with 17 MT genes identified in man, of which 10 are known to be functional. Different cells express different MT isoforms with varying levels of expression perhaps as a result of the different function of each isoform. Even different metals induce and bind to MTs to different extents. Over 40 years of research into MT have yielded much information on this protein, but have failed to assign to it a definitive biological role. The fact that multiple MT isoforms exist, and the great variety of substances and agents that act as inducers, further complicates the search for the biological role of MTs. This article reviews the current knowledge on the biochemistry, induction, regulation, and degradation of this protein in mammals, with a particular emphasis on human MTs. It also considers the possible biological roles of this protein, which include participation in cell proliferation and apoptosis, homeostasis of essential metals, cellular free radical scavenging, and metal detoxification.

  4. Posttranslational modifications of proopiomelanocortin in vertebrates and their biological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi eTakahashi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Proopiomelanocortin (POMC is the precursor of several peptide hormones generated in the pituitary gland. After biosynthesis, POMC undergoes several posttranslational modifications, including proteolytic cleavage, acetylation, amidation, phosphorylation, glycosylation, and disulfide linkage formation, which generate mature POMC-derived peptides. Therefore, POMC is a useful model for the investigation of posttranslational modifications. These processes have been extensively investigated in mammals, primarily in rodents. In addition, over the last decade, much information has been obtained about the posttranslational processing of POMC in non-mammalian animals such as fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds through sequencing and peptide identification by mass spectrometry. One POMC modification, acetylation, is known to modulate the biological activities of POMC-derived alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH having an acetyl group at N-terminal through potentiation or inhibition. This bidirectional regulation depends on its intrinsic roles in the tissue or cell; for example, alpha-MSH, as well as desacety-alpha-MSH, stimulates pigment dispersion in the xanthophores of a flounder. In contrast, alpha-MSH does not stimulate pigment dispersion in the melanophores of the same species, whereas desacetyl-alpha-MSH does. Regulation of pigment-dispersing activities may be associated with the subtle balance in the expression of receptor genes. In this review, we consider the posttranslational modifications of POMC in vertebrates from an evolutionary aspect, with a focus on the relationship between acetylation and the biological activities of alpha-MSH as an important consequence of posttranslational modification.

  5. 胶质瘤异柠檬酸脱氢酶1突变的生物学机制和临床意义%Biological mechanisms and clinical significance of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation in glioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳润; 杨柳; 郭庚

    2015-01-01

    异柠檬酸脱氢酶1(IDH1)存在于细胞质和过氧化物酶体中,是三羧酸循环中的关键限速酶.近年来研究发现IDH1突变存在于多数胶质瘤中,其代谢产生的大量2-羟戊二酸可能作为潜在致癌物参与胶质瘤的发生,同时与患者预后的改善密切相关.IDH1突变有望作为新型基因标志指导临床胶质瘤的治疗.%Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), a key rate-limiting enzyme in tricarboxylic acid cycle,is found within the cytoplasm and peroxisomes.In recent years, IDH1 mutation is discovered in most gliomaand its large scale metabolites, 2-hydroxyglutarate, may be involved in tumor as potential carcinogens, and isshown to be closely related to better patients' survival as well.IDH1 mutation is anticipated to be a novel genet-ic biomarker which will guide the treatments of clinical glioma.

  6. Biological Significance of Seed Oil and Polyphenolic of Olea europaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asif

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The olive tree Olea europaea have beneficial properties. Mainly used parts of the olive tree are fruits and seeds. Seeds oil of olive is used as a major component of the “diet.” Chief active components of olive oil include oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, polyphenolics and squalene. These main phenolic components are hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein, which occur in highest amounts in virgin olive oil and have antioxidant properties. Olive oil has shown activity in against cancer, mainly in colon and breast cancer prevention, while individual component of olive oil, oleic acid and squalene has also been identified as anticancer agent. The olive oil has effects on coronary heart disease, due to its ability to reduce blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein level. Some components (such as hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein of olive oil exhibited antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganism in intestinal and respiratory infections. The oleic acid, polyphenolics, squqlenes are dependable for a number of biological activities as well as whole olive plant also gives health benefits.

  7. Survivin expression and its clinical significance in pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kyung Shik

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis is expressed in several human cancers. Its expression is known to be associated with poor clinical outcome, but not widely studied in pancreatic cancer. We performed this study to determine the survivin expression in pancreatic cancer and its clinical significance as a prognostic factor. Methods We performed immunohistochemical staining for survivin, p53, and Bax in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded block from forty-nine pancreatic tissues. To determine the association with clinical course, we reviewed the patients' clinical record. Results Of the 49 cases of pancreatic cancer, 46 cases (93.9% were positive for survivin expression. There was no significant association between survivin expression and p53 or bax. For clinicopathological parameters, perineural invasion was more common in survivin positive and venous invasion was more common in survivin negative (p = 0.041 and 0.040, respectively. Responsiveness to chemotherapy appeared to be slightly better in patients with low survivin expression. Conclusion Survivin expression may be associated with venous or perineural invasion, indicating metastatic route, and seems to have a potential as a predictive marker for chemotherapy. Further study of large scale is required to determine the clinical significance of survivin expression in pancreatic cancer.

  8. Significance and Biological Importance of Pyrimidine in the Microbial World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbes are unique creatures that adapt to varying lifestyles and environment resistance in extreme or adverse conditions. The genetic architecture of microbe may bear a significant signature not only in the sequences position, but also in the lifestyle to which it is adapted. It becomes a challenge for the society to find new chemical entities which can treat microbial infections. The present review aims to focus on account of important chemical moiety, that is, pyrimidine and its various derivatives as antimicrobial agents. In the current studies we represent more than 200 pyrimidines as antimicrobial agents with different mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrasubstituted classes along with in vitro antimicrobial activities of pyrimidines derivatives which can facilitate the development of more potent and effective antimicrobial agents.

  9. The hydrolytic products of aluminum and their biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, P M

    1990-03-01

    The relative distribution of Al between its various organic and inorganic complexes dictates its mobility in the environment, bioavailability, and toxicity. In recent years, there has been significant progress made in understanding the differential bioavailability and toxicity of various chemical species of Al to plants and certain aquatic organisms. Far less information concerning chemical speciation and differential uptake and transport of Al in humans is available. Among the important inorganic complexes of interest are the hydrolyzed-Al species, particularly the nonequilibrium, metastable polynuclear complexes, which form readily, have a fairly wide stability range, and have been demonstrated toxic to plants and fish. In recent years(27)Al NMR spectroscopy has provided significant direct information on the polynuclear complexes existing in a wide range of aqueous solutions. The [Al12O4(OH)24+n(H2O)12-n]((7-n)+) polynuclear complex is often found to be the predominant species in partially neutralized Al solutions and has recently been demonstrated to be more toxic to certain plants than the hexaaqua Al cation. It is also the principal component of Al-chlorohydrate, a highly soluble antiperspirant, present in many hydrolyzed Al solutions utilized in water and waste water treatment, and, as hypothesized herein, a primary constituent of many hydroxide gels utilized as antacids. This polynuclear has a wide pH stability range, reportedly forms copolynuclears with Si, and contains tetrahedrally coordinated Al within its structure, all features that may be relevant to the recently reported properties of Al associated with neuritic plaque cores.

  10. Bilateral Chondroepitrochlearis Muscle: Case Report, Phylogenetic Analysis, and Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeewa P. W. Palagama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous muscular variants of pectoralis major have been reported on several occasions in the medical literature. Among them, chondroepitrochlearis is one of the rarest. Therefore, this study aims to provide a comprehensive description of its anatomy and subsequent clinical significance, along with its phylogenetic importance in pectoral muscle evolution with regard to primate posture. The authors suggest a more appropriate name to better reflect its proximal attachment to the costochondral junction and distal attachment to the epicondyle of humerus, as “chondroepicondylaris”; in addition, we suggest a new theory of phylogenetic significance to explain the twisting of pectoralis major tendon in primates that may have occurred with their adoption to bipedalism and arboreal lifestyle. Finally, the clinical significance of this aberrant muscle is elaborated as a cause of potential neurovascular entrapment and as a possible hurdle during axillary surgeries (i.e., mastectomy.

  11. Unexpected Findings in Magnetic Resonance Enterography and Their Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivathsan Ravindran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To identify the prevalence of colonic and extraenteric incidental findings in magnetic resonance enterography (MRE and their clinical significance. Methods. We retrospectively analysed 470 MRE studies carried out between March 2012 and 2014. Incidental findings were defined as those not expected from or made apparent on the referral. MRE reports were reviewed for colonic and extraenteric findings, subcategorised into “clinically significant” and “insignificant.” Follow-up was identified from the electronic patient record. Results. The majority of MRE requests were made for inflammatory bowel disease (97%. In total, 114 incidental findings were noted in 94 (20% scans performed. There were 29 “colonic” findings (25% with 55% having a diagnosis of colitis. Out of 85 extraenteric findings, ovarian cysts (25%, renal cysts (10%, and abdominal lymphadenopathy (9% were the commonest. Cumulatively, 59 cases were clinically significant (52%; of these, 30 findings were not previously diagnosed, amounting to 26% of all incidental findings. This led to intervention in seven patients. Conclusions. Incidental findings are common in MRE and there is a substantial proportion that is clinically significant and requires further investigation. There need to be stratification of risk and employment of local guidelines in order to achieve this.

  12. Has Modern Biology Entered the Mouth? The Clinical Impact of Biological Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Three areas of biological research that are beginning to have an impact on clinical medicine are examined, including molecular biology, cell biology, and biotechnology. It is concluded that oral biologists and educators must work cooperatively to bring rapid biological and biomedical advances into dental training in a meaningful way. (MSE)

  13. The Biological and Clinical Significance of Androgen Receptor Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    3. Guo Z, Yang X, Sun F et al: A novel androgen receptor splice variant is up-regulated during prostate cancer progression and promotes andro ...prognostic of bio- chemical recurrence in multiple cohorts. Br J Cancer 201 0; 102: 570, 23. Haffner MC, Aryee MJ, Toubaji A et al : Andro - gen

  14. Molecular Pathology of Hepatic Neoplasms: Classification and Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenta Walther

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances have enabled investigators to characterize the molecular genetics and genomics of hepatic neoplasia in remarkable detail. From these studies, an increasing number of molecular markers are being identified that correlate with clinically important tumor phenotypes. This paper discusses current knowledge relevant to the molecular classification of epithelial primary hepatic tumors that arise in adults, including focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH, hepatocellular adenoma (HCA, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, cholangiocarcinoma (CC, and combined HCC-CC. Genetic analysis has defined molecular subtypes of HCA that are clinicopathologically distinct and can be distinguished through immunohistochemistry. Gene expression studies have identified molecular signatures of progression from dysplastic nodules (DNs to early HCC in cirrhosis. Analyses of the mutational spectra, chromosomal aberrations and instability, transcriptomics, and microRNA profiles of HCC have revealed the existence of biologically distinct subtypes of this common malignancy, with prognostic implications. Molecular characterization of biliary and hepatic progenitor cell phenotypes in liver cancer has shed new light on the histogenesis of these tumors and has focused attention on novel therapeutic targets. In coming years, the molecular classification of hepatic neoplasms will be increasingly valuable for guiding patient care, as targeted therapies for liver cancer are developed and brought into clinical practice.

  15. Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Immunosensors for Clinically Significant Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina J. Ronkainen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has played a crucial role in the development of biosensors over the past decade. The development, testing, optimization, and validation of new biosensors has become a highly interdisciplinary effort involving experts in chemistry, biology, physics, engineering, and medicine. The sensitivity, the specificity and the reproducibility of biosensors have improved tremendously as a result of incorporating nanomaterials in their design. In general, nanomaterials-based electrochemical immunosensors amplify the sensitivity by facilitating greater loading of the larger sensing surface with biorecognition molecules as well as improving the electrochemical properties of the transducer. The most common types of nanomaterials and their properties will be described. In addition, the utilization of nanomaterials in immunosensors for biomarker detection will be discussed since these biosensors have enormous potential for a myriad of clinical uses. Electrochemical immunosensors provide a specific and simple analytical alternative as evidenced by their brief analysis times, inexpensive instrumentation, lower assay cost as well as good portability and amenability to miniaturization. The role nanomaterials play in biosensors, their ability to improve detection capabilities in low concentration analytes yielding clinically useful data and their impact on other biosensor performance properties will be discussed. Finally, the most common types of electroanalytical detection methods will be briefly touched upon.

  16. Tumour biological prognosis factors in advanced-stage uterus cervical carcinoma treated primarily by radiation therapy. A study on the significance of tumour oxygenation, tumour vascularisatio, anaemia and tumour proteins for the clinical treatment outcome; Tumorbiologische Prognosefaktoren beim fortgeschrittenen, primaer strahlentherapeutisch behandelten Uteruszervixkarzinom. Eine Untersuchung zur Bedeutung von Tumoroxygenierung, Tumorvaskularisation, Anaemie und Tumorproteinen fuer das klinische Behandlungsergebnis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haensgen, G.

    2002-07-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate tumour biological prognosis factors that might give an indication of a patient's probable radiation sensitivity and hence of the probable clinical outcome. The ultimate goal was to reveal relationships between special tumour biological circumstances and clinical results that would permit a definition of risk factors, thus facilitating an individualised, i.e. optimised treatment.

  17. Clinical Significance of Parent Training for Children with Conduct Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Forster

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available While there is a strong evidence base for behavioral parent training in the treatment of child conduct problems, the clinical impact is less well known. Metaanalyses report effect sizes in the medium range, but the common practice of reporting “small,” “medium,” and “large” effects can be misleading and difficult to understand for practitioners and clients. There is a need for more research addressing the clinical significance of behavioral parent training, which would help to bridge the gap between research and practice. In the first part of this report, a reanalysis in terms of clinical significance of two outcome studies published by the authors was conducted. In the second part, the results from the first part were compared to six outcome studies published by other authors. The median number needed to treat across studies was five, which means that for every five treated children, one shows reliable change and moves from the dysfunctional to the functional population.

  18. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF "TREATING VITALITY" AND "RESERVING VITALITY"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    "Treating vital ity "and" reserving vital ity"are very important manipulations during acupuncture treatment of diseases. "Treating vitality" comprises adjusting and treating both the acupuncture doctor's and the patient's vitality; while "reserving vitality" demands the acupuncture doctor carefully to experience the sponses, and then perform reducing or reinforcing needling manipulations in accordance with the state of excess- or deficiency- syndrome. "Treating vitality" and "reserving vitality" impenetrate the whole process of acupuncture treatment all along. Through years' clinical practice, the author of the present paper discusses the functions of the two aspects in every stage of acupuncture treatment, including before acupuncture, during needle insertion, during retention and withdrawal of the needle. The purpose of this paper is to explain the clinical significance of treating and reserving vitality and arouse many acupuncture doctors' attention.

  19. Clinical significance of hepatitis B surface antigen mutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicola; Coppola; Lorenzo; Onorato; Carmine; Minichini; Giovanni; Di; Caprio; Mario; Starace; Caterina; Sagnelli; Evangelista; Sagnelli

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection is a major public health problem in many countries, with nearly 300 million people worldwide carrying HBV chronic infection and over 1 million deaths per year due to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Several hepatitis B surface antigen(HBs Ag) mutations have been described, most frequently due to a single amino acid substitution and seldom to a nucleotide deletion. The majority of mutations are located in the S region, but they have also been found in the pre-S1 and pre-S2 regions. Single amino acid substitutions in the major hydrophilic region of HBs Ag, called the "a" determinant, have been associated with immune escape and the consequent failure of HBV vaccination and HBs Ag detection, whereas deletions in the pre-S1 or pre-S2 regions have been associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. This review article will focus on the HBs Ag mutants and their biological and clinical implications.

  20. Mechanism and clinical significance of prostaglandin-induced iris pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjernschantz, Johan W; Albert, Daniel M; Hu, Dan-Ning; Drago, Filippo; Wistrand, Per J

    2002-08-01

    The new glaucoma drugs latanoprost, isopropyl unoprostone, travoprost, and bimatoprost cause increased pigmentation of the iris in some patients. The purpose of the present article is to survey the available preclinical and clinical data on prostaglandin-induced iris pigmentation and to assess the phenomenon from a clinical perspective. Most of the data have been obtained with latanoprost, and it appears that there is a predisposition to latanoprost-induced iris pigmentation in individuals with hazel or heterochromic eye color. As latanoprost and travoprost are selective agonists for the prostaglandin F(2alpha) receptor, it is likely that the phenomenon is mediated by this receptor. Several studies indicate that latanoprost stimulates melanogenesis in iridial melanocytes, and transcription of the tyrosinase gene is upregulated. The safety aspects of latanoprost-induced iris pigmentation have been addressed in histopathologic studies, and no evidence of harmful consequences of the side effect has been found. Although a final assessment of the clinical significance of prostaglandin-induced iris pigmentation currently is impossible to make, it appears that the only clear-cut disadvantage is a potential heterochromia between the eyes in unilaterally treated patients because the heterochromia is likely to be permanent, or very slowly reversible.

  1. Dual cusped protostylid: Case report and clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Bhattacharya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Protostylids are superstructures on maxillary or mandibular molars, which have rarely been reported in literature, and the significance of their presence has also been underestimated. The dental practitioners may easily misdiagnose a tooth, with such conical tubercles as malformed tooth. Interestingly, this is neither a malformation nor an anomaly but rather an important morphological trait of an individual. Once in a while, one may come across such a distinct morphological trait without being able to diagnose. To the authors' best knowledge, only one similar case has been reported previously, and the second such case internationally. Bearing all such facts in mind, the authors attempt to educate the readers towards the existence of such a trait so that it can be identified and studied in larger numbers. Hence, it is the authors' endeavor to report an unusual case of dual cusped maxillary protostylid along with its clinical significance.

  2. Clinical significance of hepatic derangement in severe acute espiratory syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henry Lik-Yuen Chan; Ambrose Chi-Pong Kwan; Ka-Fai To; Sik-To Lai; Paul Kay-Sheung Chan; Wai-Keung Leung; Nelson Lee; Alan Wu; Joseph Jao-Yiu Sung

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level iscommonly seen among patients suffering from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). We report the progression and clinical significance of liver derangement in a large cohort of SARS patient.METHODS: Serial assay of serum ALT was followed in patients who fulfilled the WHO criteria of SARS. Those with elevated ALT were compared with those with normal liver functions for clinical outcome. Serology for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was checked. Adverse outcomes were defined as oxygen desaturation, need of intensive care unit (ICU) and mechanical ventilation and death.RESULTS: Two hundred and ninety-four patients wereincluded in this study. Seventy (24%) patients had elevatedserum ALT on admission and 204 (69%) patients hadelevated ALT during the subsequent course of illness. Using peek ALT >5xULN as a cut-off and after adjusting for potential confounding factors, the odds ratio of peek ALT >5x ULN for oxygen desaturation was 3.24 (95%CI 1.23-8.59, P = 0.018), ICU care was 3.70 (95%CT 1.38-9.89, P = 0.009), mechanical ventilation was 6.64 (95%CI 2.22-19.81, P = 0.001) and death was 7.34 (95%CI 2.28-24.89, P = 0.001). Ninety-three percent of the survived patients had ALT levels normalized or were on the improving trend during follow-up. Chronic hepatitis B was not associated with worse clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION: Reactive hepatitis is a common complication of SARS-coronavirus infection. Those patients with severehepatitis had worse clinical outcome.

  3. Dimethyl fumarate-associated lymphopenia: Risk factors and clinical significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longbrake, Erin E; Naismith, Robert T; Parks, Becky J; Wu, Gregory F; Cross, Anne H

    2015-01-01

    Background Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), a disease-modifying therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS), causes lymphopenia in a fraction of patients. The clinical significance of this is unknown. Several cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in lymphopenic fumarate-treated patients have raised concerns about drug safety. Since lymphocytes contribute to MS pathology, lymphopenia may also be a biomarker for response to the drug. Objective The objective of this manuscript is to evaluate risk factors for DMF-induced lymphopenia and drug failure in a real-world population of MS patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 221 patients prescribed DMF at a single academic medical center between March 2013 and February 2015. Results Grade 2–3 lymphopenia developed in 17% of the total cohort and did not resolve during DMF treatment. Older age (>55), lower baseline absolute lymphocyte count and recent natalizumab exposure increased the risk of developing moderate to severe lymphopenia while on DMF. Lymphopenia was not predictive of good clinical response or of breakthrough MS activity on DMF. Conclusions Lymphopenia develops in a significant minority of DMF-treated patients, and if grade 2 or worse, is unlikely to resolve while on the drug. Increased vigilance in lymphocyte monitoring and infection awareness is particularly warranted in older patients and those switching from natalizumab. PMID:26550483

  4. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF P-GLYCOPROTEIN EXPRESSION IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI En-xiao; LI Rong; ZHANG Zhen-hua; WANG Jian-bo

    1999-01-01

    Objective: to study the clinical significance of Pglycoprotein (P-gp) in breast cancer. Methods: Expression of P-gp in 60 cases of breast cancer was examined by immunohistochemistry. P-gp expression and response to chemotherapy were comparatively investigated in 19 patients with metastatic breast cancer. Results: The P-gp was positive in 48.3% of the 60 cases of breast cancer. P-gp expression was not related to patients' age, menstruation status, number of axillary lymph nodes involved, clinical stage, histological type, and hormonal receptor status (P>0.05). The frequency of metastasis (62.1%) and mortality (51.7%) were higher in P-gp positive cases than in negative cases (16.1% vs 12.9%, P<0.005). The 5-year survival rate of P-gp positive cases (48.3%) was significantly lower than that of negative cases (87.1%) (P<0.05). In patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy distant metastasis occurred more frequently in the P-gp positive cases (94.7%) than in the P-gp negative cases (57.1%) (P=0.0468). More P-gp negative patients (7/9) than positive patients (1/10) were responsive to chemotherapy (P=0.0055).Conclusion: Immunohistochemical examination of P-gp expression is useful in predicting response to chemotherapy and prognosis in breast cancer patients. P-gp positivity is associated with poor prognosis.

  5. Clinical Significance of CK19 Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Arima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs by means of One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA is gaining widespread use as a quick and accurate method. This assay detects the expression level of cytokeratin 19 (CK19 which is present in some but not all breast tumors. In this study, the clinical significance of negative CK19 was investigated in 219 cases of primary breast cancer. In 179 patients with clinically negative nodes, OSNA and imprint smear cytology of SLN were performed simultaneously. The OSNA revealed a node-positive rate of 24.6%. Negative CK19 correlated significantly with negative ER/PgR and higher Ki-67 values, and marginally with higher nuclear grade and p53 overexpression. The triple negative subtype showed lower CK19 expression. OSNA revealed that one of the negative CK19 cases was actually a false negative but this was corrected with the use of the imprint smear cytology. In conclusion, CK19 negativity reflected the aggressiveness of primary breast cancer. OSNA assay used to analyze SLN was useful, but there is a possibility that it will mistakenly detect false negatives in CK19 negative tumors. Therefore, in tumors with negative CK19, the imprint smear cytology may be more useful in cases with macrometastasis.

  6. The Clinical Significance of Unknown Sequence Variants in BRCA Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calò, Valentina; Bruno, Loredana; Paglia, Laura La; Perez, Marco; Margarese, Naomi [Department of Surgery and Oncology, Regional Reference Center for the Biomolecular Characterization and Genetic Screening of Hereditary Tumors, University of Palermo, Via del Vespro 127, 90127 Palermo (Italy); Gaudio, Francesca Di [Department of Medical Biotechnologies and Legal Medicine, University of Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Russo, Antonio, E-mail: lab-oncobiologia@usa.net [Department of Surgery and Oncology, Regional Reference Center for the Biomolecular Characterization and Genetic Screening of Hereditary Tumors, University of Palermo, Via del Vespro 127, 90127 Palermo (Italy)

    2010-09-10

    Germline mutations in BRCA1/2 genes are responsible for a large proportion of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancers. Many highly penetrant predisposition alleles have been identified and include frameshift or nonsense mutations that lead to the translation of a truncated protein. Other alleles contain missense mutations, which result in amino acid substitution and intronic variants with splicing effect. The discovery of variants of uncertain/unclassified significance (VUS) is a result that can complicate rather than improve the risk assessment process. VUSs are mainly missense mutations, but also include a number of intronic variants and in-frame deletions and insertions. Over 2,000 unique BRCA1 and BRCA2 missense variants have been identified, located throughout the whole gene (Breast Cancer Information Core Database (BIC database)). Up to 10–20% of the BRCA tests report the identification of a variant of uncertain significance. There are many methods to discriminate deleterious/high-risk from neutral/low-risk unclassified variants (i.e., analysis of the cosegregation in families of the VUS, measure of the influence of the VUSs on the wild-type protein activity, comparison of sequence conservation across multiple species), but only an integrated analysis of these methods can contribute to a real interpretation of the functional and clinical role of the discussed variants. The aim of our manuscript is to review the studies on BRCA VUS in order to clarify their clinical relevance.

  7. Clinical Significance of CK19 Negative Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisue, Mamiko, E-mail: nishimura.reiki@cityhosp-kumamoto.jp; Nishimura, Reiki; Okumura, Yasuhiro [Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan); Tashima, Rumiko [Department of Surgery, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan); Nishiyama, Yasuyuki; Osako, Tomofumi [Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan); Toyozumi, Yasuo; Arima, Nobuyuki [Department of Pathology, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan)

    2012-12-21

    Analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) by means of One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA) is gaining widespread use as a quick and accurate method. This assay detects the expression level of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) which is present in some but not all breast tumors. In this study, the clinical significance of negative CK19 was investigated in 219 cases of primary breast cancer. In 179 patients with clinically negative nodes, OSNA and imprint smear cytology of SLN were performed simultaneously. The OSNA revealed a node-positive rate of 24.6%. Negative CK19 correlated significantly with negative ER/PgR and higher Ki-67 values, and marginally with higher nuclear grade and p53 overexpression. The triple negative subtype showed lower CK19 expression. OSNA revealed that one of the negative CK19 cases was actually a false negative but this was corrected with the use of the imprint smear cytology. In conclusion, CK19 negativity reflected the aggressiveness of primary breast cancer. OSNA assay used to analyze SLN was useful, but there is a possibility that it will mistakenly detect false negatives in CK19 negative tumors. Therefore, in tumors with negative CK19, the imprint smear cytology may be more useful in cases with macrometastasis.

  8. Notch signaling and EMT in non-small cell lung cancer: biological significance and therapeutic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xun; Wu, Hua; Han, Na; Xu, Hanxiao; Chu, Qian; Yu, Shiying; Chen, Yuan; Wu, Kongming

    2014-12-05

    Through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cancer cells acquire enhanced ability of migration and invasion, stem cell like characteristics and therapeutic resistance. Notch signaling regulates cell-cell connection, cell polarity and motility during organ development. Recent studies demonstrate that Notch signaling plays an important role in lung cancer initiation and cross-talks with several transcriptional factors to enhance EMT, contributing to the progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Correspondingly, blocking of Notch signaling inhibits NSCLC migration and tumor growth by reversing EMT. Clinical trials have showed promising effect in some cancer patients received treatment with Notch1 inhibitor. This review attempts to provide an overview of the Notch signal in NSCLC: its biological significance and therapeutic application.

  9. The questioned p value: clinical, practical and statistical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Paneque, Rosa

    2016-09-09

    The use of p-value and statistical significance have been questioned since the early 80s in the last century until today. Much has been discussed about it in the field of statistics and its applications, especially in Epidemiology and Public Health. As a matter of fact, the p-value and its equivalent, statistical significance, are difficult concepts to grasp for the many health professionals some way involved in research applied to their work areas. However, its meaning should be clear in intuitive terms although it is based on theoretical concepts of the field of Statistics. This paper attempts to present the p-value as a concept that applies to everyday life and therefore intuitively simple but whose proper use cannot be separated from theoretical and methodological elements of inherent complexity. The reasons behind the criticism received by the p-value and its isolated use are intuitively explained, mainly the need to demarcate statistical significance from clinical significance and some of the recommended remedies for these problems are approached as well. It finally refers to the current trend to vindicate the p-value appealing to the convenience of its use in certain situations and the recent statement of the American Statistical Association in this regard.

  10. Clinical significance of the corpus callosum in cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Kim, Ji Chang [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Chul [School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); And Others

    2000-10-01

    To evaluate, using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the clinal significance of the corpus callosum by measuring the size of various portions of the corpus callosum in children with cerebral palsy, and in paired controls. Fifty-two children (30 boys and 22 girls aged between six and 96 (median, 19) months) in whom cerebral palsy was clinically diagnosed underwent MR imaging. There were 23 term patients and 29 preterm, and the control group was selected by age and sex matching. Clinal subtypes of cerebral palsy were classified as hemiplegia (n=14), spastic diplegia (n=22), or spastic quadriplegia (n=16), and according to the severity of motor palsy, the condition was also classified as mild (n=26), moderate (n=13), or severe (n=13). In addition to the length and height of the corpus callosum, the thickness of its genu, body, transitional zone and splenium, as seen on midsagittal T1-weighted MR images, were also measured. Differences in the measured values of the two groups were statistically analysed and differences in the size of the corpus callosum according to the clinical severity and subtypes of cerebral palsy, and gestational age, were also assessed. Except for height, the measured values of the corpus callosum in patients with cerebral palsy were significantly less than those of the control group (p less than 0.05). Its size decreased according to the severity of motor palsy. Compared with term patients, the corpus callosum in preterm patients was considerably smaller (p less than 0.05). There was statistically significant correlation between the severity of motor palsy and the size of the corpus callosum. Quantitative evaluation of the corpus callosum might be a good indicator of neurologic prognosis, and a sensitive marker for assessing the extent of brain injury.

  11. Clinical and prognostic significance of plasma fibrinogen in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen YS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Hyperfibrinogenemia is a common problem associated with various carcinomas. The recent studies have shown that high plasma fibrinogen concentration is associated with invasion, growth and metastases of cancer. Furthermore, the recent studies focus on the prognostic significance of fibrinogen in the patients with advanced NSCLC (stage IIIB -IV. However, the prognostic significance of the plasma fibrinogen levels in early stage NSCLC patients (stage I -IIIA still remains unclear. In addition, it remains unclear whether or not chemotherapy-induced changes in fibrinogen level relate to the prognosis. The aims of this study were to 1 further explore the relationship between the plasma fibrinogen concentration and the stage and metastases of lung cancer 2 evaluate the prognostic significance of the basal plasma fibrinogen level in patients with lung cancer 3 explore the prognostic value of the change in fibrinogen levels between pre and post-chemotherapy. Methods: In this retrospective study, the data from 370 patients with lung cancer were enrolled into this study. The plasma fibrinogen levels were compared with the clinical and prognostic significance of lung cancer. The association between the plasma fibrinogen level and clinical-prognostic characteristics were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 software. Results: 1 The median pre-treatment plasma fibrinogen levels were 4.20g/L. Pre-treatment plasma fibrinogen levels correlated significantly with gender (p = 0.013. A higher plasma fibrinogen concentration was associated with squamous cell carcinoma versus adenocarcinoma (4.83±1.50 g/L versus 4.15±1.30 g/L; P<0.001, there was a significant association between plasma fibrinogen level and metastases of lung cancer, pointing a higher plasma fibrinogen level in lymph nodes or distant organ metastases (p < 0.001. 2 Patients with low plasma fibrinogen concentration demonstrates higher overall survival compared with those with high plasma fibrinogen

  12. Clinical significance of plasma metastin level in pancreatic cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Fumihiko; Nagai, Kazuyuki; Kida, Atsushi; Tomita, Kenji; Oishi, Shinya; Takeyama, Masaharu; Doi, Ryuichiro; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2009-03-01

    Metastin, which is a 54-residue peptide coded by KiSS-1 gene, is an endogenous ligand to a G-protein-coupled receptor GPR54. Metastin suppresses a malignant tumor to metastasize and regulates secretion of gonadotropine releasing hormone. Physiological action of metastin has been focused on in oncology. It is reported that less KiSS-1 gene and more hOT7T175 gene which codes GPR54 are expressed in pancreatic cancers than in normal pancreatic tissues; however, there is no study that investigates the relationship between clinicopathological characteristics and plasma metastin concentration in pancreatic cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma metastin-like immunoreactive substance (LI) levels and clinical characteristics in pancreatic cancer patients. Thirty-three patients with pathologically confirmed pancreatic cancer before or just after treatments and 24 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Patients were grouped according to the International Union Against Cancer TNM classification. Plasma metastin-LI was measured by enzyme immunoassay. The plasma metastin-LI levels of cancer patients were significantly higher when compared with healthy volunteers. Significant relationship was not found between the plasma metastin-LI levels and the clinicopathological factors such as tumor size, invasion, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. The plasma metastin levels may be a significant biomarker to predict the presence of pancreatic cancer and could be used in pancreatic cancer screening.

  13. Clinical significance of computed tomography assessment for third molar surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenji; Nakamori; Kei; Tomihara; Makoto; Noguchi

    2014-01-01

    Surgical extraction of the third molar is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the clinical practice of oral surgery.Third molar surgery is warranted when there is inadequate space for eruption,malpositioning,or risk for cyst or odontogenic tumor formation.Preoperative assessment should include a detailed morphologic analysis of the third molar and its relationship to adjacent structures and surrounding tissues.Due to developments in medical engineering technology,computed tomography(CT)now plays a critical role in providing the clear images required for adequate assessment prior to third molar surgery.Removal of the maxillary third molar is associated with a risk for maxillary sinus perforation,whereas removal of the mandibular third molar can put patients at risk for a neurosensory deficit from damage to the lingual nerve or inferior alveolar nerve.Multiple factors,including demographic,anatomic,and treatment-related factors,influence the incidence of nerve injury during or following removal of the third molar.CT assessment of the third molar prior to surgery can identify some of these risk factors,such as the absence of cortication between themandibular third molar and the inferior alveolar canal,prior to surgery to reduce the risk for nerve damage.This topic highlight presents an overview of the clinical significance of CT assessment in third molar surgery.

  14. Clinical significance of computed tomography assessment for third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamori, Kenji; Tomihara, Kei; Noguchi, Makoto

    2014-07-28

    Surgical extraction of the third molar is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the clinical practice of oral surgery. Third molar surgery is warranted when there is inadequate space for eruption, malpositioning, or risk for cyst or odontogenic tumor formation. Preoperative assessment should include a detailed morphologic analysis of the third molar and its relationship to adjacent structures and surrounding tissues. Due to developments in medical engineering technology, computed tomography (CT) now plays a critical role in providing the clear images required for adequate assessment prior to third molar surgery. Removal of the maxillary third molar is associated with a risk for maxillary sinus perforation, whereas removal of the mandibular third molar can put patients at risk for a neurosensory deficit from damage to the lingual nerve or inferior alveolar nerve. Multiple factors, including demographic, anatomic, and treatment-related factors, influence the incidence of nerve injury during or following removal of the third molar. CT assessment of the third molar prior to surgery can identify some of these risk factors, such as the absence of cortication between the mandibular third molar and the inferior alveolar canal, prior to surgery to reduce the risk for nerve damage. This topic highlight presents an overview of the clinical significance of CT assessment in third molar surgery.

  15. The clinical significance of lung hypoexpansion in acute childhood asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spottswood, Stephanie E. [Department of Radiology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, Box 980615, 23298-0615, Richmond, VA (United States); Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of the King' s Daughters, 601 Children' s Lane, Norfolk, VA 23507 (United States); Allison, Kelley Z.; Narla, Lakshmana D.; Lowry, Patricia A. [Department of Radiology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, Box 980615, 23298-0615, Richmond, VA (United States); Lopatina, Olga A.; Sethi, Narinder N. [School of Medicine, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, Richmond, VA (United States); Nettleman, Mary D. [Department of Internal Medicine, B-427 Clinical Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Many children experiencing acute asthmatic episodes have chest radiographs, which may show lung hyperinflation, hypoinflation, or normal inflation. Lung hypoinflation may be a sign of respiratory fatigue and poor prognosis. To compare the clinical course in children with asthma according to the degree of lung inflation on chest radiographs. We conducted a retrospective study during a 24-month period (from July 1999 to July 2001) of children aged 0-17 years, who presented to a pediatric emergency department or outpatient clinic with an asthma exacerbation. Chest radiographs obtained at presentation were reviewed independently by three pediatric radiologists who were blinded to the admission status of the patient. The correlation between hypoinflation and hospital admission was assessed in three age groups: 0-2 years, 3-5 years, and 6-17 years. Hypoinflation on chest radiographs was significantly correlated with hospital admission for children aged 6-17 years (odds ratio 16.00, 95% confidence interval 1.89-135.43). The inter-reader agreement for interpretation of these radiographs was strong, with a kappa score of 0.76. Hypoinflation was not correlated with admission in younger children. Lung hypoinflation is associated with a greater likelihood of hospital admission in children aged 6 years or older. Therefore, hypoinflation was a poor prognostic sign and may warrant more aggressive therapy. (orig.)

  16. Clinical manifestations and significance of post-traumatic thoracolumbar syringomyelia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱勇; 朱泽章; 吕锦瑜; 王斌; 李卫国; 朱丽华

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the pathogenic mechanism and the clinical significance of post-traumatic thoracolumbar syringomyelia through reviewing the clinical manifestations. Methods: The data of 15 patients (14 males and 1 female, aged from 28 to 56 years, with an average of 36 years) with post-traumatic syringomyelia treated in our hospital from December 1997 to February 2002 were studied retrospectively. Two patients suffered from T11 fractures, 7 from T12 fractures and 6 from L1 fractures. There were 12 patients with burst fractures and 3 with fracture dislocations. Anterior decompression, bone graft, bone fusion and internal fixation were made on 6 patients, posterior decompression, bone graft, bone fusion and internal fixation on 1 patient, and non-surgical treatment on 8 patients. Results: Syringomyelia of the patients was diagnosed accurately with magnetic resonance imaging at 0.5-4 years after the original thoracolumbar fracture. The cavern was round in 6 cases, elliptic in 6 cases, and irregular in 3 cases. The patients also suffered from pain (80%), myodynamia attenuation in lower extremities (66.7%), aggravated spasm (46.7%), sensation loss or hypesthesia (46.7%), decreased coordinate function of lower extremities (20%) and autonomic nerve symptom (6.7%).Conclusions: Post-traumatic thoracolumbar syringomyelia should be suspected if the patient has new neurological symptoms, such as myodynamia attenuation in lower extremities, after the neural function becomes stable for certain time.

  17. Clinical significance of scoring system for systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jian; LIANG Hua-ping

    2006-01-01

    The concepts of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and scoring system were defined by the journal of Bone in 1992. SIRS was described as occurrence of two or more clinical criteria in four ones (fever or hypothermia, tachypnea, tachycardia, and leukocytosis).An early diagnosis and estimation of systemic inflammation in patients is helpful for treatment selection. This paper reviews the application of SIRS scoring system, which has been extensively validated for large groups of critical care patients with severe injury and critical surgical diseases.Recent studies have documented SIRS score as a significant predictive parameter of adverse outcome in critical care patients. Furthermore, some studies also give us a suggestion on how to reduce the overload systemic response.

  18. Biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome: Biochemical Background and Clinical Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robberecht, Harry; Hermans, Nina

    2016-03-01

    Biomarkers of the metabolic syndrome are divided into four subgroups. Although dividing them in groups has some limitations, it can be used to draw some conclusions. In a first part, the dyslipidemias and markers of oxidative stress are discussed, while inflammatory markers and cardiometabolic biomarkers are reviewed in a second part. For most of them, the biochemical background and clinical significance are discussed, although here also a well-cut separation cannot always be made. Altered levels cannot always be claimed as the cause, risk, or consequence of the syndrome. Several factors are interrelated to each other and act in a concerted, antagonistic, synergistic, or modulating way. Most important conclusions are summarized at the end of every reviewed subgroup. Genetic biomarkers or influences of various food components on concentration levels are not included in this review article.

  19. Clinical Significance of Evaluating Antihypertensive Effect with Arterial Compliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新立; 倪春辉; 王震震

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical significance of antihypertensive effect witharterial compliance. Methods In males, 72 cases were control group, 35 cases were EH-controlled,and 35 cases were EH-uncontrolled groups. Blood pressure and arterial compliance (C1 and C2) weredetected by HDI DO-2020. Results In the EH-uncontrolled group,the values of systolic blood pres-sure (SBP) , diastolic blood pressure (DBP) , mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure(PP) were significantly higher than those of the control and the EH-controlled groups (P<0.01),however ,there was no difference between the control and the EH-controlled groups. In the EH-uncon-trolled group,the values of C1 and C2 were lower tlan those of both the control and the EH-controlledgroups (P<0.01) ,again,with no difference between the control and the EH-controlled groups. Con-clttsion Arterial compliance (C1 and C2) measurements may serve as a sensitive indicator of evalu-ating antihypertensive effect.

  20. EXTRAHEPATIC BILIARY DUCTAL VARIATIONS AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmidevi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Incidence of liver and Gallbladder diseases are significantly increasing in recent years. Cholecystectomy either by laparoscopic or open is the commonest surgical procedure performed by General surgeon. Liver Transplantation is emerging as one of the top most transplantation surgery as well. Variations in anatomy of Gallbladder, bile ducts and the arteries that supply them and liver are important to the surgeon, because failure to recognize them may lead to inadvertent ductal ligation, biliary leaks, haemobilia, haemorrhage and strictures after cholecystectomy and may complicate Liver transplantation surgeries. Recognition of these anomalies and normal variants may avoid diagnostic errors, aid in surgical planning and prevent inadvertent ductal injury. OBJECTIVES To study the variations in Extrahepatic Biliary Ductal system with its clinical significance. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Extrahepatic biliary ductal system studying under various methods are established; many variations in this region and understanding of these variations is undoubtedly important for operating surgeons. Starting from open cholecystectomy or laparoscopic cholecystectomy to cadaveric liver harvesting to recent advances like “Living donor liver transplantation with duct-toduct anastomosis” (LDLT, grading of tumours like hilar cholangiocarcinoma requires definitive knowledge of the anatomy of the ductal and arterial system. Hence, we believe this study is not only confined to anatomists, but definitely be a useful guideline for general and laparoscopic surgeons, oncosurgeons and to transplant surgeons.

  1. Determining sexual dimorphism in frog measurement data: integration of statistical significance, measurement error, effect size and biological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayek Lee-Ann C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Several analytic techniques have been used to determine sexual dimorphism in vertebrate morphological measurement data with no emergent consensus on which technique is superior. A further confounding problem for frog data is the existence of considerable measurement error. To determine dimorphism, we examine a single hypothesis (Ho = equal means for two groups (females and males. We demonstrate that frog measurement data meet assumptions for clearly defined statistical hypothesis testing with statistical linear models rather than those of exploratory multivariate techniques such as principal components, correlation or correspondence analysis. In order to distinguish biological from statistical significance of hypotheses, we propose a new protocol that incorporates measurement error and effect size. Measurement error is evaluated with a novel measurement error index. Effect size, widely used in the behavioral sciences and in meta-analysis studies in biology, proves to be the most useful single metric to evaluate whether statistically significant results are biologically meaningful. Definitions for a range of small, medium, and large effect sizes specifically for frog measurement data are provided. Examples with measurement data for species of the frog genus Leptodactylus are presented. The new protocol is recommended not only to evaluate sexual dimorphism for frog data but for any animal measurement data for which the measurement error index and observed or a priori effect sizes can be calculated.

  2. Clinical significance of metallothioneins in cell therapy and nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sushil Sharma,1 Afsha Rais,1 Ranbir Sandhu,1 Wynand Nel,1 Manuchair Ebadi21Saint James School of Medicine, Bonaire, The Netherlands; 2Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Therapeutics, Center of Excellence in Neuroscience, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USAAbstract: Mammalian metallothioneins (MTs are low molecular weight (6–7 kDa cysteine-rich proteins that are specifically induced by metal nanoparticles (NPs. MT induction in cell therapy may provide better protection by serving as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic agents, and by augmenting zinc-mediated transcriptional regulation of genes involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. Liposome-encapsulated MT-1 promoter has been used extensively to induce growth hormone or other genes in culture and gene-manipulated animals. MTs are induced as a defensive mechanism in chronic inflammatory conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and infections, hence can serve as early and sensitive biomarkers of environmental safety and effectiveness of newly developed NPs for clinical applications. Microarray analysis has indicated that MTs are significantly induced in drug resistant cancers and during radiation treatment. Nutritional stress and environmental toxins (eg, kainic acid and domoic acid induce MTs and aggregation of multilamellar electron-dense membrane stacks (Charnoly body due to mitochondrial degeneration. MTs enhance mitochondrial bioenergetics of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide–ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex-1, a rate-limiting enzyme complex involved in the oxidative phosphorylation. Monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors (eg, selegiline inhibit α-synuclein nitration, implicated in Lewy body formation, and inhibit 1-methyl 4-phenylpyridinium and 3-morpholinosydnonimine-induced apoptosis in cultured human dopaminergic neurons and mesencephalic fetal stem cells. MTs

  3. Cytochrome P450 structure, function and clinical significance: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palrasu, Manikandan; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2017-01-25

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are membrane-bound hemoproteins that play a pivotal role in the detoxification of xenobiotics, cellular metabolism and homeostasis. Induction or inhibition of CYP enzymes is a major mechanism that underlies drug-drug interactions. CYP enzymes can be transcriptionally activated by various xenobiotics and endogenous substrates through receptor-dependent mechanisms. CYP enzyme inhibition is a principal mechanism for metabolism-based drug-drug interactions. Many chemotherapeutic drugs can cause drug interactions due to their ability to either inhibit or induce the CYP enzyme system. Predictions based on in silico analyses followed by validation have identified several microRNAs that regulate CYPs. Genetic polymorphisms and epigenetic changes in CYP genes may be responsible for inter-individual and inter-ethnic variations in disease susceptibility and the therapeutic efficacy of drugs. Knowledge about the substrates, inducers, inhibitors of CYP isoforms, and the polymorphisms of CYP enzymes may be used as an aid by clinicians to determine therapeutic strategy, and treatment doses for drugs that are metabolized by CYP gene products. The present review is a comprehensive compilation of cytochrome P450 structure, function, pharmacogenetics, and pharmacoepigenetics and clinical significance.

  4. Clinical significance of {sup 123}I-BMIPP myocardial SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Junichi [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-07-01

    {sup 123}I-BMIPP is a radioiodinated branched chain fatty acid analog, showing high accumulation as well as prolonged retention in the myocardium. Therefore, it is used as a metabolic imaging agent suitable for myocardial SPECT. After {sup 123}I-BMIPP is taken in the myocardium, it remains there mainly as a storage type fatty acid of triglyceride, and it shows different behavior by the stage of cardiac disease. Usually, we evaluate metabolic findings by early imaging (20 minutes) after intravenous injection of {sup 123}I-BMIPP, however, sometimes washout or fill in are seen in the case of myocardial infarction or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by delayed imaging (after 4 hours). The mismatch of {sup 201}TlCl and {sup 123}I-BMIPP are useful for the diagnosis of stunned myocardium or evaluation of prognosis. However, behavior of {sup 123}I-BMIPP in myocardium is known still not completely. Therefore clinical significance of this examination is thought to be clarified by the stock of cases of various heart diseases. (author)

  5. Primary varicose veins: Frequency, clinical significance and surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Dragan M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION According to the definition of the World Health Organization, varicose veins represent abnormally enlarged superficial veins having baggy or cylindrical shape. The most frequent cause of primary varicose veins is the insufficiency of long saphenous vein (LSV, but especially the basin of its connection with femoral vein and perforating veins. OBJECTIVE The objectives of these investigations were: the determination of insufficiency incidence of SSV in cases of LSV insufficiency; the establishment of association of insufficiency of perforating veins of the basin of LSV and SSV; the study of the results of surgical treatment of insufficiency and varicosity of both short and long saphenous veins. METHODS In this study, 100 patients (66 women and 34 men, average age 52.1 years, with clinical symptoms showing the insufficiency and varicosity of long saphenous vein with no change of deep vein system were examined. Ultrasonographic examinations were made using Color Doppler probes - 7.5 and 3.75 MHz (Toshiba Corevison SSA 350 A; the development of incompetence of long saphenous vein (LSV and short saphenous vein (SSV at the level of the junction as well as other incompetent valves were examined. The reflux was defined as a retrograde flow of the duration longer than 0.5 seconds. RESULTS The insufficiency of short saphenous vein was determined by ultrasonographic examination in 34%, while the insufficiency of perforating veins in 80% of patients. 40% of patients were operated (33.3% of females, and 52.9% of males. The most frequent indications for surgical treatment of superficial veins insufficiency were: strong varicosities, clear symptoms and signs, superficial thrombophlebitis and conditions after superficial thrombophlebitis. Surgical treatment was applied in 16% of patients due to recurrence in the basin of long saphenous vein, and in 6% of cases because of the recurrence in the basin of short saphenous vein. Data analysis failed to

  6. Clinical significance of microembolus detection by transcranial Doppler sonography in cardiovascular clinical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudorović, Narcis

    2006-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler can detect microembolic signals, which are characterized by unidirectional high intensity increase, short duration, and random occurrence, producing a "whistling" sound. Microembolic signals have been proven to represent solid or gaseous particles within the blood flow. Microemboli have been detected in a number of clinical cardiovascular settings: carotid artery stenosis, aortic arch plaques, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, prosthetic heart valves, patent foramen ovale, valvular stenosis, during invasive procedures (angiography, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty) and surgery (carotid, cardiopulmonary bypass). Despite numerous studies performed so far, clinical significance of microembolic signals is still unclear. This article provides an overview of the development and current state of technical and clinical aspects of microembolus detection.

  7. The clinical significance of fatty acid binding proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Choromańska

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Excessive levels of free fatty acids are toxic to cells. The human body has evolved a defense mechanism in the form of small cytoplasmic proteins called fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs that bind long-chain fatty acids (LCFA, and then refer them to appropriate intracellular disposal sites (oxidation in mitochondria and peroxisomes or storage in the endoplasmic reticulum. So far, nine types of these proteins have been described, and their name refers to the place in which they were first identified or where they can be found in the greatest concentration. The most important FABPs were isolated from the liver (L-FABP, heart (H-FABP, intestine (I-FABP, brain (B-FABP, epidermis (E-FABP and adipocytes (A-FABP. Determination of H-FABP is used in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, and L-FABP in kidney lesions of different etiologies. It is postulated that FABPs play an important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Elevated levels of A-FABP have been found in the pericardial fat tissue and were associated with cardiac dysfunction in obese people. A rise in A-FABP has been observed in patients with type II diabetes. I-FABP is known as a marker of cell damage in the small intestine. Increased concentration of B-FABP has been associated with human brain tumors such as glioblastoma and astrocytoma, as well as with neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and other disorders of cognitive function. The aim of this work was to present current data on the clinical significance of fatty acid binding proteins.

  8. VARIABILITY OF ORIGIN OF OBTURATOR ARTERY AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthivel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obturator artery is a branch of anterior division of internal iliac artery. It normally runs anteroinferiorly on the lateral wall of pelvis to the upper part of the obturator foramen and leaves the pelvis by passing through the obturator canal. On its course, the artery is accompanied by the obturator nerve and vein. It supplies the muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh. A severe and potentially lethal complication in pelvic injuries is arterial bleeding commonly involving the branches of the internal iliac artery, namely the lateral sacral, iliolumbar, obturator, vesical and inferior gluteal arteries. A sound knowledge of retro-pubic pelvic vascular anatomy is pivotal for successful performance of endoscopic procedures such as total extra-peritoneal inguinal hernioplasty or laparoscopic herniorraphy. The context and purpose of the study: This study is an attempt to analyse the origin, course, distribution of obturator artery in pelvis and their clinical implication. Result: out of 60 formalin fixed pelvic halves 36.6% of the specimens, (26.67% in males and 10% in females the origin of obturator artery was found to be normal from anterior division of internal iliac artery. About 63.63% from various other sources. Conclusion: This knowledge of variation in the origin of obturator artery is important while doing pelvic and groin surgeries requiring appropriate ligation. Such aberrant origins may be a significant source for persistent bleeding in the setting of acute trauma. Knowledge regarding the variations of obturator artery is useful during surgeries of fracture and direct or indirect inguinal, femoral and obturator hernias.

  9. Clinical significance of PHPT1 protein expression in lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU An-jian; XIA Xiang-hou; DU Song-tao; GU Jun-chao

    2010-01-01

    Background in our previous studies, we found the expression of 14-kD phosphohistidine phosphatase (PHPT1) was associated with lung cancer cells migration and invasion, and PHPT1 mRNA expression level in lung cancer tissues clinically correlated with lymph node metastasis. in the present study, we aimed to further investigate the expression of PHPT1 protein in lung cancer.Methods Expression of PHPT1 protein in tissue samples from 146 lung cancers and 30 normal tissues adjacent to lung cancers was assessed using immunohistochemical method. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze expression patterns of PHPT1 protein in these tissue types. Meanwhile, we studied the correlation between expression of PHPT1 protein and clinicopathological features in lung cancer.Results Significantly higher expression levels of PHPT1 protein were found in lung cancer samples (53.42%) than in normal tissues adjacent to lung cancer (23.33%) (P=0.003). Fisher's exact test showed that lung cancer stage positively correlated with expression of PHPT1 protein (P=0.02), and lung cancer samples with lymph node metastasis showed higher PHPT1 protein expression (P=0.016) than the samples without lymph node metastasis.Conclusions The results of this study agree with findings from our previous study of PHPT1 mRNA expression in lung cancer tissues, and strongly suggest that PHPT1 protein is closely associated with the carcinogenesis and metastasis of lung cancer. Thus, therapy targeting PHPT1 (inhibition or silencing) could be potentially benefited for lung cancer patients.

  10. Clinical and biological features of familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高健

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical and biological features of familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma(FNMTC).Methods Clinical data of 66 FNMTC cases of 32pedigrees was retrospectively analyzed,compared with that of 182 control cases taken randomly from the patients with sporadic papillary thyroid carcinoma(SPTC),who

  11. Clinical Significance of Autoantibodies in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Antimitochondrial, anti-gp210, anti-sp100, and anticentromere antibodies are specifically detected in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). In clinical practice, they are useful for the diagnosis of PBC or for evaluating disease severity, clinical phenotype, and long-term outcome. In the typical or classical form of PBC which shows slow progressive loss of small bile ducts with a parallel increase in liver fibrosis, anti-gp210 antibodies are a strong risk factor for progression to jaundice and hep...

  12. 联合应用实时荧光定量PCR和噬菌体生物扩增法在结核性脑膜炎诊断中的意义%The clinical significance of joint use of real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and phage amplified biologically assay in the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵卫

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析联合应用实时荧光定量PCR和噬菌体生物扩增法在结核性脑膜炎诊断中的意义.方法 取该院于2007年4月至2011年4月收治的经临床确诊的结核性脑膜炎患者76例,随机分为观察组与对照组各38例.对照组患者使用涂片法进行结核分枝杆菌的检查,观察组联合使用实时荧光定量PCR和噬菌体生物扩增法,比较两者检测结果的真阳性率情况.结果 观察组阳性检出率为97.37%(37/38),对照组阳性检出率为57.89%(22/38),两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 联合应用实时荧光定量PCR和噬菌体生物扩增法可以快速准确检测出早期结核性脑膜炎患者,改善其预后,值得推广使用.%Objective To explore the diagnostic value of joint use of real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and phage amplified biologically assay in the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis .Methods 76 patients with tuberculous meningitis in our hospital from April 2007 to April 2011,which were clinically diagnosed and randomly divided into the observation group and the control group with 38 cases in each group .Patients in the control group using the smear method for Mycobacterium tuberculosis screening,the observation group used a combination of real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and phage amplified biologically assay,comparing detection results of true positive rate .Results The observation group positive rate was 97 .37/o (37/38) .The control groups positive rate was 57 .89% (22/38) .There was significant difference between two groups (P<0 .05) .Conclusion There were important values for early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis in joint use of real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and phage amplified biologically assay .

  13. Clinical significance of mast cells and IL-9 in B-NHL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封丽丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of mast cells and interleukin-9 (IL-9) in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) development and its clinical significance.Methods The expression level of CD117 in tumor tissues of 32 B-NHL patients was determined by Western blot.The infiltration of CD117+mast cells (MCs) in human B-NHL tumor tissues was observed by immunohistochemistry staining.To evaluate the correlations between the data from CD117+MCs and biological markers of human B-NHL,a Spearman correlation coefficient (rs) was cal-

  14. Synthetic Biology and the Moral Significance of Artificial Life: A Reply to Douglas, Powell and Savulescu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    I discuss the moral significance of artificial life within synthetic biology via a discussion of Douglas, Powell and Savulescu's paper 'Is the creation of artificial life morally significant'. I argue that the definitions of 'artificial life' and of 'moral significance' are too narrow. Douglas, Powell and Savulescu's definition of artificial life does not capture all core projects of synthetic biology or the ethical concerns that have been voiced, and their definition of moral significance fails to take into account the possibility that creating artificial life is conditionally acceptable. Finally, I show how several important objections to synthetic biology are plausibly understood as arguing that creating artificial life in a wide sense is only conditionally acceptable.

  15. Clinical significance of occult hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miriam Romero; Antonio Madejón; Conrado Fernández-Rodríguez; Javier García-Samaniego

    2011-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is defined as the presence of HBV DNA in the liver (with or without detectable HBV DNA in serum) for individuals testing HBV surface antigen negative. Until recently, the clinical effect of OBI was unclear on the progression of liver disease; on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma; and on the risk for reactivation or transmission of HBV infection. Several studies suggest a high prevalence of OBI among patients with cryptogenic chronic liver disease, but its role in the progression to cirrhosis remains unclear. Although OBI has been well documented in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients, especially among those coinfected with hepatitis C virus, further studies are needed to determine its current clinical impact in HIV setting.

  16. Granulocyte antigen systems and antibodies and their clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCullough, J.

    1983-03-01

    Granulocyte alloantibodies and autoantibodies have a key role in the pathophysiology of several clinical problems. These include febrile transfusion reactions, severe pulmonary reactions to transfusion, isoimmune neonatal neutropenia, failure of effective granulocyte transfusion, autoimmune neutropenia, drug-induced neutropenia, and neutropenias secondary to many other diseases. Although many techniques are available for detecting granulocyte antibodies, the optimal in-vitro tests for predicting the antibodies' clinical effects are not established. Use of indium-111-labeled granulocytes may provide valuable information regarding the in-vivo effects of different granulocyte antibodies. Granulocyte transfusions continue to be used for a limited number of severely infected neutropenic patients who do not respond to antibiotic therapy.

  17. Hyperprolactinemia with normal serum prolactin: Its clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manika Agarwal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Amenorrhea and infertility with an added feature of galactorrhea makes a provisional diagnosis of hyperprolactinemia. But again, normal serum prolactin with all clinical features of hyperprolactinemia might question the diagnosis and further management. The answer lies in the heterogeneity of the peptide hormone - the immunoactive and the bioactive forms. This has been further illustrated with the help of a case which had been treated with cabergoline.

  18. The clinical significance of creativity in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Clinical implications of the high rates of creativity within bipolar disorder (BD) have not been explored. The aim of this review is to outline these implications by (i) reviewing evidence for the link between creativity and BD, (ii) developing a provisional model of mechanisms underpinning the creativity–BD link, (iii) describing unique challenges faced by creative-BD populations, and (iv) systematically considering evidence-based psychosocial treatments in the light of this review. While mo...

  19. Resistance to antivirals in human cytomegalovirus: mechanisms and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, J L

    1997-09-01

    Long term therapies needed for managing human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections in immunosupressed patients provided the background for the emergence of the resistance to antivirals active against HCMV. In addition, laboratory selected mutants have also been readily achieved. Both clinical and laboratory resistant strains share the same determinants of resistance. Ganciclovir resistance may be due to a few mutations in the HCMV UL97 gene and/or viral DNA pol gene, the former being responsible for about 70% of clinical resistant isolates. Among them, V464, V594, S595 and F595 are the most frequent mutations. Because of their less extensive clinical use, much less is known about resistance to foscarnet and cidofovir (formerly, HPMPC) but in both cases, it has been associated to mutations in the DNA pol. Ganciclovir resistant strains showing DNA pol mutations are cross-resistant to cidofovir and their corresponding IC50 are normally higher than those from strains harboring only mutations at the UL97 gene. To date, foscarnet resistance seems to be independent of both ganciclovir and cidofovir resistance.

  20. BIOFILM DETECTION AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS ISOLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Rani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis . AIMS : To detect biofilm among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis . MATERIAL AND METHODS : 50 Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates were collected from clinical samples like blood, IV catheter tips, catheterized urine, wound swabs and exudates received from various clinical departments. Biofilm formation was studied in these isolates. The study was carried out over a period o f one year i. e from March 2011 - February 2012. The specimens received were processed by conventional methods. Tissue Culture plate method was used for detection of biofilm. RESULTS: IV catheter tip samples revealed 25%, implant device associated infection s revealed 20%, the Catheterized urine samples showed 16%, blood culture 8%, ventilator associated infections 10%, post - operative wound infections 11% & exudates 5% of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates. Isolates with O. D. values more than 0. 2 were consi dered as high biofilm producers. 40% of S. epidermidis isolates were weak biofilm producers, 24% were moderate biofilm producers and 36% were high biofilm producers. Isolates from IV catheter tips showed high biofilm formation. CONCLUSIONS: In the modern h ealth care set up, various devices such as IV catheters, urine catheters, shunts, implanted prosthetic devices etc are being increasingly used thereby causing the device associated infections particularly of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Device associated in fections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis are mainly due to biofilm formation which ultimately makes the treatment difficult.

  1. Anterior urethral recurrence of superficial bladder cancer: its clinical significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saika T

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reveal the clinical features of anterior urethral recurrence in patients with superficial bladder cancer, and to determine the appropriate treatment. Three hundred and three patients with superficial bladder cancer, who were newly diagnosed and initially treated conservatively in our hospital between 1965 and 1990, were followed for at least 5 years and their clinical outcomes were analyzed. Clinical factors, including anterior urethral recurrence, were evaluated statistically regarding tumor progression. Eight patients (2.6% had anterior urethral recurrence following superficial bladder cancer. Twenty-four patients (7.9% had tumor progression and 149 (49.2% had tumor recurrence. In a multivariate analysis using a logistic model, anterior urethral recurrence was the most important factor, followed by histological grade. Four of 5 patients who were treated for anterior urethral recurrent tumors by transurethral resection showed progression and died of the cancer within one year. Two of the remaining three patients who underwent radical cysto-urethrectomy at the time of anterior urethral recurrence survived. Anterior urethral recurrence following superficial bladder cancer is a predictor for rapid subsequent malignant progression. Once there is anterior urethral recurrence, radical intensive therapy, including radical cysto-urethrectomy, should be carried out immediately.

  2. Clinical significance of pain in patients with chronic heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Qian; ZHANG Feng-ru; ZHOU Qing-fen; DAI Li-ying; LIU Ye-hong; CHAI Xi-chen; WU Fang; SHEN Wei-feng

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of studies investigating the clinical and biochemical characteristics of pain in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients.This study aimed to determine the clinical and biochemical characteristics and outcomes in Chinese patients with CHF and symptoms of pain.Methods Sociodemographics,serum levels of creatinine,NT-proBNP,high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP),tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α,interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10,and two-dimensional echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were determined in 305 patients with CHF.A questionnaire packet including the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) was used to assess the degree of pain rated on a 0-10 scale and the quality of life (QOL).A six-minute walking test was performed during routine clinic visits.Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were recorded; including all-cause or cardiac mortality and rehospitalization because of myocardial infarction,worsening heart failure or stroke at follow-up.Results Pain occurred in 25.6% of CHF patients,and was more common when the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class was worse.More patients with pain were female in gender,and had more co-morbidities,lower LVEF,and shorter distance during the 6-minute walking test.Despite similar serum levels of creatinine,N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP),IL-6 and IL-10,the TNF-α levels were higher and MLHFQ scores were greater in CHF patients with pain.At follow-up,CHF patients with moderate to severe pain (≥4 scale) had higher rates of all-cause and cardiac mortality and rehospitalization because of myocardial infarction,worsening heart failure or stroke.Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the presence of pain was an independent risk factor for MACE and reduced QOL in CHF patients.Conclusions Pain occurs in all stages of the CHF trajectory,and its incidence increases as clinical

  3. [Etiology, pathophysiology and clinical significance of hereditary fructose intolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauth, U; Halmágyi, M

    1991-10-01

    Due to repeatedly described incidents in patients with undiscovered hereditary fructose intolerance, the application of fructose and sorbit-containing parenteral solutions is a topic vehemently discussed. This paper presents a survey of the literature dealing with the inborn defect of fructose-1-phosphate aldolase. The physiology and pathophysiology of fructose metabolism are described as well as the clinical appearance and diagnostic possibilities. The acute course of a fructose incompatibility is determined by a threatening decrease in the blood glucose level, which is attributed to the inhibition of several enzymes of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by an intracellular accumulation of fructose-1-phosphate. Within hours a global functional breakdown of organs, which normally have the enzyme, occurs. The impairment of the liver function finds expression in a severe coagulopathy, the damage of the kidney leads to anuria. In chronic oral fructose supply, damage of the liver and small intestinal mucosa with corresponding gastrointestinal symptoms determine the clinical course. Concerning diagnosis, contrary to the liver biopsy and the fructose tolerance test, the mucosal biopsy with determination of fructose-1-phosphate aldolase activity has the advantage of greater specificity and is better tolerated by the patient. A total abstinence to fructose and sorbitol-containing solutions is not considered to be necessary when the rarity of the illness is taken into account and certain precautions are taken. These include a specific anamnesis of nutrition as well as a total abstinence from fructose and sorbitol in infants and in the unconscious patient. For clinical routine a simple fructose tolerance test is suggested.

  4. Puusepp's sign--clinical significance of a forgotten pyramidal sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacik, Pawel; Krasnianski, M; Zierz, S

    2009-12-01

    The pyramidal signs in the lower extremity can be divided into three groups: (1) Babinski's group characterised by dorsoflexion of the great toe, (2) pyramidal signs marked by plantar flexion of the toes (e.g. Rossolimo's sign), and (3) synkinetic movements such as Strümpell's phenomenon. Puusepp's sign described by the Estonian neurologist and neurosurgeon Ludvig Puusepp belongs to none of these three groups. Its eliciting does not differ from that of Babinski's sign. The response, however, is different and consists of a tonic slow abduction of the little toe. We showed its relevance on the basis of clinical examination of six patients: four females aged 29, 50, 43 and 57 years and two males aged 42 and 49 years. The diagnoses were as follows: a new relapse of multiple sclerosis, a secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, a left middle cerebral artery stroke, a lumbago resulting in L3-L4 fusion surgery, an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and a left intracerebral haemorrhage respectively. Puusepp's sign was the only elicitable pyramidal sign in all the patients but two. The 50-year-old female patient revealed on neurological examination Babinski's sign on the left side and Puusepp's sign on the right side. The testing of pyramidal signs in the 57-year-old woman displayed a bilateral Strümpell's sign and a left Puusepp's sign. These six cases showed that although rarely recognized in the clinical practice Puusepp's sign contributed to establishing the diagnosis of a central motor neuron involvement in the case of an absent Babinski's sign. Thus, its testing does not differ from that of Babinski's sign which requires only a little attention from the examiner, but provides an important piece of clinical information.

  5. The clinical significance of creativity in bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Greg; Johnson, Sheri L.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical implications of the high rates of creativity within bipolar disorder (BD) have not been explored. The aim of this review is to outline these implications by (i) reviewing evidence for the link between creativity and BD, (ii) developing a provisional model of mechanisms underpinning the creativity–BD link, (iii) describing unique challenges faced by creative-BD populations, and (iv) systematically considering evidence-based psychosocial treatments in the light of this review. While more research into the creativity–BD nexus is urgently required, treatment outcomes will benefit from consideration of this commonly occurring phenotype. PMID:20579791

  6. The clinical significance of creativity in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Greg; Johnson, Sheri L

    2010-08-01

    Clinical implications of the high rates of creativity within bipolar disorder (BD) have not been explored. The aim of this review is to outline these implications by (i) reviewing evidence for the link between creativity and BD, (ii) developing a provisional model of mechanisms underpinning the creativity-BD link, (iii) describing unique challenges faced by creative-BD populations, and (iv) systematically considering evidence-based psychosocial treatments in the light of this review. While more research into the creativity-BD nexus is urgently required, treatment outcomes will benefit from consideration of this commonly occurring phenotype.

  7. Gut in diseases: Physiological elements and their clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian-An Ding; Jie-Shou Li

    2003-01-01

    The intestinal barrier function of GI tract is very important in the body except for the function of digestion and absorption. The functional status of gut barrier basically reflects the stress severity when body suffers from trauma and various stimulations. Many harmful factors such as drugs,illnesses, trauma and burns can damage the gut barrier,which can lead to the barrier dysfunction and bacterial/endotoxin translocation. The paper discusses and reviews the concepts, anatomy, pathophysiology of gut barrier and its clinical relations.

  8. Clinical and prognostic significance of plasma fibrinogen in lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chen YS; Zeng DH; Li HR; Wu YL; Lin X.; Xu NL; Lin M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Hyperfibrinogenemia is a common problem associated with various carcinomas. The recent studies have shown that high plasma fibrinogen concentration is associated with invasion, growth and metastases of cancer. Furthermore, the recent studies focus on the prognostic significance of fibrinogen in the patients with advanced NSCLC (stage IIIB -IV). However, the prognostic significance of the plasma fibrinogen levels in early stage NSCLC patients (stage I -IIIA) still remains unclear. ...

  9. Brain death in ICU patients: Clinical significance of endocrine changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have been carried out among patients admitted in intensive care unit (ICU having primary endocrine pathology, endocrine manifestations of systemic diseases or post-endocrine tissue surgery. However, minimal literary evidence is available highlighting the endocrine changes occurring during brain death in critically ill patients. A precise and timely diagnosis of brain death is required to convey the relatives about the prognosis and also to possibly plan for organ retrieval for transplantation purposes. The diagnosis of this condition as of today remains largely a clinical one. Brain death is associated with a multitude of endocrinological alterations which are yet to be completely unraveled and understood. Evaluating these endocrinological modifications lends us an added vista to add to the existing clinical parameters which might help us to confirm the diagnosis of brain death with a higher degree of precision. Moreover, since the efficacy of hormone replacement therapy to benefit in organ retrieval remains yet unproven, newer diagnostic modalities and research studies are definitely called for to strategize the optimal dosage and duration of such therapies.

  10. Clinical significance of the isolation of Candidaspecies from hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankee C. Magalhães

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we isolated and phenotypically identified 108 yeast strains from various clinical specimens collected from 100 hospitalized patients at three tertiary hospitals in São Luís-Maranhão, Brazil, from July to December 2010. The isolates were analyzed for their susceptibility to four of the most widely used antifungal agents in the surveyed hospitals, amphotericin B, fluconazole, 5-flucytosine and voriconazole. The species identified were Candida albicans (41.4%, Candida tropicalis (30.1%, C. glabrata (7.4%, Candida parapsilosis(5.5%, Candida krusei (4.6%, Cryptococcus neoformans (4.6%, Trichosporonspp. (3.7%, Candida norvegensis (0.9%, Rhodotorula glutinis (0.9% and Pichia farinosa (0.9%. A higher isolation rate was observed in the following clinical specimens: urine (54 isolates; 50%, respiratory tract samples (21 isolates; 19.4% and blood (20 isolates; 18.6%. Candida albicans isolates were 100% sensitive to all antifungal agents tested, whereas Candida krusei and Crytococcus neoformans displayed intermediate resistance to 5-flucytosine, with Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC values of 8 mg/mL and 16 mg/mL, respectively. Both strains were also S-DD to fluconazole with an MIC of 16 mg/mL. C. tropicalis was resistant to 5-flucytosine with an MIC of 32 μg/mL. This study demonstrates the importance of identifying the yeast species involved in community and nosocomial infections.

  11. Independent component analysis reveals new and biologically significant structures in micro array data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerla Srinivas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An alternative to standard approaches to uncover biologically meaningful structures in micro array data is to treat the data as a blind source separation (BSS problem. BSS attempts to separate a mixture of signals into their different sources and refers to the problem of recovering signals from several observed linear mixtures. In the context of micro array data, "sources" may correspond to specific cellular responses or to co-regulated genes. Results We applied independent component analysis (ICA to three different microarray data sets; two tumor data sets and one time series experiment. To obtain reliable components we used iterated ICA to estimate component centrotypes. We found that many of the low ranking components indeed may show a strong biological coherence and hence be of biological significance. Generally ICA achieved a higher resolution when compared with results based on correlated expression and a larger number of gene clusters with significantly enriched for gene ontology (GO categories. In addition, components characteristic for molecular subtypes and for tumors with specific chromosomal translocations were identified. ICA also identified more than one gene clusters significant for the same GO categories and hence disclosed a higher level of biological heterogeneity, even within coherent groups of genes. Conclusion Although the ICA approach primarily detects hidden variables, these surfaced as highly correlated genes in time series data and in one instance in the tumor data. This further strengthens the biological relevance of latent variables detected by ICA.

  12. Neuropeptides Y, YY, PP and their clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Śliwińska-Mossoń

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available peripheral nervous system. Considering the structure and evolutionary origin, neuropeptideY (NPY is a peptide of the same family as peptide YY (PYY and pancreatic polypeptide(PP. These proteins were discovered relatively recently, however, knowledge about them isdeepened. They are 36-amino acid peptide acting through G-protein coupled receptors, Y1,Y2, Y3, Y4, Y5 and Y6. The diverse structure C-terminus of the peptide and protein binding toreceptors affect the biological activity and the physiological effects on the digestive system,blood vessels, and the center of hunger and satiety in the hypothalamus. Peptides have anorexicproperties, they regulate appetite and food intake mainly through the intestinal cerebrospinalaxis and the hypothalamus. These substances represent an important potential target of newdrugs in the long-term treatment and prevention of obesity. Furthermore, neuropeptide Yaffects many processes depending on the central nervous system modifies ethanol consumption,affect circadian rhythms, memory processes, anxiety behavior. Peripherally NPY affectssmooth muscle contraction of the blood vessels, blood pressure, and atherogenic processes.Conducted more thorough research trying to define the role and participation of variousneuropeptides in the development of diseases of the pancreas and the gastrointestinal tract,cardiovascular system and use it for diagnosis.

  13. Lipoprotein ratios: Physiological significance and clinical usefulness in cardiovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Jesús; Pintó, Xavier; Muñoz, Anna; Zúñiga, Manuel; Rubiés-Prat, Joan; Pallardo, Luis Felipe; Masana, Luis; Mangas, Alipio; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; González-Santos, Pedro; Ascaso, Juan F; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration has been the prime index of cardiovascular disease risk and the main target for therapy. However, several lipoprotein ratios or "atherogenic indices" have been defined in an attempt to optimize the predictive capacity of the lipid profile. In this review, we summarize their pathophysiological aspects, and highlight the rationale for using these lipoprotein ratios as cardiovascular risk factors in clinical practice, specifying their cut-off risk levels and a target for lipid-lowering therapy. Total/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and LDL/HDL cholesterol ratios are risk indicators with greater predictive value than isolated parameters used independently, particularly LDL. Future recommendations regarding the diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia, including instruments for calculating cardiovascular risk or action guidelines, should include the lipoprotein ratios with greater predictive power which, in view of the evidence-based results, are none other than those which include HDL cholesterol.

  14. Clinicopathologic correlations and significance of clinically occult mammary lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, G F; Feig, S A; Patchefsky, A S

    1978-03-01

    Experience with 189 clinically occult, i.e., nonpalpable breast lesions is presented. The described technique of localization and excision all but guarantees removal of even the smallest radiographically suspicious findings with an inconspicuous incision and minimal breast deformity. The incidence of carcinoma encountered in these 189 biopsies is 27.5%. Axillary node metastases were present in less than 25% of the invasive nonpalpable cancers, approximately half of what might have been expected if the lesions had been discovered in the usual manner. There were no patients with axillary node metastases among those with in situ ductal or microinvasive ductal carcinomas. This implies a better prognosis and lower death rate from breast cancer in these patients. Screening programs employing mammography, designed to detect breast cancers in this pre-palpable stage, are encountered as a means of uncovering a higher proportion of such cancers at an earlier stage in their natural histories.

  15. Clinical and biochemical significance of toxin production by Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindschuh, M; Pickering, L K; Cleary, T G; Ruiz-Palacios, G

    1987-05-01

    Production of cytotoxin and enterotoxin by Aeromonas strains obtained from stools of 50 children in Mexico and Texas and from blood of 9 children with sepsis was determined. Results were correlated with clinical features of infected children as well as with biochemical traits of Aeromonas strains. Cytotoxin was produced by 40 of 42 Aeromonas strains (95%) isolated from stools of children with diarrhea, by all 8 isolates from stools of well children, and by all 9 isolates from children with sepsis. There was no difference in the quantities (amount of cytotoxin per milligram of protein required to kill 50% of the cells) of cytotoxin produced and in clinical manifestations among the groups. None of the isolates produced a toxin that could be neutralized by antiserum raised against Shiga toxin produced by Shigella dysenteriae 1 60R. Heat-labile-like enterotoxin (LT) was produced by 26 of 42 stool isolates (62%), while only 1 of the 42 isolates (2%) produced enterotoxinlike activity in suckling mice; 65% of the cytotoxin-producing strains also produced an LT-like material. All strains from blood produced LT-like material, and 2 of 6 (33%) produced activity in suckling mice. All strains produced hemolysin; 37 of 57 (65%) were Voges-Proskauer positive; 27 of 57 (47%) were lysine decarboxylase positive by API 20E strips, none were positive for lysine decarboxylose production by lysin-iron agar slants at 24 h, but 17 of 54 (31%) were positive at 48 h. There was no correlation between biochemical reactions and enterotoxin or cytotoxin production. There appears to be no correlation between toxin production by Aeromonas spp. and gastroenteritis.

  16. The expression and clinical significance of survivin gene in leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of survivin in leukemia and the prognostic significance in acute leukemia(AL). Methods The expression of survivin mRNA was measured in 105 AL and 21 chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients with semi-quantity reverse transcription (RT)-PCR.15 adults were tested as normal

  17. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis : Clinical significance and pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Knegt, RJ

    2001-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a form of liver disease resembling alcoholic liver disease in a patient who does not consume significant amounts of alcohol. Since its first description in 1980 it has been recognized with increasing frequency. The natural course is relatively benign, but live

  18. Computational Biology in Clinical Proteomics and Chromatin Genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuleman, W.

    2012-01-01

    The work in this thesis is concerned with two very distinct biological fields. The first part pertains to the development of techniques to aid in the search for clinical biomarkers for use in the early detection of cancer. The second part aims to elucidate in what way a genome is organised in a cell

  19. Considerations for clinical pharmacology studies for biologics in emerging markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Bharat; White, Robert; Wang, Huifen Faye

    2015-03-01

    Registration of innovative biologics in Emerging Markets (EMs) poses many opportunities and challenges. The BRIC-MT countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, Mexico, and Turkey) that are the fastest growing markets and regulators in these countries have imposed certain requirements, including the need for local clinical studies, for registration of biologics. The regulatory landscape in these countries is rapidly evolving, which necessitates an up-to-date understanding of such requirements. There is growing evidence which suggests that race, after accounting for body weight differences, may not influence the pharmacokinetics of biologics to the same extent that it does for small molecules. Thus, the requirements for clinical pharmacology trials in EMs are driven mainly by regulatory needs set forth by local Ministry of Health. In addition to the clinical Phase I to III studies done in the global program that supports registration in large geographies, countries such as China require local single and multiple dose Phase I studies. Participating in global studies with clinical sites within their country may be sufficient for some markets, while other regulators may be satisfied with a Certificate of Pharmaceutical Product. This paper discusses the current requirements for registration of innovative biologics in key EMs.

  20. Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate: immunohistochemical findings and clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha JJ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Jianjun Sha,1,2 Juanjie Bo,1 Jiahua Pan,1 Lianhua Zhang,1 Hanqing Xuan,1 Wei Chen,1 Dong Li,1 Zhaoliang Wang,1 Dongming Liu,1 Yiran Huang1,2 1Department of Urology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 2School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China Introduction: To investigate the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Methods: The clinicopathological and immunohistochemical data of seven patients with ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, bone scan, cystoscopy, and computed tomography (CT scan. The level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA before and after surgery was assessed. Different prostate cancer markers were used for immunohistochemical staining. Results: The mean age of the seven patients diagnosed with prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma in this study was 76.2 years (range 57–88. Five patients presented with intermittent and painless gross hematuria, one patient with progressive dysuria, and one patient with elevated serum PSA on routine health examination. The level of PSA before surgery ranged from 1.3 to 45.0 ng/mL. Immunohistochemical staining results of the prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma confirmed positivity for PSA, prostatic acid phosphatase, androgen receptor, and alpha-methyacyl co-enzyme A (CoA-reductase markers. Two of the patients underwent bilateral orchiectomy combined with anti-androgen therapy, three underwent transurethral resection of prostate, one received radical prostatectomy, and one received medical castration therapy. The clinical outcomes of all patients were satisfactory, based on follow-up data. The symptoms of hematuria and dysuria were ameliorated well, and the postoperative PSA level decreased below 4.0 ng/mL. Recurrence or metastasis of disease was

  1. Periodic Table Target: A Game that Introduces the Biological Significance of Chemical Element Periodicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, Richard S.; McGinty, Ragan L.; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    Periodic Table Target, a game for middle school or high school students, familiarizes students with the form of the periodic table and the biological significance of different elements. The Periodic Table Target game board is constructed as a class project, and the game is played to reinforce the content. Students are assigned several elements…

  2. Biological Characteristics and Etiological Significance of Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus(PRCV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xiuping; FENG Li; SHI Hongyan; CHEN Jianfei

    2009-01-01

    Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), a spike (S) gene natural deletion mutant of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), causes porcine respiratory disease complex. Research advances on porcine respiratory coronavirus were reviewed from four aspects of biological character, the model function for SARS-CoV research, contribution of the immunity to PRCV to protection against TGEV challenge exposure and other etiological significance.

  3. Left-sided gallbladder: Its clinical significance and imaging presentations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the importance of preoperative diagnosis and presentation of left-sided gallbladder using ultrasound (US), CT and angiography.METHODS: Retrospective review of 1482 patients who underwent enhanced CT scanning was performed. Left-sided gallbladder was diagnosed if a right-sided ligamentum teres was present. The image presentations on US, CT and angiography were also reviewed.RESULTS: Left-sided gallbladder was diagnosed in nine patients. The associated abnormalities on CT imaging included portal vein anomalies, absence of umbilical portion of the portal vein in the left lobe of the liver,club-shaped portal vein in the right lobe of the liver, and difficulty in identifying segment Ⅳ. Angiography in six of nine patients demonstrated abnormal portal venous system (trifurcation type in four of six patients). The main hepatic arteries followed the portal veins in all six patients. The segment Ⅳ artery was identified in four of six patients using angiography, although segment Ⅳ was difficult to define on CT imaging. Hepatectomy was performed in three patients with concomitant liver tumor and the diagnosis of left-sided gallbladder was confirmed intraoperatively.CONCLUSION: Left-sided gallbladder is an important clinical entity in hepatectomy due to its associated portal venous and biliary anomalies. It should be considered in US, CT and angiography images that demonstrate no definite segment IV, absence of umbilical portion of the portal vein in the left lobe, and club-shaped right anterior portal vein.

  4. Laboratory aspects of clinically significant rapidly growing mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Set

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenic potential of the rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM has started being recognized. This is due to more sensitive and specific techniques in the laboratory. The RGM are generally defined as nontuberculous species of mycobacteria that show visible growth on agar media within 7 days. RGM are widely distributed in nature and have been isolated from natural water, tap water, and soil. Several biochemical tests, high performance liquid chromatography, and molecular techniques have been developed for rapid identification of these species. The American Thoracic Society and the Infectious Disease Society of America recommend that RGM should be identified to the species level using a recognized acceptable methodology such as polymerase chain reaction restriction enzyme analysis or biochemical testing and routine susceptibility testing of RGM should include amikacin, imipenem, doxycycline, the fluorinated quinolones, a sulphonamide or trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, cefoxitin, clarithromycin, linezolid, and tobramycin. The diseases caused by these organisms have varied manifestations. They have been responsible for a number of healthcare-associated outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks. For recognition of outbreaks, it is important to be familiar with the causative organisms like RGM which are most frequently involved in healthcare-associated outbreaks and pseudo outbreaks. It is essential to intervene as soon as possible to interrupt this transmission. Large gaps still exist in our knowledge of RGM. Unquestionably more studies are required. Through this review, we wish to emphasize that reporting of RGM from clinical settings along with their sensitivity patterns is an absolute need of the hour.

  5. Beryllium Lymphocyte Proliferation Test Surveillance Identifies Clinically Significant Beryllium Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Margaret M.; Maier, Lisa A.; Strand, Matthew; Silviera, Lori; Newman, Lee S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Workplace surveillance identifies chronic beryllium disease (CBD) but it remains unknown over what time frame mild CBD will progress to a more severe form. Methods We examined physiology and treatment in 229 beryllium sensitization (BeS) and 171 CBD surveillance-identified cases diagnosed from 1982 to 2002. Never smoking CBD cases (81) were compared to never smoking BeS patients (83) to assess disease progression. We compared CBD machinists to non-machinists to examine effects of exposure. Results At baseline, CBD and BeS cases did not differ significantly in exposure time or physiology. CBD patients were more likely to have machined beryllium. Of CBD cases, 19.3% went on to require oral immunosuppressive therapy. At 30 years from first exposure, measures of gas exchange were significantly worse and total lung capacity was lower for CBD subjects. Machinists had faster disease progression as measured by pulmonary function testing and gas exchange. Conclusions Medical surveillance for CBD identifies individuals at significant risk of disease progression and impairment with sufficient time since first exposure. PMID:19681064

  6. Osteosarcoma; clinical aspects and significance of conventional radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Jin Suck; Kim, Eung Jo; Park, Chang Yun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-12-15

    The clinical features of 141 patients with osteosarcoma were analysed and conventional radiographs of 92 patients out of 141 patients were reviewed retrospectively in order to assess the distribution of the age, sex, locations and to evaluate the predominant radiographic features. The incidence of tumors occurring in the extremities is 90 percent of total 141 patients. The majority of tumors were located in the metaphases of the long tubular bones. About sixty percent of the patients were in the second decade of life. The increment of the level of serum alkaline phosphatase was observed in 76 (67%) out of 114 patients. It is considered that thoracic CT scan might be helpful for the evaluation of metastases to lungs, because the detection rate of lung metastasis was 20 percent among 30 cases by CT, being disclosed higher than by conventional radiographs. Of the 92 patients available for radiographic analysis, predominantly osteolytic lesions were disclosed in 17 cases (19%). Preoperative radiographic impression was not the osteosarcoma in 8 out of 17 patients with purely osteolytic osteosarcoma. It was meant that the radiographic diagnosis was difficult in each case of predominantly osteolytic lesions. The patterns of periosteal reaction were variable, and there was no evidence of periosteal reaction in seventeen patients (18%). Both the cortical destruction and, the intralesional calcification were observed in 85 percent of 92 patients with osteosarcoma. Extraskeletal tumor shadow was observed in 79 percent of 92 patients with osteosarcoma, but either the calcification of ossification was detected in only 55 patients among 73 patients with soft tissue tumor shadows. Only 7 patients had a pathologic fracture, all in the femur.

  7. Clinical significance of lactate in acute cardiac patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chiara; Lazzeri; Serafina; Valente; Marco; Chiostri; Gian; Franco; Gensini

    2015-01-01

    Lactate, as a metabolite of easy and quick assessment, has been studied over time in critically ill patients in order to evaluate its prognostic ability. The present review is focused on the prognostic role of lactate levels in acute cardiac patients(that is with acute coronary syndrome, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, non including post cardiac surgery patients). In patients with STelevation myocardial infarction treated with mechanical revascularization, hyperlactatemia identified a subset of patients at higher risk for early death and in-hospital complications, being strictly related mainly to hemodynamic derangement. The prognostic impact of hyperlactatemia on mortality has been documented in patients with cardiogenic shock and in those with cardiac arrest even if there is no cut-off value of lactate to be associated with worse outcome or to guide resuscitation or hemodynamic management. Therapeutic hypothermia seems to affect per se lactate values which have been shown to progressively decrease during hypothermia. The mechanism(s) accounting for lactate levels during hypothemia seem to be multiple ranging from the metabolic effects of reduced temperatures to the hemodynamic effects of hypothermia(i.e., reduced need of vasopressor agents). Serial lactate measurements over time, or lactate clearance, have been reported to be clinically more reliable than lactate absolute value also in acute cardiac patients. Despite differences in study design, timing of lactate measurements and type of acute cardiac conditions(i.e., cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, refractory cardiac arrest), available evidence strongly suggests that higher lactate levels can be observed on admission in non-survivors and that higher lactate clearance is associated with better outcome.

  8. Rational classification of portal vein thrombosis and its clinical significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqin Ma

    Full Text Available Portal vein thrombosis (PVT is commonly classified into acute (symptom duration <60 days and absence of portal carvernoma and portal hypertension and chronic types. However, the rationality of this classification has received little attention. In this study, 60 patients (40 men and 20 women with PVT were examined using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT. The percentage of vein occlusion, including portal vein (PV and superior mesenteric vein (SMV, was measured on CT image. Of 60 patients, 17 (28.3% met the criterion of acute PVT. Symptoms occurred more frequently in patients with superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (SMVT compared to those without SMVT (p<0.001. However, there was no significant difference in PV occlusion between patients with and without symptoms. The frequency of cavernous transformation was significantly higher in patients with complete PVT than those with partial PVT (p<0.001. Complications of portal hypertension were significantly associated with cirrhosis (p<0.001 rather than with the severity of PVT and presence of cavernoma. These results suggest that the severity of PVT is only associated with the formation of portal cavernoma but unrelated to the onset of symptoms and the development of portal hypertension. We classified PVT into complete and partial types, and each was subclassified into with and without portal cavernoma. In conclusion, neither symptom duration nor cavernous transformation can clearly distinguish between acute and chronic PVT. The new classification system can determine the pathological alterations of PVT, patency of portal vein and outcome of treatment in a longitudinal study.

  9. The clinical significance of cereblon expression in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Steven R; Kortuem, K Martin; Zhu, Yuan Xiao; Braggio, Esteban; Shi, Chang-Xin; Bruins, Laura A; Schmidt, Jessica E; Ahmann, Greg; Kumar, Shaji; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Mikhael, Joseph; Laplant, Betsy; Champion, Mia D; Laumann, Kristina; Barlogie, Bart; Fonseca, Rafael; Bergsagel, P Leif; Lacy, Martha; Stewart, A Keith

    2014-01-01

    Cereblon (CRBN) mediates immunomodulatory drug (IMiD) action in multiple myeloma (MM). We demonstrate here that no patient with very low CRBN expression responded to IMiD plus dexamethasone therapy. In 53 refractory MM patients treated with pomalidomide and dexamethasone, CRBN levels predict for decreased response rates and significant differences in PFS (3.0 vs. 8.9 months, pCRBN levels can serve as a surrogate for low risk disease, our study demonstrates that low CRBN expression can predict resistance to IMiD monotherapy and is a predictive biomarker for survival outcomes.

  10. Evaluation of clinical significance of dermoscopy in alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhila Sai Guttikonda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alopecia areata (AA is a common, chronic inflammatory disease characterized by nonscarring hair loss on the scalp or any hair-bearing area of the body. Recently, dermoscopy, a noninvasive diagnostic procedure, has been employed for the diagnosis of AA. Aim: To evaluate various dermoscopic patterns in AA and correlate these patterns with the disease activity and severity. Materials and Methods: Dermoscopy was performed on AA patients using DL1 dermoscope (magnification ×10 was used. The dermoscopic patterns recorded were analyzed to identify any correlation with the disease activity and severity. Results: A total of fifty patients of AA were recruited in the study. Female outnumbered males with the ratio being 1.173:1. Mean age of the patients was 25.06 years. Mean duration of disease was 14 months. The most common site involved was scalp (80% and type noted was patchy (84%. Various dermoscopic patterns noted were yellow dots (YD (88%, short vellus hair (66%, black dots (BD (58%, broken hairs (BHs (56%, tapering hair (TH (26%, Coudability hairs (14%, pigtail hair (14%, and Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (2%. Statistically significant correlation was observed between BD, BHs, THs, and disease activity. No significant correlation was found between severity and any of the dermoscopic features. Conclusion: The most common dermoscopic pattern in our study was YD. Presence of BDs, BHs, and THs indicate active disease. Dermoscopic patterns were not affected by severity of the disease.

  11. Lipoprotein ratios: Physiological significance and clinical usefulness in cardiovascular prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Millán

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Jesús Millán1, Xavier Pintó2, Anna Muñoz3, Manuel Zúñiga4, Joan Rubiés-Prat5, Luis Felipe Pallardo6, Luis Masana7, Alipio Mangas8, Antonio Hernández-Mijares9, Pedro González-Santos10, Juan F Ascaso11, Juan Pedro-Botet121Hospital Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain; 2Hospital Universitario Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; 3Solvay Pharma, Barcelona, Spain; 4Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, Spain; 5Hospital Vall d’Hebrón, Barcelona, Spain; 6Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain; 7Hospital Sant Joan, Reus, Tarragona, Spain; 8Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, Cádiz, Spain; 9Hospital Universitario Dr Peset, Valencia, Spain; 10Hospital Clínico Universitario Virgen de la Victoria, Málaga, Spain; 11Hospital Clínico Universitario, Valencia, Spain; 12Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol concentration has been the prime index of cardiovascular disease risk and the main target for therapy. However, several lipoprotein ratios or “atherogenic indices” have been defined in an attempt to optimize the predictive capacity of the lipid profile. In this review, we summarize their pathophysiological aspects, and highlight the rationale for using these lipoprotein ratios as cardiovascular risk factors in clinical practice, specifying their cut-off risk levels and a target for lipid-lowering therapy. Total/high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and LDL/HDL cholesterol ratios are risk indicators with greater predictive value than isolated parameters used independently, particularly LDL. Future recommendations regarding the diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia, including instruments for calculating cardiovascular risk or action guidelines, should include the lipoprotein ratios with greater predictive power which, in view of the evidence-based results, are none other than those which include HDL cholesterol.Keywords: apolipoproteins

  12. Clinical and prognostic significance of coagulation assays in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Serilmez, Murat; Keskin, Serkan; Sen, Fatma; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2013-03-01

    Activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis is frequently encountered among cancer patients. Such tumors are supposed to be associated with higher risk of invasion, metastases and eventually worse outcome. The aim of this study is to explore the prognostic value of blood coagulation tests for lung cancer patients. The study comprised 110 lung cancer patients. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, aPTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels and platelet counts were evaluated. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group (p coagulation parameters (p = 0.05). In conclusion, elevation of PT and INR are associated with decreased survival in lung cancer patients.

  13. The expression and clinical significance of HDGF in osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Z

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Zhiguo Chen,1 Shenghai Qiu,2 Xiaofei Lu31Department of Orthopedics, Linyi People’s Hospital, Linyi City, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Orthopedics, People’s Hospital of Taiyuan, Taiyuan City, Shanxi Province, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of General Surgery, Jinan Central Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan City, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of ChinaAim: To investigate the expression of hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF in osteosarcoma (OS and the correlation with clinicopathologic factors, prognosis, and tumor progression.Method: HDGF expression in OS tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. The correlation between HDGF and clinicopathologic factors was analyzed by chi-square test, and the association between HDGF expression and the overall survival rates was evaluated by univariate analysis using Kaplan–Meier method. HDGF concentration in cell medium or cell lysates was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The effect of extrinsic and intrinsic HDGF on OS cell proliferation was detected by MTT assay after recombinant HDGF stimulation or HDGF knockdown, respectively.Results: Proportion of HDGF high expression was 18.69% (20/107 in OS. HDGF high expression was significantly associated with larger tumor size (P=0.004. With experiments in vitro, we demonstrated that human recombinant HDGF could activate AKT and MAPK signaling pathway, resulting in OS cell proliferation. By knocking down HDGF expression, we proved that intrinsic HDGF was required in OS proliferation.Conclusion: High HDGF expression was significantly associated with larger OS tumor size and could promote OS cell proliferation, indicating that HDGF could be an effective biomarker and a potential drug target in OS treatment.Keywords: hepatoma-derived growth factor, osteosarcoma, tumor size, proliferation, overall survival rate

  14. Comparison of 5 health care professionals’ratings of the clinical significance of drug related problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Christine; Hojsted, Jette; Kjeldsen, Lene Juel

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients have medicines reviews conducted by different health care professionals in different settings. Introducing a clinical panel to drug related problems (DRPs) to evaluate their clinical significance is common practice. The clinical panel discuss the potential consequences and com...

  15. Clinical significance of intramammary arterial calcifications in diabetic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Zorica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that intramammary arterial calcifications diagnosed by mammography as a part of generalized diabetic macroangiopathy may be an indirect sign of diabetes mellitus. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of intramammary arterial calcifications, the patient’s age when the calcifications occur, as well as to observe the influence of diabetic polineuropathy, type, and the duration of diabetes on the onset of calcifications, in comparison with nondiabetic women. Methods. Mammographic findings of 113 diabetic female patients (21 with type 1 diabetes and 92 with type 2, as well as of 208 nondiabetic women (the control group were analyzed in the prospective study. The data about the type of diabetes, its duration, and polineuropathy were obtained using the questionnaire. Statistical differences were determined by Mann-Whitney test. Results. Intramammary arterial calcifications were identified in 33.3% of the women with type 1 diabetes, in 40.2% with type 2, and in 8.2% of the women from the control group, respectively. The differences comparing the women with type 1, as well as type 2 diabetes and the controls were statistically significant (p=0.0001. Women with intramammary arterial calcifications and type 1 diabetes were younger comparing to the control group (median age 52 years, comparing to 67 years of age, p=0.001, while there was no statistically significant difference in age between the women with calcifications and type 2 diabetes (61 years of age in relation to the control group (p=0.176. The incidence of polineuropathy in diabetic women was higher in the group with intramammary arterial calcifications (52.3% in comparison to the group without calcifications (26.1%, (p=0.005. The association between intramammary arterial calcifications and the duration of diabetes was not found. Conclusion. The obtained results supported the theory that intramammary arterial calcifications, detected by

  16. Asbestos and other ferruginous bodies: their formation and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churg, A. M.; Warnock, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    Analyses of asbestos bodies from the general population have confirmed that these structures, like asbestos bodies from the lungs of asbestos workers, contain an asbestos core. In members of the general population this core is almost always an amphibole, whereas asbestos workers may have bodies formed on either amphibole or chrysotile. Most adults have a few bodies, and increasing numbers are seen in blue collar workers and others who handle small amounts of the fiber, with the highest levels being seen in asbestos workers. In men with minimal or extensive occupational exposure, asbestos bodies are formed on the commercial fibers, amosite and crocidolite, whereas women also form a significant number of bodies on the noncommercial fibers, anthophyllite and tremolite. These findings suggest that women may be exposed to specific asbestos-containing products, eg, cosmetic talc. The commercial fibers found in women and white collar men probably reflect atmospheric pollution with asbestos. At the highest levels of exposure, numbers of asbestos bodies correlate in a general way with the presence of asbestosis, although no precise value has been determined above which asbestosis is always found. In persons with much lower or environmental exposure, there does not appear to be any correlation between numbers of bodies and disease, in particular between numbers of bodies and carcinoma of the lung or gastrointestinal tract. The situation for mesothelioma is uncertain. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:6101235

  17. Avulsion Fractures of the Knee: Imaging Findings and Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Sanei

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The knee is an intricate joint with numerous tendinous, ligamentous, and meniscal attachments, which make it particularly vulnerable to complex injuries after trauma. A variety of avulsion fractures of the knee can occur, including Segond and reverse Segond fractures; avulsions of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments; arcuate complex avulsion; iliotibial band avulsion; avulsions of the biceps femoris, semimembranous, and quadriceps tendons; Sinding-Larsen-Johansson syndrome; and Osgood- Schlatter disease. These fractures often have a subtle appearance at conventional radiography, which is typically the first imaging modality performed in these cases. Advanced imaging modalities, particularly magnetic resonance imaging, are helpful and can provide valuable additional information for adequately defining the extent of damage. The onus is on the radiologist to identify the pattern of injury and to understand the substantial underlying damage that it frequently represents. Conveying this information to the referring clinician is crucial and represents the first step toward additional evaluation and probable orthopedic referral. By recognizing the significance of these injuries at initial presentation, radiologists can facilitate appropriate patient work-up and prevent the chronic morbidity associated with delayed treatment.

  18. 3D Pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling in routine clinical practice: A review of clinically significant artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amukotuwa, Shalini A; Yu, Caroline; Zaharchuk, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a completely noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) perfusion method for quantitatively measuring cerebral blood flow utilizing magnetically labeled arterial water. Advances in the technique have enabled the major MRI vendors to make the sequence available to the clinical neuroimaging community. Consequently, ASL is being increasingly incorporated into the routine neuroimaging protocol. Although a variety of ASL techniques are available, the ISMRM Perfusion Study Group and the European ASL in Dementia Consortium have released consensus guidelines recommending standardized implementation of 3D pseudocontinuous ASL with background suppression. The purpose of this review, aimed at the large number of neuroimaging clinicians who have either no or limited experience with this 3D pseudocontinuous ASL, is to discuss the common and clinically significant artifacts that may be encountered with this technique. While some of these artifacts hinder accurate interpretation of studies, either by degrading the images or mimicking pathology, there are other artifacts that are of clinical utility, because they increase the conspicuity of pathology. Cognizance of these artifacts will help the physician interpreting ASL to avoid potential diagnostic pitfalls, and increase their level of comfort with the technique.

  19. STUDY OF CORONARY OSTIA, THEIR VARIATIONS & CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anomalies of the coronary ostia are of great practical significance than those of coronary arterial distribution. High degree of association exists between anomalies of the coronary ostia and other congenital cardiovascular defects. Detailed knowledge and awareness of the anatomical variations in ostia of coronary artery and its major blood vessels may help to overcome potential difficulties in certain cardiosurgical procedures. A cadaveric study in an unsuspected population provides a basis for understanding the normal variants, which may facil itate determination of the prevalence of anomalies and evaluation of the value of screening for such anomalies. METHODS: The study was carried out on 30 embalmed hearts in the department of anatomy SAIMS. Numbers of ostia, position of the ostia within each aortic sinus with reference to the sinutubular [ST] ridge and the upper margin of cusps were noted. The height of the cusps and the coronary ostia were measured from the bottom of the aortic sinuses [nad ir] with the help of a digital vernier caliper. Positions of the ostia were also observed with reference to the commissures. RESULTS: The number of Ostia in the various Aortic sinuses ranges from 1to 3. No openings were found in Right Posterior Aortic Sinu s. In majority cases the position of Coronary Ostia is above the Upper margin of cusps (95%. In 80% cases the position of Coronary Ostia is below the Sinu - tubular ridge. In 63% cases ostial openings were centrally located. The Left cusps were found to hav e greater height as compared to Right cusps. The height of Left coronary ostia was at higher level (15.65 mm. CONCLUSION: Variant anatomy of the ostia of the coronary artery, its detailed knowledge and awareness of major blood vessels may help to overcome potential difficulties in certain cardiosurgical procedures.

  20. [Clinical significance of analysis of immunoglobulin A levels in saliva].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokor-Bratić, M

    2000-01-01

    SALIVA COLLECTION: Whole saliva is a product of secretion of 3 major glands (parotid, submandibular, sublingual) and many minor glands (labial, buccal, palatal). Unstimulated saliva is usually obtained as the patient spits out every 60 sec. or by forward bended head the patient allows saliva to drip off the lower lip into a cylinder. By collection of saliva in the tube the flow rate per unit time can be measured. When volume measurement is not required the saliva can be collected on cotton rolls, gauze or filter paper. For evaluating salivary gland function or when large volumes of saliva are required for analytic purposes, stimulated whole saliva is used. Method of collection is the same as for unstimulated saliva. The usual masticatory stimuli are paraffin wax or a washed rubber band. A standard gustatory stimulus is obtained by 2% citric acid applied directly to the tongue every 15 to 60 sec. Parotid saliva can be collected by aspiration from the duct opening with a micropipette. Parotid saliva is best collected with Lashley's vacuum chamber. Submandibular and sublingual saliva can be collected by cannulation of the duct with micropipette, but in practice this is both uncomfortable for the patients and technically difficult since the duct orifice is mobile and has a strong sphincter. Because of that, alginate and silicone impression material is used for retention of the collecting tube. As alternative and simple technique is to block off secretion from the parotid glands with absorbent swabs and collect mixed submandibular and sublingual saliva by pipette from the floor of the mouth. Saliva from labial and palatal glands can be collected by filter paper disc or disc of other synthetic materials. SALIVARY IMMUNOGLOBULIN A: The most significant characteristics of the salivary immunoglobulin system are quantitative domination of immunoglobulin A, local synthesis and specific structure. Immunofluorescence studies have shown that immunoglobulin A is produced by

  1. Small airway function changes and its clinical significance of asthma patients in different clinical phases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Hui Zhou; Jun-Ti Lu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the small airways function changes of asthmatic patients in different clinical phases and to discuss its clinical significance.Methods:A total of 127 patients diagnosed as asthma were selected randomly and pulmonary function (PF) of them was determined by conventional method. Then they were divided into A, B and C group based on PF results. All 34 patients in A group suffered from acute asthma attack for the first time. All 93 patients in B group had been diagnosed as asthma but in remission phase. C Group was regarded as Control group with 20 healthy volunteers. Then FEV1, FEF50%, FEF75% levels of patients in each group were analyzed, and FEV1, FEF75% and FEF50% levels of patients in each group were compared after bronchial dilation test.Results:It was found that most patients in group A and B had abnormal small airways function, and their small airways function was significantly different compared with that of group C (P<0.01). In addition, except for group C, FEF75%, FEF50% levels in A and B group were improved more significantly than FEV1 levels (P<0.01).Conclusions:Asthma patients in acute phase all have abnormal small airways function. Most asthma patients in remission phase also have abnormal small airways function. After bronchial dilation test, whether patients in acute phase or in remission phase, major and small airways function of them are improved, but improvement of small airways function is weaker than that of major airways. This indicates that asthma respiratory tract symptoms in different phases exists all the time and so therapeutic process is needed to perform step by step.

  2. A Study to Interpret the Biological Significance of Behavior Associated with 3S Experimental Sonar Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A Study to Interpret the Biological Significance of...NRC, 2005). Modelling efforts under the PCAD working group have demonstrated the potential for behavioral effects to influence vital rates via...energy balances (New et al., 2013). Behavioral effects of noise exposure may be shaped by anti-predator adaptations (Frid & Dill, 2002), and it is likely

  3. Overexpression of annexin 1 in pancreatic cancer and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Feng Bai; Kun Wang; Yong-Qiang Xie; Young-Fu Shao; Xiao-Hang Zhao; Xiao-Guang Ni; Ping Zhao; Shang-Mei Liu; Hui-Xin Wang; Bing Guo; Lan-Ping Zhou; Fang Liu; Jin-Sheng Zhang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of annexin Ⅰ in pancreatic cancer and its relationship with the clinicopathologic factors,and to evaluate its potential clinical significance.METHODS: Annexin T expression was analyzed by Western blot and immunohistochemical staining in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and multi-tissue microarrays (MTAs).RESULTS: Western blot analysis showed that annexin Ⅰ was overexpressed in 84.6% (11/13) pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. Tmmunohistochemistry analysis of pancreatic cancer in MTAs showed that annexin Ⅰ protein was 71.4%(30/42) positive which was markedly increased compared with that in the tumor matched normal pancreas tissues 18.4%(7/38) (P<0.01). Tn the meantime, the high expression of annexin 1 was correlated with the poor differentiation of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.CONCLUSION: Annexin 1 overexpression is a frequent biological marker and correlates with the differentiation of pancreatic cancer during tumorigenesis.

  4. Clinical laboratories, the select agent program, and biological surety (biosurety).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastel, Ross H; Demmin, Gretchen; Severson, Grant; Torres-Cruz, Rafael; Trevino, Jorge; Kelly, John; Arrison, Jay; Christman, Joy

    2006-06-01

    The threat of bioterrorism has led to increased concerns over the availability of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT). Congress has implemented several public laws that have led to the development of federal regulations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the US Department of Agriculture. The CDC regulation 42 CFR 73 has a direct impact on all clinical laboratories that may at some time identify BSAT in a clinical specimen. The Department of Defense has imposed a more stringent layer of regulation called biological surety (biosurety) on top of the requirements of 42 CFR 73 for military laboratories that possess BSAT. However,42 CFR 73 falls into the framework of biosurety. Both sets of regulations have four pillars (safety, physical security, agent account-ability, and personnel reliability) that are built on a foundation of training and covered by a roof of management (operations and plans).

  5. Androgen Receptor Expression in Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Pistelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC are characterized by aggressive tumour biology resulting in a poor prognosis. Androgen receptor (AR is one of newly emerging biomarker in TNBC. In recent years, ARs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the genesis and in the development of breast cancer, although their prognostic role is still debated. In the present study, we explored the correlation of AR expression with clinical, pathological and molecular features and its impact on prognosis in early TNBC. Patients and Methods: ARs were considered positive in case of tumors with >10% nuclear-stained. Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The difference among variables were calculated by chi-square test. Results: 81 TNBC patients diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in the analysis. Slides were stained immunohistochemically for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67, ALDH1, e-cadherin and AR. Of the 81 TNBC samples, 18.8% showed positive immunostaining for AR, 23.5% and 44.4% of patients were negative for e-cadherin and ALDH1, respectively. Positive AR immunostaining was inversely correlated with a higher Ki-67 (p < 0.0001 and a lympho-vascular invasion (p = 0.01, but no other variables. Univariate survival analysis revealed that AR expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.72 or overall survival (p = 0.93. Conclusions: The expression of AR is associated with some biological features of TNBC, such as Ki-67 and lympho-vascular invasion; nevertheless the prognostic significance of AR was not documented in our analysis. However, since ARs are expressed in a significant number of TNBC, prospective studies in order to determine the biological mechanisms and their potential role as novel treatment target.

  6. Androgen Receptor Expression in Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistelli, Mirco; Caramanti, Miriam; Biscotti, Tommasina; Santinelli, Alfredo; Pagliacci, Alessandra; De Lisa, Mariagrazia; Ballatore, Zelmira; Ridolfi, Francesca; Maccaroni, Elena; Bracci, Raffaella; Berardi, Rossana; Battelli, Nicola; Cascinu, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are characterized by aggressive tumour biology resulting in a poor prognosis. Androgen receptor (AR) is one of newly emerging biomarker in TNBC. In recent years, ARs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the genesis and in the development of breast cancer, although their prognostic role is still debated. In the present study, we explored the correlation of AR expression with clinical, pathological and molecular features and its impact on prognosis in early TNBC. Patients and Methods: ARs were considered positive in case of tumors with >10% nuclear-stained. Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The difference among variables were calculated by chi-square test. Results: 81 TNBC patients diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in the analysis. Slides were stained immunohistochemically for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67, ALDH1, e-cadherin and AR. Of the 81 TNBC samples, 18.8% showed positive immunostaining for AR, 23.5% and 44.4% of patients were negative for e-cadherin and ALDH1, respectively. Positive AR immunostaining was inversely correlated with a higher Ki-67 (p < 0.0001) and a lympho-vascular invasion (p = 0.01), but no other variables. Univariate survival analysis revealed that AR expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.72) or overall survival (p = 0.93). Conclusions: The expression of AR is associated with some biological features of TNBC, such as Ki-67 and lympho-vascular invasion; nevertheless the prognostic significance of AR was not documented in our analysis. However, since ARs are expressed in a significant number of TNBC, prospective studies in order to determine the biological mechanisms and their potential role as novel treatment target. PMID:24978437

  7. Androgen Receptor Expression in Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistelli, Mirco, E-mail: mirco.pistelli@alice.it; Caramanti, Miriam [Clinica di Oncologia Medica, AO Ospedali Riuniti-Ancona, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona 60020 (Italy); Biscotti, Tommasina; Santinelli, Alfredo [Anatomia Patologica, AO Ospedali Riuniti-Ancona, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona 60020 (Italy); Pagliacci, Alessandra; De Lisa, Mariagrazia; Ballatore, Zelmira; Ridolfi, Francesca; Maccaroni, Elena; Bracci, Raffaella; Berardi, Rossana; Battelli, Nicola; Cascinu, Stefano [Clinica di Oncologia Medica, AO Ospedali Riuniti-Ancona, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona 60020 (Italy)

    2014-06-27

    Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are characterized by aggressive tumour biology resulting in a poor prognosis. Androgen receptor (AR) is one of newly emerging biomarker in TNBC. In recent years, ARs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the genesis and in the development of breast cancer, although their prognostic role is still debated. In the present study, we explored the correlation of AR expression with clinical, pathological and molecular features and its impact on prognosis in early TNBC. Patients and Methods: ARs were considered positive in case of tumors with >10% nuclear-stained. Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The difference among variables were calculated by chi-square test. Results: 81 TNBC patients diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in the analysis. Slides were stained immunohistochemically for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67, ALDH1, e-cadherin and AR. Of the 81 TNBC samples, 18.8% showed positive immunostaining for AR, 23.5% and 44.4% of patients were negative for e-cadherin and ALDH1, respectively. Positive AR immunostaining was inversely correlated with a higher Ki-67 (p < 0.0001) and a lympho-vascular invasion (p = 0.01), but no other variables. Univariate survival analysis revealed that AR expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.72) or overall survival (p = 0.93). Conclusions: The expression of AR is associated with some biological features of TNBC, such as Ki-67 and lympho-vascular invasion; nevertheless the prognostic significance of AR was not documented in our analysis. However, since ARs are expressed in a significant number of TNBC, prospective studies in order to determine the biological mechanisms and their potential role as novel treatment target.

  8. 76 FR 8708 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Arundo donax AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... Service relative to a proposed biological control program for Arundo donax (giant reed, Carrizo cane). The... biological control program. Based on its finding of no significant impact, the Animal and Plant...

  9. Results of efforts by the Convention on Biological Diversity to describe ecologically or biologically significant marine areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Nicholas J; Cleary, Jesse; Donnelly, Ben; Dunn, Daniel C; Dunstan, Piers K; Fuller, Mike; Halpin, Patrick N

    2016-06-01

    In 2004, Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) addressed a United Nations (UN) call for area-based planning, including for marine-protected areas that resulted in a global effort to describe ecologically or biologically significant marine areas (EBSAs). We summarized the results, assessed their consistency, and evaluated the process developed by the Secretariat of the CBD to engage countries and experts in 9 regional workshops held from 2011 to 2014. Experts from 92 countries and 79 regional or international bodies participated. They considered 250 million km(2) of the world's ocean area (two-thirds of the total). The 204 areas they examined in detail differed widely in area (from 5.5 km(2) to 11.1 million km(2) ). Despite the initial focus of the CBD process on areas outside national jurisdiction, only 31 of the areas examined were solely outside national jurisdiction. Thirty-five extended into national jurisdictions, 137 were solely within national jurisdictions, and 28 included the jurisdictions of more than 1 country (1 area lacked precise boundaries). Data were sufficient to rank 88-99% of the areas relative to each of the 7 criteria for EBSAs agreed to previously by Parties to the CBD. The naturalness criterion ranked high for a smaller percentage of the EBSAs (31%) than other criteria (51-70%), indicating the difficulty in finding relatively undisturbed areas in the ocean. The highly participatory nature of the workshops, including easy and consistent access to the relevant information facilitated by 2 technical teams, contributed to the workshop participants success in identifying areas that could be ranked relative to most criteria and areas that extend across jurisdictional boundaries. The formal recognition of workshop results by the Conference of Parties to the CBD resulted in these 204 areas being identified as EBSAs by the 196 Parties. They represent the only suite of marine areas recognized by the international community for their

  10. The changes and clinical significance of plasma redox status in acute coronary syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段明勤

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the changes and clinical significance of plasma redox status in patients with acute myocardial infarction,angina pectoris and people with normal coronary artery.Methods According to the clinical

  11. Biomarkers of treatment outcome in schizophrenia: Defining a benchmark for clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen Z; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Uher, Rudolf; Kapur, Shitij

    2015-10-01

    Emerging data from on imaging and genetic studies have generated interest in "clinically significant" biomarkers to predict response and prognosis. What constitutes "clinical significance" and how a biomarker would reach that threshold are unclear. To develop a benchmark we reviewed different approaches for defining "clinical significance" applied in schizophrenia research and identified that an improvement of 15 points on the PANSS Total is considered meaningful in clinical settings. Using this benchmark and we simulated thousands of schizophrenia trials, using characteristics derived from the NEWMEDS database with over 8000 patients with schizophrenia, to the kind of imaging, genetic, and other biomarkers that could attain clinical significance. We plotted the interaction between frequency-of-occurrence, the effect size of biomarkers and their relationship to the clinical significance threshold. Results show that categorical biomarkers are likely to attain clinical significance when they occur in 20-50% of the clinical population, and can predict at least a 8-10 point PANSS scale difference. Genetic markers are likely to have clinical significance when they occur in 20-50% of the population and can predict 7-9 points on the PANSS scale. A marker with a lower frequency or lesser effect size would find it hard to meet clinical significance thresholds for schizophrenia. The assumptions and limitations of this approach are discussed. Compared with standards in the rest of medicine, biomarkers that can attain this benchmark will be cost-effective and are likely to be adopted by clinical systems.

  12. New Developments in Mast Cell Biology: Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Greer; Bradding, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are present in connective tissue and at mucosal surfaces in all classes of vertebrates. In health, they contribute to tissue homeostasis, host defense, and tissue repair via multiple receptors regulating the release of a vast stockpile of proinflammatory mediators, proteases, and cytokines. However, these potentially protective cells are a double-edged sword. When there is a repeated or long-term stimulus, MC activation leads to tissue damage and dysfunction. Accordingly, MCs are implicated in the pathophysiologic aspects of numerous diseases covering all organs. Understanding the biology of MCs, their heterogeneity, mechanisms of activation, and signaling cascades may lead to the development of novel therapies for many diseases for which current treatments are lacking or are of poor efficacy. This review will focus on updates and developments in MC biology and their clinical implications, with a particular focus on their role in respiratory diseases.

  13. Translating biological parameters into clinically useful diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Carney, Stuart; Boutros, Nash N

    2009-08-01

    Psychiatry has lagged behind other specialties in developing diagnostic laboratory tests for the purpose of confirming or ruling out a diagnosis. Biological research into the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders has, however, yielded some highly replicable abnormalities that have the potential for development into clinically useful diagnostic tests. To achieve this goal, a process for systematic translation must be developed and implemented. Building on our previous work, we review a proposed process using four clearly defined steps. We conclude that biological parameters currently face challenges in their pathways to becoming diagnostic tests because of both the premature release and premature abandonment of tests. Attention to a systematic translation process aided by these principles may help to avoid these problems.

  14. 76 FR 4859 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... continental United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of Asian citrus psyllid... use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP)...

  15. 76 FR 42675 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae, HWA) infestations... release of this biological control agent into the continental United States. \\1\\ To view the notice,...

  16. 75 FR 23221 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Water Hyacinth AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of water hyacinth infestations. Based on... the continental United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of...

  17. 78 FR 14509 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... eastern United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly... biological control agent into the eastern United States. \\1\\ To view the notice, EA, and FONSI go to...

  18. 76 FR 15935 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Air Potato AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... biological control agent to reduce the severity of air potato (Dioscorea bulbifera) infestations. On January... this biological control agent into the continental United States. \\1\\ To view the notice, EA, and...

  19. 76 FR 13597 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Hawkweeds AGENCY: Animal... subterminalis, into the continental United States as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of... hawkweed gall wasp, Aulacidea subterminalis, into the continental United States for the biological...

  20. Natural Killer Cells: Biology and Clinical Use in Cancer Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WilliamH.D.Hallett; WilliamJ.Murphy

    2004-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have the ability to mediate both bone marrow rejection and promote engraftment, as well as the ability to elicit potent anti-tumor effects. However the clinical results for these processes are still elusive. Greater understanding of NK cell biology, from activating and inhibitory receptor functions to the role of NK cells in allogeneic transplantation, needs to be appreciated in order to draw out the clinical potential of NK cells. Mechanisms of bone marrow cell (BMC) rejection are known to be dependant on inhibitory receptors specific for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and on activating receptors that have many potential ligands. The modulation of activating and inhibitory receptors may hold the key to clinical success involving NK cells. Pre-clinical studies in mice have shown that different combinations of activating and inhibitory receptors on NK cells can reduce graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), promote engraftment, and provide superior graft-versus-tumor (GVT) responses. Recent clinical data have shown that the use of KIR-ligand incompatibility produces tremendous graft-versus-leukemia effect in patients with acute myeloid leukemia at high risk of relapse. This review will attempt to be a synthesis of current knowledge concerning NK cells, their involvement in BMT, and their use as an immunotherapy for cancer and other hematologic malignancies. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(1):12-21.

  1. Natural Killer Cells: Biology and Clinical Use in Cancer Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William H. D. Hallett; William J. Murphy

    2004-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have the ability to mediate both bone marrow rejection and promote engraftment, as well as the ability to elicit potent anti-tumor effects. However the clinical results for these processes are still elusive. Greater understanding of NK cell biology, from activating and inhibitory receptor functions to the role of NK cells in allogeneic transplantation, needs to be appreciated in order to draw out the clinical potential of NK cells. Mechanisms of bone marrow cell (BMC) rejection are known to be dependant on inhibitory receptors specific for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and on activating receptors that have many potential ligands. The modulation of activating and inhibitory receptors may hold the key to clinical success involving NK cells. Pre-clinical studies in mice have shown that different combinations of activating and inhibitory receptors on NK cells can reduce graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), promote engraftment, and provide superior graft-versus-tumor (GVT) responses. Recent clinical data have shown that the use of KIR-ligand incompatibility produces tremendous graft-versus-leukemia effect in patients with acute myeloid leukemia at high risk of relapse. This review will attempt to be a synthesis of current knowledge concerning NK cells, their involvement in BMT, and their use as an immunotherapy for cancer and other hematologic malignancies. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(1):12-21.

  2. Expression of RhoE in lung and breast cancer and its clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng BI

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective Rho family is closely related with the growth , differentiation and metastasis of tumer cells. The objective of this work is to investigate the expression of RhoE in lung and breast carcinoma and their corresponding adjacent tissues, as well as its relationship between the expression and clinical pathological grades. The results of this study provide evidences for exploring the biological functions and clinical significance of RhoE. Methods The expression of RhoE was detected by immunohistochemistry in 62 lung carcinoma samples and 34 breast carcinoma samples, and their corresponding adjacent tissues were taken as control.Results RhoE was generally expressed in normal tissues, but the expression level of RhoE in carcerous tissueswas decreased or absent. The stained value of breast carcinoma was 3.65+/-0.62, but the adjacent cancerous tissueswas 10.53+/-0.44, significantly higher than that of the adjacent cancerous tissues (t=12.402, P<0.001. While the stained value of lung carcinoma was 2.19+/-0.19, lower than that of the adjacent cancerous tissues (4.11+/-0.24, t =7.123,P<0.005. Moreover, there is a declining tendency of the stained value as the poor differentiation of the carcinoma (Chi-square=26.536, P<0.005. Conclusion The expression of RhoE in carcerous tissues was remarkbaly decreased. Considering the recent research achievement and our early experimental results about RhoE, we inferred that RhoE may play a negative role in the development and progression of lung and breast carcinoma. So further research on RhoE would provide a new target for the molecular targeting therapy of cancer.

  3. Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation: Mexican clinical experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pardo, M. E.; Ley-Chávez, E.; Reyes-Frías, M. L.; Rodríguez-Ferreyra, P.; Vázquez-Maya, L.; Salazar, M. A.

    2007-11-01

    Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation, such as amnion and pig skin, are a reality in Mexico. These tissues are currently processed in the tissue bank and sterilized in the Gamma Industrial Irradiation Plant; both facilities belong to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) (National Institute of Nuclear Research). With the strong support of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the bank was established at the ININ and the Mexican Ministry of Health issued its sanitary license on July 7, 1999. The Quality Management System of the bank was certified by ISO 9001:2000 on August 1, 2003; the scope of the system is "Research, Development and Processing of Biological Tissues Sterilized with Gamma Radiation". At present, more than 150 patients from 16 hospitals have been successfully treated with these tissues. This paper presents a brief description of the tissue processing, as well as the present Mexican clinical experience with children and adult patients who underwent medical treatment with radiosterilized amnion and pig skin, used as biological wound dressings on burns and ocular surface disorders.

  4. Models to Study NK Cell Biology and Possible Clinical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Anthony E; Grossenbacher, Steven K; Aguilar, Ethan G; Murphy, William J

    2015-08-03

    Natural killer (NK) cells are large granular lymphocytes of the innate immune system, responsible for direct targeting and killing of both virally infected and transformed cells. NK cells rapidly recognize and respond to abnormal cells in the absence of prior sensitization due to their wide array of germline-encoded inhibitory and activating receptors, which differs from the receptor diversity found in B and T lymphocytes that is due to the use of recombination-activation gene (RAG) enzymes. Although NK cells have traditionally been described as natural killers that provide a first line of defense prior to the induction of adaptive immunity, a more complex view of NK cells is beginning to emerge, indicating they may also function in various immunoregulatory roles and have the capacity to shape adaptive immune responses. With the growing appreciation for the diverse functions of NK cells, and recent technological advancements that allow for a more in-depth understanding of NK cell biology, we can now begin to explore new ways to manipulate NK cells to increase their clinical utility. In this overview unit, we introduce the reader to various aspects of NK cell biology by reviewing topics ranging from NK cell diversity and function, mouse models, and the roles of NK cells in health and disease, to potential clinical applications. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Physical mechanisms and biological significance of supramolecular protein self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentsis, Alex; Borden, Katherine L B

    2004-04-01

    In living cells, chemical reactions of metabolism, information processing, growth and development are organized in a complex network of interactions. At least in part, the organization of this network is accomplished as a result of physical assembly by supramolecular scaffolds. Indeed, most proteins function in cells within the context of multimeric or supramolecular assemblies. With the increasing availability of atomic structures and molecular thermodynamics, it is possible to recast the problem of non-covalent molecular self-assembly from a unified perspective of structural thermodynamics and kinetics. Here, we present a generalized theory of self-assembly based on Wegner's kinetic model and use it to delineate three physical mechanisms of self-assembly: as limited by association of assembly units (nucleation), by association of monomers (isodesmic), and by conformational reorganization of monomers that is coupled to assembly (conformational). Thus, we discuss actin, tubulin, clathrin, and the capsid of icosahedral cowpea chlorotic mottle virus with respect to assembly of architectural scaffolds that perform largely mechanical functions, and pyruvate dehydrogenase, and RING domain proteins PML, arenaviral Z, and BRCA1:BARD1 with regard to assembly of supramolecular enzymes with metabolic and chemically directive functions. In addition to the biological functions made possible by supramolecular self-assembly, such as mesoscale mechanics of architectural scaffolds and metabolic coupling of supramolecular enzymes, we show that the physical mechanisms of self-assembly and their structural bases are biologically significant as well, having regulatory roles in both formation and function of the assembled structures in health and disease.

  6. Correlating novel variable and conserved motifs in the Hemagglutinin protein with significant biological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Mark

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in the influenza Hemagglutinin protein contributes to antigenic drift resulting in decreased efficiency of seasonal influenza vaccines and escape from host immune response. We performed an in silico study to determine characteristics of novel variable and conserved motifs in the Hemagglutinin protein from previously reported H3N2 strains isolated from Hong Kong from 1968–1999 to predict viral motifs involved in significant biological functions. Results 14 MEME blocks were generated and comparative analysis of the MEME blocks identified blocks 1, 2, 3 and 7 to correlate with several biological functions. Analysis of the different Hemagglutinin sequences elucidated that the single block 7 has the highest frequency of amino acid substitution and the highest number of co-mutating pairs. MEME 2 showed intermediate variability and MEME 1 was the most conserved. Interestingly, MEME blocks 2 and 7 had the highest incidence of potential post-translational modifications sites including phosphorylation sites, ASN glycosylation motifs and N-myristylation sites. Similarly, these 2 blocks overlap with previously identified antigenic sites and receptor binding sites. Conclusion Our study identifies motifs in the Hemagglutinin protein with different amino acid substitution frequencies over a 31 years period, and derives relevant functional characteristics by correlation of these motifs with potential post-translational modifications sites, antigenic and receptor binding sites.

  7. Heterocyclyl linked anilines and benzaldehydes as precursors for biologically significant new chemical entities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raman K Verma; Vijay Kumar; Prithwish Ghosh; Lalit K Wadhwa

    2012-09-01

    Benzylidene and benzyl thiazolidinediones, oxazolidinediones, isoxazolidinediones and their acyclic analogs like alpha alkylthio/alkoxy phenylpropanoic acids, beta-keto esters and tyrosine-based compounds possess broad therapeutic potential in general and as Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors (PPARs) agonists in particular in the management of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidaemia for the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). We have synthesised and characterized some novel and suitably substituted heterocyclyl linked benzaldehydes and anilines, which can be easily and very readily derivatized to all the above mentioned classes to generate new chemical entities of broader biological significance. Synthesis of their benzylidene thiazolidinedione and diethyl malonate and also benzyl diethyl malonate and alpha-bromoesters derivatives is reported in some of the cases in the present work.

  8. The prognostic significance of apoptosis-related biological markers in Chinese gastric cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The prognosis varied among the patients with the same stage, therefore there was a need for new prognostic and predictive factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of apoptosis-related biological markers such as p53, bcl-2, bax, and c-myc, and clinicopathological features and their prognostic value. METHODS: From 1996 to 2007, 4426 patients had undergone curative D2 gastrectomy for gastric cancer at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. Among 501 patients, the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax, and c-myc were examined by immunohistochemistry. The prognostic value of biological markers and the correlation between biological markers and other clinicopathological factors were investigated. RESULTS: There were 339 males and 162 females with a mean age of 57. The percentages of positive expression of p53, bcl-2, bax, and c-myc were 65%, 22%, 43%, and 58%, respectively. There was a strong correlation between p53, bax, and c-myc expression (P=0.00. There was significant association between bcl-2, and bax expression (P<0.05. p53 expression correlated with histological grade (P=0.01; bcl-2 expression with pathological stage (P=0.00; bax expression with male (P=0.02, histological grade (P=0.01, Borrmann type (P=0.01, tumor location (P=0.00, lymph node metastasis (P=0.03, and pathological stage (P=0.03; c-myc expression with Borrmann type (P=0.00. bcl-2 expression was related with good survival in univariate analysis (P=0.01. Multivariate analysis showed that bcl-2 expression and pathological stage were defined as independent prognostic factors. There were significant differences of overall 5-year survival rates according to bcl-2 expression or not in stage IIB (P=0.03. CONCLUSION: The expression of bcl-2 was an independent prognostic factor for patients with gastric cancer; it might be a candidate for the gastric cancer staging system.

  9. Recombinant human thrombopoietin: basic biology and evaluation of clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuter, David J; Begley, C Glenn

    2002-11-15

    Thrombocytopenia is a common medical problem for which the main treatment is platelet transfusion. Given the increasing use of platelets and the declining donor population, identification of a safe and effective platelet growth factor could improve the management of thrombocytopenia. Thrombopoietin (TPO), the c-Mpl ligand, is the primary physiologic regulator of megakaryocyte and platelet development. Since the purification of TPO in 1994, 2 recombinant forms of the c-Mpl ligand--recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) and pegylated recombinant human megakaryocyte growth and development factor (PEG-rHuMGDF)--have undergone extensive clinical investigation. Both have been shown to be potent stimulators of megakaryocyte growth and platelet production and are biologically active in reducing the thrombocytopenia of nonmyeloablative chemotherapy. However, neither TPO has demonstrated benefit in stem cell transplantation or leukemia chemotherapy. Other clinical studies have investigated the use of TPO in treating chronic nonchemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia associated with myelodysplastic syndromes, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, thrombocytopenia due to human immunodeficiency virus, and liver disease. Based solely on animal studies, TPO may be effective in reducing surgical thrombocytopenia and bleeding, ex vivo expansion of pluripotent stem cells, and as a radioprotectant. Ongoing and future studies will help define the clinical role of recombinant TPO and TPO mimetics in the treatment of chemotherapy- and nonchemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia.

  10. Evidence-Based Clinical Significance in Health Care: Toward an Inferential Analysis of Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Dousti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence-based dental practice requires the developmment and evaluation of protocols that en-sure translational effectiveness: that is, the efficient incorporation of the best available efficacy and effec-tiveness findings in specific clinical dentistry settings and environments. Evidence-based dentistry predi-cates the synthesis of research for obtaining the best available evidence in a validated, stringent, systematic and unbiased fashion. Research synthesis is now established as a science in its own right, precisely because it adheres to the scientific process that is driven by a research question and a hypothesis, follows through clearly defined methodology and design, yielding quantifiable data that are analyzed statistically, and from which stringent statistical inferences are drawn. The conclusions from the protocol of research synthesis define the best available evidence, which is used in the process of evidence-based revision of clinical practice guidelines. One important hurdle of the process of applying research synthesis in evidence-based dentistry lies in the fact that the statistical inferences produced by research must be translated into clinical relevance. Here, we present a model to circumvent this limitation by means of text analysis/mining protocols, which could lead the path toward a novel, valid and reliable ap-proach for the inferential analysis of clinical relevance.

  11. Clinical significance of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张向阳; 朱继红

    2004-01-01

    @@ Traditionally, it was believed that the natriuretic peptide family (NPs) was composed of four natural peptides, i.e., atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and urodilatin. All of them have the same 17-amino acid ring connected by bisulfate bond, which is essential for their biological activity.1 There are C-terminal and N-terminal tails on the ring. Each peptide encoded by an independent gene has its own tissue specificity and regulation mechanism. It is now suggested that beside the four traditional peptides, their precursors and the peptide fragments released by the activation or hydrolysis of the precursors, such as precursor of ANP and N-terminal proANP (NTANP), precursor of BNP and N-terminal proBNP (NTBNP) are also NPs. Furthermore, an artificially synthesized NP, vasonatrin peptide, is also a new member of NP family. In fish like eel, another peptide named ventricular natriuretic peptide was found. We now have a review on the clinical significance of NTBNP.

  12. Clinical significance of preoperative regional intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Wu Zhang; Shou-Chun Zou; Dun Shi; Da-Jian Zhao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Preoperative intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy could increase the radical resection rate of advanced gastric cancer, but its effect on the long-term survival has not been assessed. This study was designed to evaluate the clinical significance of preoperative intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer.METHODS: Clinicopathological data of 91 patients who underwent curative resection for advanced gastric cancer were collected. Among them, 37 patients undertaken preoperative intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy were used as the interventional chemotherapy group, and the remaining 54 patients as the control group. Eleven factors including clinicopathological variables, treatment procedures and molecular biological makers that might contribute to the long-term survival rate were analyzed using Cox multivariate regression analysis.RESULTS: The 5-year survival rate was 52.5% and 39.8%,respectively, for the interventional group and the control group (P<0.05). Cox multivariate regression analysis revealed that the TNM stage (P<0.001), preoperative intraarterial infusion chemotherapy (P = 0.029) and growth pattern (P = 0.042) were the independent factors for the long-term survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer.CONCLUSION: Preoperative intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy plays an important role in improving the prognosis of advanced gastric cancer.

  13. Yoga & Cancer Interventions: A Review of the Clinical Significance of Patient Reported Outcomes for Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nicole Culos-Reed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited research suggests yoga may be a viable gentle physical activity option with a variety of health-related quality of life, psychosocial and symptom management benefits. The purpose of this review was to determine the clinical significance of patient-reported outcomes from yoga interventions conducted with cancer survivors. A total of 25 published yoga intervention studies for cancer survivors from 2004–2011 had patient-reported outcomes, including quality of life, psychosocial or symptom measures. Thirteen of these studies met the necessary criteria to assess clinical significance. Clinical significance for each of the outcomes of interest was examined based on 1 standard error of the measurement, 0.5 standard deviation, and relative comparative effect sizes and their respective confidence intervals. This review describes in detail these patient-reported outcomes, how they were obtained, their relative clinical significance and implications for both clinical and research settings. Overall, clinically significant changes in patient-reported outcomes suggest that yoga interventions hold promise for improving cancer survivors' well-being. This research overview provides new directions for examining how clinical significance can provide a unique context for describing changes in patient-reported outcomes from yoga interventions. Researchers are encouraged to employ indices of clinical significance in the interpretation and discussion of results from yoga studies.

  14. Biological marker distribution and significance in oils and rocks of the Monterey Formation, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiale, Joseph A.; Cameron, Douglas; Davis, Dean V.

    1985-01-01

    The biological marker distributions of several oils, core extracts and solid bitumens of the Monterey Formation of California have been studied. Sterane, terpane and monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbons were analyzed in samples from the San Joaquin, Los Angeles, Ventura and Santa Maria Basins. The sterane patterns of both oils and extracts are characterized by (a) low relative concentrations of diasteranes, (b) low 20S/20R-5α,14α,17α-ethylcholestane ratios, (c) relatively high concentrations of cholestane ( vs. methyl- and ethylcholestane) isomers. San Joaquin Basin samples contain significant amounts of the 5β isomer, which is generally absent in samples from other basins. The carbon number distribution of 5α,14α,17α,20R steranes is similar for all oils, regardless of API gravity, depth or basin location, and is suggestive of open marine depositional conditions for the source material involved. 17α(H),l8α(H),21β(H)-28,30-Bisnorhopane is present in almost all samples. Certain San Joaquin Basin oils and extracts contain (a) a series of 25-nor hopanes, including 25,28,30-trisnorhopane, (b) a distinctive monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbon distribution, (c) an aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction devoid of n-paraffins. Biological marker characteristics suggest that the Monterey oils examined originated early in the maturational sequence, from elastics-poor source material. API gravities of the Monterey Formation oils examined vary monotonically with (a) bisnorhopane/hopane ratios, (b) aromatized/regular sterane ratios and (c) the concentration of monoaromatized steranes relative to terpanes and regular steranes. These oil gravity correlations exist regardless of sample depth or basin location.

  15. The biology and clinical development of MEK inhibitors for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Jason J; Ott, Patrick A; Shapiro, Geoffrey I

    2014-12-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKK) MEK1 and MEK2 are integral members of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway and are of interest in the development of anti-cancer therapeutics. The MAPK/ERK pathway is dysregulated in more than 30 % of cancers, predominately by mutations in RAS and BRAF proteins, and MEK serves as a potential downstream target for both of these. The biology of MEK inhibition is complex, as the molecule is differentially regulated by upstream RAS or RAF. This has impacted on the past development of MEK inhibitors as treatments for cancer and may be exploited in more rational, molecularly selected drug development plans in the future. The role of MEK in cancer and the mechanism of action of MEK inhibitors is reviewed. Furthermore, MEK inhibitors that are available in standard practice, as well as those most advanced in clinical development, are discussed. Finally, next steps in the development of MEK inhibitors are considered.

  16. Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes: Compliance and Clinical Significance in the "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgaard, Eric C.; Fowler, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In 2005, the "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" ("JCCP") became the first American Psychological Association (APA) journal to require statistical measures of clinical significance, plus effect sizes (ESs) and associated confidence intervals (CIs), for primary outcomes (La Greca, 2005). As this represents the single largest…

  17. Measurement and biological significance of the volatile sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in various biological matrices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangerman, A.

    2009-01-01

    This review deals with the measurement of the volatile sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in various biological matrices of rats and humans (blood, serum, tissues, urine, breath, feces and flatus). Hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol both contain the active thiol (-SH

  18. Measurement and biological significance of the volatile sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in various biological matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangerman, Albert

    2009-01-01

    This review deals with the measurement of the volatile Sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in various biological matrices of rats and humans (blood, serum, tissues, urine, breath, feces and flatus). Hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol both contain the active thiol (-SH

  19. [Molecular Biology on the Mechanisms of Autism Spectrum Disorder for Clinical Psychiatrists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinodan, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    While, in general, a certain number of clinical psychiatrists might not be familiar with molecular biology, the mechanisms of mental illnesses have been uncovered by molecular biology for decades. Among mental illnesses, even biological psychiatrists and neuroscientists have paid less attention to the biological treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia since ASD has been regarded as a developmental disorder that was seemingly untreatable. However, multifaceted methods of molecular biology have revealed the mechanisms that would lead to the medication of ASD. In this article, how molecular biology dissects the pathobiology of ASD is described in order to announce the possibilities of biological treatment for clinical psychiatrists.

  20. Phospholipids in Milk Fat: Composition, Biological and Technological Significance, and Analytical Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Contarini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids are quantitatively the most important phospholipids (PLs in milk. They are located on the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM and in other membranous material of the skim milk phase. They include principally phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine, while sphingomyelin is the dominant species of sphingolipids There is considerable evidence that PLs have beneficial health effects, such as regulation of the inflammatory reactions, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity on some types of cancer, and inhibition of the cholesterol absorption. PLs show good emulsifying properties and can be used as a delivery system for liposoluble constituents. Due to the amphiphilic characteristics of these molecules, their extraction, separation and detection are critical points in the analytical approach. The extraction by using chloroform and methanol, followed by the determination by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC, coupled with evaporative light scattering (ELSD or mass detector (MS, are the most applied procedures for the PL evaluation. More recently, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR was also used, but despite it demonstrating high sensitivity, it requires more studies to obtain accurate results. This review is focused on milk fat phospholipids; their composition, biological activity, technological properties, and significance in the structure of milk fat. Different analytical methodologies are also discussed.

  1. Isolation of a significant fraction of non-phototroph diversity from a desert Biological Soil Crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses eNunes da Rocha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs are organosedimentary assemblages comprised of microbes and minerals in topsoil of terrestrial environments. BSCs strongly impact soil quality in dryland ecosystems (e.g., soil structure and nutrient yields due to pioneer species such as Microcoleus vaginatus; phototrophs that produce filaments that bind the soil together, and support an array of heterotrophic microorganisms. These microorganisms in turn contribute to soil stability and biogeochemistry of BSCs. Non-cyanobacterial populations of BSCs are less well known than cyanobacterial populations. Therefore, we attempted to isolate a broad range of numerically significant and phylogenetically representative BSC aerobic heterotrophs. Combining simple pre-treatments (hydration of BSCs under dark and light and isolation strategies (media with varying nutrient availability and protection from oxidative stress we recovered 402 bacterial and one fungal isolate in axenic culture, which comprised 116 phylotypes (at 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence homology, 115 bacterial and one fungal. Each medium enriched a mostly distinct subset of phylotypes, and cultivated phylotypes varied due to the BSC pre-treatment. The fraction of the total phylotype diversity isolated, weighted by relative abundance in the community, was determined by the overlap between isolate sequences and OTUs reconstructed from metagenome or metatranscriptome reads. Together, more than 8% of relative abundance of OTUs in the metagenome was represented by our isolates, a cultivation efficiency much larger than typically expected from most soils. We conclude that simple cultivation procedures combined with specific pre-treatment of samples afford a significant reduction in the culturability gap, enabling physiological and metabolic assays that rely on ecologically relevant axenic cultures.

  2. Natural killer cells: Biology, functions and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojvodić Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Natural Killer cells (NK cells represent the subset of peripheral lymphocytes that play critical role in the innate immune response to virus-infected and tumor transformed cells. Lysis of NK sensitive target cells could be mediated independently of antigen stimulation and without requirement of peptide presentation by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules. NK cell activity and functions are controlled by a considerable number of cell surface receptors, which exist in both inhibitory and activating isoforms. There are several groups of NK cell surface receptors: 1 killer immunoglobulin like receptors-KIR, 2 C-type lectin receptors,3natural citotoxicity receptors-NCR and 4 Toll-like receptors-TLR. Functions of NK receptors. Defining the biology of NK cell surface receptors has contributed to the concept of the manner how NK cells selectively recognize and lyse tumor and virally infected cells while sparing normal cells. Further, identification of NK receptor ligands and their expression on the normal and transformed cells has led to the development of clinical approaches to manipulating receptor/ligand interactions that showed clinical benefit. NK cells are the first lymphocyte subset that reconstitute the peripheral blood following allogeneic HSCT and multiple roles for alloreactive donor NK cells have been demonstrated, in diminishing Graft vs. Host Disease (GvHD through selective killing recipient dendritic cells, prevention of graft rejection by killing recipient T cells and participation in Graft vs. Leukaemia (GvL effect through destruction of residual host tumor cells. Conclusion. Besides their role in HSCT, NK cell receptors have an important clinical relevance that reflects from the fact that they play a crucial role in the development of some diseases as well as in possibilities of managing all NK receptors through selective expansion and usage of NK cells in cancer immunotherapy.

  3. Prevalence and clinical significance of extravascular incidental findings in patients undergoing CT cervico-cerebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, Matthew Thomas, E-mail: crockettmt@gmail.com; Murphy, Blathnaid, E-mail: blathnaidmurphy@hotmail.com; Smith, Jennifer, E-mail: jennifer.js.smith@gmail.com; Kavanagh, Eoin Carl, E-mail: kavanaghec@gmail.com

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • CT cervico-cerebral angiography (CTCCA) is a commonly performed study for assessment of vascular pathologies of head and neck. • This study assessed the prevalence, clinical significance and management of extravascular incidental findings detected on CTCCA. • This study demonstrated the presence of clinically significant incidental findings in 14% of patients undergoing CTCCA with 8% of these findings deemed to be highly significant. 19% of patients with highly clinically significant findings did not receive appropriate follow up. • A standardised method of reporting incidental findings, such as that used in this paper is suggested to aid radiologists and referring physicians in recording and communicating these findings. - Abstract: Introduction: CT cervico-cerebral angiography (CTCCA) is now the first line diagnostic imaging modality for the majority of vascular pathologies of the head and neck with diagnostic value comparable to or better than traditional angiographic techniques. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, clinical significance and management of extravascular incidental findings detected on CTCCA. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of the CTCCA reports of 302 consecutive patients from 2009 to 2013 was undertaken. Extravascular incidental findings were classified, according to an adaptation of the CT colonography data and reporting system (CRADS), as EV1–EV4. EV1 = no incidental findings, EV2 = clinically insignificant incidental finding, EV3 = incidental finding of intermediate clinical significance, EV4 = highly clinically significant finding. Follow up of the electronic medical records of patients with EV3 or EV4 findings was undertaken to determine subsequent management. Results: Potentially clinically significant findings were demonstrated in 14.2% of patients with 8.6% of patients having a highly clinically significant finding. 4 incidental findings were confirmed to be malignant lesions and 5

  4. Expression level of CDX2 gene in acute myeloid leukemia and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆瀆

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the expression and clinical significance of Caudal-type homeobox transcription factor 2(CDX2) gene in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Methods Real time quantitative PCR(RQ-PCR) was used to test the expression level of CDX2 gene in 108 de novo AML patients and the clinical features

  5. Clinical significance of expression of Klotho and β-Catenin in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤小伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of expression of Klotho and β-Catenin in esophageal carcinoma. Methods Tissue microarray technique and immunohistochemistry were used to examine Klotho and β-Catenin expression in 75 esophageal carcinoma tissue

  6. Use of Electronic Data and Existing Screening Tools to Identify Clinically Significant Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl A Severson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the ability of electronic health data and existing screening tools to identify clinically significant obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, as defined by symptomatic or severe OSA.

  7. Clinical significance of Staphylococcus saprophyticus identified on blood culture in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang-Ho; Woo, Jun Hee; Jeong, Jin-Yong; Kim, Nam Joong; Kim, Mi-Na; Kim, Yang Soo; Ryu, Jiso

    2006-11-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a well-known cause of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in young women. However, the clinical significance of this organism isolated from blood culture has not been determined. We assessed the clinical significance and characteristics of S. saprophyticus identified on blood culture. A total of 24 patients were identified, and 7 patients (29.2%) were considered to have clinically significant bacteremia. Of the 7 patients with clinically significant bacteremia, hematologic malignancy was the most common underlying illness (5 patients), and tunneled-central venous catheter was the most common portal of entry (4 patients). In no case did S. saprophyticus bacteremia originate from the urinary tract. One patient died during hospitalization. However, the death was not directly related to bacteremia. In conclusion, our data suggest that bacteremia caused by S. saprophyticus is most commonly associated with tunneled-central venous catheter in patients with hematologic malignancies and may be associated with a lower risk of mortality.

  8. Identifying Adult Dengue Patients at Low Risk for Clinically Significant Bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua G X Wong

    Full Text Available Clinically significant bleeding is important for subsequent optimal case management in dengue patients, but most studies have focused on dengue severity as an outcome. Our study objective was to identify differences in admission parameters between patients who developed clinically significant bleeding and those that did not. We sought to develop a model for discriminating between these patients.We conducted a retrospective study of 4,383 adults aged >18 years who were hospitalized with dengue infection at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore from 2005 to 2008. Patients were divided into those with clinically significant bleeding (n = 188, and those without (n = 4,195. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables on admission were compared between groups to determine factors associated with clinically significant bleeding during hospitalization.On admission, female gender (p38°C (p38°C (aOR 1.81; 95% CI: 1.27-2.61, nausea/vomiting (aOR 1.39; 95% CI: 0.94-2.12, ANC (aOR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.15-1.46, ALC (aOR 0.4; 95% CI: 0.25-0.64, hematocrit percentage (aOR 0.96; 95% CI: 0.92-1.002 and platelet count (aOR 0.993; 95% CI: 0.988-0.998. At the cutoff of -3.919, the model achieved an AUC of 0.758 (sensitivity:0.87, specificity: 0.38, PPV: 0.06, NPV: 0.98.Clinical risk factors associated with clinically significant bleeding were identified. This model may be useful to complement clinical judgement in triaging adult dengue patients given the dynamic nature of acute dengue, particularly in pre-identifying those less likely to develop clinically significant bleeding.

  9. 甲状腺乳头状癌组织中Shh和Gli1的表达及其临床意义研究%Expression of Shh/Gli1 in papillary thyroid carcinoma and its clinical biological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边学海; 张广; 张纯海; 张大奇; 周乐; 孙辉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To define the expression of Shh/Gli1,the key elements of Hedgehog signaling pathway in papillary thyroid carcinoma(PTC) and to explore the relationship between the expression of Shh/Gli1 and clinical significance.Methods The expression of Shh and Gli1 was examined in 142 cases of PTC tissues and adjacent tumor thyroid tissues as control by immunohistochemistry.The relationship between the expression of Shh/Gli1 and clinical characteristics of PTC patients was analyzed.Results The positive rate of the cytoplasm Shh expression and the nuclear Gli1 expression was 64.1% and 47.9% ,respectively.Significant difference was found between normal thyroid tissues and PTC.The research showed that the expression of Shh/Gli1 was related to the tumor size,clinical stages and lymph node metastasis,Shh was more significantly related to the tumor size(P <0.01) and Gli1 was more significantly related to the lymph node metastasis (P < 0.01).Conclusions Varying expression of the main ligand Shh and transcription factor Gli1 in Hedgehog signaling pathway was found in PTC.The expression of Shh/Gli1 was related to the tumor size,clinical stage and lymph node metastasis,indicating that the aberrant activation of Shh signaling pathway plays some roles in PTC.Shh/Gli1 may be indicators for prognosis and ideal targets for therapy against PTC.%目的 通过检测Sonic Hedgehog信号通路关键分子Shh和Gil1在甲状腺乳头状癌表达的情况,探讨其与甲状腺乳头状癌临床病理特征的关系及临床意义.方法 应用免疫组织化学方法检测142例甲状腺乳头状癌患者癌组织及其癌旁组织病理蜡块标本中Shh和Gli1的表达情况,分析其与临床病理特征的关系.结果 Shh主要表达于细胞膜与细胞质中,Gli1表达于细胞浆和细胞核内.甲状腺乳头状癌组织中Shh和Gil1阳性表达率分别为64.1%(91/142)和47.9%(68/142)明显高于癌旁组织的16.9%(24/142)和9.2%(13/142).Gil1的表达与患者年

  10. Eph/ephrin profiling in human breast cancer reveals significant associations between expression level and clinical outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M Brantley-Sieders

    Full Text Available Pre-clinical studies provide compelling evidence that Eph family receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs and ligands promote cancer growth, neovascularization, invasion, and metastasis. Tumor suppressive roles have also been reported for the receptors, however, creating a potential barrier for clinical application. Determining how these observations relate to clinical outcome is a crucial step for translating the biological and mechanistic data into new molecularly targeted therapies. We investigated eph and ephrin expression in human breast cancer relative to endpoints of overall and/or recurrence-free survival in large microarray datasets. We also investigated protein expression in commercial human breast tissue microarrays (TMA and Stage I prognostic TMAs linked to recurrence outcome data. We found significant correlations between ephA2, ephA4, ephA7, ephB4, and ephB6 and overall and/or recurrence-free survival in large microarray datasets. Protein expression in TMAs supported these trends. While observed no correlation between ephrin ligand expression and clinical outcome in microarray datasets, ephrin-A1 and EphA2 protein co-expression was significantly associated with recurrence in Stage I prognostic breast cancer TMAs. Our data suggest that several Eph family members are clinically relevant and tractable targets for intervention in human breast cancer. Moreover, profiling Eph receptor expression patterns in the context of relevant ligands and in the context of stage may be valuable in terms of diagnostics and treatment.

  11. About the significance of biological factors affecting pregnancy a married couple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Yarman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A brief review of the literature analysis of the importance and interdependence of the main factors influencing the occurrence of pregnancy as a pair in the treatment of infertility, such as the woman's age, ovarian reserve, the semen of a man and the duration of infertility. The review also presents the data concerning the practical implications of sexual constitution and sexual maturation in men and women in the pubertal period. When evaluating male fertility invariably significant factor in the prediction of pregnancy are, impregnating ability to ejaculate. Infertility is more common in males with delayed development in the pubertal period with a weak type of sexual constitution. Results of treatment of male infertility, the dynamics of the semen and pregnancy of the couple on the background of pathogenetic therapy correlates with the type of sexual constitution. Widely deployed discussion about the existence of the male equivalent of female menopause mainly concerns the problems of men's sexual health. Of exceptional importance for the prediction of treatment of infertility has ovarian reserve, which is closely associated with age women. Formation of menstrual function occurs in the pubertal period of sexual development, in this age of menarche is the leading symptom of type of sexual constitution of women that do not change throughout the life hereafter. The presence of menstrual function and even ovulation does not reflect the reproductive capacity of women. Insufficient information content of the chronological age of a woman, as an indicator of the reproductive capacity of ovarian dictates the necessity of the development of tests that determine individual biological age of a woman, perhaps connected with the type of sexual constitution. In this regard, the study of sexual constitution partners is of great scientific and practical interest.

  12. About the significance of biological factors affecting pregnancy a married couple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Yarman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief review of the literature analysis of the importance and interdependence of the main factors influencing the occurrence of pregnancy as a pair in the treatment of infertility, such as the woman's age, ovarian reserve, the semen of a man and the duration of infertility. The review also presents the data concerning the practical implications of sexual constitution and sexual maturation in men and women in the pubertal period. When evaluating male fertility invariably significant factor in the prediction of pregnancy are, impregnating ability to ejaculate. Infertility is more common in males with delayed development in the pubertal period with a weak type of sexual constitution. Results of treatment of male infertility, the dynamics of the semen and pregnancy of the couple on the background of pathogenetic therapy correlates with the type of sexual constitution. Widely deployed discussion about the existence of the male equivalent of female menopause mainly concerns the problems of men's sexual health. Of exceptional importance for the prediction of treatment of infertility has ovarian reserve, which is closely associated with age women. Formation of menstrual function occurs in the pubertal period of sexual development, in this age of menarche is the leading symptom of type of sexual constitution of women that do not change throughout the life hereafter. The presence of menstrual function and even ovulation does not reflect the reproductive capacity of women. Insufficient information content of the chronological age of a woman, as an indicator of the reproductive capacity of ovarian dictates the necessity of the development of tests that determine individual biological age of a woman, perhaps connected with the type of sexual constitution. In this regard, the study of sexual constitution partners is of great scientific and practical interest.

  13. An abundant biological control agent does not provide a significant predator subsidy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical weed biological control agents, regardless of their effectiveness, may provide subsidies to predators and parasites. The chemically defended weevil Oxyops vitiosa Pascoe is a successful agent that was introduced to control the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia. Two consecutive small ...

  14. Comparison of clinical and biologic features of Kingella kingae and Staphylococcus aureus arthritis at initial evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basmaci, Romain; Lorrot, Mathie; Bidet, Philippe; Doit, Catherine; Vitoux, Christine; Penneçot, Georges; Mazda, Keyvan; Bingen, Edouard; Ilharreborde, Brice; Bonacorsi, Stéphane

    2011-10-01

    We conducted a retrospective study comparing the presenting clinical and biologic features of 64 children who had septic arthritis caused by Kingella kingae with 26 children who had septic arthritis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Children with K. kingae septic arthritis were significantly younger than those with S. aureus septic arthritis. Otherwise, there were no significant differences between the 2 groups with respect to fever, location, white blood cell count, synovial fluid cell count, C-reactive protein, or serum fibrinogen. However, the clinical course was significantly better for children with septic arthritis caused by K. kingae as evidenced by shorter hospitalization and fewer adverse events. Presumptive antibiotic therapy for septic arthritis in young infants should take into account both of these pathogens, even in case of mild presentation.

  15. Occurrence and clinical significance of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and other endoparasites in Danish cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alice P.; Skarbye, Line K.; Vinther, Lene M.

    2017-01-01

    Feline endoparasites are highly prevalent worldwide and may cause a variety of clinical signs in infected cats. Prevalence rates are dynamic and there is limited knowledge of the current prevalence in Denmark and the clinical manifestation and significance of especially the lungworm Aelurostrongy......Feline endoparasites are highly prevalent worldwide and may cause a variety of clinical signs in infected cats. Prevalence rates are dynamic and there is limited knowledge of the current prevalence in Denmark and the clinical manifestation and significance of especially the lungworm...... Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. This study investigated the total and local prevalence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and other endoparasites in Danish cats. The clinical significance of feline aelurostrongylosis was also examined through identification of frequency and severity of selected clinical signs. Faecal...... samples (n = 327) and clinical data (n = 312) were collected from August to October 2015, primarily from outdoor cats located at shelters distributed across Denmark. A modified Baermann method and a concentration McMaster technique was used to diagnose A. abstrusus first stage larvae and eggs...

  16. Molecular biology of breast cancer stem cells: potential clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nam P; Almeida, Fabio S; Chi, Alex; Nguyen, Ly M; Cohen, Deirdre; Karlsson, Ulf; Vinh-Hung, Vincent

    2010-10-01

    Breast cancer stem cells (CSC) have been postulated recently as responsible for failure of breast cancer treatment. The purpose of this study is to review breast CSCs molecular biology with respect to their mechanism of resistance to conventional therapy, and to develop treatment strategies that may improve survival of breast cancer patients. A literature search has identified in vitro and in vivo studies of breast CSCs. Breast CSCs overexpress breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) which allows cancer cells to transport actively chemotherapy agents out of the cells. Radioresistance is modulated through activation of Wnt signaling pathway and overexpression of genes coding for glutathione. Lapatinib can selectively target HER-2 positive breast CSCs and improves disease-free survival in these patients. Metformin may target basal type breast CSCs. Parthenolide and oncolytic viruses are promising targeting agents for breast CSCs. Future clinical trials for breast cancer should include anti-cancer stem cells targeting agents in addition to conventional chemotherapy. Hypofractionation radiotherapy may be indicated for residual disease post chemotherapy.

  17. Abnormalities of chromosome 17 in myelodysplastic syndromes: Incidence and biological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisavljević Dragomir

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic analysis has proven to be a mandatory part of the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS as well as a major indicator for predicting clinical course and outcome. Aside from the 5q-syndrome, no specific clinico-cytogenetic entity has been reported. To determine the incidence and clinical significance of acquired abnormalities of chromosome 17 in adult primary MDS, we reviewed the cytogenetic features of 271 patients detected at our institution during a 10-year period. Clonal cytogenetic abnormalities were identified in 109 cases. Among them, abnormalities of chromosome 17 were identified in 13 patients (11.9%. Five patients had „single" defects, while in eight patients abnormalities of chromosome 17 were associated with other chromosomal rearrangements („complex" defects. After chromosomes 5,7,8 and 1, abnormalities of chromosome 17 were the most frequent chromosomal rearrangements in our patients with MDS. Following „single" defects of chromosome 17 were identified: del(17(pl2 in two cases, and i(17(q10, del(17(q21;q23 and del(17(ql2;q22 in one case each. Two patients with del(17p, one with RAEB-t and the other one with CMML, had an aggressive course of the disease with accelerated leukemic transformation and short survival. Patient with i(17q had RARS subtype and died soon after diagnosis, while other two cases with interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 17 had RAEB subtype and stable, no progressive course of the disease. Among „complex" karyotypes with abnormalities of chromosome 17 we identified der(l 7 in four, monosomy 17 in two, and del(17p and i(17q in one case each. Most of these patients transformed to acute leukemia and had very short survival. The results of this study suggest that abnormalities of chromosome 17 are frequent finding in MDS. Loss of genetic material in 17p, both in „single" and „complex" defects, seems to be closely related to poor prognosis of MDS patients.

  18. Clinical Significance of HER-2 Splice Variants in Breast Cancer Progression and Drug Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Jackson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-2 occurs in 20–30% of breast cancers and confers survival and proliferative advantages on the tumour cells making HER-2 an ideal therapeutic target for drugs like Herceptin. Continued delineation of tumour biology has identified splice variants of HER-2, with contrasting roles in tumour cell biology. For example, the splice variant 16HER-2 (results from exon 16 skipping increases transformation of cancer cells and is associated with treatment resistance; conversely, Herstatin (results from intron 8 retention and p100 (results from intron 15 retention inhibit tumour cell proliferation. This review focuses on the potential clinical implications of the expression and coexistence of HER-2 splice variants in cancer cells in relation to breast cancer progression and drug resistance. “Individualised” strategies currently guide breast cancer management; in accordance, HER-2 splice variants may prove valuable as future prognostic and predictive factors, as well as potential therapeutic targets.

  19. Uncovering biologically significant lipid isomers with liquid chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, Jennifer E.; Zhang, Xing; Weitz, Karl K.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Moore, Ronald J.; Cha, Jeeyeon; Sun, Xiaofei; Lovelace, Erica S.; Wagoner, Jessica; Polyak, Steve; Metz, Thomas O.; Dey, Sudhansu K.; Smith, Richard D.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin Shammel

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how biological molecules are generated, metabolized and eliminated in living systems is important for interpreting processes such as immune response and disease pathology. While genomic and proteomic studies have provided vast amounts of information over the last several decades, interest in lipidomics has also grown due to improved analytical technologies revealing altered lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes, cancer, and lipid storage disease. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurements are currently the dominant approach for characterizing the lipidome by providing detailed information on the spatial and temporal composition of lipids. However, interpreting lipids’ biological roles is challenging due to the existence of numerous structural and stereoisomers (i.e. distinct acyl chain and double-bond positions), which are unresolvable using present LC-MS approaches. Here we show that combining structurally-based ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) with LC-MS measurements distinguishes lipid isomers and allows insight into biological and disease processes.

  20. William Astbury and the biological significance of nucleic acids, 1938-1951.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kersten

    2011-06-01

    Famously, James Watson credited the discovery of the double-helical structure of DNA in 1953 to an X-ray diffraction photograph taken by Rosalind Franklin. Historians of molecular biology have long puzzled over a remarkably similar photograph taken two years earlier by the physicist and pioneer of protein structure William T. Astbury. They have suggested that Astbury's failure to capitalize on the photograph to solve DNA's structure was due either to his being too much of a physicist, with too little interest in or knowledge of biology, or to his being misled by an erroneous theoretical model of the gene. Drawing on previously unpublished archival sources, this paper offers a new analysis of Astbury's relationship to the problem of DNA's structure, emphasizing a previously overlooked element in Astbury's thinking: his concept of biological specificity.

  1. The Widespread Prevalence and Functional Significance of Silk-Like Structural Proteins in Metazoan Biological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Carmel; Woodcroft, Ben J.

    2016-01-01

    In nature, numerous mechanisms have evolved by which organisms fabricate biological structures with an impressive array of physical characteristics. Some examples of metazoan biological materials include the highly elastic byssal threads by which bivalves attach themselves to rocks, biomineralized structures that form the skeletons of various animals, and spider silks that are renowned for their exceptional strength and elasticity. The remarkable properties of silks, which are perhaps the best studied biological materials, are the result of the highly repetitive, modular, and biased amino acid composition of the proteins that compose them. Interestingly, similar levels of modularity/repetitiveness and similar bias in amino acid compositions have been reported in proteins that are components of structural materials in other organisms, however the exact nature and extent of this similarity, and its functional and evolutionary relevance, is unknown. Here, we investigate this similarity and use sequence features common to silks and other known structural proteins to develop a bioinformatics-based method to identify similar proteins from large-scale transcriptome and whole-genome datasets. We show that a large number of proteins identified using this method have roles in biological material formation throughout the animal kingdom. Despite the similarity in sequence characteristics, most of the silk-like structural proteins (SLSPs) identified in this study appear to have evolved independently and are restricted to a particular animal lineage. Although the exact function of many of these SLSPs is unknown, the apparent independent evolution of proteins with similar sequence characteristics in divergent lineages suggests that these features are important for the assembly of biological materials. The identification of these characteristics enable the generation of testable hypotheses regarding the mechanisms by which these proteins assemble and direct the construction of

  2. The Widespread Prevalence and Functional Significance of Silk-Like Structural Proteins in Metazoan Biological Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Carmel; Woodcroft, Ben J; Degnan, Bernard M

    2016-01-01

    In nature, numerous mechanisms have evolved by which organisms fabricate biological structures with an impressive array of physical characteristics. Some examples of metazoan biological materials include the highly elastic byssal threads by which bivalves attach themselves to rocks, biomineralized structures that form the skeletons of various animals, and spider silks that are renowned for their exceptional strength and elasticity. The remarkable properties of silks, which are perhaps the best studied biological materials, are the result of the highly repetitive, modular, and biased amino acid composition of the proteins that compose them. Interestingly, similar levels of modularity/repetitiveness and similar bias in amino acid compositions have been reported in proteins that are components of structural materials in other organisms, however the exact nature and extent of this similarity, and its functional and evolutionary relevance, is unknown. Here, we investigate this similarity and use sequence features common to silks and other known structural proteins to develop a bioinformatics-based method to identify similar proteins from large-scale transcriptome and whole-genome datasets. We show that a large number of proteins identified using this method have roles in biological material formation throughout the animal kingdom. Despite the similarity in sequence characteristics, most of the silk-like structural proteins (SLSPs) identified in this study appear to have evolved independently and are restricted to a particular animal lineage. Although the exact function of many of these SLSPs is unknown, the apparent independent evolution of proteins with similar sequence characteristics in divergent lineages suggests that these features are important for the assembly of biological materials. The identification of these characteristics enable the generation of testable hypotheses regarding the mechanisms by which these proteins assemble and direct the construction of

  3. The Widespread Prevalence and Functional Significance of Silk-Like Structural Proteins in Metazoan Biological Materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel McDougall

    Full Text Available In nature, numerous mechanisms have evolved by which organisms fabricate biological structures with an impressive array of physical characteristics. Some examples of metazoan biological materials include the highly elastic byssal threads by which bivalves attach themselves to rocks, biomineralized structures that form the skeletons of various animals, and spider silks that are renowned for their exceptional strength and elasticity. The remarkable properties of silks, which are perhaps the best studied biological materials, are the result of the highly repetitive, modular, and biased amino acid composition of the proteins that compose them. Interestingly, similar levels of modularity/repetitiveness and similar bias in amino acid compositions have been reported in proteins that are components of structural materials in other organisms, however the exact nature and extent of this similarity, and its functional and evolutionary relevance, is unknown. Here, we investigate this similarity and use sequence features common to silks and other known structural proteins to develop a bioinformatics-based method to identify similar proteins from large-scale transcriptome and whole-genome datasets. We show that a large number of proteins identified using this method have roles in biological material formation throughout the animal kingdom. Despite the similarity in sequence characteristics, most of the silk-like structural proteins (SLSPs identified in this study appear to have evolved independently and are restricted to a particular animal lineage. Although the exact function of many of these SLSPs is unknown, the apparent independent evolution of proteins with similar sequence characteristics in divergent lineages suggests that these features are important for the assembly of biological materials. The identification of these characteristics enable the generation of testable hypotheses regarding the mechanisms by which these proteins assemble and direct the

  4. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM): novel biological insights and development of early treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korde, Neha; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y; Landgren, Ola

    2011-05-26

    Monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) are asymptomatic plasma cell dyscrasias, with a propensity to progress to symptomatic MM. In recent years there have been improvements in risk stratification models (involving molecular markers) of both disorders, which have led to better understanding of the biology and probability of progression of MGUS and SMM. In the context of numerous molecular events and heterogeneous risk of progression, developing individualized risk profiles for patients with MGUS and SMM represents an ongoing challenge that has to be addressed by prospective clinical monitoring and extensive correlative science. In this review we discuss the current standard of care of patients with MGUS and SMM, the use of risk models, including flow cytometry and free-light chain analyses, for predicting risk of progression. Emerging evidence from molecular studies on MGUS and SMM, involving cytogenetics, gene-expression profiling, and microRNA as well as molecular imaging is described. Finally, future directions for improving individualized management of MGUS and SMM patients, as well as the potential for developing early treatment strategies designed to delay and prevent development of MM are discussed.

  5. Biological significance of metals partitioned to subcellular fractions within earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, Martina G; Gestel, Cornelis A M van; Straalen, Nico M van; Lanno, Roman P; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2006-01-01

    Metal ions in excess of metabolic requirements are potentially toxic and must be removed from the vicinity of important biological molecules to protect organisms from adverse effects. Correspondingly, metals are sequestrated in various forms, defining the accumulation pattern and the magnitude of st

  6. What is the Clinical Significance of Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in Parkinson's disease? Is the Significance Diagnostic or Prognostic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dana; Paik, Jin Hui; Shin, Dong-Woon; Kim, Hak-Su; Park, Chang-Shin; Kang, Ju-Hee

    2014-12-01

    The clinical diagnostic criteria of Parkinson's disease (PD) have limitations in detecting the disease at early stage and in differentiating heterogeneous clinical progression. The lack of reliable biomarker(s) for early diagnosis and prediction of prognosis is a major hurdle to achieve optimal clinical care of patients and efficient design of clinical trials for disease-modifying therapeutics. Numerous efforts to discover PD biomarkers in CSF were conducted. In this review, we describe the molecular pathogenesis of PD and discuss its implication to develop PD biomarkers in CSF. Next, we summarize the clinical utility of CSF biomarkers including alpha-synuclein for early and differential diagnosis, and prediction of PD progression. Given the heterogeneity in the clinical features of PD and none of the CSF biomarkers for an early diagnosis have been developed, research efforts to develop biomarkers to predict heterogeneous disease progression is on-going. Notably, a rapid cognitive decline followed by the development of dementia is a risk factor of poor prognosis in PD. In connection to this, CSF levels of Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers have received considerable attention. However, we still need long-term longitudinal observational studies employing large cohorts to evaluate the clinical utility of CSF biomarkers reflecting Lewy body pathology and AD pathology in the brain. We believe that current research efforts including the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative will resolve the current needs of early diagnosis and/or prediction of disease progression using CSF biomarkers, and which will further accelerate the development of disease-modifying therapeutics and optimize the clinical management of PD patients.

  7. Inpatient Treatment for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa: Clinical Significance and Predictors of Treatment Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegl, Sandra; Diedrich, Alice; Neumayr, Christina; Fumi, Markus; Naab, Silke; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the clinical significance as well as predictors of outcome for adolescents with severe anorexia nervosa (AN) treated in an inpatient setting. Body mass index (BMI), eating disorder (ED) symptoms [Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2)], general psychopathology and depression were assessed in 238 patients at admission and discharge. BMI increased from 14.8 + 1.2 to 17.3 + 1.4 kg/m(2). Almost a fourth (23.6%) of the patients showed reliable changes, and 44.7% showed clinically significant changes (EDI-2). BMI change did not significantly differ between those with reliable or clinically significant change or no reliable change in EDI-2. Length of stay, depression and body dissatisfaction were negative predictors of a clinically significant change. Inpatient treatment is effective in about two thirds of adolescents with AN and should be considered when outpatient treatment fails. About one third of patients showed significant weight gain, but did not improve regarding overall ED symptomatology. Future studies should focus on treatment strategies for non-responders.

  8. Clinically significant changes in burden and depression among dementia caregivers following nursing home admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hepburn Kenneth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although extensive research exists on informal long-term care, little work has examined the clinical significance of transitions in family caregiving due to a lack of established clinical cut-points on key measures. The objectives of this study were to determine whether clinically significant changes in symptoms of burden and depression occur among caregivers within 12 months of nursing home admission (NHA of their relatives with dementia, and to identify key predictors of clinically persistent burden and depression in the first year after institutionalization. Methods Secondary longitudinal analysis of dementia caregivers were recruited from eight catchment areas in the United States with 6- and 12-month post-placement follow-up data. The sample included data on 1,610 dementia caregivers with pre- and six-month post-placement data and 1,116 with pre-placement, six-month, and 12-month post-placement data. Burden was measured with a modified version of the Zarit Burden Inventory. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale. Results Chi-square analyses found significant (P Conclusions In addition to suggesting that clinically significant decreases in caregiver burden and depression are likely to occur following institutionalization, the results reveal particular subsets of caregivers who are at continued risk of distress. Such findings can facilitate development of screening processes to identify families at-risk following institutionalization.

  9. Clinical, biological and genetic analysis of anorchia in 26 boys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Brauner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anorchia is defined as the absence of testes in a 46,XY individual with a male phenotype. The cause is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the clinical and biological presentation, and family histories of 26 boys with anorchia, and sequenced their SRY, NR5A1, INSL3, MAMLD1 genes and the T222P variant for LGR8. RESULTS: No patient had any associated congenital anomaly. At birth, testes were palpable bilaterally or unilaterally in 13 cases and not in 7; one patient presented with bilateral testicular torsion immediately after birth. The basal plasma concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH, n = 15, inhibin B (n = 7 and testosterone (n = 19 were very low or undetectable in all the patients evaluated, as were the increases in testosterone after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, n = 12. The basal plasma concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH were increased in 20/25, as was that of luteinising hormone in 10/22 cases. Family members of 7/26 cases had histories of primary ovarian failure in the mother (n = 2, or sister 46,XX, together with fetal malformations of the only boy with microphallus and secondary foot edema (n = 1, secondary infertility in the father (n = 2, or cryptorchidism in first cousins (n = 2. The sequences of all the genes studied were normal. CONCLUSION: Undetectable plasma concentrations of AMH and inhibin B and an elevated plasma FSH, together with 46,XY complement are sufficient for diagnosis of anorchia. The hCG test is unnecessary. NR5A1 and other genes implicated in gonadal development and testicle descent were not mutated, which suggests that other genes involved in these developments contribute to the phenotypes.

  10. Clinical significance of corpus callosum atrophy in a mixed elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, C; Rostrup, E; Stegmann, M B;

    2007-01-01

    Corpus callosum (CC) is the main tract connecting the hemispheres, but the clinical significance of CC atrophy is poorly understood. The aim of this work was to investigate clinical and functional correlates of CC atrophy in subjects with age-related white matter changes (ARWMC). In 569 elderly......) score, history of depression, geriatric depression scale (GDS) score, subjective gait difficulty, history of falls, walking speed, and total score on the short physical performance battery (SPPB) were analyzed. Significant correlations between CC atrophy and MMSE, SPPB, and walking speed were identified...

  11. [Neurotrophic keratopathy--studies on substance P and the clinical significance of corneal sensation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, T; Nakamura, M; Konma, T; Ofuji, K; Nagano, K; Tanaka, T; Enoki, M; Reid, T W; Brown, S M; Murphy, C J; Mannis, M J

    1997-12-01

    Neurotrophic keratopathy, which often follows damage to the trigeminal nerve, is clinically characterized by various types of epithelial disorders and melting of corneal stroma. To understand both the pathology of neurotrophic keratopathy and the physiological significance of corneal sensation, we investigated both the cellular and molecular functions of a sensory neurotransmitter, substance P, in corneal epithelial cells. Our findings prompted us to try a new mode of treatment for neurotrophic keratopathy. Substance P, a member of the tachykinin family, is an 11-amino-acid peptide. In an organ culture system using rabbit corneas, substance P alone had no effect on corneal epithelial migration. In the presence of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), however, substance P synergistically facilitated corneal epithelial migration in proportion to the concentration of substance P or of IGF-1. Other neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, norepinephrine, serotonin etc.) or tachykinins (neurokinin A, eledoisin etc.) did not show this synergistic effect with IGF-1. Among receptors for the tachykinin family (NK-1, NK-2, or NK-3) only the NK-1 receptor system was involved in the synergistic effect of substance P and IGF-1 on corneal epithelial migration. IGF-1 affected neither the binding constant nor the number of sites of substance P receptors in corneal epithelial cells, suggesting that the synergistic effect was not regulated at the receptor level. Various extracellular signals activate the intracellular signal transduction system, thus amplifying specific biological functions. We found that the addition of inhibitors of protein kinase C or tyrosine kinase clearly inhibited the synergistic effect of substance P and IGF-1 on corneal epithelial migration, demonstrating that protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase are involved in the synergistic effect. During corneal epithelial wound healing, epithelial cells must attach to a provisional, extracellular fibronectin matrix. We

  12. GOAL: A software tool for assessing biological significance of genes groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Famili Fazel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern high throughput experimental techniques such as DNA microarrays often result in large lists of genes. Computational biology tools such as clustering are then used to group together genes based on their similarity in expression profiles. Genes in each group are probably functionally related. The functional relevance among the genes in each group is usually characterized by utilizing available biological knowledge in public databases such as Gene Ontology (GO, KEGG pathways, association between a transcription factor (TF and its target genes, and/or gene networks. Results We developed GOAL: Gene Ontology AnaLyzer, a software tool specifically designed for the functional evaluation of gene groups. GOAL implements and supports efficient and statistically rigorous functional interpretations of gene groups through its integration with available GO, TF-gene association data, and association with KEGG pathways. In order to facilitate more specific functional characterization of a gene group, we implement three GO-tree search strategies rather than one as in most existing GO analysis tools. Furthermore, GOAL offers flexibility in deployment. It can be used as a standalone tool, a plug-in to other computational biology tools, or a web server application. Conclusion We developed a functional evaluation software tool, GOAL, to perform functional characterization of a gene group. GOAL offers three GO-tree search strategies and combines its strength in function integration, portability and visualization, and its flexibility in deployment. Furthermore, GOAL can be used to evaluate and compare gene groups as the output from computational biology tools such as clustering algorithms.

  13. A Study to Interpret the Biological Significance of Behavior Associated with 3S Experimental Sonar Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Behavior Associated with 3S Experimental Sonar Exposures Patrick Miller Sea Mammal Research Unit Scottish Oceans Institute School of Biology...to investigate behavioral reactions of cetaceans to naval sonar and various control sounds, and the sound exposures required to elicit responses, in...order to establish safety limits for sonar operations. 3S project efforts have been focused upon informing the ‘exposure-effect assessment

  14. Evaluating research for clinical significance: using critically appraised topics to enhance evidence-based neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Stephen C; Harrison, Elise J; Loring, David W

    2014-01-01

    Meehl's (1973, Psychodiagnosis: Selected papers. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press) distinction between statistical and clinical significance holds special relevance for evidence-based neuropsychological practice. Meehl argued that despite attaining statistical significance, many published findings have limited practical value since they do not inform clinical care. In the context of an ever expanding clinical research literature, accessible methods to evaluate clinical impact are needed. The method of Critically Appraised Topics (Straus, Richardson, Glasziou, & Haynes, 2011, Evidence-based medicine: How to practice and teach EBM (4th ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill-Livingstone) was developed to provide clinicians with a "toolkit" to facilitate implementation of evidence-based practice. We illustrate the Critically Appraised Topics method using a dementia screening example. We argue that the skills practiced through critical appraisal provide clinicians with methods to: (1) evaluate the clinical relevance of new or unfamiliar research findings with a focus on patient benefit, (2) help focus of research quality, and (3) incorporate evaluation of clinical impact into educational and professional development activities.

  15. Clinical significance of preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level in patients with clinical stage IA non-small cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Takashi; Hachimaru, Ayumi; Tochii, Daisuke; Tochii, Sachiko; Takagi, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to assess the preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level in patients with clinical stage IA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to evaluate its clinical significance. Methods Between January 2005 and December 2014, a total of 378 patients with clinical stage IA NSCLC underwent complete resection with systematic node dissection. The survival rate was estimated starting from the date of surgery to the date of either death or the last follow-up by the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate analyses by log-rank tests were used to determine prognostic factors. Cox proportional hazards ratios were used to identify independent predictors of poor prognosis. Clinicopathological predictors of lymph node metastases were evaluated by logistic regression analyses. Results The 5-year survival rate of patients with an elevated preoperative serum CEA level was significantly lower than that of patients with a normal CEA level (75.5% vs. 87.7%; P=0.02). However, multivariate analysis did not show the preoperative serum CEA level to be an independent predictor of poor prognosis. Postoperative pathological factors, including lymphatic permeation, visceral pleural invasion, and lymph node metastases, tended to be positive in patients with an elevated preoperative serum CEA level. In addition, the CEA level was a statistically significant independent clinical predictor of lymph node metastases. Conclusions The preoperative serum CEA level was not an independent predictor of poor prognosis in patients with pathological stage IA NSCLC but was an important clinical predictor of tumor invasiveness and lymph node metastases in patients with clinical stage IA NSCLC. Therefore, measurement of the preoperative serum CEA level should be considered even for patients with early-stage NSCLC.

  16. The clinical relevance and management of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and related disorders: recommendations from the European Myeloma Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Donk, Niels W C J; Palumbo, Antonio; Johnsen, Hans Erik; Engelhardt, Monika; Gay, Francesca; Gregersen, Henrik; Hajek, Roman; Kleber, Martina; Ludwig, Heinz; Morgan, Gareth; Musto, Pellegrino; Plesner, Torben; Sezer, Orhan; Terpos, Evangelos; Waage, Anders; Zweegman, Sonja; Einsele, Hermann; Sonneveld, Pieter; Lokhorst, Henk M

    2014-06-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance is one of the most common pre-malignant disorders. IgG and IgA monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance are precursor conditions of multiple myeloma; light-chain monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance of light-chain multiple myeloma; and IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia and other lymphoproliferative disorders. Clonal burden, as determined by bone marrow plasma cell percentage or M-protein level, as well as biological characteristics, including heavy chain isotype and light chain production, are helpful in predicting risk of progression of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance to symptomatic disease. Furthermore, alterations in the bone marrow microenvironment of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance patients result in an increased risk of venous and arterial thrombosis, infections, osteoporosis, and bone fractures. In addition, the small clone may occasionally be responsible for severe organ damage through the production of a monoclonal protein that has autoantibody activity or deposits in tissues. These disorders are rare and often require therapy directed at eradication of the underlying plasma cell or lymphoplasmacytic clone. In this review, we provide an overview of the clinical relevance of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We also give general recommendations of how to diagnose and manage patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.

  17. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in patients with psoriasis: is it really a side effect of biological therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Andrea; Esposito, Ilaria; Lasagni, Claudia; Miglietta, Roberta; Padalino, Claudia; Fabiano, Antonella; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2014-11-01

    Moderate-to-severe psoriasis is treated using biological drugs targeting cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (adalimumab, infliximab, etanercept) and interleukin 12/23 (IL 12/23) (ustekinumab). There is a slight risk of developing hematological malignancies, such as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) with anti TNF-α agents. There are no data available on anti-IL12/23 drugs. This retrospective study of data from 191 patients describes the appearance and follow-up of MGUS in three patients with psoriasis receiving long-term biological therapy. Since the appearance of MGUS occurred after about 6 years of anti-TNFα treatment in only three subjects, it was deemed unlikely to be due to the biological treatment. The decision not to suspend biological therapy after the appearance of MGUS was taken after careful assessment of the possible risks and benefits.

  18. Reliability and Clinical Significance of Mobility and Balance Assessments in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmonth, Yvonne C.; Paul, Lorna; McFadyen, Angus K.; Mattison, Paul; Miller, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the test-retest reliability, clinical significance and precision of four mobility and balance measures--the Timed 25-Foot Walk, Six-minute Walk, Timed Up and Go and the Berg Balance Scale--in individuals moderately affected by multiple sclerosis. Twenty four participants with multiple sclerosis (Extended…

  19. Detection of KRAS gene mutation and its clinical significance in colorectal adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晨

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical significance of KRAS mutation detection in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Methods Paraffin-embedded tissue specimens were obtained from 440 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. The genomic DNA was extracted. Mutations of exon 2 of KRAS gene were examined by PCR and

  20. Differential expression and clinical significance of three inflammation-related microRNAs in gangliogliomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Prabowo; J. van Scheppingen; A.M. Iyer; J.J. Anink; W.G.M. Spliet; P.C. van Rijen; A.Y.N. Schouten-van Meeteren; E. Aronica

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: miR21, miR146, and miR155 represent a trio of microRNAs which has been shown to play a key role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. In the present study, we investigated the differential expression and clinical significance of these three miRNAs in glioneuronal tumors (g

  1. Expression of Sema4D in patients with cerebral infarction and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the expression and clinical significance of Semaphorin4D (Sema4D) mRNA in peripheral blood lymphocyte,Sema4D on platelet surface, soluble Sema4D (sSema4D) in plasma in patients with cerebral infarction. Methods Taking 299 patients with cerebral infarction

  2. Clinical significance of C4d in SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the clinical significance of thebiomarker C4d, a split product of the complement system, in several manifestations of systemic autoimmunediseases such as SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome. The findings in this thesis suggest that this biomarker might be of use in unraveling dis

  3. Differential expression and clinical significance of three inflammation-related microRNAs in gangliogliomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prabowo, A. S.; van Scheppingen, J.; Iyer, A. M.; Anink, J. J.; Spliet, W. G M; van Rijen, P. C.; Meeteren, A. Y N Schouten van; Aronica, E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: miR21, miR146, and miR155 represent a trio of microRNAs which has been shown to play a key role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. In the present study, we investigated the differential expression and clinical significance of these three miRNAs in glioneuronal tumors (g

  4. Risk Factors for Clinically Significant Intimate Partner Violence among Active-Duty Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith Slep, Amy M.; Foran, Heather M.; Heyman, Richard E.; Snarr, Jeffery D.

    2011-01-01

    Hypothesized risk factors for men's and women's clinically significant intimate partner violence (CS-IPV) from four ecological levels (i.e., individual, family, workplace, community) were tested in a representative sample of active-duty U.S. Air Force members (N = 42,744). When considered together, we expected only individual and family factors to…

  5. Clinically Significant Change to Establish Benchmarks in Residential Drug and Alcohol Treatment Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingham, Daniel D.; Kelly, Peter J.; Deane, Frank P.; Crowe, Trevor P.; Buckingham, Mark S.; Craig, Fiona L.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis on the use routine outcome assessment measures to inform quality assurance initiatives. The calculation of reliable and clinically significant change indices is one strategy that organizations could use to develop both internal and externally focused benchmarking processes. The current study aimed to develop reliable…

  6. Clinical significance of GLUT-1 expression in patients with esophageal cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Itaru; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Morioka, Takamitsu; Shimoji, Hideaki; Sunagawa, Nao; Iraha, Shiro; Nishimaki, Tadashi; Yoshimi, Naomi; Murayama, Sadayuki

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) expression in a pretreatment esophageal cancer biopsy was predictive of clinical outcomes in patients with esophageal cancer undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT). A total of 25 patients with esophageal cancer treated with concurrent CRT were reviewed. Radiotherapy was administered up to total doses of 40-66.6 Gy (median 66.6 Gy) with a single fraction of 1.8-2 Gy. Regarding chemotherapy, cisplatin (80 mg/m(2) on day 1) and 5-fluorouracil (800 mg/m(2) on days 2-6) were used concurrently with radiotherapy, every 3-4 weeks for a total of 1-2 courses. Tissue samples from esophageal carcinoma were obtained from the 25 patients by biopsy prior to concurrent CRT, and a semiquantitative analysis of GLUT-1 expression was performed using immunohistochemical staining. High GLUT-1 expression was observed in 7 of 25 (28%) patients, and GLUT-1 expression was significantly correlated with clinical T stage (p=0.0454), clinical N stage (p=0.0324) and initial response to CRT (p=0.0185). Patients with a high GLUT-1 expression had significantly poorer local control (LC) (5-year LC 28.6%) than those with a low expression (5-year LC 73.4%, pGLUT-1 and the number of chemotherapy courses were independent prognostic factors for LC. Patients with a high GLUT-1 expression had significantly lower recurrence-free survival (RFS) compared to those with a low GLUT-1 expression (p=0.0405). Multivariate analysis revealed that GLUT-1, the number of chemotherapy courses and clinical M stage were independent prognostic factors for RFS. GLUT-1 expression was significantly correlated with clinical T stage, clinical N stage and initial response to concurrent CRT, and was predictive of LC and RFS for patients with esophageal cancer treated with concurrent CRT.

  7. Elizabethkingia anophelis bacteremia is associated with clinically significant infections and high mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susanna K. P.; Chow, Wang-Ngai; Foo, Chuen-Hing; Curreem, Shirly O. T.; Lo, George Chi-Shing; Teng, Jade L. L.; Chen, Jonathan H. K.; Ng, Ricky H. Y.; Wu, Alan K. L.; Cheung, Ingrid Y. Y.; Chau, Sandy K. Y.; Lung, David C.; Lee, Rodney A.; Tse, Cindy W. S.; Fung, Kitty S. C.; Que, Tak-Lun; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, the clinical importance of E. anophelis is poorly understood. We determined the clinical and molecular epidemiology of bacteremia caused by Elizabethkingia-like species from five regional hospitals in Hong Kong. Among 45 episodes of Elizabethkingia-like bacteremia, 21 were caused by Elizabethkingia, including 17 E. anophelis, three E. meningoseptica and one E. miricola; while 24 were caused by other diverse genera/species, as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Of the 17 cases of E. anophelis bacteremia, 15 (88%) were clinically significant. The most common diagnosis was pneumonia (n = 5), followed by catheter-related bacteremia (n = 4), neonatal meningitis (n = 3), nosocomial bacteremia (n = 2) and neutropenic fever (n = 1). E. anophelis bacteremia was commonly associated with complications and carried 23.5% mortality. In contrast, of the 24 episodes of bacteremia due to non-Elizabethkingia species, 16 (67%) were clinically insignificant. Compared to non-Elizabethkingia bacteremia, Elizabethkingia bacteremia was associated with more clinically significant infections (P < 0.01) and positive cultures from other sites (P < 0.01), less polymicrobial bacteremia (P < 0.01), and higher complication (P < 0.05) and mortality (P < 0.05) rates. Elizabethkingia bacteremia is predominantly caused by E. anophelis instead of E. meningoseptica. Elizabethkingia bacteremia, especially due to E. anophelis, carries significant morbidity and mortality, and should be considered clinically significant unless proven otherwise. PMID:27185741

  8. Concise Review: Quiescence in Adult Stem Cells: Biological Significance and Relevance to Tissue Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumman, Mohammad; Dhawan, Jyotsna; Kassem, Moustapha

    2015-10-01

    Adult stem cells (ASCs) are tissue resident stem cells responsible for tissue homeostasis and regeneration following injury. In uninjured tissues, ASCs exist in a nonproliferating, reversibly cell cycle-arrested state known as quiescence or G0. A key function of the quiescent state is to preserve stemness in ASCs by preventing precocious differentiation, and thus maintaining a pool of undifferentiated ASCs. Recent evidences suggest that quiescence is an actively maintained state and that excessive or defective quiescence may lead to compromised tissue regeneration or tumorigenesis. The aim of this review is to provide an update regarding the biological mechanisms of ASC quiescence and their role in tissue regeneration.

  9. Streptococcus pyogenes biofilms – formation, biology,and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas eFiedler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci, GAS is an exclusive human bacterial pathogen. The virulence potential of this species is tremendous. Interactions with humans range from asymptomatic carriage over mild and superficial infections of skin and mucosal membranes up to systemic purulent toxic-invasive disease manifestations. Particularly the latter are a severe threat for predisposed patients and lead to significant death tolls worldwide. This places GAS among the most important Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. Many recent reviews have highlighted the GAS repertoire of virulence factors, regulators and regulatory circuits/networks that enable GAS to colonize the host and to deal with all levels of the host immune defense. This covers in vitro and in vivo studies, including animal infection studies based on mice and more relevant, macaque monkeys. It is now appreciated that GAS, like many other bacterial species, do not necessarily exclusively live in a planktonic lifestyle. GAS is capable of microcolony and biofilm formation on host cells and tissues. We are now beginning to understand that this feature significantly contributes to GAS pathogenesis. In this review we will discuss the current knowledge on GAS biofilm formation, the biofilm-phenotype associated virulence factors, regulatory aspects of biofilm formation, the clinical relevance, and finally contemporary treatment regimens and future treatment options.

  10. The Halogenated Metabolism of Brown Algae (Phaeophyta, Its Biological Importance and Its Environmental Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane La Barre

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Brown algae represent a major component of littoral and sublittoral zones in temperate and subtropical ecosystems. An essential adaptive feature of this independent eukaryotic lineage is the ability to couple oxidative reactions resulting from exposure to sunlight and air with the halogenations of various substrates, thereby addressing various biotic and abiotic stresses i.e., defense against predators, tissue repair, holdfast adhesion, and protection against reactive species generated by oxidative processes. Whereas marine organisms mainly make use of bromine to increase the biological activity of secondary metabolites, some orders of brown algae such as Laminariales have also developed a striking capability to accumulate and to use iodine in physiological adaptations to stress. We review selected aspects of the halogenated metabolism of macrophytic brown algae in the light of the most recent results, which point toward novel functions for iodide accumulation in kelps and the importance of bromination in cell wall modifications and adhesion properties of brown algal propagules. The importance of halogen speciation processes ranges from microbiology to biogeochemistry, through enzymology, cellular biology and ecotoxicology.

  11. Biological significance of complex N-glycans in plants and their impact on plant physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eStrasser

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Asparagine (N-linked protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous co- and post-translational modification which can alter the biological function of proteins and consequently affects the development, growth and physiology of organisms. Despite an increasing knowledge of N-glycan biosynthesis and processing, we still understand very little about the biological function of individual N-glycan structures in plants. In particular, the N-glycan processing steps mediated by Golgi-resident enzymes create a structurally diverse set of protein-linked carbohydrate structures. Some of these complex N-glycan modifications like the presence of beta1,2-xylose, core alpha1,3-fucose or the Lewis a-epitope are characteristic for plants and are evolutionary highly conserved. In mammals, complex N-glycans are involved in different cellular processes including molecular recognition and signalling events. By contrast, the complex N-glycan function is still largely unknown in plants. Here, in this short review I focus on important recent developments and discuss their implications for future research in plant glycobiology and plant biotechnology.

  12. Acid-soluble breakdown of homologous deoxyribonucleic acid adsorbed by Haemophilus influenzae: its biological significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuy, J.H.

    1974-11-01

    Competent bacteria of Haemophilus influenzae strain Rd were exposed to various kinds of radioactive deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for short periods of time and at relatively low temperature. The fate of phage HP1 DNA was studied most extensively. Adsorbed DNA was partially acid solubilized by lysogens and by nonlysogens with very similar kinetics. The biological activity of the DNA decreased extensively in both lysogenic and nonlysogenic recipients. 2,4-Dinitrophenol had no effect on the acid solubilization but largely abolished the biological inactivation. Inactivation kinetics for three different markers and for the triple combination were roughly the same. The presence of 2,4-dinitrophenol in the medium, or the HP1 prophage in the chromosome, did not alter this observation. This suggests that acid solubilization involves the destruction of whole DNA molecules. In view of the absence of DNA homology between phage and host, it is concluded that acid-soluble breakdown of adsorbed transforming DNA is not an integral part of the donor DNA integration process. Behavior of mutant bacteria indicates that neither exonuclease III nor exonuclease V is involved.

  13. Metabolic disposition and biological significance of simple phenols of dietary origin: hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Boronat, Anna; Kotronoulas, Aristotelis; Pujadas, Mitona; Pastor, Antoni; Olesti, Eulalia; Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Khymenets, Olha; Fitó, Montserrat; Farré, Magí; de la Torre, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol are dietary phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil and wine. Both compounds are also endogenously synthesized in our body as byproducts of dopamine and tyramine metabolisms, respectively. Over the last decades, research into hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol has experienced an increasing interest due to the role that these compounds may play in the prevention of certain pathologies (e.g. cardiovascular, metabolic, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer). The translation of promising in vitro and in vivo biological effects from preclinical studies to the context of human disease prevention initially depends on whether the dose ingested becomes available at the site of action. In this regard, information regarding the bioavailability and metabolic disposition of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol is of most importance to evaluate the impact they may have on human health. In this review, we discuss and summarize the state of the art of the scientific evidence regarding the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of both hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. We also examine the impact of these compounds and their metabolites on biological activity in terms of beneficial health effects. Finally, we evaluate the different analytical approaches that have been developed to measure the plasma and urinary levels of hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and their metabolites.

  14. Identifying risk factors for clinically significant diabetic macula edema in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoi, Kyuzi; Takeda, Keiji; Hashimoto, Kaoru; Tanaka, Reiko; Okuyama, Shinya

    2013-05-01

    It is known that clinic blood pressure (BP), gender, cigarette smoking, dyslipidemia, anemia and thiazolidenediones (TZD) treatment are predictors for clinically significant diabetic macula edema (CSDME). We examined a most risky factor for CSDME in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) confirmed using optical coherence tomography by multiple regression analysis (MRA). As the risk factors, wakening-up BP was added to such factors. Seven diabetic Japanese patients with CSDME (group 1) and 124 subjects without CSDME (group 2) assonated with DR using optical coherence tomography were studied. The durations of T2DM in groups 1 and 2 were 15±10 years and 20±15 years, respectively. There was no statistically difference in means of gender, duration, age, body mass index (BMI), HbA1c, TC, LDL and TC/HDL, serum creatinine, urinary albumin excretion rate, and clinic BP between two groups. Morning systolic home BP (MSHBP), cigarette smoking and foveal thickness were significantly (ppioglitazone as TZD treatment were significantly positive predictors for CSDME, while BMI had a significantly negative predictor. Other variables were not significantly correlated to CSDME. The review summarizes a multiple regression analysis revealed that MSHBP makes an addition to predictive factors for CSDME among risk factors reported previously in patient with T2DM.

  15. Prevalence and clinical significance of cathepsin G antibodies in systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Favaro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of cathepsin G antibodies in patients affected with systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma. Methods: 115 patients affected by SSc, 55 (47,8% with diffuse scleroderma (dSSc and 60 (52,2% with limited scleroderma (lSSc, were tested for cathepsin G antibodies by ELISA method. Moreover these sera were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF on ethanol and formalin fixed human neutrophils. Results: By means of the ELISA method 16 (13,9% patients were found to be sera positive for anti-cathepsin G, 2 (12.5% of which showed a perinuclear fluorescence pattern (P-ANCA and 4 (25% an atypical ANCA staining, while 10 (62,5% were negative on IIF. The IIF on scleroderma sera revealed 5 (4,3% P-ANCA and 18 (15,7% atypical ANCA patterns. The anti-cathepsin G antibodies significantly prevailed in scleroderma sera (p=0.02 when their frequency was compared with that of healthy controls; while they were not significantly associated to any clinical or serological features of SSc patients. Conclusions: The anti-cathepsin G antibodies were significantly frequent in scleroderma sera; however, no clinical correlations were found. Thus, the significance of their presence in SSc still needs to be clarified.

  16. Clinical significance of white matter hyperintensities in MRI in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, Masashi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1996-08-01

    To elucidate clinical significance of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in MRI, fifty patients with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) and twenty normal controls were studied. Twenty nine patients with SDAT (58.0%) had periventricular hyperintensities (PVH) and twenty three patients with SDAT (46.0%) had deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMH). Eight controls (40.0%) had PVH and ten controls (50.0%) had DWMH. There were no significant differences in frequency of WMH between patients with SDAT and normal controls. Past history of hypertension was more frequent in patients with PVH or DWMH than in patients without them. Serum cholesterol level was higher in patients with DWMH than in patients without them. However there were no significant differences in the other clinical features between patients with WMH and patients without them. The results of present study suggest that DWMH in patients with SDAT is associated with cerebrovascular risk factors such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia. (author)

  17. Clinical significance of plasma level of AT-Ⅲ determination in sepsis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Chen; Zhi-Hua Hu; Chen-Mian

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Through measure changes of anticoagulant enzyme (AT-Ⅲ) activity in plasma in sepsis patients, this paper discusses the clinical significance of AT-Ⅲ activity changes in predicting sepsis occurrence and prognosis.Methods: The non-sepsis 30 cases, with sepsis 76 cases, including 25 cases of severe sepsis, use method of thrombin gelatum lacuna for determining activity of AT-Ⅲ in plasma, platelet count and APACHEⅢ score simultaneously. Results:Sepsis group, severe sepsis groups contrast with the non-sepsis group respectively, activity of AT-Ⅲ reduced significantly (P<0.01), severe sepsis group lower than sepsis group (P=0.055).Conclusion:AT-Ⅲ activity reduced early in sepsis patients, with patient's condition aggravat, its value further reduced, hints measurement of AT-Ⅲ activity has certainly clinical significance in predicting sepsis occurrence and prognosis.

  18. An initial appraisal of the clinical significance of Roseomonas species associated with human infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struthers, M; Wong, J; Janda, J M

    1996-10-01

    We reviewed laboratory, clinical, and epidemiologic data on 35 patients from whom organisms belonging to the genus Roseomonas, a pink-pigmented gram-negative coccobacillus, were isolated over a 22-year period (1972-1994). Roseomonas strains were most commonly isolated from middle-aged women with one of several underlying conditions, including cancer and diabetes. Roseomonas was most commonly isolated from the blood, in association with clinical signs of sepsis. Approximately 60% of all isolates were judged to be of possible clinical significance, either as primary or secondary pathogens; 75% of all strains were recovered in pure culture. Roseomonas gilardii was the most frequently isolated species and was significantly associated with septicemia and underlying immunocompromised conditions; the species of 29% of all Roseomonas isolates could not be unequivocally identified with presently available differential tests. Genomospecies 5, currently an unnamed taxon within the genus Roseomonas, was primarily recovered as a commensal from young adults attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic. The findings suggest that although this genus appears to have an overall low pathogenic potential for humans, Roseomonas species-in particular, R. gilardii-may be significant pathogens in persons with underlying medical complications.

  19. Shear-wave elastography of the liver and spleen identifies clinically significant portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Christian; Bogs, Christopher; Verlinden, Wim

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH) is associated with severe complications and decompensation of cirrhosis. Liver stiffness measured either by transient elastography (TE) or Shear-wave elastography (SWE) and spleen stiffness by TE might be helpful in the diagnosis...... correlate with portal pressure and can both be used as a non-invasive method to investigate CSPH. Even though external validation is still missing, these algorithms to rule-out and rule-in CSPH using sequential SWE of liver and spleen might change the clinical practice....

  20. Family structure and wellbeing of out-of-wedlock children: The significance of the biological parents' relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley H. Liu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of the relationship between the biological parents in determining child wellbeing using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS. We extend prior research by considering children born to unmarried parents in an investigation of the effect of the relationship structure between the biological parents on infant health and behavior. The main findings are that children born to cohabiting biological parents (i realize better outcomes, on average, than those born to mothers who are less involved with the child's biological father, and (ii whose parents marry within a year after childbirth do not display significantly better outcomes than children of parents who continue to cohabit. Furthermore, children born to cohabiting or visiting biological parents who end their relationship within the first year of the child's life are up to 9 percent more likely to have asthma compared to children whose biological parents remain (romantically involved. The results are robust to a rich set of controls for socioeconomic status, health endowments, home investments, and relationship characteristics.

  1. The universality and biological significance of signal molecules with intracellular-extracellular compatible functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Generally,cell signal molecules are classified into the extracellular signal molecules (the first messengers) and the intracellular signal ones (the second messengers).Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP),calcium ions and calmodulin (CaM) are the traditional intracellular messengers,but they are also present in extracellular matrix (ECM).Some of them have been discovered to act as the first messengers through cell surface receptors.Other second messengers,such as cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP),cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPR) and annexin,are also found existing outside animal and plant cells.The existence of these messengers with intracellular-extracellular compatible functions in cells may be a regular biological phenomenon.These compatible messengers might be the communication factors between intracellular and extracellular regions or among the cell populations,and are also important in regulating cell development procedure.

  2. Z-score biological significance of binding hot spots of protein interfaces by using crystal packing as the reference state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Wong, Limsoon; Li, Jinyan

    2012-12-01

    Characterization of binding hot spots of protein interfaces is a fundamental study in molecular biology. Many computational methods have been proposed to identify binding hot spots. However, there are few studies to assess the biological significance of binding hot spots. We introduce the notion of biological significance of a contact residue for capturing the probability of the residue occurring in or contributing to protein binding interfaces. We take a statistical Z-score approach to the assessment of the biological significance. The method has three main steps. First, the potential score of a residue is defined by using a knowledge-based potential function with relative accessible surface area calculations. A null distribution of this potential score is then generated from artifact crystal packing contacts. Finally, the Z-score significance of a contact residue with a specific potential score is determined according to this null distribution. We hypothesize that residues at binding hot spots have big absolute values of Z-score as they contribute greatly to binding free energy. Thus, we propose to use Z-score to predict whether a contact residue is a hot spot residue. Comparison with previously reported methods on two benchmark datasets shows that this Z-score method is mostly superior to earlier methods. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Methods for Protein Interaction and Structural Prediction.

  3. Evidence for the possible biological significance of the igf-1 gene alternative splicing in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastassios ePhilippou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I has been implicated in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer (PCa, since it plays a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The IGF-I actions are mediated mainly via its binding to the type I IGF receptor (IGF-IR, however IGF-I signaling via insulin receptor (IR and hybrid IGF-I/IR is also evident. Different IGF-I mRNA splice variants, namely IGF-IEa, IGF-IEb and IGF-IEc, are expressed in human cells and tissues. These transcripts encode several IGF-I precursor proteins which contain the same bioactive product (mature IGF-I, however, they differ by the length of their signal peptides on the amino-terminal end and the structure of the extension peptides (E-peptides on the carboxy-terminal end. There is an increasing interest in the possible different role of the IGF-I transcripts and their respective non-(matureIGF-I products in the regulation of distinct biological activities. Moreover, there is strong evidence of a differential expression profile of the IGF-I splice variants in normal vs. PCa tissues and PCa cells, implying that the expression pattern of the various IGF-I transcripts and their respective protein products may possess different functions in cancer biology. Herein, the evidence that the IGF-IEc transcript regulates PCa growth via Ec-peptide specific and IGF-IR/IR-independent signaling is discussed.

  4. Green tea catechins: biologic properties, proposed mechanisms of action, and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Ted

    2012-11-01

    Botanical products, including and especially green tea leaves, have a wide range of both reputed and demonstrated health benefits and have been used medicinally for thousands of years. This paper focuses on green tea catechins, principally reviewing their known biologic properties and potential mechanisms of action (MOAs). The primary objective is to discuss the proposed antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunostimulatory activity of catechins based on strong evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date, including two preclinical in vitro studies with sinecatechins, a proprietary mixture of catechins. This review also discusses the clinical implications of catechins for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts (EGWs) and other conditions caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). While the MOA of catechins in the treatment of EGWs and other HPV-related conditions may be related to or associated with postulated or proven antiviral and immunostimulatory activity, the precise clinical significance of the various in vitro findings remains largely unknown.

  5. Biological activity of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii from clinical and environmental isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcio Barbosa Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are encapsulated basidiomycetous yeasts with worldwide distribution. They cause cryptococcosis with features of systemic infection, affecting the central nervous system, lungs and skin in humans and animals. These fungi present numerous virulence factors that allow them to invade the host and multiply, among which extracellular enzyme capacity and microbial adaptation to different temperatures are worth mentioning. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the production of protease and investigate possible differences in thermotolerance and urease activity in clinical and environmental yeast isolates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Culture methods and Pz analysis were applied to assess urease and protease, whereas the optical density method was used to analyze biological activity in thermotolerance. RESULTS: There was no significant results as to microbial growth at the tested temperatures (25º, 37º and 42ºC. It was observed that clinical specimens grew better than environmental ones at elevated temperatures. As to C. neoformans, the moderate production of urease enzyme prevailed in both clinical and environmental isolates within 24h or 48h. Moreover, there was significant production on the seventh day of reading. The best reading time for viewing protease production in both isolates and species was the seventh day: 96% clinical samples and 94% environmental isolates. CONCLUSION: Further studies are required in order to investigate the virulence factors of C. neoformans and C. gattii cerebrospinal isolates from patients with meningoencephalitis and environmental samples from Sergipe. Furthermore, a higher technical accuracy and statistical precision are indispensable.

  6. Progesterone and adiponectin receptor family member 3 expression and clinical significance in breast cancer tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qiang Dai; Hai-Liang Zhang; Hong-Mei Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To discuss progesterone and adiponectin receptor family member 3 expression and clinical significance in breast cancer tissues. Method:A total of 90 cases with breast cancer who were admitted in our hospital from Jan 2000 to Jan 2010 were selected. Meanwhile, normal tumor-adjacent breast tissues were selected as comparison. Diagnosis of all patients was confirmed by postoperative pathological examinations. Immunohistochemistry method was adopted to detect PAQR3 protein expression in breast cancer tissues and normal tumor-adjacent breast tissues and its clinical significance was discussed. Results:PAQR3 protein positive expression rate in breast cancer tissues was 25.6%, which was significantly lower than that (78.9%) in normal tumor-adjacent breast tissues;PAQR3 protein positive expression rate had nothing to do with age, tumor size, pathological types and differentiated degree of patients, but had significant correlation with TNM staging and lymphatic metastasis existence of patients. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis results showed that five years survival rate of patients with PAQR3 protein positive expression was significantly higher than whom with negative expression. Conclusion:PAQR3 protein expression in breast cancer tissues was significantly reduced, which indicated that PAQR3 protein possibly played an important role in pathogenesis of breast cancer.

  7. Classification and Clinical Management of Variants of Uncertain Significance in High Penetrance Cancer Predisposition Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadasi, Setareh; Eccles, Diana M; Devilee, Peter; Vreeswijk, Maaike P G; van Asperen, Christi J

    2016-04-01

    In 2008, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) proposed a system for classifying sequence variants in highly penetrant breast and colon cancer susceptibility genes, linked to clinical actions. This system uses a multifactorial likelihood model to calculate the posterior probability that an altered DNA sequence is pathogenic. Variants between 5%-94.9% (class 3) are categorized as variants of uncertain significance (VUS). This interval is wide and might include variants with a substantial difference in pathogenicity at either end of the spectrum. We think that carriers of class 3 variants would benefit from a fine-tuning of this classification. Classification of VUS to a category with a defined clinical significance is very important because for carriers of a pathogenic mutation full surveillance and risk-reducing surgery can reduce cancer incidence. Counselees who are not carriers of a pathogenic mutation can be discharged from intensive follow-up and avoid unnecessary risk-reducing surgery. By means of examples, we show how, in selected cases, additional data can lead to reclassification of some variants to a different class with different recommendations for surveillance and therapy. To improve the clinical utility of this classification system, we suggest a pragmatic adaptation to clinical practice.

  8. Integrative approach to pre-operative determination of clinically significant prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatylko T.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: improvement of early diagnostics of prostate cancer by developing a technique, which makes possible to predict its clinical significance in outpatient setting before initiation of invasive procedures. Material and Methods. Clinical data of 398 patients who underwent transrectal prostate biopsy in 2012-2014 in SSMU S. R. Mirotvortsev Clinical Hospital, was used to build an artificial neural network, while its output allowed to determine whether the tumour corresponds to Epstein criteria and which D'Amico risk group it belongs to. Internal validation was performed on 80 patients, who underwent prostate biopsy in September 2014 — December 2014. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of artificial neural network were calculated. Results. Accuracy of predicting adenocarcinoma presence in biopsy specimen was 93,75%; accuracy of predicting whether the cancer meets active surveillance criteria was 90%. Accuracy of predicting T stage (T1c, T2a, T2b, T2cwas 57,1%. Prediction of D'Amico risk group was accurate in 70% of cases; for low-risk cancer accuracy was 81,2%. Conclusion. Artificial neural networks may be responsible for prostate cancer risk stratification and determination of its clinical significance prior to biopsy.

  9. Clinically significant skeletal variations of the shoulder and the wrist: role of MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellado, J.M.; Sauri, A. [Institut de Diagnostic per la Imatge, Hospital Universitari de Tarragona Joan XXIII, Carrer Doctor Mallafre Guasch, 4, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Calmet, J.; Domenech, S. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital Universitari de Tarragona Joan XXIII, Carrer Doctor Mallafre Guasch, 4, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    Several skeletal variations of the upper extremity may cause painful conditions or precipitate early degenerative changes, either spontaneously or in response to overuse and trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging has proved particularly useful for accurate interpretation of many of these clinically significant skeletal variations; however, the widespread use of MR imaging may have contributed to over-emphasizing their clinical importance, which is still controversial in many cases. We review, illustrate, and discuss clinically significant skeletal variations of the upper extremity as seen on MR images, particularly those involving the shoulder and the wrist. In the shoulder region, we evaluate variations of acromial and coracoid processes as well as variations and minor dysplastic deformities of the glenoid fossa. We also review different skeletal variations of the carpal region, including ulnar variance, ulnar styloid, lunate morphology, carpal coalition, and carpal accessory ossicles. The role of MR imaging in assessing the clinical importance of such conditions, whether potential, controversial, or well established, is emphasized in this review. (orig.)

  10. Expression and clinical significance of MMP-2, MVD, MEK-2 in endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Qian-Qian Hu; Lu Wang; Meng Shen; Sheng Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the expression and clinical significance of MMP-2, MVD, MEK-2in the endometriosis.Methods:A total of 42 endometrial endometriosis patients with surgery were selected in our hospital obstetrics and gynecology from September 1, 2008 to December 18, 2014. Endometriosis were removed during surgery and served as ectopic group. A total of 42 examples of the above-described patients with endometriosis eutopic were taken out as the eutopic group. Another 34 patients with uterine fibroids were selected in our hospital obstetrics and gynecology during the same period. Normal endometrium were taken as the normal endometrium group. Clinical expression of MMP-2, MVD, MEK-2 of three groups were analyzed.Results:MVD in ectopic endometrium group were significantly higher than those in eutopic and normal endometrium (P<0.05). MEK-2 expression in normal endometrial tissue mainly was negative and weakly positive. The expression was positive in ectopic endometrium and eutopic. The expression of ectopic endometrium MEK-2and MMP-2 were the highest, followed by the reign of endometrium, and the expression of normal endometrium were the lowest.Conclusions: MMP-2, MVD, MEK-2 in ectopic endometrium show high expression, detection of MMP-2, MVD, MEK-2-clinical expression in endometriosis can help in pathogenesis, clinical diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Clinical Significance of Histological Features of Thrombi in Patients with Myocardial Infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebben, Juliana Canedo; Cambruzzi, Eduardo; Avena, Luisa Martins; Gazeta, Cristina do Amaral; Gottschall, Carlos Antonio Mascia; Quadros, Alexandre Schaan de, E-mail: quadros.pesquisa@gmail.com [Instituto de Cardiologia / Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia - IC/FUC, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-12-15

    Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) is the most common strategy for the treatment of Acute ST segment elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI), and thromboaspiration has been increasingly utilized for removal of occlusive thrombi. To analyze the influence of histopathological features of coronary thrombi in clinical outcomes of patients with STEMI, and the association of these variables with clinical, angiographic, and laboratory features and medications used in hospitalization. Prospective cohort study. All patients were monitored during hospitalization and thirty days after the event. Aspirated thrombi were preserved in formalin and subsequently stained with hematoxylin-eosin and embedded in paraffin. Thrombi were classified as recent and old. The primary outcome was the occurrence of major cardiovascular events within thirty days. During the study period, 1,149 patients were evaluated with STEMI, and 331 patients underwent thrombi aspiration, leaving 199 patients available for analysis. It was identified recent thrombi in 116 patients (58%) and old thrombi in 83 patients (42%). Recent thrombi have greater infiltration of red blood cells than old thrombi (p = 0.02), but there were no statistically significant differences between other clinical, angiographic, laboratory, and histopathological features and medications in both group of patients. The rates of clinical outcomes were similar in both groups. Recent thrombi were identified in 58% of patients with STEMI and it was observed an association with infiltration of red blood cells. There was no association between histopathological features of thrombi and clinical variables and cardiovascular outcomes.

  12. Clinical significance of occult metastatic cells in bone marrow of breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S; Pantel, K

    2001-01-01

    The early and clinically occult spread of viable tumor cells to the organism is increasingly considered a hallmark in cancer progression, as emerging data suggest that these cells are precursors of subsequent distant relapse. Using monoclonal antibodies to epithelial cytokeratins or tumor-associated cell membrane glycoproteins, individual carcinoma cells can be detected on cytologic bone marrow preparations at frequencies of 10(-5) to 10(-6). Prospective clinical studies have shown that the presence of these immunostained cells in bone marrow, as a frequent site of overt metastases, is prognostically relevant with regard to relapse-free and overall survival. This screening approach may be, therefore, used to improve tumor staging and guide the stratification of patients for adjuvant therapy in clinical trials. Another promising application is monitoring the response of micrometastatic cells to adjuvant therapies, which, at present, can only be assessed retrospectively after an extended period of clinical follow-up. The present review summarizes the current data on the clinical significance of occult metastatic breast cancer cells in bone marrow.

  13. Extracting biologically significant patterns from short time series gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGinnis Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time series gene expression data analysis is used widely to study the dynamics of various cell processes. Most of the time series data available today consist of few time points only, thus making the application of standard clustering techniques difficult. Results We developed two new algorithms that are capable of extracting biological patterns from short time point series gene expression data. The two algorithms, ASTRO and MiMeSR, are inspired by the rank order preserving framework and the minimum mean squared residue approach, respectively. However, ASTRO and MiMeSR differ from previous approaches in that they take advantage of the relatively few number of time points in order to reduce the problem from NP-hard to linear. Tested on well-defined short time expression data, we found that our approaches are robust to noise, as well as to random patterns, and that they can correctly detect the temporal expression profile of relevant functional categories. Evaluation of our methods was performed using Gene Ontology (GO annotations and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-chip data. Conclusion Our approaches generally outperform both standard clustering algorithms and algorithms designed specifically for clustering of short time series gene expression data. Both algorithms are available at http://www.benoslab.pitt.edu/astro/.

  14. Vitamin D biology: from the discovery to its significance in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuppari, Lilian; Garcia Lopes, Miriam Ghedini; Kamimura, Maria Ayako

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D was discovered and had its chemical structure described in the early years of the last century. Although classified as a nutrient because it was found in small quantities in butter, it soon became clear that exposure of skin to sunlight, supplies most of the vitamin D necessary for good health in human beings. Vitamin D (D3 or cholecalciferol) synthesis in the skin is extremely rapid and remarkably robust despite the complexity of the mechanisms involved. However, a number of factors related to latitude location, season, and skin characteristics can interfere with the photoproduction of vitamin D. The 2 forms of vitamin D (D3 or D2-ergocalciferol) are biologically inactive and require activation in the liver and kidney. The product of the first hydroxylation of vitamin D in the liver, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), is the marker of vitamin D status. Hypovitaminosis D (serum 25(OH)D, <30 ng/mL) is highly prevalent in the general population, and patients with chronic kidney disease seem to be at higher risk for the development of hypovitaminosis D. It is believed that, besides the traditional factors, protein losses, gastrointestinal malabsorption, and defective skin synthesis of vitamin D might contribute to the elevated number of patients with suboptimal level of vitamin D status.

  15. The clinical significance of brain microbleeds in patients with Alzheimer′s disease: Preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyeok Heo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbleeds (MBs are observed frequently in Alzheimer′s disease (AD and suggested to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology, but their clinical significance remains unclear. Materials and Methods: The study recruited 100 patients with AD who were diagnosed at the memory clinic in Seoul Medical Center in 2014. For each patient, baseline characteristics, neuropsychological tests, cerebrovascular risk factors, medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTLA, and severity of small vessel disease (SVD according to the existence of MBs were evaluated. Results: The prevalence of MBs in patients with AD was 33%. The percentage of male gender, the severity of SVD and MTLA were significantly increased in MB(+ group. The MB(+ group showed more severe MTLA and SVD than MB(− group. Conclusions: These results suggested that MBs might reflect the burden of amyloid and ischemic vascular pathology.

  16. Clinical significance of HPV-DNA testing for precancerous cervical lesionS

    OpenAIRE

    Moarcăs, M; Georgescu, IC; Brătilă, E; Badea, M.; Cîrstoiu, ECM

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening by using cytology was proven efficient in reducing the mortality secondary to cervical cancer, but this method has limitations. High risk HPV infection is essential for cervical cancer development so HPV testing is a new tool used for screening patients for cervical neoplasia. HPV testing was proven most useful for women over 30 years old, in cases in which cytology identified ASC-US and after treatment for CIN. This article outlines the clinical significance of HPV-DNA tes...

  17. Expression of glutaminase is upregulated in colorectal cancer and of clinical significance

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells remodel their metabolic programmes to meet the requirements of rapid proliferation. Glutaminase (GLS1) is a mitochondrial enzyme that converts glutamine to glutamate. Our aim was to investigate, for the first time, GLS1 protein expression in colorectal cancer and to evaluate its clinical significance. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on tissue microarrays containing pairs of cancer and adjacent normal tissues from colorectal cancer patients (n=257). The expression of GL...

  18. Significance of molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility of clinically significant yeasts and moulds in a global antifungal surveillance programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Woosley, Leah N; Messer, Shawn A; Jones, Ronald N; Castanheira, Mariana

    2012-10-01

    The increasing diversity of opportunistic fungi causing serious invasive fungal infections (IFI) has been documented. Accurate identification (ID) is important in guiding therapy, determining prognosis for IFIs and in epidemiological surveys. We assessed the utility of PCR-based methods for the ID of yeasts and moulds that either were uncommon, failed conventional ID, or represented unusual biochemical or phenotypic profiles of common species. Among 1,790 viable fungal clinical isolates received during the SENTRY Program in 2010, 322 strains from 40 study sites had ID confirmed by molecular methods. Isolates were previously identified in participant institutions. Yeasts that were not confirmed by morphology on CHROMagar, growth at 45 °C (Candida albicans/dubliniensis), or assimilation of trehalose (C. glabrata) as well as non-Candida yeasts and all moulds were amplified and sequenced using primers amplifying one or more of the following genes: ITS, 28S, β-tubulin (Aspergillus spp.), TEF (Fusarium spp.), IGS (Trichosporon spp.). The isolates selected for molecular ID included 149 isolates of Candida species, 77 of Aspergillus species, 73 non-Candida yeasts, and 23 other moulds (a total of 41 different species). Overall, the ID determined by the submitting site was confirmed for 189 isolates (58.7 %): Aspergillus spp. (64.1 % correct); Candida spp. (60.1 % correct); non-Candida yeasts (58.9 % correct); non-Aspergillus moulds (30.4 % correct). Species with high levels of concordance between conventional and molecular ID included A. fumigatus (95.0  %), C. lusitaniae (100 %), C. dubliniensis (92.3 %), C. kefyr (100 %), and C. neoformans (90.2 %). Only 50.0 % of isolates of C. albicans and 59.1 % of C. glabrata selected due to unusual phenotypic or biochemical features were found to be correctly identified by the submitting site. Molecular methods for the identification of fungal pathogens are an important adjunct to the conventional identification of

  19. Monoscopic versus stereoscopic photography in screening for clinically significant macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Christopher J; Agarwal, Anita; Merin, Lawrence M; Chomsky, Amy

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether monoscopic photography could serve as an accurate tool when used to screen for clinically significant macular edema. In a masked randomized fashion, two readers evaluated monoscopic and stereoscopic retinal photographs of 100 eyes. The photographs were evaluated first individually for probable clinically significant macular edema based on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study criteria and then as stereoscopic pairs. Graders were evaluated for sensitivity and specificity individually and in combination. Individually, reader one had a sensitivity of 0.93 and a specificity of 0.77, and reader two had a sensitivity of 0.88 and a specificity of 0.94. In combination, the readers had a sensitivity of 0.91 and a specificity of 0.86. They correlated on 0.76 of the stereoscopic readings and 0.92 of the monoscopic readings. These results indicate that the use of monoscopic retinal photography may be an accurate screening tool for clinically significant macular edema.

  20. Clinical significance of serum alanine aminotransferase and lifestyle intervention in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyoung Ah; Chun, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the effect of lifestyle intervention on NAFLD. Methods The clinical data of 86 children diagnosed with NAFLD were reviewed retrospectively. Forty-six patients belonged to the elevated ALT group and 40 to the normal ALT group. The clinical parameters of patients with NAFLD were also compared based on the status of ALT levels after lifestyle intervention. Results Patients with elevated ALT had significantly higher body mass index (BMI) scores than those with normal ALT (P<0.05). Of all the patients with elevated ALT, 89% exhibited moderate or severe degree of fatty change in the liver on ultrasonographic examination, whereas most patients with normal ALT exhibited mild or moderate degree changes. Liver biopsy was performed in 15 children with elevated ALT and all showed mild histological changes. Of all patients with elevated ALT, 49% achieved normal ALT levels after lifestyle intervention. Those with more severe histological changes tended to have continuously increasing ALT levels. There was no correlation between the normalization of posttreatment ALT level and BMI, as well as ultrasonographic findings at diagnosis. Conclusion ALT elevation in NAFLD is highly associated with higher BMI scores and more severe degree of fatty changes on ultrasonographic examination. Lifestyle intervention can significantly improve ALT in children with NAFLD. The degree of histologic changes appears to be a predictor of the treatment response to NAFLD.

  1. QT Dispersion Level and Its Clinical Significance.in Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical significance of QT dis persion (QTd, QTcd) in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Methods QTd and QTcd were measured on simultaneously recording 12-lead electrocardiograms ( ECGs) in 60 DCM patients and cormpared with 60 healthy subjects. Results The values of QTd and QTcd in DCM were significantly higher than those in control group ( P 110 ms and QTd≤110 ms(P0.05). Conclusion The values of QTd and QTcd increased in DCM patients were susceptive index for monitoring maligant VA in DCM, also important prognostic markers of CSD. QTd was correlated with NY HA functional class but not with EF and FS.

  2. Expression of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor in differentiated thyroid carcinoma and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清怀

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the expression of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor in differentiated thyroid carcinoma and its clinical significance.Methods Seventy-four patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma treated in our department from January 2009 to January 2011were selected as the observation group,and 28 patients with nodular goiter were selected as the control group.Expression of TSH receptor in the two groups were detected by immunohistochemistry.Results The positive rate of TSH receptor expression in the observation group was55.4 (41/74) ,significantly lower than that of the control

  3. An algorithm for finding biologically significant features in microarray data based on a priori manifold learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hira, Zena M; Trigeorgis, George; Gillies, Duncan F

    2014-01-01

    Microarray databases are a large source of genetic data, which, upon proper analysis, could enhance our understanding of biology and medicine. Many microarray experiments have been designed to investigate the genetic mechanisms of cancer, and analytical approaches have been applied in order to classify different types of cancer or distinguish between cancerous and non-cancerous tissue. However, microarrays are high-dimensional datasets with high levels of noise and this causes problems when using machine learning methods. A popular approach to this problem is to search for a set of features that will simplify the structure and to some degree remove the noise from the data. The most widely used approach to feature extraction is principal component analysis (PCA) which assumes a multivariate Gaussian model of the data. More recently, non-linear methods have been investigated. Among these, manifold learning algorithms, for example Isomap, aim to project the data from a higher dimensional space onto a lower dimension one. We have proposed a priori manifold learning for finding a manifold in which a representative set of microarray data is fused with relevant data taken from the KEGG pathway database. Once the manifold has been constructed the raw microarray data is projected onto it and clustering and classification can take place. In contrast to earlier fusion based methods, the prior knowledge from the KEGG databases is not used in, and does not bias the classification process--it merely acts as an aid to find the best space in which to search the data. In our experiments we have found that using our new manifold method gives better classification results than using either PCA or conventional Isomap.

  4. Interaction of hepatitis B virus with tumor suppressor gene p53: its significance and biological function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism of the interaction of hepatitis B virus (HBV) with tumor suppressor p53 and its role in the hepatocarcinogenesis have been studied by PCR-directed sequencing, gel shift assays and in situ ultraviolet cross-linking assay. The biological function of the interaction of HBV with p53 gene was investigated by co-transfection of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene, p53 and HBV DNA, and quantitative PCR. Among the 16 primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC) samples, 13 were HBV-DNA positive,10 HBxAg positive and 9 p53 protein positive. The p53 gene point mutation was found in 5 samples, one of which had a G to T substitution located at codon 249. After analyzing the HBV genome by a computer program, a p53 response element binding sequence was found in HBV genome at upstream of enhancer I, from 1047 to 1059 nucleotides. This sequence could specifically bind to p53 protein, increase p53 protein accumulation in the PHC cells and stimulate the transactivating activity of p53 and HBV replication .The results also revealed that HBxAg could combine with p53 protein to form a complex in the cells and enhance CAT expression. Immunocytochemical staining showed that p53 protein complex was located in the cytoplasm and the process of p53 entry to nuclei was, in part, blocked. From our results, we conclude that the mutation of p53 gene at codon 249 is infrequent in HBV-associated PHC, the DNA-protein binding between HBV and p53, and the protein-protein binding between HBxAg and p53 might lead to the reduction or inactivation of p53 protein, which in turn resulting in HBV-associated hepatocarcinogenesis.

  5. Association between expression of Carboxypeptidase 4 and stem cell markers and their clinical significance in liver cancer development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lichao; Guo, Chunguang; Burnett, Joseph; Pan, Jian; Yang, Zhihua; Ran, Yuliang; Sun, Duxin

    2017-01-01

    The development of liver cancer would undergo a sequential progression from chronic inflammatory liver disease, cirrhosis to neoplasia. During these pathophysiological changes, abnormal liver microenvironment might induce the hepatocytes to die, abnormally proliferate and initiate cancer stem cells. Metallocarboxypeptidases (MCPs) involved in multiple biological functions including inflammation, fibrosis and stem cell niche formation. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of carboxypeptidase 4 (CPA4) in hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer tissues, and revealed its clinical significance in liver cancer progression. We firstly found that the CPA4 levels in tissues were significantly higher in liver cancer patients than those in other three groups. Then, elevated levels of CPA4 was observed in 57/100 (57%) liver cancer samples, and significantly correlated with Grade and Stage. We also identified a significant positive correlation between aberrant elevation of CPA4 and overexpression of stem cell markers including CD90, AFP and CD34 with follow-up data (n=100). Further Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed that high levels of CPA4 and CD90 were significant predictors of poor overall survival. Multivariate Cox regression model showed that CPA4 was an independent prognostic factor for patients with liver cancer. This study demonstrated for the first time that high CPA4 expression was closely correlated with hepatocarcinogenesis, and might be used as an independent poor prognostic factor in liver cancer.

  6. Serum Interleukin-6 Expression Level and Its Clinical Significance in Patients with Dermatomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze serum interleukin-6 (IL-6 expression level and its clinical significance in patients with dermatomyositis. Methods. Blood samples from 23 adult patients with dermatomyositis (DM, 22 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, 22 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, 16 with Sjögren's syndrome (SS, and 20 healthy controls were collected. The IL-6 concentration was detected by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Correlations between IL-6 expression levels and clinical features or laboratory findings in patients with DM were investigated. Results. IL-6 expression level of DM patients was significantly higher than that of normal controls, significantly lower than that of RA patients, and slightly lower than that of SLE or SS patients with no significant differences. The incidence of fever was significantly higher in the IL-6 elevated group. Serum ferritin (SF and C-reactive protein (CRP were positively correlated with IL-6. Conclusions. IL-6 plays a less important role in DM than in RA. IL-6 monoclonal antibodies may have poor effect in patients with DM.

  7. The clinical significance evaluation of serum β2-microglobulin for thyroid cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shihong Ma; Qinjiang Liu; Kesheng Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical value and relevance on the serum β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) of patients with thyroid cancer. Methods: One thousand and two normal cases, 95 thyroid cancer patients and 243 nodular goiter patients were selected to measure serum β2-MG levels using double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immu-nosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The positive rate of 7.78% in normal population (78/1002) and 31.57% in thyroid cancer patients (30/95). There were significant differences between the normal population and thyroid cancer patients (χ2 = 55.352; P = 0.000). The positive rate of 7.81% in nodular goiter patients (19/243) and there were no significant differences between the normal population and nodular goiter patients (χ2 = 0.0004; P = 0.986), but significant differences between nodular goiter patients and thyroid cancer patients (χ2 = 31.106; P = 0.000). Meanwhile, the significant difference of the positive rate existed in between the various pathological types of thyroid cancer (χ2 = 10.015; P = 0.007), anaplastic thyroid cancer patients with the highest positive rate and The significant difference was found between the positive lymph node metastasis groups and negative lymph node metastasis groups (χ2 = 4.441; P = 0.035), the presence of distant metastasis group and absence of distant metastasis group (χ2 = 9.795; P = 0.002). Conclusion: Serum β2-MG levels and prognosis of thyroid cancer patients was negatively correlated. It showed important clinical value to detect the level of β2-MG in the early diagnosis, prognosis and the clinical observation for thyroid cancer patients.

  8. Expression and clinical significance of Shh/Gli-1 in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Xue-Hai; Sun, Hui; Xue, Hui; Zhang, Guang; Zhang, Chun-Hai; Liu, Xiao-Li; Su, Jing; Li, Shi-Jie

    2014-10-01

    The Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathway affects cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis, but its role in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) remains elusive. To characterize expression and clinical significance of Shh and the transcription factor Gli-1-the key elements of the Shh pathway in PTC tissues-we immunohistochemically examined Shh/Gli-1 expression in PTC tissues from 142 patients, along with adjacent non-cancerous tissues as controls. We reviewed 142 patients' clinical characteristics and analyzed their relationship with expression of Shh/Gli-1. Shh and Gli-1 were expressed in 64.1 % (91/142) and 47.9 % (68/142) in PTC tissues, respectively, compared with 16.9 % (24/142) and 9.2 % (13/142) of adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Gli-1 expression was significantly associated with patients' ages (P Shh and Gli-1 expression was significantly associated with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P Shh and Gli-1 were expressed in 79.2 and 60.4 %, respectively, of PTC tumors larger than 10 mm. Shh was significantly associated with tumor size (P Shh and Gli-1 were expressed in 72.5 and 65.2 %, respectively, of patients with lymph node metastasis. Overall, we found increased expression of the main initiator Shh and transcription factor Gli-1 in Shh pathway in PTC tissues. The expression of Shh/Gli-1 was significantly associated with tumor size, clinical staging, and lymph node metastasis, indicating that aberrant activation of the Shh pathway is important to PTC occurrence and progression. Potentially, Shh/Gli-1 could be a diagnostic indicator and a marker of therapeutic response.

  9. Vitamin D biology and heart failure : Clinical and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meems, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, vitamin D biology has been studied more extensively than ever before.. The use of vitamin D supplements is common, and so is determination of plasma vitamin D status. Besides its role in bone homeostasis, vitamin D is thought to be an important player in the development and treat

  10. Human mesenchymal stromal cells : biological characterization and clinical application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardo, Maria Ester

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the characterization of the biological and functional properties of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), isolated from different tissue sources. The differentiation capacity of MSCs from fetal and adult tissues has been tested and compared. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has be

  11. Significant Modules and Biological Processes between Active Components of Salvia miltiorrhiza Depside Salt and Aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine and compare the similarities and differences between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin using perspective of pharmacological molecular networks. Active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin’s related genes were identified via the STITCH4.0 and GeneCards Database. A text search engine (Agilent Literature Search 2.71 and MCODE software were applied to construct network and divide modules, respectively. Finally, 32, 2, and 28 overlapping genes, modules, and pathways were identified between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin. A multidimensional framework of drug network showed that two networks reflected commonly in human aortic endothelial cells and atherosclerosis process. Aspirin plays a more important role in metabolism, such as the well-known AA metabolism pathway and other lipid or carbohydrate metabolism pathways. S. miltiorrhiza depside salt still plays a regulatory role in type II diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and adipocytokine signaling pathway. Therefore, this study suggests that aspirin combined with S. miltiorrhiza depside salt may be more efficient in treatment of CHD patients, especially those with diabetes mellitus or hyperlipidemia. Further clinical trials to confirm this hypothesis are still needed.

  12. Random Forest Segregation of Drug Responses May define Regions of Biological Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim eBukhari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to assess brain responses in unsupervised manner based on fMRI measure has remained a challenge. Here we have applied the Random Forest (RF method to detect differences in the pharmacological MRI (phMRI response in rats to treatment with an analgesic drug (buprenorphine as compared to control (saline. Three groups of animals were studied: two groups treated with different doses of the opioid buprenorphine, low (LD and high dose (HD, and one receiving saline. PhMRI responses were evaluated in 45 brain regions and RF analysis was applied to allocate rats to the individual treatment groups. RF analysis was able to identify drug effects based on differential phMRI responses in the hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, superior colliculus and the lateral and posterior thalamus for drug vs. saline. These structures have high levels of mu opioid receptors. In addition these regions are involved in aversive signaling, which is inhibited by mu opioids. The results demonstrate that buprenorphine mediated phMRI responses comprise characteristic features that allow an unsupervised differentiation from placebo treated rats as well as the proper allocation to the respective drug dose group using the RF method, a method that has been successfully applied in clinical studies.

  13. Random Forest Segregation of Drug Responses May Define Regions of Biological Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Qasim; Borsook, David; Rudin, Markus; Becerra, Lino

    2016-01-01

    The ability to assess brain responses in unsupervised manner based on fMRI measure has remained a challenge. Here we have applied the Random Forest (RF) method to detect differences in the pharmacological MRI (phMRI) response in rats to treatment with an analgesic drug (buprenorphine) as compared to control (saline). Three groups of animals were studied: two groups treated with different doses of the opioid buprenorphine, low (LD), and high dose (HD), and one receiving saline. PhMRI responses were evaluated in 45 brain regions and RF analysis was applied to allocate rats to the individual treatment groups. RF analysis was able to identify drug effects based on differential phMRI responses in the hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, superior colliculus, and the lateral and posterior thalamus for drug vs. saline. These structures have high levels of mu opioid receptors. In addition these regions are involved in aversive signaling, which is inhibited by mu opioids. The results demonstrate that buprenorphine mediated phMRI responses comprise characteristic features that allow a supervised differentiation from placebo treated rats as well as the proper allocation to the respective drug dose group using the RF method, a method that has been successfully applied in clinical studies.

  14. Significant Modules and Biological Processes between Active Components of Salvia miltiorrhiza Depside Salt and Aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Lianxin; Zhang, Yingying; Gu, Hao; Chai, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine and compare the similarities and differences between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin using perspective of pharmacological molecular networks. Active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin's related genes were identified via the STITCH4.0 and GeneCards Database. A text search engine (Agilent Literature Search 2.71) and MCODE software were applied to construct network and divide modules, respectively. Finally, 32, 2, and 28 overlapping genes, modules, and pathways were identified between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin. A multidimensional framework of drug network showed that two networks reflected commonly in human aortic endothelial cells and atherosclerosis process. Aspirin plays a more important role in metabolism, such as the well-known AA metabolism pathway and other lipid or carbohydrate metabolism pathways. S. miltiorrhiza depside salt still plays a regulatory role in type II diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and adipocytokine signaling pathway. Therefore, this study suggests that aspirin combined with S. miltiorrhiza depside salt may be more efficient in treatment of CHD patients, especially those with diabetes mellitus or hyperlipidemia. Further clinical trials to confirm this hypothesis are still needed.

  15. The clinical significance of axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy in different clinical stages breast cancer patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Xu; Xinhong Wu; Yaojun Feng; Feng Yuan; Wei Fan

    2013-01-01

    Objective:We aimed to study the success and false negative rate of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in dif-ferent clinical stages breast cancer patients being carried out with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), and the clinical signifi-cance of SLNB, we conducting this trial. Methods:One hunderd and thirty-seven cases were enrol ed in this clinical research from March 2003 to March 2007. Al of the patients’ sentinel lymph nodes were detected with 99mTc-Dx and methylene blue. There were 61 patients with stage T1-2N0M0 carried SLNB without NAC (group A), 76 cases were carried out NAC 3-4 cycles before SLNB, including 39 T2-4N0-1M0 cases (group B) and 27 T2-4N2-3M0 cases (group C). The success and false negative rate of SLNB were analysed with chi-square test. Results:In group A, the successful and false negative rate of SLNB were 92.31%(36/39), 8.57%(3/35), and in group B and C were 92.31%(36/39), 8.57%(3/35) and 74.07%(20/27), 18.52%(5/27), respectively. The successful rate of group C decreased and false negative rate increased significantly compared with group A and B (P0.05). Conclusion:The SLNB can accurately predict lymph node status of axil ary lymph node in N0-1 stage patients with NAC, but in N2-3 stage patients the success rate decreased and false rate increased negative significantly.

  16. Occurrence and clinical significance of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and other endoparasites in Danish cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Alice P; Skarbye, Line K; Vinther, Lene M; Willesen, Jakob L; Pipper, Christian B; Olsen, Caroline S; Mejer, Helena

    2017-01-30

    Feline endoparasites are highly prevalent worldwide and may cause a variety of clinical signs in infected cats. Prevalence rates are dynamic and there is limited knowledge of the current prevalence in Denmark and the clinical manifestation and significance of especially the lungworm Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. This study investigated the total and local prevalence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and other endoparasites in Danish cats. The clinical significance of feline aelurostrongylosis was also examined through identification of frequency and severity of selected clinical signs. Faecal samples (n=327) and clinical data (n=312) were collected from August to October 2015, primarily from outdoor cats located at shelters distributed across Denmark. A modified Baermann method and a concentration McMaster technique was used to diagnose A. abstrusus first stage larvae and eggs/oocysts of other endoparasites. The total A. abstrusus prevalence was 8.3% [95% CI: 5.6-11.9] but local prevalence rates varied from 0% [95% CI: 0.0-8.8] to 31.4% [95% CI: 16.9-49.3]. A rural habitat appeared to increase the risk of A. abstrusus and this accounted for most of the local variation. Furthermore, the risk of infection was lower in kittens younger than 11 weeks compared to older cats (p=0.002). The cats were also infected with Toxocara cati (44.4% [95% CI: 38.3-50.7]), taeniid species (8.9% [95% CI: 5.7-13.0]), Capillaria aerophila (3.1% [95% CI: 1.3-6.0]), Aonchotheca putorii (3.9% [95% CI: 1.9-7.0]), Cystoisospora felis (3.1% [95% CI: 1.3-6.0]) and Cystoisospora rivolta (2.3% [95% CI: 0.9-5.0]), but there was no difference in local distribution. Co-infection was common, as 66.7% of A. abstrusus infected cats were also infected with one or more other parasites, the most common being T. cati. However, none of these parasites were significantly associated with A. abstrusus. The vast majority of the A. abstrusus infected cats displayed mild to moderate clinical signs. The main symptoms

  17. [Analysis of PTPN11 mutation in children leukemia and its clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, San-Zhen; Chen, Bing-Qiang; Lu, Su-Ying; Zhang, Bi-Hong; Xue, Hong-Man; Chen, Chun

    2012-02-01

    This study was aimed to explore the frequency of PTPN11 mutation in children with leukemia and its clinical significance. Genomic DNAs were extracted from peripheral leukocytes of 131 patients with leukemia, including 101 cases of ALL, 26 cases of AML, 3 cases of CML and 1 case of juvenil myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). The sequences of PTPN11 exons 3, 8, 13 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the clinical characteristics of positive patients were analyzed. The results indicated that the PTPN11 mutation was found in 10 cases (9.9%) from newly diagnosed 101 cases of ALL. Grouping the newly diagnosed ALL children by various clinical features, it was found that the PTPN11 mutation did not show associations with sex, age, white blood cell (WBC) count, prednisone test sensitivity, clinical risk and disease recurrences at the first visit (P > 0.05). PTPN11 mutations were found in 2 cases out of 26 AML patients, including one AML-M(2) and one AML-M(4). No PTPN11 mutation in 3 CML patients was found. Exon 13 mutation of PTPN11 gene was found in 1 case of JMML. It is concluded that the E76 of exon 3 is the hot spot of PTPN11 mutation in children leukemia. The novel G503E (1508G > A) mutation is detected in one JMML patient. The PTPN11 mutation does not associate with the sex, age, WBC count, prednisone sensitive test and early recurrence.

  18. Abnormal expression of CD43 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Li-xia; DING Xin; LI Xin; ZHANG Feng-chun; TANG Fu-lin; ZHANG Xuan; BA De-nian; HE Wei

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies indicate that CD43 plays a role in regulating the adhesion of lymphocytes,cell mutation and activation,however,little is known about its effect on systemic lupus erythematousus (SLE).This study was designed to explore the clinical significance of CD43 in SLE patients.@@Methods We used microarray and real-time PCR to detect the mRNA and protein expression of magnetic bead sorted T cells and B cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of SLE patients,and analyzed the relationship between CD43 and the clinical indexes.@@Results Both microarray and real-time PCR results showed that CD43 mRNA was significantly decreased in PBMCs of SLE patients compared with healthy controls (P <0.001).There were no significant differences between lupus nephritis and non-lupus nephritis patients,and neuropsychiatric and non-neuropsychiatric patients.CD43 mRNA expression was significantly reduced in T cells but not in B-cells in SLE patients compared to healthy controls (P <0.01).Compared with healthy controls,the percentage of CD43+ cells in the PBMCs of SLE was significantly decreased (P=0.004),and the CD43 fluorescence intensity in CD3+/CD43+ cells and CD19+/CD43+ cells was also significantly weaker than in healthy controls (P=0.039 and 0.003).There was no significant difference in the percentage of CD3+/CD43+ cells,CD19+/CD43+ cells between the two groups.The CD43 fluorescence intensity in CD3+/CD43+ cells was inversely correlated with the levels of IgG and IgM (r=-0.8 and -0.6).@@Conclusions Compared to healthy controls,both CD43 mRNA and protein expressions were reduced in T cells from patients with SLE,and were inversely correlated with IgG.

  19. Clinical and Biological Principles of Cold Atmospheric Plasma Application in Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay-Mimbrera, Jesús; García, Maria Carmen; Isla-Tejera, Beatriz; Rodero-Serrano, Antonio; García-Nieto, Antonio Vélez; Ruano, Juan

    2016-06-01

    Plasma-based electrosurgical devices have long been employed for tissue coagulation, cutting, desiccation, and cauterizing. Despite their clinical benefits, these technologies involve tissue heating and their effects are primarily heat-mediated. Recently, there have been significant developments in cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) science and engineering. New sources of CAP with well-controlled temperatures below 40 °C have been designed, permitting safe plasma application on animal and human bodies. In the last decade, a new innovative field, often referred to as plasma medicine, which combines plasma physics, life science, and clinical medicine has emerged. This field aims to exploit effects of mild plasma by controlling the interactions between plasma components (and other secondary species that can be formed from these components) with specific structural elements and functionalities of living cells. Recent studies showed that CAP can exert beneficial effects when applied selectively in certain pathologies with minimal toxicity to normal tissues. The rapid increase in new investigations and development of various devices for CAP application suggest early adoption of cold plasma as a new tool in the biomedical field. This review explores the latest major achievements in the field, focusing on the biological effects, mechanisms of action, and clinical evidence of CAP applications in areas such as skin disinfection, tissue regeneration, chronic wounds, and cancer treatment. This information may serve as a foundation for the design of future clinical trials to assess the efficacy and safety of CAP as an adjuvant therapy for skin cancer.

  20. Significant alterations in reported clinical practice associated with increased oversight of organ transplant center performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schold, Jesse D; Arrington, Charlotte J; Levine, Greg

    2010-09-01

    In the past several years, emphasis on quality metrics in the field of organ transplantation has increased significantly, largely because of the new conditions of participation issued by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. These regulations directly associate patients' outcomes and measured performance of centers with the distribution of public funding to institutions. Moreover, insurers and marketing ventures have used publicly available outcomes data from transplant centers for business decision making and advertisement purposes. We gave a 10-question survey to attendees of the Transplant Management Forum at the 2009 meeting of the United Network for Organ Sharing to ascertain how centers have responded to the increased oversight of performance. Of 63 responses, 55% indicated a low or near low performance rating at their center in the past 3 years. Respondents from low-performing centers were significantly more likely to indicate increased selection criteria for candidates (81% vs 38%, P = .001) and donors (77% vs 31%, P < .001) as well as alterations in clinical protocols (84% vs 52%, P = .007). Among respondents indicating lost insurance contracts (31%), these differences were also highly significant. Based on respondents' perceptions, outcomes of performance evaluations are associated with significant changes in clinical practice at transplant centers. The transplant community and policy makers should practice vigilance that performance evaluations and regulatory oversight do not inadvertently lead to diminished access to care among viable candidates or decreased transplant volume.

  1. Expression and clinical significance of sulfiredoxin expression in cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-yan CHEN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To inquire into the expression and its clinical significance of sulfiredoxin (Srx in cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissue. Methods SABC immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression levels of Srx in specimens of 104 cervical squamous cell carcinoma and the corresponding adjacent tissues, 15 cervical intraepithelial neoplasm (CIN Ⅲ, and 20 normal cervical squamous cell epithelium tissue. The relationship between the expression of Srx protein and clinical pathological parameters of the cancer was also analyzed. Results The positive expression rates of Srx in CIN Ⅲ and cervical squamous cell carcinoma [73.3%(11/15 and 82.7%(86/104, respectively] were significantly higher than that in normal cervical tissue [35.0%(7/20, χ2=17.778, P=0.000]. Meanwhile, Srx expression in cervical cancer specimens was significantly higher than that in normal adjacent tissues (χ2=56.224, P=0.000. The positive expression of Srx in cervical squamous cell carcinoma was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis, the depth of cancer invasion, and the infiltration of blood vessels (P0.05. Conclusion The higher expression of Srx protein might be a valuable marker for the early diagnosis and evaluation of prognosis in patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.08.11

  2. Left atrial wall calcification after mitral valve replacement: CT findings and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Young Ho; Goo, Jin Mo; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Im, Jung Gi [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-01

    To evaluate the CT findings and clinical significance of left atrial wall calcification in patients who had undergone mitral valve replacement. The unenhanced chest CT scans of 36 consecutive patients who had undergone mitral valve replacement were retrospectively, and left atrial calcification was found in 15. To determine the clinical significance of this, the CT findings were assessed in terms of the diameter of the left main pulmonary artery, the interval between previous surgery and scanning, and pulmonary arterial pressure. Left atrial wall calcification was either focal (linear, n=7; nodular, n=5), or diffuse (involving at least one-fourth of the left atrial wall) (n=3), and associated left atrial thrombus was found in two patients. Systolic pulmonary arterial pressure was significantly higher in those with calcification than those without (p<0.05), though between these groups there was no significant difference in the diameter of the left main pulmonary artery or the time interval between previous surgery and CT scanning. Left atrial wall calcification is a common finding in patients who have undergone mitral valve replacement, particularly in those with high pulmonary arterial pressure.

  3. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  4. Tracking the 2015 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium: bridging cancer biology to clinical gastrointestinal oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprile G

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Aprile,1 Francesco Leone,2,3 Riccardo Giampieri,4 Mariaelena Casagrande,1 Donatella Marino,2,3 Luca Faloppi,4 Stefano Cascinu,4 Gianpiero Fasola,1 Mario Scartozzi5,6 1Department of Oncology, University and General Hospital, Udine, Italy; 2Medical Oncology Department, University of Turin, 3Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo, Turin, Italy; 4Medical Oncology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; 5Medical Oncology Department, University of Cagliari, 6General Hospital, Cagliari, Italy Abstract: The 2015 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium (San Francisco, CA, USA; January 15–17 is the world-class conference co-sponsored by the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the American Society for Radiation Oncology, the American Gastroenterological Association Institute, and the Society of Surgical Oncology, in which the most innovative research results in digestive tract oncology are presented and discussed. In its twelfth edition, the meeting has provided new insights focusing on the underpinning biology and clinical management of gastrointestinal malignancies. More than 3,400 health care professionals gathered from all over the world to share their experiences on how to bridge the recent novelties in cancer biology with everyday medical practice. In this article, the authors report on the most significant advances, didactically moving on three different anatomic tracks: gastroesophageal malignancies, pancreatic and biliary cancers, and colorectal adenocarcinomas. Keywords: colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, ramucirumab, pembrolizumab, target therapy, onartuzumab, AMG 337

  5. Immunohistochemical Expression of CXCR4 on Breast Cancer and Its Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Okuyama Kishima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many tumor cells express chemokines and chemokine receptors, and, for this reason, these molecules can affect the tumor progression. It is known that breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous neoplasia comprising distinct diseases, histological characteristics, and clinical outcomes. The most studied role for CXCL12 chemokine and its receptor CXCR4 in breast cancer pathogenesis is the metastasis event, although several reports have demonstrated its involvement in other processes, such as angiogenesis and tumor growth. It has been found that CXCR4 is required for breast cancer cell migration to other sites such as lung, bone, and lymph nodes, which express high levels of CXCL12 chemokine. Therefore, CXCR4 is being considered a prognostic marker in breast cancer. Within this context, this review summarizes established studies involving expression of CXCR4 on breast cancer, focusing on its clinical significance.

  6. Procedure-related complications of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and its clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Hyun Han; Byun, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Tae Gwon; Kang, Duk Sik; Kim, Yong Joo [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-15

    The purpose who to evaluate the procedure-related complications of the TIPS and its clinical significance. The materials consisted of 52 patients who had 57 TIPS procedures for the management of variceal bleeding due to portal hypertension. To detect the occurrence of complications during transhepatic needle puncture (from hepatic vein to the portal vein), contrast material was injected with the with drawl of the puncture needle. Procedure-related complications occurred in 28 patients (54%) among 52 patients. The complications were biliary tree puncture (15 cases), transperitoneal puncture (14 cases), stent malposition (3 cases), stent migration (1 case), hepatic arteries puncture (1 case), splenic vein perforation (1 case), and paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia (1 case). Three patients had acute stent thrombosis with rebleeding immediately after the procedure. The procedure was repeated in two patients. One patient was expired due to rebleeding. The procedure related complications were clinically insignificant in most instances, except when stent thrombosis or proxysmal ventricular tachycardia was developed.

  7. The clinical significance of circulating tumor cells in non-metastatic colorectal cancer - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, M; Jess, Per

    2011-01-01

    with metastatic disease, but the prognostic role of CTC in non-metastatic colorectal cancer is less clear. The aim of this review is to examine the possible clinical significance of circulating tumor cells in non-metastatic colorectal cancer (TNM-stage I-III) with the primary focus on detection methods......BACKGROUND: Finding a clinical tool to improve the risk stratification and identifying those colorectal cancer patients with an increased risk of recurrence is of great importance. The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in peripheral blood can be a strong marker of poor prognosis in patients...... and prognosis. METHODS: The PubMed and Cochrane database and reference lists of relevant articles were searched for scientific literature published in English from January 2000 to June 2010. We included studies with non-metastatic colorectal cancer (TNM-stage I-III) and CTC detected pre- and/or post...

  8. Serum BAFF and APRIL levels in patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia and their clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zi-Zhen; Zhao, Bing-Bing; Xiong, Hong; Wei, Bei-Wen; Wang, Ye-Fei

    2015-10-01

    B cell-activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) play crucial roles in B cell development, survival, and antibody production. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is an acquired autoimmune disease that occurs when antibodies target autologous red blood cells. Here, we analyzed the serum levels of BAFF and APRIL and their respective clinical associations in patients with AIHA. Serum BAFF and APRIL levels in patients with AIHA were significantly higher (P 480 IU/mL). Glucocorticoid treatment dramatically reduced serum levels of BAFF and APRIL. Thus, serum BAFF and APRIL levels may reflect the clinical activity of this disease. Our results indicate that analysis of serum concentrations of BAFF and APRIL potentially represents a useful tool for the assessment of AIHA disease activity and progression.

  9. [Biological roles of complement and recent topics in clinical medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamiya, Nobutaka

    2012-08-01

    The complement has been identified as a complementation factor to compensate for the function of an antibody. The complement consists of C1-C9, a complement-related molecule, and its regulating molecules. Three major biological roles of the complement have been classified: First: opsonization following phagocytosis and the elimination of microbes; second: direct destruction of bacteria due to membrane attack complex (MAC); third: complement activation following the induction of anaphylactoid factors and local recruitment and activation of neutrophilic leukocytes. In this review, the basic findings and recent treatments of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and hereditary angioedema (HAE) are summarized. Finally, there is a short review of a rare autosomal recessive disorder of 3MC syndrome and new biological functions of complement factors except for that of innate immunity are proposed.

  10. EXPRESSION AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF CD44 IN THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD OF PATIENTS WITH CASTRIC CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of cell adhesive molecule (CD44) expression on periphery blood (PB) of patients with gastric cancer. Methods: Both the level of CD44 and the immunocyte phenotype of the lymphocytes of 110 patients with gastric cancer and 100 healthy subjects were examined by flow cytometry, and the results were analyzed pathologically and statistically. Results: The mean of the CD44% in PB of the healthy subjects was 46.14±13.4 and there were no statistic differences for their age and sex. Site of tumor growth: The significant difference (P 10 cm mass (P<0.0l) and 7-10 cm mass (P<0.05). Degree of tumor differentiation: The significant difference (P<0.01) was present between the patients with low differentiation gastric cancer and normal individuals. The significant difference (P<0.01) was present between patients with metastatic stage: The significant difference (P<0.0l) was present lymph node gastric cancer and normal individuals. Clinical between the patients with advanced or relapsed gastric cancer and normal individuals. Age: The significant difference (P<0.01) was present between the gastric cancer patients under 59 years and normal individuals. Conclusion: The increased level of CD44 in the PB of patients with gastric cancer indicated the possible existence of relapse, advance or metastasis of tumors. When the tumor was poorly differentiated and bigger in tumor mass, the level of CD44% would be higher. Examining the level of CD44 by flow cytometry in the periphery blood of patients with gastric cancer was useful for the prognosis.

  11. [THE DETECTION OF CONTENT OF DIAGNOSTICALLY SIGNIFICANT FATTY ACIDS AND INDIVIDUAL TRIGLYCERIDES IN BIOLOGICAL MEDIUMS BASED ON INFRARED SPECTROMETRY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, A V; Krasheninnikov, V N; Sviridov, A P; Titov, V N

    2015-11-01

    The content of clinically important fatty acids and individual triglycerides in food and biological mediums are traditionally detected by gas and fluid chromatography in various methodical modifications. The techniques are hard-to-get in laboratories of clinical biochemistry. The study was carried out to develop procedures and equipment for operative quantitative detection of concentration of fatty acids, primarily palmitic saturated fatty acid and oleic mono unsaturated fatty acid. Also detection was applied to sums ofpolyenoic (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) fatty acids in biological mediums (cod-liver oil, tissues, blood plasma) using spectrometers of short-range infrared band of different types: with Fourier transform, diffraction and combined scattering. The evidences of reliable and reproducible quantitative detection offatty acids were received on the basis of technique of calibration (regression) by projection on latent structures using standard samples of mixtures of oils and fats. The evaluation is implemented concerning possibility of separate detection of content of palmitic and oleic triglycerides in mediums with presence of water The choice of technical conditions and mode of application of certain types of infrared spectrometers and techniques of their calibration is substantiated

  12. Significance of biological hydrogen oxidation in a continuous single-chamber microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung-Sool; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2010-02-01

    A single-chamber microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) that used a high density of nonmetal-catalyst carbon fibers as the anode achieved high volumetric current densities from 1470 +/- 60 to 1630 +/- 50 A/m(3) for a hydraulic retention time of 1.6-6.5 h. The high current density was driven by a large anode surface area and corresponded to a volumetric chemical oxygen demand (COD)-removal rate of 27-49 kg COD/m(3).d. Observed H(2) harvesting rates were from 2.6 +/- 0.10 to 4.3 +/- 0.46 m(3) H(2)/m(3).d, but the H(2) production rates computed from the current densities were 16.3-18.2 m(3) H(2)/m(3).d. Tracking all significant electron sinks (residual acetate, H(2), CH(4), biomass, and soluble microbial products (SMP)) in the single-chamber MEC showed that H(2) reoxidation by anode-respiring bacteria recycled H(2) between the cathode and the anode, and this caused the large discrepancy in H(2) production and harvest rates. H(2) recycle accounted for 62-76% of observed current density, and this made the observed Coulombic efficiency 190-310% at steady state. Consequently, the cathodic conversion efficiency was only 16-24%. The current density added by H(2) recycle also increased the applied voltage from approximately 0.6 V to approximately 1.5 V for the highest H(2) harvest rate (4.3 m(3) H(2)/m(3).d). CH(4) generation consistently occurred in the continuous single-chamber MEC, and its electron fraction of consumed acetate was 7-25%. Because of methane formation and biomass/SMP accumulation, the overall H(2) recovery was moderate at 1.8-2.0 mol of H(2)/mol of acetate in the MEC. Thus, this study illustrates that a single-chamber MEC with a high anode surface area can generate high volumetric rates for COD removal and H(2) generation, but H(2) recycle and methanogenesis present significant challenges for practical application.

  13. Detection and clinical significance of inflammatory cytokines, procalcitioninand endotoxin in neonatalsepticemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Zhang; Wu Zhu; Wan-Hua Xie; Bang-Zhi Zeng; Xu-Hui Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical significance of detection of inflammatory cytokines, procalcitionin and endotoxin in neonatal septicemia.Methods:A total of 84 cases of neonatal septicemia in our hospital from January 2013 to January 2016 were selected as observation group, and 80 cases of neonates without infection signs of the same period were selected as control group. In the early stage of admission before medication and in recovery period, the fasting venous blood was drawn respectively in the observation group, detection of IL-6, IL-8, PCT and endotoxin. In the control group, disposable blood sampling at admission to detect the above indexes.Results:Upon admittance, the levels of IL-6, IL-8, PCT and endotoxin in observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05); in recovery period, the levels of IL-6, IL-8, PCT and endotoxin in observation group were significantly lower than before treatment (P<0.05).Conclusions: Through comparative analysis of the levels of IL-6, IL-8, PCT and endotoxin before treatment and recovery period as well as the control group, can better reflect the dynamic changes of neonatal septicemia from bacterial infection to recovery, and is conducive to early detection of infection, a more comprehensive reflection of the infection situation, to guide clinical drug use, deserving spreading and learning.

  14. Mad2 and p53 expression profiles in colorectal cancer and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang-Qiang Li; Hao Li; Hong-Fu Zhang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of tumor suppressor gene p53 and spindle checkpoint gene Mad2, and to demonstrate their expression difference in colorectal cancer and normal mucosa and to evaluate its clinical significance.METHODS: Westemn blot and immunohistochemistry methods were used to analyze the expression of Mad2 in colorectal cancer and its corresponding normal mucosa. The expression of p53 was detected by immunohistochemistry method in colorectal cancer and its corresponding normal mucosa.RESULTS: Mad2 was significantly overexpressed in colorectal cancer compared with corresponding normal mucosa (P<0.001), and it was not related to the differentiation of adenocarcinoma and other dinical factors (P>0.05).The ratio of Mad2 protein in cancer tissue (C) to that in its normal mucosa tissue (N) was higher than 2, which was more frequently observed in patients with lymph gland metastasis (P<0.05). p53 protein expression was not observed in normal mucosa. The rate of p53 positive expression in adenocarcinomas was 52.6%. There was a significant difference between adenocarcinomas and normal mucosa(P<0.001), which was not related to the differentiation degree of adenocarcinoma and other clinical factors (P>0.05).CONCLUSION: Defect of spindle checkpoint gene Mad2and mutation of p53 gene are involved mainly in colorectal carcinogenesis and C/N>2 is associated with prognosis of colorectal cancer.

  15. Integration of basic biological sciences and clinical dentistry in the dental curriculum. A clinically orientated approach to teaching oral and dental anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotjamanos, T

    1990-06-01

    Although dental curricula have undergone significant revision during the past three decades, the problem of linking basic science with clinical dentistry often remains an unmet challenge in dental education. This paper describes the content and method of presentation of a course in oral and dental anatomy which aims to integrate closely basic biological science and clinical dental practice. The course holds considerable promise for overcoming one of the major deficiencies of the horizontally structured curriculum by presenting basic science information and detailing its clinical relevance simultaneously. The academic background, clinical experience, and educational philosophy of the course co-ordinator and assisting teaching staff are undoubtedly important factors in determining the extent to which integration between basic and clinical science can be achieved.

  16. Prevalence, characterization and clinical significance of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    : Sarita Nayak, Suman Singh, Soeb Jankhwala, Riddhi Pradhan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella peumoniae, a capsulated gram negative bacillus is responsible for causing life threatening infections in humans. Carbapenems are the drug of choice for serious infection caused by multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. The emergence of carbapenem resistance has made it extremely difficult to treat such infections resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Aims: To study the prevalence of carbapenem resistance using ertapenem as a marker and to detect Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC producing Klebsiella pneumoniae as a mechanism of resistance. Material and Methods: The study included 102 patients from which Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated. Identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed on miniAPI (Analytical Profile Index, Semiautomated bacterial identification system according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines of 2011. The modified Hodge test was performed for detection of Carbapenemase production. Patient’s clinical and demographic details along with risk factors and co-morbid conditions, type of response to antimicrobial therapy and mortality were collected. Results: The prevalence of carbapenem resistance was found to be 30.41% with 16.6% KPC producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. The co-morbid conditions like immunocompromised state (p =0.042, prior antibiotics therapy (p=0.047, previous hospitalization (p =0.021, intensive care unit stay (p=0.047 and use of indwelling devices (p =0.013 were found to be significantly associated with carbapenem resistance. Adverse clinical outcomes (death or worsening among patients infected with ertapenem resistant patients was found to be statistically significant than ertapenem sensitive strains (p =0.008. Conclusions: A high degree of carbapenem resistance in present study is alarming and poses therapeutic dilemmas for clinicians. Initiating timely and appropriate infection control measures along with a

  17. Human mesenchymal stem cells: from basic biology to clinical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, B M; Kassem, M

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of clonogenic cells present among the bone marrow stroma and capable of multilineage differentiation into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Due to their ease of isolation and their differentiation potential, MSC are being...... introduced into clinical medicine in variety of applications and through different ways of administration. Here, we discuss approaches for isolation, characterization and directing differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). An update of the current clinical use of the cells is also provided....

  18. Clinical significance of pneumatosis intestinalis - correlation of MDCT-findings with treatment and outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treyaud, Marc-Olivier; Duran, Rafael; Knebel, Jean-Francois; Meuli, Reto A.; Schmidt, Sabine [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Zins, Marc [Fondation Hopital St Joseph, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2017-01-15

    To evaluate the clinical significance of pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) including the influence on treatment and outcome. Two radiologists jointly reviewed MDCT-examinations of 149 consecutive emergency patients (53 women, mean age 64, range 21-95) with PI of the stomach (n = 4), small (n = 68) and/or large bowel (n = 96). PI extension, distribution and possibly associated porto-mesenteric venous gas (PMVG) were correlated with other MDCT-findings, risk factors, clinical management, laboratory, histopathology, final diagnosis and outcome. The most frequent cause of PI was intestinal ischemia (n = 80,53.7 %), followed by infection (n = 18,12.1 %), obstructive (n = 12,8.1 %) and non-obstructive (n = 10,6.7 %) bowel dilatation, unknown aetiologies (n = 8,5.4 %), drugs (n = 8,5.4 %), inflammation (n = 7,4.7 %), and others (n = 6,4 %). Neither PI distribution nor extension significantly correlated with underlying ischemia. Overall mortality was 41.6 % (n = 62), mostly related to intestinal ischemia (p = 0.003). Associated PMVG significantly correlated with underlying ischemia (p = 0.009), as did the anatomical distribution of PMVG (p = 0.015). Decreased mural contrast-enhancement was the only other MDCT-feature significantly associated with ischemia (p p < 0.001). Elevated white blood count significantly correlated with ischemia (p = 0.03). In emergency patients, ischemia remains the most common aetiology of PI, showing the highest mortality. PI with associated PMVG is an alerting sign. PI together with decreased mural contrast-enhancement indicates underlying ischemia. (orig.)

  19. Environmental pollution and DNA methylation: carcinogenesis, clinical significance, and practical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi

    2015-09-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the main causes of human cancer. Exposures to environmental carcinogens result in genetic and epigenetic alterations which induce cell transformation. Epigenetic changes caused by environmental pollution play important roles in the development and progression of environmental pollution-related cancers. Studies on DNA methylation are among the earliest and most conducted epigenetic research linked to cancer. In this review, the roles of DNA methylation in carcinogenesis and their significance in clinical medicine were summarized, and the effects of environmental pollutants, particularly air pollutants, on DNA methylation were introduced. Furthermore, prospective applications of DNA methylation to environmental pollution detection and cancer prevention were discussed.

  20. Clinical Significance of Colonic Diverticulosis Associated with Bowel Symptoms and Colon Polyp

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kang-Moon; Paik, Chang-Nyol; Chung, Woo Chul; Jung, Sung Hoon; Chang, U-Im; Yang, Jin Mo

    2010-01-01

    This study was done to evaluate prospectively the clinical significance of colonic diverticulosis. In the 1,030 consecutive outpatients undergoing colonoscopy, the information on the demographics, the patterns of bowel symptoms, and the prevalence of colon polyp were analyzed according to the presence of colonic diverticulosis. The mean age of 1,030 patients were 52.2 yr and 59.3% were male. The prevalence of diverticulosis was 19.7% (203/1,030). Of 203 diverticulosis patients 85.2% were in p...

  1. The clinical significance of breast cancer stem cells (review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Schepotin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, in oncology dominated the stochastic theory of onset and progression of tumors, which postulated that any cell malignanttumor has tumorogenesis properties. However, currently there are more data indicating that the malignant tumors like normal tissues consistof several subpopulations of cells of various degree of differentiation, including stem. Thus, the alternative stochastic theory became a hierarchical theory of carcinogenesis. Like normal stem cells, cancer stem cells have natural resistance to radiation and systemic drug therapy, and may become the reason of occurrence of relapses and metastases. In this review analysed data regarding the clinical significance of breast cancer stem cells.

  2. The public health and clinical significance of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R C Andrew; Palmer, Carlysle S; O'Handley, Ryan

    2008-07-01

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium are common enteric parasites of domestic animals, particularly dogs, cats and livestock. Their occurrence is of potential significance from both clinical and public health perspectives yet, until recently, confusion over the taxonomy of these organisms prevented a clear understanding of the epidemiology of infections with both Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The recent application of molecular epidemiological tools has helped to resolve taxonomic issues, allowing cycles of transmission to be determined. In addition, advances have been made in elucidating mechanisms associated with pathogenesis, whereas only limited progress has been achieved in the areas of chemotherapy and prophylaxis.

  3. [Clinical significance of cyclin Dl expression in non-small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworakowska, Dorota

    2005-01-01

    Lung cancer remains interdisciplinary problem. The genetic alterations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are related to tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes. CCND1 gene, coding cyclin DI, in correlation with pRb is involved in regulation of cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. Amplification of CCND1 gene and cyclin D1 over-expression was found in several cancers including head and neck cancers or colorectal cancer, where these alterations were correlated with worse prognosis. The literature addressing the clinical significance of CCND1 gene amplification/expression in NSCLC remains poor and prognostic value of these alterations in that cancer is still controversial.

  4. QUALITY COMPOSITION AND BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE BANGLADESHI AND CHINA GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudam Nandi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Zingiber officinale Rosc. was extracted from China and Bangladeshi varieties and yielded 0.21% and 0.23 % by hydro-distillation method on fresh weight basis respectively. Fifteen compounds were identified and quantified by GC-MS. The major constituents of China and Bangladeshi ginger essential oils were zingiberene 38.10 % and 41.49%, β-phellandrene 12.0% and 9.92%, α-citral 11.48% and 9.76 %, α-curcumene 9.22% and 11.58%, camphene 5.94% and 4.60% , β-bisabolene 4.39% and 5.0% respectively. The IC50 (DPPH method values were found 61.18 µg/mL and 56.71 µg/mL with the highest inhibition of 78.49 % and 80.77% and the LC50 values in the brine shrimp lethality cytotoxicity bioassay were found 0.4842 µg/mL and 0.7151 µg/mL in China and Bangladeshi ginger essential oil respectively. Both the essential oils showed significant activities against some gram positive, gram negative bacteria and fungi. The proximate composition of the China and Bangladeshi variety showed the ash (7.12±0.151, 8.15±0.18%, protein (5.47±0.19, 6.60±0.16%, crude fibre (4.32±0.10, 4.61±0.12%, carbohydrate (16..06±0.35, 18.38±0.41 and food energy (70.50±0.89, 81.74±1.01 kcal/100g. respectively. The elemental compositions of the both varieties were found rich in Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Se, Na and K. These results indicate the quality composition of the two varieties may find interest in spice and culinary industries as well as in medicinal preparation.

  5. Expression, clinical significance and mechanism of Slit2 in papillary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rong-Liang; Qu, Ning; Liao, Tian; Wang, Yu-Long; Wang, Yu; Sun, Guo-Hua; Ji, Qing-Hai

    2016-05-01

    Thyroid cancer is a common endocrine malignancy. The last decade has seen exciting progress in understanding thyroid cancer molecular pathogenesis. Several major signaling pathways and related molecular derangements have been elucidated, which represent novel diagnostic and prognostic molecular markers for thyroid cancer. Based on the molecular biology of thyroid cancer, a series of therapeutic targets have been developed, which provide unprecedented opportunities. Thus, histological characterization of subgroups of patients and the correct molecular characterization of patients are thought to be key aspects for future clinical management of these patients. In the present study, we identified Slit2 as a prognostic marker for thyroid cancer oncogenesis and recurrence. Mechanistically, Slit2 regulated Warburg effect in thyroid cancer cells through regulation of HIF1α and HIF1α transcriptional activity. Taken together, our present data uncovered Slit2 as a novel predictive marker for thyroid cancer. The mechanism study indicated that Slit2 regulated the Warburg effect. Additional study on the function of Slit2 in thyroid cancer is required to provide new insights into the potential mechanisms of oncogenesis and recurrence potential of thyroid cancer.

  6. Cranial suture biology and dental development: genetic and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coster, P J; Mortier, G; Marks, L A; Martens, L C

    2007-09-01

    Premature fusion of the calvarial bones at the sutures, or craniosynostosis (CS), is a relatively common birth defect (1:2000-3000) frequently associated with limb deformity. Patients with CS may present oral defects, such as cleft soft palate, hypodontia, hyperdontia, and delayed tooth eruption, but also unusual associations of major dental anomalies such as taurodontism, microdontia, multiple dens invaginatus, and dentin dysplasia. The list of genes that are involved in CS includes those coding for the different fibroblast growth factor receptors and a ligand of ephrin receptors, but also genes encoding transcription factors, such as MSX2 and TWIST. Most of these genes are equally involved in odontogenesis, providing a pausible explanation for clinical associations of CS with dental agenesis or tooth malformations. On the basis of the present knowledge on genes and transcription factors that are involved in craniofacial morphogenesis, and from dental clinics of CS syndromes, the molecular mechanisms that control suture formation and suture closure are expected to play key roles in patterning events and development of teeth. The purpose of this article is to review and merge the recent advances in the field of suture research at the genetic and cellular levels with those of tooth development, and to apply them to the dental clinics of CS syndromes. These new perspectives and future challenges in the field of both dental clinics and molecular genetics, more in particular the identification of possible candidate genes involved in both CS and dental defects, are discussed.

  7. Telomeres and telomerase: Biological and clinical importance in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Lubna

    2008-02-01

    In recent years in human oncology the enzyme telomerase has emerged as an ideal target for cancer therapy. This has led to the assessment of telomerase in cancers in companion animals, mainly dogs and these studies confirm that in dogs, like humans, telomere maintenance by telomerase is the primary mechanism by which cancer cells overcome their mortality and extend their lifespan. This review aims to provide an introduction to the biology of telomeres and telomerase and to discuss some of the telomere/telomerase directed therapeutic methodologies currently under development which may be of benefit to the canine cancer patient.

  8. Clinical Significance of an Alloantibody against the Kell Blood Group Glycoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattaloni, Stella Maris; Arnoni, Carine; Céspedes, Rosario; Nonaka, Claudia; Trucco Boggione, Carolina; Luján Brajovich, Melina Eliana; Trejo, Andrea; Zani, Néstor; Biondi, Claudia Silvia; Castilho, Lilian; Cotorruelo, Carlos Miquel

    2017-01-01

    Background Kell null (K0) individuals can produce anti-Ku, an antibody against many epitopes in the Kell glycoprotein, after transfusion and/or pregnancy. Since sensitized K0 patients are rare, little is known about anti-Ku clinical relevance and in particular about its association to hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Case Report This work describes a case of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia due to immune-mediated erythrocyte destruction by an alloantibody directed against the Kell glycoprotein. Serologic and molecular approaches identified an anti-Ku alloantibody in maternal serum. A homozygous IVS3 + 1g>a point mutation (KEL*02N.06 allele) was found to be responsible for the lack of Kell antigen expression in the mother's red blood cell and subsequent alloimmunization after a previous pregnancy. Even though in most cases Kell antibodies are clinically severe and may cause suppression of erythropoiesis, in our case the newborn had a moderate anemia and hyperbilirubinemia that was successfully treated with phototherapy without requiring exchange transfusion. Serological and molecular studies performed in the proband's family members allowed us to provide them with proper counseling regarding alloimmunization after transfusion and/or pregnancy. Conclusions This case enlarges the understanding of the clinical significance of alloantibodies against Kell blood group antigens.

  9. Detection methods and clinical significance of free peritoneal tumor cells found during colorectal cancer surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simone; Sibio; Cristina; Fiorani; Carmine; Stolfi; Andrea; Divizia; Roberto; Pezzuto; Fabrizio; Montagnese; Giulia; Bagaglini; Paolo; Sammartino; Giuseppe; Sigismondo; Sica

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal washing is now part of the standard clinical practice in several abdominal and pelvic neoplasias. However, in colorectal cancer surgery, intra-peritoneal free cancer cells(IFCC) presence is not routinely investigated and their prognostic meaning is still unclear. When peritoneal washing results are positive for the presence of IFCC a worse outcome is usually expected in these colorectal cancer operated patients, but it what is not clear is whether it is associated with an increased risk of local recurrence. It is authors’ belief that one of the main reasons why IFCC are not researched as integral part of the routine staging system for colon cancer is that there still isn’t a diagnostic or detection method with enough sensibility and specificity. However, the potential clinical implications of a routine research for the presence IFCC in colon neoplasias are enormous: not only to obtain a more accurate clinical staging but also to offer different therapy protocols, based on the presence of IFCC. Based on this, adjuvant chemotherapy could be offered to those patients found to be positive for IFCC; also, protocols of proactive intraperitoneal chemotherapy could be applied. Although presence of IFCC appears to have a valid prognostic significance, further studies are needed to standardize detection and examination procedures, to determine if there are and which are the stages more likely to benefit from routine search for IFCC.

  10. Brain herniations into the dural venous sinus or calvarium: MRI findings, possible causes and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battal, Bilal; Hamcan, Salih; Akgun, Veysel; Sari, Sebahattin; Tasar, Mustafa [Gulhane Military Medical School, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Oz, Oguzhan [Gulhane Military Medical School, Department of Neurology, Ankara (Turkey); Castillo, Mauricio [University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    To determine frequency, imaging features and clinical significance of herniations of brain parenchyma into dural venous sinuses (DVS) and/or calvarium found on MRI. A total of 6160 brain MRI examinations containing at least one high-resolution T1- or T2-weighted sequence were retrospectively evaluated to determine the presence of incidental brain herniations into the DVS or calvarium. MRI sequences available for review were evaluated according to their capability to demonstrate these herniations. Patients' symptoms and clinical findings were recorded. Twenty-one (0.32 %) brain parenchyma herniations into the DVS (n = 18) or calvarium (n = 3) in 20 patients were detected. The most common locations of the herniations were the transverse sinuses (n = 13) and those involving inferior gyrus of the temporal lobe (n = 9). High-resolution T1- and T2-weighted sequences were equally useful in the detection of these brain herniations. According to clinical symptoms, brain herniations were considered to be incidental but headaches were present in nine patients. Brain herniations with surrounding cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into the DVS and/or calvarium are incidental findings and not proven to be associated with any symptoms. Although rare, these herniations are more common than previously recognized and should not be confused with arachnoid granulations, clots or tumours. (orig.)

  11. Serological pattern "anti-HBc alone": Characterization of 552 individuals and clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antje Kn(o)ll; Arndt Hartmann; Harald Hamoshi; Karin Weislmaier; Wolfgang Jilg

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence and clinical significance of "anti-HBc alone" in an unselected population of patients and employees of a university hospital in southern Germany.METHODS: All individuals with the pattern "anti-HBc alone" were registered over a time span of 82 mo. HBV-DNA was measured in serum and liver samples, and clinical charts were reviewed.RESULTS: Five hundred and fifty two individuals were "anti-HBc alone" (of 3004 anti-HBc positive individuals;18.4%), and this pattern affected males (20.5%) more often than females (15.3%; P< 0.001). HBV-DNA was detected in serum of 44 of 545 "anti-HBc alone" individuals (8.1%), and in paraffin embedded liver tissue in 16of 39 patients tested (41.0%). There was no association between the detection of HBV genomes and the presence of biochemical, ultrasonic or histological signs of liver damage. Thirty-eight "anti-HBc alone" patients with cirrhosis or primary liver carcinoma had at least one additional risk factor. HCV-coinfection was present in 20.4%of all individuals with "anti-HBc alone" and was the only factor associated with a worse clinical outcome.CONCLUSION: In an HBV low prevalence area, no evidence is found that HBV alone causes severe liver damage in individuals with "anti-HBc alone". Recommendations for the management of these individuals are given.

  12. Clinical significance of conventional rib series in patients with minor thoracic trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffstetter, P.; Dornia, C. [Asklepios Medical Center, Bad Abbach (Germany). Radiology; University Medical Center Regensburg (Germany). Radiology; Wagner, M.; Niessen, C.; Dendl, L.M.; Stroszczynski, C.; Schreyer, A.G. [University Medical Center Regensburg (Germany). Radiology; Al Suwaidi, M.H. [Asklepios Medical Center, Bad Abbach (Germany). Rheumatology/Clinical Immmunology

    2014-09-15

    Background: Conventional rib series (RS) represent a dedicated radiographic technique to visualize the bony parts of the chest wall. The method is commonly used to evaluate minor thoracic trauma, frequently in combination with chest radiographs (CRs). The aim of this study is to asses the clinical relevance of rib fractures diagnosed by RS in minor thoracic trauma. Methods: Retrospective study of 669 patients who received RS for the evaluation of minor thoracic trauma. 405 of the 669 patients received an additional CR. Radiological reports were classified into fracture versus no fracture. Patients were divided into four groups depending on the clinical follow-up. The findings of RS and CR were analyzed using the McNemar test. The statistical significance between the results of the radiographic examinations and the clinical follow-up was analyzed by the Chi-Square test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: We included 669 patients (61.4% men, 38.6% women, median age: 51 years, range: 13-92 years). Analyzing the reports of 669 patients who received RS, 157 (23.5%) patients were diagnosed with at least one fractured rib while no fracture was found in 512 (76.5%) patients. Considering the 157 patients with fractured ribs, 73 (46.8%) had a single fracture, 38 (24.4%) and two fractures and 45 (28.8%) had more than two fractures. When assessing the 405 CRs, we detected 69 (17%) fractures while the corresponding RS of the same patients revealed 87 (21.5%) fractures (p < 0.05). Concerning all patients with rib fractures, 63.1% received medical therapy, while 64.5% of those patients without a radiologically documented fracture also received therapy (p = 0.25). Conclusion: Our results suggest a limited clinical value of detected rib fractures based on RS. Despite being superior compared to CR in diagnosing rib fractures, the results from RS seem to have no significant influence on further clinical management and therapeutic measures. Minor thoracic trauma should be evaluated

  13. Expression and Clinical Significance of p27kip1 Protein in Primary Liver Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史光军; 杨鹏; 陈孝平

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the expression and clinical significance of p27kip1 protein in primary liver cancer, the expression of p27kip1 protein and the relationship with clinicopathological factors were studied in primary liver cancer by using SABC immunohistochemical staining in specimens of 40 cases of primary liver cancer and 20 cases of liver cirrihosis. Our results showed that positive expression rate of p27kip1 protein in primary liver cancer was 37.5 % (15/40), which was lower than that in benign lesion of liver 80.0 % (16/20, P<0.01). The expression level of p27kip1 protein in primary liver cancer showed significant differences in tumor size, Edmonson histological grade, portal invasion, lymph node metastasis, TNM stage (P<0.05, for all), but not significantly correlated with patient's age and histological types. Log rank test showed that the p27kip1 expression was significantly related with prognosis of the patients (P<0.05), and the prognosis of the patients with p27kip1 positive expression was markedly better than that of those with p27kip1 negative expression. It is concluded that the expression of p27kip1 was significantly related clinicopathological factors of primary liver cancer. p27kip1 protein may be used as a novel tumor marker for primary liver cancer.

  14. Expression and Clinical Significance of HMGB1 and RAGE in Cervical Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the expression level and clinical significance of HMGB1 and RAGE in cervical squamous epithelial carcinoma.METHODS Real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)was employed to examine the expression of HMGB1 (high mobility group box protein1), and RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation endproducts)in 60 cervical squamous epithelial carcinomas (CSEC), their paraneoplastic tissues (PS) and 30 normal cervix tissues (NCS).RESULTS The expression of HMGB1 in the CSEC samples and PS was similar (P>0.05), but higher compared to NCS (P<0.05). Overexpression of HMGB1 in the CESC tissues was significantly correlated with the tumor (P<0.05), and the presence of metastasis (P<0.01), but not correlated with the tumor diameter or tumor grade. RAGE expression was not significantly different among these tissue types, and showed no significant correlation with the the tumor stage, diameter or grade. But there was a significant positive correlation between RAGE expression and CSEC metastasis.CONCLUSION The results suggest that HMGB1 may be related to the proliferation, progression and metastasis of CSEC. The relationship of HMGB1/RAGE may be of importance for CSEC metastasis. HMGB1 presents a new potential gene target for prevention and treatment of CSEC.Study of HMGB1/RAGE expression will offer an experimental foundation for understanding the pathogenesis of CSES.

  15. Expression of Survivin, CDK4, Ki-67 and Clinical Significance in Pediatric Acute Leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liuqing; LIU Jing; LIN Hanhua; HU Qun; LIU Aiguo; HU Ying

    2006-01-01

    The expression of Survivin, CDK4 and Ki-67 and the clinical significance in pediatric acute leukemia (AL) were investigated. The expression of Survivin, CDK4 and Ki-67 proteins was detected by using immunohistochemical assay in 37 children with AL and 10 children with normal bone marrow as controls. The positive expression rate of Survivin, CDK4 and Ki-67 was 45.9 %,56.8 %, and 40.5 % respectively in 37 AL children, which was significantly higher than in control group accordingly (P<0.05). The expression of Survivin was positively correlated with CDK4(P=0.007) and Ki-67 (P=0.008). In conclusion, all Survivin, CDK4 and Ki-67 proteins are over-expressed in pediatric AL and involved in the modulation of apoptosis and proliferation in pediatric AL.

  16. Thresholds for statistical and clinical significance in systematic reviews with meta-analytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Wetterslev, Jørn; Winkel, Per;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thresholds for statistical significance when assessing meta-analysis results are being insufficiently demonstrated by traditional 95% confidence intervals and P-values. Assessment of intervention effects in systematic reviews with meta-analysis deserves greater rigour. METHODS......: Methodologies for assessing statistical and clinical significance of intervention effects in systematic reviews were considered. Balancing simplicity and comprehensiveness, an operational procedure was developed, based mainly on The Cochrane Collaboration methodology and the Grading of Recommendations...... Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. RESULTS: We propose an eight-step procedure for better validation of meta-analytic results in systematic reviews (1) Obtain the 95% confidence intervals and the P-values from both fixed-effect and random-effects meta-analyses and report the most...

  17. Clinical significance of survivin in the diagnosis and prognosis of endometrial carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanxiang Cheng; Gantao Chen; Yanjun Cheng; Demin Pu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of survivin in endometrial carcinoma and to investigate the relationship between the expression of survivin and Ki-67. Methods: Immunohistochemical S-P (streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex)method was performed to detect the expression of survivin and Ki-67 antigen in 15 cases of normal endometrium, 21 cases of endometrial simple and complex hyperplasia, 22 cases of endometrial atypical hyperplasia, and 61 cases of endometrial carcinoma. Results: Survivin was hardly detected in some normal endometrium in the proliferative phase and in the secretory phase. However, the level of survivin expression in atypical hyperplasia endometrium(72.73%)was higher than that in normal endometrium (7.14%)(P < 0.05), including simple and complex hyperplasia (42.38%)(P < 0.01), and was lower than that in endometrial carcinoma (90.17%)(P < 0.05). Moreover, significant correlation was present between the expression of survivin and the characteristics of endometrial carcinoma, including clinical stage, histological grade and the presence of invasion to myometrium (P < 0.05). In addition, Ki-67 antigen expression was positively correlated with survivin expression in all specimen. Ki-67 labeled indexes (LIs)in hyperplasia endometrium were significantly lower than those in atypical hyperplasia endometrium and endometrial carcinoma (P < 0.01 ), while there was no significant difference in Ki-67 LIs between atypical hyperplasia endometrium and endometrial carcinoma(P > 0.05). There was no significant relationship between Ki-67 LIs and the characteristics of endometrial carcinoma, including histological grade, clinical stage or the invasion to myometrium(P > 0.05). Conclusion: Survivin may participate in the onset and progression of endometrial carcinoma through inhibiting apoptosis and promoting proliferation. Survivin expression is correlated with the malignant degree and prognosis of tumor. Ki-67 is also associated with

  18. Predictors and clinical significance of the positive cone margin in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia Ⅲ patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-guang; MA Shui-qing; ZHANG Jin-xia; WU Ming

    2009-01-01

    Background Conization is being widely accepted for diagnosis and treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). There is controversy as to which factors are most predictive of a positive cone margin and the clinical significance of it. We conducted this study to identify the predictive factors and to evaluate the clinical significance of a positive cone margin in CIN Ⅲ patients.Methods A retrospective review was conducted of 207 patients who had undergone conization due to CIN Ⅲ from January 2003 to December 2005 at Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Of these, 67 had a subsequent hysterectomy. Univariate and multivariate analysis were utilized to define the predictive factors for a positive cone margin, and to compare the pathologic results of conization with subsequent hysterectomy.Results One hundred and fifty-one (72.9%) were margin free of CIN Ⅰ or worse, 37 (17.9%) had CIN lesions close to the margin and 19 (9.2%) had margin involvement. A total of 56 cases (27.1%) had positive cone margins (defined as the presence of CIN at or close to the edge of a cone specimen). Univariate analysis showed that the parity, cytological grade, multi-quadrants of CIN Ⅲ by punch biopsy, gland involvement, as well as the depth of conization were significant factors correlated with a positive cone margin (P0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that the cytological grade (OR=1.92), depth of conization (OR=2.03), parity (OR=3.02) and multi-quadrants of CIN Ⅲ (OR=4.60) were significant predictors with increased risk for positive margin. The frequency of residual CIN Ⅰ or worse in hysterectomy specimens was found to be 55.6% (20/36) in patients who were margin free, 71.4% (15/21) in patients with CIN occurring close to margin, and 80.0% (8/10) in patients with margin involvement. The frequency of residual CIN Ⅲ or worse was found to be 13.9% (5/36), 23.8% (5/21) and 50.0% (5/10) respectively in different groups.Conclusions Cytological grade, depth of

  19. [Clinical significance and distribution of BRCA genes mutation in sporadic high grade serous ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W L; Wang, Z Z; Zhao, J Z; Hou, Y Y; Wu, X X; Li, W; Dong, B; Tong, T T; Guo, Y J

    2017-01-25

    Objective: To investigate the mutations of BRCA genes in sporadic high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) and study its clinical significance. Methods: Sixty-eight patients between January 2015 and January 2016 from the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University were collected who were based on pathological diagnosis of ovarian cancer and had no reported family history, and all patients firstly hospitalized were untreated in other hospitals before. (1) The BRCA genes were detected by next-generation sequencing (NGS) method. (2) The serum tumor markers included carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA(125), CA(199), and human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) were detected by the chemiluminescence methods, and their correlation was analyzed by Pearson linear correlation. Descriptive statistics and comparisons were performed using two-tailed t-tests, Pearson's chi square test, Fisher's exact tests or logistic regression analysis as appropriate to research the clinicopathologic features associated with BRCA mutations, including age, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, platinum-based chemotherapy sensitivity, distant metastases, serum tumor markers (STM) . Results: (1) Fifteen cases (22%, 15/68) BRCA mutations were identified (BRCA1: 11 cases; BRCA2: 4 cases), and four novel mutations were observed. (2) The levels of CEA, CA(199), and HE4 were lower in BRCA mutations compared to that in control group, while no significant differences were found (P>0.05), but the level of CA(125) was much higher in BRCA mutation group than that in controls (t=-3.536, P=0.003). Further linear regression analysis found that there was a significant linear correlation between CA(125) and HE4 group (r=0.494, PBRCA(+) and BRCA(-) group (P>0.05), while significant differences were found in CA(125) and sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy between the patients with BRCA mutation and wild type (PBRCA mutations in sporadic HGSOC (P=0.007). Conclusion: The

  20. Theileriosis in six dogs in South Africa and its potential clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal T. Rosa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Theileriosis is a tick-borne disease caused by a piroplasma of the genus Theileria that can causeanaemia and thrombocytopenia. Its clinical importance for dogs’ remains poorly understood,as only some develop clinical signs. In this study, physical and laboratory findings, treatment and outcomes of six client-owned diseased dogs presented at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital are described retrospectively. In the dogs, Theileria species (n = 4and Theileria equi (n = 2 were detected by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR-reverse blothybridisation assay in blood samples, whilst PCR for Babesia, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia were negative. The most common physical findings were pale mucous membranes (five out of six dogs, bleeding tendencies (five out of six dogs and lethargy (three out of six dogs. All dogs were thrombocytopenic [median 59.5 x 109/L (range 13–199] and five out of six dogs were anaemic [median haematocrit 18% (range 5–32]. Bone marrow core biopsies performed in two dogs showed myelofibrosis. Theileriosis was treated with imidocarb dipropionate and the suspected secondary immune-mediated haematological disorders with prednisolone and azathioprine. Five dogs achieved clinical cure and post-treatment PCR performed in three out of five dogs confirmed absence of circulating parasitaemia. An immune-mediated response to Theileria species is thought to result in anaemia and/or thrombocytopenia in diseased dogs with theileriosis. A bleeding tendency, most likely secondary to thrombocytopenia and/or thrombocytopathy, was the most significant clinical finding in these cases. The link between thrombocytopenia, anaemia and myelofibrosis in theileriosis requires further investigation and theileriosis should be considered a differential diagnosis for dogs presenting with anaemia and/or thrombocytopenia in endemic tick-borne disease areas.

  1. Changes and clinical significance of liver function and myocardial zymogram in children with rotavirus enteritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan-Ping Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the changes and clinical significance of liver function and myocardial zymogram in children with rotavirus (RV) enteritis.Methods:A total of 70 children with RV enteritis who were admitted in our hospital were included in the study and served as the observation group. The liver function and myocardial zymogram before and after treatment were detected. The proportion of RV enteritis children with liver and myocardial damage was calculated. The effect of dehydration on the liver function and myocardial zymogram in children with RV enteritis was analyzed. A total of 65 children with non-RV enteritis who were admitted in our hospital at the same stage were served as the control group.Results:The serum ALT, AST, CK, CK-MB, LDH, andα-HBDH levels, and liver myocardial damage children proportion in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). The serum ALT, AST, CK, CK-MB, LDH, andα-HBDH levels in the observation group were significantly elevated with the acceleration of dehydration degree (P<0.05). In the observation group, 45 children had liver and myocardial damage, whose ALT, AST, CK, CK-MB, LDH, andα-HBDH levels after treatment were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P<0.05).Conclusions:Early detection of liver function and myocardial zymogram can accurately reflect the condition in children with RV enteritis, which can provide an evidence for the formulation of clinical treatment protocol.

  2. Expression and clinical significance of fibroblast growth factor 1 in gastric adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu NQ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Naiqing Liu,1,2,* Jingyu Zhang,2,* Shuxiang Sun,2 Liguang Yang,2 Zhongjin Zhou,2 Qinli Sun,2 Jun Niu11Department of General Surgery, Qilu Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of General Surgery, Yishui Central Hospital, Linyi, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The clinical significance of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1 has been revealed in several cancers, including ovarian cancer, breast cancer, and bladder cancer. However, the clinical significance of FGF1 in gastric adenocarcinoma has not been explored.Patients and methods: In our experiments, we systematically evaluated FGF1 expression in 178 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma with immunohistochemistry, and subsequently analyzed the correlation between FGF1 expression and clinicopathologic features. Moreover, FGF1 expression in tumor tissue and corresponding adjacent tissue was detected and compared by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The Kaplan–Meier method and the Cox-regression model were used with univariate and multivariate analysis, respectively, to evaluate the prognostic value of FGF1 in gastric adenocarcinoma.Results: Higher FGF1 expression rate is 56.7% (101/178 in gastric adenocarcinoma. FGF1 expression in gastric adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than adjacent tissue (P<0.0001. Expression of FGF1 is significantly associated with lymph node invasion (P<0.001, distant metastasis (P=0.013, and differentiation (P=0.015. Moreover, FGF1 overexpression was closely related to unfavorable overall survival rate (P=0.021, and can be identified to be an independent unfavorable prognostic factor (P=0.004.Conclusion: FGF1 is an independent prognostic factor, indicating that FGF1 could be a potential molecular drug target in gastric adenocarcinoma.Keywords: fibroblast growth factor 1, gastric adenocarcinoma, prognosis, biomarker, lymph node, gene fusion

  3. Speciation and Biofilm Production of Coagulase Negative Staphylococcal Isolates from Clinically Significant Specimens and their Antibiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Vijayasri Badampudi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CONS are increasingly recognized as significant nosocomial pathogens. Their ability of biofilm formation and multiple drug resistance are causing serious human infections. Aim and Objectives: To isolate, identify, speciate clinically significant CONS from various specimens, to study antibiotic resistance pattern and biofilm production. Material and Methods: Specimens were collected aseptically, processed and identified upto the species level by a simple scheme of tests urease, novobiocin resistance, mannose and mannitol fermentation, ornithine decarboxylase. Antibiotic sensitivity was done with special reference to methicillin resistance. Biofilm formation was detected by Congo Red Agar (CRA method and Tube Method (TM. Results: Study groupOf 100 isolates majority were pus (40, followed by urine (28, blood (16, CSF (5, body fluids (4 and catheter tips and implants (7. The most common species isolated was S. epidermidis (40% followed by S. haemolyticus (26%, S. saprophyticus (15%, S. schleiferi (13%, S. simulans (2%, S. cohnii (2% and S. warneri and S. capitis each 1%. Resistance to penicillin was 91% followed by ampicillin (79%, cotrimoxazole (67%. Methicillin resistance was 72%. Biofilm producers were 69% by CRAmethod and 33% by TM with majority species S. epidermidis (82.5%- CRA and 55%-TM. Biofilm production was significantly associated with MRCONS (p value 0.0036. Control group-Of 30 isolates were S. epidermidis 66.6% followed by S. haemolyticus (16.66%. Biofilm producers were 53.33% by CRA method and 26.65% by TM with majority species S. epidermidis (65%-CRA and 30%-TM.Methicillin resistance was 26.6%. Conclusion: Clinical significance of CONS is increasing day by day, so there is a need for accurate identification to species level and their antibiogram to avoid multidrug resistance. Biofilm producing CONS species pose a risk and CRA method for screening biofilm can be used in all conventional

  4. Clinical significance of pharmacogenomic studies in tardive dyskinesia associated with patients with psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang FC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Florence CF Chang, Victor SC Fung Movement Disorders Unit, Department of Neurology, Westmead Hospital, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Pharmacogenomics is the study of the effects of genetic polymorphisms on medication pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. It offers advantages in predicting drug efficacy and/or toxicity and has already changed clinical practice in many fields of medicine. Tardive dyskinesia (TD is a movement disorder that rarely remits and poses significant social stigma and physical discomfort for the patient. Pharmacokinetic studies show an association between cytochrome P450 enzyme-determined poor metabolizer status and elevated serum antipsychotic and metabolite levels. However, few prospective studies have shown this to correlate with the occurrence of TD. Many retrospective, case-control and cross-sectional studies have examined the association of cytochrome P450 enzyme, dopamine (receptor, metabolizer and transporter, serotonin (receptor and transporter, and oxidative stress enzyme gene polymorphisms with the occurrence and severity of TD. These studies have produced conflicting and confusing results secondary to heterogeneous inclusion criteria and other patient characteristics that also act as confounding factors. This paper aims to review and summarize the pharmacogenetic findings in antipsychotic-associated TD and assess its clinical significance for psychiatry patients. In addition, we hope to provide insight into areas that need further research. Keywords: pharmacogenomics, tardive dyskinesia, cytochrome P450, pharmacogenetic, schizophrenia

  5. Clinical significance of DVM and its prevalence in pre-gestational diabetes cases versus normal pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Akhlaghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pre-gestational diabetes mellitus affects less than 1% of all pregnancies and is a significant cause of fetal morbidity and mortality. It is hypothesized that impaired placental function, in the form of abnormal placental weight and/or abnormal placental histology, may be responsible for this event in such pregnancies. Delayed villous maturation of placental villi, which is one of the findings associated with pre-gestational diabetes increases the rate of perinatal mortality. There is limited literature regarding the delayed maturation of placental villous. This review included trials (randomized and non-randomized, cohort and case-control studies registered in Medline/PubMed database, from January 2001 to September 2012 that evaluated the clinical significance of delayed villous maturation and its prevalence in pre-gestational diabetic cases compared to normal pregnancies.It emphasizes that further studies with focus on possible clinical or ultrasound markers of placental delayed villous maturation, especially in a high risk-group such as women with pre-gestational diabetes mellitus are highly recommended.

  6. The clinical significance of disordered renal excretion of xanthurenic acid in depressive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoes, M J; Sijben, N

    1981-01-01

    Xanthurenic acid is a metabolite of L-tryptophanicotinic acid ribonucleotide biosynthesis. The excretion of xanthurenic acid from urine 24 h after ingestion of 5 g L-tryptophan is increased in depressive patients, and 17-hydroxycorticosteroids are considered of primary importance to this disorder. However, in this study, the excretion of xanthurenic acid and 17-hydroxycorticosteroids did not correlate with the scores of the Raskin depression scale, Hamilton depression scale, Zung depression scale, or the Zung anxiety scale in depressive patients. The patients were treated with either pyridoxine plus L-tryptophan, a presumably serotonin-enhancing treatment (n = 10) or maprotiline, a noradrenaline-enhancing drug (n = 10). Repeated measurements showed no differences between treatments after 2 or 4 weeks of treatment. The improvement in xanthurenic acid excretion precedes clinical improvements in depression. The excretion of xanthurenic acid only at 2 weeks correlated significantly with the anxiety and depression scores at 4 weeks, making prediction of clinical improvement possible. The neurobiological mode of action on noradrenergic or serotonergic neurons of antidepressant medication is of questionable significance to their therapeutic effect.

  7. Lipoprotein subfractions in metabolic syndrome and obesity: clinical significance and therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Dragana; Katsiki, Niki; Montalto, Giuseppe; Isenovic, Esma R; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Rizzo, Manfredi

    2013-03-18

    Small, dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL) represents an emerging cardiovascular risk factor, since these particles can be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) independently of established risk factors, including plasma lipids. Obese subjects frequently have atherogenic dyslipidaemia, including elevated sdLDL levels, in addition to elevated triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and apolipoprotein-B, as well as decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Obesity-related co-morbidities, such as metabolic syndrome (MetS) are also characterized by dyslipidaemia. Therefore, agents that favourably modulate LDL subclasses may be of clinical value in these subjects. Statins are the lipid-lowering drug of choice. Also, anti-obesity and lipid lowering drugs other than statins could be useful in these patients. However, the effects of anti-obesity drugs on CVD risk factors remain unclear. We review the clinical significance of sdLDL in being overweight and obesity, as well as the efficacy of anti-obesity drugs on LDL subfractions in these individuals; a short comment on HDL subclasses is also included. Our literature search was based on PubMed and Scopus listings. Further research is required to fully explore both the significance of sdLDL and the efficacy of anti-obesity drugs on LDL subfractions in being overweight, obesity and MetS. Improving the lipoprotein profile in these patients may represent an efficient approach for reducing cardiovascular risk.

  8. Lipoprotein Subfractions in Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Clinical Significance and Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfredi Rizzo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Small, dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL represents an emerging cardiovascular risk factor, since these particles can be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD independently of established risk factors, including plasma lipids. Obese subjects frequently have atherogenic dyslipidaemia, including elevated sdLDL levels, in addition to elevated triglycerides (TG, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL and apolipoprotein-B, as well as decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels. Obesity-related co-morbidities, such as metabolic syndrome (MetS are also characterized by dyslipidaemia. Therefore, agents that favourably modulate LDL subclasses may be of clinical value in these subjects. Statins are the lipid-lowering drug of choice. Also, anti-obesity and lipid lowering drugs other than statins could be useful in these patients. However, the effects of anti-obesity drugs on CVD risk factors remain unclear. We review the clinical significance of sdLDL in being overweight and obesity, as well as the efficacy of anti-obesity drugs on LDL subfractions in these individuals; a short comment on HDL subclasses is also included. Our literature search was based on PubMed and Scopus listings. Further research is required to fully explore both the significance of sdLDL and the efficacy of anti-obesity drugs on LDL subfractions in being overweight, obesity and MetS. Improving the lipoprotein profile in these patients may represent an efficient approach for reducing cardiovascular risk.

  9. The clinical significance of vitamin D in systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajalingham Sakthiswary

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is more prevalent among SLE patients than the general population. Over the past decade, many studies across the globe have been carried out to investigate the role of vitamin D in SLE from various clinical angles. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to summarise and evaluate the evidence from the published literature; focusing on the clinical significance of vitamin D in SLE. METHODS: THE FOLLOWING DATABASES WERE SEARCHED: MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Knowledge and CINAHL, using the terms "lupus", "systemic lupus erythematosus", "SLE and "vitamin D". We included only adult human studies published in the English language between 2000 and 2012.The reference lists of included studies were thoroughly reviewed in search for other relevant studies. RESULTS: A total of 22 studies met the selection criteria. The majority of the studies were observational (95.5% and cross sectional (90.9%. Out of the 15 studies which looked into the association between vitamin D and SLE disease activity, 10 studies (including the 3 largest studies in this series revealed a statistically significant inverse relationship. For disease damage, on the other hand, 5 out of 6 studies failed to demonstrate any association with vitamin D levels. Cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia were related to vitamin D deficiency, according to 3 of the studies. CONCLUSION: There is convincing evidence to support the association between vitamin D levels and SLE disease activity. There is paucity of data in other clinical aspects to make firm conclusions.

  10. Expressions of cysteine-rich61, connective tissue growth factor and Nov genes in hepatocellular carcinoma and their clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Jun Zeng; Lian-Yue Yang; Xiang Ding; Wei Wang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of cysteine-rich61 (Cyr61),connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and nephroblastoma overexpressed gene (Nov) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC),and to evaluate the relationship between Cyr61, CTGF and Nov genes expression with invasion and metastasis of HCC.METHODS: Thirty-one HCC specimens were divided into small hepatocellular carcinoma (SHCC), nodular hepatocellular carcinoma (NHCC), solitary large hepatocellular carcinoma (SLHCC) according to their diameter and number of nodes. Reverse transcription polymerse chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of Cyr61, CTGF and Nov genes in 31 resected specimens of hepatocellular carcinoma and para-cancerous normal liver tissues semi-quantitatively and the relation between their expression levels and clinical pathological parameters were compared.RESULTS: The expressions of Cyr61 and CTGF mRNA in carcinoma tissues were significantly higher than those in para-cancerous normal liver tissues (P<0.01). The expressions of Cyr61 and CTGF mRNA in HCC with venous invasion were higher than those in HCC without venous invasion. CTGF expression in HCC Edmondson's grade Ⅲ-Ⅳ was significantly higher than that in HCC Edmondson's grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ (P = 0.022). There was no obvious correlation between Nov mRNA and clinical-pathological features.Compared to NHCC, SLHCC had better cell differentiation,easier capsule formation, less microscopic venous invasion,milder liver cirrhosis. The expressions of Cyr61 and CTGF mRNA in NHCC were significantly higher than those in SLHCC and SHCC.CONCLUSION: Cyr61 and CTGF genes may play an important role in hepatocellular carcinogenesis and correlate with recurrence and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.SLHCC has better biological behaviors than NHCC.

  11. Expression of transcription factor Pokemon in non-small cell lung cancer and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhi-hong; WANG Sheng-fa; YU Liang; WANG Ju; CHANG Hao; YAN Wei-li; FU Kai; ZHANG Jian

    2008-01-01

    Background Transcription factor Pokemon,a central regulation gene of the important tumor suppressor ARF gene,exerted its activity by acting upstream of many tumor-suppressing genes and proto-oncogenes.Its expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)and its clinical significance remains unclear.The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of Pokemon in NSCLC and to explore its correlation with the clinical pathological characteristics and its influence on patients'prognosis.Methods Fifty-five cases of NSCLC were involved in this study.The expression of Pokemon in the tumor tissue,the corresponding tumor adjacent tissue and the surrounding tissue was detected via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR)and Western blotting,with the aim of investigating the correlation between the expression of Pokemon in tumor tissue of NSCLC and its clinicaI pathological characteristics.Moreover,a prognostic analysis was carried out based upon the immunohistochemical(IHC)detection of the expression of Pokemon gene in archival tumor specimens (5 years ago) of 62 cases of NSCLC.Results Statistical significance of the expression of Pokemon mRNA and protein was determined in the tumor tissue,the tumor adjacent tissue and the surrounding tissue (P<0.05).The expression of Pokemon was determined not to be associated with the patients'sex,age,smoking condition,tumor differentiation degree,histology and lymph node metastasis condition.However,its relationship with TNM staging was established(P<0.05).Furthermore,it was shown that the suwival rate of patients with negative Pokemon expression was significantly higher than that of those with positive Pokemon expression(P=0.004),therefore,the expression of Pokemon is believed to be an independent factor affectinq prognosis (P=0.034).Concluaion Pokemon was over-expressed in NSCLC tissue and the expression of Pokemon might be of clinical significance in non-small cell lung cancer prognostic evaluation.

  12. Cancer-Specific Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT Promoter Mutations: Biological and Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiantian Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The accumulated evidence has pointed to a key role of telomerase in carcinogenesis. As a RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA at the end of linear chromosomes, and attenuates or prevents telomere erosion associated with cell divisions. By lengthening telomeres, telomerase extends cellular life-span or even induces immortalization. Consistent with its functional activity, telomerase is silent in most human normal somatic cells while active only in germ-line, stem and other highly proliferative cells. In contrast, telomerase activation widely occurs in human cancer and the enzymatic activity is detectable in up to 90% of malignancies. Recently, hotspot point mutations in the regulatory region of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT gene, encoding the core catalytic component of telomerase, was identified as a novel mechanism to activate telomerase in cancer. This review discusses the cancer-specific TERT promoter mutations and potential biological and clinical significances.

  13. EXPRESSION AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF p73A IN BREAST CARCINOMA TISSUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xin; SUN Zhi-jun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the expression and clinical significance of p73( in breast carcinomas. Methods: The expression of p73( was detected by immunohistochemistry in 41 breast carcinoma tissues, 13 benign breast tumor tissues and 8 normal tissues and 8 normal breast tissues, respectively. Results: The positive expression of p73( was found in 20/41 (48.8%) of breast carcinoma tissues, 1/13 (7.7%) of benign breast tumor tissues. The positive expression rate of p73( in breast carcinoma tissues was significant1y higher than that in benign breast tumor tissues and normal breast tissues (P<0.05). The expression intensity of p73( increased significantly in breast carcinoma tissues compared with benign breast tumor tissues and normal breast tissues (P<0.05). Significant association of the expression of p73( with lymph node metastases and TNM stages of the carcinoma was found (P<0.05). The expression of p73( displayed a positive correlation with p53 (P<0.05). Conclusion: These results suggest that there is an up-regulation of p73( expression in breast carcinoma tissues, which may be implicated in the tumorigenesis of breast carcinoma as a molecular alteration.

  14. Clinical significance of EGF and EGFR expression changes in cryptorchid boys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangGS; LuRK

    2002-01-01

    Aim:To explore the changes of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR) expressions in cryptorchid children and their clinical significance.Methods:The level of serum EGF was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and the expression of EGFR by immunohistochemistry.Results:(1)The level of serum EGF was significantly lower in cryptorchid children than in normal subjects at age group of 5-9 years (P<0.01) and 10-14 years (P<0.01),(2)The level of EGF was significantly lower in boys with impalpable testis than in those with extracanalicular and intracanalicular testes (P<0.01),(3)The serum EGF level increased significantly 6 months after orchiopexy(P<0.05),(4)The EGFR expression in testicular Leydig's cells was lower in 2-4 year-old boys than in those over 5 years(P<0.05) and (5)the EGFR expression was less positive in the impalpable group and the intracanalicular group than that of the extracanalicular group (P<0.01).Conclusion:The EGF and EGFR expressions may correlate with the age and the position of testes;orchiopexy improves the EGF and EGFR expressions in cryptorchid boys.

  15. Clinical significance of color Doppler ultrasound in detection of hepatic cirrhosis and splenic venous hemodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xia Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical significance of color Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis patients with portal and splenic venous hemodynamics.Methods:Select from August 2014 to August 2015 60 cases of liver cirrhosis in our hospital were liver cirrhosis, according to the standard of grading of liver function in Child-Pauh points A, B, C grade and healthy people as healthy group comparative study, the use of color Doppler ultrasound in portal vein diameter (DPV), blood flow velocity (VPV), blood flow (QPV) and splenic vein (DSV), blood flow velocity (VSV), blood flow (QSV) were measured, and calculated DSV/DPV.Results:DPV, DSV, QPV, QSV in liver cirrhosis group were significantly higher than those in the healthy group, VSV and VPV were significantly lower than those in the healthy group (P0.05).Conclusions: Color Doppler ultrasound in portal vein hemodynamics detection has is a simple, noninvasive, repeated operation and other advantages, has an important significance in the evaluation of liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  16. Clinical significance of radiation therapy in breast recurrence and prognosis in breast-conserving surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Reiki; Nagao, Kazuharu; Miyayama, Haruhiko [Kumamoto City Hospital (Japan)] [and others

    1999-03-01

    Significant risk factors for recurrence of breast cancer after breast-conserving therapy, which has become a standard treatment for breast cancer, are positive surgical margins and the failure to perform radiation therapy. In this study, we evaluated the clinical significance of radiation therapy after primary surgery or breast recurrence. In 344 cases of breast-conserving surgery, disease recurred in 43 cases (12.5%), which were classified as follows: 17 cases of breast recurrence, 13 cases of breast and distant metastasis, and 13 cases of distant metastasis. Sixty-two patients (16.7%) received radiation therapy. A positive surgical margin and younger age were significant risk factors for breast recurrence in patients not receiving postoperative radiation therapy but not in patients receiving radiation therapy. Radiation therapy may be beneficial for younger patients with positive surgical margins. Furthermore, radiation therapy after recurrence was effective in the cases not treated with postoperative radiation but not in cases with inflammatory recurrence. Patients with breast recurrence alone had significantly higher survival rates than did patients with distant metastases regardless of breast recurrence. These findings suggest that the adaptation criteria of radiation therapy for local control must be clarified. (author)

  17. DETECTION AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THROMBOMODULIN IN BOTH PLASMA AND TISSUE EXTRACTS OF CANCER PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓华; 卢兴国; 徐根波; 朱蕾; 黄连生

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of thrombomodulin (TM) in both plasma and tissue extracts of cancer patients for evaluating its clinical significance. Methods: Plasma TM levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in both plasma of 188 cancer patients and 24 cancer tissue extracts including their adjacent non-cancer tissues. Results: The plasma TM levels both in cancer patients and in metastasis patients were significantly higher than that in controls [(33.47±14.25)μg/L, (41.68±16.96)μg/L, vs(20.40±7.22)μg/L,P0.05). The TM levels in cancer tissue extracts were significantly lower than that in their adjacent non-cancer tissue extracts [(647.71±317.51)μg/L vs (1455.63±772.22)μg/L, P<0.01]. On the contrary, the plasma TM levels in these cancers were significantly higher than that in controls. Conclusion: The rise of plasma TM levels in cancer patients was associated with metastasis and diffusion of cancers. The TM levels can be served as an sensitive index for judging progression and metastasis of cancers.

  18. Clinical significance of the reduction of UT-B expression in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Xue, Haogang; Lei, Yanming; Zhu, Jianqiang; Yang, Baoxue; Gai, Xiaodong

    2014-12-01

    Urea transporter B (UT-B) is a membrane protein and plays an important role in regulating urea concentration in bladder urothelial cells. It has been reported that UT-B gene mutations were related to bladder carcinogenesis, and UT-B deletion could induce DNA damage and apoptosis in bladder urothelium. However, the functions and clinical significance of UT-B in human bladder cancer remain unknown. The most common type of bladder cancer is urothelial carcinoma (UC). We hypothesized that UT-B expression was related to bladder UC progress. In this study, UT-B was detected using immunohistochemistry in 52 paraffin-embedded specimens of bladder UC and 10 normal urothelium specimens. The results showed that UT-B protein expression in UC tumor cells was significantly lower as compared with normal urothelial cells (P = 0.021). UT-B protein expression was significantly reduced with increasing histological grade (P = 0.010). UT-B protein expression in muscle-invasive stage was significantly lower than in non-muscle-invasive stage (P = 0.014). Taken together, our data suggest that the reduction or loss of UT-B expression may be related to the incidence, progression and invasiveness of bladder UC. UT-B may be a novel diagnostic or prognostic biomarker, as well as a potential therapeutic target in UC of the bladder.

  19. Clinical significance of {sup 123}I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ido, Akira; Hasebe, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Hideki [Asahikawa Medical Coll., Hokkaido (Japan)] [and others

    1997-09-01

    We studied the abnormality of myocardial sympathetic nervous system in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy in comparison with the parameters of other clinical examinations. In 50 patients with HCM, the heart to mediastinum {sup 123}I-MIBG uptake ratio (H/M) was significantly low and washout rate (WR) of {sup 123}I-MIBG was significantly high respectively compared with normal subjects (n=8). H/M was negatively correlated with serum norepinephrine level, wall thickness or left ventricle, left ventricular mass index, left ventricular end diastolic pressure respectively, and WR was positively correlated with those parameters respectively. On the other hand, LF/HF calculated by spectral analysis in holter electrocardiogram was positively correlated with H/M, and negatively correlated with WR. In HCM, H/M in patients with subjective symptoms was significantly lower than that without subjective symptoms, and WR in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation was significantly higher than that without paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. This study revealed that H/M and WR reflected the severity and the difference of disease type in HCM. In conclusion, {sup 123}I-MIBG contributes to evaluating more details in diagnosis and pathophysiology of HCM. (author)

  20. Expression and clinical significance of obesity-associated gene STEAP4 in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H M; Cui, Y Z; Wang, W G; Cheng, H X; Sun, Y J; Zhao, H Y; Yan, Y Q

    2016-10-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and clinical significance of the obesity-associated gene STEAP4 in obese children. Fifty-three obese children and 33 children with a standard body weight (control) from our hospital were recruited to this study. The expression of STEAP4 mRNA and protein in the adipose tissue were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, in order to analyze the relationship between STEAP4 mRNA and protein levels and blood pressure, blood lipid profile, blood glucose levels, and inflammation in obese children. Obese children showed significantly lower levels of STEAP4 mRNA and protein in the adipose tissue compared to the control subjects (P obese subjects exhibited significantly higher diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels, and a significantly lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level, compared to the control subjects (P obese children and was closely related to the blood pressure, blood lipid, blood glucose, and inflammation in these patients; therefore, these results could provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of childhood obesity.

  1. Neural crest cells: from developmental biology to clinical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noisa, Parinya; Raivio, Taneli

    2014-09-01

    Neural crest cells are multipotent cells, which are specified in embryonic ectoderm in the border of neural plate and epiderm during early development by interconnection of extrinsic stimuli and intrinsic factors. Neural crest cells are capable of differentiating into various somatic cell types, including melanocytes, craniofacial cartilage and bone, smooth muscle, and peripheral nervous cells, which supports their promise for cell therapy. In this work, we provide a comprehensive review of wide aspects of neural crest cells from their developmental biology to applicability in medical research. We provide a simplified model of neural crest cell development and highlight the key external stimuli and intrinsic regulators that determine the neural crest cell fate. Defects of neural crest cell development leading to several human disorders are also mentioned, with the emphasis of using human induced pluripotent stem cells to model neurocristopathic syndromes.

  2. Dehydroepiandrosterone biosynthesis, metabolism, biological effects, and clinical use (analytical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Goncharov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the fundamental information on the metabolism of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, its biological role and possibilities of its use for replacement therapy. There were studied species differences in the synthesis of DHEA in the adrenal cortex. It was found that DHEA and DHEA-sulfate are produced only by the adrenal glands of humans and monkeys, including lower monkeys. Their biosynthesis involves the following steps: cholesterol → pregnenolone → 17-hydroxypregnenolone → DHEA. The adrenal glands of other species, including rats and mice do not synthesize DHEA. At the same time, in certain brain structures not only in man and monkey, but also in other animals DHEA and its precursors are synthesized de novo which are denoted as neurosteroids. It was demonstrated that Purkinje cells which play an important role in memory formation and learning are mainly place neurosteroid formation in mammals and other vertebrates. To establish the relationship of age and the level of DHEA and other steroids we studied the dynamics of their levels at different periods of postnatal development of people. Peak concentration DHEA observed in aged 25–30 years. In the interval from 20 to 90 years in humans the level falls approximately for 90 %. Cortisol levels in blood does not vary with age, leading to an imbalance in the ratio of cortisol/DHEA. Proved a major role of DHEA as a source (precursor for the synthesis of biologically active sex steroids – testosterone, estradiol and estrone in peripheral tissues. This review presents the bioavailability of DHEA in various physiological and pathological processes in humans and animals. In animal experiments has shown a higher bioavailability of DHEA in transdermal administration as compared with oral administration as in this case there is no steroid rapid inactivation in the liver during its first passage. According to recent studies there is a pronounced dependence of bioavailability of DHEA

  3. Dehydroepiandrosterone biosynthesis, metabolism, biological effects, and clinical use (analytical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Goncharov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the fundamental information on the metabolism of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, its biological role and possibilities of its use for replacement therapy. There were studied species differences in the synthesis of DHEA in the adrenal cortex. It was found that DHEA and DHEA-sulfate are produced only by the adrenal glands of humans and monkeys, including lower monkeys. Their biosynthesis involves the following steps: cholesterol → pregnenolone → 17-hydroxypregnenolone → DHEA. The adrenal glands of other species, including rats and mice do not synthesize DHEA. At the same time, in certain brain structures not only in man and monkey, but also in other animals DHEA and its precursors are synthesized de novo which are denoted as neurosteroids. It was demonstrated that Purkinje cells which play an important role in memory formation and learning are mainly place neurosteroid formation in mammals and other vertebrates. To establish the relationship of age and the level of DHEA and other steroids we studied the dynamics of their levels at different periods of postnatal development of people. Peak concentration DHEA observed in aged 25–30 years. In the interval from 20 to 90 years in humans the level falls approximately for 90 %. Cortisol levels in blood does not vary with age, leading to an imbalance in the ratio of cortisol/DHEA. Proved a major role of DHEA as a source (precursor for the synthesis of biologically active sex steroids – testosterone, estradiol and estrone in peripheral tissues. This review presents the bioavailability of DHEA in various physiological and pathological processes in humans and animals. In animal experiments has shown a higher bioavailability of DHEA in transdermal administration as compared with oral administration as in this case there is no steroid rapid inactivation in the liver during its first passage. According to recent studies there is a pronounced dependence of bioavailability of DHEA

  4. Clinical, functional and health-related quality of life correlates of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with systemic sclerosis: a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Nguyen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify clinical, functional and health-related quality of life (HRQoL correlates of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc. METHODS: Three-hundred-and-eighty-one patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology and/or the Leroy and Medsger criteria for SSc were assessed for visceral involvement, disability and HRQoL (assessed by SF-36. Clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression were evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HAD (defined cut-off≥8. RESULTS: 9.2% the patients had limited SSc, 50.5% limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc, and 40.3% diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc. Overall, 40.4% and 58.8% of the patients had clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. Compared to patients without clinically significant symptoms of depression, patients with clinically significant symptoms of depression had poorer health status, HRQoL mental and physical component, and greater global disability, hand disability and aesthetic impairment. Compared to patients without clinically significant symptoms of anxiety, patients with clinically significant symptoms of anxiety had poorer SF-36 mental and physical component scores. On multivariable analysis, excluding mental component score of SF-36, variables independently associated with clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety were global disability and physical component of SF-36, plus female gender for clinically significant symptoms of anxiety only. Remarkably, patients with and without clinically significant psychiatric symptoms were comparable for all disease-related clinical features assessed. CONCLUSION: High levels of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression are observed among SSc patients. Clinically significant psychiatric symptoms are rather associated with increased disability and altered HRQoL, than with disease-specific organ

  5. Clinical significance of pulmonary nodules detected on abdominal CT in pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, Micheal; Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Zurakowski, David [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Departments of Anesthesiology and Surgery, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The clinical significance of a pulmonary nodule that is detected incidentally on CT studies in children is unknown. In addition, there is limited information regarding the management of incidentally detected pulmonary nodules discovered on abdominal CT studies in children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of incidental pulmonary nodules detected on abdominal CT studies in children. This was a retrospective study performed following institutional review board approval. Abdominal CT reports in patients younger than 18 years of age from July 2004 to June 2011 were reviewed for the terms ''nodule,'' ''nodular'' or ''mass'' in reference to the lung bases. The study population included those pediatric patients in whom pulmonary nodules were initially detected on abdominal CT studies. The largest pulmonary nodules detected on CT studies were evaluated for their features (size, shape, margin, attenuation, location, and presence of calcification and cavitation). Follow-up CT studies and clinical records were reviewed for demographic information, history of underlying malignancies and the clinical outcome of the incidental pulmonary nodules. Comparison of malignant versus benign pulmonary nodules was performed with respect to the size of the nodule, imaging features on CT, and patient history of malignancy using the Student's t-test and Fisher exact test. Youden J-index in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off size for suggesting a high risk of malignancy of incidentally detected pulmonary nodules. Pulmonary nodules meeting inclusion criteria were detected in 62 (1.2%) of 5,234 patients. The mean age of patients with nodules was 11.2 years (range: 5 months-18 years). Thirty-one patients (50%) had follow-up CT studies and two of these patients (6%) were subsequently found to have malignant pulmonary nodules. Both of these

  6. Clinical significance of Keap1 and Nrf2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Fa Huang

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been reported to play an important role in progression and prognostication in various kinds of cancers. However, the role and clinical significance of oxidative stress markers Keap1 and Nrf2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC has not been elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the correlation of oxidative stress markers Keap1 and Nrf2 expression and pathological features in OSCC by using tissue microarray. Tissue microarrays containing 17 normal oral mucosa, 7 oral epithelial dysplasia and 43 OSCC specimens were studied by immunohistochemistry. The association among these proteins and pathological features were analyzed. Expression of oxidative stress markers Keap1, Nrf2, and antioxidants PPIA, Prdx6, as well as CD147 was found to increase consecutively from normal oral mucosa to OSCC, and the Keap1, Nrf2, PPIA, Prdx6, CD147 expression in OSCC were significantly higher when compared to normal oral mucosa. Expression of Keap1, Nrf2 in tumors was not found to be significantly associated with T category, lymph node metastases, and pathological grade. Furthermore, we checked the relationship among these oxidative stress markers and found that Keap1 was significantly correlated with Nrf2, Prdx6 and CD147. Significant relationship between Nrf2 and Prdx6 was also detected. Finally, we found patients with overexpression of Keap1 and Nrf2 had not significantly worse overall survival by Kaplan-Meier analysis. These findings suggest that ROS markers are associated with carcinogenesis and progression of OSCC, which may have prognostic value and could be regarded as potential therapeutic targets in OSCC.

  7. [General introduction to clinical chronobiology and the therapeutic manipulation of biological rhythms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carpio, Pere A; Corominas, August

    2004-07-10

    In humans, most clinical variables follow biological rhythms approaching to a mathematical function defined by the cosmic-climatic rhythm. Chronophysiology, chronopathology, chronopharmacology, chronotherapy and phototherapy have common elements frequently studied in a disperse manner, thus making it difficult a global understanding of clinical chronobiology as a unitary and well-characterized discipline. This review focuses on medical chronobiology, which is much more technical since it only gathers those directives of clinical chronobiology having a health-care impact on daily practice.

  8. Identification, characterization and biological significance of very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guowei; Cui, Jian; Zheng, Yizhou; Han, Zhongchao; Xu, Yong; Li, Zongjin

    2012-07-01

    The progress of stem cell research, along with technological innovation, has brought researchers to focus on the potential role of stem cells in regenerative medicine. Ethical and technological issues have limited the applications of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in this field. As a promising candidate, very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) express a multitude of pluripotent stem cell markers and demonstrate the ability to differentiate into three germ-layer lineages in vitro. Optimized methods for isolation and expansion of VSELs have aroused the scientific community's interest in use of this kind of cells for regenerative purposes. In this review, we will focus on the biological characteristics, as well as the potentiality and remaining challenges in clinical application of VSELs. Moreover, a comparison among VSELs and the other pluripotent stem cells will be illustrated to highlight the unique advantages of VSELs.

  9. [Refsum's disease. Epidemiologic, clinical and biological correlation. 6 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, H; Leys, D; Skjeldal, O H; Caron, J C; Lambert, P; Lehembre, P; Hache, J C

    1986-01-01

    Nine patients with symptoms and signs of Refsum's disease are reported. In 6 a systemic accumulation of phytanic acid was demonstrated, together with low phytanic acid oxidase activity in skin fibroblasts in 5 of them. In 3, no disorder of phytanic acid metabolism was demonstrated. In 3, the diagnosis was made during the pre-clinical period. The disease seems more frequent in Northern France, which agrees with the hypothesis of a genetic mutation which would have taken place in Scandinavia some centuries ago and was subsequently spread by the Vikings. The effects of a dietary treatment on serum phytanic acid levels and clinical disorders are reported. The general condition of the patients improved remarkably but only partially. The diet is unpalatable and in some patients the level of serum phytanic acid increased, due to the mobilization of body fat. Patients with very high levels of phytanic acid might be initially treated by plasmapheresis. For the same reason, the diet should supply enough calories to keep body weight unchanged, and body weight loss whatever its cause should be avoided.

  10. The biology of infertility: research advances and clinical challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzuk, Martin M; Lamb, Dolores J

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction is required for the survival of all mammalian species, and thousands of essential ‘sex’ genes are conserved through evolution. Basic research helps to define these genes and the mechanisms responsible for the development, function and regulation of the male and female reproductive systems. However, many infertile couples continue to be labeled with the diagnosis of idiopathic infertility or given descriptive diagnoses that do not provide a cause for their defect. For other individuals with a known etiology, effective cures are lacking, although their infertility is often bypassed with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), some accompanied by safety or ethical concerns. Certainly, progress in the field of reproduction has been realized in the twenty-first century with advances in the understanding of the regulation of fertility, with the production of over 400 mutant mouse models with a reproductive phenotype and with the promise of regenerative gonadal stem cells. Indeed, the past six years have witnessed a virtual explosion in the identification of gene mutations or polymorphisms that cause or are linked to human infertility. Translation of these findings to the clinic remains slow, however, as do new methods to diagnose and treat infertile couples. Additionally, new approaches to contraception remain elusive. Nevertheless, the basic and clinical advances in the understanding of the molecular controls of reproduction are impressive and will ultimately improve patient care. PMID:18989307

  11. Expression of growth hormone and its receptor in chronic atrophic gastritis and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Min Si; Qian Cao; Min Gao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the growth hormone (GH) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) expression of and its clinical significance in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG).METHODS:A total of 90 cases were enrolled in the study.Thirty were healthy controls,the other 60 patients were divided into two groups according to the endoscopical and histological diagnosis.Blood samples were drawn in the morning (menarche did not occur during the blood extraction in female patients),gastric mucosa was obtained by endoscopy.Serum GH and gastrice mucosal GHR levels were measured using radioimmunoassay (RIA) and En Vinsion technique.RESULTS:The average GH level was 1.021±0.132μ/L in CAG patients,in controls it was 2.869 0.512μ/L.There was a significant difference between these two groups(P<0.01).The positive rate of GHR in CAG patients was 10%,in controls the rate was 100%.There was a significant difference (P<0.01).There was no significant change of GH level (3.176±0.421μ/L) in patients with gastric carcinoma compared with controls (P>0.05).CONCLUSION:The study shows that levels of GH and GHR expression are low in CAG patients.CAG pathogenesis has a correlation with mucosal nutrient deficiency,decreased levels of GH and GHR have an adverse effect on the repair and regeneration of CAG.There is no significant change of GH in gastric carcinorma patients,GH dose not play a role in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer.

  12. QT Dispersion Level and Its Clinical Significance.in Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical significance of QT dis persion (QTd, QTcd) in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Methods QTd and QTcd were measured on simultaneously recording 12-lead electrocardiograms ( ECGs) in 60 DCM patients and cormpared with 60 healthy subjects. Results The values of QTd and QTcd in DCM were significantly higher than those in control group ( P < 0. 01 ). With subgroup analysis, QTd and QTcd in patients uith cardiac sudden death (CSD) were longer than those in survivors and those died of progressive heart failure ( P < 0. 05), patients with ventricular tachycardia (VT) or with severe heart failure than those without (compared uith patients with ventricular premature beats [V PB], P<0.05, compared with patients without ventricular arrhythmia [VA], P<0. 01) or with mild heart failure (P<0. 01). The values of QTd and QTcd in patients with VPB were greater than those in patients without VA( P< 0. 05). There were significant differences in the rates of VT, CSD and heart failure between the groups of QTd> 110 ms and QTd≤110 ms(P<0. 01 or P<0.05), in contrast to ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS)( P>0.05). Conclusion The values of QTd and QTcd increased in DCM patients were susceptive index for monitoring maligant VA in DCM, also important prognostic markers of CSD. QTd was correlated with NY HA functional class but not with EF and FS.

  13. Change in sleep construction and its clinical significance in patients with epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao zhongxin; Dong Xiaoli; Wu Weihua; Shao Fuyuan; Dong Shuzhen

    2000-01-01

    ObjectiveAnalyzing change of sleep construction and its clinical significance in patients with epilepsy Methods The 24h ambulatory EEGs(AEEG) during interictal were monitored in 58 patients with epilepsy and control group (58 normal persons). Results 1. The sleep period tiae and time of REM (rapid eye movement sleep)were no marked difference between the epilepsy and control groups, 479.98±67. 4 min in epilepsy, 496. 33±57.62 min in control. 2. In coaparison with those of the control, the epilepsy group showed that the NREM ( non rapid eye movement sleep) stage Ⅰ- Ⅱ was longer(68±6.61% and 56.33±7.01 % respectively), the NREM stage Ⅲ-Ⅳ was shorter (7. 03±5. 41% and 18.42±6. 94 % respectively) . There were a significance difference between the two groups (P<0。 01) . 3. The arousal times (268 times) in epilepsy were higher than those (15 times) of the control (P<0.01). 4. The results of correlated analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the arousal times and the frequency of epileptifora discharges in epilepsy (r=0.639, P<0. 01). 5. The sleep spindles in 12 patients (21%) decreased and asymmetrical, normal in the control. Conclusion: There were the sleep disorders in patients with epilepsy . The epileptic activity during interictal can obvious influences on sleep quality in patients with epilepsy.

  14. Expression of HE4 in Endometrial Cancer and Its Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aims of this study were to determine the expression of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4 in endometrial cancer and to explore the relationships between HE4 expression, clinicopathological parameters, and prognosis. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect HE4 expression in 102 cases of endometrial cancer, 30 cases of endometrial atypical hyperplasia, and 20 cases of normal endometrium. The positive expression rate of HE4 in endometrial carcinoma was 84.62%, significantly higher than 66.67% in atypical hyperplasia (P<0.05 and 15.00% in normal endometrium (P<0.0.01. With the exception of stage II, HE4 expression in endometrial cancer showed an increasing tendency with increased clinical stage (P<0.05. The positive expression rate of HE4 increased with a decrease in the degree of differentiation. A statistically significant difference was observed between the highly differentiated group and the poorly differentiated group (P<0.05. Mortality in endometrial cancer patients with high HE4 expression was significantly higher than that in patients with low HE4 expression (P<0.05. Endometrial cancer patients with high HE4 expression have a poor prognosis.

  15. Clinical Significance of Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content in the Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Karagülle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia (IDA and to compare it with other conventional iron parameters. METHODS: A total of 32 female patients with IDA (serum hemoglobin 120 g/L and serum ferritin <20 ng/mL were enrolled. RESULTS: CHr was 24.95±3.92 pg in female patients with IDA and 29.93±2.96 pg in female patients with iron deficiency. CHr showed a significant positive correlation with hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, serum iron, and transferrin saturation and a significant negative correlation with transferrin and total iron-binding capacity. The cut-off value of CHr for detecting IDA was 29 pg. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that CHr is a useful parameter that can be confidently used in the diagnosis of IDA, and a CHr cut-off value of 29 pg predicts IDA.

  16. Expression of heat shock protein gp96 in osteosarcoma and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to detect the expression of heat shock protein gp96(HSPgp96)in osteosarcoma and explore its role in anti-tumor immunity.Expression of HSPgp96 in 45 cases of osteosarcoma,including 24 cases of the osteoblast type,21 cases of chondroblast type and 5 cases of normal bone tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry(IHC).The expression rate of HSPgp96 was 100%(45/45)in osteosarcoma,compared with 20% (1/5)in normal bone tissue.The average positive cell rates were 97.23% and 0.48% in osteosarcoma and normal bone tissue,respectively,and the difference between them was significant(P<0.01).The positive cell rates in osteoblast type and chondroblast type were 97.78% and 96.56%,respectively,and the difference had no statistical significance(P>0.05).The expression degree of HSPgp96 in osteosarcoma had a clear correlation with the pathologic degree(P<0.05),while it had no relationship with the clinical stage(P>0.05).The expression of HSPgp96 is high in osteosarcoma and it may be a significant index for judgment of malignancy degree and an important target site of anti-tumor immunity.

  17. Mad2 and p27 expression profiles in colorectal cancer and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang-Qiang Li; Hong-Fu Zhang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of tumor suppressor gene p27 and spindle checkpoint gene Mad2 and to demonstrate their expression difference in colorectal cancerand normal mucosa and to evaluate its clinical significance.METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining was used for detection of expression of Mad2 and p27in colorectal cancer and its corresponding normal mucosa.RESULTS: Mad2 was significantly overexpressed in colorectal cancer compared with corresponding normal mucosa (P<0.01, χ2= 7.5), and it was related to the differentiation of adenocarcinoma, lymph node metastasis and survival period after excision (P<0.05, χ2 = 7.72, χ2 = 4.302,χ2= 6.234). The rate of p27 positive expression in adenocarcinomas and normal mucosa was 40% and 80%respectively. There was a significant difference in p27expression between adenocarcinomas and normal mucosa (P<0.001, χ2 = 13.333), which was related to the differentiation degree of adenoca rcinoma and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05, χ2 = 8.901 χ2 = 4). The positive expression of p27was not correlated with survival period after excision.CONCLUSION: Defect of spindle checkpoint gene Mad2and mutation of p27 gene are involved mainly in colorectal carcinogenesis and associated with prognosis of colorectal cancer.

  18. The Mechanism of Resistance of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa to β-lactam Antibiotics and Clinical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋建新; 阮秋蓉; 齐俊英; 高美英; 王以光

    2002-01-01

    Summary: To study the resistant mechanism and clinical significance of pseudomonas aeruginosato β-lactam antibiotics, the outer membrane permeability rate of 30 P. aeruginosa strains to 5 β-lactam antibiotics was measured and their production of β-lactamase and the β-lactamase genes theycarried detected. Furthermore, the relationship between the permeability, β-lactamase and theclinical effects of β-lactam antibiotics was observed. By using 14C-penicillin and liquid-scintillantisotope assay, the affinity of penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) was measured and their roles inthe resistant mechanism studied. It was revealed that the permeability rate was higher in sensitivestrains than in resistant ones (P<0. 05). All strains harbored 1-4 β-lactamase genes and producedβ-lactamase. Higher permeability rate and higher degree of stability to β-lactamase indicated betterclinical therapeutic effects. The affinity of PBPs changed little without regard to the permeabilityand β-lactamase. These results suggested that the permeability of outer membrane and β-lacta-mase, but not PBPs, played important roles in the resistant mechanism of P. aeruginosa to β-lac-tam antibiotics and affected the clinical therapeutic effectiveness of some patients.

  19. Refractory anemia with severe dysplasia: clinical significance of morphological features in refractory anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, A; Jinnai, I; Yagasaki, F; Kusumoto, S; Minamihisamatsu, M; Honda, S; Murohashi, I; Bessho, M; Hirashima, K

    1998-04-01

    Refractory anemia (RA) in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are very heterogeneous diseases regarding their morphology, clinical features and survival. We proposed the new designations 'RA with severe dysplasia (RASD)' and 'RA with minimal dysplasia (RAminiD)'. In our criteria, RASD is considered present if a bone marrow (BM) examination shows Pseudo-Pelger-Huet anomalies of mature neutrophils > or =3% and/or micromegakaryocytes (mMgk) of megakaryocytes > or =10% in RA patients. RAminiD is defined as RA cases other than RASD. After the reclassification of 58 primary RA patients, the group was composed of 45 RAminiD and 13 RASD patients. The blast percentage in the BM and the frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities observed in the RASD patients were intermediate between those in the RAminiD and RAEB patients. The analysis of survival curves revealed differences among the three groups; the RASD patients had lower survival probabilities than those of the RAminiD group, and significantly higher probabilities than those of the RAEB group. (RAminiD vs RASD, P=0.06; RASD vs RAEB, P=0.004.) Our data indicate that in RA patients, RASD is a distinct subset of RA with an unfavorable clinical outcome.

  20. Clinical significance of hepatic artery variations originating from the superior mesenteric artery in abdominal tumor surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yuan; LIU Chao; LIN Jin-ling

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatic artery variations are frequent clinical occurrences.The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristic course of variant hepatic arteries originating from the superior mesenteric artery for the purpose of providing instructions for abdominal tumor surgery.Methods The course of variant hepatic arteries originating from the superior mesenteric artery was studied in 400 patients with liver cancer confirmed by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and multi-slice spiral computed tomography angiography (MSCTA),and 86 patients with gastric cancer confirmed by preoperative MSCTA between June 2008 and June 2010 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University.Results Hepatic artery variations originating from the superior mesenteric artery were noticed in 49 liver cancer patients and 14 gastric cancer patients (total 63 cases),with a variation rate of 12.96%,including two cases (3.17%) where the hepatic arteries ran along the anterior pancreas,and 61 cases (96.83%) where the hepatic arteries ran along the posterior pancreas.Conclusions Hepatic artery variations originating from the superior mesenteric artery present as two types:the pre-pancreas type and the post-pancreas type with the latter predominating.This finding is of clinical significance in abdominal tumor surgeries where clearance of portal lymph nodes is needed.

  1. Fractures of the nasolacrimal fossa and canal: CT findings and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chae Kyung; Lee, Hyeon Kyeong; Lee, Jong Hwa; Ku, Kwan Min; Choi, Dae Seob; Oh, Yeon Hee; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Lee, Sung Woo; Han, Jae Sik; Kim, Mi Woon [Dongguk Univ., College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-09-01

    This study was aimed to determine the CT findings of nasolacrimal fossa and their clinical significance. Twenty-nine of 116 patients who underwent facial CT scanning after trauma showed evidence of nasolacrimal fracture. We retrospectively analyzed CT findings to evaluate fracture patterns of the nasolacrimal fossa and canal and associated facial fractures. To determine the frequency of associated complications, clinical records were reviewed were reviewed. Three types of fracture were identified: avulsion, comminuted,and linear. Forty-one nasolacrimal fractures, 20 of which involved the nasolacrimal fossa and 21 the nasolacrimal canal, were found in the 29 patients. Of the 20 fractures involving the nasolacrimal fossa, ten were avulsion, eight were linear, and two were comminuted. Seventeen of 21 fractures involving the nasolacrimal canal were comminuted and four were linear;all nasolacrimal fractures were associated with other facial fractures. Twenty-five of 29 fractures were the complex midfacial-type (naso-ethmoid);the remaining four were simple and unilateral. Nasolacrimal sac and duct-related complications were documented in only two patients; they experienced epiphora associated with avulsion fracture of the nasolacrimal fossa, though the probvlem was resolvced by conservative treatment without surgery. Fractures of the nasolacrimal fossa and canal were accompanied by simple or complex facial fractures. Injury-associated complications were rare, and all were associated with avulsion fractures of the nasolacrimal fossa.=20.

  2. Clinical Significance of Lymphoscintigraphy Findings in the Evaluation of Lower Extremity Lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Karaçavuş

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of lymphoscintigraphy imaging in the evaluation of lower extremity lymphedema. Methods: Technetium-99m-labeled nanocolloid was injected subcutaneously in the first web spaces of both feet of 123 patients (M/F: 43/80, mean age 57.5±13.1 years, range 16-78 years who had clinical evidence of lower extremity swelling with suspicion of lymphedema, and were referred for routine lymphoscintigraphy. Lymphoscintigraphy scan was started as dynamic viewing followed by static whole body imaging at 10 minute, 1 hour and 4 hours after injection. Results: Eighty-seven patients had lymphedema. Patients who had lymphedema were divided into two groups according to their scintigraphy findings: Group I included 58 patients without uptake in the popliteal nodes, and group II included 29 patients with positive popliteal nodes. The rate of popliteal node visualization was higher in patients with dermal backflow as compared to those without dermal backflow (p<0.001. The duration of lymphedema was also longer in patients with dermal backflow and popliteal nodes (p<0.004. Conclusion: Lymphoscintigraphy is a reliable, easily applied and well-tolerated objective method to diagnose lower extremity lymphedema. Uptake by popliteal lymph nodes and the presence of dermal backflow on lymphoscintigraphy, which is performed for evaluation of the lower limb lymphedema, were important signs indicating longer disease duration and higher severity of lymphatic dysfunction.

  3. Markers of Collagen Remodeling Detect Clinically Significant Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette J; Kazankov, Konstantin; Leeming, Diana J

    2015-01-01

    as potential biomarkers for clinically significant and advanced fibrosis. METHODS: Specific protein fragments of matrix metalloprotease degraded type I, III, IV and VI collagen (C1M, C3M, C4M, C6M) and type III and IV collagen formation (Pro-C3 and P4NP7S) were assessed in plasma from 403 chronic hepatitis C......BACKGROUND AND AIM: Detection of advanced fibrosis (Metavir F≥3) is important to identify patients with a high urgency of antiviral treatments vs. those whose treatment could be deferred (F≤2). The aim was to assess the diagnostic value of novel serological extracellular matrix protein fragments.......75 and AUC = 0.86. Combination of Pro-C3 and C4M with age, BMI and gender in a multiple ordered logistic regression model improved the diagnostic value for detecting ≥F2 and ≥F3 with AUC = 0.80 and AUC = 0.88. CONCLUSION: The Pro-C3 protein fragment provided clinically relevant diagnostic accuracy...

  4. Cystitis: From Urothelial Cell Biology to Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilho Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystitis is a urinary bladder disease with many causes and symptoms. The severity of cystitis ranges from mild lower abdominal discomfort to life-threatening haemorrhagic cystitis. The course of disease is often chronic or recurrent. Although cystitis represents huge economical and medical burden throughout the world and in many cases treatments are ineffective, the mechanisms of its origin and development as well as measures for effective treatment are still poorly understood. However, many studies have demonstrated that urothelial dysfunction plays a crucial role. In the present review we first discuss fundamental issues of urothelial cell biology, which is the core for comprehension of cystitis. Then we focus on many forms of cystitis, its current treatments, and advances in its research. Additionally we review haemorrhagic cystitis with one of the leading causative agents being chemotherapeutic drug cyclophosphamide and summarise its management strategies. At the end we describe an excellent and widely used animal model of cyclophosphamide induced cystitis, which gives researches the opportunity to get a better insight into the mechanisms involved and possibility to develop new therapy approaches.

  5. The new biology of cancer: future clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbro, J W

    1989-06-01

    Our recognition that cancer evolves by clonal selection and that the basis for this selection is the growth advantage provided by the inappropriate expression or suppression of genes present in all normal cells allows us to anticipate that the pathways of this evolutionary process may be discovered. If a finite number of such pathways exist with some commonality between various tumors, there is the possibility to anticipate the mechanisms that cell clones might use for both carcinogenesis and tumor progression and to deal with evolving clones before their survival potential becomes overwhelming. As our biochemical understanding increases we may develop the capability to do the following: to identify individuals who have inherited or acquired defective cancer suppressor genes; to identify precursor lesions more exactly; to characterize the degree of progression of a newly diagnosed tumor (has the metastatic phenotype evolved?); to develop antibodies against cell membrane proteins necessary to tumor progression; to produce immune probes that carry cytotoxins or isotopes to specific cell populations; and to take advantage of cell signals to modify tumor growth. The potential for application of the New Biology to cancer medicine seems endless.

  6. CT value analysis and clinical significance before and after percutaneous lumbar discectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雷; 裴福兴; 宋跃明; 沈彬; 周宗科; 宋文锴; 张聪

    2002-01-01

    To provide theoretical basis for effect and mechanism of percutaneous lumbar discectomy in clinic. Methods: A total of 180 patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation were evaluated by CT on the fifth day before and after operation. Meanwhile, CT value was measured in the determined level and region. Results: After operation, CT value of the central and posterior determined point of herniated intervertebral disc was lower significantly than that before operation (P<0.01), but CT value of the anterior determined point was different insignificantly. The excellent and good results of the patients together were 83% postoperatively. Conclusions: The curative effect of percutaneous lumbar discectomy is achieved through reduction of lumbar intradiscal pressure.

  7. Clinical significance of elevated serum and urine amylase levels in patients with appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swensson, E E; Maull, K I

    1981-12-01

    During the 45 month period beginning January 1977, 251 patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of acute appendicitis underwent celiotomy at the Medical College of Virginia Hospital. A preoperative serum or urine amylase determination was recorded in 155 of the patients (62 percent). Of this group, 15 patients (10 percent) had elevation of serum amylase or 2 hour urine amylase. Hyperamylasemia or hyperamylasuria directly led to misdiagnosis or treatment delay in 5 of the 15 patients. Appendiceal rupture occurred in three patients, two of whom had prolonged (greater than 1 month) hospitalizations directly attributable to the misdiagnosis. As a result of this study, we conclude that (1) acute appendicitis and elevated amylase levels may occur concurrently, (2) hyperamylasemia or hyperamylasuria should not dissuade the surgeon from early operation if other clinical features suggest appendicitis, and (3) abdominal pain and elevation of amylase level define significant intraabdominal disease, not specifically pancreatic disease.

  8. Clinical significance of ventricular enlargement and cortical atrophy in computed tomography of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, O.; Agnoli, A.L.; Lippmann, R.; Schuetz, H.J.

    1981-02-01

    The diagnosis of atrophy of the brain based on the visual interpretation of CT findings appears questionable. In 56 patients there was no correlation between the CT findings of enlarged ventricles and sulci and clinical findings of psychoorganic syndromes. Only the group of 60 to 80 year old patients showed a statistically significant correlation between psychoorganic findings and the area of the lateral ventricles - measured planimetrically - and the diameter of the cella medica, but not the group of the 40 to 60 year old. There was no relationship between the number of cortical sulci and psychopathology. The morphological findings of ventricular enlargement and cortical atrophy in CT - even with exact measurements - do not allow any conclusions in regard to psychoorganic findings.

  9. [Viridans streptococci isolated from cerebrospinal fluid. Clinical significance of 9 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, D; Guerra, A; Peña, P; Molina, F

    1997-02-01

    Viridans streptococci (VS) are often isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, the significance of such isolates is poorly understood. In the present study we carry out a retrospective analysis of 9 patients in whom VS were isolated from CSF during a 1-year period at La Paz Hospital. Two patients (22.2%) had meningitis diagnosed through clinical, laboratory and bacteriologic findings. Both patients had predisposition diseases (previous difficult spinal tap, ventriculo-peritoneal shunt). The other isolations were considered as contaminants. Three patients (33.3%) with no VS meningitis had other different serious disease (sepsis without bacteriologic confirmation). VS are isolated with relative frequency from CSF, although they cause meningitis in less than one-quarter of the cases (those who have a predisposition disease). In the other cases, VS are isolated as contaminants of CSF and other disease should be search as cause of patient symptoms.

  10. Significance of Evidence-based Medicine in the Assessment of Chinese Medicine Clinical Efficacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji-yao

    2010-01-01

    @@ Evidence-based medicine (EBM) requires the integration of the best research evidence with our clinical expertise and our patient's unique values and circumstances.The best evidence is valid and clinically relevant,especially from patient-centered clinical research.The clinical expertise means the ability to use our clinical skills and past experiences to rapidly identify each patient's unique health state and diagnosis,their individual risks,and the benefits of interventions (1)..

  11. [Abnormality of blood coagulation indexes in patients with de novo acute leukemia and its clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fang-Fang; Hu, Kai-Xun; Guo, Mei; Qiao, Jian-Hui; Sun, Qi-Yun; Ai, Hui-Sheng; Yu, Chang-Lin

    2013-04-01

    To explore hemorrhage risk and the clinical significance of abnormal change of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), plasma fibrinogen (FIB), plasma thrombin time (TT) and d-dimer (D-D) in de novo acute leukemia (except for APL), the different bleeding manifestations of 114 cases of de novo acute leukemia with different coagulation indexes were analyzed retrospectively. The correlation between these blood coagulation indexes and the possible correlative clinical characteristics were analysed, including age, sex, type of acute leukemia, initial white blood cell(WBC) and platelet(Plt) count, the proportion of blast cells in bone marrow and cytogenetic abnormality of patients at diagnosis. The results indicated that the incidence of abnormal blood coagulation was as high as 78.1% for de novo AL patients. These patients with 5 normal blood coagulation indexes may have mild bleeding manifestation, but the more abnormal indexes, the more severe bleeding. Both PT and D-D were sensitive indexes for diagnosis of level II bleeding. Incidence of abnormal blood coagulation significantly correlates with the proportion of blast cells in bone marrow (χ(2) = 4.184, OR = 1.021, P coagulation. It is concluded that the coagulation and fibrinolysis are abnormal in most patients with de novo acute leukemia. More abnormal indexes indicate more severe bleeding, and both PT and D-D are sensitive indexes for diagnosis of level II bleeding. Higher proportion of blast cells in bone marrow predicts higher incidence of abnormal blood clotting. Acute leukemia with elderly age, high white blood cell count and adverse cytogenetics do not predict severer abnormal blood clotting. Detection of PT, APTT, TT, FIB, and D-D may help to judge whether the patients are in a state of hypercoagulability or disseminated intravenous coagulation, which will provide experiment evidences for early intervention and medication.

  12. STUDY OF CHARACTERIZATION & ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT CANDIDA SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last two decades Candida has accounted for the most serious opportunistic infections especially in the immuno-compromised individuals. Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections & the rates of resistance to standard antifungal therapies are on the rise. Awareness regarding fungal infections has compelled the clinicians and laboratories to lay more emphasis on the detection of fungi; as speciation and antifungal tests are not routinely done. Over the past decade significant progress has been made with standardization of the methods for antifungal susceptibility testing, correlation between in-vitro results & patient outcome. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to isolate, identify & determine the susceptibility pattern of clinically significant Candida species and study the spectrum of Non-albicans Candida species, thus contributing to overall reduction in the cost of treatment and duration of hospital stay. METHODS: The study was carried out at department of microbiology MVJ Medical Hospital Bangalore for one year from Aug 2010 – July 2011. 50 Candida species which were isolated from various clinical specimens were included in the study. They were identified by using various media & identification methods. Antifungal susceptibility testing was done on Yeast nitrogen base agar by disk diffusion method & analyzed. RESULTS: Non-albicans Candida (NAC emerged as the commonest species with [39(22%] causing fungal infection followed by Candida albicans [11(22%]. Among the NAC isolates Candida tropicalis was predominant followed by Candida krusei, Candida glabrata & Candida guilliermondi. CONCLUSION: Studying the speciation & susceptibility patterns of Candida will help us understand the etio-pathology and might assist in better patient care

  13. Distinguishing between statistical significance and practical/clinical meaningfulness using statistical inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Decisions about support for predictions of theories in light of data are made using statistical inference. The dominant approach in sport and exercise science is the Neyman-Pearson (N-P) significance-testing approach. When applied correctly it provides a reliable procedure for making dichotomous decisions for accepting or rejecting zero-effect null hypotheses with known and controlled long-run error rates. Type I and type II error rates must be specified in advance and the latter controlled by conducting an a priori sample size calculation. The N-P approach does not provide the probability of hypotheses or indicate the strength of support for hypotheses in light of data, yet many scientists believe it does. Outcomes of analyses allow conclusions only about the existence of non-zero effects, and provide no information about the likely size of true effects or their practical/clinical value. Bayesian inference can show how much support data provide for different hypotheses, and how personal convictions should be altered in light of data, but the approach is complicated by formulating probability distributions about prior subjective estimates of population effects. A pragmatic solution is magnitude-based inference, which allows scientists to estimate the true magnitude of population effects and how likely they are to exceed an effect magnitude of practical/clinical importance, thereby integrating elements of subjective Bayesian-style thinking. While this approach is gaining acceptance, progress might be hastened if scientists appreciate the shortcomings of traditional N-P null hypothesis significance testing.

  14. Targeting cancer epigenetics: Linking basic biology to clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinjo, Keiko; Kondo, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies provide compelling evidence that epigenetic dysregulation is involved in almost every step of tumor development and progression. Differences in tumor behavior, which ultimately reflects clinical outcome, can be explained by variations in gene expression patterns generated by epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation. Therefore, epigenetic abnormalities are considered potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets. DNA methylation is stable at certain specific loci in cancer cells and predominantly reflects the characteristic clinicopathological features. Thus, it is an ideal biomarker for cancer screening, classification and prognostic purposes. Epigenetic treatment for cancers is based on the pharmacologic targeting of various core transcriptional programs that sustains cancer cell identity. Therefore, targeting aberrant epigenetic modifiers may be effective for multiple processes compared with using a selective inhibitor of aberrant single signaling pathway. This review provides an overview of the epigenetic alterations in human cancers and discusses about novel therapeutic strategies targeting epigenetic alterations.

  15. Protein C and acute inflammation: a clinical and biological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaans, Sarah C; Wagener, Brant M; Esmon, Charles T; Pittet, Jean Francois

    2013-10-01

    The protein C system plays an active role in modulating severe systemic inflammatory processes such as sepsis, trauma, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) via its anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. Plasma levels of activated protein C (aPC) are lower than normal in acute inflammation in humans, except early after severe trauma when high plasma levels of aPC may play a mechanistic role in the development of posttraumatic coagulopathy. Thus, following positive results of preclinical studies, a clinical trial (PROWESS) with high continuous doses of recombinant human aPC given for 4 days demonstrated a survival benefit in patients with severe sepsis. This result was not confirmed by subsequent clinical trials, including the recently published PROWESS-SHOCK trial in patients with septic shock and a phase II trial with patients with nonseptic ARDS. A possible explanation for the major difference in outcome between PROWESS and PROWESS-SHOCK trials is that lung-protective ventilation was used for the patients included in the recent PROWESS-SHOCK, but not in the original PROWESS trial. Since up to 75% of sepsis originates from the lung, aPC treatment may not have added enough to the beneficial effect of lung-protective ventilation to show lower mortality. Thus whether aPC will continue to be used to modulate the acute inflammatory response in humans remains uncertain. Because recombinant human aPC has been withdrawn from the market, a better understanding of the complex interactions between coagulation and inflammation is needed before considering the development of new drugs that modulate both coagulation and acute inflammation in humans.

  16. In-111-labeled leukocyte brain SPECT imaging. Clinical significance in evaluating acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinuma, Kunihiko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-02-01

    Many experimental studies have demonstrated that leukocyte infiltration plays an important role in the progression of ischemic cellular damage or post perfusion brain injury. However, only a few clinical studies have been reported. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of leukocyte accumulation in the ischemic brain tissue. Seventy six patients (49 men, 27 women; mean age: 65.5{+-}13.9 years) with acute ischemic stroke were studied by leukocyte brain SPECT imaging. A diagnosis included cardioembolism (n=46), atherothrombotic infarction (n=24), TIA (n=3) and lacuna (n=3). Immediately after the CBF study using Tc-99m-ECD (600 MBq), indium-111-labeled autologous leukocytes were injected. A brain scan for leukocytes was performed 48 hours later. The leukocyte-SPECT study was made 11.1{+-}7.7 days after the onset of stroke. Regional accumulation of leukocytes in the ischemic tissue was evaluated both by visual assessment and by measuring the hemispheric asymmetry index for leukocyte (AI-leuko), and was evaluated by comparison with variable factors including age, gender, infarction size, hemorrhagic transformation, timing of study after the onset, type of stroke and functional outcome. Of the 61 patients with acute ischemic stroke within 2 weeks of onset, 28 patients showed the accumulation of leukocytes in the central zone of ischemia. Six of 7 patients with repeated studies showed a reduction in leukocyte accumulation with time after the onset. Factors significantly associated with the higher accumulation of leukocyte included cardioembolic stroke, larger size of infarct, presence of hemorrhagic transformation and significant reduction in flow. In the 61 patients within 2 weeks of onset, the functional outcome was significantly correlated with the accumulation of leukocyte (p<0.001). The accumulation of leukocytes was seen more in patients with embolic stroke, larger infarction, and hemorrhagic transformation. The higher accumulation

  17. Clinical evaluation of the biological width following surgical crown-lengthening procedure: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the positional changes of the periodontal tissues, particularly the biological width, following surgical crown-lengthening in human subjects. Materials and Methods: A clinical trial study involving 15 patients was carried out for a period of 6 months. Sites were divided into 3 groups: treated (TT sites, adjacent (AD sites and nonadjacent (NAD sites. Free gingival margin [FGM], attachment level, pocket depth, bone level, biological width [BW] were recorded at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months. Direct bone level after flap reflection was recorded before and after osseous resection at baseline only. Level of osseous crest was lowered based on BW, and supracrestal tooth structure needed using a combination of rotary and hand instruments. Statistical Analysis: Student t test and ANOVA were used. Results: Overall, apical displacement of FGM at TT, AD and NAD sites was statistically significant compared to baseline. The apical displacement of FGM at TT site was more when compared to that at AD and NAD sites at 3 and 6 months. The BW at the TT site was smaller at 1, 3 and 6 months compared to that at baseline. However, at all sites, BW was reestablished to the baseline value at the end of 6 months. Interpretation and Conclusion: The BW at TT sites was reestablished to its original vertical dimension by 6 months. In addition, a consistent 2-mm gain of coronal tooth structure was observed at the 1, 3 and 6-month examinations.

  18. Clinical significance of sialic acid in acute rheumatic fever with and without carditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher H. Gomaa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In Egypt, acute rheumatic fever (ARF is the most common cause of acquired heart disease. ARF is a clinical syndrome without a specific diagnostic test or single pathognomonic feature, so the aim of this study is to investigate the utility of using serum total sialic acid (TSA in differentiation between children suffering from ARF with and without carditis. Methods: In the present study, 62 children were divided into three groups: first group, 16 healthy children; second group, 20 patients suffering from chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD; and third group, 26 patients suffering from ARF, subdivided into three subgroups as (A 10 patients suffering from arthritis without carditis, (B 10 patients with carditis but without congestive heart failure (CHF, and (C 6 patients with carditis and CHF. Antistreptolysin O titre (ASOT by latex agglutination test, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR by Westergren method, C-reactive protein (CRP by turbidimetric immunoassay method, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity by kinetic method, immunoglobulin levels by radial immunodifussion assay (RID, cardiac troponin I (cTnI by ELISA test kit and TSA by diphenylamine (DPA method were performed. Results: Significant elevated values of ESR, CRP, LDH, IgG and IgA were obtained in ARF as compared to both control and RHD groups; significant values of IgM were found between B and C as compared to control and RHD groups; cTnI showed insignificant difference between all groups; values of TSA showed highly significant difference between ARF as compared to both control and RHD groups as well as between RHD and control groups; significant difference was found between B and C groups as compared to group A. Conclusion: The results of the present study point out the possibility that the levels of TSA could be of help in differentiation between ARF patients with and without carditis. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(4: 305-311

  19. Biology and clinical observations of regulatory T cells in cancer immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Michele W L; Ritchie, David S; Neeson, Paul; Smyth, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    This review specifically examines the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in cancer in both mice and the clinic. Due to the rapid refinement of the definition of Tregs and their heterogeneity, emphasis is given to research findings over the past three years. For clarity, this review is broadly divided into three short sections that outline the basic biology of Tregs - (1) Treg lineage and development, (2) Treg subsets, and (3) mechanisms of Treg-mediated immune suppression; followed by two more comprehensive sections that cover; (4) clinical observations of Tregs and cancer, and (5) modifications of Treg biology as cancer immunotherapies. The latter two sections discuss the measurement of function and frequency of Treg in model systems and clinical trials and possible ways to interfere with Treg-mediated immune suppression with the focus on recent pre-clinical and clinical findings.

  20. Biological designer self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffolds significantly enhance osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and 3-D migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Horii

    Full Text Available A class of self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffolds has been shown to be an excellent biological material for 3-dimension cell culture and stimulating cell migration into the scaffold, as well as for repairing tissue defects in animals. We report here the development of several peptide nanofiber scaffolds designed specifically for osteoblasts. We designed one of the pure self-assembling peptide scaffolds RADA16-I through direct coupling to short biologically active motifs. The motifs included osteogenic growth peptide ALK (ALKRQGRTLYGF bone-cell secreted-signal peptide, osteopontin cell adhesion motif DGR (DGRGDSVAYG and 2-unit RGD binding sequence PGR (PRGDSGYRGDS. We made the new peptide scaffolds by mixing the pure RAD16 and designer-peptide solutions, and we examined the molecular integration of the mixed nanofiber scaffolds using AFM. Compared to pure RAD16 scaffold, we found that these designer peptide scaffolds significantly promoted mouse pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation. Moreover, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and osteocalcin secretion, which are early and late markers for osteoblastic differentiation, were also significantly increased. We demonstrated that the designer, self-assembling peptide scaffolds promoted the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1. Under the identical culture medium condition, confocal images unequivocally demonstrated that the designer PRG peptide scaffold stimulated cell migration into the 3-D scaffold. Our results suggest that these designer peptide scaffolds may be very useful for promoting bone tissue regeneration.

  1. Structural diversity and biological significance of lipoteichoic acid in Gram-positive bacteria: focusing on beneficial probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Tsukasa; Yokota, Shinichi; Fukiya, Satoru; Yokota, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cell surface molecules are at the forefront of host-bacterium interactions. Teichoic acids are observed only in Gram-positive bacteria, and they are one of the main cell surface components. Teichoic acids play important physiological roles and contribute to the bacterial interaction with their host. In particular, lipoteichoic acid (LTA) anchored to the cell membrane has attracted attention as a host immunomodulator. Chemical and biological characteristics of LTA from various bacteria have been described. However, most of the information concerns pathogenic bacteria, and information on beneficial bacteria, including probiotic lactic acid bacteria, is insufficient. LTA is structurally diverse. Strain-level structural diversity of LTA is suggested to underpin its immunomodulatory activities. Thus, the structural information on LTA in probiotics, in particular strain-associated diversity, is important for understanding its beneficial roles associated with the modulation of immune response. Continued accumulation of structural information is necessary to elucidate the detailed physiological roles and significance of LTA. In this review article, we summarize the current state of knowledge on LTA structure, in particular the structure of LTA from lactic acid bacteria. We also describe the significance of structural diversity and biological roles of LTA.

  2. Reticulocyte production index as a predictor of clinically significant anemia in chronic hepatitis C patients receiving pegylated interferon combination therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Lei Yan

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Besides old age and low pretreatment hemoglobin level, our study showed that a reticulocyte production index < 0.9% at Week 4 was a significant factor associated with clinically significant anemia during pegylated interferon combination treatment.

  3. CLINICAL AND BIOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF NEUROGENIC TUMOR AFTER PREOPERATIVE CHEMOTHERAPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Jiechun; Dong Kuiran; Jing Baixiang

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To study the significance of preoperative chemotherapy for the treatment of neurogenic tumor in children. Methods: VMA, MYCN gene and DNA content of 21 cases of neuroblastoma treated with preoperative chemotherapy were studied with a control group. Results: Resection rate was 95.5%. Mean survival time was 28.1±10.2 months, which was significantly higher than the control group (8.8±6.8 months, P<0.01).Post chemotherapeutic VMA was lower. DNA index was also reduced and the percentage of cells in G0+G1 phases was elevated. The MYCN expression was suppressed.Conclusion: Preoperative chemotherapy can induce the apoptosis of neurogenic tumor cells and inhibit its proliferative activity.

  4. LMNA cardiomyopathy: cell biology and genetics meet clinical medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan T. Lu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes A-type nuclear lamins (intermediate filament proteins expressed in most differentiated somatic cells, cause a diverse range of diseases, called laminopathies, that selectively affect different tissues and organ systems. The most prevalent laminopathy is cardiomyopathy with or without different types of skeletal muscular dystrophy. LMNA cardiomyopathy has an aggressive clinical course with higher rates of deadly arrhythmias and heart failure than most other heart diseases. As awareness among physicians increases, and advances in DNA sequencing methods make the genetic diagnosis of LMNA cardiomyopathy more common, cardiologists are being faced with difficult questions regarding patient management. These questions concern the optimal use of intracardiac cardioverter defibrillators to prevent sudden death from arrhythmias, and medical interventions to prevent heart damage and ameliorate heart failure symptoms. Data from a mouse model of LMNA cardiomyopathy suggest that inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways are beneficial in preventing and treating cardiac dysfunction; this basic research discovery needs to be translated to human patients.

  5. LMNA cardiomyopathy: cell biology and genetics meet clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jonathan T; Muchir, Antoine; Nagy, Peter L; Worman, Howard J

    2011-09-01

    Mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes A-type nuclear lamins (intermediate filament proteins expressed in most differentiated somatic cells), cause a diverse range of diseases, called laminopathies, that selectively affect different tissues and organ systems. The most prevalent laminopathy is cardiomyopathy with or without different types of skeletal muscular dystrophy. LMNA cardiomyopathy has an aggressive clinical course with higher rates of deadly arrhythmias and heart failure than most other heart diseases. As awareness among physicians increases, and advances in DNA sequencing methods make the genetic diagnosis of LMNA cardiomyopathy more common, cardiologists are being faced with difficult questions regarding patient management. These questions concern the optimal use of intracardiac cardioverter defibrillators to prevent sudden death from arrhythmias, and medical interventions to prevent heart damage and ameliorate heart failure symptoms. Data from a mouse model of LMNA cardiomyopathy suggest that inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are beneficial in preventing and treating cardiac dysfunction; this basic research discovery needs to be translated to human patients.

  6. Clinical significance of plasma mannose concentrations in healthy and diabetic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, A; Sato, T; Lee, P; Furuuchi, M; Tazaki, H; Katayama, K; Mizutani, H; Sako, T; Arai, T

    2009-06-01

    Circulating levels of monosaccharides can act as a reflection of systemic glucose/ energy metabolism. Characteristic changes observed in these levels can be seen in patients with diabetes and other metabolic disorders. There have been a few reports describing the significance of mannose metabolism as an energy source under physiological and pathological conditions. However, the relationship between circulating levels of mannose and the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus are unknown in dogs. This study examined circulating levels of mannose between healthy control and diabetic dogs and evaluated the clinical significance of mannose levels in dogs. Diabetic dogs demonstrated a higher circulating level of mannose in comparison to normal healthy control dogs. Plasma mannose was positively correlated with plasma glucose and fructosamine, respectively. Interestingly, plasma mannose levels were affected by plasma insulin levels. In the context of feeding and glucose tolerance tests, plasma mannose levels responded to changes in circulating insulin levels. Circulating plasma mannose levels decreased after feeding in both control and diabetic animals in spite of observed insulin level differences. However, when glucose tolerance tests were given, a positive correlation between mannose levels and insulin levels was observed. Therefore, plasma mannose levels obtained via glucose tolerance testing may be used as a new diagnostic method for evaluating insulin resistance or deficiency in diabetic dogs.

  7. Clinical significance of circulating dendritic cells in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Robak

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available DENDRITIC cells are a complex group of mainly bone-marrow-derived leukocytes that play a role in autoimmune diseases. The total number of circulating dendritic cells (tDC, and their plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC and myeloid dendritic cell (mDC1 and mDC2 subpopulations were assessed using flow cytometry. The number of tDC and their subsets were significantly lower in systemic lupus erythematosus patients than in the control group. The count of tDC and their subsets correlated with the number of T cells. The number of tDC and pDC subpopulation were lower in the patients with lymphopenia and leucopoenia than in the patients without these symptoms. Our data suggest that fluctuations in blood dendritic cell count in systemic lupus erythematosus patients are much more significant in pDC than in mDC, what may be caused by their migration to the sites of inflammation including skin lesions. Positive correlation between dendritic cell number and TCD4+, TCD8+ and CD19+ B cells, testify of their interactions and influence on SLE pathogenesis. The association between dendritic cell number and clinical features seems to be less clear.

  8. [Expression of MCL-1 and BAK proteins in nutritional anemia and its clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu-Jie; Wang, Yan; Lin, Feng-Ru

    2012-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the relation of MCL-1 and BAK proteins with incidence and development of nutritional anemia (NA) and their clinical significance. The MCL-1 and BAK protein levels in serum of 66 patients with NA were determined by using ELISA. Eighteen healthy people were randomly selected as normal controls. The results indicated that: (1) as compared with normal control group, the expression level of MCL-1 protein in 3 NA groups (iron-deficiency anemia, macrocytic anemia, mixed anemia) significantly decreased (P < 0.001), while the expression level of BAK protein obviously increased (P < 0.001), but the expression level of MCL-1 and BAK proteins among 3 NA groups showed no obvious differences; (2) the MCL-1 protein expression level increased and BAK protein expression level decreased in 3 NA groups after treatment (P < 0.05). (3) there was negative correlation of expression levels of MCL-1 protein with BAK protein in NA group (r = -0.858 P < 0.05). It is concluded that the MCL-1 and BAK proteins may play an important role in the incidence and development of NA, and can be used as the assist index for defining diagnosis and evaluate prognosis of NA.

  9. Clinical significance of isometric bite force versus electrical activity in temporal and masseter muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, Merete; Michler, L; Han, K;

    1989-01-01

    Bite force and activity in temporal and masseter muscles during biting and chewing were recorded in 19 control subjects and 23 subjects with symptoms and signs of functional disorders of the craniomandibular system. The entire group comprised 13 men and 29 women, 14-63 yr of age. Maximal unilater...... of mandibular elevator strength as a whole, but inadequate to disclose asymmetric conditions. During isometric contraction, relative strength of electromyographic activity fairly accurately imaged the output of mechanical activity....... bite force was 480 Newton (N) in control subjects and 387 N in patients, with corresponding bilateral values of 347 N and 230 N. At predetermined levels of contraction, temporalis and masseter activity were linearly related. Correlations of bite force and activity in short static contractions were...... significant with respect to unilateral, but not to bilateral force measurements. Only in the masseter muscle was strength of dynamic contractions during chewing significantly correlated to bite force. With the present method it was demonstrated that unilateral bite force is a simple clinical indicator...

  10. Clinical significance of CT-defined minimal ascites in patients with gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Kyung Chang; Ji Won Kim; Byung Kwan Kim; Kook Lae Lee; Chi Sung Song; Joon Koo Han; In Sung Song

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the clinical significance of minimal ascites,which was only defined by the CT and whose nature was not determined preoperatively, in the relationship with the peritoneal carcinomatosis.METHODS: The medical records and the dynamic CT films of 118 patients with gastric cancer were reviewed.Factors associated with peritoneal carcinomatosis were analyzed in 40 patients who had CT-defined ascites of which the nature was surgically confirmed.RESULTS: Only 12.5-25% of the CT-defined minimal ascites, whose volume was estimated to be less than 50 mL, were associated with peritoneal carcinomatosis.When the estimated CT-defined ascitic volume was 50 mL or more, peritoneal carcinomatosis was identified in 75-100%. When CT-defined lymph node enlargements were not found beyond the regional gastric area,perigastricinvasions were not suspected, and the size of tumor was less than 3 cm, peritoneal carcinomatosis seemed significantly less accompanied at the univariate analysis. However, except for the minimal volume of CTdefined ascites in comparison with the mild or more,other factors were not confirmed multivariately.CONCLUSION: In the patients with gastric cancer, CTdefined minimal ascites alone is rarely associated with peritoneal carcinomatosis, if it does not accompany other signs suggestive of malignant seeding. Therefore,consideration of active curative resection should not be hesitated, if CT-defined minimal ascites is the only delusive sign.

  11. Enhanced expression of resistin-like molecule beta in human colon cancer and its clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li-Duan; Tong, Qiang-Song; Weng, Mi-Xia; He, Jun; Lv, Qing; Pu, Jia-Rui; Jiang, Guo-Song; Cai, Jia-Bin; Liu, Yuan; Hou, Xiao-Hua

    2009-02-01

    Previous studies have indicated that resistin-like molecule beta (RELM beta), an intestinal goblet cell-specific protein, is markedly increased in the intestinal tumors of min mice and over-expressed in a human colon cancer cell line. We hypothesized that RELM beta might be enhanced in human colon cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical importance of RELM beta expression in colon cancer patients and to correlate its expression with various clinicopathological parameters, upstream regulatory molecule expression, tumor proliferative capacity, and patients' survival. Of the 80 colon cancer patients studied, 65 (81.25%) tested positive for RELM beta, mainly in the cytoplasm of colon mucosa. Contrasting sharply with the strongly RELM beta-positive tumors, normal colon mucous membrane was negative or weakly positive. RELM beta positivity in colon cancer was correlated with histological grade of differentiation and lymph node metastasis, but not with age, gender, tumor location and size, tumor infiltration, Dukes' stage, liver metastasis, and venous invasion. RELM beta expression was significantly correlated with the expression of transcription factor CDX-2 (P 0.05). The mean postoperative survival time (2.76 years) of RELM beta-positive patients was significantly longer than that (1.26 years) of RELM beta-negative patients (P = 0.032). These findings support evidence of the enhanced RELM beta expression in colon cancer patients and suggest that further investigation is warranted to explore the role of RELM beta in colon cancer.

  12. KAI1 gene expression in colonic carcinoma and its clinical significances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Hua Wu; Li Liu; Long-Hua Chen; Yan-Qing Ding

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate KAI1 gene expression in the progression of human colonic carcinoma and its clinical significances.METHODS: KAI1 expression was detected by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in the 4 established cell lines of colorectal carcinoma with different metastatic potentials, and in 80 specimens of colonic carcinoma, 21 colonic carcinoma specimens with lymphatic metastasis and 20 controls of normal colonic mucosa.RESULTS: The expressions of KAI1 in HT29 and SW480 cell lines were higher than those in LoVo and SW620. The expression of KAI1 gene was significantly higher in colorectal carcinoma compared with normal colonic mucosa and lymphatic metastasis (X2=46.838, P<0.01). The expression of KAI1 gene had no relationship with histological grade.The KAI1 expressions in Dukes A and B carcinoma were higher at both mRNA and protein levels compared to Dukes C carcinoma (X2=16.061, P<0.05). The expression of KAI1 in colonic carcinoma specimens with lymphatic metastasis was almost lost. The results of in situ hybridization were in concordance with immunohistochemistry.CONCLUSION: KAI1 is highly related to the metastasis of colonic carcinoma and may be a useful indicator of metastasis in colonic carcinoma.

  13. Detection of Anticardiolipin Antibody in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Its Clinical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANGHong; XUShizheng; 等

    2002-01-01

    Obuective To determine the frequency and the clinical significance of anticardiolipin antibodies(ACA) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE). Methods The serum ACA in 30 patients with SLE and 30 sera from healthy volunteers was detected by the enzyme linked immunosorbend assay(ELISA). Results In normal group the binding index(BI)of IgG,IgM and IgA type of ACA was 1.48±0.43,1.46±0.43,1.00±0.33 respec-tively .In SLE groups the BI of IgG-ACA, IgA-ACA was 3.04±1.25,3.07±1.61,1.96±1.05 respectively with the differ-ences being significant(P<0.05).ACA had relations with part ofclinical manifestations such as blood vessel inflammation,thrombocy-topenia,renal lesions,Raynaud's phenomenon,damage of nerve center system and alboratory noms as low complement C3.There were linear correlation between ANA and IgG-ACA or IgM-ACA with r=0.912,0.870,0.758 respectively,all P<0.01.Conclusio ACA could be used as a marker to evaluate the activity of SLE.

  14. Detection of Smac expression in bladder cancer and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiyi Liao; Fuqing Zeng; Xianghui Yue; Liang Wang; Fangmin Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To detect the expression of second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac) in bladder cancer and discuss its clinical significance. Methods: Smac was detected in 15 specimens of normal bladder epithelium and 72 specimens of bladder cancer by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry at the level of gene and protein,respectively. Results: The differences of both Smac protein and mRNA expressions between normal mucous membrane of bladder and grade Ⅰ bladder cancer had no statistical significance ( P > 0.05). The expressions of Smac protein and its mRNA in bladder cancer decreased gradually with the advance of bladder cancer ( P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively ). In invasive bladder cancer, the expressions of Smac protein and its mRNA were higher than those in superficial bladder cancer (P<0.01). Conclusions: Normal bladder epithelium has high expression of Smac while bladder cancer has low expression of Smac. The expression of Smac is closely related to the grade and stage of bladder cancer. Detection of Smac expression helps to judge the grade and stage of bladder cancer and Smac gene might become a valid target for gene therapy of bladder cancer.

  15. Clinical significance of peripheral blood erythroblastosis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyama, Susumu; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Nannya, Yasuhito; Ogawa, Seishi; Asano-Moki, Yuki; Ogawa, Natsu; Nakagawa, Masahiro; Sakata-Yanagimoto, Mamiko; Kawazu, Masahito; Komeno, Yukiko; Imai, Yoichi; Hangaishi, Akira; Kurokawa, Mineo; Tsujino, Shiho; Aoki, Katsunori; Chiba, Shigeru; Motokura, Toru; Hirai, Hisamaru

    2004-12-01

    Erythroblasts (EBL) are normally not observed in peripheral blood, but may be found in patients suffering from a variety of severe diseases. The detection of EBL in peripheral blood has been shown to be associated with a poor prognosis. However, the clinical significance of peripheral erythroblastosis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has not been evaluated. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 161 patients who underwent HSCT at our hospital from June 1995 to October 2001. EBL at any level were detected in 94% of the patients. Forty-four and 11 patients experienced erythroblastosis exceeding 200 and 1,000/ul, respectively. The erythroblast count was higher in patients who died than in the survivors (geometric mean value 184 vs. 100/ul, P=0.01). High-level erythroblastosis ( >1,000/ul) within 180 days after HSCT was associated with an extremely poor prognosis (median survival 22.5 days). Among the possible confounding factors, the use of total body irradiation (RR 2.35, 95% CI 1.22 - 4.54, P=0.011) and the disease status before transplantation (RR 2.51, 95% CI 1.15 - 5.49, P=0.021) were independent significant factors for erythroblastosis after HSCT. As for post-transplant events, a high EBL concentration was frequently preceded by graft-vs.-host disease, thrombotic microangiopathy, hypoxia, and hematological relapse.

  16. Expression of O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and its clinical significance in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiu-Chen; Wang, Yu-Hong; Lin, Yuan; Xue, Ling; Chen, Yuan-Jia; Chen, Min-Hu; Chen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is a widespread DNA repair enzyme defending against mutation caused by guanine O(6)-alkylating agents. Until now, we know only little about the expression of MGMT in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm (GEP-NEN). To study the expression of MGMT and its clinical significance in GEP-NEN, 174 specimens of GEP-NEN were examined, of which 152 specimens came from The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University during October 1995 to November 2013, 22 specimens came from Peking Union Medical College Hospital during September 2004 to April 2010. MGMT protein was detected with EnVision immunohistochemical staining method. Clinicopathological factors were also collected and analyzed. We observed that the overall expression rate of MGMT was 83.9%. Over expression of MGMT protein was not associated with sex, age, functional status, primary tumor location, grading, classification, TNM stage and metastasis (P > 0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in survival between MGMT-positive and MGMT-negative tumors of GEP-NEN patients (χ(2) = 0.887, P = 0.346). In multivariate analyses carried out by Cox proportional hazards regression model, MGMT expression was also not an independent predictors of survival. These results demonstrated that MGMT protein was highly expressed in GEP-NEN. MGMT deficiency rate was similar in pancreatic NEN and in gastrointestinal NEN. MGMT expression was not correlated with prognosis of GEP-NEN.

  17. The expression of HER-2/neu gene in colon cancer tissues and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Jin; Yuxuan Che; Qimin Wang; Fang Liu; Man Li; Lifen Wang; Xiuhua Sun; Yang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The article aims to detect the expression of HER-2/neu gene in colon cancer tissues and adjacent tissues, to analyze the relationship between dif erent pathologic types and clinical features, also to invest the distribution of patients with positive expression of HER-2 gene. Methods:The expression of HER-2 gene in the 223 samples with colon can-cer was detected by immunochemical approach. The expression of HER-2 gene in colon cancer tissues and adjacent tissues and dif erent pathologic types was analyzed byχ2 test. The correlation between the expression of HER-2 gene and clinical features was analyzed by Spearman. Results:The number of positive expression of HER-2 gene in colon cancer tissues and adjacent tissues were 74 and 0 respectively, the dif erence has statistical significance. The number of papil ary or tubular adenocarcinoma was 182, among them, 60 cases were positive expression. The number of mucinous adenocarcinoma was 41, among them, 14 cases were positive expression. The expression of HER-2/neu gene has no correlation with sex, age, the maximum diameter, general classification, degree of dif erentiation and depth of invasion, which has no statistical significance. However, the expression of HER-2/neu gene has correlation with metastasis of lymph node and Dukes stage, which has statistical significance. The expression of HER-2/neu gene was positive correlation with metastasis of lymph node and Dukes stage. The correlated coef icient index was 0.320 and 0.320 respectively. In the 74 patients with positive expression of HER-2 gene, 59.4%of them were 60-74 years old. And there was 97.3%of the patients without family history of adenocarcinoma. Conclusion:The expression of HER-2/neu gene in colon cancer tissues was higher than in adjacent tissues. The expression of HER-2/neu gene has no correlation with sex, age, the maximum diameter, general classification, degree of dif erentiation and depth of invasion, but has correlation with metastasis of

  18. Detection and clinical significance of serum autoantibodies in patients with myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun LIU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the expressions and clinical significance of serum anti - acetylcholine receptor antibodies (AChR-Ab, anti-Titin antibodies (Titin-Ab, and anti-Ryanodine receptor antibodies (RyR-Ab in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG. Methods Serum AChR-Ab, Titin-Ab and RyR-Ab were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in 182 MG patients, 105 patients of other neurological diseases (OND and 62 normal controls. Results Serum AChR-Ab, Titin-Ab and RyR-Ab were detected positive respectively in 68.13% (124/182, 64.29% (117/182 and 67.03% (122/182 of patients in MG group. The positive rates of those antibodies in MG group were significantly higher than those in OND group (P = 0.000, for all and control group (P = 0.000, for all. When 3 antibodies coexisted, the sensitivity in the diagnosis of MG was 41.21%, with 99.40% of specificity. There was no significant difference in the positive rate of serum AChR-Ab, Titin-Ab and RyR-Ab between early-onset MG subgroup and late-onset MG subgroup (P > 0.05, for all. The positive rates of AChR-Ab were significantly higher in MG patients with thymoma than in those without thymoma (P = 0.004. There was no significant difference in the positive rate of Titin-Ab and RyR-Ab between MG with thymoma subgroup and MG without thymoma subgroup (P > 0.05, for all. The prevalence of AChR-Ab in generalized MG (GMG atients (Ⅱa and Ⅱb was higher than those in ocular MG (OMG patients (typeⅠ; P = 0.005, 0.012. There was no significant difference in the positive rate of Titin-Ab and RyR-Ab between GMG subgroup and OMG subgroup (P > 0.05, for all. Conclusions Serum AChR-Ab, Titin-Ab and RyR-Ab can be used as ndicators of the diagnosis of MG. Patients with 3 coexisted positive antibodies are highly suspected as MG. Higher AChR-Ab level in serum of OMG patients indicates the possibility of progressing to GMG. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.10.007

  19. Correlation analyses of clinical and molecular findings identify candidate biological pathways in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xuefeng B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinicians have long appreciated the distinct phenotype of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA compared to polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (POLY. We hypothesized that gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from children with each disease would reveal distinct biological pathways when analyzed for significant associations with elevations in two markers of JIA activity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and number of affected joints (joint count, JC. Methods PBMC RNA from SJIA and POLY patients was profiled by kinetic PCR to analyze expression of 181 genes, selected for relevance to immune response pathways. Pearson correlation and Student's t-test analyses were performed to identify transcripts significantly associated with clinical parameters (ESR and JC in SJIA or POLY samples. These transcripts were used to find related biological pathways. Results Combining Pearson and t-test analyses, we found 91 ESR-related and 92 JC-related genes in SJIA. For POLY, 20 ESR-related and 0 JC-related genes were found. Using Ingenuity Systems Pathways Analysis, we identified SJIA ESR-related and JC-related pathways. The two sets of pathways are strongly correlated. In contrast, there is a weaker correlation between SJIA and POLY ESR-related pathways. Notably, distinct biological processes were found to correlate with JC in samples from the earlier systemic plus arthritic phase (SAF of SJIA compared to samples from the later arthritis-predominant phase (AF. Within the SJIA SAF group, IL-10 expression was related to JC, whereas lack of IL-4 appeared to characterize the chronic arthritis (AF subgroup. Conclusions The strong correlation between pathways implicated in elevations of both ESR and JC in SJIA argues that the systemic and arthritic components of the disease are related mechanistically. Inflammatory pathways in SJIA are distinct from those in POLY course JIA, consistent with

  20. Analysis of clinical trials with biologics using dose-time-response models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Markus R; Schmidli, Heinz

    2015-09-30

    Biologics such as monoclonal antibodies are increasingly and successfully used for the treatment of many chronic diseases. Unlike conventional small drug molecules, which are commonly given as tablets once daily, biologics are typically injected at much longer time intervals, that is, weeks or months. Hence, both the dose and the time interval have to be optimized during the drug development process for biologics. To identify an adequate regimen for the investigated biologic, the dose-time-response relationship must be well characterized, based on clinical trial data. The proposed approach uses semi-mechanistic nonlinear regression models to describe and predict the time-changing response for complex dosing regimens. Both likelihood-based and Bayesian methods for inference and prediction are discussed. The methodology is illustrated with data from a clinical study in an auto-immune disease.

  1. Serum midkine expression in breast cancer patients and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study serum midkine expression in breast cancer patients and its clinical significance.Methods: A total of 45 cases of patients with breast cancer and 45 cases of patients with benign breast tumor were selected for study, breast tumor specimens were collected to detect mRNA content of MK and serum was collected to detect protein content of MK; breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines were cultured and transfected with varying concentrations of MK expression plasmid, and then cell proliferation and apoptosis, VEGF expression in media as well as MMPs and TIMPs expression in cells was detected.Results:MK expression in breast tissue and serum MK content of breast cancer patients were higher than those of benign breast tumor patients, and MK expression in breast tissue and serum MK content of breast cancer patients with TNMⅢ/Ⅳ stage, low/un-differentiation and lymph node metastasis were higher than those of breast cancer patients with TNMⅠ/Ⅱ stage, medium/high differentiation and without lymph node metastasis; MK expression plasmid could dose-dependently increase mRNA content and protein content of MK in breast cancer cell lines, increase cell viability and decrease apoptosis percentage; VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC contents in media as well as MMP2 and MMP9 contents in cells of 100.0 μg/mL plasmid group were significantly higher than those of 0 μg/mL plasmid group, and contents of TIMP1 and TIMP2 in cells were significantly lower than those of 0 μg/mL plasmid group.Conclusion:Serum midkine content in breast cancer patients abnormally rises, and high expression of MK can induce breast cancer cell proliferation, inhibit breast cancer cell apoptosis and promote angiogenesis and cell invasion.

  2. The Systemic Evaluation and Clinical Significance of Immunological Function for Advanced Lung Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialing WANG

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The actual evaluation of immunological function is significant for studing the tumor development and devising a treatment in time. The aim of this study is to evaluate the immunological function of advanced lung cancer patients systematically, and to discuss the clinical significance. Methods The nucleated cell amounts of advanced lung cancer patients and the healthy individuals were counted. The immune cell subsets and the levels of IL-4, INF-γ, perforin and granzyme in CD8+T cells by the flow cytometry were measured. The proliferation activity and the inhibition ratio of immune cells to several tumor cell lines were evaluated by MTT assay. Results The absolute amounts and subsets of T, B, NK cells of advanced lung cancer patients were lower than the healthy individuals (P < 0.05; However, the proportion of regulatory T cells of advanced lung cancer patients (4.00±1.84% was lower than the healthy individuals (1.27±0.78% (P < 0.05. The positive rates of IFN-γ perforin, granzyme in CD8+T cells decreased while them in IL-4 did not in the advanced lung cancer patients compared to the healthy control group (P < 0.05. The proliferation activity of immune cells, the positive rate of PPD masculine and the inhibition ratio to tumor cells in the advanced lung cancer patients was lower than the healthy subsets obviously (P < 0.05. Conclusion There was a significant immune depression in the advanced lung cancer patients compared to the healthy individuals.

  3. The Frequency and clinical significance of IDH1 mutations in Chinese acute myeloid leukemia patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixun Guan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Mutations in the gene encoding isocitrate dehydrogenease 1 (IDH1 occur in various hematopoietic tumors including acute myeloid leukemia (AML, myeloproliferative neoplasms and myelodysplastic syndromes. IDH1 mutations are significant in both diagnosis and prognosis of these conditions. In the present study we determined the prevalence and clinical significance of IDH1 mutations in 349 samples from newly diagnosed AML patients. RESULTS: Of the 349 AML patient specimens analyzed, 35 (10.03% were found to have IDH1 mutations including 4 IDH1 R132 mutations and 31 non-R132 mutations. IDH1 non-R132 mutations were largely concentrated within AML-M1 (35.72%, pA, p.R100Q; (2 c.311G>T, p.G104V; (3 c.322T>C, p.F108L; (4 c.356G>A, p.R119Q; and (5 c.388A>G, p.I130V. In addition, we identified three IDH1 mutations that were previously described in AML. The frequency of IDH1 mutations in AML patients with normal karyotype was 9.9%. IDH1 non-R132 mutations were concurrent with mutations in FLT3-ITD (p<0.01, CEBPA (p<0.01, and NRAS (p<0.01, as well as the overexpression of MN1 (p<0.01 and WT1(p<0.01. The overall survival (OS in the patients with IDH1 non-R132 mutations compared to patients without IDH1 mutations don't reach statistically significance (median 521 days vs median: not reached; n.s.. CONCLUSION: IDH1 non-R132 mutations occurred frequently in newly diagnosed adult Chinese AML patients, and these mutations were associated with genetic alterations. The OS was not influenced by IDH1 non-R132 mutations in the present study.

  4. Biology and potential clinical implications of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 in colorectal cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nanna Møller; Sørensen, irene Vejgaard; Würtz, Sidse Ørnbjerg

    2008-01-01

    be such a marker. TIMP-1 inhibits the proteolytic activity of metalloproteinases, which are centrally involved in tumour invasion and metastases. However, in clinical investigations high tumour tissue or plasma levels of TIMP-1 have shown a strong and independent association with a shorter survival time in CRC...... knowledge of the biology of TIMP-1 as well as the potential use of TIMP-1 as a biological marker in the management of CRC patients....

  5. Clinical significance of plasma lysophosphatidic acid levels in the differential diagnosis of ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jie Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the value of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Materials and Methods: We first performed a hospital-based, case-control study involving 123 ovarian cancer patients and 101 benign ovarian tumor patients, and then conducted a meta-analysis with 19 case-control studies to assess the correlation between ovarian cancer and plasma LPA levels. Results: The case-control study results demonstrated that ovarian cancer patients have increased LPA and cancer antigen (CA-125 levels compared to patients with benign ovarian tumor (LPA: Ovarian cancer vs benign ovarian tumor: 5.28 ± 1.52 vs 1.82 ± 0.77 μmol/L; CA-125: Ovarian cancer vs benign ovarian tumor: 87.17 ± 45.81 vs. 14.03 ± 10.14 U/mL, which showed statistically significant differences (both P < 0.05. LPA with advanced sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy rate of diagnosis excelled CA-125 in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (both P < 0.05. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (LPA: 0.983; CA-125: 0.910 were statistically significant compared with the reference (both P < 0.001 and the difference of the areas of ROC curve between LPA and CA-125 in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer showed statistically significant difference (P < 0.05. The meta-analysis results suggested that plasma LPA levels were higher in ovarian cancer tissues than in benign tissues (standardized mean difference (SMD =2.36, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.61-3.11, P < 0.001 and normal tissues (SMD = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.77-2.87, P < 0.001. Conclusion: LPA shows greater value in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer compared to CA-125 and may be employed as a biological index to diagnose ovarian cancer.

  6. Internight sleep variability: its clinical significance and responsiveness to treatment in primary and comorbid insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ortuño, María M; Edinger, Jack D

    2012-10-01

    Although sleep diary and actigraphy data are usually collected daily for 1 or 2 weeks, traditional analytical approaches aggregate these data into mean values. Internight variability of sleep often accompanies insomnia. However, few studies have explored the relevance of this 'construct' in the context of diagnosis, clinical impact, treatment effects and/or whether having 'variable sleep' carries any prognostic significance. We explored these questions by conducting secondary analyses of data from a randomized clinical trial. The sample included primary (PI: n = 40) and comorbid insomnia (CMI: n = 41) sufferers receiving four biweekly sessions of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) or sleep hygiene education. Using the within-subject standard deviations of diary- and actigraphy-derived measures collected for 2-week periods [sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficiency (SE)], we found that CMI sufferers displayed more variable self-reported SOLs and SEs than PI sufferers. However, higher variability in diary and actigraphy-derived measures was related to poorer sleep quality only within the PI group, as measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Within both groups, the variability of diary-derived measures was reduced after CBT, but the variability of actigraphy-derived measures remained unchanged. Interestingly, the variability of actigraphy measures at baseline was correlated with PSQI scores at 6-month follow-up. Higher SOL variability was associated with worse treatment outcomes within the PI group, whereas higher WASO variability was correlated with better treatment outcomes within the CMI group. Sleep variability differences across insomnia diagnoses, along with their distinctive correlates, suggest that mechanisms underlying the sleep disruption/complaint and treatment response in both patient groups are distinct. Further studies are warranted to support variability as a useful metric in

  7. Expression pattern and clinical significance of DNA methyltransferase 3B variants in gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xianwei; Lv, Chengyu; Qiao, Fengchang; Qiu, Xuemei; Huang, Wenbin; Wu, Qingxiang; Zhao, Zhujiang; Fan, Hong

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the expression pattern of DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) variants in primary gastric cancer (GC) and to explore the clinical significance of DNMT3B variants in gastric carcinogenesis. Specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer sets were designed to distinguish individual DNMT3B variants according to their splicing patterns. Expression levels of DNMT3B variants were assessed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in gastric cancer tissue, normal gastric mucosae and GC cell lines. The relationship between the expression patterns of the DNMT3B variants and corresponding clinical information was analyzed by observing the expression levels of different variants in the tumors. These results demonstrate that DNMT3B overexpression is related to late phase invasion (P=0.029) and intestinal type (P=0.012) in GC. DNMT3B3 expression was higher in normal tissue, compared to tumor tissue (P=0.033). In contrast, only 18, 32 and 35% of the patient tumors overexpressed DNMT3B1, DNMT3B4 and DNMT3B5, respectively. While taking into account environmental factors (H. pylori, Epstein-Barr virus infection), H. pylori infection elevated DNMT3B1 and DNMT3B3 variants in tumors, while increasing DNMT3B4 in both tumor and non-cancerous tissues. Our findings indicated that the expression of DNMT3B3 is the major splice variant in normal gastric mucosae and may be affected by H. pylori infection. Elevated DNMT3B variants may influence the progression of gastric cancer and may possibly be a powerful indicator for the disease.

  8. Clinically significant drug interactions among HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So-Ngern, Apichot; Montakantikul, Preecha; Manosuthi, Weerawat

    2014-09-01

    We conducted a cross sectional study of the outpatient medical records of 1000 HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 2011 to determine the incidence of clinically significant drug interactions (CSDI). The severities of the CSDI were graded following the Micromedex" 2.0 database and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) 2012 HIV treatment guidelines. Three hundred thirty-five patients (34%) had 554 episodes of CSDI. Of which 337 episodes (61%), 163 episodes (29%) and 54 episodes (10%) had grades 2, 3 and 4 severity CSDI, respectively. The CSDI were caused by protease inhibitor (PI)-based drug regimens in 79%, by efavirenz-based regimens in 34% and by nevirapine-based regimens in 10% (p5 items prescribed at a time (OR 1.80; 95% CI: 1.23-2.63), seeing a doctor >4 times a year (OR 1.72; 95% CI: 1.20-2.46), having hypertension (OR 0.60; 95% CI: 0.37-0.98), having a duration of receiving ART of >5 years (OR 0.46; 95% CI: 0.28-0.77) and having a CD4 count of >200 cells/mm3 (OR 0.46; 95%CI: 0.26-0.84). CSDI were common among HIV-infected patients receiving ARV in our outpatient clinic. Patients having a low CD, count, having dyslipidemia, receiving PI-based ART, having a frequent number of visits per year and having a large number of items prescribed at each visit had a greater chance of a CSDI.

  9. Clinical significance in detection of inflammatory cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-Qian Wang; Yang Tang; Xiu-Yang Li; Da-Jun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between inflammatory cytokines and rheumatoid arthritis, and explore the clinical application value of cytokines in the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of rheumatoid arthritis.Methods:A total of 136 cases of patients with rheumatoid arthritis were regarded as the RA group. Among them, 62 patients were in remission and 74 patients were in the active phase of the disease. Besides, 53 cases of healthy volunteers were considered as the control group. The changes of the IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IFN-γ of the three groups were compared and the correlation of the inflammatory cytokines in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, DSA28 score and C-reactive protein would be explored. Results:The IL-1β and IFN-γ of patients in remission in the RA group showed no statistical differences as compared with those of the control group; the IL-1β and IFN-γ of patients in the active phase of the disease in the RA group presented statistical differences as compared with those of patients in the control group and patients in remission in the RA group; The IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 were compared in pairs and all showed statistical differences; CRP and DSA28 score and IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 were positively correlated, while IL-1β, IFN-γ and CRP and DSA 28 score had no correlations.Conclusions:It is of important significance in the clinic to detect inflammatory cytokines in the early diagnosis, disease evaluation and prognostic prediction of rheumatoid arthritis.

  10. Aberrant expression of Arpin in human breast cancer and its clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangping; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Haibo; Wang, Yu; Niu, Mengdi; Sun, Ming; Zhao, Yang; Yao, Ruyong; Qu, Zhiqiang

    2016-03-01

    Arpin (Arp2/3 complex inhibitor), a novel protein found in 2013, plays a pivotal role in cell motility and migration. However, the precise role of Arpin in cancer is unclear. This study investigated the expression of Arpin in breast cancer and evaluated its correlation with the characteristics of clinical pathology and prognosis of breast cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for Arpin protein was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded 176 breast cancer tissues and 43 normal breast tissues while qRT-PCR for Arpin mRNA with 104 paired tumour and paratumoural tissues from breast cancer patients respectively. The association of Arpin expression with clinical pathological features and survival was assessed in a retrospective cohort analysis of patients. The results showed that the expression of Arpin protein in cancer tissues was lower compared to that in normal breast and the expression of Arpin mRNA was also lower in cancer tissues than that in the matched paratumoural tissues. Among the 176 breast cancer patients, the lower expression of Arpin was significantly associated with advanced tumour, nodes and metastasis system stage, and the reduced Arpin expression was strongly associated with axillary lymph node metastasis using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis [odds ratio: 3.242; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.526, 6.888; P breast cancer tissues with qRT-PCR and IHC, our results suggest that Arpin downregulation may contribute to the initiation and development of breast cancer metastasis. Therefore, as a potential predictive marker, Arpin deserves future studies.

  11. The clinical significance of antibody determination to cyclic citrullinated peptides in systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Anti-citrullinated peptides antibodies (ACPA are present in 80% of sera of rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients with high specificity for diagnosis and prediction for the development of early erosive arthritis. A few studies have reported a low frequency ACPA in systemic sclerosis (SSc patients with the presence of arthritis. Objective. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of ACPA in systemic sclerosis (SSc patients, their correlation with clinical manifestations and radiographic features. Methods. The study included 82 patients with SSc, mean age 54.4 years, 59 with the limited (lSSc and 23 with the diffuse (dSSc form of the disease. The control group included 28 healthy age and sex matched subjects. ACPA and rheumatoid factor (RF were determined in all SSc patients and healthy subjects in whom standard radiography of hands and wrists was also done. Results. The presence of ACPA was detected in 11 (13.4% of SSc patients. Their level was not increased in any of the controls. Positive RF was found in 15.9% of SSc patients. Arthritis was present in 17.1%, as well as marginal bone erosions. There was a statistically significant association between positive ACPA and arthritis (p<0.0001 and positive ACPA and marginal bone erosions (p=0.0002. Conclusion. The research confirmed the correlation between ACPA with clinical signs of arthritis and radiographic damage of hand joints. ACPA is a useful diagnostic marker in the identification of SSc patients with arthritis and anatomic bone damage enabling the use of adequate therapy in order to prevent joint damage and poor quality of life.

  12. Identification of major rice allergen and their clinical significance in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Hoon Jeon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Recently, an increase in the number of patients sensitized to rice allergen with or without clinical symptoms has been reported. This study was designed to determine the major allergens in rice and their clinical significance. Methods : Twenty-four children (15 boys and 9 girls; mean age, 16.3 months with allergic disease, who were sensitized to rice antigen (by UniCAP in the Pediatric Allergy Respiratory Center at Soonchunhyang University Hospital, were enrolled in this study. The allergenicity of various types of rice (raw, cooked, and heat-treated, simulated gastric fluid [SGF], and simulated intestinal fluid [SIF] was investigated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and immunoglobulin E (IgE immunoblots. The patients’ medical records, including laboratory data and allergy symptoms after ingestion of rice were reviewed. Results : Patients were sensitized to an average of 13.5 food antigens and their mean total IgE was 6,888.7 kU/L. In SDS-PAGE, more than 16 protein bands were observed in the raw rice, whereas only 14-16 kDa and 31-35 kDa protein bands were observed in cooked rice. The common SDS-PAGE protein bands observed in SGF-, SIF-, and heattreated rice were 9, 14, and 31 kDa. In a heated-rice IgE immunoblot, protein bands of 9, 14, and 31-33 kDa were found in 27.8%, 38.9%, and 38.9% of all sera, respectively, and in 50%, 50%, and 75%, of ser a from the 4 symptomatic patients, respectively. Conclusion : The 9-, 14-, and 31-kDa protein bands appeared to be the major allergens responsible for rice allergy symptoms.

  13. The clinical and functional significance of c-Met in breast cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho-Yen, Colan M; Jones, J Louise; Kermorgant, Stephanie

    2015-04-08

    c-Met is a receptor tyrosine kinase that upon binding of its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), activates downstream pathways with diverse cellular functions that are important in organ development and cancer progression. Anomalous c-Met signalling has been described in a variety of cancer types, and the receptor is regarded as a novel therapeutic target. In breast cancer there is a need to develop new treatments, particularly for the aggressive subtypes such as triple-negative and basal-like cancer, which currently lack targeted therapy. Over the last two decades, much has been learnt about the functional role of c-Met signalling in different models of breast development and cancer. This work has been complemented by clinical studies, establishing the prognostic significance of c-Met in tissue samples of breast cancer. While the clinical trials of anti-c-Met therapy in advanced breast cancer progress, there is a need to review the existing evidence so that the potential of these treatments can be better appreciated. The aim of this article is to examine the role of HGF/c-Met signalling in in vitro and in vivo models of breast cancer, to describe the mechanisms of aberrant c-Met signalling in human tissues, and to give a brief overview of the anti-c-Met therapies currently being evaluated in breast cancer patients. We will show that the HGF/c-Met pathway is associated with breast cancer progression and suggest that there is a firm basis for continued development of anti-c-Met treatment, particularly for patients with basal-like and triple-negative breast cancer.

  14. Clinical significance of brain SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in cerebral palsy with normal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. H.; Lim, S. Y.; Lee, I. Y.; Kim, O. H.; Bai, M. S.; Kim, S. J.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W. [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The cerebral palsy(CP) encephalopathies are often of uncertain etiology and various functional image findings comparing with anatomical image findings have been reported. However, only a few have mentioned its clinical implications. The purpose of our report is to compare clinical severity and functional SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in CP patients with normal MRI. Thirty six CP patients with bilateral spastic palsy who had normal MRI and brain SPECT were studied from July 1996 to September 1997. The patients' age at the time of SPECT was 22.84{+-}17.69 months. The patients were divided into two groups according to motor quotient(MQ); moderate defect (>50MQ : n=27 MQ=22.78{+-}10.36), mild defect (<50MQ : n=9, MQ=66.11{+-}13.87). The degree of rCBF decrease between the two groups was evaluated by {chi}{sup 2} test. Brain SPECT was performed following IV administration of 0.05-0.1 mCi/kg (minimum 2.0 mCi) of Tc-99m ECD and chloral hydrate sedation (50-80 mg/kg p.o) using a triple head system (MS 3, Siemens). Interpretation of brain SPECT was visual analysis: severe decrease is defined when the defect is moderate to marked and mild decrease in rCBF as mild. Seven of 36 (19.4%) showed unilateral or bilateral moderate decrease in rCBF in thalami, 20(55.6%) showed mild decrease, and 9(25.0%) showed no decreased rCBF. All 7 who had moderate thalamic defect reveled moderate motor defect clinically. Ten of 36(27.9%) revealed unilateral or bilateral moderate rCBF defect, 23 (63.9%) depicted mild defect, and 3(8.3%) showed no defect. Sixteen with moderate thalamic rCBF defect showed moderate motor defect in 15 patients. There was statistically significant (p=0.02605) relationship between rCBF defect and motor defect in our CP patients. In conclusion, brain SPECT appears sensitive, non-invasive tool in the evaluation as well as in the prognostication of bilateral spastic cerebral palsy patients and deserves further study using larger number of patients.

  15. Distribution of Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes and Its Clinical Significance in Hubei Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Qiaoxia; WU Yanyan; LUO Duande

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of hepatitis B virus genotype in Hubei province and its clinical significance were investigated. HBV genotypes of 276 patients were detected by PCR-microplate sandwich hybrization-ELISA technique. The level of HBV DNA was detected by using PCR-fluorescence quantification test. Among 276 patients, there were 78 cases of HBV asymptomatic carriers, 110 cases of chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 62 cases of severe hepatitis (SH) or liver cirrhosis (LC) and 26 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The genotypes of HBV included C, B, mixtures (B+C, B+D, C+D) and D, accounting for 55.8%, 25.4%, 16.7% and 2.1% respectively. The average level of HBV DNA in genotypes C, B, mixtures and D was 1.20×106, 7.81×104, 3.26×105 and 5.01×104 copies/mL respectively. The ratio of SH, LC and HCC in genotype B, C and mixtures was 20%, 30% and 48% respectively. Statistical analysis revealed the percentage of genotype mixtures infection was significantly higher than that of genotype B infection. There was no significant difference in the percentage between genotype B and genotype C or between genotype C and mixtures. The distribution of genotype B, C and mixtures in SH, LC and HCC was significantly different. The frequency of HCC was zero in patients with co-infection. Genotype D was only related with SH and LC. The increased ALT could be converted to categorical grades of severity. From mild, moderate to severity,the prevalence of genotype C showed an opposite trend, although no statistically significant difference was observed. The HBeAg positive rate was higher in patients with genotype C infection than in those with genotype B, especially in the patients whose ages were from 31 to 40 years old. Compared with genotype B, genotype C showed a higher HBeAg positive rate in patients with SH and LC. The percentage of SH, LC and HCC was higher in patients with genotype C and mixtures infection. On the contrary, the percentage of genotype B was lower. The HBeAg positive rate

  16. Endogenous erythroid colony assay in patients with polycythemia vera and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白洁; 邵宗鸿; 刘鸿; 施均; 何广胜; 曹燕然; 崔振珠; 吴玉红; 孙娟; 田征; 贾海蓉; 钱林生; 杨天楹; 杨崇礼

    2004-01-01

    Background Polycythemia vera (PV) is a malignant disorder of hemaopoietic stem cells which is characterized by clonal hyperproliferation and a low rate of apoptosis. This study was to assess endogenous erythroid colony (EEC) formation in the bone marrow of PV patients and determine its clinical significance.Methods The bone marrow mononuclear cells of 26 patients with PV, 2 patients with secondary erythrocytosis (SE), and 19 normal controls were cultured by Marsh's method for EEC evaluation, and the clinical significance was evaluated.Results EECs appeared in 25 patients with PV but not in 2 patients with SE and 19 normal controls. The number of EECs and the EEC ratio [EEC/erythropoietin (EPO)-dependent colony forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E)] in PV patients positively correlated with hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Their EEC number did not correlate with white blood cell (WBC) counts, platelet (PLT) counts, or leukocyte alkaline phosphatase (LAP) scores. Their EEC did not correlate with serum EPO levels. Fifteen patients with PV were treated with hydroxyurea (Hu) and/or interferon-alpha (IFN-α). Their EEC ratio before treatment positively correlated with the treatment time required for complete remission (CR) and negatively correlated with the time before relapse. The EEC numbers of 7 PV patients treated with Hu/IFN-α decreased after the blood cell counts dropped to normal levels. There was a positive correlation between the EEC ratio and the incidence of attacks of vascular thrombosis in PV patients. The numbers of apoptosised bone marrow mononuclear cells in PV patients were lower than those in normal controls. The EEC numbers of PV patients negatively correlated with the rate of apoptosis of bone marrow mononuclear cells.Conclusions EEC formation is characteristic in PV patients. EEC number in PV patients positively correlates with Hb levels, the time required for CR, and the incidence of attacks of vascular thrombosis. EEC number negatively correlates with the time

  17. EEG spectral analysis and its clinical significance for patients with non-occupationalchronic mercury poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-bin SUN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the features of EEG spectrum and its clinical significance for patients with non-occupational chronic mercury poisoning.  Methods Eighteen patients with chronic mercury poisoning were collected continuously as poisoning group at Affiliated Hospital of Academy of Military Medical Sciences from March 2012 to September 2013. At the same time, 12 age- and sex-matched healthy people were selected as control group. All patients underwent video EEG, and EEGLAB in Matlab 2013 software was used to analyze their EEG data. Relevant spectrum data of the 2 groups were compared and analyzed.  Results The frequency-energy curves of 12 normal subjects were similar to sine curve, with obvious energy peak at α band. The frequency-energy curves of 18 patients showed as follows: 5 cases had the peak at slow δ wave, and the energy curve decreased since δ band appeared, with α band peak disappearing. The curve of 10 cases had 2 peaks respectively at α and δ band, and δ peak was higher than α peak. The spectrum in other 3 cases was normal. The quantitative analysis of EEG revealed the proportion of δ band for the total energy. The proportion of δ band for total energy of the poisoning group in right middle temporal (P = 0.018 and left posterior temporal (P = 0.039 channel was significantly higher than that of the normal group, while the proportion of δ band in middle frontal (P = 0.003, right frontal (P = 0.016 and right anterior temporal (P = 0.024, left middle temporal (P = 0.036 and right posterior temporal (P = 0.031 was lower than that of the normal group. Conclusions EEG examination plays an important role in assessing the severity of brain injury for patients with non-occupational chronic mercury poisoning. Spectrum analysis is an intuitive and simple method, and can provide some help for clinical diagnosis and treatment. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.02.013

  18. 75 FR 8968 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Adaptive Design Clinical Trials for Drugs and Biologics; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... current thinking on adaptive design clinical trials for drugs and biologics. It does not create or confer... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Adaptive Design Clinical... entitled ``Adaptive Design Clinical Trials for Drugs and Biologics.'' The draft guidance provides...

  19. [Possible mechanism of production of the musical second heart sound and its clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, N; Hosoi, K; Iuchi, A; Ogawa, S; Kageji, Y; Hayashi, M; Yoshimoto, K; Tanimoto, M; Oki, T

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the predisposing factors and the clinical significance of the musical aortic component of the second heart sound (musical S2), 18 patients with musical S2 (musical group) among the consecutive 2,000 patients with phonocardiographic examination were noninvasively studied by analyzing underlying diseases, phonocardiographic findings, organic changes of the aortic valve, severity of aortic regurgitation and left ventricular dysfunction. Organic changes of the aortic valve were assessed by two-dimensional echocardiography, and aortic regurgitation was assessed by color Doppler flow imaging. Twenty-two normal subjects (normal group) and 17 patients with essential hypertension (hypertensive group) served as controls. Mean ages were matched among the three groups. 1. Left ventricular dilatation (seven patients) and hypertension (six patients) were the dominant part of underlying disease in the musical group. 2. Musical S2 was classified in the following two types based on the phonocardiographic characteristics; musical vibrations followed immediately after the accentuated S2, and the S2 which was replaced by regular vibratory waves. 3. Frequency of the musical vibrations ranged from 120 to 200 Hz, and its duration ranged from 60 to 120 msec. Amplitude of the musical vibrations decreased by inhalation of amyl nitrite, but increased by infusion of methoxamine. In a case with mild rheumatic valve disease, methoxamine induced marked intensification of the amplitude and prolongation of the duration of the musical vibrations, finally giving a typical cooing murmur. 4. Echo intensity of the aortic valve tended to be higher in the musical group than in the other two groups. 5. Echocardiographically, aortic regurgitation appeared more frequently in the musical group (88%) than in the normal (36%) and hypertensive (41%) groups. Area of the aortic regurgitant signal was significantly larger in the musical group (4.1 +/- 1.4 cm2) than in the normal (1.2 +/- 0.8 cm2

  20. Clinical and biological characteristics of colorectal cancer with familial predisposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bao-ping; ZHANG Ya-li; ZHOU Dian-yuan; GAO Chun-fang; LAI Zhuo-sheng

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the microsatellite instability (MSI), expression of mismatch repair (MMR) gene (hMLH1, hMSH2) and proliferation kinetics in colorectal cancer (CRC) with familial predisposition. Method:Forty-six cases of CRC were studied using silver staining polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique, streptavidin-peroxidase (SP) immunohistochemical method and flow cytometry. Results: In CRC patients with familial predisposition, the MSI-positive rate was higher than in sporadic CRC (P<0.05). Familial predisposition and positive MSI were strongly related to early age of cancer onset, the proclivity for proximal colonic cancer, poor differentiated and extracolorectaln malignancies (P<0.01, P<0.05). The incidence of negative expression ofhMLH1 in tumor tissue and hMLH1, hMSH2 in normal colorectal tissues was significantly higher (P<0.05). The negative expression of hMLH1 together with hMSH2 was related with positive MSI (P<0.05).In MSI-positive CRC cells, the proliferation cell nucleus antigen (PCNA) expression, proliferation index and S-phase cells decreased obviously (P<0.01, P<0.05). Conclusion: In CRC with familial predisposition, MSI might be an important contributor. The rate ofhMLH1 and hMSH2 mutation increased in tumor and normal tissue, and the proliferation activity of their cancer cell was lower.

  1. Clinical significance of cerebral microbleeds locations in CADASIL with R544C NOTCH3 mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Seok Lee

    Full Text Available Although cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL is the most common single-gene disorder of cerebral small blood vessels caused by NOTCH3 mutations, little has been described about the variation in the clinical findings between its underlying types of mutations. In particular, the presence of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs has been an increasingly recognized magnetic resonance imaging finding in CADASIL, but their clinical significance is not clear. The purpose of this study is to assess whether CMBs are associated with symptomatic stroke in the CADASIL patients with R544C mutation and to compare the cerebral distribution of CMBs between CADASIL patients with and without symptomatic stroke.This is a cohort study of patients who were diagnosed with genotype-confirmed R544C-mutation CADASIL. Primary neurologic symptoms were recorded. Symptomatic strokes were defined as transient ischemic attack, ischemic strokes and hemorrhagic strokes. CMBs were defined as focal areas of round signal loss on T2*-weighted gradient echo planar images with a diameter of less than 10 mm. The locations of CMBs were divided into lobar, basal ganglia, thalamus, brain stem and cerebellum. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to identify the epidemiologic or vascular risk factors associated with symptomatic stroke in patients with CADASIL.Among total of 51 subjects in this cohort, CMBs were present in 20 of 32 patients (64.5% in the symptomatic stroke-group and in 8 of 19 patients (42.1% in the non-stroke group (p = 0.16. CMBs were observed more frequently in the basal ganglia (p<0.001 and the cerebellum (p<0.018 in the symptomatic stoke group compared to the non-stroke group. The mean number of CMBs was significantly higher in the symptomatic stroke group (15.4±18.0 lesions per patients with CMBs versus those without symptomatic stroke (3.3±3.0 lesions per patients with CMBs (p = 0.003. Hypertension was an

  2. EXPRESSION AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF CD44 IN THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD OF PATIENTS WITH CASTRIC CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Shen-hua

    2001-01-01

    [1]Li XY, Hu JL. Relationship between the expression of CD44 and tumor of digestive tract & metastasis [J]. Chin J Dig 1999; 19:196.[2]Washington K, Gottfried MR, Telen MJ, et al. Expression of the cell adhesion molecule CD44 in gastric adenocarcinomas [J]. Human Pathol 1994; 25:1043.[3]Tran TA, Kallakury BV, Sheehan CE, et al. Expression of CD44 standard from and variant isoforms in non-small cell lung carcinomas [J]. Human Pathol 1997; 28:809.[4]Wimmel A, Schilli M, Kaiser U, et al. Preferential histiotypic expression of CD44 isoforms in human lung cancer [J]. Lung Cancer 1997; 16:151.[5]Lu GO, Xu SH, Feng JG, et al. Expression and clinical significance of CD44 in peripheral blood in esophageal cancer [J]. Chin J Clin Oncol 1992; 26:500.[6]Xu SH, Feng JG, Li DC, et al. Relationship between CD44 in the peripheral blood of patients with colorectal cancer and clinico-pathological features [J]. Shijie Huaren Xiaohua Zazhi 2000; 8:432.[7]Matsumura Y, Hanbury D, Smith J, et al. Non-invasive detection of malignancy by identification of unusual CD44 gene activity in exfoliated cancer cells [J]. BMJ 1994; 308:619.[8]Reter Herrlich, Margot Zoller, Steven T Pals, et al. CD44 splice variants: metastases meet lymphocytes [J]. Immunology Today 1993; 14:395.[9]Pituch-Noworolska-A, et al. Evaluation of circulating tumor cells expressing CD44 variants in the blood of gastric cancer patients by flow cytometry [J]. Anticancer Res 1998; 18:3747.[10]Guo YJ, Liu GL, Wang XN, et al. Potential use of soluble CD44 in serum as indicator of tumor burden and metastasis in patients with gastric or colon cancer [J]. Cancer Res 1994; 54: 422.[11]Harn HJ, Ho LI, Chang JY, et al. Soluble CD44 isoforms in serum as potential markers of metastatic gastric carcinoma [J]. J Clin Gastroenterol 1996; 22:107.[12]Harn HJ, Ho LI, Chang JY, et al. Differential expression of the human metastasis adhesion molecule CD44 in normal and carcinomatous stomach mucosa

  3. Clinical significance of detection of antibodies to fetal and adult acetylcholine receptors in myasthenia gravis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Guang Shi; Zhi-Hong Wang; Xiao-Wei Ma; Da-Qi Zhang; Chun-Sheng Yang; Fu-Dong Shi; Li Yang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the frequency,distribution and clinical significance of the antibodies to the fetal and/or adult acetylcholine receptor (AChR) in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG).Methods AChR antibodies were detected by cell-based assay in the serum of ocular MG (OMG) (n =90) and generalized MG (GMG) patients (n =110).The fetaltype (2α∶ β∶ γ∶ δ) and adult-type (2α∶ β∶ ε∶ δ) AChR were used as antigens,and their relevance to disease presentation was assessed.Results The overall frequencies of anti-adult and anti-fetal AChR antibodies were similar in all 200 patients examined,with 14 having serum specific to the AChR-γ subunit,and 22 to the AChR-ε subunit.The overall sensitivity when using the fetal and adult AChR antibodies was higher than that when using the fetal AChR antibody only (P =0.015).Compared with OMG patients,the mean age at disease onset and the positive ratio of antibodies to both isoforms of the AChR were significantly higher in patients who subsequently progressed to GMG.Older patients and patients with both anti-fetal and anti-adult AChR antibodies had a greater risk for developing generalized disease [odds ratio (OR),1.03;95% confidence interval (CI),1.01-1.06 and OR,5.09;95% CI,2.23-11.62].Conclusion Using both fetal-and adulttype AChRs as the antigens may be more sensitive than using either subtype.Patients with serum specific to both isoforms are at a greater risk of progressing to GMG.Patients with disease onset at an advanced age appear to have a higher frequency of GMG conversion.

  4. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF ANEMIC SYNDROME IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Larina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the anemia prevalence and its impact on chronic heart failure (CHF course.Methods. A total of 228 outpatients (86 women and 196 men, aged 39-85 y.o. with clinically stable CHF (II-IV functional class according to NYHA were studied. Anemia was defined by the WHO criteria (hemoglobin levels <13 g/dl in men and <12 g/dl in women.Results. Anemia was found in 18,8% of CHF patients. In all the cases anemia was mild (hemoglobin levels >9 g/dl. Anemia rate did not differ significantly in patients with reduced (18,5% and preserve (19,1% or left ventricle ejection fraction (LV EF (р=0,743. Anemic and non anemic patients were similar in terms of gender, NYHA functional class, heart rate and LV EF. The rate of anemic patients increased significantly up to 35,8% in creatinine clearance <60ml/min. Anemic patients were older (p<0,001, had longer CHF duration (p=0,014, lower body mass index (p=0,041, had diabetes more often (p=0,004, χ2=8,01 in comparison with non anemic patients. Deficiency of iron, vitamin B12 or folic acid was a reason of anemia in 35,8%, 9,4% and 15,1% of patients, respectively. Anemia reason was not detected in 39,7% of patients.Conclusion. Anemia in patients with CHF is associated with age, impaired renal function, diabetes and high hospitalization rate because of CHF deterioration.

  5. Clinical significance of the fractional excretion of anions in metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H Y; Han, J S; Jeon, U S; Joo, K W; Earm, J H; Ahn, C; Kim, S; Lee, J S; Kim, G H

    2001-06-01

    The fractional excretion of anions has been proposed as a new index for the differential diagnosis of metabolic acidosis, identifying the properties of the conjugate base by examining the renal handling of the anion. Here, we investigated clinical significance of the fractional excretion of anions in pathophysiologic diagnosis of metabolic acidosis by measuring urine ammonium (NH4+) excretion, the ratio of A plasma anion gap/delta plasma HCO3- concentration (deltaAG/deltaHCO3-), and fractional excretion of anions in three different groups of metabolic acidosis: acid overproduction (8 patients with lactic acidosis, 8 with diabetic ketoacidosis, 3 with hippuric acidosis following glue sniffing), acid underexcretion (10 patients with chronic renal failure) and normal controls (10 normal volunteers who underwent 3-day NH4Cl loading). As expected, urine NH4+ excretion was higher in overproduction acidosis than in acid-loaded normal controls (88.1 +/- 12.3 vs. 54.0 +/- 3.7 mmol/day, p anions had no difference between overproduction acidosis and chronic renal failure (41.2 +/- 42.8% vs. 41.0 +/- 8.1%). However, the fractional excretion of anions showed significant differences between the subgroups in acid overproduction (lactic acidosis, 4.7 +/- 0.3%; diabetic ketoacidosis, 45.8 +/- 3.1%; hippuric acidosis, 126.0 +/- 14.4%; p anions and the ratio of plasma deltaAG/deltaHCO3- (r2 =-0.89, p anions may provide a useful clue to the differential diagnosis of metabolic acidosis caused by acid overproduction.

  6. Clinical significance of posterior cerebral artery stenosis/occlusion in moyamoya disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Houkin, Kiyohiro [Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    The present study was aimed at clarifying the clinical significance of posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stenosis/occlusion in pediatric and adult moyamoya disease. This study included a total of 132 patients (52 children and 80 adults) who were diagnosed as by cerebral angiography having moyamoya disease. CT or MRI was performed to examine the location of cerebral infarction in all subjects. Cerebral blood flow and vasoreactivity to acetazolamide were measured in 80 patients before surgery, using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Three-dimensional MR angiography (3D-MRA) was repeated in 32 pediatric patients after surgery in order to clarify the natural course of the PCA stenosis/occlusion. Of 264 sides in 132 patients, PCA stenosis/occlusion was observed in 50 sides of 40 patients (30.3%). Its incidence was significantly higher in ischemic-type patients than in hemorrhagic-type and asymptomatic patients, and was higher in patients in the advanced stage of the disease. The hemisphere ipsilateral to PCA stenosis/occlusion had higher incidence of ischemic symptoms, cerebral infarction, and impaired cerebral hemodynamics. Transient ischemic attack (TIA) (hemianopsia) or cerebral infarction in the occipital lobe was noted in 4 (10%) of 40 patients during follow-up periods after bypass surgery for anterior circulation. Of 32 pediatric patients, none showed progression of PCA stenosis on 3D-MRA during follow-up periods. The present study showed that the involvement of PCA could increase the risk of TIA and/or cerebral infarction in both anterior and posterior circulation areas, suggesting that the PCA plays an important collateral role in moyamoya disease. (author)

  7. Clinical significance and frequency of Blastocystis hominis in Turkish patients with hematological malignancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taşova Y

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised subjects has been the subject of debate in recent years, mostly in response to its unknown pathogenicity and frequency of occurrence. We performed a non-randomised, open labelled, single institute study in our hospital in order to investigate the clinical significance and frequency of B. hominis in patients suffering from hematological malignancy (HM who displayed symptoms of gastrointestinal diseases during the period of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. The presence and potential role of other intestinal inclusive of parasites were also studied. At least 3 stool samples from each of 206 HM patients with gastrointestinal complaints (the HM group were studied. These were compared with stool samples from a control group of 200 patients without HM who were also suffering from gastrointestinal complaints. Samples were studied with saline-lugol, formalin-ether, and trichome staining methods. Groups were comparable in terms of gender, age and type of gastrointestinal complaints. In the HM group, the most common parasite was B. hominis. In this group, 23 patients (13% had B. hominis, while in the control group only 2 patients (1% had B. hominis. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Symptoms were non-specific for B. hominis or other parasites in the HM group. The predominant symptoms in both groups were abdominal pain (87-89.5%, diarrhea (70-89.5%, and flatulence (74-68.4%. Although all patients with HM were symptom-free at the end of treatment with oral metranidazol (1,500 mg per day for 10 days 2 patients with HM had positive stool samples containing an insignificant number of parasites (< 5 cells per field. In conclusion, it appears that B. hominis is not rare and should be considered in patients with HM who have gastrointestinal complaints while being treated with chemotherapy. Furthermore, metranidazol appears to be effective in

  8. Expression and Clinical Significance of SHP2 in the Tumor Tissues of Smokers with Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei ZHAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proved that protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation were important mechanisms in lung cancer development, and tobacco smoking is an important risk factor of lung cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression and clinical significance of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and small cell lung cancer (SCLC; the relationship between tobacco smoking and the expression of SHP2 is also studied. Methods Immunohistochemistry (Invision and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH were used to detect the expression of SHP2 and the augment of SHP2 mRNA in the 53 lung cancer specimens. Results The weak positive rate of SHP2 was 80% (which was also the total positive rate in normal bronchial epithelium. The weak, moderate and strong positive rates were 35.4%, 43.8% and 6.2% (total positive rate was 85.4% in 48 NSCLC patients, 0%, 80% and 20% (total positve rate was 100% in 5 SCLC patients, 40.7%, 37.4% and 3.7% (total positive rate was 81.5% in the tumor tissues of 27 NSCLC patients who didn’t smoke and 23.8%, 71.4% and 4.7% (total positive rate was 100% in the tumor tissues of 21 NSCLC patients whose smoking indexes were ≥400. Significant differences of SHP2 expression were observed between tumor tissues and normal bronchial epithelium, NSCLC and SCLC, and between different smoking indexes (P < 0.05. Conclusion The enhancement of SHP2 expression in the tumor tissues of NSCLC patients who smoke may be correlated with tobacco smoking; SHP2 may play certain role in the development of lung cancer; SHP2 prospectively provides new ideas for the drug research and development of lung cancer treatment.

  9. Clinical significance of connective tissue growth factor in hepatitis B virus-induced hepatic fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-Li Piao; David R Brigstock; Jie Zhu; Man-Li Zhang; Run-Ping Gao

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To determine the utility of connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF) for assessing hepatic fibrosis in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-induced chronic liver diseases (CLD-B).METHODS:Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure CCN2 in sera from 107 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 39 patients with HBVinduced active liver cirrhosis and 30 healthy individuals.Liver samples from 31 patients with CHB,8 patients with HBV-induced liver cirrhosis and 8 HBV carriers with normal liver histology were examined for transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1) or CCN2 mRNA levels by in situ hybridization,and computer image analysis was performed to measure integrated optimal density (IOD) of CCN2 mRNA-positive cells in liver tissues.Histological inflammation grading and fibrosis staging were evaluated by H and E staining and Van Gieson's method.RESULTS:Serum CCN2 concentrations were,respectively,4.0-or 4.9-fold higher in patients with CHB or active liver cirrhosis as compared to healthy individuals (P < 0.01).There was good consistency between the levels of CCN2 in sera and CCN2 mRNA expression in liver tissues (r =0.87,P < 0.01).The levels of CCN2 in sera were increased with the enhancement of histological fibrosis staging in patients with CLD-B (r =0.85,P < 0.01).Serum CCN2 was a reliable marker for the assessment of liver fibrosis,with areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) of 0.94 or 0.85 for,respectively,distinguishing normal liver controls from patients with F1 stage liver fibrosis or discriminating between mild and significant fibrosis.CONCLUSION:Detection of serum CCN2 in patients with CLD-B may have clinical significance for assessment of severity of hepatic fibrosis.

  10. US diagnosis of choledocholithiasis in patients with acute cholecystitis: Its clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Joon Bum; Kim, Young Hoon; Cho, Woo Ho; Kim, Joung Sook; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Jae Hyung; Bae, Sang Jin [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    It is essential to identify the presence of choledocholithiasis in patients with acute cholecystitis for elucidating the cause of cholecystitis and deciding the surgical planning. In this study, we tried to evaluate the incidence of choledocholithiasis and its ultrasonographic (US) diagnostic values in patients with acute cholecystitis and to discuss its clinical significance. During a 17 months period, seventy six patients with surgically proven acute cholecystitis who underwent preoperative US and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were included in this study. US, ERCP and surgical findings of these patients were compared by reviewing their medical records as well as the US and ERCP images. The incidence of choledocholithiasis in these patients and its US diagnostic values were assessed. Of all 76 patients with acute cholecystitis, 20 (26%) were proved to have choledocholithiasis by ERCP and surgery. Among them, 13 were correctly diagnosed to have choledocholithiasis by US. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of US for the detection of choledocholithiasis in these patients were 65%, 100%, 100%, 89%, and 91%, respectively. Our results indicated that on fourth of patients with acute cholecystitis had choledocholithiasis, and the US diagnostic accuracy in detecting choledocholithiasis proved to be 91%, higher than previously reported results. Therefore, it is essential to undergo US in patients with acute cholecystitis to identify the presence of choledocholithiasis.

  11. Expression of midkine and its clinical significance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Jia Ren; Qing-Yun Zhang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of midkine in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and analyze its relationship with clinicopathological features.METHODS: RT-PCR and immunocytochemical staining were used to detect the expression of midkine mRNA and protein in EC109 cells, respectively. Then the expression of midkine in 66 cases of ESCC samples were detected by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against human midkine. RESULTS: Midkine was expressed in EC109 cell by RTPCR and immunocytochemistry. The immunoreactivity was detected in 56.1% (37/66) of the ESCC samples.The expression of midkine was found in cytoplasm of tumor cells. Notably, the intensity of midkine was stronger at the area abundant in vessels and the invading border of the tumors. Midkine was more intensely expressed in well differentiated tumors (76.9%)than in moderately and poorly differentiated tumors (43.1% and 41.2%, respectively) (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant correlation between midkine expression and gender, age, clinical stage, lymph node metastasis or survival in ESCC.CONCLUSION: Midkine is overexpressed in ESCC. It may play a role in tumor angiogenesis and invasion.The expression of midkine is correlated with tumor cell differentiation in ESCC. The more poorly tumor cells differentiate, the weaker midkine expresses.

  12. The clinical significance of the gut microbiota in cystic fibrosis and the potential for dietary therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Somerset, Shawn

    2014-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterised by many comorbidities related to aberrant mucosa and chronic inflammation in the respiratory and digestive systems. The intestinal mucosa serves as the primary interface between the gut microbiota and endocrine, neural and immune systems. There is emerging evidence that aberrant intestinal mucosa in CF may associate with an altered gut microbiota. Compared to healthy subjects, the overall bacterial abundance and species richness seems to be reduced in CF, accompanied by a trend in suppression of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes spp. and an augmentation of potentially pathogenic species. There is also some concordance of gut and respiratory microbiotas in CF infants over time. The clinical significance of these observations awaits investigation. The gut microbiota have some potential in CF management by affecting inflammatory and immune responses, and influencing aberrant mucosa. As an important modifiable factor, diet therapies such as probiotics and prebiotics have shown initial promise in improving CF related conditions associated with chronic inflammation. More studies are needed to confirm this, as well as the efficacy of other dietary strategies such as modulating dietary fat and indigestible carbohydrate. Similarly, dietary modification of gut microbiota to optimise nutritional status in CF may be feasible, although more CF-specific studies are warranted.

  13. Clinical features of congenital adrenal insufficiency including growth patterns and significance of ACTH stimulation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ji Won; Kim, Gu Hwan; Yoo, Han Wook; Yu, Jeesuk

    2013-11-01

    Congenital adrenal insufficiency is caused by specific genetic mutations. Early suspicion and definite diagnosis are crucial because the disease can precipitate a life-threatening hypovolemic shock without prompt treatment. This study was designed to understand the clinical manifestations including growth patterns and to find the usefulness of ACTH stimulation test. Sixteen patients with confirmed genotyping were subdivided into three groups according to the genetic study results: congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (CAH, n=11), congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (n=3) and X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (n=2). Bone age advancement was prominent in patients with CAH especially after 60 months of chronologic age (n=6, 67%). They were diagnosed in older ages in group with bone age advancement (Pcongenital adrenal insufficiency. ACTH stimulation test played an important role to support the diagnosis and serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels were significantly elevated in all of the CAH patients. The test will be important for monitoring growth and puberty during follow up of patients with congenital adrenal insufficiency.

  14. The different functions and clinical significances of caveolin-1 in human adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Pin; Chen, Fuchun; Pan, Qi; Zhao, Xianda; Zhao, Chen; Cho, William Chi-Shing; Chen, Honglei

    2017-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a major structural protein of caveolae, is an integral membrane protein which plays an important role in the progression of carcinoma. However, whether Cav-1 acts as a tumor promoter or a tumor suppressor still remains controversial. For example, the tumor-promoting function of Cav-1 has been found in renal cancer, prostate cancer, tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), lung SCC and bladder SCC. In contrast, Cav-1 also plays an inhibitory role in esophagus adenocarcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma and cutaneous SCC. The role of Cav-1 is still controversial in thyroid cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, breast cancer, pancreas cancer, oral SCC, laryngeal SCC, head and neck SCC, esophageal SCC and cervical SCC. Besides, it has been reported that the loss of stromal Cav-1 might predict poor prognosis in breast cancer, gastric cancer, pancreas cancer, prostate cancer, oral SCC and esophageal SCC. However, the accumulation of stromal Cav-1 has been found to be promoted by the progression of tongue SCC. Taken together, Cav-1 seems playing a different role in different cancer subtypes even of the same organ, as well as acting differently in the same cancer subtype of different organs. Thus, we hereby explore the functions of Cav-1 in human adenocarcinoma and SCC from the perspective of clinical significances and pathogenesis. We envision that novel targets may come with the further investigation of Cav-1 in carcinogenesis. PMID:28243118

  15. The clinical significance of anti-H in an individual with the Oh (Bombay) phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, R J; Tourault, M A; Holland, P V

    1978-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of anti-H present in individuals with the Oh (Bombay) phenotype, red blood cell 51chromium survival studies and related serological tests were undertaken in an Oh (Bombay) individual. A small sample of group O donor red blood cells was labeled with 51chromium and infused into the patient. The T 1/2 of the infused cells was six minutes, with two percent of the cells surviving at 24 hours. A similar study using the patient's own labeled red blood cells demonstrated 100 per cent survival at 24 hours. Initial laboratory studies indicated that the anti-H was active in saline at 4, 22 and 37 C and by the indirect antiglobulin test. Analysis of the antibody in both preand posttransfusion specimens showed it to have both IgM and IgG components. The anti-H titer at 37 C rose from 1:4 prior to the infusion of the O cells to 1:32 one week postinfusion, and a partial hemolysin appeared. Saliva inhibition studies demonstrated that the antibody was neutralizable prior to the group O exposure but was not neutralizable one week post exposure. We conclude that the anti-H present in this individual rapidly destroyed infused group O red blood cells. Individuals with the Oh (Bombay) phenotype should be transfused only with Oh (Bombay) blood.

  16. Clinical significance of activity of ALT enzyme in patients with hepatitis C virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in relation to the clinical, biochemical,ultrasonographic and histological characteristics of patients with hepatitis C virus.METHODS: Duration of disease, HCV-RNA, liver steatosis, and the hepatitis activity index (HAI) were correlated with serum ALT in 36 patients with HCV. ALT values were also investigated in 16 control subjects without any liver diseases.RESULTS: In bivariate analyses, ALT levels correlated with duration of HCV infection (P< 0.01), HCV-RNA (P<0.05), and the HAI(P<0.01). Among the components of the HAI, ALT concentrations were significantly associated with pedportal bridging/necrosis (P<0.01) and fibrosis (P<0.05). In multivariate analysis, periportal bridging/necrosis (β = 0.508; P < 0.01), duration of HCV infection (β = 0.413; P < 0.01), and HCV-RNA (β= 0.253; P < 0.05)were independently associated with ALT activity. The normal ALT activity for men and women was < 23 IU/L and < 22 IU/L, respectively.CONCLUSION: In patients with HCV, alterations in the liver tissue as reflected by ALT elevation are mainly associated with periportal bridging/necrosis, viral load and duration of disease. A cut-off value < 23 IU/L distinguished with high diagnostic accuracy healthy controls from patients with HCV.

  17. The Vital Capacity Is Vital: Epidemiology and Clinical Significance of the Restrictive Spirometry Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Mark S; Jankowich, Matthew D

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic research has revealed a substantial portion of the general population with abnormal spirometry results that are characterized by decreased FEV1 and FVC but a preserved FEV1/FVC ratio. This restrictive spirometry pattern (RSP) is inconsistently defined in the literature and not well addressed by current guidelines; there is an accumulating body of evidence, however, that RSP is prevalent to a similar degree as airflow obstruction. Genetic and other risk factors for RSP, such as inhalational injuries and early life exposures, continue to be actively described. Although it seems that RSP is closely associated with the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and systemic inflammation, it is not a simple marker of obesity. RSP is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, as well as mortality, and it may be an underappreciated cause of functional impairments and respiratory symptoms. Improvement in outcomes in this population will require that clinicians have an appreciation for the significance of this spirometry pattern; additional research into the clinical and radiologic phenotype of these subjects is also needed. This article provides an overview of the recent developments in our understanding of this prevalent and highly morbid spirometry pattern.

  18. Clinical significance of post-interventional cerebral hyperdensities after endovascular mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischaemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikoubashman, Omid [Uniklinik Aachen, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Aachen (Germany); Uniklinik Aachen, Klinik fuer Neurologie, Aachen (Germany); Reich, Arno; Gindullis, Mirco; Schulz, Joerg B. [Uniklinik Aachen, Klinik fuer Neurologie, Aachen (Germany); Frohnhofen, Katharina; Pjontek, Rastislav; Brockmann, Marc-Alexander; Wiesmann, Martin [Uniklinik Aachen, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Aachen (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    This study aims to investigate the clinical significance of post-interventional cerebral hyperdensities (PCHD) after endovascular mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischaemic stroke. Data of 102 consecutive patients who received post-interventional CT scans within 4.5 h after mechanical thrombectomy were analysed retrospectively. Sixty-two of 102 patients (60.8 %) had PCHD on their post-interventional CT scans. The most common site of PCHD was the basal ganglia. PCHD were persisting in 13 of 62 patients (21.0 %), and transient in the remaining 49 patients (79.0 %) within 24 h. Four patients with PCHD and four patients without PCHD suffered from parenchymal haemorrhage. Neither ASA nor Clopidogrel, Tirofiban or rtPA were risk factors for PCHD. Final infarction size was congruent with or bigger than areas of PCHD in 93.3 % of cases in our series. PCHD was not a risk factor for parenchymal haemorrhage in our series. The occurrence of PCHD was strongly related to the prior presence of infarction. PCHD was also a strong predictor for final infarction size. (orig.)

  19. Multiscale analysis of heart beat interval increment series and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG XiaoLin; NING XinBao; WANG XinLong

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of multiscale entropy (MSE) and multiscale standard deviation (MSD) are performed for both the heart rate interval series and the interval increment series. For the interval series, it is found that, it is impractical to discriminate the diseases of atrial fibrillation (AF) and congestive heart failure (CHF) unambiguously from the healthy. A clear discrimination from the healthy, both young and old, however, can be made in the MSE analysis of the increment series where we find that both CHF and AF sufferers have significantly low MSE values in the whole range of time scales investigated, which reveals that there are common dynamic characteristics underlying these two different diseases. In addition, we propose the sample entropy (SE) corresponding to time scale factor 4 of increment series as a diag-nosis index of both AF and CHF, and the reference threshold is recommended. Further indication that this index can help discriminate sensitively the mild heart failure (cardiac function classes 1 and 2) from the healthy gives a clue to early clinic diagnosis of CHF.

  20. Clinical significance of main pancreatic duct dilation on computed tomography: Single and double duct dilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark D Edge; Maarouf Hoteit; Amil P Patel; Xiaoping Wang; Deborah A Baumgarten; Qiang Cai

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the patients with main pancreatic duct dilation on computed tomography (CT) and thereby to provide the predictive criteria to identify patients at high risk of significant diseases, such as pancreatic cancer, and to avoid unnecessary work up for patients at low risk of such diseases.METHODS: Patients with dilation of the main pancreatic duct on CT at Emory University Hospital in 2002 were identified by computer search. Clinical course and ultimate diagnosis were obtained in all the identified patients by abstraction of their computer database records.RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients were identified in this study. Chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer were the most common causes of the main pancreatic duct dilation on CT. Although the majority of patients with isolated dilation of the main pancreatic duct (single duct dilation) had chronic pancreatitis, one-third of patients with single duct dilation but without chronic pancreatitis had pancreatic malignancies, whereas most of patients with concomitant biliary duct dilation (double duct dilation) had pancreatic cancer.CONCLUSION: Patients with pancreatic double duct dilation need extensive work up and careful follow up since a majority of these patients are ultimately diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. Patients with single duct dilation, especially such patients without any evidence of chronic pancreatitis, also need careful follow-up since the possibility of pancreatic malignancy, including adenocarcinoma and intraductal papillary mucinous tumors, is still high.

  1. Significance of Nueroelectrophysiological Tests in the Early Diagnosis of Sub-clinical Neuropathay with Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhijun; HU Xiaoqing; TANG Nai

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the application of nueroelectrophysiological tests in early diagnosis of sub-clinical neuropathy in diabetes mellitus (DM), The routine nerve conductive velocity (NCV),F-wave and sympathetic skin response (SSR) were detected in 27 patients with diabetes mellitus but without symptoms and signs of lesions of nerve system. Our results showed that 48.1%, 44.4 %, 51.9 % of the patients were found to have abnormal NCV, F-wave and SSR respectively. The abnormalities were mainly characterized by prolonged latency, reduced velocity and absence of wave-form.There were significant differences between the controls and the DM group (P<0.05). Both the distal and proximal segments of nerves were affected and the distal lesions took place earlier than proximal ones and the changes in low extremities were more severe than those of upper extremities. F-wave can be used as a sensitive indicator for the early diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy and it can help to detect the subclincial lesions. SSR can be used for the evaluation of functional status of autonomic nerves in DM patients.

  2. Small-fragment genomic libraries for the display of putative epitopes from clinically significant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henics, T; Winkler, B; Pfeifer, U; Gill, S R; Buschle, M; von Gabain, A; Meinke, A L

    2003-07-01

    Taking advantage of whole genome sequences of bacterial pathogens in many thriving diseases with global impact, we developed a comprehensive screening procedure for the identification of putative vaccine candidate antigens. Importantly, this procedure relies on highly representative small-fragment genomic libraries that are expressed to display frame-selected epitope-size peptides on a bacterial cell surface and to interact directly with carefully selected disease-relevant high-titer sera. Here we describe the generation of small-fragment genomic libraries of Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinically significant pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni. Large-scale sequencing revealed that the libraries, which provide an average of 20-fold coverage, were random and, as demonstrated with two S. aureus libraries, highly representative. Consistent with the comprehensive nature of this approach is the identification of epitopes that reside in both annotated and putatively novel open reading frames. The use of these libraries therefore allows for the rapid and direct identification of immunogenic epitopes with no apparent bias or difficulty that often associate with conventional expression methods.

  3. Clinical significance of pontine high signals identified on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masaki; Takahashi, Akira (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Arahata, Yutaka; Motegi, Yoshimasa; Furuse, Masahiro

    1993-07-01

    Spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was evaluated to 530 cases in order to investigate the clinical significance of pontine high signals. The subjects comprised 109 cases of pontine infarction with high signal on T[sub 2]-weighted image and low signal on T[sub 1]-weighted image (PI group), 145 of pontine high signal with high signal on T[sub 2]-weighted image but normal signal on T[sub 1]-weighted image (PH group) and 276 of age-matched control without abnormality either on T[sub 1] or T[sub 2]-weighted images (AC group). Subjective complaints such as vertigo-dizziness were more frequent in the PH group than in the PI group. In both PI and groups, periventricular hyperintensity as well as subcortical high signals in the supratentorium were more severe than in the AC group. These degrees were higher in the PI group than in the PH group. In conclusion, PH as well as PI may result from diffuse arteriosclerosis and PH is considered to be an early finding of pontine ischemia. (author).

  4. The prevalence and clinical significance of intestinal parasites in HIV-infected patients in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensvold, Christen Rune; Nielsen, Susanne Dam; Badsberg, Jens-Henrik; Engberg, Jørgen; Friis-Møller, Nina; Nielsen, Sanne Søgaard; Nielsen, Henrik Vedel; Friis-Møller, Alice

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence and clinical significance of intestinal parasites in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, faecal specimens from 96 HIV-infected patients were submitted to microbiological analyses, including microscopy and polymerase chain reaction for protozoa and enteropathogenic bacteria. Results of microbiological analyses were compared with self-reported gastrointestinal complaints collected using a validated questionnaire. Thirty-two (33%) patients were positive for parasites. However, opportunistic parasites (Isospora and Cryptosporidium) were detected in only 2 instances. Entamoeba dispar was detected in 10 cases, 9 of which represented men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite generally low HIV RNA loads and high CD4+ T-cell counts, 42% of the 76 patients reporting symptoms complained of diarrhoea, 31% of whom were parasite-positive. The presence of diarrhoea was not associated with the presence or absence of parasites; neither was it associated with receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in general, or protease inhibitors (PI) in particular. A CD4+ T-cell count parasitic infection or with diarrhoea. The data show that diarrhoea is a common symptom among HIV-infected patients in Denmark, but do not indicate that the diarrhoea is due to intestinal parasites.

  5. Expression of SOCS-1 in the liver tissues of chronic hepatitis B and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Xin Zhao; Qing-Xian Cai; Xiao-Mou Peng; Yu-Tian Chong; Zhi-Liang Gao

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1) in the liver tissues of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and the clinical significance of this expression.METHODS: The expression of SOCS-1 in liver tissues of 45 cases of CHB was investigated by immunohistochemical staining, and its correlations with inflammation grades and fibrosis stage were analyzed by SPSS statistics software.RESULTS: The result showed SOCS-1 expressing could be observed in the liver tissue of CHB. The expression of SOCS-1 was mainly distributed near the portal area in the liver tissue of mild inflammation CHB group, and was diffusely distributed in the liver tissue of moderate and severe inflammation groups. SOCS-1 positive stains mainly appear in the hepatocytes, only a few of liver interstitial cells were involved. Inside the hepatocyte, SOCS-1 positive stains are mainly distributed in the plasma. Some of the staining was observed on the membrane. The inclusion bodies in the plasma of hepatocytes were observed occasionally. There were both obvious correlations between the expression of SOCS-1 and the inflammatory grade, and that between the expression of SOCS-1 and the fibrosis stage.CONCLUSION: The distribution of SOCS-1 in the liver tissue of CHB is variable. This expression was correlated with the inflammation grade and fibrosis stage.

  6. Expression of CD40 and CD40L in Gastric Cancer Tissue and Its Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To study expression of CD40 and CD40L in gastric cancer tissue we assessed gastric cancer patients admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology of The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University and control subjects. Gastric cancer and normal (from around tumours tissue samples were obtained from patients. Venous blood samples (gastric cancer and ulcer groups were drawn on the morning of the day before surgery for the measurement of peripheral sCD40L. The expression of CD40 in gastric carcinoma specimens was examined immuno-histochemically. The clinicopathological factors, including age, sex, tumor size, gross appearance, degree of cellular differentiation, histological classification, depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, peritoneal dissemination, and TNM stage were analyzed according to the different expression of CD40. The results indicated a high CD40 expression in gastric cancer tissues. This positive expression of CD40 revealed a significant (P < 0.05 correlation with lymphatic metastasis and tumor TNM stage in gastric cancer patients. It is concluded that higher CD40 expression existed in expanding type tumors and could play an important role in clinical diagnosis of gastric cancer patients.

  7. Clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging of skeletal muscles in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies of adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikai, Masahiko; Akiya, Kumiko [National Tokyo Medical Center (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of skeletal muscles in Japanese patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). MRI was performed in 23 adult patients with IIM, including 10 with polymyositis, 12 with dermatomyositis, and 1 with focal myositis. Seven (73%) of 11 patients with active IIM and 2 (17%) of 12 patients with inactive IIM showed hyperintensity of T2-weighted images and normal intensity of T1-weighted images, indicating 'edema-like abnormalities' (MRI findings for active myositis). Muscle lipomatosis and fibrosis were demonstrated in four patients and 1 patient, respectively. Considerable selectivity of muscles in developing inflammatory disorders was found. In quadriceps muscles, for example, vastus muscles seemed to be more often affected in DM patients, whereas adductors were more often affected in PM patients. Serial examination of muscle MRIs was carried out in 4 patients and the findings paralleled the disease activities. The muscle MRI findings did not necessarily correlate with other findings, such as the presence of muscle weakness, elevated serum creatine kinase levels, myogenic electromyogram, or muscle biopsy findings. The muscle MRI was considered to be an additional useful tool for the diagnosis, evaluation of disease activity, and planning treatment of IIM. (author)

  8. Perspectives on the clinical significance of functional pain syndromes in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basch MC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Molly C Basch,1,2 Erika T Chow,1,3 Deirdre E Logan,1,4 Neil L Schechter,4 Laura E Simons1,2,4 1Division of Pain Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, 2Boston Children's Hospital, Center for Pain and the Brain, PAIN Research Group, 3Boston University School of Medicine, Boston University, 4Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Functional pain syndromes (FPS characterize a subset of individuals who experience pain and related symptoms and disability without clear structural or disease etiology. In the pediatric population, FPS hold high clinical importance due to significant prevalence rates and potential to persist into adulthood. Although extensive research has been executed to disambiguate FPS, the syndromes that fall within its spectrum remain conceptually complex and sometimes ill-defined. This paper provides an overview of available research on the classification and multifaceted etiology of FPS in youth and their effects on interpersonal, psychological, and familial function. Vital aspects of a successful multidisciplinary approach to treating this population are described; however, it is evident that future research requires more longitudinal studies. Keywords: overlapping chronic pain, functional pain, primary pain disorders, pediatrics, biopsychosocial model

  9. Mesenteric Lymphadenopathy in Childhood Epidemic Aseptic Meningitis: Sonographic Features and Clinical Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Sung Hee; Park, Young Chan; Lee, Young Hwan [Catholic University of Daegu, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    To evaluate the sonographic features of mesenteric lymphadenopathy in childhood epidemic aseptic meningitis and to assess their clinical significance. Thirty-three patients (25 male, 8 female: mean age, 8.6 years) with a diagnosis of aseptic meningitis were prospectively evaluated with abdominal ultrasonography for the presence of enlarged mesenteric nodes. The size and number of enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were analyzed in relationship with the patient's age, between the patients with abdominal pain or diarrhea (16 cases, 48%) and asymptomatic patients (17 cases, 52%). Mesenteric lymphadenopathy was seen in 31 patients (94%), all 16 symptomatic and 15 of the 17 asymptomatic patients. The number of enlarged nodes was most prevalent between 6-10, seen in 16 patients (52%) and the largest node ranged in size from 4 to 8 mm. Among the 31 patients with mesenteric lymphadenopathy, the mean size of the largest node was statistically different between the symptomatic (6.0 mm) and asymptomatic (5.0 mm) groups (p = 0.021). The number of enlarged nodes and the patient's age were not statistically different between the two groups. Mesenteric lymphadenopathy was seen in almost all cases of childhood epidemic aseptic meningitis, and may be related to the mesenteric lymphadenitis caused by enterovirus

  10. [Clinical significance of Helicobacter pylori in children with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying; Wang, Shu-Chun; Wang, Lu-Juan; Liu, Yong; Wang, Hai-Ying; Wang, Zhan-Ju

    2013-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the clinic significance of helicobacter pylori (HP) in children with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The infection of HP in 92 ITP children was determined by (13) C-Urea Breath Test, the same test was also performed on 66 healthy children. The 68 children infected with HP were randomly divided into 2 groups: single drug group treated only with corticosteroid and; combined drug group treated with corticosteroid and anti-helicobacter pylori treatment. The results showed that 68 patients infected with HP were found in 92 ITP children (74.7%), 26 patients infected with HP were observed in 66 healthy children (39.4%), which was lower than that in ITP children (74.7%, P helicobacter pylori therapy, the total effective rate and cure rate of ITP patients increased respectively from 73.5% to 94.1%, and the total recurrence rate (17.0%) was much lower than single drug group (47.1%, P helicobacter pylori group was higher than that in the single drug group (P helicobacter pylori therapy would help to improve the therapeutic efficacy and reduce the recurrence of ITP children.

  11. Inflammatory Cytokine Secretion Status of Bone Marrow Cells and Clinical Significance in Immune-related Hematocytopenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-fei Sun; Qiang-qiang Wu; Zhi-hong Sun; Bing Han; Hong-feng Hao; Gui-chen Wang; Ming Li; Jin-biao Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the expression of inlfammatory molecules in bone marrow immune cells of patients with immune-related hematocytopenia (IRH), and to investigate the immune mechanism and clinical signiifcance of the disease. Methods Total of 36 IRH patients were selected as observation group and 30 healthy people were taken as control group. Serum cytokines levels, activity of immunocytes and expression of HLA-DR were detected. Immune lfuorescence was applied to observe the expression state of immunologic molecules and cytokines in IRH patients. Results Serum cytokines were elevated in various degrees in observation group. Compared with the control group, the cytokines levels were significantly higher (P Conclusions It is demonstrated that antibodies or self-reactive lymphocytes were produced in IRH marrow, which would cause lesions of hemocytes, and lead to pathological process ifnally. Structure of hematopoietic cells mutated and these cells might be acted as target cells of immunocytes in the pathological process. Immunocytes could secrete inlfammatory factors and lead to immunologic injury of hemocyte.

  12. Changes of IL-6 and relevant cytokines in patients with hepatocellularcarcinoma and their clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Yah Zhao; Yue Lin Li; Su Xia Liu; Zhong Jun Feng

    2000-01-01

    AIM To study the changes of IL-6,IL-2, sIL-2R and TNF ir patients with hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC)and their clinical significance.METHODS IL-6, IL-2, sIL-2R and TNF were detected by avidin-biotin-system ELISA, double-sandwichELISA respectively in 60 patients with HCC and 36 patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) and 66 healthy persons.RESULTS The levels of IL-6, sIL-2R and TNF increased, but IL-2 level was lower in patients with HCCthan that in normal controls (NC) (t test, t=8.21, 4.71, 3.87, 2.13, P<0.01 or 0.05). IL-6 level in HCCwas 10 fold higher than NC, and also much higher than LC. IL-6 level was higher in later stage than that inearlier stage. There was a positive correlation between IL-6 and sIL-2R, TNF, while no positive correlationwas found between IL-2 and IL-6, sIL-2R in HCC.CONCLUSION The remarkably higher level of IL-6 is helpful for the early diagnosis of HCC.

  13. Prognostic significance of clinical, histopathological, and molecular characteristics of medulloblastomas in the prospective HIT2000 multicenter clinical trial cohort.

    OpenAIRE

    Pietsch, Torsten; Schmidt,Rene; Remke, Marc; Korshunov, Andrey; Hovestadt, Volker; Jones, David T.W.; Felsberg, Jörg; Kaulich, Kerstin; Goschzik, Tobias; Kool, Marcel; Northcott, Paul A.; von Hoff, Katja; von Bueren, André O.; Friedrich, Carsten; Mynarek, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to prospectively evaluate clinical, histopathological and molecular variables for outcome prediction in medulloblastoma patients. Patients from the HIT2000 cooperative clinical trial were prospectively enrolled based on the availability of sufficient tumor material and complete clinical information. This revealed a cohort of 184 patients (median age 7.6 years), which was randomly split at a 2:1 ratio into a training (n = 127), and a test (n = 57) dataset in order to build and...

  14. Clinically Significant Fatigue: Prevalence and Associated Factors in an International Sample of Adults with Multiple Sclerosis Recruited via the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Weiland, Tracey J.; Jelinek, George A.; Claudia H. Marck; Emily J Hadgkiss; van der Meer, Dania M.; Pereira, Naresh G.; Taylor, Keryn L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Fatigue contributes a significant burden of disease for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Modifiable lifestyle factors have been recognized as having a role in a range of morbidity outcomes in PwMS. There is significant potential to prevent and treat fatigue in PwMS by addressing modifiable risk factors. Objectives To explore the associations between clinically significant fatigue and demographic factors, clinical factors (health-related quality of life, disability and relapse...

  15. The Clinical Significance of Cathepsin D and p53 Expression in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun-Sang; Lee, Sheng-Jin; Kim, Jin-Man; Cho, Moon-June [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    Cathepsin D (CD) is a lysosomal acid proteinase that is related to malignant progression, invasion, and a poor prognosis in several tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic clinical significance of CD and p53 expression in pretreatment biopsy specimens from patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were treated with preoperative chemoradiation. Eighty-nine patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (cT3/T4 or N+) were included in this study. Preoperative chemoradiation consisted of a dose of 50.4 Gy of pelvic radiation and two concurrent cycles of administration of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin. Surgery was performed six weeks after chemoradiation. CD and p53 expression in pretreatment formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor biopsy specimens were assessed by immunohistochemical staining using a CD and p53 monoclonal antibodies. The threshold value for a positive stain in tumor tissue and stromal cells was 1+ intensity in 10% of the tumors or stromal cells, respectively. Positive CD expression was found in 57 (64%) of the tumors and 32 (35%) of the stromal cell specimens. There was no association with CD expression of the tumor or stromal cells and patient characteristics. There was a correlation between tumor CD expression with stromal cell CD expression (p=0.01). Overexpression of p53 was not a significant prognostic factor. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were not different between tumor CD-negative and positive patient biopsy samples (69% vs. 65%, 60% vs. 61%, respectively). The 5-year OS rates in the tumor-negative/stromal cell-negative, tumor-negative/stromal cell-positive, tumor-positive/stromal cell-negative and tumor-positive/ stromal cell-positive biopsy samples were 75%, 28%, 62%, and 73%, respectively. Stromal cell staining only without positive tumor staining demonstrated the worst overall survival prognosis for patients (p=0.013). Overexpression of p53 in rectal biopsy tissue was not

  16. Clinical significance of balloon dilatation angiography during cerebral venous sinus stenosis stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-yu CAO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the clinical significance of balloon dilatation angiography during cerebral venous sinus stenosis stenting to predict the reflux of perforator veins after operation. Methods A total of 93 patients (including 51 with cerebral venous sinus stenosis and intracranial hypertension and 42 with intractable pulsatile tinnitus caused by cerebral venous sinus stenosis who were treated by stent implantation were analyzed retrospectively. Among those patients, the diameter of transverse and sigmoid sinuses of 63 cases were measured based on angiography, and stent was selected according to the measurement result. The other 30 cases were given angiography on ipsilateral carotid artery or vertebral artery when the balloon was dilated in the venous sinus to confirm the reflux of perforator veins. If the venous reflux decreased in the angiography, stent with diameter 1-2 mm less than that of venous sinus could be selected.  Results The success rate of stenting was 100% (93/93. In 63 cases, 45 cases were planted 9 mm × 40 mm stents, 15 were planted 8 mm × 40 mm stents, 3 were planted 7 mm × 40 mm stents. The average diameter of stents was (8.67 ± 0.68 mm. There were 11 cases (17.46% with slow perforator venous reflux after operation. In the other 30 cases, 3 cases were planted 8 mm × 40 mm stents, 11 were planted 7 mm × 40 mm stents, and 16 were planted 6 mm × 40 mm stents. The average diameter of stents was (7.57 ± 0.67 mm. There was only one case (3.33% with slow perforator venous reflux after operation. The difference of stent diameter between 2 groups was statistically significant (t = 15.632, P = 0.001. The occurrence rate of perforator vein occlusion after operation between 2 groups was significantly different (adjusted χ 2 = 60.065, P = 0.001.  Conclusions Perforator vein occlusion after cerebral venous sinus stenting is common complication. Balloon dilatation angiography could predict the possibility of perforator vein

  17. Detection of CK20mRNA in peripheral blood of pancreatic cancer and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Li Zhang; Jian-Guo Feng; Jian-Min Gou; Li-Xin Zhou; Ping Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To detect the expression of CK20mRNA in peripheral blood of Pancreatic cancer and evaluate its clinical significance.METHODS: Expression of CK20mRNA in peripheral blood was detected by fluorogenic qualitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 40cases of pancreatic cancer at the night before operation,in 5 cases of benign pancreatic diseases, in 5 cases of healthy individuals. The relationships were investigated between CK20mRNA expression and the clinicopathological variables, and clinical follow-up outcome in those patients with pancreatic cancer having undergone radical resection.RESULTS: Of the 40 patients with pancreatic cancer, 23(57.5%) cases were positive for CK20mRNA expression.CK20mRNA expression was significantly correlated with lymphatic metastasis (P = 0.008), histopathological grading (P = 0.009), and pathological stage (P = 0.021);there was no significant correlation between CK20mRNA expression and age, gender, tumor diameter, and depth of invasion. The cumulative metastasis rates of patients with CK20mRNA expression were higher than those of patients with no CK20mRNA expression within 6 mo (34.7%vs5.9%, P= 0.043) or 12 mo (73.9% vs35.3%, P= 0.02)after operation. CK20mRNA expression in peripheral blood of pancreatic cancer indicated poorer prognosis. The survival rate of patients with CK20mRNA expression was lower than that of patients with negative CK20mRNA expression (Log-Rank = 13.31, P = 0.0003).CONCLUSION: CK20mRNA is a sensitive and specific molecular marker for the detection of micrometastasis in peripheral blood of patients with pancreatic cancer. The CK20mRNA expression in peripheral blood is correlated with biological characteristic of pancreatic cancer. It can help to predict the prognosis of pancreatic cancer after operation, and to determine which patient will benefit from aggressive adjuvant therapies.

  18. Clinical significance of colposcopy on screening cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in cytological negative and smooth cervices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianyun Shi; Saiying Chen; Yan Sun

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical value of the video colposcopy in screening cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in cytological negative and smooth cervices by optical y gynecological examination. Methods:The 1050 women, whose cervices had been shown smooth and cytological negative by optical examine, were examined with electronic colposcopy in gynecological clinic, and biopsy was taken when the double abnormality of aceto-white epithelium and iodine negative, and other abnormal images were shown. A retrospective analysis of these cases was performed. Re-sults:(1) The 514 samples from 458 cases, including 458 samples of abnormal tissues under colposcopy and 56 samples of polyp or polypoid tumors by optical y, were examined by biopsy. Among them, 68 samples were found to be CIN, including 11 cases of CINII/CINIII;(2) The 72 of 1050 cases showed the double-abnormality of aceto-white epithelium and iodine nega-tive. Among them, 64 cases were CIN determined by biopsy. And the positive predictive value of the double-abnormality of aceto-white epithelium and iodine negative under colposcopy was 88.9%, with a false negative rate of 3.3%;(3) Among 458 women examined by biopsy, only one of 350 samples from cervical polyp tissue was CIN (0.3%), while 67 of 164 samples from the tissues with abnormal colposcopic images were found to be CIN (40.9%), indicating the close relation between abnormal colposcopic findings and CIN;(4) The results of age-distribution analysis showed that, in the 164 cases with abnormal features under colposcopy, the incidence of double abnormality of aceto-white epithelium and iodine negative was higher in the age of sexual activity, just the same as the age distribution feature of CIN;while single abnormality of iodine negative appeared more in the age of over 50 years. Conclusion:Abnormal features displayed by colposcopy, especial y the double abnormality of aceto-white epithelium and iodine negative, has an important

  19. Cavum septi pellucidi and cavum vergae. Incidence on CT scan and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, S.; Hojo, H.; Kataoka, K.; Yamasaki, S. (Shizuoka Children' s Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan))

    1980-10-01

    1050 CT scans of patients under 15 years were reviewed. We also investigated the clinical features of these cases and made an attempt to disclose the incidence of cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) and cavum Vergae (CV) on the CT scan and to clarify their clinical significance. As a whole, CSP was demonstrated in 23 patients (2.2%), CV in 4 (0.4%), and both CSP and CV at the same time in 31 (3.0%). The incidence of CSP and CV in each age bracket decreased with an advance in age. No sexual differences were found. The incidences of CSP and CV in the patients with convulsive disorders, developmental delay, and other disorders were 6.4%, 5.1%, and 5.2% respectively. Of 64 patients with febrile convulsion, 4 had both CSP and CV at the same time, while one had only CSP. The four patients with both CSP and CV had convulsions three or more times, while the patient with only CSP had only one. These results suggested that those patients with febrile convulsions who had both CSP and CV at the same time were liable to have recurrent convulsions. Of 32 patients with benign infantile convulsions, only one had both CSP and CV. On the other hand, of 29 patients with infantile spasms, 2 had only CSP, and another 2 had both CSP and CV. Some patients with infantile spasms had CT scans demonstrating cerebral atrophy, porencephaly, cerebral angioma, and calcification in the brain, suggesting various types of etiology. Of 187 patients with other convulsive disorders, 4 had only CSP and 6 had both CSP and CV. Of 468 patients with developmental delay, 13 had only CSP (2.8%), one had only CV (0.2%), and 10 had both (2.1%). Of these 24 patients with developmental delay who had CSP and/or CV, 14 had cerebral atrophy besides, suggesting other etiological factors. Of 270 patients with other disorders, 3 had only CSP (1.1%), other 3 had only CV (1.1%), and 8 had both (3.0%).

  20. Biological characteristics and clinical outcome of triple negative primary breast cancer in older women - comparison with their younger counterparts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binafsha M Syed

    Full Text Available Triple negative (ER, PgR and HER2 negative breast cancers (TNBCs are often considered as a poor prognostic phenotype. There is dearth of evidence showing the prevalence and biological behaviour of TNBCs in older women. This study aimed to analyse their biological characteristics in comparison with a well characterised younger series from a single centre with long term clinical follow-up. Over 37 years (1973-2010, 1,758 older (≥70 years women with early operable (<5 cm primary breast cancer were managed in a dedicated clinic and have complete clinical information available. Of these 813 patients underwent primary surgery and 575 had good quality tumour samples available for tissue microarray analysis using indirect immunohistochemistry. A total of 127 patients (22.1% had TNBCs and full biological analysis of 15 biomarkers was performed. The results were compared with those of their younger (<70 years counterparts 342 (18.9% from a previously characterised, consecutive series of primary breast cancer treated in the same unit (1986-1998. The 127 older patients with TNBCs showed lower rates of Ki67 and CK 7/8 positivity and high rates of bcl2 and CK18 positivity when compared with their younger counterparts (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in the long term clinical outcome between the two age groups, despite the fact that 47% of the younger patients had adjuvant chemotherapy, while none in the older cohort received such treatment. EGFR, axillary stage and pathological size showed prognostic significance in older women with TNBCs on univariate analysis. Despite not having received adjuvant chemotherapy, the older series had clinical outcome similar to the younger patients almost half of whom had chemotherapy. This appears to be related to other biomarkers (in addition to ER/PgR/HER2 eg Ki67, bcl2 and cytokeratins which have different expression patterns influencing prognosis.

  1. Expression of mucins and E-cadherin in gastric carcinoma and their clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Kai Zhang; Qiu-Min Zhang; Tie-Hua Zhao; Yuan-Yuan Li; Yong-Fen Yi

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of three types of mucin (MUC1, MUC2, MUCSAC) and E-cadherin in human gastric carcinomas and their clinical significance.METHODS: Ninety-four gastric cancer specimens were classified according to WHO criteria and detected by immunohistochemical assay of expression of mucins and E-cadherin.RESULTS: The positive expression rates of MUC1, MUC2,MUC5AC and E-cadherin were 82% (77/94), 84% (79/94),40% (38/94) and 56% (53/94) respectively. MUC1 expression was significantly correlated with the types of cancer (the positive rates of MUC1 in well and moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma,signet-ring cell carcinoma and mucinous carcinoma were 91%, 87%, 71%, 71%, respectively, P<0.05), age of patients (the positive rates of it among the people who are younger than 40 years, between 40-60 years and over 60 year were 74%, 81%, 89%, P<0.05), lymph nodes involvement (the positive rates in the non-interfered group and the interfered group were 78%, 85%, P<0.05) and tumor size (the positive rates in the tumors with the size less than 3 cm, 3-6 cm and larger than 6 cm were 69%, 92%, 69%, P<0.05); MUC2expression was significantly associated with types of cancers and had the strongest expression in mucinous carcinomas (the positive rates of MUC2 in well and moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma,signet-ring cell carcinoma and mucinous carcinoma were 94%, 70%, 81%, 100%, P<0.05), but it had no obvious relation to age, gender, tumor location, lymph nodes involvement,depth of invasion and metastasis to extra-gastric organs (P>0.05); MUC5AC expression was not related to any of the characteristics investigated except that it had relation to gender, whereas MUC5AC showed the tendency to higher expression in less invasive lesions and lower expression in advanced stage cancers (P>0.05); No significant difference was found for E-cadherin expression

  2. Clinical significance of human kallikrein 12 gene expression in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    En-Hao Zhao; Zhi-Yong Shen; Hua Liu; Xin Jin; Hui Cao

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate whether the expression of kallikrein 12 (KLK12) is related to the development of gastric cancer (GC) and to determine the role of KLK12 in gastric cancer cells growth,invasion and migration.METHODS:Between September 2007 and March 2008,133 patients with histologically confirmed GC were recruited for the study.Expression of KLK12 was detected in samples from GC patients by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry.The relationship between KLK12 protein expression and clinicopathological features of GC was analyzed.The difference in 5-year survival rates between the high KLK12 protein expression group and the low KLK12 expression group was compared.Additionally,the expression of KLK12 was examined in various human GC cell lines,including MKN-28,SGC-7901 and MKN-45.Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to inhibit KLK12 expression in MKN-45 cells.Cell clones stably transfected with KLK12 siRNA were tested for KLK12 expression by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting.Furthermore,a series of functional assays were performed in this study to assess the biological features of transfected cells.Cell proliferation was assessed using the methylthiazolyltetrazoliumassay.Finally,cell migration and invasion were assessed using transwell chamber assays.RESULTS:Of the 133 GC patients induded in the study,126 (94.7%) showed a higher expression level of KLK12 mRNA when compared to noncancerous tissue specimens.Expression of KLK12 mRNA was significantly higher in GC tissues than in normal tissue (P < 0.001).KLK12 protein expression was detected in 96 of 133 (72.2%) GC samples with moderate or strong staining primarily in the cytoplasm.In contrast,negative immunostaining for KLK12 protein was observed in the corresponding normal gastric mucosal tissue.Overexpression of KLK12 protein was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P =0

  3. Biologic Therapies: From Complexity to Clinical Practice in a Changing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remo Panaccione

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This symposium provided an opportunity for global experts to discuss the challenges posed by the introduction of biosimilars. The impact of the manufacturing process on clinical outcomes, maintaining treatment responses over the long term, and issues surrounding patient management in a changing environment were addressed. The symposium was opened by Prof Panaccione describing the evolution of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD treatment in the last 20 years and how biologics have improved outcomes. Prof D’Haens provided an explanation of the complexity surrounding biologic drug development and the hurdles facing drug manufacturers when ensuring high quality and consistently performing products over time. Prof Panaccione discussed the clinical challenges in balancing the transition from induction to maintenance therapy in order to provide a clinically relevant and sustained response to therapy. He also discussed the evidence for long-term outcomes with adalimumab for IBD. Prof Feagan highlighted the issues faced by clinicians treating patients with biologics, including the ability to switch between biologics without loss of efficacy or impact on safety, and the need to consider interchangeability between biologic therapies and the potential risk and impact of immunogenicity.

  4. Clinical significance of TOAST typing of ischemic stroke in young adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke in young adults brings extremely hurts for their families and society, and the etiological factors and risk factors are different in the world.OBJECTIVE: To analyze and evaluate clinical significance of ischemic stroke in young adults by using TOAST typing.DESIGN: Case analysis.SETTING: Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi Medical University.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 64 young adults with acute ischemic stroke were selected from the Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Guangxi Medical University from September 2005 to June 2006.There were 44 males and 20 females and their age ranged from 15 to 45 years. All patients met with the diagnostic criteria of the Fourth National Cerebrovarscular Academic Meeting and certainly diagnosed with CT or MRI examination. In addition, all patients provided the confirmed consent.METHODS: ① TOAST typing: Based on X-ray of thoracic part, electrocardiography, blood routine, blood glucose, electrolure, lipid, blood coagulation test, anticardiolipin antibody, antinuclear antibody, anti-double chain DNA, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, crook agglutination test, syphilis antibody and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody test, patients received TOAST typing, including large-artery atherosclerotic stroke (LA), small-artery occlusion lacunar (SA), cardioembolism (CE), stroke of other demonstrated etiology (SOE), and stroke of other undemonstrated etiology (SUE). ② Risk factors: Stages of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipemia, smoking and drinking of patients were observed. Blood pressure was measured twice after onset of acute stroke, and values of total cholesterol (TC) and/or triacylglycerol (TG) were measured more than twice to finally diagnose hyperlipemia. Diagnostic criteria of diabetes mellitus: fasting≥7.0 mmol/L; 2 hours after administrating glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/L. Risk factor of smoking defined as more than 10 smokes every day in the

  5. Sequence variations of the hypervariable region of hepatitis C virus and their clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To understand the clinical significance of sequence variations in the hypervariable region (HVR) of hepatitis C virus during infection. Methods Eight patients with acute hepatitis C and 20 patients with chronic hepatitis C were followed up for two years. Blood samples were taken at intervals of six months for analysis of HCV-HVR sequences by reverse transcription-pelymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and direct sequencing methods. Results HCV-HVR sequences of the 28 patients changed in various degrees. 92% of these nuclentide substitutions led to changes of corresponding amino acid sequence. Only 8% of changed nucleotide were synonymous substitutions. Of 27 amino acids variation of amino acid ranged from 1 to 20 (mean 8, 30%). The most common nucleotide substitution (62%) occurred in the first position of codon, 31% in the second and the rest in the third. HVR variation rate wes 0.89×10-1 per genome site per year in acute hepatitis C, compared with 2.31×10-1 per genome site per year in chronic hepatitis C (P<0.05), but had no relafian to HCV subtype. Variation of HVR in the flare up type (ALT>150 μ/L) was much more than that in the quiescent type (ALT<100 μ/L). Conclusion Our results suggested that sequence variation of HVR during HCV chronic infection seems to be an adaptive response to HCV to evade the host immune pressure and might play a major role in the establishment of persistent infection as well as in the flare-up of hepatitis.

  6. Clinical Significance of the Degree of Fatty Liver Diagnosed by Ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Kyun [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Koeralife Daejeon Healthcare Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    Fatty liver is one of the most commonly found disease by abdominal ultrasonography. The status of fatty liver is classified into mild, moderate and severe degrees. The study was conducted to investigate the clinical significance of fatty liver using ultrasonography. Test set consisted of 2,185 patients who visited D healthcare center in Daejeon to receive an abdominal ultrasonic test from January to December 2007. Out of the 2185 patients, 524 patients was diagnosed as fatty liver (290 male and 234 female patients). They were divided into three groups, group I for mild degree. II for moderate degree, and III for severe degree, depending on the echo of liver parenchyma, the sound attenuation, and the visibility of intrahepatic blood vessels and diaphragm. Then the correlation of obesity indices, liver function tests and metabolic syndrome was analyzed for males and females separately. As for the degree of fatty liver, 350 cases (66.8%) were classified as group I, 153 cases (29.2%) as group II, and 21 cases (4.1%) as group III. In addition, severe degree of fatty liver was more frequently found in males than in females. The mean ages of three groups for males were 46.1, 44.5, and 39.1, and those for females were 48.8, 50.2, 52.4, respectively. Males with lower mean ages have severely of fatty liver for both males and females. The results in this study show that the classification into three degrees of fatty liver in ultrasonography practice is helpful to treat and observe the progress of fatty liver. In addition, careful examination is required to measure the severity of fatty liver as well as detection of it. A standardized method to classify the degree of fatty liver is also needed for more objective measurement.

  7. Detection of multiple antibodies in myasthenia gravis and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-wei; HAO Hong-jun; GAO Feng

    2010-01-01

    Background Antibodies against acetylcholine receptor, acetylcholinesterase, ryanodine receptor and titin have been found in patients with myasthenia gravis. However, the relations between these antibodies and character of myasthenia gravis are unknown. This study aimed to detect multiple antibodies in myasthenia gravis and to investigate its clinical significance.Methods These antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay in 89 cases of myasthenia gravis,66 cases of other neurological diseases and 66 healthy controls. The incidences of antibodies were compared using the chi-square test.Results Acetylcholine receptor, acetylcholinesterase, titin and ryanodine receptor antibodies were detected in 53.9%,20.2%, 64.0% and 55.0% of myasthenia gravis patients respectively, higher than in patients of other neurological diseases and controls groups. The combination of the four antibodies assays provided 94.4% sensitivity and 84.0% specificity for the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. Acetylcholinesterase antibody occurred more frequently in acetylcholine receptor antibody negative patients with adverse reactions to neostigmine test. Titin antibody provided 82.1% sensitivity and 52.5% specificity for myasthenia gravis with thymoma. Incidences of titin and of ryanedine receptor antibody were higher in late onset myasthenia gravis than in early onset myasthenia gravis. The proportion of titin antibody positive patients increased with the severity of myasthenia gravis as graded by a modified Osserman scale.Conclusions Testing for acetylcholine receptor, acetylcholinesterase, titin and ryanodine receptor antibodies can offer a better diagnostic method for myasthenia gravis than each antibody test alone. Titin antibody combined with computed tomography was better for the diagnosis of thymoma. Titin antibody occurred most frequently in severe myasthenia gravis.

  8. Clinical significance of colonoscopy in patients with upper gastrointestinal polyps and neoplasms: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Jie Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some authors have studied the relationship between the presence of polyps, adenomas and cancers of upper gastrointestinal tract (stomach and duodenum and risk of colorectal polyps and neoplasms; however, the results are controversial, which may be due to study sample size, populations, design, clinical features, and so on. No meta-analysis, which can be generalized to a larger population and could provide a quantitative pooled risk estimate of the relationship, of this issue existed so far. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate risk of colorectal polyps or neoplasms in patients with polyps, adenomas or cancers in upper gastrointestinal tract comparing with controls. A search was conducted through PubMed, EMBASE, reference lists of potentially relevant papers, and practice guidelines up to 27 November 2013 without languages restriction. Odd ratios (ORs were pooled using random-effects models. RESULTS: The search yielded 3 prospective and 21 retrospective case-control studies (n = 37152 participants. The principal findings included: (1 OR for colorectal polyps was 1.15 (95% CI, 1.04-1.26 in the gastric polyps group comparing with control groups; (2 Patients with gastric polyps and neoplasms have higher risk (OR, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.06-1.62], and 1.72 [95% CI, 1.42-2.09], respectively of colorectal neoplasms comparing with their controls; and (3 Positive association was found between the presence of colorectal neoplasms and sporadic duodenal neoplasms (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.64-4.11. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from present meta-analysis of 24 case-control studies suggest that the prevalence of colorectal polyps was higher in patients with gastric polyps than in those without gastric polyps, and the risk of colorectal neoplasms increases significantly in patients with gastric polyps, neoplasms, and duodenal neoplasms. Therefore, screening colonoscopy should be considered for patients with upper gastrointestinal polyps and neoplasms.

  9. Osteoarticular infections in Belgian children: a survey of clinical, biological, radiological and microbiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmont, Quentin; Yombi, Jean-Cyr; Van der Linden, Dimitri; Docquier, Pierre-Louis

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study is to report the pathogens which were found most frequently to be responsible for osteo-articular infections in infants and children in Belgium, and to propose an appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy applicable before identification of the responsible pathogen. Clinical presentation, imaging and blood biology are also reviewed and analysed. Fifty-six cases of osteo-articular infections (acute/subacute osteomyelitis, osteo-arthritis, septic arthritis, spondylodiscitis, sacro-iliitis) treated between 2001 and 2007 were retrospectively reviewed, focusing on clinical, biological, microbiological and radiological data. Septic arthritis, acute osteomyelitis, septic osteoarthritis and sacro-iliitis often have a loud clinical (fever, pain, inflammatory signs) and biological presentation. Subacute osteomyelitis and spondylodiscitis are almost asymptomatic, but for functional impairment. The responsible pathogen was isolated in 38% of the cases. The most frequent pathogen was Staphylococcus Aureus, followed by Pneumococcus, Streptococcus A and B, Kingella Kingae, and Haemophilus. None of them were resistant to usual antibiotics. Functional impairment is the only constant symptom of osteo-articular infections. Other clinical and biological symptoms may be absent, making diagnosis often difficult. We recommend oxacillin (> 5 years) or a combination of oxacillin with cefotaxime (< 5 years) in the empirical treatment of osteo-articular infection, and a total of 4 weeks of treatment.

  10. Allelic polymorphism of glucocorticoid receptor NR3C1 (GR: from molecular biology to clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlovsky M. A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphism of stress-related genes is a key factor determining difference in the stress reactivity and resistance among humans. Glucocorticoid receptors are important actors of stress responses. This review is focused on the molecular biology and clinical implications of glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphism.

  11. The prognostic significance of clinical and pathological features in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lun-Xiu Qin; Zhao-You Tang

    2002-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with HCC still remains dismal. The life expectancy of HCC patients is hard to predict because of the high possibility of postoperative recurrence. Many factors, such as patient's general conditions, macroscopic tumor morphology, as well as tumor hictopathology features, have been proven of prognostic significance. Female HCC patient often has a better prognosis than male patient, which might be due to the receptor of sex hormones. Younger patients often have tumors with higher invasiveness and metastatic potentials, and their survival and prognosis are worse than the older ones. Co-existing hepatitis status and hepatic functional reserve have been confirmed as risk factors for recurrence. Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is useful not only for diagnosis, but also as a prognostic indicator for HCC patients. AFP mRNA has been proposed as a predictive marker of HCC cells disseminated into the circulation and for metastatic recurrence. Many pathologic features,such as tumor size, number, capsule state, cell differentiation, venous invasion, intrahepatic spreading, and advanced pTNM stage, are the best-established risk factors for recurrence and important aspects affecting the prognosis of patients with HCC. Marked inflammatory cell infiltration in the tumor could predict a better prognosis. Clinical stage is still the most important factor influencing on the prognosis. Extratumor spreading and lymph nodal metastasis are independent predictors for poor outcome. Soma new predictive systems have recently been proposed. Different strategies of treatment might have significant different effects on the patients'prognosis. To date, surgical resection is still the only potentially curative treatment for HCC,including localized postoperative recurrences.Extent of resection, blood transfusion, occlusion of porta hepatis, and blood loss affect the survival and prognosis of HCC patients. Regional therapies provide alternative ways to improve the prognosis of

  12. Clinical Significance of Heart Chronotropic Incompetence in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingjun Feng; Handong Yang; Xinwen Min; Xin Chen; Dongfeng Li; Hao Xu

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between the chronotropic incompetence and angiographic severity of coro-nary artery disease, and the clinical value of inappropriate chronotropic responses in exercise. Methods Coronary an-giography was performed in 130 patients suspected or diagnosed as coronary heart disease (CHD), and angiographic se-verity of coronary artery disease was quantitated by Duke score and Gensini score. The patients were divided into 4groups: non-CHD group (39 cases), CHD group with only one coronary artery involved (CHD1, 30 cases), CHD group with two coronary arteries involved (CHD2, 31 cases) and CHD group with three coronary arteries involved (CHD3 group, 30 cases). A month before coronary angiography, symptom-limited bicycle ergometor exercise had been accomplished, the chronotropic response had been measured and expressed as ratio of heart rate reserve (HRR)and the maximal age-predicted heart rate achieved (rHR). Results Analysis of variance showed that rHR and HRR were much significantly lower (all P 0.05)and between CHD2 group and CHD3 group(P>0.05). HRR has no difference between CH