WorldWideScience

Sample records for biology characterization origin

  1. Biological origins of color categorization

    OpenAIRE

    Skelton, Alice E.; Catchpole, Gemma; Abbott, Joshua T.; Bosten, Jenny M.; Franklin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants’ categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mappe...

  2. Biological origins of color categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Alice E; Catchpole, Gemma; Abbott, Joshua T; Bosten, Jenny M; Franklin, Anna

    2017-05-23

    The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants' categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mapped infants' categorical recognition memory for hue onto a stimulus array used previously to document the color lexicons of 110 nonindustrialized languages. Following familiarization to a given hue, infants' response to a novel hue indicated that their recognition memory parses the hue continuum into red, yellow, green, blue, and purple categories. Infants' categorical distinctions aligned with common distinctions in color lexicons and are organized around hues that are commonly central to lexical categories across languages. The boundaries between infants' categorical distinctions also aligned, relative to the adaptation point, with the cardinal axes that describe the early stages of color representation in retinogeniculate pathways, indicating that infant color categorization may be partly organized by biological mechanisms of color vision. The findings suggest that color categorization in language and thought is partially biologically constrained and have implications for broader debate on how biology, culture, and communication interact in human cognition.

  3. Evolutionary cell biology: two origins, one objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Field, Mark C; Goodson, Holly V; Malik, Harmit S; Pereira-Leal, José B; Roos, David S; Turkewitz, Aaron P; Sazer, Shelley

    2014-12-02

    All aspects of biological diversification ultimately trace to evolutionary modifications at the cellular level. This central role of cells frames the basic questions as to how cells work and how cells come to be the way they are. Although these two lines of inquiry lie respectively within the traditional provenance of cell biology and evolutionary biology, a comprehensive synthesis of evolutionary and cell-biological thinking is lacking. We define evolutionary cell biology as the fusion of these two eponymous fields with the theoretical and quantitative branches of biochemistry, biophysics, and population genetics. The key goals are to develop a mechanistic understanding of general evolutionary processes, while specifically infusing cell biology with an evolutionary perspective. The full development of this interdisciplinary field has the potential to solve numerous problems in diverse areas of biology, including the degree to which selection, effectively neutral processes, historical contingencies, and/or constraints at the chemical and biophysical levels dictate patterns of variation for intracellular features. These problems can now be examined at both the within- and among-species levels, with single-cell methodologies even allowing quantification of variation within genotypes. Some results from this emerging field have already had a substantial impact on cell biology, and future findings will significantly influence applications in agriculture, medicine, environmental science, and synthetic biology.

  4. Genetic and biological characterization of three poultry-origin H5N6 avian influenza viruses with all internal genes from genotype S H9N2 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaituo; Gu, Min; Hu, Shunlin; Gao, Ruyi; Li, Juan; Shi, Liwei; Sun, Wenqi; Liu, Dong; Gao, Zhao; Xu, Xiulong; Hu, Jiao; Wang, Xiaoquan; Liu, Xiaowen; Chen, Sujuan; Peng, Daxin; Jiao, Xinan; Liu, Xiufan

    2018-04-01

    During surveillance for avian influenza viruses, three H5N6 viruses were isolated in chickens obtained from live bird markets in eastern China, between January 2015 and April 2016. Sequence analysis revealed a high genomic homology between these poultry isolates and recent human H5N6 variants whose internal genes were derived from genotype S H9N2 avian influenza viruses. Glycan binding assays revealed that all avian H5N6 viruses were capable of binding to both human-type SAα-2,6Gal receptors and avian-type SAα-2,3Gal receptors. Their biological characteristics were further studied in BALB/c mice, specific-pathogen-free chickens, and mallard ducks. All three isolates had low pathogenicity in mice but were highly pathogenic to chickens, as evidenced by 100% mortality 36-120 hours post infection at a low dose of 10 3.0 EID 50 and through effective contact transmission. Moreover, all three poultry H5N6 isolates caused asymptomatic infections in ducks, which may serve as a reservoir host for their maintenance and dissemination; these migrating waterfowl could cause a potential global pandemic. Our study suggests that continuous epidemiological surveillance in poultry should be implemented for the early prevention of future influenza outbreaks.

  5. Bone Marrow Adipocyte Developmental Origin and Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska, Joanna; Frazier, Trivia; Smith, Stanley; Brown, Theodore; Bender, Robert; McCarthy, Michelle; Wu, Xiying; Bunnell, Bruce A; Gimble, Jeffrey M

    2018-06-01

    This review explores how the relationships between bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) adipogenesis with advancing age, obesity, and/or bone diseases (osteopenia or osteoporosis) contribute to mechanisms underlying musculoskeletal pathophysiology. Recent studies have re-defined adipose tissue as a dynamic, vital organ with functions extending beyond its historic identity restricted solely to that of an energy reservoir or sink. "State of the art" methodologies provide novel insights into the developmental origin, physiology, and function of different adipose tissue depots. These include genetic tracking of adipose progenitors, viral vectors application, and sophisticated non-invasive imaging modalities. While constricted within the rigid bone cavity, BMAT vigorously contributes to local and systemic metabolic processes including hematopoiesis, osteogenesis, and energy metabolism and undergoes dynamic changes as a function of age, diet, bone topography, or sex. These insights will impact future research and therapies relating to osteoporosis.

  6. Cyclobutane-Containing Alkaloids: Origin, Synthesis, and Biological Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Sergeiko, Anastasia; Poroikov, Vladimir V; Hanuš, Lumir O; Dembitsky, Valery M

    2008-01-01

    Present review describes research on novel natural cyclobutane-containing alkaloids isolated from terrestrial and marine species. More than 60 biological active compounds have been confirmed to have antimicrobial, antibacterial, antitumor, and other activities. The structures, synthesis, origins, and biological activities of a selection of cyclobutane-containing alkaloids are reviewed. With the computer program PASS some additional biological activities are also predicted, which point toward ...

  7. Characterization and Control of Biological Microrobots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, I.S.M.; Pichel, Marc Philippe; Pichel, M.P.; Zondervan, L.; Abelmann, Leon; Misra, Sarthak

    2012-01-01

    This work addresses the characterization and control of Magnetotactic Bacterium (MTB) which can be considered as a biological microrobot. Magnetic dipole moment of the MTB and response to a field-with-alternating-direction are characterized. First, the magnetic dipole moment is characterized using

  8. Characterization and control of biological microrobots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, I.S.M.; Pichel, Marc Philippe; Zondervan, L.; Abelmann, Leon; Misra, Sarthak; Desai, Jaydev P.; Dudek, Gregory; Khatib, Oussama; Kumar, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses the characterization and control of Magnetotactic Bacterium (MTB) which can be considered as a biological microrobot. Magnetic dipole moment of the MTB and response to a field-with-alternating-direction are characterized. First, the magnetic dipole moment is characterized using

  9. Characterization of biological particulate loads in metropolitan air

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Snow; R. D. Schein; W. J. Moroz

    1977-01-01

    The atmospheric particulate load includes a wide range of naturally occurring particles of biological origin that serve as a reservoir of allergenic agents in respiratory disease. Improved knowledge of potential aeroallergens is needed by medical clinicians. Aims are to better characterize air spora, qualitatively and quantitatively, and determine daily (by hour)...

  10. Search for collective excitations in nanoparticles of biological origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, T.; Hunyadi, M.; Gacsi, Z.; Toth, J.; Varga, D.

    2009-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Nanoparticles of biological origin are abundant in nature. One might even consider searching for them in extraterrestrial objects as a remnant of life, and a fingerprint of the existence of primitive life forms billions of years ago. It is also intriguing to consider the potentiality that some of the bacteria use very scarcely available elements for the internal (detoxication) and external (dissimilatory reduction) production of nanocrystals, for example like Te(0). Developing a breathing process based on a rare earth element, certainly is a stretch on the evolution idea. Turning the reasoning around, one can speculate that such primitive life forms have evolved in a very different environment, where the base elements of their make up were abundant, which is not the case on Earth. The late Prof. Terry Beveridge of University of Guelph, ON, Canada raised the idea on a speculative level, that such a characteristic biosignature imposed on a trace element like selenium may conceivably be useful in the search for evidence of extinct microbial communities in sedimentary deposits of extraterrestrial origin (i.e., Mars). These are challenging ideas, but there are potentially imminent benefits of using microorganisms to mass produce nanoparticles. Currently there is technical interest in tellurium with the aim of developing solar cells that have high efficiency to convert sunlight into electrical current. We are involved in photovoltaic technology research, and are developing CdTe detectors for X-ray detection. We have recently observed giant resonances in scintillators, and with doping the CdTe could be turned into PET (Positron Emission Tomography) detector material. Therefore we have interest in the electro-optical properties of Te and Se. Our study of collective excitations and giant resonances in X-ray and nuclear radiation detectors has initiated new models and approaches in detector research. It is well established that giant

  11. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, L.P.

    2010-01-01

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  12. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, L.P., E-mail: biro@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)

    2010-05-25

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  13. Levels of biological organization and the origin of novelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brian K; Kerney, Ryan

    2012-09-01

    The concept of novelty in evolutionary biology pertains to multiple tiers of biological organization from behavioral and morphological changes to changes at the molecular level. Identifying novel features requires assessments of similarity (homology and homoplasy) of relationships (phylogenetic history) and of shared developmental and genetic pathways or networks. After a brief discussion of how novelty is used in recent literature, we discuss whether the evolutionary approach to homology and homoplasy initially formulated by Lankester in the 19th century informs our understanding of novelty today. We then discuss six examples of morphological features described in the recent literature as novelties, and assess the basis upon which they are regarded as novel. The six are: origin of the turtle shell, transition from fish fins to tetrapod limbs, origination of the neural crest and neural crest cells, cement glands in frogs and casquettes in fish, whale bone-eating tubeworms, and the digestion of plant proteins by nematodes. The article concludes with a discussion of means of acquiring novel genetic information that can account for novelty recognized at higher levels. These are co-options of existing genetic circuitry, gene duplication followed by neofunctionalization, gene rearrangements through mobile genetic elements, and lateral gene transfer. We conclude that on the molecular level only the latter category provides novel genetic information, in that there is no homologous precursor. However, novel phenotypes can be generated through both neofunctionalization and gene rearrangements. Therefore, assigning phenotypic or genotypic "novelty" is contingent on the level of biological organization addressed. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Biodiversity: molecular biological domains, symbiosis and kingdom origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.

    1992-01-01

    The number of extant species of organisms is estimated to be from fewer than 3 to more than 30 x 10(6) (May, 1992). Molecular biology, comparative genetics and ultrastructural analyses provide new insights into evolutionary relationships between these species, including increasingly precise ideas of how species and higher taxa have evolved from common ancestors. Accumulation of random mutations and large macromolecular sequence change in all organisms since the Proterozoic Eon has been importantly supplemented by acquisition of inherited genomes ('symbiogenesis'). Karyotypic alterations (polyploidization and karyotypic fissioning) have been added to these other mechanisms of species origin in plants and animals during the Phanerozoic Eon. The new evolution concepts (coupled with current rapid rates of species extinction and ignorance of the extent of biodiversity) prompted this analysis of the field of systematic biology and its role in the reorganization of extant species into higher taxa. Two superkingdoms (= Domains: Prokaryotae and Eukaryotae) and five kingdoms (Monera = Procaryotae or Bacteria; Protoctista: algae, amoebae, ciliates, foraminifera, oomycetes, slime molds, etc.; Mychota: 'true' fungi; Plantae: one phylum (division) of bryophytes and nine phyla of tracheophytes; and Animalia) are recognized. Two subkingdoms comprise the monera: the great diverse lineages are Archaebacteria and Eubacteria. The criteria for classification using molecular, ultrastructural and genetic data for this scheme are mentioned. For the first time since the nineteenth century, logical, technical definitions for each group are given with their time of appearance as inferred from the fossil record in the primary scientific literature. This classification scheme, which most closely reflects the evolutionary history, molecular biology, genetics and ultrastructure of extant life, requires changes in social organization of biologists, many of whom as botanists and zoologists, still

  15. Viscoelastic characterization of soft biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Vinod Timothy

    Progressive and irreversible retinal diseases are among the primary causes of blindness in the United States, attacking the cells in the eye that transform environmental light into neural signals for the optic pathway. Medical implants designed to restore visual function to afflicted patients can cause mechanical stress and ultimately damage to the host tissues. Research shows that an accurate understanding of the mechanical properties of the biological tissues can reduce damage and lead to designs with improved safety and efficacy. Prior studies on the mechanical properties of biological tissues show characterization of these materials can be affected by environmental, length-scale, time, mounting, stiffness, size, viscoelastic, and methodological conditions. Using porcine sclera tissue, the effects of environmental, time, and mounting conditions are evaluated when using nanoindentation. Quasi-static tests are used to measure reduced modulus during extended exposure to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), as well as the chemical and mechanical analysis of mounting the sample to a solid substrate using cyanoacrylate. The less destructive nature of nanoindentation tests allows for variance of tests within a single sample to be compared to the variance between samples. The results indicate that the environmental, time, and mounting conditions can be controlled for using modified nanoindentation procedures for biological samples and are in line with averages modulus values from previous studies but with increased precision. By using the quasi-static and dynamic characterization capabilities of the nanoindentation setup, the additional stiffness and viscoelastic variables are measured. Different quasi-static control methods were evaluated along with maximum load parameters and produced no significant difference in reported reduced modulus values. Dynamic characterization tests varied frequency and quasi-static load, showing that the agar could be modeled as a linearly

  16. Physical origin of selectivity in ionic channels of biological membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laio, A; Torre, V

    1999-01-01

    This paper shows that the selectivity properties of monovalent cation channels found in biological membranes can originate simply from geometrical properties of the inner core of the channel without any critical contribution from electrostatic interactions between the permeating ions and charged or polar groups. By using well-known techniques of statistical mechanics, such as the Langevin equations and Kramer theory of reaction rates, a theoretical equation is provided relating the permeability ratio PB/PA between ions A and B to simple physical properties, such as channel geometry, thermodynamics of ion hydration, and electrostatic interactions between the ion and charged (or polar) groups. Diffusive corrections and recrossing rates are also considered and evaluated. It is shown that the selectivity found in usual K+, gramicidin, Na+, cyclic nucleotide gated, and end plate channels can be explained also in the absence of any charged or polar group. If these groups are present, they significantly change the permeability ratio only if the ion at the selectivity filter is in van der Waals contact with them, otherwise these groups simply affect the channel conductance, lowering the free energy barrier of the same amount for the two ions, thus explaining why single channel conductance, as it is experimentally observed, can be very different in channels sharing the same selectivity sequence. The proposed theory also provides an estimate of channel minimum radius for K+, gramicidin, Na+, and cyclic nucleotide gated channels.

  17. Can Chimpanzee Biology Highlight Human Origin and Evolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Roffman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The closest living relatives of humans are their chimpanzee/bonobo (Pan sister species, members of the same subfamily “Homininae”. This classification is supported by over 50 years of research in the fields of chimpanzee cultural diversity, language competency, genomics, anatomy, high cognition, psychology, society, self-consciousness and relation to others, tool use/production, as well as Homo level emotions, symbolic competency, memory recollection, complex multifaceted problem-solving capabilities, and interspecies communication. Language competence and symbolism can be continuously bridged from chimpanzee to man. Emotions, intercommunity aggression, body language, gestures, facial expressions, and vocalization of intonations seem to parallel between the sister taxa Homo and Pan. The shared suite of traits between Pan and Homo genus demonstrated in this article integrates old and new information on human–chimpanzee evolution, bilateral informational and cross-cultural exchange, promoting the urgent need for Pan cultures in the wild to be protected, as they are part of the cultural heritage of mankind. Also, we suggest that bonobos, Pan paniscus, based on shared traits with Australopithecus, need to be included in Australopithecine’s subgenus, and may even represent living-fossil Australopithecines. Unfolding bonobo and chimpanzee biology highlights our common genetic and cultural evolutionary origins.

  18. Characterizing the topology of probabilistic biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Andrei; Dobra, Alin; Kahveci, Tamer

    2013-01-01

    Biological interactions are often uncertain events, that may or may not take place with some probability. This uncertainty leads to a massive number of alternative interaction topologies for each such network. The existing studies analyze the degree distribution of biological networks by assuming that all the given interactions take place under all circumstances. This strong and often incorrect assumption can lead to misleading results. In this paper, we address this problem and develop a sound mathematical basis to characterize networks in the presence of uncertain interactions. Using our mathematical representation, we develop a method that can accurately describe the degree distribution of such networks. We also take one more step and extend our method to accurately compute the joint-degree distributions of node pairs connected by edges. The number of possible network topologies grows exponentially with the number of uncertain interactions. However, the mathematical model we develop allows us to compute these degree distributions in polynomial time in the number of interactions. Our method works quickly even for entire protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. It also helps us find an adequate mathematical model using MLE. We perform a comparative study of node-degree and joint-degree distributions in two types of biological networks: the classical deterministic networks and the more flexible probabilistic networks. Our results confirm that power-law and log-normal models best describe degree distributions for both probabilistic and deterministic networks. Moreover, the inverse correlation of degrees of neighboring nodes shows that, in probabilistic networks, nodes with large number of interactions prefer to interact with those with small number of interactions more frequently than expected. We also show that probabilistic networks are more robust for node-degree distribution computation than the deterministic ones. all the data sets used, the software

  19. Characterizing Topology of Probabilistic Biological Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Andrei; Dobra, Alin; Kahveci, Tamer

    2013-09-06

    Biological interactions are often uncertain events, that may or may not take place with some probability. Existing studies analyze the degree distribution of biological networks by assuming that all the given interactions take place under all circumstances. This strong and often incorrect assumption can lead to misleading results. Here, we address this problem and develop a sound mathematical basis to characterize networks in the presence of uncertain interactions. We develop a method that accurately describes the degree distribution of such networks. We also extend our method to accurately compute the joint degree distributions of node pairs connected by edges. The number of possible network topologies grows exponentially with the number of uncertain interactions. However, the mathematical model we develop allows us to compute these degree distributions in polynomial time in the number of interactions. It also helps us find an adequate mathematical model using maximum likelihood estimation. Our results demonstrate that power law and log-normal models best describe degree distributions for probabilistic networks. The inverse correlation of degrees of neighboring nodes shows that, in probabilistic networks, nodes with large number of interactions prefer to interact with those with small number of interactions more frequently than expected.

  20. Origins and molecular biology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Victor E

    2005-02-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors can be divided into three groups (infantile/prepubertal, adolescent/young adult and spermatocytic seminoma), each with its own constellation of clinical histology, molecular and clinical features. They originate from germ cells at different stages of development. The most common testicular cancers arise in postpubertal men and are characterized genetically by having one or more copies of an isochromosome of the short arm of chromosome 12 [i(12p)] or other forms of 12p amplification and by aneuploidy. The consistent gain of genetic material from chromosome 12 seen in these tumors suggests that it has a crucial role in their development. Intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified type (IGCNU) is the precursor to these invasive tumors. Several factors have been associated with their pathogenesis, including cryptorchidism, elevated estrogens in utero and gonadal dysgenesis. Tumors arising in prepubertal gonads are either teratomas or yolk sac tumors, tend to be diploid and are not associated with i(12p) or with IGCNU. Spermatocytic seminoma (SS) arises in older patients. These benign tumors may be either diploid or aneuploid and have losses of chromosome 9 rather than i(12p). Intratubular SS is commonly encountered but IGCNU is not. The pathogenesis of prepubertal GCT and SS is poorly understood.

  1. Sustainable production of biologically active molecules of marine based origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Patrick M; Moane, Siobhan; Collins, Catherine; Beletskaya, Tanya; Thomas, Olivier P; Duarte, Alysson W F; Nobre, Fernando S; Owoyemi, Ifeloju O; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Sette, L D; McHugh, Edward; Causse, Eric; Pérez-López, Paula; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma T; Rubiolo, Juan; Leirós, Marta; Botana, Luis M; Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui; Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Allewaert, Celine; Verween, Annick; Vyverman, Wim; Laptev, Ivan; Sineoky, Sergei; Bisio, Angela; Manconi, Renata; Ledda, Fabio; Marchi, Mario; Pronzato, Roberto; Walsh, Daniel J

    2013-09-25

    The marine environment offers both economic and scientific potential which are relatively untapped from a biotechnological point of view. These environments whilst harsh are ironically fragile and dependent on a harmonious life form balance. Exploitation of natural resources by exhaustive wild harvesting has obvious negative environmental consequences. From a European industry perspective marine organisms are a largely underutilised resource. This is not due to lack of interest but due to a lack of choice the industry faces for cost competitive, sustainable and environmentally conscientious product alternatives. Knowledge of the biotechnological potential of marine organisms together with the development of sustainable systems for their cultivation, processing and utilisation are essential. In 2010, the European Commission recognised this need and funded a collaborative RTD/SME project under the Framework 7-Knowledge Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) Theme 2 Programme 'Sustainable culture of marine microorganisms, algae and/or invertebrates for high value added products'. The scope of that project entitled 'Sustainable Production of Biologically Active Molecules of Marine Based Origin' (BAMMBO) is outlined. Although the Union is a global leader in many technologies, it faces increasing competition from traditional rivals and emerging economies alike and must therefore improve its innovation performance. For this reason innovation is placed at the heart of a European Horizon 2020 Strategy wherein the challenge is to connect economic performance to eco performance. This article provides a synopsis of the research activities of the BAMMBO project as they fit within the wider scope of sustainable environmentally conscientious marine resource exploitation for high-value biomolecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The biology of Phytophthora infestans at its center of origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünwald, N.J.; Flier, W.G.

    2005-01-01

    The central highlands of Mexico are considered to be a center of genetic diversity for both the potato late blight pathogen and for tuber-bearing Solanum spp. Recent work conducted in Mexico and South America sheds new light on the biology and evolution of Phytophthora infestans and other related

  3. The amphioxus genome illuminates vertebrate origins and cephalochordate biology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holland, L. Z.; Albalat, R.; Azumi, K.; Gutierrez, E.B.; Blow, M.J.; Bronner-Fraser, M.; Brunet, F.; Butts, T.; Candiani, S.; Dishaw, L. J.; Ferrier, D.E.K.; Garcia-Fernandez, J.; Gibson-Brown, J.J.; Gissi, C.; Godzik, A.; Hallbook, F.; Hirose, D.; Hosomichi, K.; Ikuta, T.; Inoko, H.; Kasahara, M.; Kasamatsu, J.; Kawashima, T.; Kimura, A.; Kobayashi, M.; Kozmik, Zbyněk; Kubokawa, K.; Laudet, V.; Litman, G.W.; McHardy, A.; Meulemans, D.; Nonaka, M.; Olinski, R.P.; Pancer, Z.; Pennacchio, L.A.; Pestarino, M.; Rast, J.P.; Rigoutsos, I.; Robinson-Rechavi, M.; Roch, G.; Saiga, H.; Sasakura, Y.; Satake, M.; Satou, Y.; Schubert, M.; Sherwood, N.; Shiina, T.; Takatori, N.; Tello, J.; Vopálenský, Pavel; Wada, S.; Xu, A.; Ye, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshizaki, F.; Yu, J.K.; Zhang, Q.; Zmasek, C.M.; De Jong, P.J.; Osoegawa, K.; Putnam, N. H.; Rokhsar, D. S.; Satoh, N.; Holland, P.W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 7 (2008), s. 1100-1111 ISSN 1088-9051 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : evolution * amphioxus genome * opsin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 10.176, year: 2008

  4. Generation and characterization of biological aerosols for laser measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yung-Sung; Barr, E.B.

    1995-12-01

    Concerns for proliferation of biological weapons including bacteria, fungi, and viruses have prompted research and development on methods for the rapid detection of biological aerosols in the field. Real-time instruments that can distinguish biological aerosols from background dust would be especially useful. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a laser-based, real-time instrument for rapid detection of biological aerosols, and ITRI is working with SNL scientists and engineers to evaluate this technology for a wide range of biological aerosols. This paper describes methods being used to generate the characterize the biological aerosols for these tests. In summary, a biosafe system has been developed for generating and characterizing biological aerosols and using those aerosols to test the SNL laser-based real-time instrument. Such tests are essential in studying methods for rapid detection of airborne biological materials.

  5. The Origin and Evolution of Complex Enough Systems in Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Brändas, Erkki

    2017-01-01

    Recent criticisms of Neo-Darwinism are considered and disputed within the setting of recent advances in chemical physics. A related query, viz., the ontological thesis, that everything is physical, confronts a crucial test on the validity of reductionism as a fundamental approach to science.  While traditional ‘physicalism’ interprets evolution as a sequence of physical accidents governed by the second law of thermodynamics, the concepts of biology concern processes that owe their goal-direct...

  6. The amphioxus genome illuminates vertebrate origins and cephalochordate biology

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Linda Z.; Albalat, Ricard; Azumi, Kaoru; Benito-Gutiérrez, Èlia; Blow, Matthew J.; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne; Brunet, Frederic; Butts, Thomas; Candiani, Simona; Dishaw, Larry J.; Ferrier, David E.K.; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi; Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J.; Gissi, Carmela; Godzik, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Cephalochordates, urochordates, and vertebrates evolved from a common ancestor over 520 million years ago. To improve our understanding of chordate evolution and the origin of vertebrates, we intensively searched for particular genes, gene families, and conserved noncoding elements in the sequenced genome of the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae, commonly called amphioxus or lancelets. Special attention was given to homeobox genes, opsin genes, genes involved in neural crest development,...

  7. Ovary and fimbrial stem cells: biology, niche and cancer origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Annie; Barker, Nick

    2015-10-01

    The mammalian ovary is covered by a single-layered epithelium that undergoes rupture and remodelling following each ovulation. Although resident stem cells are presumed to be crucial for this cyclic regeneration, their identity and mode of action have been elusive. Surrogate stemness assays and in vivo fate-mapping studies using recently discovered stem cell markers have identified stem cell pools in the ovary and fimbria that ensure epithelial homeostasis. Recent findings provide insights into intrinsic mechanisms and local extrinsic cues that govern the function of ovarian and fimbrial stem cells. These discoveries have advanced our understanding of stem cell biology in the ovary and fimbria, and lay the foundations for evaluating the contribution of resident stem cells to the initiation and progression of human epithelial ovarian cancer.

  8. The chemical structures, plant origins, ethnobotany and biological activities of homoisoflavanones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Karen; Drewes, Siegfried E; Bodenstein, Johannes

    2010-03-01

    This work reviews the four basic structural types of homoisoflavanones. The relationships between the various structures of homoisoflavanones and their plant origins, ethnobotany and biological activities are put into perspective.

  9. Charles Darwin and the origins of plant evolutionary developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, William E; Diggle, Pamela K

    2011-04-01

    Much has been written of the early history of comparative embryology and its influence on the emergence of an evolutionary developmental perspective. However, this literature, which dates back nearly a century, has been focused on metazoans, without acknowledgment of the contributions of comparative plant morphologists to the creation of a developmental view of biodiversity. We trace the origin of comparative plant developmental morphology from its inception in the eighteenth century works of Wolff and Goethe, through the mid nineteenth century discoveries of the general principles of leaf and floral organ morphogenesis. Much like the stimulus that von Baer provided as a nonevolutionary comparative embryologist to the creation of an evolutionary developmental view of animals, the comparative developmental studies of plant morphologists were the basis for the first articulation of the concept that plant (namely floral) evolution results from successive modifications of ontogeny. Perhaps most surprisingly, we show that the first person to carefully read and internalize the remarkable advances in the understanding of plant morphogenesis in the 1840s and 1850s is none other than Charles Darwin, whose notebooks, correspondence, and (then) unpublished manuscripts clearly demonstrate that he had discovered the developmental basis for the evolutionary transformation of plant form.

  10. Biological tracer for waste site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong-Gunderson, J.

    1995-01-01

    Remediating hazardous waste sites requires detailed site characterization. In groundwater remediation, characterizing the flow paths and velocity is a major objective. Various tracers have been used for measuring groundwater velocity and transport of contaminants, colloidal particles, and bacteria and nutrients. The conventional techniques use dissolved solutes, dyes. and gases to estimate subsurface transport pathways. These tracers can provide information on transport and diffusion into the matrix, but their estimates for groundwater flow through fractured regions are very conservative. Also, they do not have the same transport characteristics as bacteria and suspended colloid tracers, both of which must be characterized for effective in-place remediation. Bioremediation requires understanding bacterial transport and nutrient distribution throughout the acquifer, knowledge of contaminants s mobile colloidal particles is just essential

  11. Synthesis, characterization, biological and electrical conductivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the complexes have been characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility measurement, electronic and IR spectra and thermogravimetric analysis. The IR spectral data suggested that the ligands behave as dibasic tridentate moiety towards the central metal ion coordinating through phenolic ...

  12. Biology, Culture, and the Origins of Pet-Keeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold A. Herzog

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Attachments between non-human animals of different species are surprisingly common in situations involving human agency (e.g., homes, zoos, and wildlife parks. However, cross-species animal friendships analogous to pet-keeping by humans are at least rare and possibly non-existent in nature. Why has pet-keeping evolved only in Homo sapiens? I review theories that explain pet-keeping either as an adaptation or an evolutionary by-product. I suggest that these explanations cannot account for the wide variation in the distribution and forms of pet-keeping across human societies and over historical time. Using fluctuations in the popularity of dog breeds in the United States, I show how shifts in choices of pets follow the rapid changes in preferences that characterize fashion cycles. I argue that while humans possess some innate traits that facilitate attachment to members of other species (e.g., parental urges, attraction to creatures with infantile features, pet-keeping is largely a product of social learning and imitation-based cultural evolution.

  13. Characterization and biological significance of deacetylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dipaola, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    An attempt is made to clarify the mechanism by which the one known deacetylase inhibitor, sodium butyrate, works and to identify other inhibitors of deacetylase activity. In doing so it was hoped to characterize the enzyme and to better understand its role in regulating genomic expression. The data showed that deacetylases not only showed activity toward their natural histone substrates, but also toward free acetyllysine and to a lesser degree toward acetylcholine, the latter being the natural substrate for acetylcholinesterases. Conversely, acetylcholinesterase was shown to be able to deacetylate groups from acetyllysine and acetylated histones. Decamethonium bromide, a well-known binder of acetylcholinesterase would not absorb the deacetylase. Diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), an anti-cholinesterase, exhibited no inhibitory effect on deacetylase activity, while acetylcholinesterase showed little or no sensitivity to butyrate inhibition. These findings along with the use of 3 H-DFP binding to fingerprint enzyme bands on gels became the basic criteria for distinguishing between deacetylase and acetylcholinesterase activity

  14. Biological characterization of a recombinant pseudorabies virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, E.; Prieto, C.; Martinez-Lobo, F. J.; Castro, J. M.

    2008-07-01

    In a previous study we obtained and characterized in vitro a novel pseudorabies virus (PRV) variant named gIp2 with a TK, gI/gE, 11k and 28k negative phenotype and a duplication of PK gene. The main objective of the present study was to determine the safety and efficacy, as a vaccine candidate, of this recombinant PRV. For this purpose, we used 24 PRV seronegative three weeks old piglets that were divided into five groups of treatment. Piglets of groups A and B were immunized twice with 10{sup 6}.5 and 10{sup 5}.5 TCID{sub 5}0 of gIp2, respectively; pigs of group C were vaccinated twice with MLV vaccine Auskipra GN and pigs of groups D and E were not immunized and served as infected and uninfected controls, respectively. Four weeks after the second immunization pigs of groups A, B, C and D were challenged by intranasal inoculation of 10{sup 6} TCID{sub 5}0 of the wild type NIA-3 strain of PRV. No adverse reactions or clinical signs were observed in any group after immunization, indicating that the application of up to 10 times the conventional dose included in a commercial vaccine (i.e. 10{sup 5}.5 TCID{sub 5}0) of gIp2 was safe in piglets. Additionally, the inoculation of gIp2 induced an immune response able to provide clinical and virological protection against pseudorabies virus after challenge. In conclusion, the use of gIp2 in piglets as a vaccine virus is safe and induces an immunity comparable to that exerted by commercially available vaccines. (Author) 34 refs.

  15. Final characterization report for the 108-F Biological Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.A.

    1996-09-01

    This report provides a compilation of characterization data for the 108-F Biological Laboratory collected during the period of May 7, 1996 through August 29, 1996. The 108-F Biology Laboratory is located on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The characterization activities were organized and implemented to evaluate the radiological status of the laboratory and to identify hazardous materials. This report reflects the current conditions and status of the laboratory. Information in this report is intended to be utilized to prepare an accurate cost estimate for building demolition, to aid in planning decontamination and demolition activities, and allow proper disposal of demolition debris

  16. Human mesenchymal stromal cells : biological characterization and clinical application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardo, Maria Ester

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the characterization of the biological and functional properties of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), isolated from different tissue sources. The differentiation capacity of MSCs from fetal and adult tissues has been tested and compared. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has

  17. Characterization of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Originating from Cucurbits in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vučurović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV is considered one of the most economically importantplant viruses and has a worldwide distribution and a very wide host range including plantsfrom family Cucurbitaceae. In Serbia, on cucurbits CMV was detected in single and mixedinfections with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV. Viruses,including CMV, are constantly present in cucurbit crops, but their frequency changesby year and locality. Surveys and sample collections were conducted in cucurbit crops inthe period from 2008 to 2009 at 15 localities in Vojvodina province, and sample testing wascarried out using the DAS-ELISA method and commercially available antisera for six economicallymost important cucurbit viruses. In 2008, a total of 51 samples were collected from13 cucurbit crops of oilseed pumpkin Olinka variety, squash, and bottle gourd and CMV wasdetected in a total of 55% of tested samples with symptoms of viral infection. The most commoninfectious type was mixed infection with ZYMV and WMV (35.3%, and then mixedinfection with ZYMV (17.7% and WMV (2%. A total of 599 symptomatic samples of oilseedpumpkin Olinka variety, zucchini squash varieties Beogradska and Tosca, squash, and wintersquash were collected in 15 cucurbits crops in 2009. CMV was present in 4.4% of totalcollected samples, in single infections in 1.3%, and in mixed with WMV or ZYMV in 1.3%, and1.8%. Five CMV isolates were obtained by mechanical inoculations of N. glutinosa and oneof them was selected for further biological characterization. Test plants which were describedto be hosts of CMV expressed symptoms characteristic for those caused by CMV afterinoculations by isolate 115-08. CMV specific primers Au1u/Au2d were used to amplify an850 bp fragment using RT-PCR method. Amplified fragment encodes the entire viral coatprotein (CP gene and partial 5’ and 3’ UTRs of two selected CMV isolates. Amplified fragmentswere sequenced and deposited in the NCBI, where

  18. Distinguishing geology from biology in the Ediacaran Doushantuo biota relaxes constraints on the timing of the origin of bilaterians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, John A; Thomas, Ceri-Wyn; Bengtson, Stefan; Kearns, Stuart L; Xiao, Shuhai; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2012-06-22

    The Ediacaran Doushantuo biota has yielded fossils that include the oldest widely accepted record of the animal evolutionary lineage, as well as specimens with alleged bilaterian affinity. However, these systematic interpretations are contingent on the presence of key biological structures that have been reinterpreted by some workers as artefacts of diagenetic mineralization. On the basis of chemistry and crystallographic fabric, we characterize and discriminate phases of mineralization that reflect: (i) replication of original biological structure, and (ii) void-filling diagenetic mineralization. The results indicate that all fossils from the Doushantuo assemblage preserve a complex mélange of mineral phases, even where subcellular anatomy appears to be preserved. The findings allow these phases to be distinguished in more controversial fossils, facilitating a critical re-evaluation of the Doushantuo fossil assemblage and its implications as an archive of Ediacaran animal diversity. We find that putative subcellular structures exhibit fabrics consistent with preservation of original morphology. Cells in later developmental stages are not in original configuration and are therefore uninformative concerning gastrulation. Key structures used to identify Doushantuo bilaterians can be dismissed as late diagenetic artefacts. Therefore, when diagenetic mineralization is considered, there is no convincing evidence for bilaterians in the Doushantuo assemblage.

  19. Introductory biology students' conceptual models and explanations of the origin of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Elena Bray; Shaw, Neil; Momsen, Jennifer; Reinagel, Adam; Le, Paul; Taqieddin, Ranya; Long, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Mutation is the key molecular mechanism generating phenotypic variation, which is the basis for evolution. In an introductory biology course, we used a model-based pedagogy that enabled students to integrate their understanding of genetics and evolution within multiple case studies. We used student-generated conceptual models to assess understanding of the origin of variation. By midterm, only a small percentage of students articulated complete and accurate representations of the origin of variation in their models. Targeted feedback was offered through activities requiring students to critically evaluate peers' models. At semester's end, a substantial proportion of students significantly improved their representation of how variation arises (though one-third still did not include mutation in their models). Students' written explanations of the origin of variation were mostly consistent with their models, although less effective than models in conveying mechanistic reasoning. This study contributes evidence that articulating the genetic origin of variation is particularly challenging for learners and may require multiple cycles of instruction, assessment, and feedback. To support meaningful learning of the origin of variation, we advocate instruction that explicitly integrates multiple scales of biological organization, assessment that promotes and reveals mechanistic and causal reasoning, and practice with explanatory models with formative feedback. © 2014 E. Bray Speth et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. Detection of Photoacoustic Transients Originating from Microstructures in Optically Diffuse Media such as Biological Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoelen, C.G.A.; Dekker, Andre; de Mul, F.F.M.

    2001-01-01

    The generation and detection of broadband photoacoustic (PA) transients may be used for on-axis monitoring or for imaging of optically different structures in the interior of diffuse bodies such as biological tissue. Various piezoelectric sensors are characterized and compared in terms of

  1. Introductory Biology Students’ Conceptual Models and Explanations of the Origin of Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Neil; Momsen, Jennifer; Reinagel, Adam; Le, Paul; Taqieddin, Ranya; Long, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Mutation is the key molecular mechanism generating phenotypic variation, which is the basis for evolution. In an introductory biology course, we used a model-based pedagogy that enabled students to integrate their understanding of genetics and evolution within multiple case studies. We used student-generated conceptual models to assess understanding of the origin of variation. By midterm, only a small percentage of students articulated complete and accurate representations of the origin of variation in their models. Targeted feedback was offered through activities requiring students to critically evaluate peers’ models. At semester's end, a substantial proportion of students significantly improved their representation of how variation arises (though one-third still did not include mutation in their models). Students’ written explanations of the origin of variation were mostly consistent with their models, although less effective than models in conveying mechanistic reasoning. This study contributes evidence that articulating the genetic origin of variation is particularly challenging for learners and may require multiple cycles of instruction, assessment, and feedback. To support meaningful learning of the origin of variation, we advocate instruction that explicitly integrates multiple scales of biological organization, assessment that promotes and reveals mechanistic and causal reasoning, and practice with explanatory models with formative feedback. PMID:25185235

  2. Cancers of unknown primary origin (CUP) are characterized by chromosomal instability (CIN) compared to metastasis of know origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikeså, Jonas; Møller, Anne Kirstine H; Kaczkowski, Bogumil

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancers of unknown primary (CUPs) constitute ~5% of all cancers. The tumors have an aggressive biological and clinical behavior. The aim of the present study has been to uncover whether CUPs exhibit distinct molecular features compared to metastases of known origin. METHODS: Employing......RNA signatures of chromosome instability (CIN), indicating that CUPs are chromosome unstable compared to metastases of known origin. CONCLUSIONS: CIN may account for the uncommon clinical presentation, chemoresistance and poor outcome in patients with CUP and warrant selective diagnostic strategies and treatment....... genome wide transcriptome analysis, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA), we defined the putative origins of a large series of CUP and how closely related a particular CUP was to corresponding metastases of known origin. LDA predictions were subsequently used...

  3. Microbial Degradation of Forensic Samples of Biological Origin: Potential Threat to Human DNA Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Hirak Ranjan; Das, Surajit

    2018-02-01

    Forensic biology is a sub-discipline of biological science with an amalgam of other branches of science used in the criminal justice system. Any nucleated cell/tissue harbouring DNA, either live or dead, can be used as forensic exhibits, a source of investigation through DNA typing. These biological materials of human origin are rich source of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, trace elements as well as water and, thus, provide a virtuous milieu for the growth of microbes. The obstinate microbial growth augments the degradation process and is amplified with the passage of time and improper storage of the biological materials. Degradation of these biological materials carriages a huge challenge in the downstream processes of forensic DNA typing technique, such as short tandem repeats (STR) DNA typing. Microbial degradation yields improper or no PCR amplification, heterozygous peak imbalance, DNA contamination from non-human sources, degradation of DNA by microbial by-products, etc. Consequently, the most precise STR DNA typing technique is nullified and definite opinion can be hardly given with degraded forensic exhibits. Thus, suitable precautionary measures should be taken for proper storage and processing of the biological exhibits to minimize their decaying process by micro-organisms.

  4. Comparative phenotypic characterization of keratinocytes originating from hair follicles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klíma, Jiří; Smetana Jr., K.; Motlík, Jan; Plzáková, Z.; Liu, F. T.; Štork, J.; Kaltner, H.; Chovanec, M.; Dvořánková, B.; André, S.; Gabius, H. J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 36, - (2005), s. 89-96 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A065; GA AV ČR IBS4050005; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/04/0171 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : hair follicles Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  5. Characterizing the original ejection velocity field of the Koronis family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruba, V.; Nesvorný, D.; Aljbaae, S.

    2016-06-01

    An asteroid family forms as a result of a collision between an impactor and a parent body. The fragments with ejection speeds higher than the escape velocity from the parent body can escape its gravitational pull. The cloud of escaping debris can be identified by the proximity of orbits in proper element, or frequency, domains. Obtaining estimates of the original ejection speed can provide valuable constraints on the physical processes occurring during collision, and used to calibrate impact simulations. Unfortunately, proper elements of asteroids families are modified by gravitational and non-gravitational effects, such as resonant dynamics, encounters with massive bodies, and the Yarkovsky effect, such that information on the original ejection speeds is often lost, especially for older, more evolved families. It has been recently suggested that the distribution in proper inclination of the Koronis family may have not been significantly perturbed by local dynamics, and that information on the component of the ejection velocity that is perpendicular to the orbital plane (vW), may still be available, at least in part. In this work we estimate the magnitude of the original ejection velocity speeds of Koronis members using the observed distribution in proper eccentricity and inclination, and accounting for the spread caused by dynamical effects. Our results show that (i) the spread in the original ejection speeds is, to within a 15% error, inversely proportional to the fragment size, and (ii) the minimum ejection velocity is of the order of 50 m/s, with larger values possible depending on the orbital configuration at the break-up.

  6. On the origin of biological construction, with a focus on multicellularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Tarnita, Corina E

    2017-10-17

    Biology is marked by a hierarchical organization: all life consists of cells; in some cases, these cells assemble into groups, such as endosymbionts or multicellular organisms; in turn, multicellular organisms sometimes assemble into yet other groups, such as primate societies or ant colonies. The construction of new organizational layers results from hierarchical evolutionary transitions, in which biological units (e.g., cells) form groups that evolve into new units of biological organization (e.g., multicellular organisms). Despite considerable advances, there is no bottom-up, dynamical account of how, starting from the solitary ancestor, the first groups originate and subsequently evolve the organizing principles that qualify them as new units. Guided by six central questions, we propose an integrative bottom-up approach for studying the dynamics underlying hierarchical evolutionary transitions, which builds on and synthesizes existing knowledge. This approach highlights the crucial role of the ecology and development of the solitary ancestor in the emergence and subsequent evolution of groups, and it stresses the paramount importance of the life cycle: only by evaluating groups in the context of their life cycle can we unravel the evolutionary trajectory of hierarchical transitions. These insights also provide a starting point for understanding the types of subsequent organizational complexity. The central research questions outlined here naturally link existing research programs on biological construction (e.g., on cooperation, multilevel selection, self-organization, and development) and thereby help integrate knowledge stemming from diverse fields of biology.

  7. Characterization of the human DNA gut virome across populations with different subsistence strategies and geographical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampelli, Simone; Turroni, Silvia; Schnorr, Stephanie L; Soverini, Matteo; Quercia, Sara; Barone, Monica; Castagnetti, Andrea; Biagi, Elena; Gallinella, Giorgio; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco

    2017-11-01

    It is a matter of fact that the human gut microbiome also includes a non-bacterial fraction represented by eukaryotic cells and viruses. To further explore the gut microbiome variation in human populations, here we characterized the human DNA viral community from publicly available gut metagenome data sets from human populations with different geographical origin and lifestyle. In particular, such data sets encompass microbiome information from two western urban societies (USA and Italy), as well as two traditional hunter-gatherer communities (the Hadza from Tanzania and Matses from Peru) and one pre-agricultural tribe (Tunapuco from Peru). Our results allowed for the first taxonomic reconstruction of the complex viral metacommunities within the human gut. The core virome structure included herpesviruses, papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, adenoviruses and anelloviruses. Using Random Forests and a co-occurrence analysis approach, we identified the viruses that distinguished populations according to their geographical origin and/or lifestyle. This paves the way for new research aimed at investigating the biological role of the gut virome in human physiology, and the importance of our viral counterpart in the microbiome-host co-evolutionary process. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Optimized microviscosimeter for detection and characterization of biological vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiffe, O; Cretin, B; Boireau, W; Baudouy, J C; Vairac, P

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we report on studies aimed at sensing the stiffness of biological membranes, in particular in the case of lipidic vesicles. To obtain pertinent results, we have developed and checked a specific sensor based on a vibrating sphere. The near-field acoustic wave generated by this vibrating sphere enables us to characterize biological particles which change the apparent viscosity and density of the surrounding fluid. The microsphere is well suited for very small volumes of liquid (typically about a few microlitres). The experimental results demonstrate the high sensitivity of the sensor to small variations of the composition of the aqueous media, particularly in the case of various populations of lipidic nanoparticles. Finally, this microviscosimeter demonstrates its ability to discriminate the population of vesicles on the basis of their global viscous properties

  9. A qualitative characterization of an introductory college nonmajors biology laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cherin Ann

    The nature of an undergraduate, nonmajors biology laboratory was investigated in this study. Student participants were enrolled in a general education biology laboratory course at the University of Northern Iowa. The researcher's purpose was to gain a characterization of the instructional format and laboratory activities experienced by students. Interpretation of student and instructor responses enabled an insider's view of the biology laboratory. The laboratory period was consistently described by both students and instructors as having three parts, Beginning, Middle, and End, with the End being of special importance for conceptual development. The instructional format of the three instructors differed within the three portions of the laboratory period, ranging from an inquiry-oriented, partial learning cycle to a fairly expository model labeled inform/verify/practice. There was striking similarity in intrasectional student and teacher descriptions of instructional format. Additionally, students experiencing the alternate instructor provided the same characterizations of instructional format as those provided by the instructor's usual students. There were no discernible patterns of instructional format based on sex or reasoning level. In addition to the central role of instructional format, three areas of importance emerged: the social aspects of learning, the collaborative and cooperative nature of laboratory work and learning, and the role of self-efficacy. Theory developed from and grounded in the data showed six factors important in the introductory college biology laboratory: collaborative and cooperative learning, student-student and teacher-student interactions, attitude and self-efficacy, learning process and learning style, effective instructional format, and science content. These factors were found to be similar to factors identified in the literature as important in K-12 science education. These factors were set in the context of schooling and learning

  10. Isolation and characterization of chitin and chitosan from marine origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwe, Nitar; Furuike, Tetsuya; Tamura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, chitin and chitosan are produced from the shells of crabs and shrimps, and bone plate of squid in laboratory to industrial scale. Production of chitosan involved deproteinization, demineralization, and deacetylation. The characteristics of chitin and chitosan mainly depend on production processes and conditions. The characteristics of these biopolymers such as appearance of polymer, turbidity of polymer solution, degree of deacetylation, and molecular weight are of major importance on applications of these polymers. This chapter addresses the production processes and conditions to produce chitin, chitosan, and chito-oligosaccharide and methods for characterization of chitin, chitosan, and chito-oligosaccharide. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A hypothesis on the biological origins and social evolution of music and dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyan eWang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The origins of music and musical emotions is still an enigma, here I propose a comprehensive hypothesis on the origins and evolution of music, dance and speech from a biological and sociological perspective. I suggest that every pitch interval between neighboring notes in music represents corresponding movement pattern through interpreting the Doppler effect of sound, which not only provides a possible explanation to the transposition invariance of music, but also integrates music and dance into a common form—rhythmic movements. Accordingly, investigating the origins of music poses the question: why do humans appreciate rhythmic movements? I suggest that human appreciation of rhythmic movements and rhythmic events developed from the natural selection of organisms adapting to the internal and external rhythmic environments. The perception and production of, as well as synchronization with external and internal rhythms are so vital for an organism’s survival and reproduction, that animals have a rhythm-related reward and emotion (RRRE system. The RRRE system enables the appreciation of rhythmic movements and events, and is integral to the origination of music, dance and speech. The first type of rewards and emotions (rhythm-related rewards and emotions, RRREs are evoked by music and dance, and have biological and social functions, which in turn, promote the evolution of music, dance and speech. These functions also evoke a second type of rewards and emotions, which I name society-related rewards and emotions (SRREs. The neural circuits of RRREs and SRREs develop in species formation and personal growth, with congenital and acquired characteristics, respectively, namely music is the combination of nature and culture. This hypothesis provides probable selection pressures and outlines the evolution of music, dance and speech. The links between the Doppler effect and the RRREs and SRREs can be empirically tested, making the current hypothesis

  12. A hypothesis on the biological origins and social evolution of music and dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyan

    2015-01-01

    The origins of music and musical emotions is still an enigma, here I propose a comprehensive hypothesis on the origins and evolution of music, dance, and speech from a biological and sociological perspective. I suggest that every pitch interval between neighboring notes in music represents corresponding movement pattern through interpreting the Doppler effect of sound, which not only provides a possible explanation for the transposition invariance of music, but also integrates music and dance into a common form-rhythmic movements. Accordingly, investigating the origins of music poses the question: why do humans appreciate rhythmic movements? I suggest that human appreciation of rhythmic movements and rhythmic events developed from the natural selection of organisms adapting to the internal and external rhythmic environments. The perception and production of, as well as synchronization with external and internal rhythms are so vital for an organism's survival and reproduction, that animals have a rhythm-related reward and emotion (RRRE) system. The RRRE system enables the appreciation of rhythmic movements and events, and is integral to the origination of music, dance and speech. The first type of rewards and emotions (rhythm-related rewards and emotions, RRREs) are evoked by music and dance, and have biological and social functions, which in turn, promote the evolution of music, dance and speech. These functions also evoke a second type of rewards and emotions, which I name society-related rewards and emotions (SRREs). The neural circuits of RRREs and SRREs develop in species formation and personal growth, with congenital and acquired characteristics, respectively, namely music is the combination of nature and culture. This hypothesis provides probable selection pressures and outlines the evolution of music, dance, and speech. The links between the Doppler effect and the RRREs and SRREs can be empirically tested, making the current hypothesis scientifically

  13. Origin vegetation as a parameter for characterization antimicrobial of propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosa-López Ángela Antonia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The propolises are resinous complex sustances produced by bees. Their chemical composition is variable in according to the vegetal source. This study was realized with samples from northeast of Argentina. The aim of work were to check the fungicide and bactericide effects of etanolic solutions of propolis from different sites in Misiones province, on plant pathogens, considering the predominant vegetation in the original areas on the oxidation indexandfenolic compositions. As results in three studied areas the vegetation has been modified anthropically in different form, and the products are corresponding with the introduced flora characteristics, composed of 7 different plant species in El Soberbio, 7 species in El Dorado and 10 species in Apostoles. The physic and chemical proprieties and therapeutic action in propolis from the three collection areas in the Misiones province were similar. The oxidation rate was different in the three study areas (7.37, 1.30 y 18.4, while the phenolic content showed no significant difference. Their antimicrobial activity to probed concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8 y 10 %, don’t were effectives for control on the fungical strains but it is positive by the bacterial control of genus Bacillus.

  14. Characterization of a novel pestivirus originating from a pronghorn antelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcek, S; Ridpath, J F; Van Campen, H; Cavender, J L; Warg, J

    2005-03-01

    A unique pestivirus, isolated from a pronghorn antelope (Antilocopra americana), was characterized. Serum neutralization studies suggested that this virus was antigenically related to pestiviruses. Genomic characteristics, unique to pestiviruses, indicated that this virus belongs to the Pestivirus genus. These characteristics included the organization of the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR), the presence and length of a viral Npro coding region, conservation of cysteine residues in Npro, conservation of predicted amino acid sequences flanking the cleavage sites between viral polypeptides Npro and C and between C and Erns and conservation of predicted hydrophobicity plots of Npro protein. While this data indicated the virus belongs to the Pestivirus genus, phylogenetic analysis in 5'-UTR, Npro and E2 regions suggested that it is the most divergent of the pestiviruses identified to date. This conclusion was also supported by the amino acid identity in coding regions. The corresponding values were much lower for the comparison of pronghorn pestivirus to other pestivirus genotypes than only between previous recognized genotypes. These results suggest the virus isolated from pronghorn antelope represents a new pestivirus genotype. It also represents the only pestivirus genotype first isolated from New World wildlife.

  15. The Role of Stochastic Models in Interpreting the Origins of Biological Chirality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Lente

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent stochastic modeling efforts in the theoretical research aimed at interpreting the origins of biological chirality. Stochastic kinetic models, especially those based on the continuous time discrete state approach, have great potential in modeling absolute asymmetric reactions, experimental examples of which have been reported in the past decade. An overview of the relevant mathematical background is given and several examples are presented to show how the significant numerical problems characteristic of the use of stochastic models can be overcome by non-trivial, but elementary algebra. In these stochastic models, a particulate view of matter is used rather than the concentration-based view of traditional chemical kinetics using continuous functions to describe the properties system. This has the advantage of giving adequate description of single-molecule events, which were probably important in the origin of biological chirality. The presented models can interpret and predict the random distribution of enantiomeric excess among repetitive experiments, which is the most striking feature of absolute asymmetric reactions. It is argued that the use of the stochastic kinetic approach should be much more widespread in the relevant literature.

  16. Origin,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur de Vargas Giorgi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay tightens the “origin” concept, its manifestation through puzzles and their relationship to techniques of reproduction. Contrary to the hegemonic critique of aesthetic and cultural objects – critique that, settled on the appearance and notions of identity, tradition, canon, etc., undervalues the reproductions of "originals" –, the aim is to deliver these objects from formal hierarchization dispositives, that is, release them of what is ideal and positively imposed, so that the reproducibility is potentiated as producer of singularities, of apparitions. The effort is to keep the undecided character of puzzles (bodies, texts, images in which the origin is manifest, so that the logic of the spectacle is reverted into sense opening, instance in which the aesthetic becomes a “performance” before contemporary complexity. With the reproducibility, an origin survives in passage: continually restored, but incomplete, present in trace, in absence.

  17. Fungal phytotoxins with potential herbicidal activity: chemical and biological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Alessio; Masi, Marco; Evidente, Marco; Superchi, Stefano; Evidente, Antonio

    2015-12-19

    Covering: 2007 to 2015 Fungal phytotoxins are secondary metabolites playing an important role in the induction of disease symptoms interfering with host plant physiological processes. Although fungal pathogens represent a heavy constraint for agrarian production and for forest and environmental heritage, they can also represent an ecofriendly alternative to manage weeds. Indeed, the phytotoxins produced by weed pathogenic fungi are an efficient tool to design natural, safe bioherbicides. Their use could avoid that of synthetic pesticides causing resistance in the host plants and the long term impact of residues in agricultural products with a risk to human and animal health. The isolation and structural and biological characterization of phytotoxins produced by pathogenic fungi for weeds, including parasitic plants, are described. Structure activity relationships and mode of action studies for some phytotoxins are also reported to elucidate the herbicide potential of these promising fungal metabolites.

  18. Characterization of some biological specimens using TEM and SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Smith, Don W.

    2009-05-01

    The advent of novel techniques using the Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes improved observation on various biological specimens to characterize them. We studied some biological specimens using Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes. We followed negative staining technique with Phosphotungstic acid using bacterial culture of Bacillus subtilis. Negative staining is very convenient technique to view the structural morphology of different samples including bacteria, phage viruses and filaments in a cell. We could observe the bacterial cell wall and flagellum very well when trapped the negative stained biofilm from bacterial culture on a TEM grid. We cut ultra thin sections from the fixed root tips of Pisum sativum (Garden pea). Root tips were pre fixed with osmium tetroxide and post fixed with uranium acetate and placed in the BEEM capsule for block making. The ultrathin sections on the grid under TEM showed the granular chromatin in the nucleus. The protein bodies and large vacuoles with the storage materials were conspicuous. We followed fixation, critical point drying and sputter coating with gold to view the tissues with SEM after placing on stubs. SEM view of the leaf surface of a dangerous weed Tragia hispida showed the surface trichomes. These trichomes when break on touching releases poisonous content causing skin irritation. The cultured tissue from in vitro culture of Albizia lebbeck, a tree revealed the regenerative structures including leaf buds and stomata on the tissue surface. SEM and TEM allow investigating the minute details characteristic morphological features that can be used for classroom teaching.

  19. Quantitative characterization of nanoparticle agglomeration within biological media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondow, Nicole; Brydson, Rik; Wang, Peiyi; Holton, Mark D.; Brown, M. Rowan; Rees, Paul; Summers, Huw D.; Brown, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of nanoparticle dispersion state within biological media is essential to understanding cellular uptake and the roles of diffusion, sedimentation, and endocytosis in determining nanoparticle dose. The dispersion of polymer-coated CdTe/ZnS quantum dots in water and cell growth medium with and without fetal bovine serum was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. Characterization by TEM of samples prepared by plunge freezing the blotted solutions into liquid ethane was sensitive to the dispersion state of the quantum dots and enabled measurement of agglomerate size distributions even in the presence of serum proteins where DLS failed. In addition, TEM showed a reduced packing fraction of quantum dots per agglomerate when dispersed in biological media and serum compared to just water, highlighting the effect of interactions between the media, serum proteins, and the quantum dots. The identification of a heterogeneous distribution of quantum dots and quantum dot agglomerates in cell growth medium and serum by TEM will enable correlation with the previously reported optical metrology of in vitro cellular uptake of this quantum dot dispersion. In this paper, we present a comparative study of TEM and DLS and show that plunge-freeze TEM provides a robust assessment of nanoparticle agglomeration state.

  20. Computational Biology Methods for Characterization of Pluripotent Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent cells are a powerful tool for regenerative medicine and drug discovery. Several techniques have been developed to induce pluripotency, or to extract pluripotent cells from different tissues and biological fluids. However, the characterization of pluripotency requires tedious, expensive, time-consuming, and not always reliable wet-lab experiments; thus, an easy, standard quality-control protocol of pluripotency assessment remains to be established. Here to help comes the use of high-throughput techniques, and in particular, the employment of gene expression microarrays, which has become a complementary technique for cellular characterization. Research has shown that the transcriptomics comparison with an Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC) of reference is a good approach to assess the pluripotency. Under the premise that the best protocol is a computer software source code, here I propose and explain line by line a software protocol coded in R-Bioconductor for pluripotency assessment based on the comparison of transcriptomics data of pluripotent cells with an ESC of reference. I provide advice for experimental design, warning about possible pitfalls, and guides for results interpretation.

  1. Sleep and biological parameters in professional burnout: A psychophysiological characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Boucher, Thierry; Elbaz, Maxime; Delafosse, Jean Yves; Leger, Damien; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2018-01-01

    Professional burnout syndrome has been described in association with insomnia and metabolic, inflammatory and immune correlates. We investigated the interest of exploring biological parameters and sleep disturbances in relation to burnout symptoms among white-collar workers. Fifty-four participants with burnout were compared to 86 healthy control participants in terms of professional rank level, sleep, job strain (Karasek questionnaire), social support, anxiety and depression (HAD scale). Fasting concentrations of glycaemia, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), total-cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), and white blood cell (WBC) counts were assessed. Analysis of variance and a forward Stepwise Multiple Logistic Regression were made to identify predictive factors of burnout. Besides reporting more job strain (in particular job control p = 0.02), higher levels of anxiety (pburnout presented higher levels of HbA1C, glycaemia, CRP, lower levels of 25(OH)D, higher number of leukocytes, neutrophils and monocytes (P 3.5%, the prevalence of burnout increases from 16.6% to 60.0% (OR = 4.3, 95%CI = 2.8–6.9). Strong significant positive correlation existed between HbA1C and the two dimensions (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization (r = 0.79 and r = 0.71, pburnout. Models including job strain, job satisfaction, anxiety and insomnia did not predict burnout (p = 0.30 and p = 0.50). However, when HbA1C levels is included, the prediction of burnout became significant (P = 0.03). Our findings demonstrated the interest of sleep and biological parameters, in particular HbA1C levels, in the characterization of professional burnout. PMID:29385150

  2. Preparation and characterization of new biologically active polyurethane foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Yuri; Veselov, Vitali; Markovskaya, Ludmila; Savelyeva, Olga; Akhranovich, Elena; Galatenko, Natalya; Robota, Ludmila; Travinskaya, Tamara

    2014-12-01

    Biologically active polyurethane foams are the fast-developed alternative to many applications of biomedical materials. Due to the polyurethane structure features and foam technology it is possible to incorporate into their structure the biologically active compounds of target purpose via structural-chemical modification of macromolecule. A series of new biologically active polyurethane foams (PUFs) was synthesized with polyethers (MM 2500-5000), polyesters MM (500-2200), 2,4(2,6) toluene diisocyanate, water as a foaming agent, catalysts, foam stabilizers and functional compounds. Different functional compounds: 1,4-di-N-oxy-2,3-bis-(oxymethyl)-quinoxaline (DOMQ), partial sodium salt of poly(acrylic acid) and 2,6-dimethyl-N,N-diethyl aminoacetatanilide hydrochloride were incorporated into the polymer structure/composition due to the chemical and/or physical bonding. Structural peculiarities of PUFs were studied by FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray scattering. Self-adhesion properties of PUFs were estimated by measuring of tensile strength at break of adhesive junction. The optical microscopy method was performed for the PUF morphology studies. Toxicological estimation of the PUFs was carried out in vitro and in vivo. The antibacterial action towards the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATC 25922, E. coli ATC 2150, Klebsiella pneumoniae 6447, Staphylococcus aureus 180, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8180, Proteus mirabilis F 403, P. mirabilis 6054, and Proteus vulgaris 8718) was studied by the disc method on the solid nutrient. Physic-chemical properties of the PUFs (density, tensile strength and elongation at break, water absorption and vapor permeability) showed that all studied PUFs are within the operational requirements for such materials and represent fine-cellular foams. Spectral studies confirmed the incorporation of DOMQ into the PUF's macrochain. PUFs are characterized by microheterogeneous structure. They are antibacterially active, non

  3. Non-contact tensile viscoelastic characterization of microscale biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhui; Hong, Yuan; Xu, Guang-Kui; Liu, Shaobao; Shi, Qiang; Tang, Deding; Yang, Hui; Genin, Guy M.; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2018-06-01

    Many structures and materials in nature and physiology have important "meso-scale" structures at the micron length-scale whose tensile responses have proven difficult to characterize mechanically. Although techniques such as atomic force microscopy and micro- and nano-identation are mature for compression and indentation testing at the nano-scale, and standard uniaxial and shear rheometry techniques exist for the macroscale, few techniques are applicable for tensile-testing at the micrometre-scale, leaving a gap in our understanding of hierarchical biomaterials. Here, we present a novel magnetic mechanical testing (MMT) system that enables viscoelastic tensile testing at this critical length scale. The MMT system applies non-contact loading, avoiding gripping and surface interaction effects. We demonstrate application of the MMT system to the first analyses of the pure tensile responses of several native and engineered tissue systems at the mesoscale, showing the broad potential of the system for exploring micro- and meso-scale analysis of structured and hierarchical biological systems.

  4. Characterizing the D2 statistic: word matches in biological sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forêt, Sylvain; Wilson, Susan R; Burden, Conrad J

    2009-01-01

    Word matches are often used in sequence comparison methods, either as a measure of sequence similarity or in the first search steps of algorithms such as BLAST or BLAT. The D2 statistic is the number of matches of words of k letters between two sequences. Recent advances have been made in the characterization of this statistic and in the approximation of its distribution. Here, these results are extended to the case of approximate word matches. We compute the exact value of the variance of the D2 statistic for the case of a uniform letter distribution, and introduce a method to provide accurate approximations of the variance in the remaining cases. This enables the distribution of D2 to be approximated for typical situations arising in biological research. We apply these results to the identification of cis-regulatory modules, and show that this method detects such sequences with a high accuracy. The ability to approximate the distribution of D2 for both exact and approximate word matches will enable the use of this statistic in a more precise manner for sequence comparison, database searches, and identification of transcription factor binding sites.

  5. Biological and molecular characterization of silkworm strains from the Brazilian germplasm bank of Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, N C; Munhoz, R E F; Bignotto, T S; Bespalhuk, R; Garay, L B; Saez, C R N; Fassina, V A; Nembri, A; Fernandez, M A

    2013-06-28

    Brazil has only one public genetic pool of Bombyx mori strains, which was established in 2005 at Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, Paraná State. This genetic bank has been maintained, and the strains have been characterized using genetic and morphological tools. The quantitative and qualitative traits, directly or indirectly related to productivity, were evaluated in 14 silkworm strains. In addition to biological and productivity analyses, DNA markers related to susceptibility to the B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) were analyzed. BmNPV is a major cause of production loss and is a serious problem for Paraná sericulture. The silkworm strains from diverse geographic origins were found to have different characteristics, including body weight, larval stage duration, cocoon weight, and other biological traits. In terms of productivity, the raw silk percentages were almost uniform, with an overall average of 16.28%. Overall, the Chinese strain C37 gave the best performance in many of the quantitative traits, and it surpassed the other strains in productivity traits. Therefore, it can be used as one of the strains that compose the elite germplasm for silkworm breeding programs. Additionally, genetic molecular markers were efficient in discriminating between B. mori strains that had been identified based on their geographical origin. We found that all Japanese strains produced a 400-bp molecular marker that has been associated with susceptibility to BmNPV.

  6. Biological characterization and complete nucleotide sequence of a Tunisian isolate of Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoubi, S; Desbiez, C; Fakhfakh, H; Wipf-Scheibel, C; Marrakchi, M; Lecoq, H

    2008-01-01

    During a survey conducted in October 2005, cucurbit leaf samples showing virus-like symptoms were collected from the major cucurbit-growing areas in Tunisia. DAS-ELISA showed the presence of Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV, Potyvirus), detected for the first time in Tunisia, in samples from the region of Cap Bon (Northern Tunisia). MWMV isolate TN05-76 (MWMV-Tn) was characterized biologically and its full-length genome sequence was established. MWMV-Tn was found to have biological properties similar to those reported for the MWMV type strain from Morocco. Phylogenetic analysis including the comparison of complete amino-acid sequences of 42 potyviruses confirmed that MWMV-Tn is related (65% amino-acid sequence identity) to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolates but is a member of a distinct virus species. Sequence analysis on parts of the CP gene of MWMV isolates from different geographical origins revealed some geographic structure of MWMV variability, with three different clusters: one cluster including isolates from the Mediterranean region, a second including isolates from western and central Africa, and a third one including isolates from the southern part of Africa. A significant correlation was observed between geographic and genetic distances between isolates. Isolates from countries in the Mediterranean region where MWMV has recently emerged (France, Spain, Portugal) have highly conserved sequences, suggesting that they may have a common and recent origin. MWMV from Sudan, a highly divergent variant, may be considered an evolutionary intermediate between MWMV and PRSV.

  7. Chemical and biological characterization of urban particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agurell, E.; Alsberg, T.; Assefaz-Redda, Y.

    1990-11-01

    Airborne particulate matter has been collected on glass fiber filter by high volume sampling in the Goeteborg urban area. The samples were, after extraction with respect to organic components, tested for biological effect in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, affinity to the cytosol TCDD receptor and toxicity towards a mammalian cell system and analysed chemically for selected polycyclic aromatic compounds. A series of samples collected simultaneously at a street level location and a rooftop site showed that most parameters associated with the organic compounds adsorbed to airborne particulate matter has similar concentrations at the two levels. The differences observed for the mutagenic effect in different strains and conditions showed that the rooftop samples had a different composition compared to the street samples indicating that atmospheric transformations have occurred. Chemical fractionation of representative samples showed that the distribution of mutagenic activity among different fractions is dissimilar to the distribution obtained in the fractionation of both gasoline and diesel engine exhaust particles. Partial least squares regression analysis showed qualitatively that diesel exhaust is a major source of airborne particulate mutagenic activity and source apportionment with chemical mass balance and multilinear regression corroborated this quantitatively. The multilinear regression analysis gave the result that the airborne activity in Salmonella TA90-S9 originated to 54±4% from diesel exhaust and to 26±3% from gasoline exhaust. The contribution is more equal for the activity measured with TA98+S9. The usefulness of short-term bioassays as an addition to chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter depends on whether only polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are major carcinogens, as has been suggested in the literature, or whether also other polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) are of importance. (au)

  8. Towards a Universal Biology: Is the Origin and Evolution of Life Predictable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2017-01-01

    The origin and evolution of life seems an unpredictable oddity, based on the quirks of contingency. Celebrated by the late Stephen Jay Gould in several books, "evolution by contingency" has all the adventure of a thriller, but lacks the predictive power of the physical sciences. Not necessarily so, replied Simon Conway Morris, for convergence reassures us that certain evolutionary responses are replicable. The outcome of this debate is critical to Astrobiology. How can we understand where we came from on Earth without prophesy? Further, we cannot design a rational strategy for the search for life elsewhere - or to understand what the future will hold for life on Earth and beyond - without extrapolating from pre-biotic chemistry and evolution. There are several indirect approaches to understanding, and thus describing, what life must be. These include philosophical approaches to defining life (is there even a satisfactory definition of life?), using what we know of physics, chemistry and life to imagine alternate scenarios, using different approaches that life takes as pseudoreplicates (e.g., ribosomal vs non-ribosomal protein synthesis), and experimental approaches to understand the art of the possible. Given that: (1) Life is a process based on physical components rather than simply an object; (2). Life is likely based on organic carbon and needs a solvent for chemistry, most likely water, and (3) Looking for convergence in terrestrial evolution we can predict certain tendencies, if not quite "laws", that provide predictive power. Biological history must obey the laws of physics and chemistry, the principles of natural selection, the constraints of an evolutionary past, genetics, and developmental biology. This amalgam creates a surprising amount of predictive power in the broad outline. Critical is the apparent prevalence of organic chemistry, and uniformity in the universe of the laws of chemistry and physics. Instructive is the widespread occurrence of

  9. Spectroscopic Characterization of Key Aromatic Molecules: A Route toward The Origin of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzarini, Cristina; Baiardi, Alberto; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo; Murphy, Thomas E; Drew, Dennis; Ali, Ashraf

    2017-08-04

    To gain information on the abiotic synthesis of the building blocks of life from simple molecules, and their subsequent chemical evolution to biological systems, the starting point is the identification of target species in Titan-like planets, i.e., planets that resemble the primitive Earth, as well as in Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of their star, namely planets where life can be already originated. In this scenario, molecular spectroscopy plays a crucial role because spectroscopic signatures are at the basis of an unequivocal proof for the presence of these target molecules. Thanks to the advances in many different techniques and to the NASA successful Kepler exoplanet transit mission, thousands of diverse planets outside of our solar system have been discovered. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), scheduled to be launched in 2018, will be very helpful in the identification of biosignature gases in Earth-like planets' atmospheres and of prebiotic molecule signatures in Titan-like atmospheres by observing their absorption during transits. While the search for key-target molecules in exoplanet atmospheres can be carried out by the JWST Transit Spectroscopy in the infrared (IR) region (0.6 - 29 µm wavelength range), opportunities for their detection in protostellar cores, protoplanetary disks and on Titan are also offered by the interferometric high spectral and spatial resolution observations using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). In the present work, target molecules have been selected and their spectroscopic characterization presented in view of supporting their infrared and complementary millimeter/submillimeter-wave spectral observations. In detail, the selected target molecules include: (1) the three-membered oxygen-containing heterocycles: oxirane and protonated oxirane, (2) the cyclopropenyl cation and its methyl derivative, (3) two examples of ortho- and peri-fused tri-cyclic aromatic rings, i.e., the phenalenyl

  10. Application of terahertz spectroscopy for characterization of biologically active organic molecules in natural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaliūnas, Mindaugas; Jakštas, Vytautas; Nasser, Kinan E.; Venckevičius, Rimvydas; Urbanowicz, Andrzej; Kašalynas, Irmantas; Valušis, Gintaras

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a comparative research of biologically active organic molecules in its natural environment using the terahertz (THz) time domain spectroscopy (TDS) and Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) systems is carried out. Absorption coefficient and refractive index of Nicotiana tabacum L. leaves containing nicotine, Cannabis sativa L. leaves containing tetrahydrocannabinol, and Humulu lupulus L. leaves containing α-acids, active organic molecules that obtain in natural environment, were measured in broad frequency range from 0.1 to 13 THz at room temperature. In the spectra of absorption coefficient the features were found to be unique for N. tabacum, C. sativa and H. lupulus. Moreover, those features can be exploited for identification of C. sativa sex and N. tabacum origin. The refractive index can be also used to characterize different species.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and biological studies of copper oxide nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillani, Saquf; Jelani, Mohsan; Hassan, Najam Ul; Ahmad, Shahbaz; Hafeez, Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    The development of synthetic methods has been broadly accepted as an area of fundamental importance to the understanding and application of nanoscale materials. It allows the individual to modulate basic parameters such as morphology, particle size, size distributions, and composition. Several methods have been developed to synthesize CuO nanostructures with diverse morphologies, sizes, and dimensions using different chemical and physical based approaches. In this work, CuO nanostructures have been synthesized by aqueous precipitation method and simple chemical deposition method. The characterization of these products has been carried out by the x-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and UV–vis spectroscopy. Biological activity such as antibacterial nature of synthesized CuO is also explored. XRD peaks analysis revealed the monoclinic crystalline phase of copper oxide nanostructures. While the rod-like and particle-like morphologies have been observed in SEM results. FTIR spectra have confirmed the formation of CuO nanoparticles by exhibiting its characteristic peaks corresponding to 494 cm‑1 and 604 cm‑1. The energy band gap of the as-prepared CuO nanostructures determined from UV–vis spectra is found to be 2.18 eV and 2.0 eV for precipitation and chemically deposited samples respectively. The antibacterial activity results described that the synthesized CuO nanoparticles showed better activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The investigated results suggested the synthesis of highly stable CuO nanoparticles with significant antibacterial activities.

  12. Nature, Origin and Transfers of SPM (Mineral, Organic, and Biological) in Hydrosystems : a New Methodological Approach by Morphogranulometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viennet, D.; Fournier, M.; Copard, Y.; Dupont, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Source to sink is one of the main concepts in Earth Sciences for a better knowledge of hydrosystems dynamics. Regarding this issue, the present day challenge consists in the characterization by in-situ measurements of the nature and the origin of suspended particles matters (SPM). Few methods can fully cover such requirements and among them, the methodology using the form of particles deserves to be developed. Indeed, morphometry of particles is widely used in sedimentology to identify different sedimentary stocks, source-to-sink transport and sedimentation mechanisms. Currently, morphometry analyses are carried out by scanning electron microscope coupled to image analysis to measure various size and shape descriptors on particles like flatness, elongation, circularity, sphericity, bluntness, fractal dimension. However, complexity and time of analysis are the main limitations of this technique for a long-term monitoring of SPM transfers. Here we present an experimental morphometric approach using a morphogranulometer (a CCD camera coupled to a peristaltic pump). The camera takes pictures while the sample is circulating through a flow cell, leading to the analysis of numerous particles in a short time. The image analysis provides size and shape information discriminating various particles stocks according to their nature and origin by statistical analyses. Measurements were carried out on standard samples of particles commonly found in natural waters. The size and morphological distributions of the different mineral fractions (clay, sand, oxides etc), biologic (microalgae, pollen, etc) and organic (peat, coal, soil organic matter, etc) samples are statistically independent and can be discriminated on a 4D graph. Next step will be on field in situ measurements in a sink-spring network to understand the transfers of the particles stocks inside this simple karstic network. Such a development would be promising for the characterisation of natural hydrosystems.

  13. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Mono- and Heterofloral Bee Pollen of Different Geographical Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucilene Silva Araújo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows variations in pollen chemical constituents and, consequently, in their therapeutic properties. Mono and multifloral bee pollen extracts were investigated for antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activity properties, phenolic compounds and fatty acid composition. Generally, Eucalyptus spp. and multifloral extracts exhibited potent inhibitory activity against α-amylase, acetylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, lipoxygenase, lipase and hyaluronidase. On the other hand, Miconia spp. demonstrated higher antihemolytic activity. Cocos nucifera and Miconia spp. extracts exhibited important antioxidant properties in the different assays (ABTS, DPPH, β-carotene/linoleic acid and reducing power. Moreover, these extracts had greater amounts of total phenols and flavonoids in comparison to others. The increase in antioxidant activity (decrease in EC50 values was accompanied by an increase in the amount of total phenols in the extracts. The pollen extracts contained linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid as major fatty acids, followed by palmitic acid, and oleic acid. In this study, differences were observed in both chemical constituents and biological activities of the samples related to the geographical and botanical origin of bee pollen.

  14. Molecular effects of resistance elicitors from biological origin and their potential for crop protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea eWiesel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants contain a sophisticated innate immune network to prevent pathogenic microbes from gaining access to nutrients and from colonising internal structures. The first layer of inducible response is governed by the plant following the perception of microbe- or modified plant-derived molecules. As the perception of these molecules results in a plant response that can provide efficient resistance towards non-adapted pathogens they can also be described as ‘defence elicitors’. In compatible plant/microbe interactions, adapted microorganisms have means to avoid or disable this resistance response and promote virulence. However, this requires a detailed spatial and temporal response from the invading pathogens. In agricultural practice, treating plants with isolated defence elicitors in the absence of pathogens can promote plant resistance by uncoupling defence activation from the effects of pathogen virulence determinants. The plant responses to plant, bacterial, oomycete or fungal-derived elicitors are not, in all cases, universal and need elucidating prior to the application in agriculture. This review provides an overview of currently known elicitors of biological rather than synthetic origin and places their activity into a molecular context.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF SINGLE-STRAND ORIGINS OF CRYPTIC ROLLING-CIRCLE PLASMIDS FROM BACILLUS-SUBTILIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEIJER, WJJ; VENEMA, G; BRON, S

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we describe the isolation and characterization of single strand origins (SSOs) of several cryptic Bacillus subtilis plasmids which use the rolling-circle mechanism of replication, The plasmids used in this study involved pTA1015, pTA1020, pTA1030, pTA1040, pTA1050 and pTA1060, The SSO

  16. Metabolomic fingerprinting of primed tobacco cells provide the first evidence for the biological origin of cis-chlorogenic acid

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlongo, MI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available . Very little, however, is known about the biological significance and origin of cis-isomers. Here we show for the first time the accumulation of cis-5-caffeoylquinic acid in cultured tobacco cells treated with different inducers of plant defence...

  17. Characterization of biological macromolecules by electrophoresis and neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, S.F.; Hancock, D.; Zeisler, R.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure combining polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) with INAA and autoradiography was developed to study biological macromolecules and their associated trace elements. Results from the application of this method to several metalloproteins are presented. (author)

  18. Physicochemical characterization of discrete weapons grade plutonium metal particles originating from the 1960 BOMARC incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, James M.

    The goal of this research was to investigate the physicochemical properties of weapons grade plutonium particles originating from the 1960 BOMARC incident for the purpose of predicting their fate in the environment and to address radiation protection and nuclear security concerns. Methods were developed to locate and isolate the particles in order to characterize them. Physical, chemical, and radiological characterization was performed using a variety of techniques. And finally, the particles were subjected to a sequential extraction procedure, a series of increasingly aggressive reagents, to simulate an accelerated environmental exposure. A link between the morphology of the particles and their partitioning amongst environmental mechanisms was established.

  19. Espresso beverages of pure origin coffee: mineral characterization, contribution for mineral intake and geographical discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marta; Ramos, Sandra; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Morais, Simone

    2015-06-15

    Espresso coffee beverages prepared from pure origin roasted ground coffees from the major world growing regions (Brazil, Ethiopia, Colombia, India, Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, Papua New Guinea, Kenya, Cuba, Timor, Mussulo and China) were characterized and compared in terms of their mineral content. Regular consumption of one cup of espresso contributes to a daily mineral intake varying from 0.002% (sodium; Central America) to 8.73% (potassium; Asia). The mineral profiles of the espresso beverages revealed significant inter- and intra-continental differences. South American pure origin coffees are on average richer in the analyzed elements except for calcium, while samples from Central America have generally lower mineral amounts (except for manganese). Manganese displayed significant differences (pworld coffee producers were achieved by applying canonical discriminant analysis. Manganese and calcium were found to be the best chemical descriptors for origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genomic and biological characterization of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from migratory mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Momena; Yaqub, Tahir; Nazir, Jawad; Shehzad, Wasim; Aziz-Ul-Rahman; Sohail, Tayyebah; Mukhtar, Nadia; Mehboob, Arsalan; Munir, Muhammad; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair

    2018-04-30

    Given the global evolutionary dynamics of Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs), it is imperative to continue extensive surveillance, routine monitoring and characterization of isolates originating from natural reservoirs (waterfowls). In this report, we isolated and characterized two virulent NDV strains from clinically healthy mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Both isolates had a genome of 15,192 nucleotides encoding six genes in an order of 3´-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5´. The biological characteristics (mean death time: 49.5-50 hr, EID 50 10 8.5  ml -1 ) and presence of a typical cleavage site in the fusion (F) protein (112R-R-Q-K-R↓F117) confirmed the velogenic nature of these isolates. Phylogenetic analysis classified both isolates as members of genotype VII within class-II. Furthermore, based upon the hypervariable region of the F gene (375 nt), isolates showed clustering within sub-genotype VIIi. Similarity index and parallel comparison revealed a higher nucleotide divergence from commonly used vaccine strains; LaSota (21%) and Mukteswar (17%). A comparative residues analysis with representative strains of different genotypes, including vaccine strains, revealed a number of substitutions at important structural and functional domains within the F and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) proteins. Together, the results highlight consistent evolution among circulating NDVs supporting extensive surveillance of the virus in waterfowl to better elucidate epidemiology, evolutionary relationships and their impacts on commercial and backyard poultry.

  1. Chemical and biological characterization of a crude venom extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sea-anemones, in common with other members of the phylum cnidaria (coelenterate) possess numerous tentacles containing specialized stinging cells of cnidocysts. Our main objective is to elucidate the chemical character and biological properties of this Nigerian species of sea anemone Bunodosoma ...

  2. Informatics approaches in the Biological Characterization of Adverse Outcome Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) are a conceptual framework to characterize toxicity pathways by a series of mechanistic steps from a molecular initiating event to population outcomes. This framework helps to direct risk assessment research, for example by aiding in computational ...

  3. Biological and phylogenetic characterization of a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus from Venezuela: Efficacy of vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we describe the characterization a virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from Venezuela and evaluate the efficacy of heterologous genotype commercial vaccination under field and controlled rearing conditions. Biological pathotyping and molecular analysis were applied. Results sh...

  4. Transport and characterization of ambient biological aerosol near Laurel, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarpia, J. L.; Cunningham, D.; Gilberry, J.; Kim, S.; Smith, E. E.; Ratnesar-Shumate, S.; Quizon, J.

    2010-09-01

    Bacterial aerosol have been observed and studied in the ambient environment since the mid nineteenth century. These studies have sought to provide a better understanding of the diversity, variability and factors that control the biological aerosol population. In this study, we show comparisons between diversity of culturable bacteria and fungi, using culture and clinical biochemical tests, and 16S rRNA diversity using Affymetrix PhyloChips. Comparing the culturable fraction and surveying the total 16S rRNA of each sample provides a comprehensive look at the bacterial population studied and allows comparison with previous studies. Thirty-six hour back-trajectories of the air parcels sampled, over the two day period beginning 4 November 2008, provide information on the sources of aerosol sampled on the campus of Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, MD. This study indicates that back-trajectory modeling of air parcels may provide insights into the observed diversity of biological aerosol.

  5. Total Synthesis of Natural Products of Microbial Origins(Recent Topics of the Agricultunal Biological Science in Tohoku University)

    OpenAIRE

    Hiromasa, KIYOTA; Shigefumi, KUWAHARA; Laboratory of Applied Bioorganic Chemistry, Division of Bioscience & Biotechnology for Future Bioindustries, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University; Laboratory of Applied Bioorganic Chemistry, Division of Bioscience & Biotechnology for Future Bioindustries, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms are an important rich source of secondary metabolites, which could be useful leads to valuable agrochemicals and/or medicinal drugs. This mini-review describes our recent achievements on the total synthesis of biologically active natural products of microbial origins: pteridic acids A and B (strong plant growth promoters), epoxyquinols A and B (anti-angiogenic compounds), communiols A-F, G, and H, and macrotetrolide α (antibiotics), pyricuol and tabtoxinine-β-lactam (phytotoxin...

  6. Original paper Influence of biologic therapy on growth in children with chronic inflammatory connective tissue diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Świdrowska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Connective tissue diseases (CTD are a heterogeneous group of chronic inflammatory conditions. One of their complications in children is the inhibition of growth velocity. Due to direct inflammation within the musculoskeletal system as well as glucocorticoid therapy, this feature is the most essential and is mainly expressed in the course of juvenile spondyloarthropathies and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Duration of the disease, but predominantly the activity of the inflammatory process, seems to have a significant impact on the abnormal growth profile in children. Effective biological therapy leads to improvement of the patient’s clinical condition and also, through the extinction of disease activity and reduction of daily doses of glucocorticosteroids (GCS, it gradually accelerates and normalizes the growth rate in children with CTD. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of biological therapy on growth in children with chronic inflammatory CTD. Material and methods: Data from 24 patients with CTD treated with tumor necrosis factor--blockers (etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab and an interleukin-6 receptor blocker (tocilizumab were reviewed at the time of disease onset, biological treatment initiation and at least 12 up to 24 months onwards. The rate of growth was correlated with the daily doses of GCS, and the type and duration of biological therapy. Results : Patient median height, measured as the change in height standard deviation score, was 0.36 ±1.07 at disease onset and –0.13 ±1.02 at biologic therapy initiation. The growth velocity accelerated in 17 patients (70.1% during the biological treatment. Mean height-SDS improvement between biological treatment initiation up to two years was 0.51 ±0.58. In 47% of patients daily doses of GCS were reduced to 0 mg/kg/day. Conclusions : In the treatment of CTD, biological agents restore growth velocity not only by inflammation inhibition, but also through limiting GCS

  7. Developmental Origins of Biological Explanations: The case of infants' internal property bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborda-Osorio, Hernando; Cheries, Erik W

    2017-10-01

    People's explanations about the biological world are heavily biased toward internal, non-obvious properties. Adults and children as young as 5 years of age find internal properties more causally central than external features for explaining general biological processes and category membership. In this paper, we describe how this 'internal property bias' may be grounded in two different developmental precursors observed in studies with infants: (1) an early understanding of biological agency that is apparent in infants' reasoning about animals, and (2) the acquisition of kind-based representations that distinguish between essential and accidental properties, spanning from animals to artifacts. We argue that these precursors may support the progressive construction of the notion of biological kinds and explanations during childhood. Shortly after their first year of life, infants seem to represent the internal properties of animates as more central and identity-determining that external properties. Over time, this skeletal notion of biological kinds is integrated into diverse explanations about kind membership and biological processes, with an increasingly better understanding of the causal role of internal properties.

  8. The relationship between shame and perceived biological origins of mental illness among South Asian and white American young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokkarala, Sameera; O'Brien, Erin Keely; Siegel, Jason T

    2016-06-01

    Mental illness (MI) affects one in four people in their lifetime and a failure to seek help for MI can have grave consequences. To decrease stigma and increase help seeking, prior campaigns have promoted the biological origins of MI. Even though some research supports the efficacy of this approach, other research does not. We propose cultural differences as a partial explanation for these inconsistent results. The current study assessed ethnic differences in the relationship between perceived causes of MI, shame associated with MI and perceived family support for help seeking. White and South Asian American (SAA) undergraduate students completed an online survey (n = 177). Results indicated that SAAs were significantly more likely than whites to perceive character deficits as the cause of MI. Further, among those who had sought help for MI, ethnic differences emerged in perceptions of MI based on perceived cause. SAAs who believed that MI had biological origins perceived more shame and less family support for seeking help compared to SAAs who believed MI was due to character deficits. The converse was true for whites - those who believed that MI had biological origins perceived less shame and more family support for help seeking compared to whites who believed MI was due to character deficits. The results of the current study illuminate the role that culture plays in perceptions of MI. Further, these results have implications for interventions targeting South Asian populations and for mental health outreach in general.

  9. Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Shigella spp. of food origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ashraf M; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2015-02-02

    Shigella spp. are the causative agents of food-borne shigellosis, an acute enteric infection. The emergence of multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Shigella presents an increasing challenge for clinicians in the treatment of shigellosis. Several studies worldwide have characterized the molecular basis of antibiotic resistance in clinical Shigella isolates of human origin, however, to date, no such characterization has been reported for Shigella spp. of food origin. In this study, we characterized the genetic basis of multidrug resistance in Shigella spp. isolated from 1600 food samples (800 meat products and 800 dairy products) collected from different street venders, butchers, retail markets, and slaughterhouses in Egypt. Twenty-four out of 27 Shigella isolates (88.9%) showed multidrug resistance phenotypes to at least three classes of antimicrobials. The multidrug-resistant Shigella spp. were as follows: Shigella flexneri (66.7%), Shigella sonnei (18.5%), and Shigella dysenteriae (3.7%). The highest resistance was to streptomycin (100.0%), then to kanamycin (95.8%), nalidixic acid (95.8%), tetracycline (95.8%), spectinomycin (93.6%), ampicillin (87.5%), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (87.5%). PCR and DNA sequencing were used to screen and characterize integrons and antibiotic resistance genes. Our results indicated that 11.1% and 74.1% of isolates were positive for class 1 and class 2 integrons, respectively. Beta-lactamase-encoding genes were identified in 77.8% of isolates, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes were identified in 44.4% of isolates. These data provide useful information to better understand the molecular basis of antimicrobial resistance in Shigella spp. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance in Shigella spp. isolated from food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of biological activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To synthesize, characterize and investigate the antimicrobial properties of pure and manganese-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles. Method: Un-doped and manganese-doped zinc oxide (Mn-doped ZnO) nanoparticles were prepared using co-precipitation method. The synthesized Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles were ...

  11. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity studies of mixed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complexes were characterized using some physical techniques such as melting point, solubility, conductivity measurement and spectroscopic analyses such as UV-Visible spectroscopy, Atomic absorption spectroscopy, and Infrared spectroscopy. Based on the physical and spectroscopic results, the coordination of the ...

  12. Nondestructive mechanical characterization of developing biological tissues using inflation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomen, P J A; van Kelle, M A J; Oomens, C W J; Bouten, C V C; Loerakker, S

    2017-10-01

    One of the hallmarks of biological soft tissues is their capacity to grow and remodel in response to changes in their environment. Although it is well-accepted that these processes occur at least partly to maintain a mechanical homeostasis, it remains unclear which mechanical constituent(s) determine(s) mechanical homeostasis. In the current study a nondestructive mechanical test and a two-step inverse analysis method were developed and validated to nondestructively estimate the mechanical properties of biological tissue during tissue culture. Nondestructive mechanical testing was achieved by performing an inflation test on tissues that were cultured inside a bioreactor, while the tissue displacement and thickness were nondestructively measured using ultrasound. The material parameters were estimated by an inverse finite element scheme, which was preceded by an analytical estimation step to rapidly obtain an initial estimate that already approximated the final solution. The efficiency and accuracy of the two-step inverse method was demonstrated on virtual experiments of several material types with known parameters. PDMS samples were used to demonstrate the method's feasibility, where it was shown that the proposed method yielded similar results to tensile testing. Finally, the method was applied to estimate the material properties of tissue-engineered constructs. Via this method, the evolution of mechanical properties during tissue growth and remodeling can now be monitored in a well-controlled system. The outcomes can be used to determine various mechanical constituents and to assess their contribution to mechanical homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. On the possibility of biologically active fenole substances forming during irradiation of vegetable origin products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval'skaya, L.P.; Petrash, I.P.; Medvedeva, T.N.; Lezhneva, M.L.; Shchegoleva, G.I.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out whether biologically active substances of phenol nature can form upon irradiation of fresh fruits and vegetables with doses of 200-300 Krad, to ascertain the stability of these substances during storage and processing, and to see whether they display cytostatic effects. The results of the study led to modifications and improvements in the methods used to study biologically active substances of phenol nature in fresh fruits irradiated with 200-300 krad. The total amount of phenolic compounds was found to be somewhat increased upon their extraction with cold ethanol. Of the substances detected in extracts from red tomatoes, the contens of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and naranguenine were appreciably increased. Neither chemical methods nor bioassays revealed in irradiated juices and fruits any biologically active substances affecting the living organism. (E.T.)

  14. The Biology of Emergency Medicine: what have 30 years meant for Rosen's original concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Brian J

    2011-03-01

    In 1979 Peter Rosen, MD, a leading academic figure in the developing field of emergency medicine (EM), wrote an article, "The Biology of Emergency Medicine," in response to criticism from other specialties and medical leaders that there was no unique biology of EM that would qualify it as a legitimate medical specialty. This essay received much attention at the time and served as rallying cry for emergency physicians (EPs) who were trying to find their places in the house of medicine and especially in medical schools and academic teaching hospitals. Thirty years later, the opposition that prompted many of Rosen's strongly worded impressions and observations on the biology of EM, clinical emergency department (ED) practice, education, and research has largely faded. Many of Rosen's predictions on the eventual success of EM have come true. However, core issues that existed then continue to present challenges for academic EM and clinical emergency practice. © 2011 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  15. On the origin of distribution patterns of motifs in biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesk Arthur M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inventories of small subgraphs in biological networks have identified commonly-recurring patterns, called motifs. The inference that these motifs have been selected for function rests on the idea that their occurrences are significantly more frequent than random. Results Our analysis of several large biological networks suggests, in contrast, that the frequencies of appearance of common subgraphs are similar in natural and corresponding random networks. Conclusion Indeed, certain topological features of biological networks give rise naturally to the common appearance of the motifs. We therefore question whether frequencies of occurrences are reasonable evidence that the structures of motifs have been selected for their functional contribution to the operation of networks.

  16. Does constructive neutral evolution play an important role in the origin of cellular complexity? Making sense of the origins and uses of biological complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speijer, Dave

    2011-05-01

    Recently, constructive neutral evolution has been touted as an important concept for the understanding of the emergence of cellular complexity. It has been invoked to help explain the development and retention of, amongst others, RNA splicing, RNA editing and ribosomal and mitochondrial respiratory chain complexity. The theory originated as a welcome explanation of isolated small scale cellular idiosyncrasies and as a reaction to 'overselectionism'. Here I contend, that in its extended form, it has major conceptual problems, can not explain observed patterns of complex processes, is too easily dismissive of alternative selectionist models, underestimates the creative force of complexity as such, and--if seen as a major evolutionary mechanism for all organisms--could stifle further thought regarding the evolution of highly complex biological processes. Copyright © 2011 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  17. 9 CFR 113.53 - Requirements for ingredients of animal origin used for production of biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... biological product shall be tested as prescribed in this section by the licensee or a laboratory acceptable to VS. Results of all tests shall be recorded by the testing laboratory and made a part of the... diluent sufficient to fill a centrifuge angle head. After centrifuging for 1 hour at 80,000×g, the pellet...

  18. The Origin and Evolution of Life in Pakistani High School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Anila; Wiles, Jason R.; Alters, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to inform science education practitioners and researchers in the West about apparent attempts to reconcile science and religion in Pakistan's public school curriculum. We analysed the national high school science curriculum and biology textbooks (English) used in the Government schools in Pakistan, where Islamic faith is the…

  19. Leiomyosarcoma: One disease or distinct biologic entities based on site of origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worhunsky, David J; Gupta, Mihir; Gholami, Sepideh; Tran, Thuy B; Ganjoo, Kristen N; van de Rijn, Matt; Visser, Brendan C; Norton, Jeffrey A; Poultsides, George A

    2015-06-01

    Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) can originate from the retroperitoneum, uterus, extremity, and trunk. It is unclear whether tumors of different origin represent discrete entities. We compared clinicopathologic features and outcomes following surgical resection of LMS stratified by site of origin. Patients with LMS undergoing resection at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Clinicopathologic variables were compared across sites. Survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using log-rank and Cox regression analyses. From 1983 to 2011, 138 patients underwent surgical resection for LMS. Retroperitoneal and uterine LMS were larger, higher grade, and more commonly associated with synchronous metastases. However, disease-specific survival, recurrence-free survival, and recurrence patterns were not significantly different across the four sites. Synchronous metastases (HR 3.20, P < 0.001), but not site of origin, size, grade, or margin status, were independently associated with worse DSS. A significant number of recurrences and disease-related deaths were noted beyond 5 years. Although larger and higher grade, retroperitoneal and uterine LMS share similar survival and recurrence patterns with their trunk and extremity counterparts. LMS of various anatomic sites may not represent distinct disease processes based on clinical outcomes. The presence of metastatic disease remains the most important prognostic factor for LMS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Shared genetic origin of asthma, hay fever and eczema elucidates allergic disease biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, Manuel A; Vonk, Judith M; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Marenholz, Ingo; Tian, Chao; Hoffman, Joshua D; Helmer, Quinta; Tillander, Annika; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; van Dongen, Jenny; Lu, Yi; Rüschendorf, Franz; Esparza-Gordillo, Jorge; Medway, Chris W; Mountjoy, Edward; Burrows, Kimberley; Hummel, Oliver; Grosche, Sarah; Brumpton, Ben M; Witte, John S; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Willemsen, Gonneke; Zheng, Jie; Rodríguez, Elke; Hotze, Melanie; Franke, Andre; Revez, Joana A; Beesley, Jonathan; Matheson, Melanie C; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Bain, Lisa M; Fritsche, Lars G; Gabrielsen, Maiken E; Balliu, Brunilda; Nielsen, Jonas B; Zhou, Wei; Hveem, Kristian; Langhammer, Arnulf; Holmen, Oddgeir L; Løset, Mari; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Willer, Cristen J; Arnold, Andreas; Homuth, Georg; Schmidt, Carsten O; Thompson, Philip J; Martin, Nicholas G; Duffy, David L; Novak, Natalija; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2017-01-01

    Asthma, hay fever (or allergic rhinitis) and eczema (or atopic dermatitis) often coexist in the same individuals, partly because of a shared genetic origin. To identify shared risk variants, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS; n = 360,838) of a broad allergic disease phenotype that

  1. Some physical problems in biology: Aspects of the origin and structure of the first cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela Flores, J.

    1995-01-01

    A review is presented within the framework of the theory of evolution, after it has been extrapolated from the population level to the cellular and molecular levels. From Darwin's seminal and persuasive insight - the theory of common descent - we assume, with him, that ''probably all the organic beings which have ever lived on this earth have descended from some one primordial form, into which life was first breathed''. We are now aware that his primordial cell may have been a protocyanobacterium, but it has often been called 'a last universal ancestor', a 'breakthrough organism', or a 'progenote', a term introduced by Woese which has gained wide acceptance. Strictly speaking, in the 'intermediate period', ranging from the first living cell to the progenote, life may have evolved in the absence of significant diversity, effectively as a single phylum, incorporating organisms whose genetic systems were already based on DNA. Earlier still, prior to the encapsulation of nucleic acids in microspheres, evolution may already have been at work on RNA molecules (the 'RNA world'). This takes our discussion into the period of chemical evolution, a concept first put forward by Oparin, whose principal merit is to have formulated the underlying problem in clear scientific terms. This review does not attempt to be comprehensive. It is mainly devoted to the discussion of certain concepts that may have played a relevant role in the pathway that led to the origin and evolution of the progenote. We do not dwell on the main events of the intermediate period. The topic that we have chosen to include are: the origin of chirality of protein amino acids, the origin of translation, and the origin of the genome. We conclude with some comments on one further aspect of the evolutionary process - the development of biodiversity - by considering the origin of the first eukaryotic cell, an event which, according to the fossil record, may have preceded the evolutionary radiation in the early

  2. Characterization of two distinct liver progenitor cell subpopulations of hematopoietic and hepatic origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcelle, V.; Stieger, B.; Gjinovci, A.; Wollheim, C.B.; Gauthier, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    Despite extensive studies, the hematopoietic versus hepatic origin of liver progenitor oval cells remains controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the origin of such cells after liver injury and to establish an oval cell line. Rat liver injury was induced by subcutaneous insertion of 2-AAF pellets for 7 days with subsequent injection of CCl 4 . Livers were removed 9 to 13 days post-CCl 4 treatment. Immunohistochemistry was performed using anti-c-kit, OV6, Thy1, CK19, AFP, vWF and Rab3b. Isolated non-parenchymal cells were grown on mouse embryonic fibroblast, and their gene expression profile was characterized by RT-PCR. We identified a subpopulation of OV6/CK19/Rab3b-expressing cells that was activated in the periportal region of traumatized livers. We also characterized a second subpopulation that expressed the HSCs marker c-kit but not Thy1. Although we successfully isolated both cell types, OV6/CK19/Rab3b + cells fail to propagate while c-kit + -HSCs appeared to proliferate for up to 7 weeks. Cells formed clusters which expressed c-kit, Thy1 and albumin. Our results indicate that a bona fide oval progenitor cell population resides within the liver and is distinct from c-kit + -HSCs. Oval cells require the hepatic niche to proliferate, while cells mobilized from the circulation proliferate and transdifferentiate into hepatocytes without evidence of cell fusion

  3. Honeydew Honeys: A Review on the Characterization and Authentication of Botanical and Geographical Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita-Calvo, Consuelo; Vázquez, Manuel

    2018-03-21

    The commercial interest in honeydew honeys (from the secretions of plants or the excretions of plant-sucking insects found on plants) is increasing because of their higher therapeutic properties compared with those of most blossom honeys (from nectar). However, honeydew honeys have been less studied than blossom honeys. In this work, studies carried out to characterize and authenticate honeydew honeys by their botanical and geographical origins have been reviewed. The identification of honey origins has been approached by two ways: by the analysis of chemical markers and by the development of analytical methodologies combined with multivariate analyses. Some compounds have been suggested as specific botanical markers of several honeydew honeys, such as quercitol and trans-oak lactone for oak honey, 2-aminoacetophenone and propylanisol for holm oak honey, and 1-chloro-octane and tridecane for pine honey. The presence of 3-carene and an unidentified compound in samples was proposed as a way discriminate between Greek and Turkish pine honeys. Chemometric analyses have been applied on chemical compositions and on physicochemical, microscopic, and spectral parameters and have proved to be valuable methods for authenticating honeydew honeys. Analytical methods based on spectral information are suitable for the routine control of honeydew-honey origins because they are fast and require easy sample preparations.

  4. Extraction, characterization and biological studies of phytochemicals from Mammea suriga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesha M. Poojary

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work involves extraction of phytochemicals from the root bark of a well-known Indian traditional medicinal plant, viz. Mammea suriga, with various solvents and evaluation of their in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities using standard methods. The phytochemical analysis indicates the presence of some interesting secondary metabolites like flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, saponins and tannins in the extracts. Also, the solvent extracts displayed promising antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Cryptococcus neoformans with inhibition zone in a range of 20–33 mm. Further, results of their antioxidant screening revealed that aqueous extract (with IC50 values of 111.51±1.03 and 31.05±0.92 μg/mL in total reducing power assay and DPHH radical scavenging assay, respectively and ethanolic extract (with IC50 values of 128.00±1.01 and 33.25±0.89 μg/mL in total reducing power assay and DPHH radical scavenging assay, respectively were better antioxidants than standard ascorbic acid. Interestingly, FT-IR analysis of each extract established the presence of various biologically active functional groups in it. Keywords: Mammea suriga, Phytochemical analysis, Antimicrobial activity, Antioxidant assay, FT-IR analysis

  5. Characterization of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) lectin for biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Ajay Kumar; Gupta, Neha; Narvekar, Dakshita T; Bhadkariya, Rajni; Bhagyawant, Sameer S

    2018-05-01

    Lectins are proteins that are subject of intense investigations. Information on lectin from chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) with respect to its biological activities are very limited. In this study, we purified lectin from the seeds of chickpea employing DEAE-cellulose and SP-Sephadex ion exchange chromatography and identified its molecular subunit mass as 35 kDa. The free radical scavenging activity of lectin measured by the DPPH assay has IC 50 of 0.88 µg/mL. Lectin exerted antifungal activity against Candida krusei , Fusarium oxysporium oxysporium , Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans , while antibacterial activity against E. coli , B. subtilis , S. marcescens and P. aeruginosa. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were 200, 240, 160 and 140 µg for C. krusei, F. oxysporium , S. cerevisiae and C. albicans respectively. Lectin was further examined for its antiproliferative potential against cancerous cell line. The cell viability assay indicated a high inhibition activity on Ishikawa, HepG2, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 with IC 50 value of 46.67, 44.20, 53.58 and 37.46 µg/mL respectively. These results can provide a background for future research into the benefits of chickpea lectin to pharmacological perspective.

  6. Expanding protein universe and its origin from the biological Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Shakhnovich, Boris; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2002-10-29

    The bottom-up approach to understanding the evolution of organisms is by studying molecular evolution. With the large number of protein structures identified in the past decades, we have discovered peculiar patterns that nature imprints on protein structural space in the course of evolution. In particular, we have discovered that the universe of protein structures is organized hierarchically into a scale-free network. By understanding the cause of these patterns, we attempt to glance at the very origin of life.

  7. Nanodiamond preparation and surface characterization for biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhams, Ben J.; Knowles, Helena S.; Kara, Dhiren M.; Atatüre, Mete; Bohndiek, Sarah E.

    2017-02-01

    Nanodiamonds contain stable fluorescent emitters and hence can be used for molecular fluorescence imaging and precision sensing of electromagnetic fields. The physical properties of these emitters together with their low reported cytotoxicity make them attractive for biological imaging applications. The controlled application of nanodiamonds for cellular imaging requires detailed understanding of surface chemistry, size ranges and aggregation, as these can all influence cellular interactions. We compared these characteristics for graphitic and oxidized nanodiamonds. Oxidation is generally used for surface functionalization, and was optimized by Thermogravimetric Analysis, achieved by 445+/-5°C heating in air for 5 hours, then confirmed via Raman and Infrared spectroscopies. Size ranges and aggregation were assessed using Atomic Force Microscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering. Biocompatibility in breast cancer cell lines was measured using a proliferation assay. Heating at 445+/-5°C reduced the Raman signal of graphitic carbon (1575 cm-1) as compared to that of diamond (1332 cm-1) from 0.31+/-0.07 Raman intensity units to 0.07+/-0.04. This temperature was substantially below the onset of major mass loss (observed at 535+/-1°C) and therefore achieved cost efficiency, convenience and high yield. Graphitic and oxidized nanodiamonds formed aggregates in water, with a mean particle size of 192+/-4nm and 166+/-2nm at a concentration of 66μg/mL. We then applied the graphitic and oxidized nanodiamonds to cells in culture at 1μg/mL and found no significant change in the proliferation rate (-5+/-2% and -1+/-3% respectively). Nanodiamonds may therefore be suitable for development as a novel transformative tool in the life sciences.

  8. Novel primary amine diazeniumdiolates-Chemical and biological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Melany P; Bradaric, Michael J; Pontikis, John; Cabai, Jonathan; Weyna, Theodore; Tednes, Patrick; Schretzman, Robert; Rickert, Karl; Cao, Zhao; Andrei, Daniela

    2018-05-02

    Hit, Lead & Candidate Discovery Diazeniumdiolates, also known as NONOates, are extensively used in biochemical, physiological, and pharmacological studies due to their ability to release nitric oxide (NO . ) and/or their congeneric nitroxyl (HNO). The purpose of this work was to synthesize a series of primary amine-based diazeniumdiolates as HNO/NO donors and to determine their efficacy as anticancer and antifungal agents in vivo. The seven compounds (3a-3g) were successfully synthesized and characterized, one of which had been previously reported in the literature (3g). Two compounds showed anti-proliferative effects against ovarian (ES2 and SKOV3) and AML monocyte-derived cancer cells (THP-1) when tested with standard MTT assays. Compounds 3a and 3g demonstrated reduced ovarian cancer cell proliferation when treated at doses from 0.033 to 1.0 mg/mL at the 24 hr time point. These compounds also exhibited moderate and selective antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, one cause of opportunistic infections of immunocompromised patients, inhibiting the growth of the fungi at LD 50 at 10 mg/mL. A third compound (3e) did not exhibit similar activities, possibly due to the alkyl chain. Our results suggest that the primary amine diazeniumdiolates may offer a versatile platform for the development of HNO/NO donors for biomedical applications. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. RIA of PGFsub(2α) and PGE2 in biological samples of different origin: comparison with the mass fragmentographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattabeni, F.; Borghi, C.; Folco, G.C.; Nicosia, S.; Spagnuolo, C.

    1979-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe some results obtained measuring PGFsub(2α) and PGE 2 with bioassay, RIA and mass fragmentography in samples of different biological origin such as rat brain cortex and human urine of normal subjects and patients with Bartter's Syndrome. The results reported here clearly indicate that the assay of PGFsub(2α) and PGE 2 require an accurate validation with different analytical techniques. In fact, RIA of PGFsub(2α) gave different results if the samples were of different origin. It can be concluded that all the methods today available for PGs measurements need to be accurately validated utilizing different assays and that this validation is required everytime the sample matrix is changed. (Auth.)

  10. Targeting paraprotein biosynthesis for non-invasive characterization of myeloma biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Lückerath

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Multiple myeloma is a hematologic malignancy originating from clonal plasma cells. Despite effective therapies, outcomes are highly variable suggesting marked disease heterogeneity. The role of functional imaging for therapeutic management of myeloma, such as positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2-[¹⁸F]fluoro-D-glucose (¹⁸F-FDG-PET, remains to be determined. Although some studies already suggested a prognostic value of ¹⁸F-FDG-PET, more specific tracers addressing hallmarks of myeloma biology, e.g. paraprotein biosynthesis, are needed. This study evaluated the amino acid tracers L-methyl-[¹¹C]-methionine (¹¹C-MET and [¹⁸F]-fluoroethyl-L-tyrosine ((¹⁸F-Fet for their potential to image myeloma and to characterize tumor heterogeneity. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To study the utility of ¹¹C-MET, ¹⁸F-Fet and ¹⁸F-FDG for myeloma imaging, time activity curves were compared in various human myeloma cell lines (INA-6, MM1.S, OPM-2 and correlated to cell-biological characteristics, such as marker gene expression and immunoglobulin levels. Likewise, patient-derived CD138⁺ plasma cells were characterized regarding uptake and biomedical features. RESULTS: Using myeloma cell lines and patient-derived CD138⁺ plasma cells, we found that the relative uptake of ¹¹C-MET exceeds that of ¹⁸F-FDG 1.5- to 5-fold and that of ¹⁸F-Fet 7- to 20-fold. Importantly, ¹¹C-MET uptake significantly differed between cell types associated with worse prognosis (e.g. t(4;14 in OPM-2 cells and indolent ones and correlated with intracellular immunoglobulin light chain and cell surface CD138 and CXCR4 levels. Direct comparison of radiotracer uptake in primary samples further validated the superiority of ¹¹C-MET. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that ¹¹C-MET might be a versatile biomarker for myeloma superior to routine functional imaging with ¹⁸F-FDG regarding diagnosis, risk stratification, prognosis and discrimination of tumor

  11. Quantum Dots: Proteomics characterization of the impact on biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi-Mucelli, Stefano; Boschi, F.; Calderan, L.; Sbarbati, A.; Osculati, F.

    2009-05-01

    Over the past few years, Quantum Dots have been tested in most biotechnological applications that use fluorescence, including DNA array technology, immunofluorescence assays, cell and animal biology. Quantum Dots tend to be brighter than conventional dyes, because of the compounded effects of extinction coefficients that are an order of magnitude larger than those of most dyes. Their main advantage resides in their resistance to bleaching over long periods of time (minutes to hours), allowing the acquisition of images that are crisp and well contrasted. This increased photostability is especially useful for three-dimensional (3D) optical sectioning, where a major issue is bleaching of fluorophores during acquisition of successive z-sections, which compromises the correct reconstruction of 3D structures. The long-term stability and brightness of Quantum Dots make them ideal candidates also for live animal targeting and imaging. The vast majority of the papers published to date have shown no relevant effects on cells viability at the concentration used for imaging applications; higher concentrations, however, caused some issues on embryonic development. Adverse effects are due to be caused by the release of cadmium, as surface PEGylation of the Quantum Dots reduces these issues. A recently published paper shows evidences of an epigenetic effect of Quantum Dots treatment, with general histones hypoacetylation, and a translocation to the nucleus of p53. In this study, mice treated with Quantum Dots for imaging purposes were analyzed to investigate the impact on protein expression and networking. Differential mono-and bidimensional electrophoresis assays were performed, with the individuation of differentially expressed proteins after intravenous injection and imaging analysis; further, as several authors indicate an increase in reactive oxygen species as a possible mean of damage due to the Quantum Dots treatment, we investigated the signalling pathway of APE1/Ref1, a

  12. Quantum Dots: Proteomics characterization of the impact on biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi-Mucelli, Stefano; Osculati, F; Boschi, F; Calderan, L; Sbarbati, A

    2009-01-01

    Over the past few years, Quantum Dots have been tested in most biotechnological applications that use fluorescence, including DNA array technology, immunofluorescence assays, cell and animal biology. Quantum Dots tend to be brighter than conventional dyes, because of the compounded effects of extinction coefficients that are an order of magnitude larger than those of most dyes. Their main advantage resides in their resistance to bleaching over long periods of time (minutes to hours), allowing the acquisition of images that are crisp and well contrasted. This increased photostability is especially useful for three-dimensional (3D) optical sectioning, where a major issue is bleaching of fluorophores during acquisition of successive z-sections, which compromises the correct reconstruction of 3D structures. The long-term stability and brightness of Quantum Dots make them ideal candidates also for live animal targeting and imaging. The vast majority of the papers published to date have shown no relevant effects on cells viability at the concentration used for imaging applications; higher concentrations, however, caused some issues on embryonic development. Adverse effects are due to be caused by the release of cadmium, as surface PEGylation of the Quantum Dots reduces these issues. A recently published paper shows evidences of an epigenetic effect of Quantum Dots treatment, with general histones hypoacetylation, and a translocation to the nucleus of p53. In this study, mice treated with Quantum Dots for imaging purposes were analyzed to investigate the impact on protein expression and networking. Differential mono-and bidimensional electrophoresis assays were performed, with the individuation of differentially expressed proteins after intravenous injection and imaging analysis; further, as several authors indicate an increase in reactive oxygen species as a possible mean of damage due to the Quantum Dots treatment, we investigated the signalling pathway of APE1/Ref1, a

  13. Characterization of calcium phosphate powders originating from Phyllacanthus imperialis and Trochidae Infundibulum concavus marine shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tămăşan, M.; Ozyegin, L.S.; Oktar, F.N.; Simon, V.

    2013-01-01

    The study reports the preparation and characterization of powders consisting of the different phases of calcium phosphates that were obtained from the naturally derived raw materials of sea-shell origins reacted with H 3 PO 4 . Species of sea origin, such as corals and nacres, attracted a special interest in bone tissue engineering area. Nacre shells are built up of calcium carbonate in aragonite form crystallized in an organic matrix. In this work two natural marine origin materials (shells of echinoderm Sputnik sea urchin — Phyllacanthus imperialis and Trochidae Infundibulum concavus mollusk) were involved in the developing powders of calcium phosphate based biomaterials (as raw materials for bone-scaffolds) by hotplate and ultrasound methods. Thermal analyses of the as-prepared materials were made for an assessment of the thermal behavior and heat treatment temperatures. Samples from both sea shells each of them prepared by the above mentioned methods were subjected to thermal treatments at 450 °C and 850 °C in order to evaluate the crystalline transformations of the calcium phosphate structures in the heating process. By X-ray diffraction analyses various calcium phosphate phases were identified. In Sputnik sea urchins originated samples were found predominantly brushite and calcite as a small secondary phase, while in Trochidae I. concavus samples mainly monetite and HA phases were identified. Thermal treatment at 850 °C resulted flat-plate whitlockite crystals — β-MgTCP [(Ca, Mg) 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ] for both samples regardless the preparation method (ultrasound or hotplate) or the targeted Ca/P molar ratio according with XRD patterns. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy were involved more in the characterization of these materials and the good correlations of the results of these methods were made. - Highlights: ► Calcium phosphate powders are obtained from the crushed shells of 2 “marine” species and H 3 PO 4

  14. Characterization of calcium phosphate powders originating from Phyllacanthus imperialis and Trochidae Infundibulum concavus marine shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tămăşan, M., E-mail: monica.tamasan@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics and Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Ozyegin, L.S. [Marmara University, Istanbul (Turkey); Oktar, F.N. [Marmara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Bioengineering, Göztepe Campus, Kadıköy 34722, Istanbul (Turkey); Marmara University, School of Health Related Professions, Department of Medical Imaging Technics, Haydarpaşa Campus, Tıbbiye Street, 49, Üsküdar 34668, Istanbul (Turkey); Marmara University, Nanotechnology and Biomaterials Application and Research Centre, Göztepe Campus, Kadıköy 34722, Istanbul (Turkey); Simon, V. [Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics and Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-07-01

    The study reports the preparation and characterization of powders consisting of the different phases of calcium phosphates that were obtained from the naturally derived raw materials of sea-shell origins reacted with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. Species of sea origin, such as corals and nacres, attracted a special interest in bone tissue engineering area. Nacre shells are built up of calcium carbonate in aragonite form crystallized in an organic matrix. In this work two natural marine origin materials (shells of echinoderm Sputnik sea urchin — Phyllacanthus imperialis and Trochidae Infundibulum concavus mollusk) were involved in the developing powders of calcium phosphate based biomaterials (as raw materials for bone-scaffolds) by hotplate and ultrasound methods. Thermal analyses of the as-prepared materials were made for an assessment of the thermal behavior and heat treatment temperatures. Samples from both sea shells each of them prepared by the above mentioned methods were subjected to thermal treatments at 450 °C and 850 °C in order to evaluate the crystalline transformations of the calcium phosphate structures in the heating process. By X-ray diffraction analyses various calcium phosphate phases were identified. In Sputnik sea urchins originated samples were found predominantly brushite and calcite as a small secondary phase, while in Trochidae I. concavus samples mainly monetite and HA phases were identified. Thermal treatment at 850 °C resulted flat-plate whitlockite crystals — β-MgTCP [(Ca, Mg){sub 3} (PO{sub 4}){sub 2}] for both samples regardless the preparation method (ultrasound or hotplate) or the targeted Ca/P molar ratio according with XRD patterns. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy were involved more in the characterization of these materials and the good correlations of the results of these methods were made. - Highlights: ► Calcium phosphate powders are obtained from the crushed shells of 2

  15. Bioluminescence in the Ocean: Origins of Biological, Chemical, and Ecological Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widder, E. A.

    2010-05-01

    From bacteria to fish, a remarkable variety of marine life depends on bioluminescence (the chemical generation of light) for finding food, attracting mates, and evading predators. Disparate biochemical systems and diverse phylogenetic distribution patterns of light-emitting organisms highlight the ecological benefits of bioluminescence, with biochemical and genetic analyses providing new insights into the mechanisms of its evolution. The origins and functions of some bioluminescent systems, however, remain obscure. Here, I review recent advances in understanding bioluminescence in the ocean and highlight future research efforts that will unite molecular details with ecological and evolutionary relationships.

  16. Pyridinoacridine alkaloids of marine origin: NMR and MS spectral data, synthesis, biosynthesis and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis P. Sandjo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on pyridoacridine-related metabolites as one biologically interesting group of alkaloids identified from marine sources. They are produced by marine sponges, ascidians and tunicates, and they are structurally comprised of four to eight fused rings including heterocycles. Acridine, acridone, dihydroacridine, and quinolone cores are features regularly found in these alkaloid skeletons. The lack of hydrogen atoms next to quaternary carbon atoms for two or three rings makes the chemical shift assignment a difficult task. In this regard, one of the aims of this review is the compilation of previously reported, pyridoacridine 13C NMR data. Observations have been made on the delocalization of electrons and the presence of some functional groups that lead to changes in the chemical shift of some carbon resonances. The lack of mass spectra information for these alkaloids due to the compactness of their structures is further discussed. Moreover, the biosynthetic pathways of some of these metabolites have been shown since they could inspire biomimetic synthesis. The synthesis routes used to prepare members of these marine alkaloids (as well as their analogues, which are synthesized for biological purposes are also discussed. Pyridoacridines were found to have a large spectrum of bioactivity and this review highlights and compares the pharmacophores that are responsible for the observed bioactivity.

  17. Metabolic disposition and biological significance of simple phenols of dietary origin: hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Boronat, Anna; Kotronoulas, Aristotelis; Pujadas, Mitona; Pastor, Antoni; Olesti, Eulalia; Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Khymenets, Olha; Fitó, Montserrat; Farré, Magí; de la Torre, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol are dietary phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil and wine. Both compounds are also endogenously synthesized in our body as byproducts of dopamine and tyramine metabolisms, respectively. Over the last decades, research into hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol has experienced an increasing interest due to the role that these compounds may play in the prevention of certain pathologies (e.g. cardiovascular, metabolic, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer). The translation of promising in vitro and in vivo biological effects from preclinical studies to the context of human disease prevention initially depends on whether the dose ingested becomes available at the site of action. In this regard, information regarding the bioavailability and metabolic disposition of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol is of most importance to evaluate the impact they may have on human health. In this review, we discuss and summarize the state of the art of the scientific evidence regarding the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of both hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. We also examine the impact of these compounds and their metabolites on biological activity in terms of beneficial health effects. Finally, we evaluate the different analytical approaches that have been developed to measure the plasma and urinary levels of hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and their metabolites.

  18. Adjustment and Characterization of an Original Model of Chronic Ischemic Heart Failure in Pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Barandon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present and characterize an original experimental model to create a chronic ischemic heart failure in pig. Two ameroid constrictors were placed around the LAD and the circumflex artery. Two months after surgery, pigs presented a poor LV function associated with a severe mitral valve insufficiency. Echocardiography analysis showed substantial anomalies in radial and circumferential deformations, both on the anterior and lateral surface of the heart. These anomalies in function were coupled with anomalies of perfusion observed in echocardiography after injection of contrast medium. No demonstration of myocardial infarction was observed with histological analysis. Our findings suggest that we were able to create and to stabilize a chronic ischemic heart failure model in the pig. This model represents a useful tool for the development of new medical or surgical treatment in this field.

  19. Primary intraosseous smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential: original report and molecular characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Kropp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of primary intraosseous smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP which is analogous to borderline malignant uterine smooth muscle tumors so designated. The tumor presented in the femur of an otherwise healthy 30-year-old woman. Over a 3-year period, the patient underwent 11 biopsies or resections and 2 cytologic procedures. Multiple pathologists reviewed the histologic material including musculoskeletal pathologists but could not reach a definitive diagnosis. However, metastases eventually developed and were rapidly progressive and responsive to gemcitabine and docetaxel. Molecular characterization and ultrastructural analysis was consistent with smooth muscle origin, and amplification of unmutated chromosome 12p and 12q segments appears to be the major genomic driver of this tumor. Primary intraosseous STUMP is thought to be genetically related to leiomyosarcoma of bone, but likely representing an earlier stage of carcinogenesis. Wide excision and aggressive followup is warranted for this potentially life-threatening neoplasm.

  20. Primary Intraosseous Smooth Muscle Tumor of Uncertain Malignant Potential: Original Report and Molecular Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, Lauren; Siegal, Gene P; Frampton, Garrett M; Rodriguez, Michael G; McKee, Svetlana; Conry, Robert M

    2016-11-17

    We report the first case of primary intraosseous smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) which is analogous to borderline malignant uterine smooth muscle tumors so designated. The tumor presented in the femur of an otherwise healthy 30-year-old woman. Over a 3-year period, the patient underwent 11 biopsies or resections and 2 cytologic procedures. Multiple pathologists reviewed the histologic material including musculoskeletal pathologists but could not reach a definitive diagnosis. However, metastases eventually developed and were rapidly progressive and responsive to gemcitabine and docetaxel. Molecular characterization and ultrastructural analysis was consistent with smooth muscle origin, and amplification of unmutated chromosome 12p and 12q segments appears to be the major genomic driver of this tumor. Primary intraosseous STUMP is thought to be genetically related to leiomyosarcoma of bone, but likely representing an earlier stage of carcinogenesis. Wide excision and aggressive follow-up is warranted for this potentially life-threatening neoplasm.

  1. Characterization of the adenoassociated virus Rep protein complex formed on the viral origin of DNA replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zengi; Brister, J. Rodney; Im, Dong-Soo; Muzyczka, Nicholas

    2003-01-01

    Interaction between the adenoassociated virus (AAV) replication proteins, Rep68 and 78, and the viral terminal repeats (TRs) is mediated by a DNA sequence termed the Rep-binding element (RBE). This element is necessary for Rep-mediated unwinding of duplex DNA substrates, directs Rep catalyzed cleavage of the AAV origin of DNA replication, and is required for viral transcription and proviral integration. Six discrete Rep complexes with the AAV TR substrates have been observed in vitro, and cross-linking studies suggest these complexes contain one to six molecules of Rep. However, the functional relationship between Rep oligomerization and biochemical activity is unclear. Here we have characterized Rep complexes that form on the AAV TR. Both Rep68 and Rep78 appear to form the same six complexes with the AAV TR, and ATP seems to stimulate formation of specific, higher order complexes. When the sizes of these Rep complexes were estimated on native polyacrylamide gels, the four slower migrating complexes were larger than predicted by an amount equivalent to one or two TRs. To resolve this discrepancy, the molar ratio of protein and DNA was calculated for the three largest complexes. Data from these experiments indicated that the larger complexes included multiple TRs in addition to multiple Rep molecules and that the Rep-to-TR ratio was approximately 2. The two largest complexes were also associated with increased Rep-mediated, origin cleavage activity. Finally, we characterized a second, Rep-mediated cleavage event that occurs adjacent to the normal nicking site, but on the opposite strand. This second site nicking event effectively results in double-stranded DNA cleavage at the normal nicking site

  2. Antioxidant Activity of a Geopropolis from Northeast Brazil: Chemical Characterization and Likely Botanical Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joselena M; Fernandes-Silva, Caroline C; Salatino, Antonio; Message, Dejair; Negri, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    Geopropolis is a product containing wax, plant resin, and soil particles. It is elaborated by stingless bees of tribe Meliponini. Methanol extracts of sample of geopropolis produced by Scaptotrigona postica ("mandaguari") in the state of Rio Grande do Norte (RN, northeast Brazil) were analyzed for the determination of standard parameters (total phenols, total flavonoids, and radical scavenging activity) and chemical characterization by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis. The sample analyzed has high contents of total phenols and flavonoids, as well as high antioxidant activity. The constituents characterized were mainly flavonols, such as quercetin methyl ethers, and methoxychalcones. Such chemical profile is similar to the composition of a green propolis from the same area of RN, which is produced by Africanized Apis mellifera , using shoot apices of Mimosa tenuiflora , popularly known as "jurema-preta." This finding provides evidence that "mandaguari" geopropolis and honeybee propolis have the same botanical origin in RN. The sharing of a plant resin source by phylogenetically distant bees (Apinae and Meliponinae) suggests that bee genetic factors play little role in the choice of plants for resin collection and that the availability of potential botanical sources plays a decisive role.

  3. Characterization, origin and aggregation behavior of colloids in eutrophic shallow lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huacheng; Xu, Mengwen; Li, Yani; Liu, Xin; Guo, Laodong; Jiang, Helong

    2018-05-31

    Stability of colloidal particles contributes to the turbidity in the water column, which significantly influences water quality and ecological functions in aquatic environments especially shallow lakes. Here we report characterization, origin and aggregation behavior of aquatic colloids, including natural colloidal particles (NCPs) and total inorganic colloidal particles (TICPs), in a highly turbid shallow lake, via field observations, simulation experiments, ultrafiltration, spectral and microscopic, and light scattering techniques. The colloidal particles were characterized with various shapes (spherical, polygonal and elliptical) and aluminum-, silicon-, and ferric-containing mineralogical structures, with a size range of 20-200 nm. The process of sediment re-suspension under environmentally relevant conditions contributed 78-80% of TICPs and 54-55% of NCPs in Lake Taihu, representing an important source of colloids in the water column. Both mono- and divalent electrolytes enhanced colloidal aggregation, while a reverse trend was observed in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). The influence of NOM on colloidal stability was highly related to molecular weight (MW) properties with the high MW fraction exhibiting higher stability efficiency than the low MW counterparts. However, the MW-dependent aggregation behavior for NCPs was less significant than that for TICPs, implying that previous results on colloidal behavior using model inorganic colloids alone should be reevaluated. Further studies are needed to better understand the mobility/stability and transformation of aquatic colloids and their role in governing the fate and transport of pollutants in natural waters. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Biological origins of sexual orientation and gender identity: Impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlan, Katherine A; Gordon, Jennifer C; Sullivan, Mackenzie W

    2018-04-01

    Gynecologic Oncologists are sometimes consulted to care for patients who present with diverse gender identities or sexual orientations. Clinicians can create more helpful relationships with their patients if they understand the etiologies of these diverse expressions of sexual humanity. Multidisciplinary evidence reveals that a sexually dimorphic spectrum of somatic and neurologic anatomy, traits and abilities, including sexual orientation and gender identity, are conferred together during the first half of pregnancy due to genetics, epigenetics and the diversity of timing and function of sex chromosomes, sex-determining protein secretion, gonadal hormone secretion, receptor levels, adrenal function, maternally ingested dietary hormones, fetal health, and many other factors. Multiple layers of evidence confirm that sexual orientation and gender identity are as biological, innate and immutable as the other traits conferred during that critical time in gestation. Negative social responses to diverse orientations or gender identities have caused marginalization of these individuals with resultant alienation from medical care, reduced self-care and reduced access to medical care. The increased risks for many diseases, including gynecologic cancers are reviewed. Gynecologic Oncologists can potentially create more effective healthcare relationships with their patients if they have this information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevention of the bad dry of the malanga by treatment of natural, biological origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Chamizo Nicao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important causes of the decrease of yields in taro crops (Xanthosoma spp. isthe roots rot caused by soil fungi (Bad dry which it’s propagated by the agamic seed used as propagules. One of the most important measures to prevent it is the use of “in vitro” plants free of fungi. In this research was studied the incorporation of several natural and biological products in the plots employed to acclimatize the “invitro” plants. Were evaluated: Trichoderma harzianum, Chitosan, and lobster shell ( Panulirus argus (Latreilleand as control Mancozeb. The taro cultivars employed were Blanca INIVIT and Blanca Venegas, considerate as intermediated and susceptible respectively. Each plot was inoculated with propagules of Sclerotium rolsfii (Sacc.. In order to infer the action mechanism was conducted susceptible tests under “in vitro” conditions. The results showed that the most susceptible cultivar was Blanca Venegas. All treatments decrease the incidence of dry rot, among these. T. harzianum produced the highest effect, antagonist capacity and antagonist effect type. The Chitosan and the lobster shell do not showed antifungal direct effect and probably act for stimulation of the protein synthesis related with the pathogenesis or structural barrier of defense in natural conditions.

  6. Reduction theories elucidate the origins of complex biological rhythms generated by interacting delay-induced oscillations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuhiro Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available Time delay is known to induce sustained oscillations in many biological systems such as electroencephalogram (EEG activities and gene regulations. Furthermore, interactions among delay-induced oscillations can generate complex collective rhythms, which play important functional roles. However, due to their intrinsic infinite dimensionality, theoretical analysis of interacting delay-induced oscillations has been limited. Here, we show that the two primary methods for finite-dimensional limit cycles, namely, the center manifold reduction in the vicinity of the Hopf bifurcation and the phase reduction for weak interactions, can successfully be applied to interacting infinite-dimensional delay-induced oscillations. We systematically derive the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation and the phase equation without delay for general interaction networks. Based on the reduced low-dimensional equations, we demonstrate that diffusive (linearly attractive coupling between a pair of delay-induced oscillations can exhibit nontrivial amplitude death and multimodal phase locking. Our analysis provides unique insights into experimentally observed EEG activities such as sudden transitions among different phase-locked states and occurrence of epileptic seizures.

  7. Reproductive biology of the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas in its center of origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Rabanales, Manuel; Vargas-López, Laura I.; Adriano-Anaya, Lourdes; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we studied the main characteristics of flowering, reproductive system and diversity of pollinators for the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas (L.) in a site of tropical southeastern Mexico, within its center of origin. The plants were monoecious with inflorescences of unisexual flowers. The male flowers produced from 3062–5016 pollen grains (266–647 per anther). The plants produced fruits with both geitonogamy and xenogamy, although insect pollination significantly increased the number and quality of fruits. A high diversity of flower visiting insects (36 species) was found, of which nine were classified as efficient pollinators. The native stingless bees Scaptotrigona mexicana (Guérin-Meneville) and Trigona (Tetragonisca) angustula (Latreille) were the most frequent visitors and their presence coincided with the hours when the stigma was receptive. It is noteworthy that the female flowers open before the male flowers, favoring xenogamy, which may explain the high genetic variability reported in J. curcas for this region of the world. PMID:26989640

  8. THE CHARACTERIZATION OF DIDACTIC SPEECH OF A BIOLOGY TEACHER AND HIS INFLUENCE IN THE MOTIVATION OF STUDENTS FOR BIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Bejarano Beltrán

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pedagogic practice is the staging of knowledge for consideration and recognition of acquired understanding in the academic and personal level that took place in the Commercial Technical School Manuela Beltran, showing that students present lack of motivation to learn Biology , which is expressed in the limited relationship between reality, scientific concepts together with the technical language. The experiments and innovation are left aside. This is why there is a question in relation to the didactic speech and motivation of seventh and eighth grade students towards Biology. In this way the didactic speech of the teacher has been characterized to allow the identification of elements that facilitate the teaching in terms of motivation. In the same way the space for recognizing the factors that generate in the students pleasure for the subject given, in which the games, the participation and the experiments were aspects that they will like to have in their classes. The present investigation had and interpretative paradigm and a qualitative perspective, such instruments like the nonparticipant observation,six recordings of Biology classes making analyses of information units where categories emerged, as well as a questionnaire applied to 25 students.

  9. Characterization and biological depectinization of hemp fibers originating from different stem sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Fernando, Dinesh; Meyer, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    The wide variation of mechanical properties of natural fibers limits their applications in matrix compos-ites. The aim of this study is to evaluate the properties of hemp fibers from different stem sections (top,middle and bottom) and to assess fungal retting pretreatment of hemp from different...... stem sections withthe white rot fungi Phlebia radiata Cel 26 and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. For the untreated hemp fibers,no apparent difference in tensile behavior for fiber bundles from different stem sections was observed,and more than 90% tested samples demonstrated plastic flow behavior. Fiber...... strength and stiffness werehighest for the fibers from the top and middle stem sections. These properties were related to the compositional make up and morphological properties of hemp fibers, notably the secondary fiber cell contents.In fungal retting, there was a strong dependence of depectinization...

  10. Characterization of chiral amino acids from different milk origins using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ion-mobility mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, He; Zheng, Nan; Li, Songli; Zhang, Yangdong; Zhao, Shengguo; Wen, Fang; Wang, Jiaqi

    2017-04-01

    Milk contains free amino acids (AAs) that play essential roles in maintaining the growth and health of infants, and D-AA isomers are increasingly being recognized as important signalling molecules. However, there are no studies of the different characteristics of chiral AA (C-AA) from different milk origins. Here, UPLC coupled to ion-mobility high-resolution MS (IM-HRMS) was employed to characterize 18 pairs of C-AAs in human, cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk. The results proved that milk origins can be differentiated based on the D- to L- AA ratio-based projection scores by principal component analysis. The present study gives a deeper understanding of the D- to L- AA ratio underlying the biological functions of different animal milks, and provide a new strategy for the study of AA metabolic pathways.

  11. Application of the BIOLOG system for characterization of Serratia marcescens ss marcescens isolated from onsite wastewater technology (OSWT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojniak, Joanna; Jałowiecki, Łukasz; Dorgeloh, Elmar; Hegedusova, Berta; Ejhed, Helene; Magnér, Jörgen; Płaza, Grażyna

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study was to apply the Biolog system to identify and characterize a Serratia strain isolated from the surface of black plastic pieces which constitute the fluidized bed filter (onsite wastewater technology, OSWT). The preliminary isolation of the strain was done in the medium with tetracycline at a 16 mg/l concentration. To characterize the isolated strain, the following Biolog methods were applied: (1) EcoPlates microplates for evaluation of physiological profiling, (2) GEN III OmniLog® ID System for identification of the isolate, and (3) phenotypic microarrays (PM) technology for evaluation of sensitivity to antibiotics (PM11 and PM12). Results were recorded using the original OmniLog® software. The Serratia strain was identified as Serratia marcescens ss marcescens with similarity index 0.569. The same identification was obtained by the 16S rDNA analysis. PM analysis showed an enhancement of phenotype (resistance or growth) of this strain to 35 antibiotics. The loss of phenotype (sensitivity or non-growth) was observed only for 5 antibiotics: lomefloxacin (0.4 µg/ml), enoxacin (0.9 µg/ml), nalidixic acid (18.0 µg/ml), paromomycin (25.0 µg/ml) and novobiocin (1100 µg/ml). This study acknowledges that the methods proposed by the Biolog system allow correct and complete identification and characterization of the microbes isolated from different environments. Phenotypic microarrays could be successfully used as a new tool for identification of the multi-antibiotic resistance of bacteria and for determination of the minimal inhibition concentrations (MIC).

  12. Sensory, chemical and morphological characterization of Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita moschata genotypes from different geographical origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pevicharova Galina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita spp. is one of the most important vegetable crops in the world. They are characterized by great polymorphism according plants and fruits traits. The fruits are consumed in different ways as boiled, baked, dried or processed in puree and juice. The aim of the study was to assess variation of fruit sensory, chemical and morphological characteristics of Cucurbita genotypes in order to find appropriate parental components for the future high quality breeding programme. During 2-year period nine winter squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. and three pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch. genotypes originating from different geographical regions were tested on their morphological characters, basic chemical components and sensory profile. Cluster analysis and Principle component analysis were applied in order to identify similarities of different genotypes. According to the fruit characteristics and plant habitus significant differences were recorded. Considerable variation in the content of dry matter, ascorbic acid, total sugars, total pigments, beta-carotene and sensory assessment of the boiled fruits was established. Accession Moskatna carotina had the best flavour and chemical composition. The studied Cucurbita genotypes are a good basis for performing a breeding program to improve the sensory quality of fruits and increase basic chemical components especially those with antioxidant effect.

  13. A look at the origin of information science: evidence for identity characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathas Luiz Carvalho Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Discusses social foundations, scientific and everyday that have given rise to the advent of Information Science, in order to conceive their identity characteristics. Problematológica The condition of this work can be synthesized from the following question: What are the direct factors and / or indirect that have given rise to the emergence of information science? What are the influences of these factors for the construction and characterization of the identity of Information Science? It aims to discuss the various social phenomena, academic and scientific directly and / or indirectly promoted the rise of information science. Methodologically, the article presents an exploratory research in the context of historical research through a literature review. It concludes that several factors helped the origin and foundation of Information Science showing its characteristic of postmodern science, it is possible to observe various features of identity from the elements that gave rise to flow of information science, such as historical identity (relationship of Library and Information Science, identity design (Documentation of Otlet and La Fontaine; shared identity (U.S. contribution to the European continent and the creation of the Information Science and institutional identity (creation of associations in Information Science.

  14. Molecular Characterization of Salmonella from Human and Animal Origins in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagirita, Atek Atwiine; Owalla, Tonny Jimmy; Majalija, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic Salmonella outbreaks with varying clinical presentations have been on the rise in various parts of Uganda. The sources of outbreaks and factors underlying the different clinical manifestation are curtailed by paucity of information on Salmonella genotypes and the associated virulence genes. This study reports molecular diversity of Salmonella enterica and their genetic virulence profiles among human and animal isolates. Characterization was done using Kauffman-White classification scheme and virulence genes analysis using multiplex PCR. Overall, 52% of the isolates belonged to serogroup D, 16% to serogroup E, 15% to poly F, H-S, and 12% to serogroup B. Serogroups A, C1, and C2 each consisted of only one isolate representing 5%. Virulence genes located on SPI-1 [spaN and sipB] and on SPI-2 [spiA] in addition to pagC and msgA were equally distributed in isolates obtained from all sources. Plasmid encoded virulence gene spvB was found in <5% of isolates from both human epidemic and animal origins whereas it occurred in 80% of clinical isolates. This study reveals that serogroup D is the predominant Salmonella serogroup in circulation and it is widely shared among animals and humans and calls for joint and coordinated surveillance for one health implementation in Uganda. PMID:28634597

  15. Magnetic Characterization of Sand and Boulder Samples from Citarum River and Their Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarningsih

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Citarum River is a nationally strategic river located near Bandung, the capital city of West Java Province. The feasibility of using magnetic methods for monitoring pollution level is currently being tested in the river. Due to its location in a volcanic area, the sediments from the river are expected to be highly magnetic. In this study, sand and boulder samples from Balekambang, a relatively pristine upstream area of the river, were subjected to magnetic and geochemical characterizations to establish the baseline for unpolluted sediments. Such baseline is important for future magnetic monitoring of sediments in the river. The mass-specific magnetic susceptibility of boulder samples was found to be varied from 819.2 to 2340.5 × 10-8m3 kg-1 while that of sand samples varied from 2293.9 to 3845.3 × 10-8m3 kg-1. These high magnetic susceptibility values infer that river sediments are highly magnetic even before being contaminated by industrial and household wastes. The predominant magnetic mineral in sand samples was multi-domain magnetite while that in boulder samples was single to pseudo-single domain magnetite. These differences were supported by the results from petrographic and XRF analyses, implying that the sand and boulder samples originated from different geological formations.

  16. Characterizing bread wheat genotypes of Pakistani origin for grain zinc biofortification potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Abdul; Farooq, Muhammad; Nawaz, Ahmad; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Al-Hashmi, Khalid S; Nadeem, Faisal; Ullah, Aman

    2018-03-15

    Zinc (Zn) is essential for all life forms and its deficiency is a major issue of malnutrition in humans. This study was carried out to characterize 28 wheat genotypes of Pakistani origin for grain zinc biofortification potential, genetic diversity and relatedness. There was low genetic differentiation among the tested genotypes. However, they differed greatly in yield-related traits, grain mineral (Zn, calcium (Ca) and protein) concentrations and Zn bioavailability. Zinc application increased the concentration of Zn in wheat grain (32.1%), embryo (19.8%), aleurone (47%) and endosperm (23.7%), with an increase in bioavailable Zn (22.2%) and a reduction in phytate concentration (6.8%). Application of Zn also enhanced grain protein and Ca concentrations. Among wheat genotypes, Blue Silver had the highest concentration of Zn in grain, embryo, aleurone and endosperm, with high bioavailable Zn, while Kohinoor-83 had low phytate concentration. Wheat genotypes of Pakistan are genetically less diverse owing to continuous focus on the development of high-yielding varieties only. Therefore genetically diverse wheat genotypes with high endospermic Zn concentration and better grain yield should be used in breeding programs approaches, aiming at improving Zn bioavailability. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Gene expression analysis of zebrafish melanocytes, iridophores, and retinal pigmented epithelium reveals indicators of biological function and developmental origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W Higdon

    Full Text Available In order to facilitate understanding of pigment cell biology, we developed a method to concomitantly purify melanocytes, iridophores, and retinal pigmented epithelium from zebrafish, and analyzed their transcriptomes. Comparing expression data from these cell types and whole embryos allowed us to reveal gene expression co-enrichment in melanocytes and retinal pigmented epithelium, as well as in melanocytes and iridophores. We found 214 genes co-enriched in melanocytes and retinal pigmented epithelium, indicating the shared functions of melanin-producing cells. We found 62 genes significantly co-enriched in melanocytes and iridophores, illustrative of their shared developmental origins from the neural crest. This is also the first analysis of the iridophore transcriptome. Gene expression analysis for iridophores revealed extensive enrichment of specific enzymes to coordinate production of their guanine-based reflective pigment. We speculate the coordinated upregulation of specific enzymes from several metabolic pathways recycles the rate-limiting substrate for purine synthesis, phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate, thus constituting a guanine cycle. The purification procedure and expression analysis described here, along with the accompanying transcriptome-wide expression data, provide the first mRNA sequencing data for multiple purified zebrafish pigment cell types, and will be a useful resource for further studies of pigment cell biology.

  18. Embryological origin of the endocardium and derived valve progenitor cells: from developmental biology to stem cell-based valve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucéat, Michel

    2013-04-01

    The cardiac valves are targets of both congenital and acquired diseases. The formation of valves during embryogenesis (i.e., valvulogenesis) originates from endocardial cells lining the myocardium. These cells undergo an endothelial-mesenchymal transition, proliferate and migrate within an extracellular matrix. This leads to the formation of bilateral cardiac cushions in both the atrioventricular canal and the outflow tract. The embryonic origin of both the endocardium and prospective valve cells is still elusive. Endocardial and myocardial lineages are segregated early during embryogenesis and such a cell fate decision can be recapitulated in vitro by embryonic stem cells (ESC). Besides genetically modified mice and ex vivo heart explants, ESCs provide a cellular model to study the early steps of valve development and might constitute a human therapeutic cell source for decellularized tissue-engineered valves. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Cardiac Pathways of Differentiation, Metabolism and Contraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis, Physical Characterization and Biological Activity of Some Schiff Base Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rajavel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural modification of organic molecule has considerable biological relevance. Further, coordination of a biomolecules to the metal ions significantly alters the effectiveness of the biomolecules. In view of the antimicrobial activity ligand [bis-(2-aminobenzaldehyde] malonoyl dihydrazone], metal complexes with Cu(II, Ni(II, Zn(II and oxovanadium(IV have been synthesized and found to be potential antimicrobial agents. An attempt is also made to correlate the biological activities with geometry of the complexes. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, spectra and cyclicvoltammetric measurements. The structural assessment of the complexes has been carried out based on electronic, infrared and molar conductivity values.

  20. Characterization of the corrosion resistance of biologically active solutions: The effects of anodizing and welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Daniel W.

    1991-01-01

    An understanding of fabrication processes, metallurgy, electrochemistry, and microbiology is crucial to the resolution of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) problems. The object of this effort was to use AC impedance spectroscopy to characterize the corrosion resistance of Type II anodized aluminum alloy 2219-T87 in sterile and biologically active media and to examine the corrosion resistance of 316L, alloy 2219-T87, and titanium alloy 6-4 in the welded and unwelded conditions. The latter materials were immersed in sterile and biologically active media and corrosion currents were measured using the polarization resistance (DC) technique.

  1. The Effect of Temperature, Potato Varieties, and The Origin Of Cyst on The Reproductive Biology of Globodera rostochiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurjanah Nurjanah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis [Wollenweber] Behrens is a nematode species of worldwide regulatory concern. This nematode caused serious economic of potato losses in Indonesia. This research studied by factorial designed to evaluated the effect of temperature (10, 20, and 30ºC, potato varieties (`Granola´, `Margahayu´, and `Cipanas´, and origin of cyst (West, Central, and East Java on reproductive biology of G. rostochiensis in the growth chamber. The research was conducted by observed of produced the new cyst number, reproduction fitness, survival, fecundity, and multiplication of G. rostochiensis. The result showed that all of the potato varieties were infected by G. rostochiensis when they were grown at the temperature ranging of 20 and 30ºC but not at 10ºC. The optimum temperature for maximum number of cysts with the highest reproduction factor, survival, fecundity and multiplication rate for all populations was 20ºC. The origin of cyst did not have any effect on the reproductive rate. The temperature of 20ºC provided is best environment for the life of G. rostochiensis on Granola.   INTISARI Nematoda sista kentang (Globodera rostochiensis [Wollenweber] Behrens adalah spesies nematoda yang mendapatkan perhatian khusus di seluruh dunia. G. rostochiensis menyebabkan kerugian ekonomi yang serius pada pertanaman kentang di Indonesia. Penelitian ini menguji pengaruh perbedaan suhu (10, 20, dan 30ºC, varietas kentang (Granola, Cipanas, dan Margahayu, dan asal sista (Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, dan Jawa Timur terhadap biologi reproduksi G. rostochiensis di growth chamber menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap jumlah sista baru, kemampuan reproduksi, daya tahan hidup, keperidian dan multiplikasi G. rostochiensis. Seluruh varietas kentang yang diuji terserang G. rostochiensis pada suhu 20 dan 30ºC kecuali pada suhu 10ºC. Kisaran suhu optimum untuk memperoleh jumlah sista baru yang maksimum

  2. Efficient high-throughput biological process characterization: Definitive screening design with the ambr250 bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Mitchell; Ly, Amanda; Leung, Inne; Nayar, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    The burgeoning pipeline for new biologic drugs has increased the need for high-throughput process characterization to efficiently use process development resources. Breakthroughs in highly automated and parallelized upstream process development have led to technologies such as the 250-mL automated mini bioreactor (ambr250™) system. Furthermore, developments in modern design of experiments (DoE) have promoted the use of definitive screening design (DSD) as an efficient method to combine factor screening and characterization. Here we utilize the 24-bioreactor ambr250™ system with 10-factor DSD to demonstrate a systematic experimental workflow to efficiently characterize an Escherichia coli (E. coli) fermentation process for recombinant protein production. The generated process model is further validated by laboratory-scale experiments and shows how the strategy is useful for quality by design (QbD) approaches to control strategies for late-stage characterization. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Rhodamine B-ethylenediamine-hyaluronan Acid as Potential Biological Functional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. L.; Wang, W. X.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, W. B.; Gong, H. M.; Liu, M. X.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to synthesize and characterize fluorescent polymers, rhodamine B-ethylenediamine-hyaluronan acid (RhB-EA-HA). RhB-EA-HA was successfully synthesized by ester ammonolysis reaction and amidation reaction. Moreover, the structural properties of RhB-EA-HA were characterized by 1H-NMR spectra, UV-vis spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). RhB-EA-HA can be grafted on the surface of silica nanomaterials, which may be potential biological functional materials for drug delivery system.

  4. Preparation and Characterization Challenges to Understanding Environmental and Biological Impacts of Ceria Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakoti, Ajay S.; Munusamy, Prabhakaran; Hostetler, Kasey E.; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Orr, Galya; Pounds, Joel G.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Thrall, Brian D.; Baer, Donald R.

    2012-08-01

    It has been increasingly recognized that understanding and predicting the behaviors of nanoparticles is often limited by the degree to which the particles can be reliably produced and are adequately characterized. Examining data from the literature for ceria nanoparticles suggests that thermal history is one factor that has a strong influence on biological impact. Thermal processing may alter many physicochemical properties of the particles including density, crystal structure and the presence of surface contamination, but these may not be sufficiently recorded or reported to determine the ultimate source of an observed impact. A second example shows the types of difficulties that can be encountered in efforts to apply a well-studied synthesis route to producing well defined particles for biological studies. These examples and others highlight the importance of characterizing particles thoroughly and recording details of particle processing and history that are often not recorded and/or reported.

  5. The characterization of exosomes from biological fluids of patients with different types of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusova, N. V.; Tamkovich, S. N.; Stakheeva, M. N.; Grigor'eva, A. A.; Somov, A. K.; Tugutova, E. A.; Kolomiets, L. A.; Molchanov, S. V.; Afanas'ev, S. G.; Kakurina, G. V.; Choinzonov, E. L.; Kondakova, I. V.

    2017-09-01

    Exosomes are extracellular membrane structures involved in many physiological and pathological processes including cancerogenesis and metastasis. The purpose of the study was to isolate, identify and analyze the total content of exosomes in biological fluids. The exosomes from the plasma and ascites samples of the patients with ovarian cancer, from the blood plasma of the patients with colorectal and head and neck squamous cell cancer as well as from the blood plasma of healthy donors were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry. The subpopulations of the exosomes in the biological fluids of the patients with different types of cancer were similar, but the protein concentrations of exosomes were different. In this paper we present the methodological approaches allowing us to obtain high quality exosome preparations from biological fluids.

  6. Characterization of genetic defects of hemophilia A in patients of Chinese origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shu-Wha; Lin, Shu-Rung; Shen, Ming-Ching (National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China))

    1993-12-01

    The molecular characterization of hemophilia A of Chinese origin was carried out by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing of patient's factor VIII genes. Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and dideoxy fingerprinting (ddF) were used as screening methods to detect mutated DNAs. A total of 102 individuals from 87 different families, including 10 patients (10 families) with mild-to-moderate and 92 patients (77 families) with severe hemophilia A, were analyzed by PCR-SSCP and PCR-ddF. Of the 87 independent cases, 40 revealed a single mutation in the coding regions of their factor VIII genes. These mutations include 21 with single base changes resulting in 8 nonsense and 13 missense codons, 16 with deletion or insertion of 1-11 nucleotides, and 3 with deletion of large DNA fragments. The frequency of 8 of the identified factor VIII polymorphisms or silent mutations was also determined among Chinese. The frequencies for codons 1241, 1269, and 2223 (the numbering system follows J. Gitschier et al., 1984, Nature 312: 326-330) were found to be different from those reported for other populations. As for the 47 severe cases whose mutational events were not readily detected by PCR-SSCP and PCR-ddF, the reverse transcriptase PCR method was applied. In 24 such cases analyzed, 17 were found to be of the [open quotes]intron 22 mutations[close quotes] as described by Naylor et al. (1992, The Lancet, 342: 1066-1067), accounting for 39% of Chinese patients with hemophilia A. 31 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Biological nutrients removal from the supernatant originating from the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamis, S; Katsou, E; Di Fabio, S; Bolzonella, D; Fatone, F

    2014-09-01

    This study critically evaluates the biological processes and techniques applied to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from the anaerobic supernatant produced from the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and from its co-digestion with other biodegradable organic waste (BOW) streams. The wide application of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of several organic waste streams results in the production of high quantities of anaerobic effluents. Such effluents are characterized by high nutrient content, because organic and particulate nitrogen and phosphorus are hydrolyzed in the anaerobic digestion process. Consequently, adequate post-treatment is required in order to comply with the existing land application and discharge legislation in the European Union countries. This may include physicochemical and biological processes, with the latter being more advantageous due to their lower cost. Nitrogen removal is accomplished through the conventional nitrification/denitrification, nitritation/denitritation and the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal process; the latter is accomplished by nitritation coupled with the anoxic ammonium oxidation process. As anaerobic digestion effluents are characterized by low COD/TKN ratio, conventional denitrification/nitrification is not an attractive option; short-cut nitrogen removal processes are more promising. Both suspended and attached growth processes have been employed to treat the anaerobic supernatant. Specifically, the sequencing batch reactor, the membrane bioreactor, the conventional activated sludge and the moving bed biofilm reactor processes have been investigated. Physicochemical phosphorus removal via struvite precipitation has been extensively examined. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal from the anaerobic supernatant can take place through the sequencing anaerobic/aerobic process. More recently, denitrifying phosphorus removal via nitrite or nitrate has been explored. The removal of

  8. Open questions in origin of life : Experimental studies on the origin of nucleic acids and proteins with specific and functional sequences by a chemical synthetic biology approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamala, K.; Anella, F.M.; Wieczorek, R.; Stano, P.; Chiarabelli, C.; Luisi, P.L.

    2014-01-01

    In this mini-review we present some experimental approaches to the important issue in the origin of life, namely the origin of nucleic acids and proteins with specific and functional sequences. The formation of macromolecules on prebiotic Earth faces practical and conceptual difficulties. From the

  9. Characterization of a Dairy Gyr herd with respect to its mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Eugênio Vercesi Filho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zebu breeds were introduced in Brazil mainly in the last century by imports from the Indian subcontinent. When the Zebu cattle arrived, the national herd suffered a significative change by backcrossing the national cows of taurine origin with Zebu sires. These processes created a polymorphism in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in the Zebu animals with are in a major part derived from backcrossing and sharing mtDNA of taurine origin. To verify the maternal origin of cows belonging to the Dairy Gyr herd of APTA, Mococa 60 females were analyzed and 33 presented mtDNA from Bos taurus origin and 27 presented mtDNA from Bos indicus origin. None of these animals presented patterns of both mtDNA origins, indicating absence of heteroplasmy for these mitochondrial genotypes.

  10. Interaction of phosphorylcholine with fibronectin coatings: Surface characterization and biological performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montaño-Machado, Vanessa, E-mail: vanessa.montano-machado.1@ulaval.ca [Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Dept. of Min-Met-Materials Eng., & University Hospital Research Center, Laval University, University Campus, PLT-1745G, Québec, Québec, G1 V 0A6 (Canada); ERRMECe, University of Cergy-Pontoise, Site Saint-Martin, 2 Avenue Adolphe Chauvin, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Noël, Céline, E-mail: celine.noel@unamur.be [Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Université de Namur, 61 rue de Bruxelles, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Chevallier, Pascale, E-mail: pascale.chevallier@crchudequebec.ulaval.ca [Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Dept. of Min-Met-Materials Eng., & University Hospital Research Center, Laval University, University Campus, PLT-1745G, Québec, Québec, G1 V 0A6 (Canada); Turgeon, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.turgeon@crchudequebec.ulaval.ca [Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Dept. of Min-Met-Materials Eng., & University Hospital Research Center, Laval University, University Campus, PLT-1745G, Québec, Québec, G1 V 0A6 (Canada); Houssiau, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.houssiau@unamur.be [Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Université de Namur, 61 rue de Bruxelles, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Pauthe, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.pauthe@u-cergy.fr [ERRMECe, University of Cergy-Pontoise, Site Saint-Martin, 2 Avenue Adolphe Chauvin, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); and others

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Fibronectin/phosphorylcholine coatings on plasma deposited fluorocarbon films were created. • The effect of several coating techniques on the surface biological performances was evaluated. • XPS, DWCA, immunostaining and ToF-SIMS (imaging and depth profiling) techniques were applied. • Potential for cardiovascular applications was showed by endothelial cell and blood interactions. - Abstract: Coating medical devices with several bioactive molecules is an interesting approach to achieve specific biological targets upon the interaction of the biomaterial with the living environment. In this work, a fluorocarbon polymer (CF{sub x}) was first deposited by plasma treatment on stainless steel (SS) substrate and thereafter, coatings containing fibronectin (FN) and phosphorylcholine (PRC) were created for cardiovascular applications. These two biomolecules were chosen to promote endothelialization and to avoid thrombus formation, respectively. Adsorption and grafting techniques were applied – and combined – to accomplish 4 different coatings containing both molecules. However, big challenge was found to characterize a small molecule (PRC: 184 g/mol) interacting with a protein (FN: 450 kD). For the first time XPS, dynamic water contact angle, immunostaining and ToF-SIMS (imaging and depth profiling) analyses were combined to accomplish the characterization of such a coating. The most encouraging biological performances were obtained for samples where FN was grafted to the CF{sub x} film followed by the adsorption of PRC: proliferation of endothelial cells and hemocompatibility properties were observed. Promising coatings for cardiovascular applications were developed. The relevance of characterizing the coatings with high sensitive techniques and the further correlation with their biological performances were evidenced.

  11. An intercomparison of γ-spectrometry on two samples of biological origin by eight laboratories in four countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twining, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    This report gives details of the first inter-laboratory comparison of γ-spectrometry to be run within SPERA, the South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association since its inauguration in 1991. Laboratories in Australia, Chile, French Polynesia and New Zealand participated in the exercise. Two 'unknown' samples of biological origin were analysed. The first was a sample of milk powder derived from IAEA reference material. This sample provided an assessment of overall accuracy of 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 40 K determinations. The second sample consisted of dried fish flesh including natural 40 K and spiked with a mixed nuclide solution containing 210 Pb, 109 Cd, 54 Mn, 60 Co and trace 133 Ba. Together the samples gave information on analytical precision over a range of energies and activities. When the results were compared with the recommended values and confidence intervals of the IAEA reference material, the overall accuracy of the γ-spectrometry analytical procedures was found to be good. The average mean values for combined laboratory data fell within the recommended value ranges for each isotope. Ninety percent of the individual laboratory isotope mean values were within two standard errors of the 95% confidence interval of the standard, 75% were within 1 s.e., and 33% of the analyses fell within the confidence interval. The largest sources of error were derived from reporting and calculating of results which gave a 16% gross error rate. (Author)

  12. Characterization of Discharge Areas of Radionuclides Originating From Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, L.; Xu, S.; Worman, A.

    2009-05-01

    If leakages in nuclear waste repositories located in crystalline bedrock arise, radionuclides will reach the biosphere and cause a risk of radiological impact. The extent of the radiological impact depends on in which landscape elements the radionuclides emerge. In this study, we investigate if there are certain landscape elements that generally will act as discharge areas for radionuclides leaking from subsurface deposits. We also characterize the typical properties that distinguish these areas from others. In humid regions, landscape topography is the most important driving force for groundwater flow. Because groundwater is the main transporting agent for migrating radionuclides, the topography will determine the flowpaths of leaking radionuclides. How topography and heterogeneities in the subsurface affect the discharge distribution of the radionuclides is therefore an important scope of this study. To address these issues, we developed a 3-D transport model. Our analyses are based on site-specific data from two different areas in Sweden, Forsmark, Uppland, and Oskarshamn, Småland. The Swedish Nuclear Waste Management Company (SKB) has selected these two areas as candidate areas for a deep repository of nuclear waste and the areas are currently subject to site investigations. Our results suggest that there are hot-spots in the landscape i.e. areas with high probability of receiving large amounts of radionuclides from a leaking repository of nuclear waste. The hot-spots concentrate in the sea, streams, lakes and wetlands. All these elements are found at lower elevations in the landscape. This pattern is mostly determined by the landscape topography and the locations of fracture zones. There is a relationship between fracture zones and topography, and therefore the importance of the topography for the discharge area distribution is not contradicted by the heterogeneity in the bedrock. The varieties of landscape elements which have potential for receiving

  13. Experimental and Computational Characterization of Biological Liquid Crystals: A Review of Single-Molecule Bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungsoo Na

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative understanding of the mechanical behavior of biological liquid crystals such as proteins is essential for gaining insight into their biological functions, since some proteins perform notable mechanical functions. Recently, single-molecule experiments have allowed not only the quantitative characterization of the mechanical behavior of proteins such as protein unfolding mechanics, but also the exploration of the free energy landscape for protein folding. In this work, we have reviewed the current state-of-art in single-molecule bioassays that enable quantitative studies on protein unfolding mechanics and/or various molecular interactions. Specifically, single-molecule pulling experiments based on atomic force microscopy (AFM have been overviewed. In addition, the computational simulations on single-molecule pulling experiments have been reviewed. We have also reviewed the AFM cantilever-based bioassay that provides insight into various molecular interactions. Our review highlights the AFM-based single-molecule bioassay for quantitative characterization of biological liquid crystals such as proteins.

  14. Characterization Scheme for Property Prediction of Fluid Fractions Originating from Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Binh; de Hemptinne, Jean-Charles; Creton, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    ) has been constructed, which contains a number of descriptors originating from analytical measurements. Using physical insight on the molecular interactions, an algorithm is proposed that uses five descriptors (molecular weight, liquid molar volume, viscosity, refractive index, and dielectric constant...

  15. Open questions in origin of life: experimental studies on the origin of nucleic acids and proteins with specific and functional sequences by a chemical synthetic biology approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamala, K.; Anella, F.; Wieczorek, R.

    2014-01-01

    sequences among a vast array of possible ones, the huge "sequence space", leading to the question "why these macromolecules, and not the others?" We have recently addressed these questions by using a chemical synthetic biology approach. In particular, we have tested the catalytic activity of small peptides...

  16. Opuntia ficus indica peel derived pectin mediated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Synthesis, spectral characterization, biological and antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D.; Kanimozhi, K.; Kavitha, L.

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we have adapted a facile and efficient green route for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles using pectin as a template which was extracted from the peel of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruits. The concentration of pectin plays a major role in the behavior of crystallinity, purity, morphology as well as biological property of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles. The extracted pectin and the as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The in vitro apatite formation on the surface of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various days showed an enhanced bioactivity. Also, the antimicrobial activity was investigated using various microorganisms. All the results revealed the formation of pure, low crystalline and discrete granular like HAP nanoparticles of size around 25 nm with enhanced biological and antimicrobial activities. Hence the as-synthesized nanoparticles can act as a better bone regenerating material in the field of biomedicine.

  17. Biological and molecular characterization of Brazilian isolates of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Marques de Almeida Spadotti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV causes substantial economic losses in cucurbit crops. Although ZYMV has been present in Brazil for more than 20 years, there is little information about the biological and molecular characteristics of the isolates found in the country. This study aimed to characterize the experimental hosts, pathotypes and genetic diversity of a collection of eleven Brazilian ZYMV isolates within the coat protein gene. For biological analysis, plant species from Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, and Pedaliaceae were mechanically inoculated and pathotypes were identified based on the reaction of a resistant Cucumis melo, accession PI414723. All of the cucurbit species/varieties and Sesamum indicum were systemically infected with all isolates. The nucleotide sequence variability of the coat protein gene ranged from 82 % to 99 % compared to the corresponding sequences of ZYMV isolates from different geographical locations. No recombination event was detected in the coat protein gene of the isolates.

  18. The role of age of disclosure of biological origins in the psychological wellbeing of adolescents conceived by reproductive donation: a longitudinal study from age 1 to age 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilioi, Elena; Blake, Lucy; Jadva, Vasanti; Roman, Gabriela; Golombok, Susan

    2017-03-01

    The question of whether children should be told of their biological origins is one of the most controversial issues regarding the birth of children through donated eggs, sperm, embryos or surrogacy. In the sixth phase of this longitudinal study when the children were aged 14 years, family relationships and adolescent adjustment were examined in 87 families created through reproductive donation and 54 natural conception families. The quality of family relationships was assessed by standardised interview with mothers and by standardised questionnaires and an observational measure with mothers and adolescents. Adolescent adjustment was assessed using standardised questionnaires. Systematic information on whether and when parents had told children about their biological origins was obtained at earlier phases of the study. There were no overall differences between disclosing families and either nondisclosing or natural conception families. However, within the disclosing families, more positive family relationships and higher levels of adolescent wellbeing were found for adolescents who had been told about their biological origins before age 7. The earlier children born through reproductive donation are told about their biological origins, the more positive are the outcomes in terms of the quality of family relationships and psychological wellbeing at adolescence. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  19. Surface chemical and biological characterization of flax fabrics modified with silver nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paladini, F.; Picca, R.A.; Sportelli, M.C.; Cioffi, N.; Sannino, A.; Pollini, M.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications and wound healing. This work aims to investigate the surface chemical composition and biological properties of silver nanoparticle-modified flax substrates. Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution, by means of a large-scale apparatus. The silver-coated materials were characterized through X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), to assess the surface elemental composition of the coatings, and the chemical speciation of both the substrate and the antibacterial nanophases. A detailed investigation of XPS high resolution regions outlined that silver is mainly present on nanophases' surface as Ag 2 O. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were also carried out, in order to visualize the distribution of silver particles on the fibers. The materials were also characterized from a biological point of view in terms of antibacterial capability and cytotoxicity. Agar diffusion tests and bacterial enumeration tests were performed on Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed through the extract method on murine fibroblasts in order to verify if the presence of the silver coating affected the cellular viability and proliferation. Durability of the coating was also assessed, thus confirming the successful scaling up of the process, which will be therefore available for large-scale production. - Highlights: • Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications. • Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution. • Flax fabrics were characterized from a biological and surface chemical point of view. • Scaling up of the process was confirmed

  20. Dolce Vita in the Rice Paddy - Characterization of weedy rice groups in Northern Italy and investigation of their evolutionary origins

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Annabelle

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with the topic of the invasive rice form called weedy rice or red rice. Studies focused on the geographical area of Italy. Different populations of weedy rice in Italy were genetically characterized. The evolutionary origins of different weedy rice groups were investigated using molecular, morphological and physiological methods. Invasion of wild rice as well as de-domestication of cultivars could be identified as evolutionary sources of weedy rice in Northern Italy.

  1. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from Humans and a Comparison with ?solates of Animal Origin, in North Dakota, United States

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco, Valeria; Buyukcangaz, Esra; Sherwood, Julie S.; Stepan, Ryan M.; Koslofsky, Ryan J.; Logue, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Different clones of methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus have been found in humans as well as in animals and retail meat. However, more information about the genetic characteristics and similarities between strains is needed. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Staphylococcus aureus from humans, and to compare their characteristics with isolates of animal origin. A total of 550 nasal swabs were taken from healthy humans, and ...

  2. Characterization of size, composition and origins of dust in fusion devices. Summary report of the 1. research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.E.H.

    2009-03-01

    Nine experts on dust formation and their physical and behavioural characteristics attended the first Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) on Characterization of Size, Composition and Origins of Dust in Fusion Devices held at IAEA Headquarters on 10-12 December 2008. Participants summarized recent relevant developments related to dust in fusion devices. The specific objectives of the CRP and a detailed work plan were formulated. Discussions, conclusions and recommendations of the RCM are briefly described in this report. (author)

  3. Assessing impacts on biological resources from Site Characterization Activities of the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.A.; Cox, M.K.; Doerr, T.B.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Ostler, W.K.; Rautenstrauch, K.R.; Wills, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    An integrated impact assessment program was developed to monitor the possible effects of Site Characterization Activities (SCA) on the biological resources of the Yucca Mountain area. The program uses control and treatment sites incorporating both spatial and temporal controls. The selection of biotic variables for monitoring was based on their relative importance in the ecosystem and their ability to provide information on potential impacts. All measures of biotic and abiotic variables will be made on the same sample plots to permit linking changes in variables to each other

  4. Current Methods Applied to Biomaterials - Characterization Approaches, Safety Assessment and Biological International Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Justine P R; Ortiz, H Ivan Melendez; Bucio, Emilio; Alves, Patricia Terra; Lima, Mayara Ingrid Sousa; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Mathor, Monica B; Varca, Gustavo H C; Lugao, Ademar B

    2018-04-10

    Safety and biocompatibility assessment of biomaterials are themes of constant concern as advanced materials enter the market as well as products manufactured by new techniques emerge. Within this context, this review provides an up-to-date approach on current methods for the characterization and safety assessment of biomaterials and biomedical devices from a physicalchemical to a biological perspective, including a description of the alternative methods in accordance with current and established international standards. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. A New Generation Fiber Optic Probe: Characterization of Biological Fluids, Protein Crystals and Ophthalmic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Suh, Kwang I.

    1996-01-01

    A new fiber optic probe developed for determining transport properties of sub-micron particles in fluids experiments in a microgravity environment has been applied to characterize particulate dispersions/suspensions in various challenging environments which have been hitherto impossible. The probe positioned in front of a sample delivers a low power light (few nW - 3mW) from a laser and guides the light which is back scattered by the suspended particles through a receiving optical fiber to a photo detector and to a digital correlator. The probe provides rapid determination of macromolecular diffusivities and their respective size distributions. It has been applied to characterize various biological fluids, protein crystals, and ophthalmic diseases.

  6. Methods for the physical characterization and quantification of extracellular vesicles in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Déborah L M; Claudio, Virginia; Lässer, Cecilia; Bally, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Our body fluids contain a multitude of cell-derived vesicles, secreted by most cell types, commonly referred to as extracellular vesicles. They have attracted considerable attention for their function as intercellular communication vehicles in a broad range of physiological processes and pathological conditions. Extracellular vesicles and especially the smallest type, exosomes, have also generated a lot of excitement in view of their potential as disease biomarkers or as carriers for drug delivery. In this context, state-of-the-art techniques capable of comprehensively characterizing vesicles in biological fluids are urgently needed. This review presents the arsenal of techniques available for quantification and characterization of physical properties of extracellular vesicles, summarizes their working principles, discusses their advantages and limitations and further illustrates their implementation in extracellular vesicle research. The small size and physicochemical heterogeneity of extracellular vesicles make their physical characterization and quantification an extremely challenging task. Currently, structure, size, buoyant density, optical properties and zeta potential have most commonly been studied. The concentration of vesicles in suspension can be expressed in terms of biomolecular or particle content depending on the method at hand. In addition, common quantification methods may either provide a direct quantitative measurement of vesicle concentration or solely allow for relative comparison between samples. The combination of complementary methods capable of detecting, characterizing and quantifying extracellular vesicles at a single particle level promises to provide new exciting insights into their modes of action and to reveal the existence of vesicle subpopulations fulfilling key biological tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fully automatic characterization and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Olof; Malbet-Monaco, Stéphanie; Popov, Alexander; Nurizzo, Didier; Bowler, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    A fully automatic system has been developed that performs X-ray centring and characterization of, and data collection from, large numbers of cryocooled crystals without human intervention. Considerable effort is dedicated to evaluating macromolecular crystals at synchrotron sources, even for well established and robust systems. Much of this work is repetitive, and the time spent could be better invested in the interpretation of the results. In order to decrease the need for manual intervention in the most repetitive steps of structural biology projects, initial screening and data collection, a fully automatic system has been developed to mount, locate, centre to the optimal diffraction volume, characterize and, if possible, collect data from multiple cryocooled crystals. Using the capabilities of pixel-array detectors, the system is as fast as a human operator, taking an average of 6 min per sample depending on the sample size and the level of characterization required. Using a fast X-ray-based routine, samples are located and centred systematically at the position of highest diffraction signal and important parameters for sample characterization, such as flux, beam size and crystal volume, are automatically taken into account, ensuring the calculation of optimal data-collection strategies. The system is now in operation at the new ESRF beamline MASSIF-1 and has been used by both industrial and academic users for many different sample types, including crystals of less than 20 µm in the smallest dimension. To date, over 8000 samples have been evaluated on MASSIF-1 without any human intervention

  8. Fully automatic characterization and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Olof; Malbet-Monaco, Stéphanie; Popov, Alexander; Nurizzo, Didier, E-mail: nurizzo@esrf.fr [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Bowler, Matthew W., E-mail: nurizzo@esrf.fr [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes–EMBL–CNRS, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-31

    A fully automatic system has been developed that performs X-ray centring and characterization of, and data collection from, large numbers of cryocooled crystals without human intervention. Considerable effort is dedicated to evaluating macromolecular crystals at synchrotron sources, even for well established and robust systems. Much of this work is repetitive, and the time spent could be better invested in the interpretation of the results. In order to decrease the need for manual intervention in the most repetitive steps of structural biology projects, initial screening and data collection, a fully automatic system has been developed to mount, locate, centre to the optimal diffraction volume, characterize and, if possible, collect data from multiple cryocooled crystals. Using the capabilities of pixel-array detectors, the system is as fast as a human operator, taking an average of 6 min per sample depending on the sample size and the level of characterization required. Using a fast X-ray-based routine, samples are located and centred systematically at the position of highest diffraction signal and important parameters for sample characterization, such as flux, beam size and crystal volume, are automatically taken into account, ensuring the calculation of optimal data-collection strategies. The system is now in operation at the new ESRF beamline MASSIF-1 and has been used by both industrial and academic users for many different sample types, including crystals of less than 20 µm in the smallest dimension. To date, over 8000 samples have been evaluated on MASSIF-1 without any human intervention.

  9. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: biological, physical and chemical characterization of aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Georgakopoulos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The interest in bioaerosols has traditionally been linked to health hazards for humans, animals and plants. However, several components of bioaerosols exhibit physical properties of great significance for cloud processes, such as ice nucleation and cloud condensation. To gain a better understanding of their influence on climate, it is therefore important to determine the composition, concentration, seasonal fluctuation, regional diversity and evolution of bioaerosols. In this paper, we will review briefly the existing techniques for detection, quantification, physical and chemical analysis of biological particles, attempting to bridge physical, chemical and biological methods for analysis of biological particles and integrate them with aerosol sampling techniques. We will also explore some emerging spectroscopy techniques for bulk and single-particle analysis that have potential for in-situ physical and chemical analysis. Lastly, we will outline open questions and further desired capabilities (e.g., in-situ, sensitive, both broad and selective, on-line, time-resolved, rapid, versatile, cost-effective techniques required prior to comprehensive understanding of chemical and physical characterization of bioaerosols.

  10. Isolation and characterization of biologically active venom protein from sea snake Enhydrina schistosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damotharan, Palani; Veeruraj, Anguchamy; Arumugam, Muthuvel; Balasubramanian, Thangavel

    2015-03-01

    The present study is designed to investigate the isolation and characterization of biological and biochemical active venom protein from sea snake, Enhydrina schistosa. The highest purification peaks in ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose column were obtained for fraction numbers 39-49 when eluted with 0.35-0.45 M NaCl. Eighty per cent purity was obtained in the final stage of purification, and a single protein band of about 44 kDa was visualized in SDS-polyacrylamide gel under reducing condition. Purified venom protein expressed as haemolytic, cytotoxicity and proteolytic activities with lethal concentration (LC50 ) at 2.0 μg/mL. Venom protein exhibits enzymatic activity and hydrolyzed casein and gelatin. Gelatinolytic activity was optimal at pH 5-9. In conclusion, the present results suggested that the sea snake venom might be feasible sources for biologically active substances. Thus, this low molecular weight component of the venom protein could be used in potentially serve biological and pharmaceutical aspects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Chemical and biological characterization of residential oil burner emission. A literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerholm, R.; Peterson, A.

    1994-02-01

    This literature study covers the time period 1980 to 1993 and is concerned with oil burners used for residential heating with a nominal heating power of less than 20 kW, which are normally used in one-family houses. Emission samples from domestic heaters using organic fuels consists of a very complex matrix of pollutants ranging from aggregate states solid to gaseous. Biological effects elicited by exhaust emissions have been detected and determined. It has been shown for diesel vehicles that selection of fuel properties has an impact on combustion reaction paths which results in different exhaust chemical compositions. It was also determined that diesel fuel properties have an impact on the biological activity of diesel exhaust emissions, which is to be expected from their chemical characterization. As a result of this, Sweden has an environmental classification of diesel fuels which has been in force since 1991. Analogously, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has asked whether detrimental environmental and health effects from residential heating can be reduced by selection of fuel properties, and if so by how much? In addition, which properties are most important to control in a future environmental classification of heating oils? As a first step in this process, a literature survey was performed. Major topics were: Sampling technology, chemical composition, biological activity, and risk assessment of emissions. 33 refs, 11 tabs

  12. Retracted: Molecular Characterization and Biological Activity of Interferon-α in Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongjing; Wang, Yu; Liu, Juanjuan; Shao, Yizhi; Li, Jinglun; Chai, Hongliang; Xing, Mingwei

    2017-08-07

    DNA and Cell Biology (DNA&CB) is officially retracting the paper by Zhao H, Wang Y, Liu J, Shao Y, Li J, Chai H, Xing M, entitled, "Molecular Characterization and Biological activity of Interferon-α in Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus)," [Epub ahead of print]; 2017, DOI: 10.1089/dna.2017.3798. The Editor-in-Chief of DNA&CB, Dr. Carol Shoshkes Reiss, was alerted to a discrepancy between the findings in the article by Zhao et al., and those of others, about the absence of expression of ISG15 in chickens. Dr. Reiss requested from the authors a clarification in their observations and inquired about the failure to include relevant citations in the reference section of the paper. Based on the response from the authors, it appeared that they did not have the confidence in the data as they were not able to repeat the experiments, and were also unsure of the molecular probes that were used in the study. Therefore, the Editor has determined that the paper should be officially retracted from DNA and Cell Biology.

  13. PIXE characterization of tissues surrounding metallic prostheses coated with biological glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbotteau, Y.; Irigaray, J.L.; Moretto, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    Biological glasses can be used as coatings for metallic prostheses in order to prevent corrosion. According to their composition, these glasses have different properties. We studied, in vivo, two glasses referred to as BVA and BVH. They are used as coatings of Ti6Al4V metallic implant. BVA glass disappears after 3 months of implantation and is replaced by bone. Prostheses initially coated by this glass have a larger osseous contact perimeter compared to the uncoated prostheses. This ensures a better anchoring of the implant and limits the micro-motions which cause wear debris. BVH glass keeps a constant composition during implantation and it is used like a layer which isolates metal implant from biological environment. In order to characterize the bony environment surrounding implants, we have used PIXE and RBS methods. This paper shows results of the behavior of bony tissue under micro-beam, the quality tests of new bone which replaces the BVA glass coating and the evaluation of corrosion effects. Titanium release in bony tissues begins when the metal surface of the prosthesis is exposed to biological fluids. After a few months of implantation, the titanium contamination is stabilized and remains localized within the first tens of micrometers of surrounding bone

  14. Laboratory LiF characterization of different phytoplankton species originating harmful blooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbini, R.; Colao, F.; Fantoni, R.; Palucci, A.; Ribezzo, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione; Micheli, C. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1997-11-01

    A systematic laboratory characterization of different phytoplankton cultures has been performed in combination with LiF (Laser Induced Fluorescence) measurements aimed to investigate the possibility of their remote monitoring by means of lidar fluoro sensor systems. Cultures of microalgae characterized by different pigment contents have been analyzed in the visible region upon UV laser excitation. High resolution laboratory spectra have been measured in order to obtain the fingerprint of each species. Emission wavelength related to the main pigments contribution have been identified. Detection limits of the emitted red chlorophyll signal have been evaluated for the different species after dilution in the culture medium and in real sea water. Prior to the LiF excitation aimed to the remote characterization the algal cultures were morphologically analyzed by fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore the relevant cell number was counted for biomass estimation, and the chlorophylls content was determined by different chemical methods.

  15. Genetic characterization of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) breeding and hybrid lines with different geographic origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furdui, Emilia M; Mărghitaş, Liviu A; Dezmirean, Daniel S; Paşca, Ioan; Pop, Iulia F; Erler, Silvio; Schlüns, Ellen A

    2014-01-01

    The domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori L. comprises a large number of geographical breeds and hybrid lines. Knowing the genetic structure of those may provide information to improve the conservation of commercial lines by estimating inbreeding over generations and the consequences of excessive use of those lineages. Here, we analyzed the genetic diversity of seven breeds and eight hybrid lines from Eastern Europe and Asia using highly polymorphic microsatellites markers to determine its genetical impact on their use in global breeding programs. No consistent pattern of deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was found for most breed and hybrids; and the absence of a linkage disequilibrium also suggests that the strains are in equilibrium. A principal coordinate analysis revealed a clear separation of two silkworm breeds from the rest: one (IBV) originated from India and the other one (RG90) from Romania/Japan. The tendency of the other breeds from different geographic origins to cluster together in a general mix might be due to similar selection pressures (climate and anthropogenic factors) in different geographic locations. Phylogenetic analyses grouped the different silkworm breeds but not the hybrids according to their geographic origin and confirmed the pattern found in the principal coordinate analysis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  16. Fully automatic characterization and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Olof; Malbet-Monaco, Stéphanie; Popov, Alexander; Nurizzo, Didier; Bowler, Matthew W

    2015-08-01

    Considerable effort is dedicated to evaluating macromolecular crystals at synchrotron sources, even for well established and robust systems. Much of this work is repetitive, and the time spent could be better invested in the interpretation of the results. In order to decrease the need for manual intervention in the most repetitive steps of structural biology projects, initial screening and data collection, a fully automatic system has been developed to mount, locate, centre to the optimal diffraction volume, characterize and, if possible, collect data from multiple cryocooled crystals. Using the capabilities of pixel-array detectors, the system is as fast as a human operator, taking an average of 6 min per sample depending on the sample size and the level of characterization required. Using a fast X-ray-based routine, samples are located and centred systematically at the position of highest diffraction signal and important parameters for sample characterization, such as flux, beam size and crystal volume, are automatically taken into account, ensuring the calculation of optimal data-collection strategies. The system is now in operation at the new ESRF beamline MASSIF-1 and has been used by both industrial and academic users for many different sample types, including crystals of less than 20 µm in the smallest dimension. To date, over 8000 samples have been evaluated on MASSIF-1 without any human intervention.

  17. Characterization of Botanical and Geographical Origin of Corsican “Spring” Honeys by Melissopalynological and Volatile Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen spectrum, physicochemical parameters and volatile fraction of Corsican “spring” honeys were investigated with the aim of developing a multidisciplinary method for the qualification of honeys in which nectar resources are under-represented in the pollen spectrum. Forty-one Corsican “spring” honeys were certified by melissopalynological analysis using directory and biogeographical origin of 50 representative taxa. Two groups of honeys were distinguished according to the botanical origin of samples: “clementine” honeys characterized by the association of cultivated species from oriental plain and other “spring” honeys dominated by wild herbaceous taxa from the ruderal and/or maquis area. The main compounds of the “spring” honey volatile fraction were phenylacetaldehyde, benzaldehyde and methyl-benzene. The volatile composition of “clementine” honeys was also characterized by three lilac aldehyde isomers. Statistical analysis of melissopalynological, physicochemical and volatile data showed that the presence of Citrus pollen in “clementine” honeys was positively correlated with the amount of linalool derivatives and methyl anthranilate. Otherwise, the other “spring” honeys were characterized by complex nectariferous species associations and the content of phenylacetaldehyde and methyl syringate.

  18. [Elimination of toxic compounds, biological evaluation and partial characterization of the protein from jojoba meal (Simmondsia chinensis [Link] Schneider].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Juárez, L A; Trejo González, A

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a new methodology to remove the toxic compounds present in jojoba meal and flour. Also, to perform the biological evaluation of the detoxified products and to chemically characterize the protein fractions. Jojoba meal and seed without testa were deffated with hexane and detoxified with a 7:3 isopropanol-water mixture which removed 86% of total phenolic compounds and 100% of simmondsins originally present, the resulting products had reduced bitterness and caused no deaths on experimental animals. NPR values obtained for diets containing such products were significantly different from those obtained with the casein control (p less than 0.05). Total protein was made up of three different fractions: the water-soluble fraction was the most abundant (61.8%), followed by the salt-soluble (23.6%), and the alkaline soluble fraction (14.6%). The nitrogen solubility curves showed that the isoelectric point for the water-soluble and salt-soluble fractions was pH 3.0, while that of the alkaline fraction fell in the range of 4.5-5.0. All fractions had a maximum solubility at pH 7.0. The methodology reported here, offers a viable solution to eliminate toxic compounds from jojoba meal or seeds, and upgrades the potential use of products such as animal feed or raw material for the production of protein isolates.

  19. Ensemble attribute profile clustering: discovering and characterizing groups of genes with similar patterns of biological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bissell MJ

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ensemble attribute profile clustering is a novel, text-based strategy for analyzing a user-defined list of genes and/or proteins. The strategy exploits annotation data present in gene-centered corpora and utilizes ideas from statistical information retrieval to discover and characterize properties shared by subsets of the list. The practical utility of this method is demonstrated by employing it in a retrospective study of two non-overlapping sets of genes defined by a published investigation as markers for normal human breast luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells. Results Each genetic locus was characterized using a finite set of biological properties and represented as a vector of features indicating attributes associated with the locus (a gene attribute profile. In this study, the vector space models for a pre-defined list of genes were constructed from the Gene Ontology (GO terms and the Conserved Domain Database (CDD protein domain terms assigned to the loci by the gene-centered corpus LocusLink. This data set of GO- and CDD-based gene attribute profiles, vectors of binary random variables, was used to estimate multiple finite mixture models and each ensuing model utilized to partition the profiles into clusters. The resultant partitionings were combined using a unanimous voting scheme to produce consensus clusters, sets of profiles that co-occured consistently in the same cluster. Attributes that were important in defining the genes assigned to a consensus cluster were identified. The clusters and their attributes were inspected to ascertain the GO and CDD terms most associated with subsets of genes and in conjunction with external knowledge such as chromosomal location, used to gain functional insights into human breast biology. The 52 luminal epithelial cell markers and 89 myoepithelial cell markers are disjoint sets of genes. Ensemble attribute profile clustering-based analysis indicated that both lists

  20. The use of stable isotopes for the characterization of honeys, their origin and adulteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, Hubert; Stichler, Willibald; Maurizio, Anna.

    1977-01-01

    In general, plants used by bees as nectar sources belong to the C 3 -typ of photosynthetic CO 2 -fixation. As a consequence, honey mostly shows the delta 13 C-values of C 3 -plants. Addition of cane-sugar or corn-products ('isomerose syrup' or 'apireve') to the honey (or feeding these substances to bees) would change this delta 13 C-value. This allows a sensitive proof for the absence of such additions. The deltaD-values in the dry substance of honey may be used in special cases to identify the geographic origin of the honey

  1. Molecular cytogenetic characterization and origin of two de novo duplication 9p cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsezou, A; Kitsiou, S; Galla, A; Petersen, M B; Karadima, G; Syrrou, M; Sahlèn, S; Blennow, E

    2000-03-13

    We report on two additional cases with duplication of 9p, minor with facial anomalies and developmental delay. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization and single-copy probes, we showed that the first case was a direct duplication, whereas the second case was inverted. The extent of the direct duplication was defined as 9p12 --> p24 by microdissection and microcloning of the aberrant chromosome and subsequent chromosome-specific comparative genomic hybridization. DNA polymorphism analysis with eight microsatellite markers revealed that the origin of the dup(9p) was maternal in the first case, whereas it was paternal in the second. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Antioxidant Activity of a Geopropolis from Northeast Brazil: Chemical Characterization and Likely Botanical Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Joselena M.; Fernandes-Silva, Caroline C.; Salatino, Antonio; Message, Dejair; Negri, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    Geopropolis is a product containing wax, plant resin, and soil particles. It is elaborated by stingless bees of tribe Meliponini. Methanol extracts of sample of geopropolis produced by Scaptotrigona postica (“mandaguari”) in the state of Rio Grande do Norte (RN, northeast Brazil) were analyzed for the determination of standard parameters (total phenols, total flavonoids, and radical scavenging activity) and chemical characterization by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis. The sample analyzed has high con...

  3. Metabolic characterization of natural and cultured Ophicordyceps sinensis from different origins by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianshuang; Zhong, Xin; Li, Shaosong; Zhang, Guren; Liu, Xin

    2015-11-10

    Ophicordyceps sinensis is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine and cultured mycelium is a substitute for wild O. sinensis. Metabolic profiles of wild O. sinensis from three geographical locations and cultivated mycelia derived from three origins were investigated using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis combined with multivariate statistical analysis. A total of 56 primary metabolites were identified and quantified from O. sinensis samples. The principle component analysis (PCA) showed significant differences between natural O. sinensis and fermentation mycelia. Seven metabolites responsible for differentiation were screened out by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The concentrations of mannitol, trehalose, arginine, trans-4-hydroxyproline, alanine and glucitol were significantly different between wild and cultured groups. The variation in metabolic profiling among artificial mycelia was greater than that among wild O. sinensis. Furthermore, wild samples from different origins were clearly distinguished by the levels of mannitol, trehalose and some amino acids. This study indicates that (1)H NMR-based metabolomics is useful for fingerprinting and discriminating O. sinensis of different geographical regions and cultivated mycelia of different strains. The present study provided an efficient approach for investigating chemical compositions and evaluating the quality of medicine and health food derived from O. sinensis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparation, characterization and biological evaluation of fac(M(CO)3)+ labeled amino carboxy ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baishya, Rinku; Halder, K.K.; Debnath, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The objective of this study is to radiolabel various amino carboxy based chelating ligands with fac(M(CO) 3 )+ core, their physicochemical and biological characterization so that they can be used as bifunctional chelators and could be incorporated into biomolecules. Introduction: Amino acids as a class attract considerable physiological interest because of their participation in many vital processes associated with the living system. Some amino acids express in some particular organ like glutamic acid acts as excitatory neurotransmitter in mammalian brain. Histidine, methionine, tryptophan express in the tumor cell. Amino acids also play an important role for development of a new series of chelate complexes of 99m Tc that can direct the biodistribution of the radiotracer for purposes in diagnostic nuclear medicine. Various 99m Tc-amino acid chelates based on (Tc(V)O) 3 + core were reported from this laboratory some of which exhibited high renal specificity in animals. The structural requirements favouring this biological behaviour could be the oxotechnetium glycine sequence (TcO-NH-CH 2 -COOH) resembling the -CO-glycine sequence of hippurate. In recent years with the development of organometallic chemistry of technetium and rhenium for biological application intensive efforts have been executed on designing of the bifunctional chelator for effective coordination to (M(CO) 3 )+ core. The suitability and stability of the metal carbonyl core has given rise to a new platform for the preparation of the metal complexes of biologically active peptide in macroscopic quantity using the solid phase synthetic approach. Materials and Methods: We chelated different amino carboxy based ligands with ( 99m Tc(CO) 3 )+ and (Re(CO) 3 )+ core. The choice of amino acid was made by taking representative members from various groupings such as mono amino mono carboxylate, mono amino poly carboxylate, poly amino mono carboxylate and sulfur containing amino carboxylates. The

  5. Characterization of Size, Composition and Origins of Dust in Fusion Devices. Summary Report of the Third Research Coordination Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.

    2013-02-01

    Twelve experts on processes of dust in fusion experiments met at IAEA Headquarters 30 November - 02 December 2011 for the 3rd Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on ''Characterization of size, composition and origins of dust in fusion devices.'' Participants reviewed their work done in the course of the CRP and the current state of knowledge, and they made plans for a dust database and a final CRP report. Presentations, discussions and recommendations of the RCM are summarized here. (author)

  6. The role of age of disclosure of biological origins in the psychological wellbeing of adolescents conceived by reproductive donation: a longitudinal study from age 1 to age 14.

    OpenAIRE

    Ilioi, Elena; Blake, Lucy; Jadva, Vasanti Harish; Roman, Gabriela; Golombok, Susan Esther

    2017-01-01

    $\\textbf{BACKGROUND}$: The question of whether children should be told of their biological origins is one of the most controversial issues regarding the birth of children through donated eggs, sperm, embryos or surrogacy. $\\textbf{METHODS}$: In the sixth phase of this longitudinal study when the children were aged 14 years, family relationships and adolescent adjustment were examined in 87 families created through reproductive donation and 54 natural conception families. The quality of f...

  7. The role of age of disclosure of biological origins in the psychological wellbeing of adolescents conceived by reproductive donation: a longitudinal study from age 1 to age 14

    OpenAIRE

    Ilioi, Elena; Blake, Lucy; Jadva, Vasanti; Roman, Gabriela; Golombok, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background The question of whether children should be told of their biological origins is one of the most controversial issues regarding the birth of children through donated eggs, sperm, embryos or surrogacy. Methods In the sixth phase of this longitudinal study when the children were aged 14?years, family relationships and adolescent adjustment were examined in 87 families created through reproductive donation and 54 natural conception families. The quality of family relationships was asses...

  8. Conservation, genetic characterization, phytochemical and biological investigation of black calla lily: A wild endangered medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Mohammed Farid

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientists continue to search for and conserve plants whose medicinal properties have become crucial in the fight against diseases. Moreover, lessons from folk medicine, indigenous knowledge and Chinese medicine on crude extracts points to possible findings of novel promising and strong pharmaceutically bioactive constituents. Arum palaestinum, commonly known as black calla lily, is one of the most important medicinal plants belonging to the family Araceae, which has not been well studied. Little is known about its pharmaceutically bioactive constituents and the effective conservation through the use of biotechnology. Thus, Arum Palaestinum is selected and reviewed for its phytochemical analysis and biological activities. Besides, the tissue culture and genetic characterization developed for effective conservation of the plant were also summarized.

  9. Transition metal complexes of some biologically active ligands; synthesis characterization and bioactivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.; Ali, N.; Nisar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Transition/representative transition metals complexes of biologically active chelating agent 1,2-dipyrolodinoethane were synthesized and characterized through spectral and analytical data. The complexes are of the formula (M(L)X/sub 2/). Where (M = Co (II), Ni (II), Cu (II), Zn (II), Hg (II) and Cd (II) and X = CI, Br, NO/sub 3/). Tetrahedral geometry has been proposed to these-metal complexes with the help of magnetic measurements, elemental analysis, chemical stoichiometry and spectroscopic data Antibacterial activity of the ligand and its metal complexes were screened against Eschereschi coli, Klebsiello pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulhari, Streptococcus pneumonia, Salmonella Iyphi, Bacilh,s anthrax, Streptococcus fecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. Complexes were found to be active against Eschereschi coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulharis. (author)

  10. Characterization and evaluation of three groups of rice upland of different origins through gamma-ray sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Luis Roberto Franco

    2002-01-01

    The characterization and evaluation of varieties of rice aid in the parents selection and in the increase of the genetic base of breeding programs. The present work was carried out to characterize and to evaluate three groups of rice upland (Oryza sativa L.) of different origins through gamma-ray sensitivity. Seeds of 84 varieties collected from Japan, Philippines and Brazil, were submitted to various doses of gamma-radiation and sown in wooden boxes. The experiment was conducted in 1991 at greenhouse according to randomized complete block design with three replications. Physiological effects caused by radiation in the M 1 generation, such as seed emergency, seedling height and survival rate, were determined and evaluated. The results showed significant differences of sensitivity to the radiation among three groups for all traits evaluated. (author)

  11. Isolation, identification, and characterization of Listeria spp. from various animal origin foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Deepti N.; Savalia, C. V.; Kalyani, I. H.; Kumar, Rajeev; Kshirsagar, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken with the prime objective of isolating and identifying Listeria spp. from various foods of animal origin sold at retail market outlets in the city of Navsari, Gujarat. Materials and Methods: Total 200 samples comprising of milk, milk products, meat, and fish (50 each) collected aseptically from local market which were subjected first to pre-enrichment in half strength Fraser broth followed by enrichment in full strength Fraser broth and subsequent plating on PALCAM agar. The growth with the typical colony characteristics were further identified up to species level on the basis of their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Cultures identified as Listeria monocytogenes were further subjected to in vitro pathogenicity tests and detection of different virulence-associated genes viz. actA, hlyA, and iap using polymerase chain reaction. Results: Of the total 200 food samples of animal origin; 18 (9%) were found positive for Listeria spp. which were identified as Listeria seeligeri (6, 33.3%), Listeria innocua (5, 27.7%), Listeria welshimeri (4, 22.2%), and L. monocytogenes (3, 16.6%). The highest prevalence was observed in milk samples (8). Species wise, 6 isolates of L. seeligeri which included two each from cow milk, buffalo milk, and meat samples; 5 L. innocua isolates included four recovered from fish and one from meat sample; 4 L. welshimeri comprised of two isolates from ice cream and one each from buffalo milk and meat sample; and 3 isolates of L. monocytogenes recovered from milk (1 cow and 2 buffalo milk). All 3 L. monocytogenes isolates screened for the presence of virulence genes viz. actA, hlyA, and iap using the specific primers revealed the presence of all the genes suggesting the possibility of danger of foodborne listeriosis among raw milk consumers. Conclusion: Listeria spp. was isolated from 9% (18/200) of the animal origin food samples viz.; milk, milk products, meat, and fish with the highest prevalence

  12. Isolation, identification, and characterization of Listeria spp. from various animal origin foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti N. Nayak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken with the prime objective of isolating and identifying Listeria spp. from various foods of animal origin sold at retail market outlets in the city of Navsari, Gujarat. Materials and Methods: Total 200 samples comprising of milk, milk products, meat, and fish (50 each collected aseptically from local market which were subjected first to pre-enrichment in half strength Fraser broth followed by enrichment in full strength Fraser broth and subsequent plating on PALCAM agar. The growth with the typical colony characteristics were further identified up to species level on the basis of their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Cultures identified as Listeria monocytogenes were further subjected to in vitro pathogenicity tests and detection of different virulence associated genes viz. actA, hlyA, and iap using polymerase chain reaction. Results: Of the total 200 food samples of animal origin; 18 (9% were found positive for Listeria spp. which were identified as Listeria seeligeri (6, 33.3%, Listeria innocua (5, 27.7%, Listeria welshimeri (4, 22.2%, and L. monocytogenes (3, 16.6%. The highest prevalence was observed in milk samples (8. Species wise, 6 isolates of L. seeligeri which included two each from cow milk, buffalo milk, and meat samples; 5 L. innocua isolates included four recovered from fish and one from meat sample; 4 L. welshimeri comprised of two isolates from ice cream and one each from buffalo milk and meat sample; and 3 isolates of L. monocytogenes recovered from milk (1 cow and 2 buffalo milk. All 3 L. monocytogenes isolates screened for the presence of virulence genes viz. actA, hlyA, and iap using the specific primers revealed the presence of all the genes suggesting the possibility of danger of foodborne listeriosis among raw milk consumers. Conclusion: Listeria spp. was isolated from 9% (18/200 of the animal origin food samples viz.; milk, milk products, meat, and fish with the highest

  13. Meteorological Integration for the Biological Warning and Incident Characterization (BWIC) System: General Guidance for BWIC Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, William J.; Wang, Weiguo; Rutz, Frederick C.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Xie, YuLong; Seiple, Timothy E.; Allwine, K Jerry

    2007-02-16

    The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is responsible for developing systems to detect the release of aerosolized bioagents in urban environments. The system that accomplishes this, known as BioWatch, is a robust first-generation monitoring system. In conjunction with the BioWatch detection network, DHS has also developed a software tool for cities to use to assist in their response when a bioagent is detected. This tool, the Biological Warning and Incident Characterization (BWIC) System, will eventually be deployed to all BioWatch cities to aid in the interpretation of the public health significance of indicators from the BioWatch networks. BWIC consists of a set of integrated modules, including meteorological models, that estimate the effect of a biological agent on a city’s population once it has been detected. For the meteorological models in BWIC to successfully calculate the distribution of biological material, they must have as input accurate meteorological data, and wind fields in particular. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for cities to use in identifying sources of good-quality local meteorological data that BWIC needs to function properly. This process of finding sources of local meteorological data, evaluating the data quality and gaps in coverage, and getting the data into BWIC, referred to as meteorological integration, is described. The good news for many cities is that meteorological measurement networks are becoming increasingly common. Most of these networks allow their data to be distributed in real time via the internet. Thus, cities will often only need to evaluate the quality of available measurements and perhaps add a modest number of stations where coverage is poor.

  14. Characterization and biological effect of Buenos Aires urban air particles on mice lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Susana; Dawidowski, Laura; Mandalunis, Patricia; Cereceda-Balic, Francisco; Tasat, Deborah Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to increased levels of ambient air particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Its association with adverse health effects and the still unclear mechanisms of action are of concern worldwide. Our objective was to analyze air PM from downtown Buenos Aires (UAP-BA), and evaluate its biological impact on normal airways. We studied the inflammatory response to intranasal instillation of UAP-BA in a short-term-exposure mouse model. We analyzed UAP-BA morphology by scanning electron microscopy and characterized particle chemical composition by energy dispersive X-ray analysis and capillary gas chromatography. We evaluated lung changes by histomorphometry and histochemical methods. Regarding size, surface area and distribution, UAP-BA proved to be small spherical ultrafine particles: free, in clusters and associated to a matrix. The particles contained polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and almost no metal traces. Histologically, UAP-BA induced the recruitment of phagocytes, a reduction in air spaces, an increase in mucous PAS positive cells and weak incomplete elastic fiber network. Our results demonstrate that UAP-BA causes adverse biological effects on the respiratory tract generating inflammation that, in turn, may cause tissue injury or organ dysfunction and may contribute to the pathogenesis of lung diseases

  15. Cuttlefish bone scaffold for tissue engineering: a novel hydrothermal transformation, chemical-physical, and biological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistella, Elisa; Mele, Silvia; Foltran, Ismaela; Lesci, Isidoro Giorgio; Roveri, Norberto; Sabatino, Piera; Rimondini, Lia

    2012-09-27

    Natural resources are receiving growing interest because of their possible conversion from a cheap and easily available material into a biomedical product. Cuttlefish bone from Sepia Officinalis was investigated in order to obtain an hydroxyapatite porous scaffold using hydrothermal transformation. Complete conversion of the previous calcium carbonate (aragonite) phase into a calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite) phase was performed with an hydrothermal transformation at 200 °C (~ 15 atm), for four hours, with an aqueous solution of KH2PO4 in order to set the molar ratio Ca/P = 10/6 in a reactor (Parr 4382). The complete conversion was then analyzed by TGA, ATR-FTIR, x-ray diffraction, and SEM. Moreover, the material was biologically investigated with MC3T3-E1 in static cultures, using both osteogenic and maintenance media. The expression of osteogenic markers as ALP and osteocalcin and the cell proliferation were investigated. Cuttlefish bone has been successfully transformed from calcium carbonate into calcium phosphate. Biological characterization revealed that osteogenic markers are expressed using both osteogenic and maintenance conditions. Cell proliferation is influenced by the static culture condition used for this three-dimensional scaffold. The new scaffold composed by hydroxyapatite and derived for a natural source presents good biocompatibility and can be used for further investigations using dynamic cultures in order to improve cell proliferation and differentiation for bone tissue engineering.

  16. Opuntia ficus indica peel derived pectin mediated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: synthesis, spectral characterization, biological and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D; Kanimozhi, K; Kavitha, L

    2015-04-15

    In the present study, we have adapted a facile and efficient green route for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles using pectin as a template which was extracted from the peel of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruits. The concentration of pectin plays a major role in the behavior of crystallinity, purity, morphology as well as biological property of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles. The extracted pectin and the as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The in vitro apatite formation on the surface of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various days showed an enhanced bioactivity. Also, the antimicrobial activity was investigated using various microorganisms. All the results revealed the formation of pure, low crystalline and discrete granular like HAP nanoparticles of size around 25 nm with enhanced biological and antimicrobial activities. Hence the as-synthesized nanoparticles can act as a better bone regenerating material in the field of biomedicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A perspective on plant origin radiolabeled compounds, their biological affinities and interaction between plant extracts with radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumrut Biber Muftuler, F.; Ayfer Yurt Kilcar; Perihan Unak

    2015-01-01

    Plant origin products having anticancer properties come into prominence due to widespread of cancer. There is significant increase on the usage of plant origin products and their purification to investigate the potential use at the treatment and diagnosis. Plant origin radiolabeled compounds have been attracting more scientific attention since the achievement of earlier researches. Furthermore, plant extracts are consumed quite a lot with unknown side effects of their contents. Researchers focus on investigation of their interactions with radiopharmaceuticals. Current review is carried out to evaluate the contribution of plant extracts for the development of new plant origin radiolabeled ( 125 / 131 I, 99m Tc) compounds for imaging and/or therapy and to investigate the interaction of plant extracts with radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  18. Characterization of Pathogenic Human MSH2 Missense Mutations Using Yeast as a Model System: A Laboratory Course in Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammie, Alison E.; Erdeniz, Naz

    2004-01-01

    This work describes the project for an advanced undergraduate laboratory course in cell and molecular biology. One objective of the course is to teach students a variety of cellular and molecular techniques while conducting original research. A second objective is to provide instruction in science writing and data presentation by requiring…

  19. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, biological screenings, DNA binding study and POM analyses of transition metal carboxylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Noor; Sirajuddin, Muhammad; Uddin, Nizam; Tariq, Muhammad; Ullah, Hameed; Ali, Saqib; Tirmizi, Syed Ahmed; Khan, Abdur Rehman

    2015-04-01

    This article contains the synthesis of a novel carboxylic acid derivative, its transition metal complexes and evaluation of biological applications. Six carboxylate complexes of transition metals, Zn(II) and Hg(II), have been successfully synthesized and characterized by FT-IR and NMR (1H, 13C). The ligand, HL, (4-[(2,6-Diethylphenyl)amino]-4-oxobutanoic acid) was also characterized by single crystal X-ray analysis. The complexation occurs via oxygen atoms of the carboxylate moiety. FT-IR date show the bidentate nature of the carboxylate moiety of the ligand as the Δν value in all complexes is less than that of the free ligand. The ligand and its complexes were screened for antifungal and antileishmanial activities. The results showed that the ligand and its complexes are active with few exceptions. UV-visible spectroscopy and viscometry results reveal that the ligand and its complexes interact with the DNA via intercalative mode of interaction. A new and efficient strategy to identify the pharmacophores and anti-pharmacophores sites in carboxylate derivatives for the antibacterial/antifungal activity using Petra, Osiris and Molinspiration (POM) analyses was also carried out.

  20. The Information Content of Visible Spectra of Extra Virgin Olive Oil in the Characterization of Its Origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forina, M.; Boggia, R.; Casale, M.

    2007-01-01

    The information content of visible spectra has been evaluated, by means of some selected chemometrical techniques, for its ability to trace the geographical origin of extra virgin olive oils coming from several Mediterranean regions. Special attention was paid to extra virgin olive oil produced in West Liguria, a North Italy region which leans over the Mediterranean Sea and borders France. The peculiar organoleptic features of this niche product deserved the protected designation of origin Riviera Ligure-Riviera dei fiori. Unfortunately, this expensive oil is often submitted to profitable adulterations, commonly involving addition of other cheaper Mediterranean oils. Using suitable transforms, such as profiles and derivatives, the visible spectra of extra virgin olive oils showed a very important discriminant power in that regards the geographical characterization of the studied samples. In particular, the developed class models for West Liguria oils have 100% sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, even if this paper is focused on West Liguria oil, it is important to emphasize that a similar study, involving a so widespread and timesaving technique, could be analogously developed for all the other Mediterranean regions taken into account and it could be used in other olive oil characterization problems

  1. Characterization of Size, Composition and Origins of Dust in Fusion Devices. Summary Report of the Second Research Coordination Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.; Skinner, C.H.

    2010-11-01

    Eleven experts on processes of dust in fusion experiments met for the 2nd Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Characterization of size, composition and origins of dust in fusion devices' held at IAEA Headquarters 21-23 June 2010. Participants summarized their studies on dust in fusion experiments and reviewed progress made since the first RCM. Gaps in knowledge were identified and a plan of work for the remainder of the CRP was developed. Presentations, discussions and recommendations of the RCM are summarized in this report. Eleven experts on processes of dust in fusion experiments met for the 2nd Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Characterization of size, composition and origins of dust in fusion devices' held at IAEA Headquarters 21-23 June 2010. Participants summarized their studies on dust in fusion experiments and reviewed progress made since the first RCM. Gaps in knowledge were identified and a plan of work for the remainder of the CRP was developed. Presentations, discussions and recommendations of the RCM are summarized in this report. (author)

  2. Synthesis and characterization of polyglycerols dendrimers for applications in tissue engineering biological

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, E.D.; Queiroz, A.A.A. de

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Over the last twenty years is the growing development in the manufacture of synthetic scaffold in tissue engineering applications. These new materials are based on polyglycerol dendrimers (PGLD's). PGLD's are highly functional polymers with hydroxymethyl side groups, fulfill all structural prerequisites to replace poly(ethylene glycol)s in medical applications. Furthermore, since these materials are based on naturally occurring compounds that degrades over time in the body and can be safely excreted. The objective of this work was the synthesis, physicochemical, biological characterization of HPGL's with potential use as scaffolds in tissue engineering. HPGL's with oligomeric cores, of diglycerol triglycerol and tetraglycerol was used. Theoretical and Experimental Simulation Details: The synthesis of PGLD procedures involves the etherification of glycerol through anionic polymerization of glycidol. The PGLD's were characterized by chromatographic techniques (SEC and HPLC), spectroscopic (FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C - NMR) electrochemical (zeta potential) and thermal analysis (DSC and TGA) techniques. The structure- activity relationships (SAR's) of compound prototype and its analogs were studied to determine the generation number (G) of the molecule responsible for the biological activity on the adhesion and cell proliferation process. A detailed study of the structure of PGLD's of G=0-4 was performed using the Hyperchem 7. 5 and Gromacs 4 software packages. The biocompatibility studies were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy (EPF) technique after PGLD (G=0-4) blood contact. The overall electro-negativity/total charge density, dipole moment, frontier orbital's (HOMO - LUMO) and electrostatic potential maps (EPM) were calculated. The most stable form of the resulting compounds was determined by estimating the hydration energy and energy conformation. Results and Discussion: The techniques SEM and EPF

  3. Short communication: Suitability of fluorescence spectroscopy for characterization of commercial milk of different composition and origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntakatsane, M P; Yang, X Q; Lin, M; Liu, X M; Zhou, P

    2011-11-01

    Thirteen milk brands comprising 76 pasteurized and UHT milk samples of various compositions (whole, reduced fat, skimmed, low lactose, and high protein) were obtained from local supermarkets, and milk samples manufactured in various countries were discriminated using front-face fluorescence spectroscopy (FFFS) coupled with chemometric tools. The emission spectra of Maillard reaction products and riboflavin (MRP/RF; 400 to 600 nm) and tryptophan (300 to 400 nm) were recorded using FFFS, and the excitation wavelengths were set at 360 nm for MRP/RF and 290 nm for tryptophan. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to analyze the normalized spectra. The PCA of spectral information from MRP/RF discriminated the milk samples originating in different countries, and PCA of spectral information from tryptophan discriminated the samples according to composition. The fluorescence spectral data were compared with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry results for the glycation extent of the milk samples, and a positive association (R(2)=0.84) was found between the degree of glycation of α-lactalbumin and the MRP/RF spectral data. This study demonstrates the ability and sensitivity of FFFS to rapidly discriminate and classify commercial milk with various compositions and processing conditions. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of an array of honeys of different types and botanical origins through fluorescence emission based on LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastra-Mejías, Miguel; Torreblanca-Zanca, Albertina; Aroca-Santos, Regina; Cancilla, John C; Izquierdo, Jesús G; Torrecilla, José S

    2018-08-01

    A set of 10 honeys comprising a diverse range of botanical origins have been successfully characterized through fluorescence spectroscopy using inexpensive light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as light sources. It has been proven that each LED-honey combination tested originates a unique emission spectrum, which enables the authentication of every honey, being able to correctly label it with its botanical origin. Furthermore, the analysis was backed up by a mathematical analysis based on partial least square models which led to a correct classification rate of each type of honey of over 95%. Finally, the same approach was followed to analyze rice syrup, which is a common honey adulterant that is challenging to identify when mixed with honey. A LED-dependent and unique fluorescence spectrum was found for the syrup, which presumably qualifies this approach for the design of uncomplicated, fast, and cost-effective quality control and adulteration assessing tools for different types of honey. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization and origin of organic and inorganic pollution in urban soils in Pisa (Tuscany, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardelli, Roberto; Vanni, Giacomo; Marchini, Fausto; Saviozzi, Alessandro

    2017-10-12

    We assessed the quality of 31 urban soils in Pisa by analyzing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, and the platinum group elements (PGEs). The risk was evaluated by the geological accumulation index (I geo ) and the enrichment factor (EF). Results were compared with those obtained from a non-urban site and with the quantitative limits fixed by Italian legislation. In nearly all the monitored sites, the legal limit for TPH of 60 mg/kg in residential areas was exceeded, indicating widespread and intense pollution throughout the entire city area. The I geo indicated no Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn pollution and minimal Pb and Cr pollution due to anthropogenic enrichment. Legal Hg and Zn limits of 1 and 150 mg/kg, respectively, were exceeded in about 20% of sites; Cd (2 mg/kg), Cr (150 mg/kg), and Cu (120 mg/kg) in only one site; and the Ni legal limit of 120 mg/kg was never exceeded. Some urban soils showed a higher Hg level than the more restrictive legal limit of 5 mg/kg concerning areas for industrial use. Based on the soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate-bound fractions, Mn and Zn showed the highest mobility, suggesting a more potential risk of soil contamination than the other metals. The TPH and both Cr and Hg amounts were not correlated with any of the other monitored metals. The total contents of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu in soils were positively correlated with each other, suggesting a common origin from vehicular traffic. The PGE values (Pt and Pd) were below the detection limits in 75%-90% of the monitored areas, suggesting that their accumulation is at an early stage.

  6. Characterization and origin of EC and OC particulate matter near the Doñana National Park (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Campa, A M Sánchez; Pio, C; de la Rosa, J D; Querol, X; Alastuey, A; González-Castanedo, Y

    2009-08-01

    In the South of Spain, major industrial estates (e.g. Huelva) exist alongside ecologically interesting zones (e.g. Doñana National Park). Between June 2005 and June 2006, PM10 and PM2.5 were measured, for total mass, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) chemical composition, at a station in an ecologically interesting area located near Doñana National Park and an urban background area with industrial influence. The mean OC concentration is higher in the urban background (3.5 microg m(-3)) than in the rural monitoring station (2.8 microg m(-3)) as a consequence of local emissions (e.g. traffic). A total of 82% of TC is OC in the rural station, while the urban background station reveals 70% and 73% of TC in the PM10 and PM2.5 mass, respectively. The study of air-mass origin and characterization of carbonaceous species in the course of simultaneous sampling in rural and urban background monitoring stations differentiated three long-range air-mass transports: a North-African dust outbreak, Atlantic Advection and Continental (N-NW) episodes, the origins of the first and last of which are more heavily influenced by the anthropogenic emissions from industrial estates located around the city of Huelva (Punta del Sebo and Nuevo Puerto). Higher values were measured for OC and EC in the study area during the North-African dust outbreak, similar to those obtained during the Continental episode (N-NW), which was clearly influenced by industrial emissions, followed by the Atlantic Advection episodes. The comparison of carbon species with air-mass origin can help to discriminate the origin and source of particulate matter, as well as to determine the urban impact on rural areas.

  7. Occurrence and Characterization of Steroid Growth Promoters Associated with Particulate Matter Originating from Beef Cattle Feedyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Brett R; Wooten, Kimberly J; Buser, Michael D; Johnson, Bradley J; Cobb, George P; Smith, Philip N

    2015-07-21

    Studies of steroid growth promoters from beef cattle feedyards have previously focused on effluent or surface runoff as the primary route of transport from animal feeding operations. There is potential for steroid transport via fugitive airborne particulate matter (PM) from cattle feedyards; therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the occurrence and concentration of steroid growth promoters in PM from feedyards. Air sampling was conducted at commercial feedyards (n = 5) across the Southern Great Plains from 2010 to 2012. Total suspended particulates (TSP), PM10, and PM2.5 were collected for particle size analysis and steroid growth promoter analysis. Particle size distributions were generated from TSP samples only, while steroid analysis was conducted on extracts of PM samples using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Of seven targeted steroids, 17α-estradiol and estrone were the most commonly detected, identified in over 94% of samples at median concentrations of 20.6 and 10.8 ng/g, respectively. Melengestrol acetate and 17α-trenbolone were detected in 31% and 39% of all PM samples at median concentrations of 1.3 and 1.9 ng/g, respectively. Results demonstrate PM is a viable route of steroid transportation and may be a significant contributor to environmental steroid hormone loading from cattle feedyards.

  8. Characterization of carbon nanotubes and analytical methods for their determination in environmental and biological samples: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero-Latorre, C., E-mail: carlos.herrero@usc.es; Álvarez-Méndez, J.; Barciela-García, J.; García-Martín, S.; Peña-Crecente, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Analytical techniques for characterization of CNTs: classification, description and examples. • Determination methods for CNTs in biological and environmental samples. • Future trends and perspectives for characterization and determination of CNTs. - Abstract: In the present paper, a critical overview of the most commonly used techniques for the characterization and the determination of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is given on the basis of 170 references (2000–2014). The analytical techniques used for CNT characterization (including microscopic and diffraction, spectroscopic, thermal and separation techniques) are classified, described, and illustrated with applied examples. Furthermore, the performance of sampling procedures as well as the available methods for the determination of CNTs in real biological and environmental samples are reviewed and discussed according to their analytical characteristics. In addition, future trends and perspectives in this field of work are critically presented.

  9. Characterization of grape seed oil from wines with protected denomination of origin (PDO from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bada, J. C.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the composition and characteristics of red grape seed oils (Vitis vinifera L from wines with protected denomination of origin (PDO from Spain. Eight representative varieties of grape seed oils from the Spanish wine Ribera del Duero (Tempranillo, Toro (Tempranillo, Rioja (Garnacha, Valencia (Tempranillo and Cangas (Mencia, Carrasquín, Albarín and Verdejo were studied. The oil content of the seeds ranged from 13.89 to 10.18%, and the moisture was similar for all the seeds. Linoleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid in all samples, representing around 78%, followed by oleic acid with a concentration close 16%, the degree of unsaturation in the grape seed oil was over 90%. β-sitosterol and α-tocopherol were the main sterol and tocopherol, reaching values of 77.31% and 3.82 mg·100 g−1 of oil, respectively. In relation to the tocotrienols, α-tocotrienol was the main tocotrienol and accounted for 13.18 mg·100 g−1 of oil.El objetivo de este estudio consistió en determinar la composición y características de aceites de semillas de uvas rojas (Vitis vinifera L de vinos con denominación de origen protegida (DOP de España. Ocho variedades representativas de aceites de semillas de uvas españolas Ribera del Duero (Tempranillo, Toro (Tempranillo, Rioja (Garnacha, Valencia (Tempranillo y Cangas (Mencia, Carrasquín, Albarín y Verdejo fueron estudiadas. Los contenidos en aceite de las semillas oscilaron entre 13.89 y 10.18%, la humedad fué similar para todas las semillas. El contenido en ácido linoléico fué alto en todos los aceites alcanzando un valor del 78%, seguido del ácido oléico con una concentración cercana al 16%, registrando un grado total de insaturación del 90%. b-sitosterol y α-tocoferol fué el principal esterol y tocoferol, alcanzado niveles del 77.31% y de un 3.82 mg·100 g−1 de aceite respectivamente. En relación a los tocotrienoles, α-tocotrienol fué el mayoritario con

  10. Laboratory-generated mixtures of mineral dust particles with biological substances: characterization of the particle mixing state and immersion freezing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Wex, Heike; Denjean, Cyrielle; Hartmann, Susan; Schneider, Johannes; Schmidt, Susann; Ebert, Martin; Stratmann, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Biological particles such as bacteria, fungal spores or pollen are known to be efficient ice nucleating particles. Their ability to nucleate ice is due to ice nucleation active macromolecules (INMs). It has been suggested that these INMs maintain their nucleating ability even when they are separated from their original carriers. This opens the possibility of an accumulation of such INMs in soils, resulting in an internal mixture of mineral dust and INMs. If particles from such soils which contain biological INMs are then dispersed into the atmosphere due to wind erosion or agricultural processes, they could induce ice nucleation at temperatures typical for biological substances, i.e., above -20 up to almost 0 °C, while they might be characterized as mineral dust particles due to a possibly low content of biological material. We conducted a study within the research unit INUIT (Ice Nucleation research UnIT), where we investigated the ice nucleation behavior of mineral dust particles internally mixed with INM. Specifically, we mixed a pure mineral dust sample (illite-NX) with ice active biological material (birch pollen washing water) and quantified the immersion freezing behavior of the resulting particles utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). A very important topic concerning the investigations presented here as well as for atmospheric application is the characterization of the mixing state of aerosol particles. In the present study we used different methods like single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and a Volatility-Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (VH-TDMA) to investigate the mixing state of our generated aerosol. Not all applied methods performed similarly well in detecting small amounts of biological material on the mineral dust particles. Measuring the hygroscopicity/volatility of the mixed particles with the VH-TDMA was the most

  11. Laboratory-generated mixtures of mineral dust particles with biological substances: characterization of the particle mixing state and immersion freezing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Augustin-Bauditz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological particles such as bacteria, fungal spores or pollen are known to be efficient ice nucleating particles. Their ability to nucleate ice is due to ice nucleation active macromolecules (INMs. It has been suggested that these INMs maintain their nucleating ability even when they are separated from their original carriers. This opens the possibility of an accumulation of such INMs in soils, resulting in an internal mixture of mineral dust and INMs. If particles from such soils which contain biological INMs are then dispersed into the atmosphere due to wind erosion or agricultural processes, they could induce ice nucleation at temperatures typical for biological substances, i.e., above −20 up to almost 0 °C, while they might be characterized as mineral dust particles due to a possibly low content of biological material. We conducted a study within the research unit INUIT (Ice Nucleation research UnIT, where we investigated the ice nucleation behavior of mineral dust particles internally mixed with INM. Specifically, we mixed a pure mineral dust sample (illite-NX with ice active biological material (birch pollen washing water and quantified the immersion freezing behavior of the resulting particles utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS. A very important topic concerning the investigations presented here as well as for atmospheric application is the characterization of the mixing state of aerosol particles. In the present study we used different methods like single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, and a Volatility–Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (VH-TDMA to investigate the mixing state of our generated aerosol. Not all applied methods performed similarly well in detecting small amounts of biological material on the mineral dust particles. Measuring the hygroscopicity/volatility of the mixed particles with the VH

  12. Biological and bacteriological characterization of the strain of Xylella fastidiosa Xf-PGAICR and detection of X. fastidiosa from leafhoppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin Chaves, Maria Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory tools are developed and optimized for the biological characterization of a strain of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf-PGAICR) isolated of guava. The testing of pathogenesis robustly has allowed the characterization of other strains of X. fastidiosa. The detection of X. fastidiosa is carried out in their insect vectors to establish the relationship with the presence of phytopathogen in the vector, the presence and dissemination of X. fastidiosa to nearby areas [es

  13. Biological characterization of two xenografts derived from human CUPs (carcinomas of unknown primary

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    Bernheim Alain

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinomas of unknown primary site (CUP are epithelial malignancies revealed by metastatic lesions in the absence of any detectable primary tumor. Although they often adopt an aggressive clinical pattern, their basic biology remains poorly understood. Laboratory research on their biology have been hampered so far by the absence of cell lines representative of CUPs. Methods We attempted xenografts of CUP clinical specimens in immunodeficient mice and subsequent in vitro culture of transplanted malignant cells. Whenever possible, malignant xenografted or cultured cells were characterized by microsatellite genotyping, immunohistology, electron microscopy, multifish chromosome analysis and search of TP 53 gene mutations. Results Successful xenografts were achieved in 2 cases out of 4. One of them (Capi1 was lost after 3 passages whereas the other one (Capi3 has been adapted to in vitro culture and is currently available to the scientific community with reliable identification based on microsatellite genotyping. Both Capi1 and Capi3 have histological characteristics of adenocarcinomas and display intense expression of EMA, CEA and cytokeratin 7. Multifish chromosome analysis demonstrated a translocation involving chromosomes 4 and 21 in both specimens. Distinct rare missense mutations of the TP53 gene were detected in Capi1 (codon 312 and Capi3 (codon 181; the codon 181 mutation is consistent with a previously reported similar finding in a small series of CUP specimens. Finally, intense membrane expression of c-kit was recorded in Capi3. Conclusion Our data suggest that xenografted tumors can be obtained from a substantial fraction of CUP clinical specimens. The hypothesis of a preferential association of CUPs with TP 53 mutations of codon 181 deserves further investigations. The Capi3 cell line will be a useful tool for assessment of novel c-kit inhibitors.

  14. The adipose tissue of origin influences the biological potential of human adipose stromal cells isolated from mediastinal and subcutaneous fat depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Siciliano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Indirect evidence suggests that adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs possess different physiological and biological variations related to the anatomical localization of the adipose depots. Accordingly, to investigate the influence of the tissue origin on the intrinsic properties of ASCs and to assess their response to specific stimuli, we compared the biological, functional and ultrastructural properties of two ASC pools derived from mediastinal and subcutaneous depots (thoracic compartment by means of supplements such as platelet lysate (PL and FBS. Subcutaneous ASCs exhibited higher proliferative and clonogenic abilities than mediastinal counterpart, as well as increased secreted levels of IL-6 combined with lower amount of VEGF-C. In contrast, mediastinal ASCs displayed enhanced pro-angiogenic and adipogenic differentiation properties, increased cell diameter and early autophagic processes, highlighted by electron microscopy. Our results further support the hypothesis that the origin of adipose tissue significantly defines the biological properties of ASCs, and that a homogeneric function for all ASCs cannot be assumed.

  15. Elemental analysis of samples of biological origin relative to their protein content by means of charged particle bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szoekefalvi-Nagy, Z.; Demeter, I.; Varga, L.; Hollos-Nagy, K.; Keszthelyi, L.

    1981-04-01

    The particle excited X-ray emission (PIXE) and the 14 N(d,p) 15 N nuclear reaction is combined for simultaneous elemental composition and nitrogen content determination in biological samples. Using the correlation between nitrogen and proton content the elemental composition is related to the protein content of the sample. The principles and main characteristics of the method are described and illustrative applications are also given. (author)

  16. Absorption and biological half-life in humans of intrinsic and extrinsic 54Mn tracers from foods of plant origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Lykken, G.I.; Korynta, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Absorption and biological half-life of 54 Mn were measured in adult men and women fed foods labeled intrinsically or extrinsically with 54 Mn. Each subject consumed a series of three test meals consisting of a food labeled intrinsically, a food labeled extrinsically or MnCl 2 (control) served in random order. The foods tested were lettuce, spinach, wheat and sunflower seeds. Lettuce meals and their controls contained 9.65 mumol Mn; other meals contained 22.50 mumol Mn. In addition to the test food or MnCl 2 , each meal consisted of vegetable oil (5 g), salt (NaCl, 0.15 g) and crackers (10 g), which provided 0.55 mumol Mn. There were no differences in percentage of Mn absorption or biological half-life of 54 Mn for any of the intrinsically/extrinsically labeled food pairs. Absorption of 54 Mn from MnCl 2 (8.90%) was greater than from lettuce (5.20%), spinach (3.81%), wheat (2.16%) or sunflower seeds (1.71%), but the biological half-life did not vary with the source of Mn. Absorption of 54 Mn from lettuce was significantly (P less than 0.05) greater than from wheat or sunflower seeds. Although the Mn dose in the test meal was less for lettuce than for the other foods, there was no difference in Mn absorption from MnCl 2 between the subjects fed lettuce and subjects fed other foods. There was no correlation of either 54 Mn absorption or biological half-life with whole blood or plasma Mn

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel pyrethroid-hydrolyzing esterase originating from the Metagenome

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    Liu Yu

    2008-12-01

    , purified and characterized. The molecular mass of the native enzyme was approximately 31 kDa as determined by gel filtration. The results of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the deduced amino acid sequence of the Pye3 indicated molecular mass of 31 kDa and 31.5 kDa, respectively, suggesting that the Pye3 is a monomer. The purified Pye3 not only degraded all pyrethroid pesticides tested, but also hydrolyzed ρ-nitrophenyl esters of medium-short chain fatty acids, indicating that the Pye3 is an esterase with broader specificity. The Km values for trans-Permethrin and cis-permethrin are 0.10 μM and 0.18 μM, respectively, and these catalytic properties were superior to carboxylesterases from resistant insects and mammals. The catalytic activity of the Pye3 was strongly inhibited by Hg2+, Ag+, ρ-chloromercuribenzoate, whereas less pronounced effect was observed in the presence of divalent cations, the chelating agent EDTA and phenanthroline. Conclusion A novel pyrethroid-hydrolyzing esterase gene was successfully cloned using metagenomic DNA combined with activity-based functional screening from soil, the broader substrate specificities and higher activity of the pyrethroid-hydrolyzing esterase (Pye3 make it an ideal candidate for in situ for detoxification of pyrethroids where they cause environmental contamination problems. Consequently, metagenomic DNA clone library offers possibilities to discover novel bio-molecules through the expression of genes from uncultivated bacteria.

  18. Critical tests for determination of microbiological quality and biological activity in commercial vermicompost samples of different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantina-Ievina, Lelde; Andersone, Una; Berkolde-Pīre, Dace; Nikolajeva, Vizma; Ievinsh, Gederts

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present paper was to show that differences in biological activity among commercially produced vermicompost samples can be found by using a relatively simple test system consisting of microorganism tests on six microbiological media and soilless seedling growth tests with four vegetable crop species. Significant differences in biological properties among analyzed samples were evident both at the level of microbial load as well as plant growth-affecting activity. These differences were mostly manufacturer- and feedstock-associated, but also resulted from storage conditions of vermicompost samples. A mature vermicompost sample that was produced from sewage sludge still contained considerable number of Escherichia coli. Samples from all producers contained several potentially pathogenic fungal species such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Pseudallescheria boidii, Pseudallescheria fimeti, Pseudallescheria minutispora, Scedosporium apiospermum, Scedosporium prolificans, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Stachybotrys chartarum, Geotrichum spp., Aphanoascus terreus, and Doratomyces columnaris. In addition, samples from all producers contained plant growth-promoting fungi from the genera Trichoderma and Mortierella. The described system can be useful both for functional studies aiming at understanding of factors affecting quality characteristics of vermicompost preparations and for routine testing of microbiological quality and biological activity of organic waste-derived composts and vermicomposts.

  19. Chiral Biases in Solids by Effect of Shear Gradients: A Speculation on the Deterministic Origin of Biological Homochirality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteaga, O.; Canillas, A.; Crusats, Joaquim; Hachemi, Zoubir; Jellison, Gerald Earle Jr.; Llorca, Jordi; Ribo, Josep M.

    2010-01-01

    We present an experimental approach to the study of the chirality of three CM2 meteorite solid samples by direct measurement of the optical activity (circular birefringence; CB). The measurements are based on transmission two modulator generalized ellipsometry in conjuction with microscope optics to map the CB of the samples. In spite of the complexity of such optical analysis, these first results indicate the presence of optically active areas in the meteorite solid matrix. In the case of the Murchison sample the statistics of the CB mapping shows a bimodal distribution with a bias to negative CB values. The composition of the active areas probably corresponds to serpentines and other poorly identified phyllosilicate phases. The results are compatible with the hypothesis that in a mineral-based scenario for the origin of life a CB sign bias in the chiral fractures originated by mechanical and flow shear gradients on clays could be later transferred to the reactions of the absorbed organic compounds.

  20. Characterization of apple seed oil with Denomination of Origin from Asturias, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bada, J. C.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The content and composition of lipids isolated from the seeds of seven apple species from Asturias (Spain were characterized. The highest content in oil corresponded to Collao (22.73±0.81 g·100 g-1 of seed, followed by Raxao and Riega (20.19±0.74 g·100 g-1 of seed; 19.67±0.85 g·100 g-1 of seed, respectively. The linoleic acid was found to be the main component in Limón Montés (60.78±3.07% followed by Riega (60.01±3.41%. Solarina seed oil was the one with the highest content in total sterols (558.52±9.42 mg·100 g-1 of oil while Blanquina was the one that presents the lowest amount (166.55±1.89 mg·100 g-1 of oil. Phosphatidylcholine (70.58±3.85% was found to be the main constituent in Blanquina followed by Collaos (55.55±2.96%. Raxao presented the highest content in β-tocopherol (125.29±12.62 and α-tocopherol was the most important tocopherol in Limón Montés (84.68±5.61 mg·kg-1 of oil. The main triglycerides were LLP (41.17±1.98-39.32±1.66% followed by LLL (27.12±1.32−17.80±1.96%. Good separation among specie samples according to the statistical analysis of the principal component (PCs and linear discriminant analysis (LDA was obtained.Se ha caracterizado el contenido y composición de los lípidos aislados de semillas de siete especies de manzanas de Asturias (España. El contenido más alto en aceite correspondió a Collao (22.73±0.81 g·100 g-1 de semilla, seguida de Raxao y Riega (20.19±0.74 g·100 g-1 de semilla y 19.67±0.85 g·100 g-1 de semilla respectivamente. El ácido linoleico fué el de mayor contenido en Limón Montés (60.78±3.07% seguido por la Riega (60.01±3.41%. El contenido más alto en esteroles correspondió a Solarina (558.52±9.42 mg·100 g-1 de aceite mientras que Blanquina fué el que presentó los valores más bajo (166.55±1.89 mg·100 g-1 de aceite. Fosfatidilcolina (70.58±3.85% del total FL fué el principal constituyente en Blanquina seguida por Collao (55.55±2.96% del total FL

  1. Characterization and aerobic biological treatment of msw: a case study of hyderabad city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korai, M.S.; Mahar, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) generated in Hyderabad city for its suitability to make compost product through AB (Aerobic Biological) treatment. Assessment of MSW regarding its generation rate, quantification and characterization decides its suitability for composting process. Three AB treatment reactors R1 (natural air circulation and manually mixed reactor), R2 (compressed air circulation and manually mixed reactor) and R3 (compressed air circulation and mechanically mixed reactor) were designed and fabricated. AB treatment of the segregated food and yard waste reveals that there is no any significant change occurs in the moisture content of the compost product in all the reactors but, significant loss of VS (Volatile Solids) and gain of ash content was observed for reactor R2. Thus, the reactor R2 is the most efficient reactor in comparison to other reactors. Moreover, the mechanical mixing in AB treatment does not significantly increase VS loss. Further the reactor R1 does not consumes electricity and thus can be employed as the solution for converting segregated food and yard waste from MSW into a compost product. (author)

  2. Characterization of biological aerosol exposure risks from automobile air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Mingzhen; Shen, Fangxia; Zou, Zhuanglei; Yao, Maosheng; Wu, Chang-yu

    2013-09-17

    Although use of automobile air conditioning (AC) was shown to reduce in-vehicle particle levels, the characterization of its microbial aerosol exposure risks is lacking. Here, both AC and engine filter dust samples were collected from 30 automobiles in four different geographical locations in China. Biological contents (bacteria, fungi, and endotoxin) were studied using culturing, high-throughput gene sequence, and Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) methods. In-vehicle viable bioaerosol concentrations were directly monitored using an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS) before and after use of AC for 5, 10, and 15 min. Regardless of locations, the vehicle AC filter dusts were found to be laden with high levels of bacteria (up to 26,150 CFU/mg), fungi (up to 1287 CFU/mg), and endotoxin (up to 5527 EU/mg). More than 400 unique bacterial species, including human opportunistic pathogens, were detected in the filter dusts. In addition, allergenic fungal species were also found abundant. Surprisingly, unexpected fluorescent peaks around 2.5 μm were observed during the first 5 min use of AC, which was attributed to the reaerosolization of those filter-borne microbial agents. The information obtained here can assist in minimizing or preventing the respiratory allergy or infection risk from the use of automobile AC system.

  3. Synthesis, characterization, and biological activity of a new palladium(II) complex with deoxyalliin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbi, P.P.; Massabni, A.C. [Inst. de Quimica - UNESP, Dept., Dept. de Quimica Geral e Inoganica, Araraquara (Brazil)]. E-mail: pedrocorbi@yahoo.com; Moreira, A.G. [Inst. de Quimica - UNESP, Dept. de Quimica Geral e Inoganica, Araraquara (Brazil); Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto - USP, Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Medrano, F.J. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron - LNLS, Campinas (Brazil); Jasiulionis, M.G. [Escola Paulista de Medicina - UNIFESP, Dept. de Micro-Imuno-Parasitologia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Costa-Neto, C.M. [Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto - USP, Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)

    2005-02-15

    Synthesis, characterization, and biological activity of a new water-soluble Pd(II)-deoxyalliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine) complex are described in this article. Elemental and thermal analysis for the complex are consistent with the formula [Pd(C{sub 6}H{sub 10}NO{sub 2}S){sub 2}]. {sup 13}C NMR, {sup 1}H NMR, and IR spectroscopy show coordination of the ligand to Pd(II) through S and N atoms in a square planar geometry. Final residue of the thermal treatment was identified as a mixture of PdO and metallic Pd. Antiproliferative assays using aqueous solutions of the complex against HeLa and TM5 tumor cells showed a pronounced activity of the complex even at low concentrations. After incubation for 24 h, the complex induced cytotoxic effect over HeLa cells when used at concentrations higher than 0.40 mmol/L. At lower concentrations, the complex was nontoxic, indicating its action is probably due to cell cycle arrest, rather than cell death. In agreement with these results, the flow cytometric analysis indicated that after incubation for 24 h at low concentrations of the complex cells are arrested in G0/G1. (author)

  4. Synthesis, characterization and biological behavior of some Schiff's and Mannich base derivatives of Lamotrigine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Kulkarni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of various Schiff's and Mannich base derivatives (N1–2 & ND1–6 of Lamotrigine with isatin and substituted isatin were synthesized to get more potent anticonvulsant agents. The starting material for the synthesis of various new Schiff's and Mannich base derivatives was isatin (1H-indole- 2, 3-dione which in turn was prepared from substituted isonitrosoacetanilide using aniline. Lamotrigine reacts with isatin & substituted isatin gave Schiff's bases (N1–2 which on reaction with various secondary amines (dimethylamine, diethylamine, morpholine produced Mannich bases (ND1–6. The structures of newly synthesized compounds were characterized by using TLC, UV, FT-IR, 1HNMR and studied for their anticonvulsant activity. Anticonvulsant activity of all the derivatives was evaluated by MES method using phenobarbitone sodium & Lamotrigine as standard drugs and % reduction of time spent by animals in extension, flexion, clonus, and stupor phase were noted. Compounds ND-4 and ND-6 showed significant anticonvulsant activity when compared with that of standard drugs. The remaining all compounds show moderate activity. Biological activity data of the synthesized derivatives revealed that, the synthesized derivatives are good anticonvulsant agents as compared to Lamotrigine.

  5. Maltose conjugation to PCL: Advanced structural characterization and preliminary biological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secchi, Valeria; Guizzardi, Roberto; Russo, Laura; Pastori, Valentina; Lecchi, Marzia; Franchi, Stefano; Iucci, Giovanna; Battocchio, Chiara; Cipolla, Laura

    2018-05-01

    The emerging trends in regenerative medicine rely among others on biomaterial-based therapies, with the use of biomaterials as a central delivery system for biochemical and physical cues to manipulate transplanted or ingrowth cells and to orchestrate tissue regeneration. Cell adhesion properties of a biomaterial strongly depend on its surface characteristics. Among others poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) is a biocompatible and biodegradable material with low cytotoxicity that is widely adopted as synthetic polymer in several applications. However, it is hydrophobic, which limits its use in tissue engineering. In order to improve its hydrophilicity and cellular compatibility, PCL surface was grafted with maltose through a two-step procedure in which controlled aminolysis of PCL ester bonds by hexanediamine was followed by reductive amination with the carbohydrate reducing end. The modified PCL surface was then characterized in detail by x-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Near Edge x-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopies. In addition, the biocompatibility of the proposed biomaterial was investigated in preliminary biological assays.

  6. Canine osteosarcoma cell lines contain stem-like cancer cells: biological and pharmacological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Monica; Wurth, Roberto; Vito, Guendalina; Pattarozzi, Alessandra; Campanella, Chiara; Thellung, Stefano; Maniscalco, Lorella; De Maria, Raffaella; Villa, Valentina; Corsaro, Alessandro; Nizzari, Mario; Bajetto, Adriana; Ratto, Alessandra; Ferrari, Angelo; Barbieri, Federica; Florio, Tullio

    2016-05-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a small subpopulation of cells responsible for tumor formation and progression, drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasization. CSCs have been identified in many human tumors including osteosarcoma (OSA). CSC distinctive properties are the expression of stem cell markers, sustained growth, self-renewal and tumorigenicity. Here we report the isolation of stem-like cells from two canine OSA cultures, characterized by self-renewal, evaluated by sphere formation ability, differential marker expression, and in vitro proliferation when cultured in a medium containing EGF and bFGF. Current therapies for OSA increased survival time, but prognosis remains poor, due to the development of drug resistance and metastases. Chemotherapy shrinks the tumor mass but CSCs remain unaffected, leading to tumor recurrence. Metformin, a drug for type 2 diabetes, has been shown to possess antitumor properties affecting CSC survival in different human and animal cancers. Here we show that metformin has a significant antiproliferative effect on canine OSA stem-like cells, validating this in vitro model for further pre-clinical drug evaluations. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining CSC-enriched cultures from primary canine OSA cells as a promising model for biological and pharmacological studies of canine and human OSAs.

  7. Characterization, biological activities, and authentication of red fruit (Pandanus conoideus Lam oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohman, A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Red fruit (Pandanus conoideus Lam oil (RFO is one of high value edible oils having many functional advantages for health. P. conoideus is a native plant from Papua province, Republic of Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. RFO is good for diets and served as preventive agents for various diseases such as cancer and coronary disease so that RFO can be considered as functional edible oils. Because of its high quality, in Indonesia fats and oils market, RFO has a more expensive price (10-15 times than other common edible oils like palm oil and corn oil. This fact attracts some unethical player to adulterate RFO with other lower priced-oils such as palm oil and corn oil. As a consequence, the authentication of RFO from any oil adulterants becomes important to ensure the quality and the authenticity of RFO. This article report some biological advantages of RFO and the characterization of RFO. FTIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate calibrations has been reported as a powerful technique for the authentication of RFO from other oils and is the most reported techniques in some literature.

  8. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Transition Metal Complexes Derived from N, S Bidentate Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enis Nadia Md Yusof

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two bidentate NS ligands were synthesized by the condensation reaction of S-2-methylbenzyldithiocarbazate (S2MBDTC with 2-methoxybenzaldehyde (2MB and 3-methoxybenzaldehyde (3MB. The ligands were reacted separately with acetates of Cu(II, Ni(II and Zn(II yielding 1:2 (metal:ligand complexes. The metal complexes formed were expected to have a general formula of [M(NS2] where M = Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+. These compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility and various spectroscopic techniques. The magnetic susceptibility measurements and spectral results supported the predicted coordination geometry in which the Schiff bases behaved as bidentate NS donor ligands coordinating via the azomethine nitrogen and thiolate sulfur. The molecular structures of the isomeric S2M2MBH (1 and S2M3MBH (2 were established by X-ray crystallography to have very similar l-shaped structures. The Schiff bases and their metal complexes were evaluated for their biological activities against estrogen receptor-positive (MCF-7 and estrogen receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. Only the Cu(II complexes showed marked cytotoxicity against the cancer cell lines. Both Schiff bases and other metal complexes were found to be inactive. In concordance with the cytotoxicity studies, the DNA binding studies indicated that Cu(II complexes have a strong DNA binding affinity.

  9. Functionalized polypyrrole film: synthesis, characterization, and potential applications in chemical and biological sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hua; Cao, Xiaodong; Li, Chang Ming

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of a carboxyl-functionalized polypyrrole derivative, a poly(pyrrole-N-propanoic acid) (PPPA) film, by electrochemical polymerization, and the investigation of its basic properties via traditional characterization techniques such as confocal-Raman, FTIR, SEM, AFM, UV-vis, fluorescence microscopy, and contact-angle measurements. The experimental data show that the as-prepared PPPA film exhibits a hydrophilic nanoporous structure, abundant -COOH functional groups in the polymer backbone, and high fluorescent emission under laser excitation. On the basis of these unique properties, further experiments were conducted to demonstrate three potential applications of the PPPA film in chemical and biological sensors: a permeable and permselective membrane, a membrane with specific recognition sites for biomolecule immobilization, and a fluorescent conjugated polymer for amplification of fluorescence quenching. Specifically, the permeability and permselectivity of ion species through the PPPA film are detected by means of rotating-disk-electrode voltammetry; the specific recognition sites on the film surface are confirmed with protein immobilization, and the amplification of fluorescence quenching is measured by the addition of a quenching agent with fluorescence microscopy. The results are in good agreement with our expectations.

  10. Syntheses, Characterization, Resolution, and Biological Studies of Coordination Compounds of Aspartic Acid and Glycine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinkunmi, Ezekiel; Ojo, Isaac; Adebajo, Clement; Isabirye, David

    2017-01-01

    Enantiomerically enriched coordination compounds of aspartic acid and racemic mixtures of coordination compounds of glycine metal-ligand ratio 1 : 3 were synthesized and characterized using infrared and UV-Vis spectrophotometric techniques and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Five of the complexes were resolved using (+)-cis-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) chloride, (+)-bis(glycinato)(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt(III) chloride, and (+)-tris(1,10-phenanthroline)nickel(II) chloride as resolving agents. The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of these complexes were then determined. The results obtained indicated that aspartic acid and glycine coordinated in a bidentate fashion. The enantiomeric purity of the compounds was in the range of 22.10–32.10%, with (+)-cis-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) complex as the more efficient resolving agent. The resolved complexes exhibited better activity in some cases compared to the parent complexes for both biological activities. It was therefore inferred that although the increase in the lipophilicity of the complexes may assist in the permeability of the complexes through the cell membrane of the pathogens, the enantiomeric purity of the complexes is also of importance in their activity as antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents. PMID:28293149

  11. Characterization and Aerobic Biological Treatment of MSW: A Case Study of Hyderabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Safar Korai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the MSW (Municipal Solid Waste generated in Hyderabad city for its suitability to make compost product through AB (Aerobic Biological treatment. Assessment of MSW regarding its generation rate, quantification and characterization decides its suitability for composting process. Three AB treatment reactors R1 (natural air circulation and manually mixed reactor, R2 (compressed air circulation and manually mixed reactor and R3 (compressed air circulation and mechanically mixed reactor were designed and fabricated. AB treatment of the segregated food and yard waste reveals that there is no any significant change occurs in the moisture content of the compost product in all the reactors but, significant loss of VS (Volatile Solids and gain of ash content was observed for reactor R2. Thus, the reactor R2 is the most efficient reactor in comparison to other reactors. Moreover, the mechanical mixing in AB treatment does not significantly increase VS loss. Further the reactor R1 does not consumes electricity and thus can be employed as the solution for converting segregated food and yard waste from MSW into a compost product

  12. Characterization of biological activity of cigarette smoke using in vitro tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, A.L.; Chen, B.T.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize the influence of exposure mode (whole-body continuous, nose only intermittent, nose-only continuous) on biological activity of cigarette smoke condensates. The mutagenic potency of the extracts was determined using Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA-98 with and without the addition of S-9. The cytotoxicity of the cigarette smoke with and without the addition of S-9 was also determined using Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO). Mutagenic activity was observed in the Ames test only after the addition of S-9. The optimum mutagenic activity was observed following addition of between 3 and 6% S-9. The average mutagenic potency, when cells were tested at the optimum level of S-9, was 1.5 revertants/mg extract. Cell killing by cigarette smoke extracts was the same for extracts derived from all three exposure modes. There was about 20% cell killing at concentrations of 300 mg extract/mL culture media. No differences were observed in either mutagenic or cytotoxic potency among the smoke extracts produced under different exposure conditions. (author)

  13. Cell biological characterization of the malaria vaccine candidate trophozoite exported protein 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Kulangara

    Full Text Available In a genome-wide screen for alpha-helical coiled coil motifs aiming at structurally defined vaccine candidates we identified PFF0165c. This protein is exported in the trophozoite stage and was named accordingly Trophozoite exported protein 1 (Tex1. In an extensive preclinical evaluation of its coiled coil peptides Tex1 was identified as promising novel malaria vaccine candidate providing the rational for a comprehensive cell biological characterization of Tex1. Antibodies generated against an intrinsically unstructured N-terminal region of Tex1 and against a coiled coil domain were used to investigate cytological localization, solubility and expression profile. Co-localization experiments revealed that Tex1 is exported across the parasitophorous vacuole membrane and located to Maurer's clefts. Change in location is accompanied by a change in solubility: from a soluble state within the parasite to a membrane-associated state after export to Maurer's clefts. No classical export motifs such as PEXEL, signal sequence/anchor or transmembrane domain was identified for Tex1.

  14. Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro biological evaluation of highly stable diversely functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Dipsikha; Sahu, Sumanta K.; Banerjee, Indranil; Das, Manasmita; Mishra, Debashish; Maiti, Tapas K.; Pramanik, Panchanan

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report the design and synthesis of a series of well-dispersed superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) using chitosan as a surface modifying agent to develop a potential T 2 contrast probe for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and thiol functionalities were introduced on chitosan-coated magnetic probe via simple reactions with small reactive organic molecules to afford a series of biofunctionalized nanoparticles. Physico-chemical characterizations of these functionalized nanoparticles were performed by TEM, XRD, DLS, FTIR, and VSM. The colloidal stability of these functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles was investigated in presence of phosphate buffer saline, high salt concentrations and different cell media for 1 week. MRI analysis of human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cell lines treated with nanoparticles elucidated that the amine-functionalized nanoparticles exhibited higher amount of signal darkening and lower T 2 relaxation in comparison to the others. The cellular internalization efficacy of these functionalized SPIONs was also investigated with HeLa cancer cell line by magnetically activated cell sorting (MACS) and fluorescence microscopy and results established selectively higher internalization efficacy of amine-functionalized nanoparticles to cancer cells. These positive attributes demonstrated that these nanoconjugates can be used as a promising platform for further in vitro and in vivo biological evaluations.

  15. Characterization of volatiles in Beaten cheeses (bieno sirenje by SPME/GC-MC: Influence of geographical origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulejmani Erhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the volatile profiles of a type of economically important cheeses for the FYR Macedonian dairy sector were characterized. A total of eighteen samples belonged to 6 different geographical regions of Beaten cheese, including cheeses from Kumanovo, Tetovo, Struga, Resen, Veles and Radovish were comparatively studied for their volatile profiles. Sixty two volatile compounds were identified in the cheeses by solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the results are discussed based on their chemical classes (18 esters, 13 ketones, 10 acids, 8 alcohols, 5 terpenes, and 8 miscellaneous compounds. Acids, esters and alcohols were the most abundant classes identified and were highly dependent on the geographical origin of cheeses. Beaten cheese from Struga had the highest levels of carboxylic acids, ketones, alcohols, esters and terpenes. The Beaten cheese from other geographical origin had low levels of volatiles probably from the effect of variable characteristics of used milk and different cheese making process which affects the biochemical processes. The results suggest that each cheese from different geographical regions had different volatiles profile and the manufacturing technique as well as the ripening stage of the cheeses played a major role on the volatile compounds’ distribution.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of polyglycerols dendrimers for applications in tissue engineering biological

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos, E.D.; Queiroz, A.A.A. de [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Over the last twenty years is the growing development in the manufacture of synthetic scaffold in tissue engineering applications. These new materials are based on polyglycerol dendrimers (PGLD's). PGLD's are highly functional polymers with hydroxymethyl side groups, fulfill all structural prerequisites to replace poly(ethylene glycol)s in medical applications. Furthermore, since these materials are based on naturally occurring compounds that degrades over time in the body and can be safely excreted. The objective of this work was the synthesis, physicochemical, biological characterization of HPGL's with potential use as scaffolds in tissue engineering. HPGL's with oligomeric cores, of diglycerol triglycerol and tetraglycerol was used. Theoretical and Experimental Simulation Details: The synthesis of PGLD procedures involves the etherification of glycerol through anionic polymerization of glycidol. The PGLD's were characterized by chromatographic techniques (SEC and HPLC), spectroscopic (FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C - NMR) electrochemical (zeta potential) and thermal analysis (DSC and TGA) techniques. The structure- activity relationships (SAR's) of compound prototype and its analogs were studied to determine the generation number (G) of the molecule responsible for the biological activity on the adhesion and cell proliferation process. A detailed study of the structure of PGLD's of G=0-4 was performed using the Hyperchem 7. 5 and Gromacs 4 software packages. The biocompatibility studies were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy (EPF) technique after PGLD (G=0-4) blood contact. The overall electro-negativity/total charge density, dipole moment, frontier orbital's (HOMO - LUMO) and electrostatic potential maps (EPM) were calculated. The most stable form of the resulting compounds was determined by estimating the hydration energy and energy conformation. Results and

  17. Genetic analysis and antigenic characterization of swine origin influenza viruses isolated from humans in the United States, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Bo; Garten, Rebecca; Emery, Shannon; Balish, Amanda; Cooper, Lynn; Sessions, Wendy; Deyde, Varough; Smith, Catherine; Berman, LaShondra; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen; Xu, Xiyan

    2012-01-05

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been recognized as important pathogens for pigs and occasional human infections with swine origin influenza viruses (SOIV) have been reported. Between 1990 and 2010, a total of twenty seven human cases of SOIV infections have been identified in the United States. Six viruses isolated from 1990 to 1995 were recognized as classical SOIV (cSOIV) A(H1N1). After 1998, twenty-one SOIV recovered from human cases were characterized as triple reassortant (tr_SOIV) inheriting genes from classical swine, avian and human influenza viruses. Of those twenty-one tr_SOIV, thirteen were of A(H1N1), one of A(H1N2), and seven of A(H3N2) subtype. SOIV characterized were antigenically and genetically closely related to the subtypes of influenza viruses circulating in pigs but distinct from contemporary influenza viruses circulating in humans. The diversity of subtypes and genetic lineages in SOIV cases highlights the importance of continued surveillance at the animal-human interface. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Aerosol-Fluorescence Spectrum Analyzer: Real-Time Measurement of Emission Spectra of Airborne Biological Particles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Steven

    1997-01-01

    ...) made from various biological materials (e.g., Bacillus subtilis spores, B. anthrasis spores, riboflavin, and tree leaves). The AFS may be useful in detecting and characterizing airborne bacteria and other airborne particles of biological origin.

  19. Fundamental Issues Related to the Origin of Melatonin and Melatonin Isomers during Evolution: Relation to Their Biological Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dun-Xian Tan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin and melatonin isomers exist and/or coexist in living organisms including yeasts, bacteria and plants. The levels of melatonin isomers are significantly higher than that of melatonin in some plants and in several fermented products such as in wine and bread. Currently, there are no reports documenting the presence of melatonin isomers in vertebrates. From an evolutionary point of view, it is unlikely that melatonin isomers do not exist in vertebrates. On the other hand, large quantities of the microbial flora exist in the gut of the vertebrates. These microorganisms frequently exchange materials with the host. Melatonin isomers, which are produced by these organisms inevitably enter the host’s system. The origins of melatonin and its isomers can be traced back to photosynthetic bacteria and other primitive unicellular organisms. Since some of these bacteria are believed to be the precursors of mitochondria and chloroplasts these cellular organelles may be the primary sites of melatonin production in animals or in plants, respectively. Phylogenic analysis based on its rate-limiting synthetic enzyme, serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT, indicates its multiple origins during evolution. Therefore, it is likely that melatonin and its isomer are also present in the domain of archaea, which perhaps require these molecules to protect them against hostile environments including extremely high or low temperature. Evidence indicates that the initial and primary function of melatonin and its isomers was to serve as the first-line of defence against oxidative stress and all other functions were acquired during evolution either by the process of adoption or by the extension of its antioxidative capacity.

  20. Physical-chemical characterization and biological assessment of simple and lithium-doped biological-derived hydroxyapatite thin films for a new generation of metallic implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, A. C.; Florian, P. E.; Stan, G. E.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Zgura, I.; Enculescu, M.; Oktar, F. N.; Trusca, R.; Sima, L. E.; Roseanu, A.; Duta, L.

    2018-05-01

    We report on the synthesis by PLD of simple and lithium-doped biological-origin hydroxyapatite (HA) films. The role of doping reagents (Li2CO3, Li3PO4) on the morphology, structure, chemical composition, bonding strength and cytocompatibility of the films was investigated. SEM investigations of the films evidenced a surface morphology consisting of particles with mean diameters of (5-7) μm. GIXRD analyses demonstrated that the synthesized structures consisted of HA phase only, with different degrees of crystallinity, mainly influenced by the doping reagent type. After only three days of immersion in simulated body fluid, FTIR spectra showed a remarkable growth of a biomimetic apatitic film, indicative of a high biomineralization capacity of the coatings. EDS analyses revealed a quasi-stoichiometric target-to-substrate transfer, the values inferred for the Ca/P ratio corresponding to a biological apatite. All synthesized structures displayed a hydrophilic behavior, suitable for attachment of osteoblast cells. In vitro cell viability tests showed that the presence of Li2CO3 and Li3PO4 as doping reagents promoted the hMSC growth on film surfaces. Taking into consideration these enhanced characteristics, corroborated with a low fabrication cost generated by sustainable resources, one should consider the lithium-doped biological-derived materials as promising prospective solutions for a next generation of coated implants with rapid osteointegration.

  1. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activities of Creatinine Amides and Creatinine Schiff Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Amara; Zahoor, Fareeha; Zaib, Sumera; Nawaz, Muhammad Azhar H; Saeed, Aamer; Waseem, Amir; Khan, Afsar; Hussain, Izhar; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2017-01-30

    In spite of substantial progress in scientific cognizance and medical technology, still infectious diseases are among the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Creatinine and Schiff bases are well known for their diverse range of biological activities and thought to be emerging and useful therapeutic target for the treatment of several diseases. The present work was aimed to illustrate the influence of substitution of amides and Schiff bases on creatinine and their antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-urease effectiveness was determined. Creatinine substituted amides (1-2) and creatinine Schiff bases (3-7) were synthesized and characterized by NMR and IR spectral data in combination with elemental analysis. All the compounds (1-7) were investigated on Jack bean urease for their urease inhibitory potential. Investigation of antimicrobial activity of the compounds was made by the agar dilution method. Moreover, 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method was used to determine their antioxidant potential. Molecular docking studies were also carried out to elucidate their relationship with the binding pockets of the enzyme. The compounds were found to be potent inhibitors of urease. The synthesized derivatives exhibited significant inhibition against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, as compared to standard, ciprofloxacin. Creatinine based derivatives exhibited potential antifungal activity when tested on infectious and pathogenic fungal strains. Similarly, most of the compounds exhibited good antioxidant activity. These derivatives may serve as a source of potential antioxidants and also help to retard microbial growth in food industry. Similarly, the studies provide a basis for further research to develop more potent urease inhibitory compounds of medicinal /agricultural interest. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Physico-chemical and biological characterization of urban municipal landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, B P; Mahapatra, Durga Madhab; Sitharam, T G; Sivapullaiah, P V; Ramachandra, T V

    2017-01-01

    Unscientific management and ad-hoc approaches in municipal solid waste management have led to a generation of voluminous leachate in urban conglomerates. Quantification, quality assessment, following treatment and management of leachate has become a serious problem worldwide. In this context, the present study investigates the physico-chemical and biological characterization of landfill leachate and nearby water sources and attempts to identify relationships between the key parameters together with understanding the various processes for chemical transformations. The analysis shows an intermediate leachate age (5-10 years) with higher nutrient levels of 10,000-12,000 mg/l and ∼2000-3000 mg/l of carbon (COD) and nitrogen (TKN) respectively. Elemental analysis and underlying mechanisms reveal chemical precipitation and co-precipitation as the vital processes in leachate pond systems resulting in accumulation of trace metals. Based on the above criteria the samples were clustered into major groups that showed a clear distinction between leachate and water bodies. The microbial analysis showed bacterial communities correlating with specific factors relevant to redox environments indicating a gradient in nature and abundance of biotic diversity with a change in leachate environment. Finally, the quality and the contamination potential of the samples were evaluated with the help of leachate pollution index (LPI) and water quality index (WQI) analysis. The study helps in understanding the contamination potential of landfill leachate and establishes linkages between microbial communities and physico-chemical parameters for effective management of landfill leachate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The polysaccharide inulin is characterized by an extensive series of periodic isoforms with varying biological actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Peter D; Barclay, Thomas G; Ginic-Markovic, Milena; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2013-01-01

    In studying the molecular basis for the potent immune activity of previously described gamma and delta inulin particles and to assist in production of inulin adjuvants under Good Manufacturing Practice, we identified five new inulin isoforms, bringing the total to seven plus the amorphous form. These isoforms comprise the step-wise inulin developmental series amorphous → alpha-1 (AI-1) → alpha-2 (AI-2) → gamma (GI) → delta (DI) → zeta (ZI) → epsilon (EI) → omega (OI) in which each higher isoform can be made either by precipitating dissolved inulin or by direct conversion from its precursor, both cases using regularly increasing temperatures. At higher temperatures, the shorter inulin polymer chains are released from the particle and so the key difference between isoforms is that each higher isoform comprises longer polymer chains than its precursor. An increasing trend of degree of polymerization is confirmed by end-group analysis using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Inulin isoforms were characterized by the critical temperatures of abrupt phase-shifts (solubilizations or precipitations) in water suspensions. Such (aqueous) “melting” or “freezing” points are diagnostic and occur in strikingly periodic steps reflecting quantal increases in noncovalent bonding strength and increments in average polymer lengths. The (dry) melting points as measured by modulated differential scanning calorimetry similarly increase in regular steps. We conclude that the isoforms differ in repeated increments of a precisely repeating structural element. Each isoform has a different spectrum of biological activities and we show the higher inulin isoforms to be more potent alternative complement pathway activators. PMID:23853206

  4. Ecophysiological characterization of early successional biological soil crusts in heavily human-impacted areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyja, Michelle; Büdel, Burkhard; Colesie, Claudia

    2018-04-01

    Ecophysiological characterizations of photoautotrophic communities are not only necessary to identify the response of carbon fixation related to different climatic factors, but also to evaluate risks connected to changing environments. In biological soil crusts (BSCs), the description of ecophysiological features is difficult, due to the high variability in taxonomic composition and variable methodologies applied. Especially for BSCs in early successional stages, the available datasets are rare or focused on individual constituents, although these crusts may represent the only photoautotrophic component in many heavily disturbed ruderal areas, such as parking lots or building areas with increasing surface area worldwide. We analyzed the response of photosynthesis and respiration to changing BSC water contents (WCs), temperature and light in two early successional BSCs. We investigated whether the response of these parameters was different between intact BSC and the isolated dominating components. BSCs dominated by the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune and dominated by the green alga Zygogonium ericetorum were examined. A major divergence between the two BSCs was their absolute carbon fixation rate on a chlorophyll basis, which was significantly higher for the cyanobacterial crust. Nevertheless, independent of species composition, both crust types and their isolated organisms had convergent features such as high light acclimatization and a minor and very late-occurring depression in carbon uptake at water suprasaturation. This particular setup of ecophysiological features may enable these communities to cope with a high variety of climatic stresses and may therefore be a reason for their success in heavily disturbed areas with ongoing human impact. However, the shape of the response was different for intact BSC compared to separated organisms, especially in absolute net photosynthesis (NP) rates. This emphasizes the importance of measuring intact BSCs under natural

  5. Biochemical and biological characterization of Bothriechis schlegelii snake venoms from Colombia and Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezotto-Neto, José P; Kimura, Louise F; Alves, André F; Gutiérrez, José María; Otero, Rafael; Suárez, Ana M; Santoro, Marcelo L; Barbaro, Katia C

    2016-12-01

    Snakebites inflicted by the arboreal viperid snake Bothriechis schlegelii in humans are characterized by pain, edema, and ecchymosis at the site of the bite, rarely with blisters, local necrosis, or defibrination. Herein, a comparative study of Bothriechis schlegelii snake venoms from Colombia (BsCo) and Costa Rica (BsCR) was carried out in order to compare their main activities and to verify the efficacy of Bothrops antivenom produced in Brazil to neutralize them. Biochemical (SDS-PAGE and zymography) and biological parameters (edematogenic, lethal, hemorrhagic, nociceptive, and phospholipase A 2 activities) induced by BsCo and BsCR snake venoms were evaluated. The presence of antibodies in Bothrops antivenom that recognize BsCo and BsCR snake venoms by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting, as well as the ability of this antivenom to neutralize the toxic activities were also verified. SDS-PAGE showed differences between venoms. Distinctive caseinolytic and hyaluronidase patterns were detected by zymography. BsCo and BsCR showed similar phospholipase A 2 activity. Strong cross-reactivity between BsCo and BsCR was detected using Bothrops antivenom with many components located between 150 and 35 kDa. BsCR was more edematogenic and almost fourfold more hemorrhagic than BsCo, and both venoms induced nociception. BsCR (LD 50 5.60 mg/kg) was more lethal to mice than BsCo (LD 50 9.24 mg/kg). Bothrops antivenom was effective in the neutralization of lethal and hemorrhagic activities of BsCo and BsCR and was partially effective in the neutralization of edematogenic and nociceptive activities. In conclusion, geographic distribution influences the composition and activities of Bothriechis schlegelii venoms. Bothrops antivenom cross-reacted with these venoms and was partially effective in neutralizing some toxic activities of BsCo and BsCR.

  6. Chemical and biological characterization of wastewater generated from hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Mai; Schideman, Lance; Scott, John; Rajagopalan, Nandakishore; Plewa, Michael J

    2013-02-19

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is an attractive method for converting wet biomass into petroleum-like biocrude oil that can be refined to make petroleum products. This approach is advantageous for conversion of low-lipid algae, which are promising feedstocks for sustainable large-scale biofuel production. As with natural petroleum formation, the water in contact with the produced oil contains toxic compounds. The objectives of this research were to: (1) identify nitrogenous organic compounds (NOCs) in wastewater from HTL conversion of Spirulina; (2) characterize mammalian cell cytotoxicity of specific NOCs, NOC mixture, and the complete HTL wastewater (HTL-WW) matrix; and (3) investigate mitigation measures to reduce toxicity in HTL-WW. Liquid-liquid extraction and nitrogen-phosphorus detection was used in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which detected hundreds of NOCs in HTL-WW. Reference materials for nine of the most prevalent NOCs were used to identify and quantify their concentrations in HTL-WW. Mammalian cell cytotoxicity of the nine NOCs was quantified using a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell assay, and the descending rank order for cytotoxicity was 3-dimethylamino-phenol > 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone > 2,6-dimethyl-3-pyridinol > 2-picoline > pyridine > 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone > σ-valerolactam > 2-pyrrolidinone > ε-caprolactam. The organic mixture extracted from HTL-WW expressed potent CHO cell cytotoxic activity, with a LC(50) at 7.5% of HTL-WW. Although the toxicity of HTL-WW was substantial, 30% of the toxicity was removed biologically by recycling HTL-WW back into algal cultivation. The remaining toxicity of HTL-WW was mostly eliminated by subsequent treatment with granular activated carbon.

  7. Molecular cloning and biological characterization of the human excision repair gene ERCC-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeda, G.; van Ham, R.C.; Masurel, R.; Westerveld, A.; Odijk, H.; de Wit, J.; Bootsma, D.; van der Eb, A.J.; Hoeijmakers, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    In this report we present the cloning, partial characterization, and preliminary studies of the biological activity of a human gene, designated ERCC-3, involved in early steps of the nucleotide excision repair pathway. The gene was cloned after genomic DNA transfection of human (HeLa) chromosomal DNA together with dominant marker pSV3gptH to the UV-sensitive, incision-defective Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutant 27-1. This mutant belongs to complementation group 3 of repair-deficient rodent mutants. After selection of UV-resistant primary and secondary 27-1 transformants, human sequences associated with the induced UV resistance were rescued in cosmids from the DNA of a secondary transformant by using a linked dominant marker copy and human repetitive DNA as probes. From coinheritance analysis of the ERCC-3 region in independent transformants, we deduce that the gene has a size of 35 to 45 kilobases, of which one essential segment has so far been refractory to cloning. Conserved unique human sequences hybridizing to a 3.0-kilobase mRNA were used to isolate apparently full-length cDNA clones. Upon transfection to 27-1 cells, the ERCC-3 cDNA, inserted in a mammalian expression vector, induced specific and (virtually) complete correction of the UV sensitivity and unscheduled DNA synthesis of mutants of complementation group 3 with very high efficiency. Mutant 27-1 is, unlike other mutants of complementation group 3, also very sensitive toward small alkylating agents. This unique property of the mutant is not corrected by introduction of the ERCC-3 cDNA, indicating that it may be caused by an independent second mutation in another repair function. By hybridization to DNA of a human x rodent hybrid cell panel, the ERCC-3 gene was assigned to chromosome 2, in agreement with data based on cell fusion

  8. Biological and chemical characterization of metal bioavailability in sediments from Lake Roosevelt, Columbia River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Moran, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the bioavailability and toxicity of copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, and lead in sediments from Lake Roosevelt (LR), a reservoir on the Columbia River in Washington, USA that receives inputs of metals from an upstream smelter facility. We characterized chronic sediment toxicity, metal bioaccumulation, and metal concentrations in sediment and pore water from eight study sites: one site upstream in the Columbia River, six sites in the reservoir, and a reference site in an uncontaminated tributary. Total recoverable metal concentrations in LR sediments generally decreased from upstream to downstream in the study area, but sediments from two sites in the reservoir had metal concentrations much lower than adjacent reservoir sites and similar to the reference site, apparently due to erosion of uncontaminated bank soils. Concentrations of acid-volatile sulfide in LR sediments were too low to provide strong controls on metal bioavailability, and selective sediment extractions indicated that metals in most LR sediments were primarily associated with iron and manganese oxides. Oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) accumulated greatest concentrations of copper from the river sediment, and greatest concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, and lead from reservoir sediments. Chronic toxic effects on amphipods (Hyalella azteca; reduced survival) and midge larvae (Chironomus dilutus; reduced growth) in whole-sediment exposures were generally consistent with predictions of metal toxicity based on empirical and equilibrium partitioning-based sediment quality guidelines. Elevated metal concentrations in pore waters of some LR sediments suggested that metals released from iron and manganese oxides under anoxic conditions contributed to metal bioaccumulation and toxicity. Results of both chemical and biological assays indicate that metals in sediments from both riverine and reservoir habitats of Lake Roosevelt are available to benthic invertebrates. These findings will be used as

  9. Mammographic quantitative image analysis and biologic image composition for breast lesion characterization and classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drukker, Karen, E-mail: kdrukker@uchicago.edu; Giger, Maryellen L.; Li, Hui [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Duewer, Fred; Malkov, Serghei; Joe, Bonnie; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John A. [Radiology Department, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Flowers, Chris I. [Department of Radiology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Drukteinis, Jennifer S. [Department of Radiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether biologic image composition of mammographic lesions can improve upon existing mammographic quantitative image analysis (QIA) in estimating the probability of malignancy. Methods: The study population consisted of 45 breast lesions imaged with dual-energy mammography prior to breast biopsy with final diagnosis resulting in 10 invasive ductal carcinomas, 5 ductal carcinomain situ, 11 fibroadenomas, and 19 other benign diagnoses. Analysis was threefold: (1) The raw low-energy mammographic images were analyzed with an established in-house QIA method, “QIA alone,” (2) the three-compartment breast (3CB) composition measure—derived from the dual-energy mammography—of water, lipid, and protein thickness were assessed, “3CB alone”, and (3) information from QIA and 3CB was combined, “QIA + 3CB.” Analysis was initiated from radiologist-indicated lesion centers and was otherwise fully automated. Steps of the QIA and 3CB methods were lesion segmentation, characterization, and subsequent classification for malignancy in leave-one-case-out cross-validation. Performance assessment included box plots, Bland–Altman plots, and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions (invasive and DCIS) was 0.81 (standard error 0.07) for the “QIA alone” method, 0.72 (0.07) for “3CB alone” method, and 0.86 (0.04) for “QIA+3CB” combined. The difference in AUC was 0.043 between “QIA + 3CB” and “QIA alone” but failed to reach statistical significance (95% confidence interval [–0.17 to + 0.26]). Conclusions: In this pilot study analyzing the new 3CB imaging modality, knowledge of the composition of breast lesions and their periphery appeared additive in combination with existing mammographic QIA methods for the distinction between different benign and malignant lesion types.

  10. Seven-day human biological rhythms: An expedition in search of their origin, synchronization, functional advantage, adaptive value and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinberg, Alain E; Dejardin, Laurence; Smolensky, Michael H; Touitou, Yvan

    2017-01-01

    This fact-finding expedition explores the perspectives and knowledge of the origin and functional relevance of the 7 d domain of the biological time structure, with special reference to human beings. These biological rhythms are displayed at various levels of organization in diverse species - from the unicellular sea algae of Acetabularia and Goniaulax to plants, insects, fish, birds and mammals, including man - under natural as well as artificial, i.e. constant, environmental conditions. Nonetheless, very little is known about their derivation, functional advantage, adaptive value, synchronization and potential clinical relevance. About 7 d cosmic cycles are seemingly too weak, and the 6 d work/1 d rest week commanded from G-d through the Laws of Mosses to the Hebrews is too recent an event to be the origin in humans. Moreover, human and insect studies conducted under controlled constant conditions devoid of environmental, social and other time cues report the persistence of 7 d rhythms, but with a slightly different (free-running) period (τ), indicating their source is endogenous. Yet, a series of human and laboratory rodent studies reveal certain mainly non-cyclic exogenous events can trigger 7 d rhythm-like phenomena. However, it is unknown whether such triggers unmask, amplify and/or synchronize previous non-overtly expressed oscillations. Circadian (~24 h), circa-monthly (~30 d) and circannual (~1 y) rhythms are viewed as genetically based features of life forms that during evolution conferred significant functional advantage to individual organisms and survival value to species. No such advantages are apparent for endogenous 7 d rhythms, raising several questions: What is the significance of the 7 d activity/rest cycle, i.e. week, storied in the Book of Genesis and adopted by the Hebrews and thereafter the residents of nearby Mediterranean countries and ultimately the world? Why do humans require 1 d off per 7 d span? Do 7 d rhythms bestow functional

  11. Geochemical Characterization Of Cherts From The 3.46Ga Apex Basalt To Assess The Origins Of Possible Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, D. M.; Steele, A.; Ackerson, M. R.; Bullock, E. S.; Green, O. R.; Fries, M.; Conrad, P. G.

    2017-12-01

    Many terrestrial cherts contain compelling microtextures and mineral phases that are indicative of ancient life in hydrothermal systems on early Earth. In volcanically-derived hydrothermal deposits, cherts have undergone multiple alteration events often resulting in separate generations of quartz veins that are much younger than the host rocks. In some cases, multiple episodes of hydrothermal alteration obscure otherwise syngenetic biosignatures and likewise create false signatures in the form of secondary carbon emplacement or diagenetic phase changes. To better identify possible biosignatures in hydrothermal deposits and understand their origins, we used confocal micro Raman spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging to characterize the quartz fabrics, mineral phases, trace elements, and macromolecular carbon (MMC) in quartz veins from the 3.46 Ga Apex Basalt chert samples. MMC, anatase (TiO2), pyrite (Fe2S), jarosite-alunite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6 - Kal3(SO4)2(OH)6), chamosite-phyllosilicates, and Fe-oxides all occur in close association in multiple generations of quartz veins throughout the sample suite. Mineral phases xenotime (YPO4), scorodite (FeAsO4 . H2O), apatite (CaPO4), pentlandite ((Fe,Ni)9S8), barite (BaSO4), sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S), dolomite ((CaMg(CO3)2) and halides occur in specific generations of quartz. Trace elements (Cr, Mn, Mo, Cu, Sc, Va, Sb, and Co) are heterogeneously distributed within individual samples and likely occur due to fluid scavenging of the host basalts. CL imaging of quartz demonstrates that the majority of silicate material in the Apex cherts underwent recrystallization. This could result in the alteration of MMC and associated mineral assemblages. The biogencity and true origins of morphological features and chemical signatures in the Apex cherts are hotly debated, yet discovering the causes and nature of these puzzling attributes will be key for determining the usefulness of interrogating

  12. Molecular Biological Characterization of Air Samples: A Survey of Four Strategically Important Regions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francesconi, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    .... In support of this requirement, the Joint Program Office for Biological Defense initiated an aggressive program incorporating the development of air-sampling and agent detecting devices, coined...

  13. Origin of the fittest: link between emergent variation and evolutionary change as a critical question in evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyaev, Alexander V

    2011-07-07

    In complex organisms, neutral evolution of genomic architecture, associated compensatory interactions in protein networks and emergent developmental processes can delineate the directions of evolutionary change, including the opportunity for natural selection. These effects are reflected in the evolution of developmental programmes that link genomic architecture with a corresponding functioning phenotype. Two recent findings call for closer examination of the rules by which these links are constructed. First is the realization that high dimensionality of genotypes and emergent properties of autonomous developmental processes (such as capacity for self-organization) result in the vast areas of fitness neutrality at both the phenotypic and genetic levels. Second is the ubiquity of context- and taxa-specific regulation of deeply conserved gene networks, such that exceptional phenotypic diversification coexists with remarkably conserved generative processes. Establishing the causal reciprocal links between ongoing neutral expansion of genomic architecture, emergent features of organisms' functionality, and often precisely adaptive phenotypic diversification therefore becomes an important goal of evolutionary biology and is the latest reincarnation of the search for a framework that links development, functioning and evolution of phenotypes. Here I examine, in the light of recent empirical advances, two evolutionary concepts that are central to this framework-natural selection and inheritance-the general rules by which they become associated with emergent developmental and homeostatic processes and the role that they play in descent with modification.

  14. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Studies of 99mTc and 188Re Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Vanessa

    Radiopharmaceuticals are very powerful diagnostic tools for evaluation of a host of medical conditions. These drugs are labeled with radioactive isotopes, which are utilized to create pictures of areas of interest through absorption of the drug. They are currently in high demand due to their ability to image areas that traditional imaging devices cannot. The radioisotope 99mTc, with a half-life of 6.01 hours and a 140 keV gamma emission, is central to many radiopharmaceutical compounds. This isotope is easily obtained from a 99Mo-99mTc generator, through beta decay and column chromatography separations. Very little technetium, less than 6 ng, is needed to label the pharmaceuticals for use in-vivo. Another radioisotope 188Re is also important due to its ability to be used for therapy while being tracked throughout the body. Radiotherapy gives radiopharmaceuticals a huge advantage by their ability to destroy rapidly growing cells. One of the main reasons there is interest in rhenium pharmaceuticals is the chemical similarity between it and technetium. The 188Re isotope also has a considerably short half-life of approximately 17 hours and has emission energy of 155 keV. The 188Re isotope is separated from 188W-188Re generator, analogously to the 99Mo-99mTc generator. The ligand used in this work is a pentapepetide macrocyclic ligand. This ligand, KYCAR (lysyl-tyrosyl-cystyl-alanyl-arginine), has been designed as a potential chelating ligand for imaging and therapeutic in vivo agents. Ligands are chosen based on their in-situ biological behavior, and are used in the complexation with technetium and rhenium. Understanding and exploiting technetium and rhenium chemistry can provide insight into the reaction mechanisms and coordination chemistry of these compounds. The exploration of various oxidation states as a function of the ligands used and the reaction conditions can help develop novel radiopharmaceuticals. The investigations of the manipulation of oxidation states

  15. The origin and use of the terms competitive and non-competitive in interactions among chemical substances in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlwain, H

    1986-01-01

    The terms competition and competitive were in use for appropriate types of interaction in human and animal behaviour from the seventeenth century. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries they reached more technical uses in biology, especially in darwinian studies; and in chemistry in describing competing reactions, surface phenomena and the influence of substituent groupings in reactant molecules. Use of competitive and non-competitive to describe enzyme inhibitors had a specific beginning when J. B. S. Haldane (following premonitory work of others) applied the terms in 1927 and 1930 to types of inhibition already differentiated by Michaelis and co-workers. The theoretical background in kinetics and stereochemistry so acquired gave a firmness to the application of the terms in biochemistry. The first examples concerned glycosidases, especially beta-D-fructofuranosidase or invertase, and interactions of carbon monoxide and oxygen at iron-porphyrin systems. They were thus of interest in toxicology and in enzyme and carrier studies. The sphere of application of the biochemically-defined terms expanded greatly when, following investigation of sulphonamide action, it was realized that concepts of enzyme inhibition by structurally related compounds offered a route to understanding the action of existing medicaments and to the production of new ones. Ideas and terminology based on competitive and non-competitive enzyme inhibition and receptor occupancy have subsequently been applied in many ways. Examples include application to the analysis of feedback inhibition and other processes of metabolic control; to receptor relationships among neurotransmitters and medicaments; and to understanding interactions at sensory receptors.

  16. A los 150 años desde "El origen de las especies": ¿es darwinista la biología contemporánea? At 150 years since "The origin of species": Is contemporary biology Darwinian?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILLERMO FOLGUERA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A los 150 años de la publicación de "El origen de las especies" de Charles Darwin, numerosos homenajes se han realizado en diferentes ciudades del mundo. Sin embargo, es importante preguntarse hacia el seno de la comunidad científica acerca del alcance efectivo del darwinisimo dentro de la biología. En este trabajo analizamos este supuesto intentando responder, al menos de una manera aproximativa, la pregunta: ¿es darwinista la biología en la actualidad? A estos fines, consideramos algunos de los principales aportes que suelen asignarse al darwinismo en las ciencias de los sistemas vivos: el análisis y centro en la diversidad, un origen único de los sistemas vivos, la incorporación del azar y el reconocimiento de las causas proximales. En términos generales detectamos importantes líneas de continuidad entre el darwinismo y las diferentes disciplinas que componen a la biología contemporánea. Sin embargo, esta situación dista de ser general y no ocurre para todas las ideas analizadas. En este sentido, en algunas áreas del conocimiento el darwinismo solo se ha filtrado mediante la implementación de recortes significativos (tal como el caso de la reducción de los procesos evolutivos a la selección natural, o bien a través de aspectos que aún no son debidamente incorporados en la investigación científica (tal como en el caso del estudio de la variabilidad. Por lo tanto, la futura incorporación de estos elementos se presenta como un desafío importante para lograr una biología integradora.After 150 years of the publication of the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin, a number of tributes had honored him worldwide. However, it seems important to ask about the effective application of Darwin's ideas within the biological disciplines. Herein we analyze this problem trying to answer the question: is contemporary biology Darwinian? To this end, we consider some of the main assumed contributions of Darwinism to the sciences of living

  17. Origin of structure: statistical characterization of the primordial density fluctuations and the collapse of the wave function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    León, Gabriel [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria - Pab. I, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Sudarsky, Daniel, E-mail: gleon@df.uba.ar, E-mail: sudarsky@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510, México (Mexico)

    2015-06-01

    The statistical properties of the primordial density perturbations has been considered in the past decade as a powerful probe of the physical processes taking place in the early universe. Within the inflationary paradigm, the properties of the bispectrum are one of the keys that serves to discriminate among competing scenarios concerning the details of the origin of cosmological perturbations. However, all of the scenarios, based on the conventional approach to the so-called ''quantum-to-classical transition'' during inflation, lack the ability to point out the precise physical mechanism responsible for generating the inhomogeneity and anisotropy of our universe starting from and exactly homogeneous and isotropic vacuum state associated with the early inflationary regime. In past works, we have shown that the proposals involving a spontaneous dynamical reduction of the quantum state provide plausible explanations for the birth of said primordial inhomogeneities and anisotropies. In the present manuscript we show that, when considering within the context of such proposals, the characterization of the spectrum and bispectrum turn out to be quite different from those found in the traditional approach, and in particular, some of the statistical features, must be treated in a different way leading to some rather different conclusions.

  18. In vitro antimicrobial activity and characterization of mangrove isolates of streptomycetes effective against bacteria and fungi of nosocomial origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Das

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at determining the in vitro antimicrobial activity of alkaliphilic and halotolerant actinomycetes isolated from a mangrove ecosystem and identification of a potent strain. Twenty five isolates of actinomycetes were isolated from the sediment samples of Valapattanam mangrove swamp in Kerala, India. Antimicrobial activity of four selected actinomycete isolates was determined against bacterial and fungal pathogens of nosocomial origin by agar well diffusion method. Molecular characterization of the potent isolate was performed by 16S rDNA sequencing. Isolate no I-1 significantly inhibited Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 (12 mm, S. aureus (15±0.05 mm, S. citreus (20±0.5 mm, Bacillus cereus (17±0.2 mm and Serratia marcescens (12 mm. It also demonstrated effective antifungal action against Penicillium sp. (12±0.2 mm, Candida albicans (20±0.5 mm, C. parapsilosis (12 mm and Cryptococcus neoformans (12 mm. Morphological study revealed that all the isolated actinomycetes belonged to the genus Streptomyces. Based on 16S rDNA sequence data, the selected isolate I-1 was shown to be closely related to Streptomyces xiamenensis. The results revealed that the mangrove ecosystem of Valapattanam harboured a rich consortium of many potent actinomycetes, which could synthesize novel bioactive compounds of pharmacological significance.

  19. Detection, Characterization, and Biological Effect of Quorum-Sensing Signaling Molecules in Peanut-Nodulating Bradyrhizobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Giordano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Bradyrhizobium are able to establish a symbiotic relationship with peanut (Arachis hypogaea root cells and to fix atmospheric nitrogen by converting it to nitrogenous compounds. Quorum sensing (QS is a cell-cell communication mechanism employed by a variety of bacterial species to coordinate behavior at a community level through regulation of gene expression. The QS process depends on bacterial production of various signaling molecules, among which the N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs are most commonly used by Gram-negative bacteria. Some previous reports have shown the production of QS signaling molecules by various rhizobia, but little is known regarding mechanisms of communication among peanut-nodulating strains. The aims of this study were to identify and characterize QS signals produced by peanut-nodulating bradyrhizobial strains and to evaluate their effects on processes related to cell interaction. Detection of AHLs in 53 rhizobial strains was performed using the biosensor strains Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4 (pZLR4 and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 for AHLs with long and short acyl chains, respectively. None of the strains screened were found to produce AHLs with short acyl chains, but 14 strains produced AHLs with long acyl chains. These 14 AHL-producing strains were further studied by quantification of β-galactosidase activity levels (AHL-like inducer activity in NTL4 (pZLR4. Strains displaying moderate to high levels of AHL-like inducer activity were subjected to chemical identification of signaling molecules by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. For each AHL-producing strain, we found at least four different AHLs, corresponding to N-hexanoyl-DL-homoserine lactone (C6, N-(3-oxodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3OC10, N-(3-oxododecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3OC12, and N-(3-oxotetradecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3OC14. Biological roles of 3OC10, 3OC12, and 3OC14 AHLs

  20. Towards a More Biologically-meaningful Climate Characterization: Variability in Space and Time at Multiple Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, D. S.; Kaufman, C. G.; Kueppers, L. M.; Harte, J.

    2013-12-01

    Sampling limitations and current modeling capacity justify the common use of mean temperature values in summaries of historical climate and future projections. However, a monthly mean temperature representing a 1-km2 area on the landscape is often unable to capture the climate complexity driving organismal and ecological processes. Estimates of variability in addition to mean values are more biologically meaningful and have been shown to improve projections of range shifts for certain species. Historical analyses of variance and extreme events at coarse spatial scales, as well as coarse-scale projections, show increasing temporal variability in temperature with warmer means. Few studies have considered how spatial variance changes with warming, and analysis for both temporal and spatial variability across scales is lacking. It is unclear how the spatial variability of fine-scale conditions relevant to plant and animal individuals may change given warmer coarse-scale mean values. A change in spatial variability will affect the availability of suitable habitat on the landscape and thus, will influence future species ranges. By characterizing variability across both temporal and spatial scales, we can account for potential bias in species range projections that use coarse climate data and enable improvements to current models. In this study, we use temperature data at multiple spatial and temporal scales to characterize spatial and temporal variability under a warmer climate, i.e., increased mean temperatures. Observational data from the Sierra Nevada (California, USA), experimental climate manipulation data from the eastern and western slopes of the Rocky Mountains (Colorado, USA), projected CMIP5 data for California (USA) and observed PRISM data (USA) allow us to compare characteristics of a mean-variance relationship across spatial scales ranging from sub-meter2 to 10,000 km2 and across temporal scales ranging from hours to decades. Preliminary spatial analysis at

  1. Synthesis, characterization and functionalization of silicon nanoparticle based hybrid nanomaterials for photovoltaic and biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zejing

    Silicon nanoparticles are attractive candidates for biological, photovoltaic and energy storage applications due to their size dependent optoelectronic properties. These include tunable light emission, high brightness, and stability against photo-bleaching relative to organic dyes (see Chapter 1). The preparation and characterization of silicon nanoparticle based hybrid nanomaterials and their relevance to photovoltaic and biological applications are described. The surface-passivated silicon nanoparticles were produced in one step from the reactive high-energy ball milling (RHEBM) of silicon wafers with various organic ligands. The surface structure and optical properties of the passivated silicon nanoparticles were systematically characterized. Fast approaches for purifying and at the same time size separating the silicon nanoparticles using a gravity GPC column were developed. The hydrodynamic diameter and size distribution of these size-separated silicon nanoparticles were determined using GPC and Diffusion Ordered NMR Spectroscopy (DOSY) as fast, reliable alternative approaches to TEM. Water soluble silicon nanoparticles were synthesized by grafting PEG polymers onto functionalized silicon nanoparticles with distal alkyne or azide moieties. The surface-functionalized silicon nanoparticles were produced from the reactive high-energy ball milling (RHEBM) of silicon wafers with a mixture of either 5-chloro-1-pentyne in 1-pentyne or 1,7 octadiyne in 1-hexyne to afford air and water stable chloroalkyl or alkynyl terminated nanoparticles, respectively. Nanoparticles with the ω-chloroalkyl substituents were easily converted to ω-azidoalkyl groups through the reaction of the silicon nanoparticles with sodium azide in DMF. The azido terminated nanoparticles were then grafted with monoalkynyl-PEG polymers using a copper catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction to afford core-shell silicon nanoparticles with a covalently attached PEG shell. Covalently

  2. A new experiment to investigate the origin of optical activity using a low energy positron beam of controlled helicity. [molecular biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidley, D. W.; Rich, A.; Van House, J. C.; Zitzewitz, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    Previous experiments undertaken in search of a correlation between the origin of optical activity in biological molecules and the helicity of beta particles emitted in nuclear beta decay have not provided any useful results. A description is presented of an experiment in which a low energy polarized positron beam of controlled helicity interacts with an optically active material to form positronium in vacuum. Advantages of the current study compared to the previous experiments are mainly related to a much greater sensitivity. Initially, it will be possible to detect a helicity-dependent asymmetry in triplet positronium formation of 1 part in 10,000. Improvements to better than 1 part in 100,000 should be attainable.

  3. Characterization of solid UV cross-linked PEGDA for biological applications

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, David; Ingram, Patrick; Kodzius, Rimantas; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Yoon, Euisik; Foulds, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on solid UV cross-linked Poly(ethylene)-glycol-diacrylate (PEGDA) as a material for microfluidic devices for biological applications. We have evaluated biocompatibility of PEGDA through two separate means: 1) by examining cell

  4. Isolation and characterization of Cupriavidus basilensis HMF14 for biological removal of inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolysatembt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierckx, N.; Koopman, F.; Bandounas, L.; Winde, J.H.de; Ruijssenaars, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The formation of toxic fermentation inhibitors such as furfural and 5-hydroxy-2-methylfurfural (HMF) during acid (pre-)treatment of lignocellulose, calls for the efficient removal of these compounds. Lignocellulosic hydrolysates can be efficiently detoxified biologically with microorganisms that

  5. Biological activity is the likely origin of the intersection between the photoreceptor inner and outer segments of the rat retina as determined by optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamauchi Y

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Yasuyuki Yamauchi, Hiromichi Yagi, Yoshihiko Usui, Keisuke Kimura, Tsuyoshi Agawa, Rintaro Tsukahara, Naoyuki Yamakawa, Hiroshi GotoDepartment of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University Hospital, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Recent research on macular diseases has prompted investigations into the condition of the intersection between the photoreceptor inner and outer segments (IS/OS and the relationship with retinal photoreceptor abnormalities. Although the origin of the IS/OS in optical coherence tomography (OCT images is unclear, it may be related to either the cellular activity of the photoreceptors or the structure of the OS disks. To address this question, we compared the IS/OS status in OCT images of rat retinas before and after euthanasia.Methods: OCT images were taken before and after euthanasia in four eyes of two Brown Norway rats. After the OCT images were taken, the rats were used for histopathological studies to confirm that retinal structures were intact.Results: Before euthanasia, the IS/OS and external limiting membrane (ELM line were clearly identifiable on the OCT images. However, after euthanasia, neither the IS/OS nor the ELM line was evident in three out of four eyes, and a faint IS/OS and an ELM line were identified in one eye. Histopathological analysis did not show any abnormalities in the retina in any of the four eyes.Conclusion: The origin of the IS/OS identified in OCT images is likely related to the biological activities of the photoreceptor cells.Keywords: IS/OS, OCT, histopathology, biological activity

  6. Systematic characterization and fluorescence threshold strategies for the wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor (WIBS) using size-resolved biological and interfering particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Nicole J.; Krentz, Christine E.; Könemann, Tobias; Han, Taewon T.; Mainelis, Gediminas; Pöhlker, Christopher; Huffman, J. Alex

    2017-11-01

    Atmospheric particles of biological origin, also referred to as bioaerosols or primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP), are important to various human health and environmental systems. There has been a recent steep increase in the frequency of published studies utilizing commercial instrumentation based on ultraviolet laser/light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF), such as the WIBS (wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor) or UV-APS (ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer), for bioaerosol detection both outdoors and in the built environment. Significant work over several decades supported the development of the general technologies, but efforts to systematically characterize the operation of new commercial sensors have remained lacking. Specifically, there have been gaps in the understanding of how different classes of biological and non-biological particles can influence the detection ability of LIF instrumentation. Here we present a systematic characterization of the WIBS-4A instrument using 69 types of aerosol materials, including a representative list of pollen, fungal spores, and bacteria as well as the most important groups of non-biological materials reported to exhibit interfering fluorescent properties. Broad separation can be seen between the biological and non-biological particles directly using the five WIBS output parameters and by taking advantage of the particle classification analysis introduced by Perring et al. (2015). We highlight the importance that particle size plays on observed fluorescence properties and thus in the Perring-style particle classification. We also discuss several particle analysis strategies, including the commonly used fluorescence threshold defined as the mean instrument background (forced trigger; FT) plus 3 standard deviations (σ) of the measurement. Changing the particle fluorescence threshold was shown to have a significant impact on fluorescence fraction and particle type classification. We conclude that raising the

  7. Origin and characterization of retrograde labeled neurons supplying the rat urethra using fiberoptic confocal fluorescent microscopy in vivo and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keon-Cheol; Sharma, Seema; Tuttle, Jeremy B; Steers, William D

    2010-10-01

    Autonomic innervation of urethral smooth muscle may influence urinary continence after prostatectomy. It is unclear whether the cavernous nerves carry fibers that influence continence. Using a retrograde axonal tracer combined with real-time in vivo imaging and ex vivo immunohistochemistry we determined the course and type of neurons supplying urethral smooth muscle distal to the prostate in the rat. We injected the retrograde axonal tracers cholera toxin B fragment-Alexa Fluor 488 and Fast Blue in the distal urethral smooth muscle in 10 rats each. Five days later the cavernous nerves and pelvic ganglion were imaged using fiberoptic confocal fluorescence microscopy (cholera toxin B fragment-Alexa Fluor 488) or harvested for immunohistochemistry (Fast Blue). Dual immunofluorescence of Fast Blue neurons with tyrosine hydroxylase or neuronal nitric oxide synthase was done to characterize neurons as noradrenergic or nitrergic. To ascertain whether the cavernous nerves contain fibers to the urethra that originate in the pelvic ganglia we cut the cavernous nerves with their ancillary branches in 3 rats and imaged them for Fast Blue. Fluorescent neurons and axons were detected in cavernous nerves and the pelvic ganglion. Few neurons were seen in rats with cavernous nerve section. Of urethral neurons 53.1% showed neuronal nitric oxide synthase positivity while 40.6% were immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase. About 6.2% of urethral neurons failed to show tyrosine hydroxylase or neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity. Most of the autonomic innervation to the urethra beyond the prostatic apex travels in the cavernous nerves. Many nerves may be parasympathetic based on neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity. Nerves supplying the urethra outside the cavernous nerves may course posterior to the prostate. Along with afferent fibers, tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity expressing neuron fibers, ie noradrenergic nerves, traveling in the cavernous nerves may

  8. Characterization, Distribution, Sources and Origins of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons from Surface Sediment of Prai Strait, Penang, Malaysia: A Widespread Anthropogenic Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyar Sakari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons are one of the most serious and important class of pollutants that face to many countries including Malaysia. Aliphatic hydrocarbons contain straight chain alkane; derive from anthropogenic and natural sources to the marine environment. The multi-purpose strait of Prai is located in the Northwest of Peninsular Malaysia plays an important economic role in the Southeast Asia. Twenty surface sediment samples were collected using Eckman dredge to measure the concentration and determine the characterization, sources and origins of the aliphatic hydrocarbons in December 2006. Samples (top 4 cm were extracted with Soxhlet, treated with activated copper and subjected to 2 steps column chromatography for purification and fractionation. Alkane fraction injected into Gas Chromatography–Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID for instrumental analysis. The results showed that total n-alkane concentrations are ranging from 512 to 10770 ng/mg d. w. Carbon Preferences Index (CPI revealed an extreme widespread anthropogenic input and naturally derived (CPI= 0 to 4.88 hydrocarbons in the study area. The ratio of C31/C19 indicated that natural hydrocarbons are generating from terrestrial vascular plants and transferring by rivers. The characteristics of Major Hydrocarbons provided evidences that oil and its derivatives either fresh or degraded are the major contributors of the pollution in the study area. Statistical approaches also confirmed that 85% of study area affected by oil sources of pollution. It is seen that aliphatic hydrocarbons mostly transfer by lateral input to the marine environment than atmospheric movements.

  9. Characterization of water quality and biological communities, Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Edmiston, C. Scott; Taylor, Michelle L.; Leemon, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Fish Creek, an approximately 25-kilometer-long tributary to Snake River, is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. Fish Creek is an important water body because it is used for irrigation, fishing, and recreation and adds scenic value to the Jackson Hole properties it runs through. Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek has been increasing since the early 2000s. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District to characterize the hydrology, water quality, and biologic communities of Fish Creek during 2007–11. The hydrology of Fish Creek is strongly affected by groundwater contributions from the area known as the Snake River west bank, which lies east of Fish Creek and west of Snake River. Because of this continuous groundwater discharge to the creek, land-use activities in the west bank area can affect the groundwater quality. Evaluation of nitrate isotopes and dissolved-nitrate concentrations in groundwater during the study indicated that nitrate was entering Fish Creek from groundwater, and that the source of nitrate was commonly a septic/sewage effluent or manure source, or multiple sources, potentially including artificial nitrogen fertilizers, natural soil organic matter, and mixtures of sources. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate and orthophosphate, which are key nutrients for growth of aquatic plants, generally were low in Fish Creek and occasionally were less than reporting levels (not detected). One potential reason for the low nutrient concentrations is that nutrients were being consumed by aquatic plant life that increases during the summer growing season, as a result of the seasonal increase in temperature and larger number of daylight hours. Several aspects of Fish Creek’s hydrology contribute to higher productivity and biovolume of aquatic plants in Fish Creek than typically observed in streams of its size in

  10. Original Inventions based on Chemical scaffolds and electro-physical activity-derived biosimilars interacting with specialties in biology yielding platforms for analysis in virology and antiviral compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaji N

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Original inventions in developing countries, in terms of number of patents filed, granted and that are taken to useful applications as well as in terms of publications of high impact remain relatively lower [1,2] compared to that of developed nations. The reasons could be attributed to lack of importance given to basic research in funding, the number of institutes involved, limited technical support or expertise available etc [1]. Though such initiatives may take a long time to yield fruits, one of the parallel steps we considered worth was to take the original inventions from Japan, born out of basic research in one field, taken through an application-oriented inter disciplinary interactive research in healthcare, thereby paving way for novel solutions. Thus was conceived, the Inventions- Inter-Disciplinary Interactions and Solutions (IIDIAS, an academic session as a part of the one-day International stem cell meet organized every year in the month of October by Nichi-In Centre for Regenerative Medicine (NCRM, an academic Institute based in Chennai, India. In the IIDIAS session, based on original invention(s presented as a prelude in brief, original interdisciplinary interactive research work based on the original invention by NCRM and/or its collaborators are presented by the faculty of the relevant institute. That will be followed by an interactive session in which the potential solutions based on the above accomplishments would be discussed. The IIDIAS session 2014 was based on the following two inventions: A bio-film-based biosimilar invented by an electro-physicist A unique polymer invented by a chemical engineer Inventions and Interdisciplinary Interactions: Invention –I: The bio-film-based biosimilar invented by an electro-physicist: An electro physicist with the Kyoto University, Japan, Dr Nobuyuki Yamaji observed during his experiments that plants and mammalian tissues secrete a layer of fluid after getting hit by

  11. Fabrication, Characterization, and Biological Activity of Avermectin Nano-delivery Systems with Different Particle Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anqi; Wang, Yan; Sun, Changjiao; Wang, Chunxin; Cui, Bo; Zhao, Xiang; Zeng, Zhanghua; Yao, Junwei; Yang, Dongsheng; Liu, Guoqiang; Cui, Haixin

    2018-01-01

    Nano-delivery systems for the active ingredients of pesticides can improve the utilization rates of pesticides and prolong their control effects. This is due to the nanocarrier envelope and controlled release function. However, particles containing active ingredients in controlled release pesticide formulations are generally large and have wide size distributions. There have been limited studies about the effect of particle size on the controlled release properties and biological activities of pesticide delivery systems. In the current study, avermectin (Av) nano-delivery systems were constructed with different particle sizes and their performances were evaluated. The Av release rate in the nano-delivery system could be effectively controlled by changing the particle size. The biological activity increased with decreasing particle size. These results suggest that Av nano-delivery systems can significantly improve the controllable release, photostability, and biological activity, which will improve efficiency and reduce pesticide residues.

  12. Evidence of a Biological Control over Origin, Growth and End of the Calcite Prisms in the Shells of Pinctada margaritifera (Pelecypod, Pterioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Cuif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Consistently classified among the references for calcite simple prisms, the microstructural units that form the outer layer of the Pinctada margaritifera have been investigated through a series of morphological, crystallographical and biochemical characterizations. It is often said that the polygonal transverse shape of the prisms result from the competition for space between adjacent crystals. In contrast to this classical scheme the Pinctada prisms appear to be composed of four successive developmental stages from the concentrically growing disks on the internal side of the periostracum to the morphological, structural and compositional changes in both envelopes and mineral components at the end of the prisms. These latest structural and compositional changes predate nacre deposition, so that the end of prism growth is not caused by occurrence of nacre, but by metabolic changes in the secretory epithelium. This sequence makes obvious the permanent biological control exerted by the outer cell layer of the mantle in both organic envelopes and mineralizing organic phases.

  13. Characterization of persistent colors and decolorization of effluent from biologically treated cellulosic ethanol production wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lili; Liu, Junfeng; Yu, Yanling; Ambuchi, John J; Feng, Yujie

    2016-05-01

    The high chroma of cellulosic ethanol production wastewater poses a serious environmental concern; however, color-causing compounds are still not fully clear. The characteristics of the color compounds and decolorization of biologically treated effluent by electro-catalytic oxidation were investigated in this study. Excitation-emission matrix (EEM), fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), UV-Vis spectra, and ultrafiltration (UF) fractionation were used to analyze color compounds. High chroma of wastewater largely comes from humic materials, which exhibited great fluorescence proportion (67.1 %) in the biologically treated effluent. Additionally, the color compounds were mainly distributed in the molecular weight fractions with 3-10 and 10-30 kDa, which contributed 53.5 and 34.6 % of the wastewater color, respectively. Further decolorization of biologically treated effluent by electro-catalytic oxidation was investigated, and 98.3 % of color removal accompanied with 97.3 % reduction of humic acid-like matter was achieved after 180 min. The results presented herein will facilitate the development of a well decolorization for cellulosic ethanol production wastewater and better understanding of the biological fermentation.

  14. Tramesan, a novel polysaccharide from Trametes versicolor. Structural characterization and biological effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Scarpari

    Full Text Available Mushrooms represent a formidable source of bioactive compounds. Some of these may be considered as biological response modifiers; these include compounds with a specific biological function: antibiotics (e.g. plectasin, immune system stimulator (e,g, lentinan, antitumor agents (e.g. krestin, PSK and hypolipidemic agents (e.g. lovastatin inter alia. In this study, we focused on the Chinese medicinal mushroom "yun zhi", Trametes versicolor, traditionally used for (cit. "replenish essence and qi (vital energy". Previous studies indicated the potential activity of extracts from culture filtrate of asexual mycelia of T. versicolor in controlling the growth and secondary metabolism (e.g. mycotoxins of plant pathogenic fungi. The quest of active principles produced by T. versicolor, allowed us characterising an exo-polysaccharide released in its culture filtrate and naming it Tramesan. Herein we evaluate the biological activity of Tramesan in different organisms: plants, mammals and plant pathogenic fungi. We suggest that the bioactivity of Tramesan relies mostly on its ability to act as pro antioxidant molecule regardless the biological system on which it was applied.

  15. Treatment of complex biological mixtures with pulsed electric fields An energy transfer characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrive, Luc

    2004-01-01

    Sewage sludge from waste water treatment plants is a complex biological mixture and a problematic by-product because of valorisation restrictions. In order to limit its production, pulsed electric fields (PEF) were studied because of their biological effects and their potentially physico-chemical action. This work demonstrated a paradoxical phenomenon: cell lysis triggered a respirometric activation followed by a delayed lethality. This phenomenon was related to the leakage of internal compounds which were immediately bio-assimilated. At high energy expense, the plasmic membrane permeabilization led to cell death. Practically, with the technical configuration of the equipment, no hydrolysis was detected. This limitation decreases the interest for excess sludge reduction, but for the same reason, PEF cold sterilization technique can be assessed as a promising process. The representation of the electric energy transfer from electrodes to cell was exchanged by the study of mass transfer from the biological cell to the surrounding media under an electromotive force. Thus, the survival rate was modelled by a Sherwood number taking account of electrical, biological and hydraulic parameters. (author) [fr

  16. Characterization of solid UV curable 3D printer resins for biological applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sivashankar, Shilpa; Agambayev, Sumeyra; Buttner, Ulrich; Salama, Khaled N.

    2016-01-01

    to agglutinate. Six different types of 3D printer resins were compared to test the biocompatibility. The study showed that only few among them could be used for fabrication of micro channels and that had least effect on biological molecules that could be used

  17. Understanding the Biological Roles of Pectins in Plants through Physiological and Functional Characterizations of Plant and Fungal Mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stranne, Maria

    The plant cell wall is a dynamic structure and it is involved in regulating a number of physiological features of plants such as physical strength, growth, cell differentiation, intercellular communication, water movement and defense responses. Pectins constitute a major class of plant cell wall...... polysaccharides and consist of backbones rich in galacturonic acids, which are decorated with a range of functional groups including acetyl esters and arabinan sidechains. Although much effort has been made to uncover biological functions of pectins in plants and remarkable progresses have taken place, many...... aspects remain elusive. Studies described in this thesis aimed at gaining new insights into the biological roles of pectin acetylation and arabinosylation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The thesis consists of four chapters: physiological characterization of cell wall mutants affected in cell...

  18. Characterization and management of the keratocystic odontogenic tumor in relation to its histopathological and biological features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral Mendes, R.A.; Carvalho, J.F.C.; van der Waal, I.

    2010-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT), formerly referred to as odontogenic keratocyst, is a benign neoplasm of odontogenic origin which may present an aggressive and infiltrative behavior leading to high recurrence rates. A review of the various treatment modalities, ranging from simple enucleation

  19. Specificity Characterization of SLA Class I Molecules Binding to Swine-Origin Viral Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Epitope Peptides in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Gao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Swine leukocyte antigen (SLA class I molecules play a crucial role in generating specific cellular immune responses against viruses and other intracellular pathogens. They mainly bind and present antigens of intracellular origin to circulating MHC I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs. Binding of an appropriate epitope to an SLA class I molecule is the single most selective event in antigen presentation and the first step in the killing of infected cells by CD8+ CTLs. Moreover, the antigen epitopes are strictly restricted to specific SLA molecules. In this study, we constructed SLA class I complexes in vitro comprising viral epitope peptides, the extracellular region of the SLA-1 molecules, and β2-microglobulin (β2m using splicing overlap extension polymerase chain reaction (SOE-PCR. The protein complexes were induced and expressed in an Escherichia coli prokaryotic expression system and subsequently purified and refolded. Specific binding of seven SLA-1 proteins to one classical swine fever virus (CSFV and four porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV epitope peptides was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-based method. The SLA-1∗13:01, SLA-1∗11:10, and SLA-1∗11:01:02 proteins were able to bind specifically to different CTL epitopes of CSFV and PRRSV and the MHC restrictions of the five epitopes were identified. The fixed combination of Asn151Val152 residues was identified as the potentially key amino acid residues influencing the binding of viral several CTL epitope peptides to SLA-1∗13:01 and SLA-1∗04:01:01 proteins. The more flexible pocket E in the SLA-1∗13:01 protein might have fewer steric limitations and therefore be able to accommodate more residues of viral CTL epitope peptides, and may thus play a critical biochemical role in determining the peptide-binding motif of SLA-1∗13:01. Characterization of the binding specificity of peptides to SLA class I molecules provides an

  20. Isotopic characterization and genetic origin of crude oils from Gulf of Suez and western desert fields in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Samie, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    Stable carbon isotopes were used to asses the general characteristics of the western desert and Gulf of Suez crude oils in accordance with hydrocarbon generation, source rocks, thermal gradient and maturation level. The carbon isotopic results of all the analyzed oil samples in both areas lie in the range from -29.62 to -24.11 %. The av. σ 13 C values in the Gulf of Suez reaches about -28.6% and -26.4% in western desert. It was accounted a marginal difference between the two areas by about 2.5 : 3% in carbon-13 isotope of the whole oil indicated two distinct oil types of different organic input and varies in the depositional environment. It was found that Gulf of Suez oils are dominated by marine organic matter (plankton algae) deposited in saline environment. The derived oils from the northern and central provinces of the Gulf are isotopically light, higher in sulfur content, lower in API gravity degree and have Pristane/Phytane (Pr/Ph) ratio less than or equal one (Pr/Ph = 1). In the southern province, about 0.5% isotopic enrichment was recorded in the produced oils from shallower depths, associated with gradual increment in API and maturity level as thermal gradient increase. However, low API gravity degree and less maturity of the Gulf of Suez oils could be related to the rifting temperature that forced and accelerated the expulsion rate and hydrocarbon generation prior reaching higher maturation levels. On the other hand, the produced oils from the western desert fields belong mostly to terrestrial organic debris (with minor marine fragment in some basins) deposited at deeper geological formations. It is characterized by isotopic enrichment, paraffinic waxy oils, low in sulphur content, have Pr/Ph = 1, high in API gravity and maturity level. Hydrocarbon generated from the western desert fields has been controlled by time-temperature effect in the source rocks and reservoirs where the humic organic matter are affected by high temperature over longer period of

  1. Cellular automaton modeling of biological pattern formation characterization, examples, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Deutsch, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    This text explores the use of cellular automata in modeling pattern formation in biological systems. It describes several mathematical modeling approaches utilizing cellular automata that can be used to study the dynamics of interacting cell systems both in simulation and in practice. New in this edition are chapters covering cell migration, tissue development, and cancer dynamics, as well as updated references and new research topic suggestions that reflect the rapid development of the field. The book begins with an introduction to pattern-forming principles in biology and the various mathematical modeling techniques that can be used to analyze them. Cellular automaton models are then discussed in detail for different types of cellular processes and interactions, including random movement, cell migration, adhesive cell interaction, alignment and cellular swarming, growth processes, pigment cell pattern formation, tissue development, tumor growth and invasion, and Turing-type patterns and excitable media. In ...

  2. Characterization of Radiation Fields for Assessing Concrete Degradation in Biological Shields of NPPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remec, Igor; Rosseel, Thomas M.; Field, Kevin G.; Pape, Yann Le

    2017-09-01

    Life extensions of nuclear power plants (NPPs) to 60 years of operation and the possibility of subsequent license renewal to 80 years have renewed interest in long-term material degradation in NPPs. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations are constructed from concrete, including safety-related structures such as biological shields and containment buildings; therefore, concrete degradation is being considered with particular focus on radiation-induced effects. Based on the projected neutron fluence values (E > 0.1 MeV) in the concrete biological shields of the US pressurized water reactor fleet and the currently available data on radiation effects on concrete, some decrease in mechanical properties of concrete cannot be ruled out during extended operation beyond 60 years. An expansion of the irradiated concrete database is desirable to ensure reliable risk assessment for extended operation of nuclear power plants.

  3. Characterization of the angular memory effect of scattered light in biological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Sam; Bertolotti, Jacopo; Léger, Jean-Francois; Bourdieu, Laurent; Gigan, Sylvain

    2015-05-18

    High resolution optical microscopy is essential in neuroscience but suffers from scattering in biological tissues and therefore grants access to superficial brain layers only. Recently developed techniques use scattered photons for imaging by exploiting angular correlations in transmitted light and could potentially increase imaging depths. But those correlations ('angular memory effect') are of a very short range and should theoretically be only present behind and not inside scattering media. From measurements on neural tissues and complementary simulations, we find that strong forward scattering in biological tissues can enhance the memory effect range and thus the possible field-of-view by more than an order of magnitude compared to isotropic scattering for ∼1 mm thick tissue layers.

  4. Radioligand assays: methods and application. 5. /sup 125/I-monoidoinsulin: preparation, immunological and biological characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besch, W; Woltanski, K P; Knospe, S; Ziegler, M; Keilacker, H [Zentralinstitut fuer Diabetes, Karlsburg (German Democratic Republic)

    1980-04-01

    A reproducible method for preparation of /sup 125/I-monoiodoinsulin with fully biological activity was developed. Monoiodoinsulin has been prepared from a heterogeneous /sup 125/I iodination mixture by anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-25 without using any gradient elution technique. The specific radioactivity of /sup 125/I-monoiodoinsulin was calculated to 14.3 +- 0.8 TBq/g, i.e. an iodine content of 1.04 +- 0.06 atoms per molecule of insulin. Monoiodoinsulin was indistinguishable from native insulin with respect to binding to guinea pig anti-insulin serum, and to insulin receptors of isolated rat adipocytes. The biological potency (96.5 +- 7.5 per cent of the immunoreactive insulin activity) determined by the conversion of (/sup 14/C/sub 1/)-D-glucose to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in vitro by rat fat cells was not significantly different from that of native insulin.

  5. Cu(II AND Zn(II COMPLEX COMPOUNDS WITH BIGUANIDES AROMATIC DERIVATIVES. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticuţa Negreanu-Pîrjol

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the synthesis, physical-chemical characterization and antimicrobial activity of some new complex compounds of hetero-aromatic biguanides ligands, chlorhexidine base (CHX and chlorhexidine diacetate (CHXac2 with metallic ions Cu(II and Zn(II, in different molar ratio. The synthesized complexes were characterized by elemental chemical analysis and differential thermal analysis. The stereochemistry of the metallic ions was determined by infrared spectra, UV-Vis, EPR spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility in the aim to establish the complexes structures. The biological activity of the new complex compounds was identified in solid technique by measuring minimum inhibition diameter of bacterial and fungal culture, against three standard pathogen strains, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphilococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The results show an increased specific antimicrobial activity for the complexes chlorhexidine:Cu(II 1:1 and 1:2 compared with the one of the Zn(II complexes.

  6. Radiological characterization of the concrete biological shield of the APSARA reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan Priya; Srinivasan Panchapakesan; Thomas Shibu; Gopalakrishnan R.K.; Goswami A.

    2013-01-01

    The first Indian research reactor, APSARA, was utilized for various R&D programmes from 1956 until its shutdown in 2009. The biological shield of the reactor developed residual activity due to neutron irradiation during the operation of the reactor. Dose rate mapping and in-situ gamma spectrometry of the concrete structures of the reactor pool were carried out. Representative concrete samples collected from various locations were subjected to high-resolution gamma spectrometry analysis....

  7. Characterization of microbial communities in pest colonized books by molecular biology tools

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Palla

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the identification of bacteria and fungi colonies in insect infesting books, by cultural-independent methodologies based on molecular biology techniques. Microbial genomic DNA extraction, in vitro amplification of specific target sequences by polymerase chain reactions (PCR), sequencing and sequence analysis were performed. These procedures minimized the samples amount, optimized the diagnostic studies on bacteria and fungi colonization and allowed the identification of man...

  8. Ethylene glycol monolayer protected nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and interactions with biological molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming; Li, Zhigang; Huang, Xueying

    2004-05-11

    The usefulness of the hybrid materials of nanoparticles and biological molecules on many occasions depends on how well one can achieve a rational design based on specific binding and programmable assembly. Nonspecific binding between nanoparticles and biomolecules is one of the major barriers for achieving their utilities in a biological system. In this paper, we demonstrate a new approach to eliminate nonspecific interactions between nanoparticles and biological molecules by shielding the nanoparticle with a monolayer of ethylene glycol. A direct synthesis of di-, tri-, and tetra(ethylene glycol)-protected gold nanoparticles (Au-S-EGn, n = 2, 3, and 4) was achieved under the condition that the water content was optimized in the range of 9-18% in the reaction mixture. With controlled ratio of [HAuCl4]/[EGn-SH] at 2, the synthesized particles have an average diameter of 3.5 nm and a surface plasma resonance band around 510 nm. Their surface structures were confirmed by 1H NMR spectra. These gold nanoparticles are bonded with a uniform monolayer with defined lengths of 0.8, 1.2, and 1.6 nm for Au-S-EG2, Au-S-EG3, and Au-S-EG4, respectively. They have great stabilities in aqueous solutions with a high concentration of electrolytes as well as in organic solvents. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the ethylene glycol monolayer coating is ca. 14% of the total nanoparticle weight. Biological binding tests by using ion-exchange chromatography and gel electrophoresis demonstrated that these Au-S-EGn (n = 2, 3, or 4) nanoparticles are free of any nonspecific bindings with various proteins, DNA, and RNA. These types of nanoparticles provide a fundamental starting material for designing hybrid materials composed of metallic nanoparticles and biomolecules.

  9. Biological, Biochemical, and Molecular Characterization of a New Clinical Trichophyton rubrum Isolate Resistant to Terbinafine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Colin S.; Leitner, Ingrid; Hofbauer, Bettina; Fielding, Ceri A.; Favre, Bertrand; Ryder, Neil S.

    2006-01-01

    We have characterized a new clinical strain of Trichophyton rubrum highly resistant to terbinafine but exhibiting normal susceptibility to drugs with other mechanisms of action. Resistance to terbinafine in this strain is caused by a missense mutation in the squalene epoxidase gene leading to the amino acid substitution F397L. PMID:16723593

  10. Essential oils-oriented fenvalerate analogues: syntheses, characterization and biological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, H.; Li, H.

    2016-01-01

    A series of essential oils oriented ester derivatives have been designed, synthesized and characterized based on the skeleton of fenvalerate. The preliminary bioassay results indicated that some of the newly synthesized compounds showed better insecticidal activities against Pyrausta nubilalis and Heliothis armigera than that of the control trans-prallethrin chloride. (author)

  11. ABCG2-overexpressing S1-M1-80 cell xenografts in nude mice keep original biochemistry and cell biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Liang, Yong-Ju; Wu, Xing-Ping; Su, Xiao-Dong; Fu, Li-Wu

    2012-03-01

    S1-M1-80 cells, derived from human colon carcinoma S1 cells, are mitoxantrone-selected ABCG2-overexpressing cells and are widely used in in vitro studies of multidrug resistance(MDR). In this study, S1-M1-80 cell xenografts were established to investigate whether the MDR phenotype and cell biological properties were maintained in vivo. Our results showed that the proliferation, cell cycle, and ABCG2 expression level in S1-M1-80 cells were similar to those in cells isolated from S1-M1-80 cell xenografts (named xS1-M1-80 cells). Consistently, xS1-M1-80 cells exhibited high levels of resistance to ABCG2 substrates such as mitoxantrone and topotecan, but remained sensitive to the non-ABCG2 substrate cisplatin. Furthermore, the specific ABCG2 inhibitor Ko143 potently sensitized xS1-M1-80 cells to mitoxantrone and topotecan. These results suggest that S1-M1-80 cell xenografts in nude mice retain their original cytological characteristics at 9 weeks. Thus, this model could serve as a good system for further investigation of ABCG2-mediated MDR.

  12. Molecular biological and immunohistological characterization of canine dermal papilla cells and the evaluation of culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Fujisawa, Akiko; Amagai, Masayuki; Iwasaki, Toshiroh; Ohyama, Manabu

    2011-10-01

    The dermal papilla (DP) plays pivotal roles in hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling. However, our understanding of the biology of the canine DP is extremely limited. The aim of this study was to elucidate molecular biological and immunohistochemical characteristics of canine DP cells and determine appropriate conditions for in vitro expansion. Histological investigation revealed that the canine DP expressed biomarkers of human and rodent DP, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and versican. When microdissected, canine DP, but not fibroblasts, strongly expressed the DP-related genes for alkaline phosphatase, Wnt inhibitory factor 1 and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1, confirming successful isolation. The growth rate of isolated canine DP cells was moderate in conventional culture conditions for rodent and human DP; however, AmnioMAX-C100 complete medium allowed more efficient cultivation. Dermal papilla marker gene expression was maintained in early passage cultured DP cells, but gradually lost after the third passage. Approaches to mimic the in vivo DP environment in culture, such as supplementation of keratinocyte-conditioned medium or use of extracellular matrix-coated dishes, moderately ameliorated loss of DP gene expression in canine DP cells. It is possible that constituent factors in AmnioMAX may influence culture. These findings suggested that further refinements of culture conditions may enable DP cell expansion without impairing intrinsic properties and, importantly, demonstrated that AmnioMAX-cultured early passage canine DP cells partly maintained the biological characteristics of in vivo canine DP cells. This study provides crucial information necessary for further optimization of culture conditions of canine DP. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology. © 2011 ESVD and ACVD.

  13. Characterization of solid UV cross-linked PEGDA for biological applications

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, David

    2013-10-20

    This paper reports on solid UV cross-linked Poly(ethylene)-glycol-diacrylate (PEGDA) as a material for microfluidic devices for biological applications. We have evaluated biocompatibility of PEGDA through two separate means: 1) by examining cell viability and attachment on cross-linked PEGDA surfaces for cell culture applications, and 2) by determining if cross-linked PEGDA inhibits the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) processes for on-chip PCR. Through these studies a correlation has been found between degree of curing and cell viability, attachment, as well as on PCR outcome.

  14. Essential Oils’ Chemical Characterization and Investigation of Some Biological Activities: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhifi, Wissal; Bellili, Sana; Jazi, Sabrine; Bahloul, Nada; Mnif, Wissem

    2016-01-01

    This review covers literature data summarizing, on one hand, the chemistry of essential oils and, on the other hand, their most important activities. Essential oils, which are complex mixtures of volatile compounds particularly abundant in aromatic plants, are mainly composed of terpenes biogenerated by the mevalonate pathway. These volatile molecules include monoterpenes (hydrocarbon and oxygenated monoterpens), and also sesquiterpenes (hydrocarbon and oxygenated sesquiterpens). Furthermore, they contain phenolic compounds, which are derived via the shikimate pathway. Thanks to their chemical composition, essential oils possess numerous biological activities (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, etc…) of great interest in food and cosmetic industries, as well as in the human health field. PMID:28930135

  15. Biological characterization of bovine herpesvirus 1 recombinants possessing the vaccine glycoprotein E negative phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muylkens, Benoît; Meurens, François; Schynts, Frédéric; de Fays, Katalin; Pourchet, Aldo; Thiry, Julien; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Antoine, Nadine; Thiry, Etienne

    2006-03-31

    Intramolecular recombination is a frequent event during the replication cycle of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). Recombinant viruses frequently arise and survive in cattle after concomitant nasal infections with two BoHV-1 mutants. The consequences of this process, related to herpesvirus evolution, have to be assessed in the context of large use of live marker vaccines based on glycoprotein E (gE) gene deletion. In natural conditions, double nasal infections by vaccine and wild-type strains are likely to occur. This situation might generate virulent recombinant viruses inducing a serological response indistinguishable from the vaccine one. This question was addressed by generating in vitro BoHV-1 recombinants deleted in the gE gene from seven wild-type BoHV-1 strains and one mutant strain deleted in the genes encoding gC and gE. In vitro growth properties were assessed by virus production, one step growth kinetics and plaque size assay. Heterogeneity in the biological properties was shown among the investigated recombinant viruses. The results demonstrated that some recombinants, in spite of their gE minus phenotype, have biological characteristics close to wild-type BoHV-1.

  16. Cellular characterization of compression induced-damage in live biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Chiara; Balzer, Jens; Hahnel, Mark; Rankin, Sara M.; Brown, Katherine A.; Proud, William G.

    2011-06-01

    Understanding the dysfunctions that high-intensity compression waves induce in human tissues is critical to impact on acute-phase treatments and requires the development of experimental models of traumatic damage in biological samples. In this study we have developed an experimental system to directly assess the impact of dynamic loading conditions on cellular function at the molecular level. Here we present a confinement chamber designed to subject live cell cultures in liquid environment to compression waves in the range of tens of MPa using a split Hopkinson pressure bars system. Recording the loading history and collecting the samples post-impact without external contamination allow the definition of parameters such as pressure and duration of the stimulus that can be related to the cellular damage. The compression experiments are conducted on Mesenchymal Stem Cells from BALB/c mice and the damage analysis are compared to two control groups. Changes in Stem cell viability, phenotype and function are assessed flow cytometry and with in vitro bioassays at two different time points. Identifying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the damage caused by dynamic loading in live biological samples could enable the development of new treatments for traumatic injuries.

  17. Characterization of solid UV curable 3D printer resins for biological applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sivashankar, Shilpa

    2016-12-19

    In this paper, we report a simple method to evaluate biocompatibility of solid UV cross-linked resin as a material for microfluidic devices that can be used for biological applications. We evaluated the biocompatibility of the material in two different ways (1) determining if the UV cured resin inhibits the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and (2) observing agglutination complex formed on the surface of the UV cured resin when anti-CRP antibodies and C- reactive protein (CRP) proteins were allowed to agglutinate. Six different types of 3D printer resins were compared to test the biocompatibility. The study showed that only few among them could be used for fabrication of micro channels and that had least effect on biological molecules that could be used for PCR and protein interactions. Through these studies it is possible to estimate the curing time of various resin and their type of interaction with biomolecules. This study finds importance in on-chip tissue engineering and organ-on-chip applications.

  18. The isolation, enumeration, and characterization of Rhizobium bacteria of the soil in Wamena Biological Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI PURWANINGSIH

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The eleven soil samples have been isolated and characterized. The aims of the study were to get the pure culture and some data which described about enumeration and especially their characters in relation to the acids and bases reaction in their growth. The isolation of the bacteria use Yeast Extract Mannitol Agar medium (YEMA while the characterization by using YEMA medium mixed with Brom Thymol Blue and Congo Red indicators respectively. The results showed that eighteen isolates have been isolated which consisted of three low growing and fifteen fast growing bacteria. Two isolates were not indicated Rhizobium and sixteen were Rhizobium. Density of Rhizobium enumeration was varied which related to soil organic matter content. The enumeration bacteria in YEMA medium were in the range of 0.6 x 105 and 11.6 x 105 CFU /g soil. The highest population was found in soil sample of Wieb vegetation.

  19. Biogenic silver nanoparticles based on trichoderma harzianum: synthesis, characterization, toxicity evaluation and biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilger, Mariana; Pasquoto-Stigliani, Tatiane; Bilesky-Jose, Natália; Grillo, Renato; Abhilash, P. C.; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; Lima, Renata De

    2017-03-01

    White mold is an agricultural disease caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which affects important crops. There are different ways of controlling this organism, but none provides inhibition of its resistance structures (sclerotia). Nanotechnology offers promising applications in agricultural area. Here, silver nanoparticles were biogenically synthesized using the fungus Trichoderma harzianum and characterized. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated, and the nanoparticles were initially tested against white mold sclerotia. Their effects on soybean were also investigated with no effects observed. The nanoparticles showed potential against S. sclerotiorum, inhibiting sclerotia germination and mycelial growth. Nanoparticle characterization data indicated spherical morphology, satisfactory polydispersity and size distribution. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assays showed that the nanoparticles caused both the effects, although, the most toxic concentrations were above those applied for white mold control. Given the potential of the nanoparticles against S. sclerotiorum, we conclude that this study presents a first step for a new alternative in white mold control.

  20. SFG characterization of a cationic ONLO dye in biological thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lewis E.; Casford, Michael T.; Elder, Delwin L.; Davies, Paul B.; Johal, Malkiat S.

    2013-10-01

    Biopolymer-based thin films, such as those composed of CTMA-DNA, can be used as a host material for NLOactive dyes for applications such as electro-optic (EO) switching and second harmonic generation. Previous work by Heckman et al. (Proc. SPIE 6401, 640108-2) has demonstrated functioning DNA-based EO modulators. Improved performance requires optimization of both the first hyperpolarizabilities (β) and degree of acentric ordering exhibited by the chromophores. The cationic dye DANPY-1 (Proc. SPIE 8464, 846409-D) has a high affinity for DNA and a substantial hyperpolarizability; however, its macroscopic ordering has not been previously characterized. We have characterized the acentric ordering of the dye using sum-frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy in surface-immobilized DNA and on planar metal and dielectric surfaces.

  1. Biochemical and biological characterization of Bothriechis schlegelii snake venoms from Colombia and Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Prezotto-Neto, Jos�� P; Kimura, Louise F; Alves, Andr�� F; Guti��rrez, Jos�� Mar��a; Otero, Rafael; Su��rez, Ana M; Santoro, Marcelo L; Barbaro, Katia C

    2016-01-01

    Snakebites inflicted by the arboreal viperid snake Bothriechis schlegelii in humans are characterized by pain, edema, and ecchymosis at the site of the bite, rarely with blisters, local necrosis, or defibrination. Herein, a comparative study of Bothriechis schlegelii snake venoms from Colombia (BsCo) and Costa Rica (BsCR) was carried out in order to compare their main activities and to verify the efficacy of Bothrops antivenom produced in Brazil to neutralize them. Biochemical (SDS-PAGE and z...

  2. Biosurfactant produced from Actinomycetes nocardiopsis A17: Characterization and its biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Samrat; Ghosh, Mandakini; Chakraborti, Srijita; Jana, Sougata; Sen, Kalyan Kumar; Kokare, Chandrakant; Zhang, Lixin

    2015-08-01

    This investigation aims to isolate an Actinomycetes strain producing a biosurfactant from the unexplored region of industrial and coal mine areas. Actinomycetes are selected for this study as their novel chemistry was not exhausted and they have tremendous potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. The biosurfactant was characterized and further needed to be utilized for pharmaceutical dosage form. Isolation, purification, screening, and characterization of the Actinomycetes A17 were done followed by its fermentation in optimized conditions. The cell-free supernatant was used for the extraction of the biosurfactant and precipitated by cold acetone. The dried precipitate was purified by TLC and the emulsification index, surface tension and CMC were determined. The isolated strain with preferred results was identified as Actinomycetes nocardiopsis A17 with high foam-forming properties. It gives lipase, amylase, gelatinase, and protease activity. The emulsification index was found to be 93±0.8 with surface tension 66.67 dyne/cm at the lowest concentration and cmc 0.6 μg/ml. These biosurfactants were characterized by Fourier transform infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Therefore, it can be concluded that the biosurfactant produced by Actinomycetes nocardiopsis sp. strain A17 was found to have satisfactory results with high surface activity and emulsion-forming ability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization and biological activities of extracellular melanin produced by Schizophyllum commune (Fries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, G; Eyini, M; Gunasekaran, P

    2015-06-01

    Melanins are enigmatic pigments produced by a wide variety of microorganisms including bacteria and fungi. Here, we have isolated and characterized extracellular melanin from mushroom fungus, Schizophyllum commune. The extracellular dark pigment produced by the broth culture of S. commune, after 21 days of incubation was recovered by hot acid-alkali treatment. The melanin nature of the pigment was characterized by biochemical tests and further, confirmed by UV, IR, EPR, NMR and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectra. Extracellular melanin, at 100 μg/ml, showed significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas fluorescens and antifungal activity against Trichophyton simii and T. rubrum. At a concentration of 50 μg/ml, melanin showed high free radical scavenging activity of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) indicating its antioxidant potential. It showed concentration dependent inhibition of cell proliferation of Human Epidermoid Larynx Carcinoma Cell Line (HEP-2). This study has demonstrated characterization of melanin from basidiomycetes mushroom fungus, Schizophyllum commune and its applications.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of the origin-binding domain of the bacteriophage λ O replication initiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, E. B.; Gittis, A. G.; Bianchet, M. A.; McMacken, R.

    2007-01-01

    Crystallization and preliminary diffraction data of the N-terminal 19–139 fragment of the origin-binding domain of bacteriophage λ O replication initiator are reported. The bacteriophage λ O protein binds to the λ replication origin (oriλ) and serves as the primary replication initiator for the viral genome. The binding energy derived from the binding of O to oriλ is thought to help drive DNA opening to facilitate initiation of DNA replication. Detailed understanding of this process is severely limited by the lack of high-resolution structures of O protein or of any lambdoid phage-encoded paralogs either with or without DNA. The production of crystals of the origin-binding domain of λ O that diffract to 2.5 Å is reported. Anomalous dispersion methods will be used to solve this structure

  5. Detection and Characterization of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Biological Systems by Monitoring Species-Specific Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Micael; Zielonka, Jacek; Karoui, Hakim; Sikora, Adam; Michalski, Radosław; Podsiadły, Radosław; Lopez, Marcos; Vasquez-Vivar, Jeannette; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Ouari, Olivier

    2018-05-20

    Since the discovery of the superoxide dismutase enzyme, the generation and fate of short-lived oxidizing, nitrosating, nitrating, and halogenating species in biological systems has been of great interest. Despite the significance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in numerous diseases and intracellular signaling, the rigorous detection of ROS and RNS has remained a challenge. Recent Advances: Chemical characterization of the reactions of selected ROS and RNS with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin traps and fluorescent probes led to the establishment of species-specific products, which can be used for specific detection of several forms of ROS and RNS in cell-free systems and in cultured cells in vitro and in animals in vivo. Profiling oxidation products from the ROS and RNS probes provides a rigorous method for detection of those species in biological systems. Formation and detection of species-specific products from the probes enables accurate characterization of the oxidative environment in cells. Measurement of the total signal (fluorescence, chemiluminescence, etc.) intensity does not allow for identification of the ROS/RNS formed. It is critical to identify the products formed by using chromatographic or other rigorous techniques. Product analyses should be accompanied by monitoring of the intracellular probe level, another factor controlling the yield of the product(s) formed. More work is required to characterize the chemical reactivity of the ROS/RNS probes, and to develop new probes/detection approaches enabling real-time, selective monitoring of the specific products formed from the probes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 1416-1432.

  6. Functional characterization of the origin of replication of pRN1 from Sulfolobus islandicus REN1H1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chijioke J Joshua

    Full Text Available Plasmid pRN1 from Sulfolobus islandicus REN1H1 is believed to replicate by a rolling circle mechanism but its origin and mechanism of replication are not well understood. We sought to create minimal expression vectors based on pRN1 that would be useful for heterologous gene expression in S. acidocaldarius, and in the process improve our understanding of the mechanism of replication. We constructed and transformed shuttle vectors that harbored different contiguous stretches of DNA from pRN1 into S. acidocaldarius E4-39, a uracil auxotroph. A 232-bp region 3' of orf904 was found to be critical for pRN1 replication and is therefore proposed to be the putative origin of replication. This 232-bp region contains a 100-bp stem-loop structure believed to be the double-strand origin of replication. The loop of the 100-bp structure contains a GTG tri-nucleotide motif, a feature that was previously reported to be important for the primase activity of Orf904. This putative origin and the associated orf56 and orf904 were identified as the minimal replicon of pRN1 because transformants of plasmids lacking any of these three features were not recovered. Plasmids lacking orf904 and orf56 but harboring the putative origin were transformable when orf904 and orf56 were provided in-trans; a 75-bp region 5' of the orf904 start codon was found to be essential for this complementation. Detailed knowledge of the pRN1 origin of replication will broaden the application of the plasmid as a genetic tool for Sulfolobus species.

  7. Characterization of microbial communities in pest colonized books by molecular biology tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Palla

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the identification of bacteria and fungi colonies in insect infesting books, by cultural-independent methodologies based on molecular biology techniques. Microbial genomic DNA extraction, in vitro amplification of specific target sequences by polymerase chain reactions (PCR, sequencing and sequence analysis were performed. These procedures minimized the samples amount, optimized the diagnostic studies on bacteria and fungi colonization and allowed the identification of many species also in complex microbial consortia. The molecular techniques for sure accomplish and integrate the microbiological standard methods (in vitro culture and morphological analyses (OM, SEM, CLSM, in order to understand the role of microorganisms in bio-deterioration of cultural assets. This monitoring is also indispensable to shed light on the risk for visitors and/or professionals to contract potential illnesses within indoor environments.

  8. Mechanical–biological treatment: Performance and potentials. An LCA of 8 MBT plants including waste characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montejo, Cristina; Tonini, Davide; Márquez, María del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    recovery through increased automation of the selection and to prioritize biogas-electricity production from the organic fraction over direct composting. The optimal strategy for refuse derived fuel (RDF) management depends upon the environmental compartment to be prioritized and the type of marginal...... of the MBT plants. These widely differed in type of biological treatment and recovery efficiencies. The results indicated that the performance is strongly connected with energy and materials recovery efficiency. The recommendation for upgrading and/or commissioning of future plants is to optimize materials...... electricity source in the system. It was estimated that, overall, up to ca. 180—190 kt CO2-eq. y−1 may be saved by optimizing the MBT plants under assessment....

  9. synthesis and characterization of some poly functionalized heterocyclic derivatives of expected biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-sayed, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    The present work was aimed and designed to fulfil The following objectives : 1- Continuation of the effort done by our research group in the field of chemistry of pyridinethione derivatives and their biological activities. 2- Synthesis of several new heterocyclic derivatives containing N and/or S using the laboratory available reagents. 3- Establishment of the structures of the newly synthesized heterocyclic compounds by the data of IR, 1 H-NMR, mass spectra in addition to the elemental analysis. 4- Synthesis of some of these heterocyclic derivatives via alternative routs and this used as a tool to confirm the structures of the newly synthesized heterocyclic derivatives. 5- study of the most probable mechanisms leading to the formation of the new heterocyclic derivatives. 6- The antimicrobial activity of some of the newly synthesized heterocyclic derivatives was tested against several types of organisms

  10. Novel synthesis on poly (vinyl alcohol): characterization, complexation a biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sawy, N.M.; Elassar, A.Z.; Al-Fulaij, O.

    2002-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, readily condensed with phenyl hydrazine and malononitrile in basic medium to give the hydrazone and pyran derivatives, respectively. PVA reacted with chloroacetonitrile, biuet and thiophene carbonyl chloride to give modified polymeric materials. While addition of PVA to acrylonitrile and phenyl isothiocyanate gives the ether and thiocarbamate ester derivatives, respectively. Hydroxylamine hydrochloride reacted with the modified, carbonitrile containing, polymer to give the amidoxime derivative. The amidoximated products of PVA and carbamate ester of polymeric material were complexed with CUCL2 solution. The complex materials were confirmed by using UV and ESDS measurements. The morphology of PVA and complex with CUII was observed by SEM. Biological activity of some of the prepared compounds was investigated toward bacteria and fungi

  11. Characterization of the Hanford 300 area burial grounds. Task IV. Biological transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Gano, K.A.; Rickard, W.H.; Rogers, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    The characteristics of radioactive waste burial sites at the 300 area burial grounds on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, southeastern Washington were studied. The potential vectors of radionuclide transport studied were vegetation and animals. The overall results showed a low potential for uptake and transport of radionuclides from the 300 area sites. However, additional methods to control physical and biological mechanisms may contribute to the effectiveness of waste burial practices. From the results, the Biological Transport task recommended field studies which include reduction of soil erosion and addition of biobarriers to plants and animals. Vegetation plays a major role in reducing soil erosion, and thereby maintaining the backfill over the burial sites. Of the several species found on the 300 area sites, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) appears to be the most desirable as a cover. Besides retarding erosion, it has a shallow root system (does not easily penetrate buried material); it has a low affinity for radionuclide uptake; and its tissues are not easily blown away. Small mammals (specifically, mice) appear to have the most potential for radionuclide exposure and uptake. Small mammals were live-trapped within 10 x 10-meter trap grids. Each animal trapped was surgically implanted with a thermoluminescent dosimeter. When the animal was recaptured, the dosimeter was removed and read for exposure. Exposures were reported in milli-Roentgens. The most consistently trapped small mammals were the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Results from the dosimeter readings showed that some of those animals had higher than background exposures. Biobarriers to animals could be considered as a mechanism to reduce the potential for radionuclide transport

  12. Characterization of the Hanford 300 area burial grounds. Task IV. Biological transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Gano, K.A.; Rickard, W.H.; Rogers, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    The characteristics of radioactive waste burial sites at the 300 area burial grounds on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, southeastern Washington were studied. The potential vectors of radionuclide transport studied were vegetation and animals. The overall results showed a low potential for uptake and transport of radionuclides from the 300 area sites. However, additional methods to control physical and biological mechanisms may contribute to the effectiveness of waste burial practices. From the results, the Biological Transport task recommended field studies which include reduction of soil erosion and addition of biobarriers to plants and animals. Vegetation plays a major role in reducing soil erosion, and thereby maintaining the backfill over the burial sites. Of the several species found on the 300 area sites, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) appears to be the most desirable as a cover. Besides retarding erosion, it has a shallow root system (does not easily penetrate buried material); it has a low affinity for radionuclide uptake; and its tissues are not easily blown away. Small mammals (specifically, mice) appear to have the most potential for radionuclide exposure and uptake. Small mammals were live-trapped within 10 x 10-meter trap grids. Each animal trapped was surgically implanted with a thermoluminescent dosimeter. When the animal was recaptured, the dosimeter was removed and read for exposure. Exposures were reported in milli-Roentgens. The most consistently trapped small mammals were the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Results from the dosimeter readings showed that some of those animals had higher than background exposures. Biobarriers to animals could be considered as a mechanism to reduce the potential for radionuclide transport.

  13. Characterization of p38 MAPK isoforms for drug resistance study using systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huiming; Peng, Tao; Wen, Jianguo; Engler, David A; Matsunami, Risë K; Su, Jing; Zhang, Le; Chang, Chung-Che Jeff; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2014-07-01

    p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation plays an important role in resistance to chemotherapeutic cytotoxic drugs in treating multiple myeloma (MM). However, how the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway is involved in drug resistance, in particular the roles that the various p38 isoforms play, remains largely unknown. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we developed a novel systems biology approach by integrating liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein array data from human MM cell lines with computational pathway models in which the unknown parameters were inferred using a proposed novel algorithm called modularized factor graph. New mechanisms predicted by our models suggest that combined activation of various p38 isoforms may result in drug resistance in MM via regulating the related pathways including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway and NFкB pathway. ERK pathway regulating cell growth is synergistically regulated by p38δ isoform, whereas nuclear factor kappa B (NFкB) pathway regulating cell apoptosis is synergistically regulated by p38α isoform. This finding that p38δ isoform promotes the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in MM cells treated with bortezomib was validated by western blotting. Based on the predicted mechanisms, we further screened drug combinations in silico and found that a promising drug combination targeting ERK1/2 and NFκB might reduce the effects of drug resistance in MM cells. This study provides a framework of a systems biology approach to studying drug resistance and drug combination selection. RPPA experimental Data and Matlab source codes of modularized factor graph for parameter estimation are freely available online at http://ctsb.is.wfubmc.edu/publications/modularized-factor-graph.php. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The NYC native air sampling pilot project: using HVAC filter data for urban biological incident characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackelsberg, Joel; Leykam, Frederic M; Hazi, Yair; Madsen, Larry C; West, Todd H; Faltesek, Anthony; Henderson, Gavin D; Henderson, Christopher L; Leighton, Terrance

    2011-09-01

    Native air sampling (NAS) is distinguished from dedicated air sampling (DAS) devices (eg, BioWatch) that are deployed to detect aerosol disseminations of biological threat agents. NAS uses filter samples from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial properties for environmental sampling after DAS detection of biological threat agent incidents. It represents an untapped, scientifically sound, efficient, widely distributed, and comparably inexpensive resource for postevent environmental sampling. Calculations predict that postevent NAS would be more efficient than environmental surface sampling by orders of magnitude. HVAC filter samples could be collected from pre-identified surrounding NAS facilities to corroborate the DAS alarm and delineate the path taken by the bioaerosol plume. The New York City (NYC) Native Air Sampling Pilot Project explored whether native air sampling would be acceptable to private sector stakeholders and could be implemented successfully in NYC. Building trade associations facilitated outreach to and discussions with property owners and managers, who expedited contact with building managers of candidate NAS properties that they managed or owned. Nominal NAS building requirements were determined; procedures to identify and evaluate candidate NAS facilities were developed; data collection tools and other resources were designed and used to expedite candidate NAS building selection and evaluation in Manhattan; and exemplar environmental sampling playbooks for emergency responders were completed. In this sample, modern buildings with single or few corporate tenants were the best NAS candidate facilities. The Pilot Project successfully demonstrated that in one urban setting a native air sampling strategy could be implemented with effective public-private collaboration.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of biological activities of some 2,3-diaryl bicyclo methanones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirunarayanan Ganesamoorthy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen (3,4-dichlorophenyl-3-(substituted phenylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2-yl methanone derivatives have been synthesized by an aqueous phase fly-ash catalyzed [4+2] cycloaddition Diels-Alder reaction of cyclopentadiene and 3,4-dichloro phenyl chalcones. The yields of the methanones were greater than 60%. The synthesized methanones were characterized by their physical constants and spectral data. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the synthesized methanones were evaluated using a variety of bacterial and fungal species and DPPH radical scavenging methods.

  16. Molecular identification and biological characterization of a new potyvirus in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffo, Marina; Mammella, Marco; Vallino, Marta; Caciagli, Piero; Turina, Massimo

    2016-09-01

    A potyvirus causing necrosis and leaf distortion on lettuce was found in the Lazio region of Italy. Host range analysis showed its ability to infect only Chenopodium quinoa and C. amaranticolor in addition to some lettuce cultivars. The virus could be transmitted by aphids of the species Myzus persicae. The complete 9829-nt genome was characterized. BLAST analysis of sequence of the complete encoded polyprotein showed that the most closely related virus is asparagus virus 1, with 52 % amino acid sequence identity. These results suggest that this virus should be considered a member of a new species in the genus Potyvirus.

  17. Establishment and Biological Characterization of a Panel of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) and GBM Variant Oncosphere Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Zev A; Wilson, Kelli M; Salmasi, Vafi; Orr, Brent A; Eberhart, Charles G; Siu, I-Mei; Lim, Michael; Weingart, Jon D; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Bettegowda, Chetan; Kassam, Amin B; Olivi, Alessandro; Brem, Henry; Riggins, Gregory J; Gallia, Gary L

    2016-01-01

    Human tumor cell lines form the basis of the majority of present day laboratory cancer research. These models are vital to studying the molecular biology of tumors and preclinical testing of new therapies. When compared to traditional adherent cell lines, suspension cell lines recapitulate the genetic profiles and histologic features of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with higher fidelity. Using a modified neural stem cell culture technique, here we report the characterization of GBM cell lines including GBM variants. Tumor tissue samples were obtained intra-operatively and cultured in neural stem cell conditions containing growth factors. Tumor lines were characterized in vitro using differentiation assays followed by immunostaining for lineage-specific markers. In vivo tumor formation was assayed by orthotopic injection in nude mice. Genetic uniqueness was confirmed via short tandem repeat (STR) DNA profiling. Thirteen oncosphere lines derived from GBM and GBM variants, including a GBM with PNET features and a GBM with oligodendroglioma component, were established. All unique lines showed distinct genetic profiles by STR profiling. The lines assayed demonstrated a range of in vitro growth rates. Multipotency was confirmed using in vitro differentiation. Tumor formation demonstrated histologic features consistent with high grade gliomas, including invasion, necrosis, abnormal vascularization, and high mitotic rate. Xenografts derived from the GBM variants maintained histopathological features of the primary tumors. We have generated and characterized GBM suspension lines derived from patients with GBMs and GBM variants. These oncosphere cell lines will expand the resources available for preclinical study.

  18. Numerical and experimental characterization of solid-state micropore-based cytometer for detection and enumeration of biological cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinhong; Chen, Liang; Ai, Ye; Cheng, Yuanbing; Li, Chang Ming; Kang, Yuejun; Wang, Zhiming

    2015-03-01

    Portable diagnostic devices have emerged as important tools in various biomedical applications since they can provide an effective solution for low-cost and rapid clinical diagnosis. In this paper, we present a micropore-based resistive cytometer for the detection and enumeration of biological cells. The proposed device was fabricated on a silicon wafer by a standard microelectromechanical system processing technology, which enables a mass production of the proposed chip. The working principle of this cytometer is based upon a bias potential modulated pulse, originating from the biological particle's physical blockage of the micropore. Polystyrene particles of different sizes (7, 10, and 16 μm) were used to test and calibrate the proposed device. A finite element simulation was developed to predict the bias potential modulated pulse (peak amplitude vs. pulse bandwidth), which can provide critical insight into the design of this microfluidic flow cytometer. Furthermore, HeLa cells (a type of tumor cell lines) spiked in a suspension of blood cells, including red blood cells and white blood cells, were used to assess the performance for detecting and counting tumor cells. The proposed microfluidic flow cytometer is able to provide a promising platform to address the current unmet need for point-of-care clinical diagnosis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Isolation and characterization of novel mutations in the pSC101 origin that increase copy number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mitchell G.; Sedaghatian, Nima; Barajas, Jesus F.

    2018-01-01

    /cell) based plasmids, respectively. The mutant copy number variants retained compatibility with p15a, pBBR, and ColE1 origins of replication. These pSC101 variants may be useful in future metabolic engineering efforts that require medium or high-copy vectors compatible with p15a- and ColE1-based plasmids....

  20. Molecular, ultrastructural, and biological characterization of Pennsylvania isolates of Plum pox virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, William L; Damsteegt, Vernon D; Gildow, Fred E; Stone, Andrew L; Sherman, Diana J; Levy, Laurene E; Mavrodieva, Vessela; Richwine, Nancy; Welliver, Ruth; Luster, Douglas G

    2011-05-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) was identified in Pennsylvania in 1999. The outbreak was limited to a four-county region in southern Pennsylvania. Initial serological and molecular characterization indicated that the isolates in Pennsylvania belong to the D strain of PPV. The Pennsylvania isolates were characterized by sequence analysis, electron microscopy, host range, and vector transmission to determine how these isolates related to their previously studied European counterparts. Genetically, Pennsylvania (PPV-Penn) isolates were more closely related to each other than to any other PPV-D strains, and isolates from the United States, Canada, and Chile were more closely related to each other than to European isolates. The PPV-Penn isolates exist as two clades, suggesting the possibility of multiple introductions. Electron microscopy analysis of PPV-Penn isolates, including cytopathological studies, indicated that the virions were similar to other Potyvirus spp. PPV-Penn isolates had a herbaceous host range similar to that of European D isolates. There were distinct differences in the transmission efficiencies of the two PPV-Penn isolates using Myzus persicae and Aphis spiraecola as vectors; however, both PPV-Penn isolates were transmitted by M. persicae more efficiently than a European D isolate but less efficiently than a European M isolate.

  1. Preparation, characterization, biological activity, and transport study of polystyrene based calcium–barium phosphate composite membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Mohammad Mujahid Ali; Rafiuddin,, E-mail: rafi_amu@rediffmail.com

    2013-10-15

    Calcium–barium phosphate (CBP) composite membrane with 25% polystyrene was prepared by co-precipitation method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the membrane. The membrane was found to be crystalline in nature with consistent arrangement of particles and no indication of visible cracks. The electrical potentials measured across the composite membrane in contact with univalent electrolytes (KCl, NaCl and LiCl), have been found to increase with decrease in concentrations. Thus the membrane was found to be cation-selective. Transport properties of developed membranes may be utilized for the efficient desalination of saline water and more importantly demineralization process. The antibacterial study of this composite membrane shows good results for killing the disease causing bacteria along with waste water treatment. Highlights: • Transport properties of composite membrane are evaluated. • The composite membrane was found to be stable in all media. • TMS method is used for electrochemical characterization. • The membrane was found to be cation selective. • The order of surface charge density was found to be LiCl < NaCl < KCl.

  2. Novel Organotin(IV) Schiff Base Complexes with Histidine Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Ortiz, Ariadna; Camacho-Camacho, Carlos; Sainz-Espuñes, Teresita; Rojas-Oviedo, Irma; Gutiérrez-Lucas, Luis Raúl; Gutierrez Carrillo, Atilano; Vera Ramirez, Marco A.

    2013-01-01

    Five novel tin Schiff base complexes with histidine analogues (derived from the condensation reaction between L-histidine and 3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde) have been synthesized and characterized. Characterization has been completed by IR and high-resolution mass spectroscopy, 1D and 2D solution NMR (1H, 13C  and 119Sn), as well as solid state 119Sn NMR. The spectroscopic evidence shows two types of structures: a trigonal bipyramidal stereochemistry with the tin atom coordinated to five donating atoms (two oxygen atoms, one nitrogen atom, and two carbon atoms belonging to the alkyl moieties), where one molecule of ligand is coordinated in a three dentate fashion. The second structure is spectroscopically described as a tetrahedral tin complex with four donating atoms (one oxygen atom coordinated to the metal and three carbon atoms belonging to the alkyl or aryl substituents), with one molecule of ligand attached. The antimicrobial activity of the tin compounds has been tested against the growth of bacteria in vitro to assess their bactericidal properties. While pentacoordinated compounds 1, 2, and 3 are described as moderate effective to noneffective drugs against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, tetracoordinated tin(IV) compounds 4 and 5 are considered as moderate effective and most effective compounds, respectively, against the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (Gram-positive). PMID:23864839

  3. Spectroscopic characterization of metal complexes of novel Schiff base. Synthesis, thermal and biological activity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, M. M.; Mohamed, Gehad G.; Ibrahim, Amr A.

    2009-07-01

    Novel Schiff base (HL) ligand is prepared via condensation of 4-aminoantipyrine and 2-aminobenzoic acid. The ligand is characterized based on elemental analysis, mass, IR and 1H NMR spectra. Metal complexes are reported and characterized based on elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR, solid reflectance, magnetic moment, molar conductance and thermal analyses (TGA, DrTGA and DTA). The molar conductance data reveal that all the metal chelates are non-electrolytes. IR spectra show that HL is coordinated to the metal ions in a uninegatively tridentate manner with NNO donor sites of the azomethine N, amino N and deprotonated caroxylic-O. From the magnetic and solid reflectance spectra, it is found that the geometrical structures of these complexes are octahedral. The thermal behaviour of these chelates shows that the hydrated complexes losses water molecules of hydration in the first step followed immediately by decomposition of the anions and ligand molecules in the subsequent steps. The activation thermodynamic parameters, such as, E*, ΔH*, ΔS* and ΔG* are calculated from the DrTG curves using Coats-Redfern method. The synthesized ligands, in comparison to their metal complexes also were screened for their antibacterial activity against bacterial species, Escherichia Coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus Pyogones and Fungi (Candida). The activity data show that the metal complexes to be more potent/antibacterial than the parent Shciff base ligand against one or more bacterial species.

  4. Physicochemical and biological characterization of 1,2-dialkoylamidopropane-based lipoplexes for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljaberi, Ahmad; Saleh, Suhair; Abu Khadra, Khalid M; Kearns, Molinda; Savva, Michalakis

    2015-04-01

    Elucidation of the molecular and formulation requirements for efficient lipofection is a prerequisite to enhance the biological activity of cationic lipid-mediated gene delivery systems. To this end, the in vitro lipofection activity of the ionizable asymmetric 1,2-dialkoylamidopropane-based derivatives bearing a single primary amine group as the cationic head group was evaluated. The electrostatic interactions of these cationic lipids with plasmid DNA in serum-free medium were investigated by means of gel electrophoresis retardation and Eth-Br quenching assays. The effect of the inclusion of the helper lipid DOPE in the formulation on these interactions was also considered. The physicochemical properties of these lipids in terms of bilayer fluidity and extent of ionization were investigated using fluorescence anisotropy and surface potential techniques, respectively. The results showed that only the active lipid, 1,2lmp[5], existed in a liquid crystalline state at physiological temperature. Moreover, the extent of ionization of this lipid in assemblies was significantly higher that it's saturated analogues. Inclusion of the helper lipid DOPE improved the encapsulation and association between 1,2lmp[5] and plasmid DNA, which was reflected by the significant boost of lipofection activity of the 1,2lmp[5]/DOPE formulation as compared to the lipid alone. In conclusion, membrane fluidity and sufficient protonation of ionizable cationic lipid are required for efficient association and encapsulation of plasmid DNA and elicit of improved in vitro lipofection activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Biological Properties and Characterization of ASL50 Protein from Aged Allium sativum Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Jitendra, Kumar; Singh, Kusum; Kapoor, Vaishali; Sinha, Mou; Xess, Immaculata; Das, Satya N; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P; Dey, Sharmistha

    2015-08-01

    Allium sativum is well known for its medicinal properties. The A. sativum lectin 50 (ASL50, 50 kDa) was isolated from aged A. sativum bulbs and purified by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200 column. Agar well diffusion assay were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ASL50 against Candida species and bacteria then minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The lipid A binding to ASL50 was determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology with varying concentrations. Electron microscopic studies were done to see the mode of action of ASL50 on microbes. It exerted antimicrobial activity against clinical Candida isolates with a MIC of 10-40 μg/ml and clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates with a MIC of 10-80 μg/ml. The electron microscopic study illustrates that it disrupts the cell membrane of the bacteria and cell wall of fungi. It exhibited antiproliferative activity on oral carcinoma KB cells with an IC50 of 36 μg/ml after treatment for 48 h and induces the apoptosis of cancer cells by inducing 2.5-fold higher caspase enzyme activity than untreated cells. However, it has no cytotoxic effects towards HEK 293 cells as well as human erythrocytes even at higher concentration of ASL50. Biological properties of ASL50 may have its therapeutic significance in aiding infection and cancer treatments.

  6. Novel Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Sensors and Nanoprobes for the Characterization of Food and Biological Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apak, Reşat; Demirci Çekiç, Sema; Üzer, Ayşem; Çelik, Saliha Esin; Bener, Mustafa; Bekdeşer, Burcu; Can, Ziya; Sağlam, Şener; Önem, Ayşe Nur; Erçağ, Erol

    2018-01-11

    Since an unbalanced excess of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) causes various diseases, determination of antioxidants that can counter oxidative stress is important in food and biological analyses. Optical/electrochemical nanosensors have attracted attention in antioxidant activity (AOA) assessment because of their increased sensitivity and selectivity. Optical sensors offer advantages such as low cost, flexibility, remote control, speed, miniaturization and on-site/in situ analysis. Electrochemical sensors using noble metal nanoparticles on modified electrodes better catalyze bioelectrochemical reactions. We summarize the design principles of colorimetric sensors and nanoprobes for food antioxidants (including electron-transfer based and ROS/RNS scavenging assays) and important milestones contributed by our laboratory. We present novel sensors and nanoprobes together with their mechanisms and analytical performances. Our colorimetric sensors for AOA measurement made use of cupric-neocuproine and ferric-phenanthroline complexes immobilized on a Nafion membrane. We recently designed an optical oxidant/antioxidant sensor using N , N -dimethyl- p -phenylene diamine (DMPD) as probe, from which ROS produced colored DMPD-quinone cationic radicals electrostatically retained on a Nafion membrane. The attenuation of initial color by antioxidants enabled indirect AOA estimation. The surface plasmon resonance absorption of silver nanoparticles as a result of enlargement of citrate-reduced seed particles by antioxidant addition enabled a linear response of AOA. We determined biothiols with Ellman reagent-derivatized gold nanoparticles.

  7. Isolation, Characterization, and Identification of Biological Control Agent for Potato Soft Rot in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Ali, M. E.; Khan, A. A.; Akanda, A. M.; Uddin, Md. Kamal; Hashim, U.; Abd Hamid, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 91 isolates of probable antagonistic bacteria of potato soft rot bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) were extracted from rhizospheres and endophytes of various crop plants, different soil varieties, and atmospheres in the potato farming areas of Bangladesh. Antibacterial activity of the isolated probable antagonistic bacteria was tested in vitro against the previously identified most common and most virulent soft rot causing bacterial strain Ecc P-138. Only two isolates E-45 and E-65 significantly inhibited the in vitro growth of Ecc P-138. Physiological, biochemical, and carbon source utilization tests identified isolate E-65 as a member of the genus Bacillus and the isolate E-45 as Lactobacillus sp. The stronger antagonistic activity against Ecc P-138 was found in E-65 in vitro screening and storage potatoes. E-65 reduced the soft rot infection to 22-week storage potatoes of different varieties by 32.5–62.5% in model experiment, demonstrating its strong potential to be used as an effective biological control agent for the major pectolytic bacteria Ecc. The highest (62.5%) antagonistic effect of E-65 was observed in the Granola and the lowest (32.7%) of that was found in the Cardinal varieties of the Bangladeshi potatoes. The findings suggest that isolate E-65 could be exploited as a biocontrol agent for potato tubers. PMID:22645446

  8. Isolation, Characterization, and Identification of Biological Control Agent for Potato Soft Rot in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 91 isolates of probable antagonistic bacteria of potato soft rot bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc were extracted from rhizospheres and endophytes of various crop plants, different soil varieties, and atmospheres in the potato farming areas of Bangladesh. Antibacterial activity of the isolated probable antagonistic bacteria was tested in vitro against the previously identified most common and most virulent soft rot causing bacterial strain Ecc P-138. Only two isolates E-45 and E-65 significantly inhibited the in vitro growth of Ecc P-138. Physiological, biochemical, and carbon source utilization tests identified isolate E-65 as a member of the genus Bacillus and the isolate E-45 as Lactobacillus sp. The stronger antagonistic activity against Ecc P-138 was found in E-65 in vitro screening and storage potatoes. E-65 reduced the soft rot infection to 22-week storage potatoes of different varieties by 32.5–62.5% in model experiment, demonstrating its strong potential to be used as an effective biological control agent for the major pectolytic bacteria Ecc. The highest (62.5% antagonistic effect of E-65 was observed in the Granola and the lowest (32.7% of that was found in the Cardinal varieties of the Bangladeshi potatoes. The findings suggest that isolate E-65 could be exploited as a biocontrol agent for potato tubers.

  9. Phytochemical Characterization and Biological Evaluation of the Aqueous and Supercritical Fluid Extracts from Salvia sclareoides Brot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batista Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants belonging to the genus Salvia (Lamiaceae are known to have a wide range of biological properties. In this work, extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Salvia sclareoides Brot. were evaluated to investigate their chemical composition, toxicity, bioactivity, and stability under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions. The composition of the supercritical fluid extract was determined by GC and GC-MS, while the identification of the infusion constituents was performed by HPLC-DAD and LC-MS. The in vitro cytotoxicity of both extracts (0-2 mg/mL was evaluated in Caco-2 cell lines by the MTT assay. The anti-inflammatory and anticholinesterase activities were determined through the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and acetylcholinesterase enzymes, while β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching test and the DPPH assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. The infusion inhibited cyclooxygenase-1 (IC50 = 271.0 μg/mL, and acetylcholinesterase (IC50 = 487.7 μg/ mL enzymes, also demonstrated significant antioxidant properties, as evaluated by the DPPH (IC50 = 10.4 μg/mL and β-carotene/linoleic acid (IC50 = 30.0 μg/mL assays. No remarkable alterations in the composition or in the bioactivities of the infusion were observed after in vitro digestion, which supports the potential of S. sclareoides as a source of bioactive ingredients with neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

  10. Synthesis, Spectroscopic Characterization and Biological Activities of Transition Metal Complexes Derived from a Tridentate Schiff Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Senthil Kumaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new series of Cu (II, Ni (II, Co (II and Zn (II complexes have been synthesized from the Schiff base derived from 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidine-4-aminoantipyrine and 2-aminophenol. The structural features have been determined from their elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, Mass, IR, UV-Vis, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and ESR spectral studies. The redox behavior of the copper complex has been studied by cyclic voltammetry. The data confirm that the complexes have composition of ML2 type. The electronic absorption spectral data of the complexes propose an octahedral geometry around the central metal ion. All the metal complexes with DNA structure were guided by the presence of inter-molecular C–H⋯O and C–H⋯N hydrogen bonds. The biological activity of the synthesized compounds were tested against the bacterial species such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and fungal species such as Candida albicans by the well-diffusion method.

  11. Gold-Pluronic core-shell nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Timea; Boca, Sanda [Babes-Bolyai University, Nanobiophotonics and Laser Microspectroscopy Center, Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences and Faculty of Physics (Romania); Biro, Dominic [Sapientia University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Technical and Human Sciences (Romania); Baldeck, Patrice [Universite Joseph Fourier and CNRS, Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Physique, UMR 5588, CNRS (France); Astilean, Simion, E-mail: simion.astilean@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Babes-Bolyai University, Nanobiophotonics and Laser Microspectroscopy Center, Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences and Faculty of Physics (Romania)

    2013-04-15

    This study presents the synthesis of gold-Pluronic core-shell nanoparticles by a two-step method and investigates their biological impact on cancer cells, specifically nanoparticle internalization and cytotoxicity. Uniform, 9-10-nm-sized, hydrophobic gold nanoparticles were synthesized in organic phase by reducing gold salt with oleylamine, after which oleylamine-protected gold nanoparticles were phase-transferred into aqueous medium using Pluronic F127 block copolymer, resulting in gold-Pluronic core-shell nanoparticles with a mean hydrodynamic diameter of {approx}35 nm. The formation and phase-transfer of gold nanoparticles were analyzed by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. The obtained gold-Pluronic core-shell nanoparticles proved to be highly stable in salted solution. Cytotoxicity tests showed no modification of cellular viability in the presence of properly purified particles. Furthermore, dark-field cellular imaging demonstrated that gold-Pluronic nanoparticles were able to be efficiently uptaken by cells, being internalized through nonspecific endocytosis. The high stability, proven biocompatibility, and imaging properties of gold-Pluronic core-shell nanoparticles hold promise for relevant intracellular applications, with such a design providing the feasibility to combine all multiple functionalities in one nanoparticle for simultaneous detection and imaging.

  12. Gold–Pluronic core–shell nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Timea; Boca, Sanda; Biro, Dominic; Baldeck, Patrice; Astilean, Simion

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the synthesis of gold–Pluronic core–shell nanoparticles by a two-step method and investigates their biological impact on cancer cells, specifically nanoparticle internalization and cytotoxicity. Uniform, 9–10-nm-sized, hydrophobic gold nanoparticles were synthesized in organic phase by reducing gold salt with oleylamine, after which oleylamine-protected gold nanoparticles were phase-transferred into aqueous medium using Pluronic F127 block copolymer, resulting in gold–Pluronic core–shell nanoparticles with a mean hydrodynamic diameter of ∼35 nm. The formation and phase-transfer of gold nanoparticles were analyzed by UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. The obtained gold–Pluronic core–shell nanoparticles proved to be highly stable in salted solution. Cytotoxicity tests showed no modification of cellular viability in the presence of properly purified particles. Furthermore, dark-field cellular imaging demonstrated that gold–Pluronic nanoparticles were able to be efficiently uptaken by cells, being internalized through nonspecific endocytosis. The high stability, proven biocompatibility, and imaging properties of gold–Pluronic core–shell nanoparticles hold promise for relevant intracellular applications, with such a design providing the feasibility to combine all multiple functionalities in one nanoparticle for simultaneous detection and imaging.

  13. Electrochemical and biological characterization of coatings formed on Ti-15Mo alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazek-Kęsik, Alicja; Krok-Borkowicz, Małgorzata; Pamuła, Elżbieta; Simka, Wojciech

    2014-10-01

    β-Type titanium alloys are considered the future materials for bone implants. To improve the bioactivity of Ti-15Mo, the surface was modified using the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process. Tricalcium phosphate (TCP, Ca3PO4), wollastonite (CaSiO3) and silica (SiO2) were selected as additives in the anodizing bath to enhance the bioactivity of the coatings formed during the PEO process. Electrochemical analysis of the samples was performed in Ringer's solution at 37°C. The open-circuit potential (EOCP) as a function of time, corrosion potential (ECORR), corrosion current density (jCORR) and polarization resistance (Rp) of the samples were determined. Surface modification improved the corrosion resistance of Ti-15Mo in Ringer's solution. In vitro studies with MG-63 osteoblast-like cells were performed for 1, 3 and 7 days. After 24h, the cells were well adhered on the entire surfaces, and their number increased with increasing culture time. The coatings formed in basic solution with wollastonite exhibited better biological performance compared with the as-ground sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Design and characterization of a magnetoelastic sensor for the detection of biological agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Wen; Mathison, Leslie C; Chin, Bryan A; Petrenko, Valery A

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a free-standing, magnetoelastic biosensor. The detection principle is presented and various resonance characteristics of the sensor are discussed. Experimental measurements of the sensor resonance frequencies agree with theoretical predictions. The influence of the external magnetic field on the resonance behaviour of the sensor was studied and the optimum dc magnetic fields for best sensitivity in air and in water solutions for 2000 x 400 x 15 μm (2 mm) sensors and 1000 x 200 x 15 μm (1 mm) size sensors were determined to be 75 Oe and 38 Oe, respectively. Both theoretical prediction and experimental results show that smaller sensors have greater mass sensitivity and can theoretically detect mass as small as one biological spore. The sensor platform was immobilized with JRB7 phages for specific, in vitro detection of B. anthracis spores. Real-time detection of spores suspended in water was demonstrated using a flowing system. The 1 mm and 2 mm sensors were found to have a detection limit of 10 4 spores ml -1 and 10 5 spores ml -1 , respectively.

  15. Spectroscopy of scattered light for the characterization of micro and nanoscale objects in biology and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turzhitsky, Vladimir; Qiu, Le; Itzkan, Irving; Novikov, Andrei A; Kotelev, Mikhail S; Getmanskiy, Michael; Vinokurov, Vladimir A; Muradov, Alexander V; Perelman, Lev T

    2014-01-01

    The biomedical uses for the spectroscopy of scattered light by micro and nanoscale objects can broadly be classified into two areas. The first, often called light scattering spectroscopy (LSS), deals with light scattered by dielectric particles, such as cellular and sub-cellular organelles, and is employed to measure their size or other physical characteristics. Examples include the use of LSS to measure the size distributions of nuclei or mitochondria. The native contrast that is achieved with LSS can serve as a non-invasive diagnostic and scientific tool. The other area for the use of the spectroscopy of scattered light in biology and medicine involves using conducting metal nanoparticles to obtain either contrast or electric field enhancement through the effect of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Gold and silver metal nanoparticles are non-toxic, they do not photobleach, are relatively inexpensive, are wavelength-tunable, and can be labeled with antibodies. This makes them very promising candidates for spectrally encoded molecular imaging. Metal nanoparticles can also serve as electric field enhancers of Raman signals. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a powerful method for detecting and identifying molecules down to single molecule concentrations. In this review, we will concentrate on the common physical principles, which allow one to understand these apparently different areas using similar physical and mathematical approaches. We will also describe the major advancements in each of these areas, as well as some of the exciting recent developments.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and biological assay of Salicylaldehyde Schiff base Cu(II) complexes and their precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftikhar, Bushra; Javed, Kanwal; Khan, Muhammad Saif Ullah; Akhter, Zareen; Mirza, Bushra; Mckee, Vickie

    2018-03-01

    Three new Schiff base ligands were synthesized by the reaction of Salicylaldehyde with semi-aromatic diamines, prepared by the reduction of corresponding dinitro-compounds, and were further used for the formation of complexes with Cu(II) metal ion. The structural features of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by their physical properties and infrared, electronic and NMR spectroscopic techniques. The studies revealed that the synthesized Schiff bases existed as tetradentate ligands and bonded to the metal ion through the phenolic oxygen and azomethine nitrogen. One of the dinitro precursors was also analyzed by single crystal X-ray crystallography, which showed that it crystallizes in monoclinic system with space group P2/n. The thermal behavior of the Cu(II) complexes was determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and kinetic parameters were evaluated from the data. Schiff base ligands, their precursors and metal complexes were also screened for antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor, Brine shrimp lethality, DPPH free radical scavenging and DNA damage assays. The results of these analyses indicated the substantial potential of the synthesized Schiff bases, their precursors and Cu(II) complexes in biological field as future drugs.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and biological activities of semicarbazones and their copper complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, Taracad K; Bernhardt, Paul V; Noble, Chris J; Fletcher, Nicholas; Pierens, Gregory K; Thurecht, Kris J; Reutens, David C

    2016-09-01

    Substituted semicarbazones/thiosemicarbazones and their copper complexes have been prepared and several single crystal structures examined. The copper complexes of these semicarbazone/thiosemicarbazones were prepared and several crystal structures examined. The single crystal X-ray structure of the pyridyl-substituted semicarbazone showed two types of copper complexes, a monomer and a dimer. We also found that the p-nitrophenyl semicarbazone formed a conventional 'magic lantern' acetate-bridged dimer. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) of several of the copper complexes was consistent with the results of single crystal X-ray crystallography. The EPR spectra of the p-nitrophenyl semicarbazone copper complex in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) showed the presence of two species, confirming the structural information. Since thiosemicarbazones and semicarbazones have been reported to exhibit anticancer activity, we examined the anticancer activity of several of the derivatives reported in the present study and interestingly only the thiosemicarbazone showed activity while the semicarbazones were not active indicating that introduction of sulphur atom alters the biological profile of these thiosemicarbazones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolation, Characterization and Biological Properties of Membrane Vesicles Produced by the Swine Pathogen Streptococcus suis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Haas

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis, more particularly serotype 2, is a major swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent worldwide that mainly causes meningitis, septicemia, endocarditis, and pneumonia. Although several potential virulence factors produced by S. suis have been identified in the last decade, the pathogenesis of S. suis infections is still not fully understood. In the present study, we showed that S. suis produces membrane vesicles (MVs that range in diameter from 13 to 130 nm and that appear to be coated by capsular material. A proteomic analysis of the MVs revealed that they contain 46 proteins, 9 of which are considered as proven or suspected virulence factors. Biological assays confirmed that S. suis MVs possess active subtilisin-like protease (SspA and DNase (SsnA. S. suis MVs degraded neutrophil extracellular traps, a property that may contribute to the ability of the bacterium to escape the host defense response. MVs also activated the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathway in both monocytes and macrophages, inducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may in turn contribute to increase the permeability of the blood brain barrier. The present study brought evidence that S. suis MVs may play a role as a virulence factor in the pathogenesis of S. suis infections, and given their composition be an excellent candidate for vaccine development.

  19. Modified Polyacrylic Acid-Zinc Composites: Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rafi Shaik

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylic acid (PAA is an important industrial chemical, which has been extensively applied in various fields, including for several biomedical purposes. In this study, we report the synthesis and modification of this polymer with various phenol imides, such as succinimide, phthalimide and 1,8-naphthalimide. The as-synthesized derivatives were used to prepare polymer metal composites by the reaction with Zn+2. These composites were characterized by using various techniques, including NMR, FT-IR, TGA, SEM and DSC. The as-prepared PAA-based composites were further evaluated for their anti-microbial properties against various pathogens, which include both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and different fungal strains. The synthesized composites have displayed considerable biocidal properties, ranging from mild to moderate activities against different strains tested.

  20. Palladium polypyridyl complexes: synthesis, characterization, DNA interaction and biological activity on Leishmania (L.) mexicana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Maribel [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas (Venezuela). Centro de Quimica; Betancourt, Adelmo [Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia (Venezuela). Facultad Experimental de Ciencia y Tecnologia. Dept. de Quimica; Hernandez, Clara [Universidad de Carabobo Sede Aragua, Maracay (Venezuela). Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud. Dept. de Ciencias Basicas; Marchan, Edgar [Universidad de Oriente, Cumana (Venezuela). Inst. de Investigaciones en Biomedicina y Ciencias Aplicadas. Nucleo de Sucre

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the search for new potential chemotherapeutic agents based on transition metal complexes with planar ligands. In this study, palladium polypyridyl complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, NMR, UV-VIS and IR spectroscopies. The interaction of the complexes with DNA was also investigated by spectroscopic methods. All metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) bands of the palladium polypyridyl complexes exhibited hypochromism and red shift in the presence of DNA. The binding constant and viscosity data suggested that the complexes [PdCl{sub 2}(phen)] and [PdCl{sub 2}(phendiamine)] interact with DNA by electrostatic forces. Additionally, these complexes induced an important leishmanistatic effect on L. (L.) mexicana promastigotes at the final concentration of 10 {mu}mol L{sup -1} in 48 h. (author)

  1. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity of Nickel (II and Palladium (II Complex with Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate (PDTC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk Imadul Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of square planar Ni(II and Pd(II complexes with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC was characterized by elemental, physiochemical, and spectroscopic methods. Two complexes were prepared by the reaction of nickel acetate and palladium acetate with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC in 1 : 2 molar ratio. The bovine serum albumin (BSA interaction with complexes was examined by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques at pH 7.4. All the spectral data suggest that coordination of the pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC takes place through the two sulphur atoms in a symmetrical bidentate fashion. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity against some species of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Bacillus cereus. It has been observed that complexes have higher activity than the free ligand.

  2. Palladium polypyridyl complexes: synthesis, characterization, DNA interaction and biological activity on Leishmania (L.) mexicana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Maribel; Betancourt, Adelmo; Hernandez, Clara; Marchan, Edgar

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the search for new potential chemotherapeutic agents based on transition metal complexes with planar ligands. In this study, palladium polypyridyl complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, NMR, UV-VIS and IR spectroscopies. The interaction of the complexes with DNA was also investigated by spectroscopic methods. All metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) bands of the palladium polypyridyl complexes exhibited hypochromism and red shift in the presence of DNA. The binding constant and viscosity data suggested that the complexes [PdCl 2 (phen)] and [PdCl 2 (phendiamine)] interact with DNA by electrostatic forces. Additionally, these complexes induced an important leishmanistatic effect on L. (L.) mexicana promastigotes at the final concentration of 10 μmol L -1 in 48 h. (author)

  3. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Studies of New Linear Thermally Stable Schiff Base Polymers with Flexible Spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Farah; Khuhawar, Muhammad Yar; Jahangir, Taj Muhammad; Channar, Abdul Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Five new linear Schiff base polymers having azomethine structures, ether linkages and extended aliphatic chain lengths with flexible spacers were synthesized by polycondensation of dialdehyde (monomer) with aliphatic and aromatic diamines. The formation yields of monomer and polymers were obtained within 75-92%. The polymers with flexible spacers of n-hexane were somewhat soluble in acetone, chloroform, THF, DMF and DMSO on heating. The monomer and polymers were characterized by melting point, elemental microanalysis, FT-IR, (1)HNMR, UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), fluorescence emission, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and viscosities and thermodynamic parameters measurements of their dilute solutions. The studies supported formation of the monomer and polymers and on the basis of these studies their structures have been assigned. The synthesized polymers were tested for their antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  4. Synthesis, Structural Characterization and Biological Screening of Various Sulfa Drugs Derived from 2-Anisidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, M.A.; Rehman, A.U.; Muhmood, T.; Khan, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a series of N-alkyl substituted sulfa drugs (sulfonamides) has been synthesized. The reaction of 2-anisidine (1) with 4-methylbenzenesulfonyl chloride (2) yielded N-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide (3), which on bromination with bromine in the presence of glacial acetic acid gave N-(4,5-dibromo-2-methoxyphenyl) 4-methylbenzenesulfonamide (6). These two products 3 and 6 on further treatment with different alkyl halides in the presence of lithium hydride yielded fourteen new N-substituted sulfonamides. These compounds were characterized by their EI-MS and 1H-NMR spectra and screened against acetylcholinesterase, butyrlcholinesterase and chymotrypsin enzymes. The results revealed that N-propyl-N-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide (5c), N-(4,5-dibromo-2-methoxy-phenyl)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide (6) and N-methyl-N-(4,5-dibromo-2-methoxyphenyl) 4-methylbenzenesulfonamide (7e) exhibited good inhibitory potential against acetylcholinesterase, butyrlcholinesterase and chymotrypsin respectively. (author)

  5. Synthesis, spectroscopic, biological activity and thermal characterization of ceftazidime with transition metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Mamdouh S.; Ali, Alaa E.; Elasala, Gehan S.; Kolkaila, Sherif A.

    2018-03-01

    Synthesis, physicochemical characterization and thermal analysis of ceftazidime complexes with transition metals (Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II)) were discussed. It's obtained that ceftazidime act as bidentate ligand. From magnetic measurement and spectral data, octahedral structures were proposed for all complexes except for cobalt, nickel and mercury had tetrahedral structural. Hyper chemistry program confirmed binding sites of ceftazidime. Ceftazidime complexes show higher activity than ceftazidime for some strains. From TG and DTA curves the thermal decomposition mechanisms of ceftazidime and their metal complexes were suggested. The thermal decomposition of the complexes ended with the formation of metal oxides as a final product except in case of Hg complex.

  6. Heteroleptic Palladium(II) dithiocarbamates: Synthesis, characterization and in vitro biological screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahan Zeb; Zia-ur-Rehman; Amir, Muhammad Kashif; Ullah, Imdad; Akhter, M. S.; Bélanger-Gariepy, Francine

    2018-03-01

    Two new heteroleptic Pd(II) complexes of sodium 4-(2-pyrimidyl)piperazine-1-carbodithioate with tris-p-flourophenylphosphine (1) and tris-p-chlorophenylphosphine (2) were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, multinuclear NMR {1H, 13C and 31P} and single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurement. In both complexes, Pd exhibit pseudo square planner geometry mediated by SS chelate, P and Cl. In vitro cytotoxicity against five different cancer cell lines using staurosporine as a standard revealed 1 to be more cytotoxic than 2, though both complexes are more active than cisplatin. Subsequent DNA binding studies revealed that non-covalent complex-DNA interaction may be the reason for arresting cancer cell growth. Furthermore, 1 and 2 are potent antioxidant agents.

  7. Biological X-ray irradiator characterization for use with small animals and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, A Colello; Mazaro, S J; Amaral, L L; Rego, E M; Oliveira, H F; Pavoni, J F

    2017-03-02

    This study presents the characterization of an X-ray irradiator through dosimetric tests, which confirms the actual dose rate that small animals and cells will be exposed to during radiobiological experiments. We evaluated the linearity, consistency, repeatability, and dose distribution in the positions in which the animals or cells are placed during irradiation. In addition, we evaluated the performance of the X-ray tube (voltage and tube operating current), the radiometric survey (leakage radiation) and safety devices. The irradiator default setting was established as 160 kV and 25 mA. Tests showed that the dose rate was linear overtime (R2=1) and remained stable for long (constant) and short (repeatability) intervals between readings. The mean dose rate inside the animal cages was 1.27±0.06 Gy/min with a uniform beam of 95.40% (above the minimum threshold guaranteed by the manufacturer). The mean dose rate inside the cell plates was 0.92±0.19 Gy/min. The dose rate dependence with tube voltage and current presented a quadratic and linear relationship, respectively. There was no observed mechanical failure during evaluation of the irradiator safety devices and the radiometric survey obtained a maximum ambient equivalent dose rate of 0.26 mSv/h, which exempts it from the radiological protection requirements of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The irradiator characterization enables us to perform radiobiological experiments, and assists or even replaces traditional therapy equipment (e.g., linear accelerators) for cells and small animal irradiation, especially in early research stages.

  8. Biological X-ray irradiator characterization for use with small animals and cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colello Bruno

    Full Text Available This study presents the characterization of an X-ray irradiator through dosimetric tests, which confirms the actual dose rate that small animals and cells will be exposed to during radiobiological experiments. We evaluated the linearity, consistency, repeatability, and dose distribution in the positions in which the animals or cells are placed during irradiation. In addition, we evaluated the performance of the X-ray tube (voltage and tube operating current, the radiometric survey (leakage radiation and safety devices. The irradiator default setting was established as 160 kV and 25 mA. Tests showed that the dose rate was linear overtime (R2=1 and remained stable for long (constant and short (repeatability intervals between readings. The mean dose rate inside the animal cages was 1.27±0.06 Gy/min with a uniform beam of 95.40% (above the minimum threshold guaranteed by the manufacturer. The mean dose rate inside the cell plates was 0.92±0.19 Gy/min. The dose rate dependence with tube voltage and current presented a quadratic and linear relationship, respectively. There was no observed mechanical failure during evaluation of the irradiator safety devices and the radiometric survey obtained a maximum ambient equivalent dose rate of 0.26 mSv/h, which exempts it from the radiological protection requirements of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The irradiator characterization enables us to perform radiobiological experiments, and assists or even replaces traditional therapy equipment (e.g., linear accelerators for cells and small animal irradiation, especially in early research stages.

  9. Species-Specific Thiol-Disulfide Equilibrium Constant: A Tool To Characterize Redox Transitions of Biological Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzahosseini, Arash; Somlyay, Máté; Noszál, Béla

    2015-08-13

    Microscopic redox equilibrium constants, a new species-specific type of physicochemical parameters, were introduced and determined to quantify thiol-disulfide equilibria of biological significance. The thiol-disulfide redox equilibria of glutathione with cysteamine, cysteine, and homocysteine were approached from both sides, and the equilibrium mixtures were analyzed by quantitative NMR methods to characterize the highly composite, co-dependent acid-base and redox equilibria. The directly obtained, pH-dependent, conditional constants were then decomposed by a new evaluation method, resulting in pH-independent, microscopic redox equilibrium constants for the first time. The 80 different, microscopic redox equilibrium constant values show close correlation with the respective thiolate basicities and provide sound means for the development of potent agents against oxidative stress.

  10. Biophysical characterization data on Aβ soluble oligomers produced through a method enabling prolonged oligomer stability and biological buffer conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda C. Crisostomo

    2015-09-01

    Aβ1-40 soluble oligomers are produced that are suitable for biophysical studies requiring sufficient transient stability to exist in their “native” conformation in biological phosphate-saline buffers for extended periods of time. The production involves an initial preparation of highly monomeric Aβ in a phosphate saline buffer that transitions to fibrils and oligomers through time incubation alone, without added detergents or non-aqueous chemicals. This criteria ensures that the only difference between initial monomeric Aβ reactant and subsequent Aβ oligomer products is their degree of peptide assembly. A number of chemical and biophysical methods were used to characterize the monomeric reactants and soluble oligomer and amyloid fibril products, including chemical cross-linking, Western blots, fraction solubility, thioflvain T binding, size exclusion chromatography, transmission electron micrscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

  11. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry in combination with chemometrics for characterization of geographical origin and agronomic practices of table grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Francesco; Casiello, Grazia; Centonze, Valentina; Catucci, Lucia; Agostiano, Angela

    2017-08-01

    Although table grape is one of the most cultivated and consumed fruits worldwide, no study has been reported on its geographical origin or agronomic practice based on stable isotope ratios. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of isotopic ratios (i.e. 2 H/ 1 H, 13 C/ 12 C, 15 N/ 14 N and 18 O/ 16 O) as possible markers to discriminate the agronomic practice (conventional versus organic farming) and provenance of table grape. In order to quantitatively evaluate which of the isotopic variables were more discriminating, a t test was carried out, in light of which only δ 13 C and δ 18 O provided statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for the discrimination of geographical origin and farming method. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed no good separation of samples differing in geographical area and agronomic practice; thus, for classification purposes, supervised approaches were carried out. In particular, general discriminant analysis (GDA) was used, resulting in prediction abilities of 75.0 and 92.2% for the discrimination of farming method and origin respectively. The present findings suggest that stable isotopes (i.e. δ 18 O, δ 2 H and δ 13 C) combined with chemometrics can be successfully applied to discriminate the provenance of table grape. However, the use of bulk nitrogen isotopes was not effective for farming method discrimination. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    of plants lies in chemical components cal ... ical screening, content of total phenolics, antifungal and ... provide lead compounds for developing new drugs ..... from extracts and to determine their biological activities. ... Authors also thank Prof.

  13. Chemical and biological characterization of products of incomplete combustion from the simulated field burning of agricultural plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linak, W P; Ryan, J V; Perry, E; Williams, R W; DeMarini, D M

    1989-06-01

    Chemical and biological analyses were performed to characterize products of incomplete combustion emitted during the simulated open field burning of agricultural plastic. A small utility shed equipped with an air delivery system was used to simulate pile burning and forced-air-curtain incineration of a nonhalogenated agricultural plastic that reportedly consisted of polyethylene and carbon black. Emissions were analyzed for combustion gases; volatile, semi-volatile, and particulate organics; and toxic and mutagenic properties. Emission samples, as well as samples of the used (possibly pesticide-contaminated) plastic, were analyzed for the presence of several pesticides to which the plastic may have been exposed. Although a variety of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were identified in the volatile, semi-volatile, and particulate fractions of these emissions, a substantial fraction of higher molecular weight organic material was not identified. No pesticides were identified in either combustion emission samples or dichloromethane washes of the used plastic. When mutagenicity was evaluated by exposing Salmonella bacteria (Ames assay) to whole vapor and vapor/particulate emissions, no toxic or mutagenic effects were observed. However, organic extracts of the particulate samples were moderately mutagenic. This mutagenicity compares approximately to that measured from residential wood heating on a revertant per unit heat release basis. Compared to pile burning, forced air slightly decreased the time necessary to burn a charge of plastic. There was not a substantial difference, however, in the variety or concentrations of organic compounds identified in samples from these two burn conditions. This study highlights the benefits of a combined chemical/biological approach to the characterization of complex, multi-component combustion emissions. These results may not reflect those of other types of plastic that may be used

  14. Silver, gold, and alloyed silver-gold nanoparticles: characterization and comparative cell-biologic action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahl, Dirk; Diendorf, Joerg; Ristig, Simon [University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE) (Germany); Greulich, Christina [Ruhr-University of Bochum, Bergmannsheil University Hospital/Surgical Research (Germany); Li Zian; Farle, Michael [University of Duisburg-Essen, Faculty of Physics, Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE) (Germany); Koeller, Manfred [Ruhr-University of Bochum, Bergmannsheil University Hospital/Surgical Research (Germany); Epple, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.epple@uni-due.de [University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE) (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Silver, gold, and silver-gold-alloy nanoparticles were prepared by citrate reduction modified by the addition of tannin during the synthesis, leading to a reduction in particle size by a factor of three. Nanoparticles can be prepared by this easy water-based synthesis and subsequently functionalized by the addition of either tris(3-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine or poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone). The resulting nanoparticles of silver (diameter 15-25 nm), gold (5-6 nm), and silver-gold (50:50; 10-12 nm) were easily dispersable in water and also in cell culture media (RPMI + 10 % fetal calf serum), as shown by nanoparticle tracking analysis and differential centrifugal sedimentation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed a polycrystalline nature of all nanoparticles. EDX on single silver-gold nanoparticles indicated that the concentration of gold is higher inside a nanoparticle. The biologic action of the nanoparticles toward human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) was different: Silver nanoparticles showed a significant concentration-dependent influence on the viability of hMSC. Gold nanoparticles showed only a small effect on the viability of hMSC after 7 days. Surprisingly, silver-gold nanoparticles had no significant influence on the viability of hMSC despite the silver content. Silver nanoparticles and silver-gold nanoparticles in the concentration range of 5-20 {mu}g mL{sup -1} induced the activation of hMSC as indicated by the release of IL-8. In contrast, gold nanoparticles led to a reduction of the release of IL-6 and IL-8.

  15. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Evaluation of Nanostructured Hydroxyapatite with Different Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Geng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanosized hydroxyapatite (HA is a promising candidate for a substitute for apatite in bone in biomedical applications. Furthermore, due to its excellent bone bioactivity, nanosized strontium-substituted HA (SrHA has aroused intensive interest. However, the size effects of these nanoparticles on cellular bioactivity should be considered. In this study, nanosized HA and SrHA with different dimensions and crystallization were synthesized by hydrothermal methods. The phase, crystallization and chemical composition were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, respectively. The morphology was observed under field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The degradation behaviors of the samples were monitored by determining the ions release profile with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The releasing behavior of Ca2+ and Sr2+ showed that the degradation rate was proportional to the specific surface area and inversely proportional to crystallization. The in vitro experiment evaluated by MG63 cells showed that SrHA nanorods with a length greater than 100 nm had the best biological performance both in cell proliferation and differentiation (* p < 0.05 compared with HA-1 and SrHA-1; * p < 0.01 compared with HA-2. In addition, HA nanoparticles with a lower aspect ratio had better bioactivity than higher ones (* p < 0.05. This study demonstrated that nanosized HA and SrHA with subtle differences (including dimensions, crystallization, specific surface area, and degradation rate could affect the cellular growth and thus might have an impact on bone growth in vivo. This work provides a view of the role of nano-HAs as ideal biocompatible materials in future clinical applications.

  16. Silver, gold, and alloyed silver-gold nanoparticles: characterization and comparative cell-biologic action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahl, Dirk; Diendorf, Jörg; Ristig, Simon; Greulich, Christina; Li, Zi-An; Farle, Michael; Köller, Manfred; Epple, Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Silver, gold, and silver-gold-alloy nanoparticles were prepared by citrate reduction modified by the addition of tannin during the synthesis, leading to a reduction in particle size by a factor of three. Nanoparticles can be prepared by this easy water-based synthesis and subsequently functionalized by the addition of either tris(3-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine or poly( N-vinylpyrrolidone). The resulting nanoparticles of silver (diameter 15-25 nm), gold (5-6 nm), and silver-gold (50:50; 10-12 nm) were easily dispersable in water and also in cell culture media (RPMI + 10 % fetal calf serum), as shown by nanoparticle tracking analysis and differential centrifugal sedimentation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed a polycrystalline nature of all nanoparticles. EDX on single silver-gold nanoparticles indicated that the concentration of gold is higher inside a nanoparticle. The biologic action of the nanoparticles toward human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) was different: Silver nanoparticles showed a significant concentration-dependent influence on the viability of hMSC. Gold nanoparticles showed only a small effect on the viability of hMSC after 7 days. Surprisingly, silver-gold nanoparticles had no significant influence on the viability of hMSC despite the silver content. Silver nanoparticles and silver-gold nanoparticles in the concentration range of 5-20 μg mL-1 induced the activation of hMSC as indicated by the release of IL-8. In contrast, gold nanoparticles led to a reduction of the release of IL-6 and IL-8.

  17. Silver, gold, and alloyed silver–gold nanoparticles: characterization and comparative cell-biologic action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahl, Dirk; Diendorf, Jörg; Ristig, Simon; Greulich, Christina; Li Zian; Farle, Michael; Köller, Manfred; Epple, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Silver, gold, and silver–gold-alloy nanoparticles were prepared by citrate reduction modified by the addition of tannin during the synthesis, leading to a reduction in particle size by a factor of three. Nanoparticles can be prepared by this easy water-based synthesis and subsequently functionalized by the addition of either tris(3-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine or poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone). The resulting nanoparticles of silver (diameter 15–25 nm), gold (5–6 nm), and silver–gold (50:50; 10–12 nm) were easily dispersable in water and also in cell culture media (RPMI + 10 % fetal calf serum), as shown by nanoparticle tracking analysis and differential centrifugal sedimentation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed a polycrystalline nature of all nanoparticles. EDX on single silver–gold nanoparticles indicated that the concentration of gold is higher inside a nanoparticle. The biologic action of the nanoparticles toward human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) was different: Silver nanoparticles showed a significant concentration-dependent influence on the viability of hMSC. Gold nanoparticles showed only a small effect on the viability of hMSC after 7 days. Surprisingly, silver–gold nanoparticles had no significant influence on the viability of hMSC despite the silver content. Silver nanoparticles and silver–gold nanoparticles in the concentration range of 5–20 μg mL −1 induced the activation of hMSC as indicated by the release of IL-8. In contrast, gold nanoparticles led to a reduction of the release of IL-6 and IL-8.

  18. Synthesis of biological active thiosemicarbazone and characterization of the interaction with human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Wangshu; Shi, Lei; Hui, Guangquan [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Cui, Fengling, E-mail: fenglingcui@hotmail.com [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China)

    2013-02-15

    The synthesis of a new biological active reagent, 2-((1,4-dihydroxy)-9,10-anthraquinone) aldehyde thiosemicarbazone (DHAQTS), was designed. The interaction between DHAQTS and HSA was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with molecular modeling under simulation of physiological conditions. According to the results of fluorescence measurements, the quenching mechanism was suggested to be static. The thermodynamic parameters are calculated by van't Hoff equation, which demonstrated that hydrophobic interactions are the predominant intermolecular forces stabilizing the complex. The number of binding sites (n) was calculated. Through the site marker competitive experiment, DHAQTS was confirmed to be located in site I of HSA. The binding distance r=2.83 nm between the donor HSA and acceptor DHAQTS was obtained according to Foerster's non-radiative energy transfer theory. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectral results showed the conformation and microenvironment of HSA changed in the presence of DHAQTS. The effects of common ions on the binding of DHAQTS to HSA were also evaluated. The experimental results were in agreement with the results obtained via a molecular docking study. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2-((1,4-dihydroxy)-9,10-anthraquinone)aldehyde thiosemicarbazone (DHAQTS) was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DHAQTS can quench the fluorescence of human serum albumin (HSA) by static quenching mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrophobic interactions were the predominant intermolecular forces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The competitive experiment was carried out to identify the DHAQTS binding site on HSA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three-dimensional spectra confirmed DHAQTS caused the conformational change of HSA.

  19. Role of Molecular Biology in Diagnosis and Characterization of Vulvo-Vaginitis in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Ravel, Jacques; Vitali, Beatrice; Netea, Mihai G; Salumets, Andres; Unemo, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of vulvo-vaginal complaints has always been enigmatic in obstetrics and gynecology. Patients with clear, pathognomonic symptoms end up with a proper diagnosis and treatment most of the time, but unfortunately we are now living in a world where women reach out to the Internet and readily get all information as to which disease their symptoms correspond to and also find the appropriate treatment "over-the-counter." Because of this trend, we as specialists are increasingly confronted with patients with complex and combined conditions. At the same time, extremely sensitive and accurate diagnostic tools are now being developed at a rapid pace, allowing the physicians to diagnose vulvo-vaginal disease with a substantially increased precision. Moreover, many of these molecular biology (MB)-based tests have become so common and affordable that self-sampling and self-testing are no longer utopia. On the other hand, too much information that is too readily available and that is too affordable also encompasses pitfalls, leading to gross overtreatment and psychological burden. As experienced caregivers, we should supervise these evolutions, define their place and proper use as diagnostic tools, utilize their potential as ad hoc tools to follow-up treatment efficacy and guide how such tools can be used for responsible self-testing. In the present paper, responding to the need for appropriate, quality assured and accessible tests for vulvo-vaginitis and the huge potential delivered by the rapidly developing MB methods, we recommend the need for a broad and regular discussion forum, composed of both clinical and technical experts and opinion makers, in order to match the needs with the huge opportunities and ideally combine the initiatives and forces into the same direction. This forum should then translate conceived strategies into regularly updated, evidence-based national and international guidelines. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Synthesis of biological active thiosemicarbazone and characterization of the interaction with human serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Wangshu; Shi, Lei; Hui, Guangquan; Cui, Fengling

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of a new biological active reagent, 2-((1,4-dihydroxy)-9,10-anthraquinone) aldehyde thiosemicarbazone (DHAQTS), was designed. The interaction between DHAQTS and HSA was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with molecular modeling under simulation of physiological conditions. According to the results of fluorescence measurements, the quenching mechanism was suggested to be static. The thermodynamic parameters are calculated by van't Hoff equation, which demonstrated that hydrophobic interactions are the predominant intermolecular forces stabilizing the complex. The number of binding sites (n) was calculated. Through the site marker competitive experiment, DHAQTS was confirmed to be located in site I of HSA. The binding distance r=2.83 nm between the donor HSA and acceptor DHAQTS was obtained according to Förster's non-radiative energy transfer theory. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectral results showed the conformation and microenvironment of HSA changed in the presence of DHAQTS. The effects of common ions on the binding of DHAQTS to HSA were also evaluated. The experimental results were in agreement with the results obtained via a molecular docking study. - Highlights: ► 2-((1,4-dihydroxy)-9,10-anthraquinone)aldehyde thiosemicarbazone (DHAQTS) was synthesized. ► DHAQTS can quench the fluorescence of human serum albumin (HSA) by static quenching mechanism. ► Hydrophobic interactions were the predominant intermolecular forces. ► The competitive experiment was carried out to identify the DHAQTS binding site on HSA. ► Three-dimensional spectra confirmed DHAQTS caused the conformational change of HSA.

  1. Biological Characterization of a Stable Effector Functionless (SEFL) Monoclonal Antibody Scaffold in Vitro*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Jacobsen, Frederick W.; Everds, Nancy; Zhuang, Yao; Yu, Yan Bin; Li, Nianyu; Clark, Darcey; Nguyen, Mai Phuong; Fort, Madeline; Narayanan, Padma; Kim, Kei; Stevenson, Riki; Narhi, Linda; Gunasekaran, Kannan; Bussiere, Jeanine L.

    2017-01-01

    The stable effector functionLess (SEFL) antibody was designed as an IgG1 antibody with a constant region that lacks the ability to interact with Fcγ receptors. The engineering and stability and pharmacokinetic assessments of the SEFL scaffold is described in the accompanying article (Jacobsen, F. W., Stevenson, R., Li, C., Salimi-Moosavi, H., Liu, L., Wen, J., Luo, Q., Daris, K., Buck, L., Miller, S., Ho, S-Y., Wang, W., Chen, Q., Walker, K., Wypych, J., Narhi, L., and Gunasekaran, K. (2017) J. Biol. Chem. 292). The biological properties of these SEFL antibodies were assessed in a variety of human and cynomolgus monkey in vitro assays. Binding of parent molecules and their SEFL variants to human and cynomolgus monkey FcγRs were evaluated using flow cytometry-based binding assays. The SEFL variants tested showed decreased binding affinity to human and cynomolgus FcγRs compared with the wild-type IgG1 antibody. In addition, SEFL variants demonstrated no antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro against Daudi cells with cynomolgus monkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and had minimal complement-dependent cytotoxicity activity similar to that of the negative control IgG2 in a CD20+ human Raji lymphoma cell line. SEFL mutations eliminated off-target antibody-dependent monocyte phagocytosis of cynomolgus monkey platelets, and cynomolgus platelet activation in vitro. These experiments demonstrate that the SEFL modifications successfully eliminated Fc-associated effector binding and functions. PMID:27994063

  2. Multilayered co-electrospun scaffold containing silver sulfadiazine as a prophylactic against osteomyelitis: Characterization and biological in vitro evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Min; Lee, Sang Jin; Heo, Dong Nyoung; Lee, Donghyun; Lim, Ho-Nam; Moon, Ji-Hoi; Kwon, Il Keun

    2018-02-01

    Bone related-bacterial diseases including wound infections and osteomyelitis (OM) still remain a serious problem. In this study, a hybrid co-electrospun membrane consisting of gelatin (GE) and Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) fibrous sheets containing different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 wt%) of silver sulfadiazine (AgSD) was designed to provide for improved antimicrobial effect and biocompatibility. Well-defined products were characterized by physicochemical analyses. For biological in vitro assessments, mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on the scaffolds. This test was done in order to assay for cytotoxicity by measuring cell proliferation. Antibacterial activity against gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was also tested. These biological tests showed that GE/PLGA-AgSD scaffolds had good cell viability, as well as effective antimicrobial activity. These remarkable results suggest that GE/PLGA-AgSD scaffolds possess great potential for the treatment of OM and can find many uses in the field of bone tissue engineering.

  3. A Hydropower Biological Evaluation Toolset (HBET) for Characterizing Hydraulic Conditions and Impacts of Hydro-Structures on Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Hongfei; Deng, Zhiqun; Martinez, Jayson; Fu, Tao; Duncan, Joanne; Johnson, Gary; Lu, Jun; Skalski, John; Townsend, Richard; Tan, Li

    2018-04-01

    Currently, approximately 16% of the world’s electricity and over 80% of the world’s renewable electricity is generated from hydropower resources, and there is potential for development of a significant amount of new hydropower capacity. However, in practice, realizing all the potential hydropower resource is limited by various factors, including environmental effects and related mitigation requirements. That is why hydropower regulatory requirements frequently call for targets to be met regarding fish injury and mortality rates. Hydropower Biological Evaluation Toolset (HBET), an integrated suite of software tools, is designed to characterize hydraulic conditions of hydropower structures and provide quantitative estimates of fish injury and mortality rates due to various physical stressors including strike, pressure, and shear. HBET enables users to design new studies, analyze data, perform statistical analyses, and evaluate biological responses. In this paper, we discuss the features of the HBET software and describe a case study that illustrates its functionalities. HBET can be used by turbine manufacturers, hydropower operators, and regulators to design and operate hydropower systems that minimize ecological impacts in a cost-effective manner.

  4. Preparation of Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) and its structural characterization and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Saharuddin Bin; Nagasawa, Hideko; Uto, Yoshihiro; Hori, Hitoshi

    2002-01-01

    Gc protein has been reported to be a precursor of Gc protein-derived macrophage activation factor (GcMAF) in the inflammation-primed macrophage activation cascade. An inducible beta-galactosidase of B cells and neuraminidase of T cells convert Gc protein to GcMAF. Gc protein from human serum was purified using 25(OH)D3 affinity column chromatography and modified to GcMAF using immobilized glycosidases (beta-galactosidase and neuraminidase) The sugar moiety structure of GcMAF was characterized by lectin blotting by Helix pomatia agglutinin. The biological activities of GcMAF were evaluated by a superoxide generation assay and a phagocytosis assay. We successfully purified Gc protein from human serum. GcMAF was detected by lectin blotting and showed a high biological activity. Our results support the importance of the terminal N-acetylgalactosamine moiety in the GcMAF-mediated macrophage activation cascade, and the existence of constitutive GcMAF in human serum. These preliminary data are important for designing small molecular GcMAF mimics.

  5. Characterization of historic mosaic at Pfeiffer-Kral Sepulcher, Jablonec nad Nisou: a study of the mortar and tesserae origin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perná, Ivana; Hanzlíček, Tomáš; Kracík Štorkánová, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2014), s. 308-313 ISSN 0862-5468 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Mosaic * Tesserae * Mortar * Characterization. Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2014 http://www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/2014/pdf/2014_04_308.pdf

  6. Nature, origin and average age of estuarine ultrafiltered dissolved organic matter as determined by molecular and carbon isotope characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heemst, JDH; Megens, L; Hatcher, PG; de Leeuw, JW

    2000-01-01

    The Ems-Dollart estuary (on the border of the Netherlands and Germany) was chosen for a pilot study to characterize ultrafiltered dissolved organic matter (UDOM) in estuarine systems. UDOM samples were taken from four locations with salinities varying from 0.43 to 20 parts per thousand. The UDOM in

  7. Synthesis, Characterization and Functionalization of Polymeric Nanoparticles and Investigation of the Interaction with Biological Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleul, Regina

    2015-01-01

    One of the main goals of nanomedicine is to improve the treatment of hazardous diseases whose conventional therapy often has serious side effects. The vision is to create a theranostic drug delivery system which is capable of safely transporting therapeutic cargo through the body to a targeted site of disease at which point the drug is released. Furthermore, it is desirable to track the carrier in real time which would allow for a personal adjustment of the therapy. Studies on the behavior of nanoparticulate substances in a physiological environment form the basis for the possibility to successfully develop a drug carrier system. In the present work, polymeric nanoparticles with different morphologies were prepared by the controlled self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers. The nanoparticles were subsequently characterized and their interactions with human cells and serum proteins investigated. A cytotoxicity study with spherical and cylindrical micelles as well as vesicular structures was carried out and showed a dependency of cytotoxic effects on the geometry and size of the nanoparticles. The agglomeration behavior of various polymeric nanoparticles in the presence of serum proteins was also studied. Highly uniform polymeric vesicles were continuously manufactured in a micromixer based device and in situ loading with different components was performed. In this way, dual loaded vesicles with the anticancer drug camptothecin and a high amount of hydrophobic iron oxide nanoparticles were produced. When tested in vitro, these drug-loaded vesicles showed an increased cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell line PC-3 when compared to the free drug. Specific cellular uptake in PC-3 cancer cells was demonstrated with flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy after functionalization with a cancer cell specific targeting peptide and an additional fluorescent label. Magnetic characterization of the iron oxide-loaded vesicles also confirmed the potential

  8. Physicochemical and biological characterization of 1E10 Anti-Idiotype vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Yoan J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 1E10 monoclonal antibody is a murine anti-idiotypic antibody that mimics N-glycolyl-GM3 gangliosides. This antibody has been tested as an anti-idiotypic cancer vaccine, adjuvated in Al(OH3, in several clinical trials for melanoma, breast, and lung cancer. During early clinical development this mAb was obtained in vivo from mice ascites fluid. Currently, the production process of 1E10 is being transferred from the in vivo to a bioreactor-based method. Results Here, we present a comprehensive molecular and immunological characterization of 1E10 produced by the two different production processes in order to determine the impact of the manufacturing process in vaccine performance. We observed differences in glycosylation pattern, charge heterogeneity and structural stability between in vivo-produced 1E10 and bioreactor-obtained 1E10. Interestingly, these modifications had no significant impact on the immune responses elicited in two different animal models. Conclusions Changes in 1E10 primary structure like glycosylation; asparagine deamidation and oxidation affected 1E10 structural stability but did not affect the immune response elicited in mice and chickens when compared to 1E10 produced in mice.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of symmetric dinuclear complexes derived from a novel macrocyclic compartmental ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mruthyunjayaswamy, B.H.M.; Ijare, Omkar B.; Jadegoud, Y. [Gulbarga University (India). Dept. of Chemistry]. E-mail: bhmmswamy53@rediffmail.com

    2005-07-15

    A phenol based novel macrocyclic binucleating compartmental ligand N,N-bis(2,6-diiminomethyl-4-methyl-1-hydroxyphenyl)malonoyldicarboxamide was prepared. The complexes were prepared by template method by reacting 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol, malonoyl dihydrazide and the metal chlorides of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) in methanol to get a series of dinuclear complexes. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, conductivity measurements, magnetic susceptibility data, IR, UV-Vis, ESR, NMR and FAB mass spectral data. The dinuclear nature of the complexes was confirmed on the basis of elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility, ESR and FAB mass spectral data. The ligand as well as Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) complexes were tested for their antibacterial and antifungal properties against Escherichia coli, Staphyloccocus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes reveal that these complexes exhibit antiferromagnetic coupling behavior due to the presence of two metal ions in close proximity. FAB mass spectrum of the Cu(II) complex gave a clear evidence for the dinuclear nature. The ligand and the complexes were found to be less active against the tested bacteria, but the ligand alone was found active against the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. (author)

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, Luminescence and Biological Activity of Two Lanthanide Complexes Involving Mixed Ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Deyun; Guo, Haifu; Qin, Liang [Zhaoqing Univ., Zhaoqing (China); Xu, Jun [Jinan Univ., Guangzhou (China)

    2013-09-15

    Two new isostructural dinuclear complexes, Ln{sub 2}(4-cpa){sub 6}(bpy){sub 2} (Ln = Eu (1); Tb (2), 4-cpa = 4-chlorophenyl-acetate, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The lanthanide ions are bridged by two bidentate and two terdentate carboxylate groups to give centrosymmetric dimers with Ln···Ln separations of 3.967(2) and 3.956(3) A, respectively. Each metal atom is nine-coordinate and exhibits a distorted tricapped trigonal prismatic geometry. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra show that both 1 and 2 emit bright red and green luminescence at room temperature, with long lifetimes of up to 0.369 ms (at 614 nm) and 0.432 ms (at 543 nm), respectively. Moreover, poor luminescence efficiency has been noted for complex 2. The 4-Hcpa ligand and complexes 1-2 have been screened for their phytogrowth-inhibitory activities against Brassica napus L. and Echinochloa crusgalli L., and the results are compared with the activity of quizalofop-P-ethyl.

  11. Biochemical and biological characterization of a dermonecrotic metalloproteinase isolated from Cerastes cerastes snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ami, Amina; Oussedik-Oumehdi, Habiba; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima

    2017-02-01

    A dermonecrotic metalloproteinase (CcD-II) was isolated from C. cerastes venom. Venom fractionation was performed using three chromatographic steps (molecular exclusion on Sephadex G-75, ion-exchange on DEAE-Sephadex A-50, and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on C8 column). CcD-II presented an apparent molecular mass of 39.9 kDa and displayed a dermonecrotic activity with a minimal necrotic dose of 0.2 mg/kg body weight. CcD-II showed proteolytic ability on casein chains and on α and β fibrinogen chains that was inhibited by ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline while remained unaffected by phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride and heparin. CcD-II displayed gelatinase activity and degraded extracellular matrix compounds (type-IV collagen and laminin). These results correlated with histopathological analysis showing a complete disorganization of collagenous skin fibers. These data suggested that CcD-II belongs to P-II class of snake venom metalloproteinase. The characterization of venom compounds involved in tissue damage may contribute in the development of new therapeutic strategies in envenomation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Biological assessment for rare and endangered plant species: Related to CERCLA characterization activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1992-04-01

    Environmental characterization in support of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste cleanup (in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980) can involve a large number of both nonintrusive and intrusive activities. Many of these activities could have a detrimental impact on listed plant species. These impacts can be minimized by following simple conservation policies while conducting the various field activities. For instance, frequent off-road vehicular traffic and have a severe impact on native habitats and, therefore, should be kept to a minimum. Personnel performing the field activities should be trained to preserve, respect, and minimize their impact on native habitat while performing work in the field. In addition, areas where sampling is planned should be surveyed for the presence of listed plant species before the initiation of the field activities. Extremely distributed areas could be exempted from this requirement provided adequate habitat assessments have been performed by qualified personnel. Twelve special status plant species are known to survive on or very near the Hanford Site. None of these species currently are listed as Federal Threatened or Endangered Species. However, four local species currently are candidates for federal protection. These species are the Northern Wormwood (Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var. wormskioldii), Persistantsepal Yellowcress (Rorippa columbiae), Hoover's Desert Parsley (Lomatium tuberosum), and Columbia Milkvetch (Astragalus columbianus)

  13. Synthesis, physico-chemical characterization and biological activity of 2-aminobenzimidazole complexes with different metal ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podunavac-Kuzmanović Sanja O.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Complexes of 2-aminobenzimidazole (L with nitrates of cobalt(II nickel(II, copper (II, zinc(II and silver(I were synthesized. The molar ratio metal:ligand in the reaction of the complex formation was 1:2. It should be noticed, that the reaction of all the metal salts yielded bis(ligand complexes of the general formula M(L2(NO32 × nH2O (M=Co, Ni Cu, Zn or Ag; n=0, 1, 2 or 6. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis of the metal, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility measurements and IR spectra. Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II complexes behave as non-electrolytes, whilst Zn(II and Ag(I are 1:1 electrolytes. Cu(II complex has a square-planar stereochemistry, Ag(I complex is linear, whilst the Co(II, Ni(II and Zn(II complexes have a tetrahedral configuration. In all the complexes ligand is coordinated by participation of the pyridine nitrogen of the benzimidazole ring. The antimicrobial activity of the ligand and its complexes against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus sp. Staphylococcus aureus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. The effect of metal on the ligand antimicrobial activity is discussed.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of transition metal complexes derived from some biologically active furoic acid hydrazones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Venkateswar Rao

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new physiologically active ligands, N’-2-[(E-1-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-8-chromenyl ethylidene-2-furan carbohydrazide (HMCFCH and N’-2-[(Z-1-(4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-pyranyl ethylidene]-furan carbohydrazide (HMPFCH and their VO(II, Mn(II, Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II complexes have been prepared. The ligands and the metal complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, electrical conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, UV-Vis, IR, and ESR spectroscopic data. Basing on the above data, Fe(II and Co(II complexes of HMCFCH and HMPFCH have been assigned a dimeric octahedral geometry. VO(II complexes of HMCFCH and HMPFCH have been assigned sulfate bridged dimeric square pyramidal geometry. Mn(II complex of HMCFCH has been assigned a dimeric octahedral geometry, where as Mn(II complex of HMPFCH has been ascribed to monomeric octahedral geometry. Cu(II and Ni(II complexes of HMCFCH have been ascribed to a polymeric structure. Ni(II complex of HMPFCH has been assigned a dimeric square planar geometry. Cu(II complex of HMPFCH has been proposed an octahedral geometry. The ligands and their metal chelates were screened against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. The ligands and the metal complexes have been found to be active against these microorganisms. The ligands show more activity than the metal complexes.

  15. Morphological, molecular and biological characterization of Mehdinema alii (Nematoda: Diplogasterida) from the decorated cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, L T; Platzer, E G; De Ley, P; Thomas, W K

    1999-12-01

    The nematode Mehdinema alii was recovered from the decorated cricket Gryllodes sigillatus (Walker). Morphometric comparisons are presented from 3 populations. The nematode is characterized by dense arrays of spines on the cuticle of the anterior half of the body and a highly elongate, tubular stoma with a dorsal denticle in the glottoid region. Females have a protruding vulva. Young females are amphidelphic, but the anterior ovary disappears in older females bearing multiple developing juveniles. The male is monorchic with asymmetrically placed genital papillae, distally fused spicules, and a highly complex gubernaculum bearing 2 cuticularized thorns that protrude through a separate, postcloacal opening. Adult nematodes are located primarily in the hindgut, whereas juveniles or dauers occur mainly in the genital chamber of both male and female crickets. Male crickets are significantly more likely to be infected than females. This male-biased infection may be linked to the venereal transmission mechanism of the dauers. Although morphologically unusual in many respects, placement of M. alii in Diplogasterida is supported by both the morphology of the anterior digestive tract as well as analysis of its 18S rDNA sequence. These sequence data suggest that M. alii groups most closely with members of the Cylindrocorporidae.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of C6-Schiff bases derivatives of chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruibo; Aotegen, Bayaer; Zhong, Zhimei

    2017-12-01

    C 6 -Schiff bases derivatives of chitosan were synthesized for the first time. C 2 -amino groups and C 3 -hydroxy groups were firstly protected by CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O, and the C 6 -hydroxy was then transformed into aldehyde, which then reacted with anilines through nucleophilic addition to introduce the CN group at C 6 -position in chitosan chain. Finally, C 6 -Schiff bases derivatives of chitosan were got by the deprotection of C 2 -NH 2 with cation exchange resin. The structures and properties of the new synthesized products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 13 C NMR, SEM image, and elemental analysis. The antibacterial activities of derivatives were tested in the experiment, and the results showed that the prepared chitosan derivatives had significantly improved antibacterial activity toward Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The Cytotoxicity test showed that the prepared chitosan derivatives had low Cytotoxicity, compared with chitosan and C 2 -benzaldehyde Schiff bases of chitosan. This paper allowed a new method for the synthesis of Schiff bases of chitosan, which was enlightening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of the hydrogen bond in molecular systems of biological interest by neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavillon, F.

    2004-10-01

    This work presents a methodology for the analysis of the scattering spectra of neutrons on molecular liquids. This method is based on the adjustment of the molecular form factor concerning great momentum transfer. The subtraction of the intra-molecular contributions gives access to information on inter-molecular interactions such as the hydrogen bond. 3 systems with increasing levels of difficulty have been studied: the ammonia molecule, the N-methyl-formamide (NMF) and the N-methyl-acetamide (NMA). The value we get for the N-D intermolecular distance of the liquid ammonia molecule is 1.7 angstrom, this value is different from the value generally admitted (2.3 angstrom) but we have validated it by studying the isotopic substitution N 14 /N 15 . The adjustment to the NMF is obtained with a good accuracy but the characterization of the hydrogen bound is more delicate to infer. A preliminary study of the NMA molecule shows that this method can give relevant results on complex molecules

  18. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of symmetric dinuclear complexes derived from a novel macrocyclic compartmental ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mruthyunjayaswamy, B.H.M.; Ijare, Omkar B.; Jadegoud, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A phenol based novel macrocyclic binucleating compartmental ligand N,N-bis(2,6-diiminomethyl-4-methyl-1-hydroxyphenyl)malonoyldicarboxamide was prepared. The complexes were prepared by template method by reacting 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol, malonoyl dihydrazide and the metal chlorides of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) in methanol to get a series of dinuclear complexes. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, conductivity measurements, magnetic susceptibility data, IR, UV-Vis, ESR, NMR and FAB mass spectral data. The dinuclear nature of the complexes was confirmed on the basis of elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility, ESR and FAB mass spectral data. The ligand as well as Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) complexes were tested for their antibacterial and antifungal properties against Escherichia coli, Staphyloccocus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes reveal that these complexes exhibit antiferromagnetic coupling behavior due to the presence of two metal ions in close proximity. FAB mass spectrum of the Cu(II) complex gave a clear evidence for the dinuclear nature. The ligand and the complexes were found to be less active against the tested bacteria, but the ligand alone was found active against the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. (author)

  19. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of ruthenium flavanol complexes against breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashok Kumar; Saxena, Gunjan; Sahabjada; Arshad, M.

    2017-06-01

    Four Ru(II) DMSO complexes (M1R-M4R) having substituted flavones viz. 3-Hydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one (HL1), 3-Hydroxy-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one (HL2), 3-Hydroxy-2-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one (HL3) and 3-Hydroxy-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one (HL4) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR spectroscopies and ESI-MS. The molecular structures of the complexes were investigated by integrated spectroscopic and computational techniques (DFT). Both ligands as well as their complexes were screened for anticancer activities against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7. Cytotoxicity was assayed by MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. All ligands and their complexes exhibited significant cytotoxic potential of 5-40 μM concentration at incubation period of 24 h. The cell cytotoxicity increased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner. In this series of compounds, HL2 (IC50 17.2 μM) and its complex M2R (IC50 16 μM) induced the highest cytotoxicity.

  20. Template synthesis and characterization of biologically active transition metal complexes comprising 14-membered tetraazamacrocyclic ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHARMPAL SINGH

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel series of complexes of the type [M(C28H24N4X2], whereM = Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II, X = Cl–, NO3–, CH3COO– and (C28H24N4 corresponds to the tetradentate macrocyclic ligand, were synthe¬sized by template condensation of 1,8-diaminonaphthalene and diacetyl in the presence of divalent metal salts in methanolic medium. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, conductance and magnetic measurements, as well as by UV/Vis, NMR, IR and MS spectroscopy. The low values of the molar conductance indicate non-electrolyte type of complexes. Based on these spectral data, a distorted octahedral geometry may be proposed for all of these complexes. All the synthesized macrocyclic complexes were tested for in vitro antibacterial activity against some pathogenic bacterial strains, viz Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The MIC values shown by the complexes against these bacterial strains were compared with the MIC shown by the standard antibiotics linezolid and cefaclor.

  1. Model Analytical Development for Physical, Chemical, and Biological Characterization of Momordica charantia Vegetable Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Geovani Pereira; Santos, Ravely Lucena; Júnior, Fernando José de Lima Ramos; da Silva, Karla Monik Alves; de Souza, Fabio Santos

    2016-01-01

    Momordica charantia is a species cultivated throughout the world and widely used in folk medicine, and its medicinal benefits are well documented, especially its pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial activities. Analytical methods have been used to aid in the characterization of compounds derived from plant drug extracts and their products. This paper developed a methodological model to evaluate the integrity of the vegetable drug M. charantia in different particle sizes, using different analytical methods. M. charantia was collected in the semiarid region of Paraíba, Brazil. The herbal medicine raw material derived from the leaves and fruits in different particle sizes was analyzed using thermoanalytical techniques as thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (PYR-GC/MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), in addition to the determination of antimicrobial activity. The different particle surface area among the samples was differentiated by the techniques. DTA and TG were used for assessing thermal and kinetic parameters and PYR-GC/MS was used for degradation products chromatographic identification through the pyrograms. The infusions obtained from the fruit and leaves of Momordica charantia presented antimicrobial activity. PMID:27579215

  2. Biological characterization of F-18-labeled rhodamine B, a potential positron emission tomography perfusion tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomä, Mark D; He, Huamei; Pacak, Christina A; Dunning, Patricia; Fahey, Frederic H; McGowan, Francis X; Cowan, Douglas B; Treves, S Ted; Packard, Alan B

    2013-11-01

    Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death in western countries, and positron emission tomography (PET) plays an increasing role in the diagnosis and treatment planning for this disease. However, the absence of an (18)F-labeled PET myocardial perfusion tracer hampers the widespread use of PET in myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). We recently reported a potential MPI agent based on (18)F-labeled rhodamine B. The goal of this study was to more completely define the biological properties of (18)F-labeled rhodamine B with respect to uptake and localization in an animal model of myocardial infarction and to evaluate the uptake (18)F-labeled rhodamine B by cardiomyocytes. A total of 12 female Sprague Dawley rats with a permanent ligation of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) were studied with small-animal PET. The animals were injected with 100-150 μCi of (18)F-labeled rhodamine B diethylene glycol ester ([(18)F]RhoBDEGF) and imaged two days before ligation. The animals were imaged again two to ten days post-ligation. After the post-surgery scans, the animals were euthanized and the hearts were sectioned into 1mm slices and myocardial infarct size was determined by phosphorimaging and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining (TTC). In addition, the uptake of [(18)F]RhoBDEGF in isolated rat neonatal cardiomyocytes was determined by fluorescence microscopy. Small-animal PET showed intense and uniform uptake of [(18)F]RhoBDEGF throughout the myocardium in healthy rats. After LAD ligation, well defined perfusion defects were observed in the PET images. The defect size was highly correlated with the infarct size as determined ex vivo by phosphorimaging and TTC staining. In vitro, [(18)F]RhoBDEGF was rapidly internalized into rat cardiomyocytes with ~40 % of the initial activity internalized within the 60 min incubation time. Fluorescence microscopy clearly demonstrated localization of [(18)F]RhoBDEGF in the mitochondria of rat cardiomyocytes. Fluorine-18

  3. Biological characterization of F-18-labeled rhodamine B, a potential positron emission tomography perfusion tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomä, Mark D.; He, Huamei; Pacak, Christina A.; Dunning, Patricia; Fahey, Frederic H.; McGowan, Francis X.; Cowan, Douglas B.; Treves, S. Ted; Packard, Alan B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death in western countries, and positron emission tomography (PET) plays an increasing role in the diagnosis and treatment planning for this disease. However, the absence of an 18 F-labeled PET myocardial perfusion tracer hampers the widespread use of PET in myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). We recently reported a potential MPI agent based on 18 F-labeled rhodamine B. The goal of this study was to more completely define the biological properties of 18 F-labeled rhodamine B with respect to uptake and localization in an animal model of myocardial infarction and to evaluate the uptake 18 F-labeled rhodamine B by cardiomyocytes. Methods: A total of 12 female Sprague Dawley rats with a permanent ligation of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) were studied with small-animal PET. The animals were injected with 100–150 μCi of 18 F-labeled rhodamine B diethylene glycol ester ([ 18 F]RhoBDEGF) and imaged two days before ligation. The animals were imaged again two to ten days post-ligation. After the post-surgery scans, the animals were euthanized and the hearts were sectioned into 1 mm slices and myocardial infarct size was determined by phosphorimaging and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining (TTC). In addition, the uptake of [ 18 F]RhoBDEGF in isolated rat neonatal cardiomyocytes was determined by fluorescence microscopy. Results: Small-animal PET showed intense and uniform uptake of [ 18 F]RhoBDEGF throughout the myocardium in healthy rats. After LAD ligation, well defined perfusion defects were observed in the PET images. The defect size was highly correlated with the infarct size as determined ex vivo by phosphorimaging and TTC staining. In vitro, [ 18 F]RhoBDEGF was rapidly internalized into rat cardiomyocytes with ∼ 40 % of the initial activity internalized within the 60 min incubation time. Fluorescence microscopy clearly demonstrated localization of [ 18 F]RhoBDEGF in the mitochondria

  4. Molecular Characterization of Brevibacillus laterosporus and Its Potential Use in Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Edmar Justo; Rabinovitch, Leon; Monnerat, Rose Gomes; Passos, Liana Konovaloff Jannotti; Zahner, Viviane

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-three strains of Brevibacillus laterosporus, including three novel strains isolated from Brazilian soil samples, were examined for genetic variability by the use of different PCR-based methods. Molecular markers that could characterize bacterial strains with regards to their pathogenic potential were investigated. In addition, toxicity was assessed by the use of insects belonging to the orders Lepidoptera and Coleoptera and the mollusk Biomphalaria glabrata. Among the targets tested, Biomphalaria glabrata demonstrated the highest degree of sensitivity to B. laterosporus, with some strains inducing 90 to 100% mortality in snails aged 3 and 12 days posteclosion. Larvae of the coleopteron Anthonomus grandis were also susceptible, presenting mortality levels of between 33 and 63%. Toxicity was also noted towards the lepidopteron Anticarsia gemmatalis. In contrast, no mortality was recorded among test populations of Tenebrio molitor or Spodoptera frugiperda. The application of intergenic transcribed spacer PCR and BOX-PCR generated 15 and 17 different genotypes, respectively. None of the molecular techniques allowed the identification of a convenient marker that was associated with any entomopathogenic phenotype. However, a 1,078-bp amplicon was detected for all strains of B. laterosporus when a primer for amplification of the BOXA1R region was used. Similarly, a 900-bp amplicon was generated from all isolates by use of the primer OPA-11 for randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. These amplicons were not detected for other phenotypically related Brevibacillus species, indicating that they represent markers that are specific for B. laterosporus, which may prove useful for the isolation and identification of new strains of this species. PMID:15528531

  5. Biological and molecular characterization of a multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus from Thysanoplusia orichalcea (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-Wen; Carner, Gerald R; Lange, Martin; Jehle, Johannes A; Arif, Basil M

    2005-02-01

    A multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (ThorMNPV) that was co-isolated with a single nucleocapid ThorSNPV from mixed infected larvae of Thysanoplusia orichalcea L. (Lepidoptea: Noctuidae) is characterized. Scanning electron microscopy of ThorMNPV showed a dodecahedral-shaped occlusion body (OB). The occluded virions contained one to as many as eight nucleocapsids/virion. Virion band profiles in gradient centrifugation were consistent in at least 10 rounds of centrifugation from different virion sample preparations. The ThorMNPV had high virulence to third instar Trichoplusia ni and Pseudoplusia includens with LD50 values of 17 and 242OBs per larva, respectively. However, ThorMNPV did not cause mortality in Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera eridania, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and Helicoverpa zea. ThorMNPV replicates in cells of various tissues such as the fat body and tracheal epithelium cells. T. ni High 5 cells were permissive to ThorMNPV in terms of infection and viral DNA transfection, but SF-21 was less permissive and the infection process was slower. Production of OBs by ThorMNPV in the nuclei of SF-21 was not well pronounced. The genome size of ThorMNPV was estimated to be 136 kb. The polyhedrin gene open reading frame (ORF) was cloned and completely sequenced. The promoter sequence is identical to that of Autographa californica MNPV. Phylogenetic analyses using partial sequences of the polh, lef-8, and lef-9 revealed that ThorMNPV is a member of the Group I NPVs and is related but distinct from the AcMNPV/Rachiplusia ou NPV/Bombyx mori NPV cluster.

  6. Physiochemical characterizations of hydroxyapatite extracted from bovine bones by three different methods: Extraction of biologically desirable HAp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, Nasser A.M.; Khalil, K.A.; Sheikh, Faheem A.; Omran, A.M.; Gaihre, Babita; Khil, Soeb M.; Kim, Hak Yong

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, subcritical water and alkaline hydrolysis methods are proposed methodologies for extraction of natural hydroxyapatite bioceramic from bovine bone. In these processes, the bovine bones powder were treated by high pressure water at 250 deg. C for 1 h and 25% (wt) sodium hydroxide at 250 deg. C for 5 h, respectively. Also the conventional calcination methodology has been utilized as well (T = 850 deg. C for 1 h). The obtained apatites from the three treatment processes have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), electron scanning microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE SEM). FT IR and XRD results affirmed that both the proposed methods and the traditional one can eliminate the collagen and other organic materials present in the bovine bones. The physiochemical characterizations for the obtained apatites have proved that the subcritical water and the alkaline hydrolysis relatively preserve the carbonate content present in the biological apatite, so they yield carbonated hydroxyapatite which is medically preferable. While, the thermal process produces almost hydroxyapatite carbonate-free

  7. Preparation, characterization and biological test of 3D-scaffolds based on chitosan, fibroin and hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Paulo Autran Leite; Resende, Cristiane Xavier; Soares, Glória Dulce de Almeida; Anselme, Karine; Almeida, Luís Eduardo

    2013-08-01

    This work describes the preparation and characterization of porous 3D-scaffolds based on chitosan (CHI), chitosan/silk fibroin (CHI/SF) and chitosan/silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite (CHI/SF/HA) by freeze drying. The biomaterials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. In addition, studies of porosity, pore size, contact angle and biological response of SaOs-2osteoblastic cells were performed. The CHI scaffolds have a porosity of 94.2±0.9%, which is statistically higher than the one presented by CHI/SF/HA scaffolds, 89.7±2.6%. Although all scaffolds were able to promote adhesion, growth and maintenance of osteogenic differentiation of SaOs-2 cells, the new 3D-scaffold based on CHI/SF/HA showed a significantly higher cell growth at 7 days and 21 days and the level of alkaline phosphatase at 14 and 21 days was statistically superior compared to other tested materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation, characterization and biological test of 3D-scaffolds based on chitosan, fibroin and hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Paulo Autran Leite; Resende, Cristiane Xavier; Dulce de Almeida Soares, Glória; Anselme, Karine; Almeida, Luís Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the preparation and characterization of porous 3D-scaffolds based on chitosan (CHI), chitosan/silk fibroin (CHI/SF) and chitosan/silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite (CHI/SF/HA) by freeze drying. The biomaterials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. In addition, studies of porosity, pore size, contact angle and biological response of SaOs-2osteoblastic cells were performed. The CHI scaffolds have a porosity of 94.2 ± 0.9%, which is statistically higher than the one presented by CHI/SF/HA scaffolds, 89.7 ± 2.6%. Although all scaffolds were able to promote adhesion, growth and maintenance of osteogenic differentiation of SaOs-2 cells, the new 3D-scaffold based on CHI/SF/HA showed a significantly higher cell growth at 7 days and 21 days and the level of alkaline phosphatase at 14 and 21 days was statistically superior compared to other tested materials. - Highlights: • Preparation of 3D-scaffolds based on CHI, with or without addition of SF and HA. • Scaffolds exhibited interconnected porous structure (pore size superior to 50 μm). • The tripolyphosphate did not induce any significant cytotoxic response. • The CHI/SF/HA composite showed a higher cell growth and ALP activity

  9. Study and characterization of ceramic materials from natural origin for application in jewellery design using laser texturing as innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elesbao, T.R.; Carus, L.A.; Tabarelli, A.C.; Vieira, R.P.; Takimi, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Technological development has been largely responsible for changes in the jewelry market. Seeking to contribute to the development of new products, this study analyzed the technique of laser texturing, aiming to add commercial and aesthetic values to the mother of pearl, material used in the jewelry field. The methodology was divided into physico-chemical characterization of the mother-of-pearl and of the resulting residue of laser texturing and analysis of the interaction of laser with the surface of the mother-of-pearl. The characterizations carried out were: Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicate that the studied material is composed mainly by the aragonite crystal phase, different from that resulting residue from texturing process. Although the process remove some of the gem material, the effect water characteristic of the mother-of-pearl is maintained, suggesting that technology combined with research and design can increase the value of this material. (author)

  10. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Carbon sources, nitrate as electron acceptor, and characterization of the sludge community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensson, M

    1997-10-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) was studied in laboratory scale experiments as well as in a full scale EBPR process. The studies were focused on carbon source transformations, the use of nitrate as an electron acceptor and characterisation of the microflora. A continuous anaerobic/aerobic laboratory system was operated on synthetic wastewater with acetate as sole carbon source. An efficient EBPR was obtained and mass balances over the anaerobic reactor showed a production of 1.45 g poly-{beta}-hydroxyalcanoic acids (PHA), measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD), per g of acetic acid (as COD) taken up. Furthermore, phosphate was released in the anaerobic reactor in a ratio of 0.33 g phosphorus (P) per g PHA (COD) formed and 0.64 g of glycogen (COD) was consumed per g of acetic acid (COD) taken up. Microscopic investigations revealed a high amount of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAO) in the sludge. Isolation and characterisation of bacteria indicated Acinetobacter spp. to be abundant in the sludge, while sequencing of clones obtained in a 16S rDNA clone library showed a large part of the bacteria to be related to the high mole % G+C Gram-positive bacteria and only a minor fraction to be related to the gamma-subclass of proteobacteria to which Acinetobacter belongs. Operation of a similar anaerobic/aerobic laboratory system with ethanol as sole carbon source showed that a high EBPR can be achieved with this compound as carbon source. However, a prolonged detention time in the anaerobic reactor was required. PHA were produced in the anaerobic reactor in an amount of 1.24 g COD per g of soluble DOC taken up, phosphate was released in an amount of 0.4-0.6 g P per g PHA (COD) produced and 0.46 g glycogen (COD) was consumed per g of soluble COD taken up. Studies of the EBPR in the UCT process at the sewage treatment plant in Helsingborg, Sweden, showed the amount of volatile fatty acids (VFA) available to the PAO in the anaerobic stage to be

  11. Endosymbiotic and host proteases in the digestive tract of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata: diversity, origin and characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín S Godoy

    Full Text Available Digestive proteases of the digestive tract of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata were studied. Luminal protease activity was found in the crop, the style sac and the coiled gut and was significantly higher in the coiled gut. Several protease bands and their apparent molecular weights were identified in both tissue extracts and luminal contents by gel zymography: (1 a 125 kDa protease in salivary gland extracts and in the crop content; (2 a 30 kDa protease throughout all studied luminal contents and in extracts of the midgut gland and of the endosymbionts isolated from this gland; (3 two proteases of 145 and 198 kDa in the coiled gut content. All these proteases were inhibited by aprotinin, a serine-protease inhibitor, and showed maximum activity between 30°C and 35°C and pH between 8.5 and 9.5. Tissue L-alanine-N-aminopeptidase activity was determined in the wall of the crop, the style sac and the coiled gut and was significantly higher in the coiled gut. Our findings show that protein digestion in P. canaliculata is carried out through a battery of diverse proteases originated from the salivary glands and the endosymbionts lodged in the midgut gland and by proteases of uncertain origin that occur in the coiled gut lumen.

  12. NMR and Chemometric Characterization of Vacuum Residues and Vacuum Gas Oils from Crude Oils of Different Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Parlov Vuković

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available NMR spectroscopy in combination with statistical methods was used to study vacuum residues and vacuum gas oils from 32 crude oils of different origin. Two chemometric metodes were applied. Firstly, principal component analysis on complete spectra was used to perform classification of samples and clear distinction between vacuum residues and vacuum light and heavy gas oils were obtained. To quantitatively predict the composition of asphaltenes, principal component regression models using areas of resonance signals spaned by 11 frequency bins of the 1H NMR spectra were build. The first 5 principal components accounted for more than 94 % of variations in the input data set and coefficient of determination for correlation between measured and predicted values was R2 = 0.7421. Although this value is not significant, it shows the underlying linear dependence in the data. Pseudo two-dimensional DOSY NMR experiments were used to assess the composition and structural properties of asphaltenes in a selected crude oil and its vacuum residue on the basis of their different hydrodynamic behavior and translational diffusion coefficients. DOSY spectra showed the presence of several asphaltene aggregates differing in size and interactions they formed. The obtained results have shown that NMR techniques in combination with chemometrics are very useful to analyze vacuum residues and vacuum gas oils. Furthermore, we expect that our ongoing investigation of asphaltenes from crude oils of different origin will elucidate in more details composition, structure and properties of these complex molecular systems.

  13. Chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis and biological activity on cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Barrientos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a non-toxic natural substance with multiple pharmacological properties including anticancer, antioxidant, fungicidal, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory among others. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis samples and to evaluate their biological activity against the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Twenty propolis samples were obtained from beekeeping producers from the central and southern regions of Chile. The botanical profile was determined by palynological analysis. Total phenolic contents were determined using colorimetric assays. Reverse phase HPLC and HPLC-MS were used to determine the chemical composition. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined on S. mutans and S. sobrinus. All propolis samples were dominated by structures from native plant species. The characterization by HPLC/MS, evidenced the presence of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, rutine, pinocembrin, coumaric acid, caffeic acid and caffeic acid phenethyl ester, that have already been described in these propolis with conventional HPLC. Although all propolis samples inhibited the mutans streptococci growth, it was observed a wide spectrum of action (MIC 0.90 to 8.22 µgmL-1. Given that results it becomes increasingly evident the need of standardization procedures, where we combine both the determination of botanical and the chemical characterization of the extracts. Research conducted to date, describes a promising effectiveness of propolis in the prevention of caries and other diseases of the oral cavity, making it necessary to develop studies to identify and understand the therapeutic targets or mechanisms of molecular action of the various compounds present on them.

  14. Chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis and biological activity on cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Leticia; Herrera, Christian L; Montenegro, Gloria; Ortega, Ximena; Veloz, Jorge; Alvear, Marysol; Cuevas, Alejandro; Saavedra, Nicolás; Salazar, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a non-toxic natural substance with multiple pharmacological properties including anti-cancer, antioxidant, fungicidal, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory among others. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis samples and to evaluate their biological activity against the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Twenty propolis samples were obtained from beekeeping producers from the central and southern regions of Chile. The botanical profile was determined by palynological analysis. Total phenolic contents were determined using colorimetric assays. Reverse phase HPLC and HPLC-MS were used to determine the chemical composition. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined on S. mutans and S. sobrinus. All propolis samples were dominated by structures from native plant species. The characterization by HPLC/MS, evidenced the presence of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, rutine, pinocembrin, coumaric acid, caffeic acid and caffeic acid phenethyl ester, that have already been described in these propolis with conventional HPLC. Although all propolis samples inhibited the mutans streptococci growth, it was observed a wide spectrum of action (MIC 0.90 to 8.22 μg mL(-1)). Given that results it becomes increasingly evident the need of standardization procedures, where we combine both the determination of botanical and the chemical characterization of the extracts. Research conducted to date, describes a promising effectiveness of propolis in the prevention of caries and other diseases of the oral cavity, making it necessary to develop studies to identify and understand the therapeutic targets or mechanisms of molecular action of the various compounds present on them.

  15. Separation, Characterization and Fouling Potential of Sludge Waters from Different Biological Wastewater Treatment Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Jinkai

    2011-07-01

    The major limitation, which hinders the wider application of membrane technology and increases the operating costs of membranes involved in wastewater treatment plants, is membrane fouling induced by organic matter. Extracellular polymeric products (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP) are the two most mentioned major foulants in publications, for which the debate on precise definitions seems to be endless. Therefore, a concept of sludge water, which conceptually covers both EPS and SMP, has been developed in this research. A standard procedure of sludge water separation, which is centrifugation at 4000g for 15 min followed by 1.2μm glass fiber filter filtration, was established based on separation experiments with membrane tank sludge from the KAUST MBR wastewater treatment plant. Afterwards, sludge waters from the KAUST MBR WWTP anoxic tank, aerobic tank and membrane tank as well as sludge waters from the Jeddah WWTP anoxic tank, aerobic tank and secondary effluent were produced through the previously developed standard procedure. The obtained sludge water samples were thereafter characterized with TOC/COD, LC-­‐OCD and F-­‐EEM, which showed that KAUST anoxic/ aerobic /membrane tank sludge waters had similar characteristics for all investigated parameters, yet the influent naturally had a higher DOC and biopolymer concentration. Moreover, lower TOC/COD, negligible biopolymers and low levels of humics were found in KAUST effluent. Compared with the KAUST MBR WWTP, the Jeddah WWTP’s sludge waters generally had higher DOC and biopolymer concentrations. To investigate sludge water fouling potential, the KAUST membrane tank sludge water as well as the Jeddah secondary effluent were filtrated through a membrane array consisting of an ultrafiltration (UF) Millipore RC10kDa at the first step followed by a nanofiltration (NF) KOCH Acid/Base stable NF200 at the second step. It was found that cake layer and standard blocking occurred simultaneously during both

  16. Biological Characterization of Microenvironments in a Hypersaline Cold Spring Mars Analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley M. Sapers

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While many habitable niches on Earth are characterized by permanently cold conditions, little is known about the spatial structure of seasonal communities and the importance of substrate-cell associations in terrestrial cyroenvironments. Here we use the 16S rRNA gene as a marker for genetic diversity to compare two visually distinct but spatially integrated surface microbial mats on Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian high arctic, proximal to a perennial saline spring. This is the first study to describe the bacterial diversity in microbial mats on Axel Heiberg Island. The hypersaline springs on Axel Heiberg represent a unique analog to putative subsurface aquifers on Mars. The Martian subsurface represents the longest-lived potentially habitable environment on Mars and a better understanding of the microbial communities on Earth that thrive in analog conditions will help direct future life detection missions. The microbial mats sampled on Axel Heiberg are only visible during the summer months in seasonal flood plains formed by melt water and run-off from the proximal spring. Targeted-amplicon sequencing revealed that not only does the bacterial composition of the two mat communities differ substantially from the sediment community of the proximal cold spring, but that the mat communities are distinct from any other microbial community in proximity to the Arctic springs studied to date. All samples are dominated by Gammaproteobacteria: Thiotichales is dominant within the spring samples while Alteromonadales comprises a significant component of the mat communities. The two mat samples differ in their Thiotichales:Alteromonadales ratio and contribution of Bacteroidetes to overall diversity. The red mats have a greater proportion of Alteromonadales and Bacteroidetes reads. The distinct bacterial composition of the mat bacterial communities suggests that the spring communities are not sourced from the surface, and that seasonal melt events create

  17. SU-E-T-571: Microdosimetric Characterization of Proton Biological Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guardiola, C; Carabe-Fernandez, A; Tuttle, S [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The knowledge of cell repair kinetics is critical in order to understand relevant aspects of proton therapy such optimal fractionation. High LET radiation induces larger proportions of more complex DSBs that might not be resolved in standard interfractional times (24h). We propose a method to characterize the cell repair kinetic at different positions within the spread-out Bragg peak (i.e. as a function of proton LETd) and use this information to model normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) as a function of LETd Methods: Repair kinetics curves will be obtained using U251-glioblastoma cells plating over microscope slides that are immersed in culture-medium that will be exposed along the axis of a proton-beam (10cm in range, 2cm modulation) of 1Gy. Culture is immersed within a solid-water block to place the distal edge of the proton-beam within the slide. gamma-H2AX foci along the slide in the beam axis is imaged with a microscope at different positions in order to correlate number of gamma-H2AX foci with dose and LET, where dose is obtained from a strip of gafchromic film placed on the side of the slide. Each slide is fixed at different time points. Results: We will present the correlation between an increase of LET and the increase of the gamma-H2AX along the depth within the proton beam, at different post-irradiation times and doses. Different fractions of unrepaired damage at 24h after irradiation will be presented at each depth of the proton beam, with larger fractions at the distal edge of the beam, where normal tissue exist. Larger values of NTCP are therefore observed at the distal edge. Conclusion: Slower repair kinetics is observed at the distal edge of a proton beam, and this study shows a method to obtain such information and the correlation between increased LET and increased NTCP. This research is supported by the Department of Radiation Oncology at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania as a pilot project.

  18. Biological test methods for the ecotoxicological characterization of wastes. Final report; Biologische Testerverfahren zur oekotoxikologischen Charakterisierung von Abfaellen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Roland [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung, Berlin (Germany); Donnevert, Gerhild [Fachhochschule Giessen-Friedberg (Germany). FB MNI; Roembke, Joerg [ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Floersheim am Main (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    The ecotoxicological characterization of waste is part of their assessment as hazardous or non-hazardous according to the European Waste List. Despite its transfer into national law in the waste list ordnance 2001 no methodological recommendations have been provided to cover the hazard criterion (H14 ''ecotoxicity'') which was taken over from the legislation on dangerous substances. Based on the recommendations of CEN guideline 14735 (2005), an international ring test was organised by BAM, FH Giessen-Friedberg and ECT GmbH. In total, 67 laboratories from 15 countries participated in the ring test. It was performed with three representative waste types: an ash from an incineration plant mainly contaminated with heavy metals, a soil containing high concentrations of organic contaminants (PAHs) and a preserved wood waste contaminated with copper and other heavy metals. Samples were prepared by BAM (e.g. inter alia dried, sieved and homogenised) and distributed. Parallel to the biological testing the eluates and solid samples were chemically characterized. The basic test battery used in the ring test consisted of three aquatic (Algae test, Daphnia acute test and Microtox test) and three terrestrial (earthworm acute and plant test with two species (oat, rape)) tests. In addition, data were submitted for ten additional tests (five aquatic (including a genotoxicity test) and five terrestrial ones). Almost all tests were performed according to ISO guidelines, providing EC50 values as measurement of toxicity. Data evaluation was done following recent recommendations made by ISO (2002) and Environment Canada (2005). Besides a high number of reference test data, 634 data sets were produced in the basic test battery and 204 data sets in the additional tests. Only few data sets were not acceptable (e.g. due to lack of reference data) and even less results were identified as statistical or biological outliers. For example, in the case of the basic test

  19. Structural characterization and Biological Activity of Sulfolipids from selected Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Baz, F. K.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sulfolipid classes (SLs in the total lipids of five species of marine algae, two species of Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea, one species of Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, and two species of Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria were separated and purified on DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The SLs component was identified by IR, gas chromatography MS/MS and liquid chromatography MS/MS. The level of SLs contents va ried from 1.25% (in L. papillose to 11.82% (in D. fasciola of the total lipid contents. However, no significant differences in sulfate content (0.13 – 0.21% were observed among all these algae species. All SLs were characterized by high contents of palmitic acid (C 16:0, which ranged from 30.91% in G. cylindriea to 63.11% in T. atomatia. The main constitutes of algal sulfolipids were identified as sulfoquinovosyl-di-acylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyl acylglycerol. The sulfolipids of different algal species exhibited remarkable antiviral activity against herps simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 with an IC50 ranging from 18.75 to 70. 2 μg mL–1. Moreover, algal sulfolipid inhibited the growth of the tumor cells of breast and liver human cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.40 to 0.67 μg mL–1 for human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7.Se separaron diferentes clases sulfolípidos (SL a partir de los lípidos totales de cinco especies de algas marinas: una especie de Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, dos especies de Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria y dos especies de Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea que se purificaron mediante cromatografía en columna de DEAE-celulosa. Los components de SLs fueron identificados por IR, cromatografía de gases MS/MS y cromatografía líquida MS/ MS. Los contenidos de SL en relación al total de lípidos varió de 1,25% (en L. papilosa al 11,82% (en D. fasciola. Sin embargo, no hay diferencias significativas en el contenido de sulfato

  20. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Studies of New Phenyltin(IV) Dithiocarbamate Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirah Faizah Abdul Muthalib; Ibrahim Baba; Nazlina Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Nine chlorophenyl tin(IV) dithiocarbamate compounds of general formula PhSnCl[S 2 CNR ' R '' ] 2 (R ' = CH 3 , C 2 H 5 , C 7 H 7 and R ' = C 2 H 5 , C 6 H 11 , iC 3 H 7 , C 7 H 7 ) were prepared in one pot reaction of various secondary amine, carbon disulphide and phenyltin(1V) trichloride with the ratio of 2:2:1. These compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, 1 H, 13 C NMR spectroscopy as well as single crystal X-ray crystallography. Data from X-ray crystallography showed that (C 6 H 5 )SnCl[S 2 CN(C 2 H 5 )(iC 3 H 7 )] 2 is six coordinated bonded with two chelating dithiocarbamate ligands in bidentate fashion, methyl-C and chloride atom thus form a distorted octahedral geometry. Five selected compounds, (C 6 H 5 )SnCl[S 2 CN(CH 3 )(C 2 H 5 )] 2 , (C 6 H 5 )SnCl[S 2 CN(CH 3 )(C 6 H 11 )] 2 , (C 6 H 5 )SnCl[S 2 CN(C 2 H 5 )(iC 3 H 7 )] 2 , (C 6 H 5 )SnCl[S 2 CN(C 7 H 7 )(iC 3 H 7 )] 2 and (C 6 H 5 )SnCl[S 2 CN(C 7 H 7 ) 2 ] 2 were screened for anticancer activity against Chang liver cells. These compounds were demonstrated no cytotoxic effect for all concentrations under the condition of the study with no IC 50 value. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and maximum bactericidal concentration (MBC) determinations for these five compounds used Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as Gram negative bacteria together with Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis as Gram positive bacteria. Compound (C 6 H 5 )SnCl[S 2 CN(CH 3 )(C 2 H 5 )] 2 was the most active compared to the other compounds by having the lowest MIC values of 1.25 mg/ mL and MBC value of 5.0 mg/ mL against E. Coli and S. Aureus bacteria. Compounds (C 6 H 5 )SnCl[S 2 CN(C 7 H 7 )(iC 3 H 7 )] 2 and (C 6 H 5 )SnCl[S 2 CN(C 7 H 7 ) 2 ] 2 that having a benzyl group showed their MIC and MBC values slightly higher compared to the other compounds againts certain bacteria indicating their low

  1. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-06-25

    Jun 25, 2013 ... Treatments were supplementation of 300 g DM /day o. 100, 75, 50, 25, 0% PJP and ... cass weight (HCW) and rib- eye muscle area (REA) were n the biological ... dry season and the pod can be processed and fed to animals.

  2. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    This study focused on assessing the perceptions, prac instruction by ... Social Science de teachers teach diversified learners in the same classr ... nd Social Science department teachers. However, most ..... Biology, Physics and Mathematics departments were selected ... Humanities faculty, English and Amharic departments.

  3. Sn-doped polyhedral In2O3 particles: Synthesis, characterization, and origins of luminous emission in wide visible range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yunqing; Chen Yiqing

    2012-01-01

    Sn-doped octahedronal and tetrakaidecahedronal In 2 O 3 particles were successfully synthesized by simple thermal evaporation of indium grains using SnO as dopant. Structural characterization results demonstrated that the Sn-doped tetrakaidecahedronal In 2 O 3 particle had additional six {001} crystal surfaces compared with the octahedronal one. The luminous properties of both samples were characterized by photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy. A broad visible luminous emission around 570 nm was observed. Studies revealed that the emission consisted of three peaks of 511 nm, 564 nm, and 622 nm, which were attributed to radioactive recombination centers such as single ionized oxygen vacancy, indium interstitial, and antisite oxygen, respectively. We believe that the Sn donor level plays an important role in the visible luminous emission. - Graphical abstract: With more oxygen vacancies and tin doping. ITO particles can exhibit a better CL performance. Sn donor level near the conduction band edge plays an important role in luminous emission in wide visible range. Highlights: ► Polyhedral ITO particles synthesized by thermal evaporation using SnO as dopant. ► Broad visible luminous emission around 570 nm. ► Sn donor level plays an important role in the visible emission. ► ITO particles with more oxygen vacancies have better CL performance in visible range.

  4. Single lipid vesicle assay for characterizing single-enzyme kinetics of phospholipid hydrolysis in a complex biological fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaei, Seyed R; Rabe, Michael; Zetterberg, Henrik; Zhdanov, Vladimir P; Höök, Fredrik

    2013-09-25

    Imaging of individual lipid vesicles is used to track single-enzyme kinetics of phospholipid hydrolysis. The method is employed to quantify the catalytic activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in both pure and complex biological fluids. The measurements are demonstrated to offer a subpicomolar limit of detection (LOD) of human secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) in up to 1000-fold-diluted cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). An additional new feature provided by the single-enzyme sensitivity is that information about both relative concentration variations of active sPLA2 in CSF and the specific enzymatic activity can be simultaneously obtained. When CSF samples from healthy controls and individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are analyzed, the specific enzymatic activity is found to be preserved within 7% in the different CSF samples whereas the enzyme concentration differs by up to 56%. This suggests that the previously reported difference in PLA2 activity in CSF samples from healthy and AD individuals originates from differences in the PLA2 expression level rather than from the enzyme activity. Conventional ensemble averaging methods used to probe sPLA2 activity do not allow one to obtain such information. Together with an improvement in the LOD of at least 1 order of magnitude compared to that of conventional assays, this suggests that the method will become useful in furthering our understanding of the role of PLA2 in health and disease and in detecting the pharmacodynamic effects of PLA2-targeting drug candidates.

  5. Original Researc Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Practices. Problems. Supervision. Primary School. *Corresponding Author: Asrat Dagnew. E-mail: asratboza@yahoo.com tructional support. The relevant and ... vision is one of indispensable system pment. Supervision is a system of that directly concerned on the aff members in a school or other. Original Research ...

  6. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    language in social interaction( Anto et al., 2012; Tessema et al., 2012). While such ..... 10 items on a five-point Likert scale originally developed by Benard et al. (2007). ..... self-confidence, and hold down their anxiety levels. In this study ...

  7. Fabrication of luminescent hydroxyapatite nanorods through surface-initiated RAFT polymerization: Characterization, biological imaging and drug delivery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Chunning [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Biomedical Materials, Shaanxi R& D Center of Biomaterials and Fermentation Engineering, School of Chemical and Engineering, Northwest University, Xi’an, 710069 (China); Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Zheng, Xiaoyan [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Biomedical Materials, Shaanxi R& D Center of Biomaterials and Fermentation Engineering, School of Chemical and Engineering, Northwest University, Xi’an, 710069 (China); Liu, Meiying; Xu, Dazhuang; Huang, Hongye; Deng, Fengjie [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Hui, Junfeng, E-mail: huijunfeng@126.com [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Biomedical Materials, Shaanxi R& D Center of Biomaterials and Fermentation Engineering, School of Chemical and Engineering, Northwest University, Xi’an, 710069 (China); Zhang, Xiaoyong, E-mail: xiaoyongzhang1980@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wei, Yen, E-mail: weiyen@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and the Tsinghua Center for Frontier Polymer Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Hydrophobic hydroxyapatite nanorods were obtained from hydrothermal synthesis. • Surface initiated RAFT polymerization was adopted to surface modification of hydroxyapatite nanorods. • These modified hydroxyapatite nanorods showed high water dispersibility and biocompatibility. • These modified hydroxyapatite nanorods can be used for controlled drug delivery. - Abstract: Hydroxyapatite nanomaterials as an important class of nanomaterials, have been widely applied for different biomedical applications for their excellent biocompatibility, biodegradation potential and low cost. In this work, hydroxyapatite nanorods with uniform size and morphology were prepared through hydrothermal synthesis. The surfaces of these hydroxyapatite nanorods are covered with hydrophobic oleic acid, making them poor dispersibility in aqueous solution and difficult for biomedical applications. To overcome this issue, a simple surface initiated polymerization strategy has been developed via combination of the surface ligand exchange and reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Hydroxyapatite nanorods were first modified with Riboflavin-5-phosphate sodium (RPSSD) via ligand exchange reaction between the phosphate group of RPSSD and oleic acid. Then hydroxyl group of nHAp-RPSSD was used to immobilize chain transfer agent, which was used as the initiator for surface-initiated RAFT polymerization. The nHAp-RPSSD-poly(IA-PEGMA) nanocomposites were characterized by means of {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis in detailed. The biocompatibility, biological imaging and drug delivery of nHAp-RPSSD-poly(IA-PEGMA) were also investigated. Results showed that nHAp-RPSSD-poly(IA-PEGMA) exhibited excellent water dispersibility, desirable optical properties, good biocompatibility and high drug loading capability, making them promising candidates for

  8. Fabrication of luminescent hydroxyapatite nanorods through surface-initiated RAFT polymerization: Characterization, biological imaging and drug delivery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heng, Chunning; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Liu, Meiying; Xu, Dazhuang; Huang, Hongye; Deng, Fengjie; Hui, Junfeng; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrophobic hydroxyapatite nanorods were obtained from hydrothermal synthesis. • Surface initiated RAFT polymerization was adopted to surface modification of hydroxyapatite nanorods. • These modified hydroxyapatite nanorods showed high water dispersibility and biocompatibility. • These modified hydroxyapatite nanorods can be used for controlled drug delivery. - Abstract: Hydroxyapatite nanomaterials as an important class of nanomaterials, have been widely applied for different biomedical applications for their excellent biocompatibility, biodegradation potential and low cost. In this work, hydroxyapatite nanorods with uniform size and morphology were prepared through hydrothermal synthesis. The surfaces of these hydroxyapatite nanorods are covered with hydrophobic oleic acid, making them poor dispersibility in aqueous solution and difficult for biomedical applications. To overcome this issue, a simple surface initiated polymerization strategy has been developed via combination of the surface ligand exchange and reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Hydroxyapatite nanorods were first modified with Riboflavin-5-phosphate sodium (RPSSD) via ligand exchange reaction between the phosphate group of RPSSD and oleic acid. Then hydroxyl group of nHAp-RPSSD was used to immobilize chain transfer agent, which was used as the initiator for surface-initiated RAFT polymerization. The nHAp-RPSSD-poly(IA-PEGMA) nanocomposites were characterized by means of "1H nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis in detailed. The biocompatibility, biological imaging and drug delivery of nHAp-RPSSD-poly(IA-PEGMA) were also investigated. Results showed that nHAp-RPSSD-poly(IA-PEGMA) exhibited excellent water dispersibility, desirable optical properties, good biocompatibility and high drug loading capability, making them promising candidates for biological

  9. Microbiological characterization of Serra da Estrela cheese throughout its Appellation d'Origine Protégée region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavaria, F K; Malcata, F X

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the typical microbiological quality of the most famous Portuguese traditional cheese, Serra da Estrela, and to assess its ripening time and geographical dependence. Ninety-six experimental cheeses manufactured from sixteen batches of milk on eight dairy farms scattered over the Appellation d' Origine Protégée (AOP) region were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated microbiologically at various ripening times. Viable counts were performed after inoculation on appropriate selective media for aerobic mesophiles and proteolytic and lipolytic microflora, as well as lactococci, lactobacilli, species of Enterobacteriaceae, lactic streptococci, staphylococci, and yeasts. Members of the Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria were the predominant microbial groups on all dairy farms throughout maturation; the latter are probably the microbial group responsible for most proteolytic and lipolytic breakdown in Serra da Estrela cheese. The microbial groups whose numbers were most affected by dairy-to-dairy variation were species of Enterobacteriaceae staphylococci, and enterococci, which are the most critical groups in terms of health hazards. It is therefore suggested that tighter control should be implemented at the level of choice of raw materials, in milk-handling practices, and in general throughout the manufacturing process in attempts to standardize production and consistently reduce microbiological risks (even though the distinctiveness of a few final organoleptic characteristics may somehow be reduced.

  10. Novel Regenerative Therapies Based on Regionally Induced Multipotent Stem Cells in Post-Stroke Brains: Their Origin, Characterization, and Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Toshinori; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Sakuma, Rika; Nakano-Doi, Akiko; Matsuyama, Tomohiro; Nakagomi, Takayuki

    2017-12-01

    Brain injuries such as ischemic stroke cause severe neural loss. Until recently, it was believed that post-ischemic areas mainly contain necrotic tissue and inflammatory cells. However, using a mouse model of cerebral infarction, we demonstrated that stem cells develop within ischemic areas. Ischemia-induced stem cells can function as neural progenitors; thus, we initially named them injury/ischemia-induced neural stem/progenitor cells (iNSPCs). However, because they differentiate into more than neural lineages, we now refer to them as ischemia-induced multipotent stem cells (iSCs). Very recently, we showed that putative iNSPCs/iSCs are present within post-stroke areas in human brains. Because iNSPCs/iSCs isolated from mouse and human ischemic tissues can differentiate into neuronal lineages in vitro, it is possible that a clearer understanding of iNSPC/iSC profiles and the molecules that regulate iNSPC/iSC fate (e.g., proliferation, differentiation, and survival) would make it possible to perform neural regeneration/repair in patients following stroke. In this article, we introduce the origin and traits of iNSPCs/iSCs based on our reports and recent viewpoints. We also discuss their possible contribution to neurogenesis through endogenous and exogenous iNSPC/iSC therapies following ischemic stroke.

  11. Partial characterization of Maize rayado fino virus isolates from Ecuador: phylogenetic analysis supports a Central American origin of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicas, Mauricio; Caviedes, Mario; Hammond, Rosemarie; Madriz, Kenneth; Albertazzi, Federico; Villalobos, Heydi; Ramírez, Pilar

    2007-06-01

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) infects maize and appears to be restricted to, yet widespread in, the Americas. MRFV was previously unreported from Ecuador. Maize plants exhibiting symptoms of MRFV infection were collected at the Santa Catalina experiment station in Quito, Ecuador. RT-PCR reactions were performed on total RNA extracted from the symptomatic leaves using primers specific for the capsid protein (CP) gene and 3' non-translated region of MRFV and first strand cDNA as a template. Nucleotide sequence comparisons to previously sequenced MRFV isolates from other geographic regions revealed 88-91% sequence identity. Phylogenetic trees constructed using Maximum Likelihood, UPGMA, Minimal Evolution, Neighbor Joining, and Maximum Parsimony methods separated the MRFV isolates into four groups. These groups may represent geographic isolation generated by the mountainous chains of the American continent. Analysis of the sequences and the genetic distances among the different isolates suggests that MRFV may have originated in Mexico and/or Guatemala and from there it dispersed to the rest of the Americas.

  12. Synthesis characterization and biological evaluation of a novel mixed ligand 99mTc complex as potential brain imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, A.; Manta, E.; Leon, A.; Papadopoulos, M.; Pirmettis, Y.; Raptopoulou, C.; Chiotellis, E.; Leon, E.; Mallo, L.

    1998-01-01

    One approach in the design of neutral oxotechnetium complexes is based on the simultaneous substitution of a tridentate dianionic ligand and a monodentate monoanionic coligand on a [Tc(V)O] +3 precursor. Following this ''mixed ligand'' concept, a novel 99m Tc complex with N,N-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)-N'N'-diethylethylenediamine as ligand and 1-octanethiol as coligand is prepared and evaluated as potential brain radiopharmaceutical. Preparation of the complex at tracer level was accomplished by using 99m Tc-glucoheptonate as precursor. The substitution was optimized and a coligand/ligand ratio of 5 was selected. Under this conditions the labeling yield was over 80% and a major product (with radiochemical purity > 80%) was isolated by HPLC methods and used for biological evaluation. Chemical characterization at carrier level was developed using the corresponding rhenium complex as structural model. The Re complex was also prepared by substitution method and isolated as a crystalline product. The crystals were characterized by UV-vis and IR spectra and elemental analysis. Results were consistent with the expected ReOLC structure. X ray crystallographic study demonstrated that the complex adopts a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. The basal plane is defined by the SS atoms of the ligand and the oxo group, while the N of the ligand and the S of the colligand occupy the two apical positions. All sulphur atoms underwent ionization leading to the formation of a neutral compound. 99 Tc complex was also prepared. Although it was not isolated due to the small amount of reagents employed, the HPLC profile was identical to the one observed for the rhenium complex suggesting the same chemical structure. Biodistribution in mice demonstrated early brain uptake, fast blood clearance, excretion through hepatobiliary system and a brain/blood ratio that increased significantly with time. (author)

  13. Biological characterization of HIV type 1 envelope V3 regions from mothers and infants associated with perinatal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matala, E; Hahn, T; Yedavalli, V R; Ahmad, N

    2001-12-10

    Our previous study has shown that the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope V3 region minor genotypes of infected mothers were transmitted to their infants and predominated initially as a homogeneous virus population in the infants (Ahmad N, Baroudy BM, Baker RC, et al.: J Virol 1995;69:1001-1012). Here we have characterized the biological properties, including cellular tropism, replication efficiency, cytopathic effects, and coreceptor utilization, of these V3 region isolates from mothers and infants. Nineteen V3 region sequences from three mother-infant pairs, including the minor variants of mothers and the major variants of infants as characterized in our previous study, were reciprocally inserted into an HIV-1 infectious molecular clone, pNL4-3, and chimeric viruses were generated by DNA transfections into HeLa cells. Equal amounts of chimeric viruses were then used to infect T lymphocyte cell lines (A3.01 and MT-2), primary blood lymphocytes (PBLs), primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), and coreceptor cell lines. We found that the V3 region chimeras failed to replicate in T lymphocyte cell lines but replicated in MDMs and PBLs, albeit at reduced levels compared with R5 laboratory HIV-1 strains. In addition, the V3 region chimeras were able to infect the HOS-CD4(+)CCR5(+) cell line, suggesting CCR5 coreceptor utilization. Moreover, the V3 region chimeras were unable to induce syncytia in MT-2 cells, indicative of non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) phenotypes. In conclusion, the HIV-1 minor genotypes of infected mothers with macrophage-tropic and NSI or R5 phenotypes are transmitted to their infants and are initially maintained with the same properties.

  14. Structural, compositional, mechanical characterization and biological assessment of bovine-derived hydroxyapatite coatings reinforced with MgF_2 or MgO for implants functionalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihailescu, Natalia; Stan, G.E.; Duta, L.; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Bleotu, Coralia; Sopronyi, M.; Luculescu, C.; Oktar, F.N.; Mihailescu, I.N.

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a consecrated biomaterial for bone reconstruction. In the form of thin films deposited by pulsed laser technologies, it can be used to cover metallic implants aiming to increase biocompatibility and osseointegration rate. HA of animal origin (bovine, BHA) reinforced with MgF_2 (2 wt.%) or MgO (5 wt.%) were used for deposition of thin coatings with improved adherence, biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity. For pulsed laser deposition experiments, a KrF* (λ = 248 nm, τ_F_W_H_M ≤ 25 ns) excimer laser source was used. The deposited structures were characterized from a physical–chemical point of view by X-Ray Diffraction, Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy in top- and cross-view modes, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy and Pull-out adherence tests. The microbiological assay using the HEp-2 cell line revealed that all target materials and deposited thin films are non-cytotoxic. We conducted tests on three strains isolated from patients with dental implants failure, i.e. Microccocus sp., Enterobacter sp. and Candida albicans sp. The most significant anti-biofilm effect against Microcococcus sp. strain, at 72 h, was obtained in the presence of BHA:MgO thin films. For Enterobacter sp. strain a superior antimicrobial activity at 72 h was noticed, in respect with simple BHA or Ti control. The enhanced antimicrobial performances, correlated with good cytocompatibility and mechanical properties recommend these biomaterials as an alternative to synthetic HA for the fabrication of reliable implant coatings for dentistry and other applications. - Highlights: • Novel biological derived HA coatings fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. • Renewable resources • Reinforcement with MgF_2 and MgO improves the HA coatings' bonding strength. • Significant anti-biofilm effect obtained for MgO reinforced HA films. • Alternative low cost solutions for a new generation of dental implants.

  15. Structural, compositional, mechanical characterization and biological assessment of bovine-derived hydroxyapatite coatings reinforced with MgF{sub 2} or MgO for implants functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihailescu, Natalia [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele RO-077125 (Romania); Stan, G.E. [National Institute of Materials Physics, Magurele RO-077125 (Romania); Duta, L. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele RO-077125 (Romania); Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, Bucharest RO-060101 (Romania); Bleotu, Coralia [Stefan S. Nicolau Institute of Virology, 85 Mihai Bravu Avenue, Bucharest RO-030304 (Romania); Sopronyi, M.; Luculescu, C. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele RO-077125 (Romania); Oktar, F.N. [Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering, Marmara University, Goztepe, Istanbul TR-34722 (Turkey); Advance Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Marmara University, Goztepe, Istanbul TR-34722 (Turkey); Mihailescu, I.N., E-mail: ion.mihailescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele RO-077125 (Romania)

    2016-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a consecrated biomaterial for bone reconstruction. In the form of thin films deposited by pulsed laser technologies, it can be used to cover metallic implants aiming to increase biocompatibility and osseointegration rate. HA of animal origin (bovine, BHA) reinforced with MgF{sub 2} (2 wt.%) or MgO (5 wt.%) were used for deposition of thin coatings with improved adherence, biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity. For pulsed laser deposition experiments, a KrF* (λ = 248 nm, τ{sub FWHM} ≤ 25 ns) excimer laser source was used. The deposited structures were characterized from a physical–chemical point of view by X-Ray Diffraction, Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy in top- and cross-view modes, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy and Pull-out adherence tests. The microbiological assay using the HEp-2 cell line revealed that all target materials and deposited thin films are non-cytotoxic. We conducted tests on three strains isolated from patients with dental implants failure, i.e. Microccocus sp., Enterobacter sp. and Candida albicans sp. The most significant anti-biofilm effect against Microcococcus sp. strain, at 72 h, was obtained in the presence of BHA:MgO thin films. For Enterobacter sp. strain a superior antimicrobial activity at 72 h was noticed, in respect with simple BHA or Ti control. The enhanced antimicrobial performances, correlated with good cytocompatibility and mechanical properties recommend these biomaterials as an alternative to synthetic HA for the fabrication of reliable implant coatings for dentistry and other applications. - Highlights: • Novel biological derived HA coatings fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. • Renewable resources • Reinforcement with MgF{sub 2} and MgO improves the HA coatings' bonding strength. • Significant anti-biofilm effect obtained for MgO reinforced HA films. • Alternative low cost solutions for a new generation of dental implants.

  16. PTR-MS Characterization of VOCs Associated with Commercial Aromatic Bakery Yeasts of Wine and Beer Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Capozzi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In light of the increasing attention towards “green” solutions to improve food quality, the use of aromatic-enhancing microorganisms offers the advantage to be a natural and sustainable solution that did not negatively influence the list of ingredients. In this study, we characterize, for the first time, volatile organic compounds (VOCs associated with aromatic bakery yeasts. Three commercial bakery starter cultures, respectively formulated with three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, isolated from white wine, red wine, and beer, were monitored by a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS, a direct injection analytical technique for detecting volatile organic compounds with high sensitivity (VOCs. Two ethanol-related peaks (m/z 65.059 and 75.080 described qualitative differences in fermentative performances. The release of compounds associated to the peaks at m/z 89.059, m/z 103.075, and m/z 117.093, tentatively identified as acetoin and esters, are coherent with claimed flavor properties of the investigated strains. We propose these mass peaks and their related fragments as biomarkers to optimize the aromatic performances of commercial preparations and for the rapid massive screening of yeast collections.

  17. Isolation and Genomic Characterization of a Duck-Origin GPV-Related Parvovirus from Cherry Valley Ducklings in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Dou, Yanguo; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Zhenjie; Zheng, Xiaoqiang; Niu, Xiaoyu; Yang, Jing; Yu, Xianglong; Diao, Youxiang

    2015-01-01

    A newly emerged duck parvovirus, which causes beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome (BADS) in Cherry Valley ducks, has appeared in Northern China since March 2015. To explore the genetic diversity among waterfowl parvovirus isolates, the complete genome of an identified isolate designated SDLC01 was sequenced and analyzed in the present study. Genomic sequence analysis showed that SDLC01 shared 90.8%-94.6% of nucleotide identity with goose parvovirus (GPV) isolates and 78.6%-81.6% of nucleotide identity with classical Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of 443 nucleotides (nt) of the fragment A showed that SDLC01 was highly similar to a mule duck isolate (strain D146/02) and close to European GPV isolates but separate from Asian GPV isolates. Analysis of the left inverted terminal repeat regions revealed that SDLC01 had two major segments deleted between positions 160-176 and 306-322 nt compared with field GPV and MDPV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of Rep and VP1 encoded by two major open reading frames of parvoviruses revealed that SDLC01 was distinct from all GPV and MDPV isolates. The viral pathogenicity and genome characterization of SDLC01 suggest that the novel GPV (N-GPV) is the causative agent of BADS and belongs to a distinct GPV-related subgroup. Furthermore, N-GPV sequences were detected in diseased ducks by polymerase chain reaction and viral proliferation was demonstrated in duck embryos and duck embryo fibroblast cells.

  18. Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis Berl. indigenous from soil and its potency as biological agents of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiastuti, Y.; Astuti, D. T.; Afriyani, S. R.; Suparman, S.; Irsan, C.; Sembiring, E. R.; Nugraha, S.; Mulawarman; Damiri, N.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize the molecular weight of protein in order to be utilized as biological agent of S. litura and their cell or spores production. To investigate the molecular weight of protein was done by SDS-Page electrophoresis. Growth media used for producing B. thuringiensis were T3, LB broth and agricultural waste. The results showed that the molecular weight of protein ranged from 37 to 140 kDa. In DLM and DLKK23 isolates were found ranging from 37 to 40 kDa and from 110 to 130 kDa, respectively. KJ3R5 and KJ3P1 isolates were obtained having three protein bands ranging from 43 to 45, 73 to 80 and 110 to 130 kDa and 45-50, 75-80 and 130-140 kDa, respectively. It was predicted that isolates B. thuringiensis were belonging to Cry IA, Cry IIA, Cry IVC and Cry15c. These crystal proteins were toxic to S. litura. There was no protein bands found in the two last isolates (KJ3R3 and KJ3J4). Production of spore after sporulation in agricultural waste media ranged from 0.5 to 106 - 2.67 x 107 spores/ml showing medium level of toxicity to S. litura.

  19. Characterization and in vitro biological evaluation of mineral/osteogenic growth peptide nanocomposites synthesized biomimetically on titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cen; Kong, Xiangdong; Zhang, Sheng-Min; Lee, In-Seop

    2015-04-01

    Nanocomposite layers of mineral/osteogenic growth peptide (OGP) were synthesized on calcium phosphate coated titanium substrates by immersing in calcium-phosphate buffer solution containing OGP. Peptide incorporated mineral was characterized by determining quantity loaded, effects on mineral morphology and structure. Also, the biological activity was investigated by cell adhesion, proliferation assay, and measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay revealed that OGP was successfully incorporated with mineral and the amount was increased with immersion time. Incorporated OGP changed the mineral morphology from sharp plate-like shape to more rounded one, and the octacalcium phosphate structure of the mineral was gradually transformed into apatite. With confocal microscopy to examine the incorporation of fluorescently labeled peptide, OGP was evenly distributed throughout mineral layers. Mineral/OGP nanocomposites promoted cell adhesion and proliferation, and also increased ALP activity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Results presented here indicated that the mineral/OGP nanocomposites formed on titanium substrates had the potential for applications in dental implants.

  20. Petrographic, biological, and chemical techniques used to characterize two tombs in the Protestant Cemetery of Rome (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Russa, M. F.; Ruffolo, S. A.; Malagodi, M.; Barca, D.; Cirrincione, R.; Pezzino, A.; Crisci, G. M.; Miriello, D.

    2010-09-01

    In this multidisciplinary contribution, several diagnostic tests were carried out in order to characterize the stone materials, forms of alteration, and protective products applied in the past to two monumental tombs located in the Protestant Cemetery of Rome (Italy). The Protestant Cemetery is a very important historic site, and has been included in the List of 100 Most Endangered Sites in the World since 2005. In this work, two of its tombs were studied: those of Karl (or Charles) Brjullov, a Russian painter who lived in the first half of the nineteenth century, and of Lady Elisa Temple, wife of the artist Sir Grenville Temple. The tombs are both made of white marble and travertine, and the same forms of alteration and degradation, such as blackish biological patinas, black crusts, and chromatic alterations, were found on both monuments. Petrographic analysis of the different lithotypes made it possible to determine textural characteristics, evaluate the state of preservation, and formulate some hypotheses about their provenance by means of oxygen and carbon isotopic ratios, and evaluation of maximum grain size (MGS) and shape preferred orientation (SPO) of calcite grains. Laboratory culture analysis identified autotrophic species and, in some cases, black patinas caused by fungal species were found. Lastly, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed that some synthetic protective products had been used in previous, undocumented restoration processes on some portions of both graves.

  1. Characterization of a multiculture in-vitro cell exposure chamber for assessing the biological impact of diesel engine exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asimakopoulou, Akrivi; Daskalos, Manos; Chasapidis, Leonidas; Akritidis, Theofilaktos; Vlachos, Nickolaos D; Papaioannou, Eleni; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the various health influencing parameters related to particulate as well as to gas-phase pollutants emitted by Diesel engine exhaust, there is an urgent need for appropriate sampling devices and methods for cell exposure studies and associated biological and toxicological tests. In a previous paper [1], a specific concept for a cell culture exposure chamber was introduced to allow the uniform exposure of cell cultures to diesel aerosols. In the present work, this cell culture exposure chamber is evaluated and characterized with state-of-the-art nanoparticles measurement instrumentation to assess the local deposition of soot aggregates on the cell cultures and any losses due to particle deposition on the cell culture exposure chamber walls, and in addition an upgraded Multiculture Exposure Chamber (MEC) for in vitro continuous flow cell exposure tests is introduced with improved, compared to the previous version, features. Analysis and design of the MEC employs CFD and true to geometry representations of soot particle aggregates.

  2. Synthesis, Characterization and Spectral Studies of Noble Heterobinuclear Complexes of Transition Metal Ions and their Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netra Pal Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some noble heterobinuclear complexes of transition metal ions with bis(salicylaldehydemalonyl-dihydrazone in the presence of 5-nitroindazole Cu(II / Ni(II- chloride of the type [ML1M‘L2Cl2] or [ML1FeL2Cl2]Cl, where M = Ni(II, Cu(II and M' = Mn(II, Co(II, have been prepared. All the complexes have been characterized by IR, UV vis and EPR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, magnetic moment and molar conductance measurement. Spectral studies and magnetic moment measurement in DMF suggest the covalent nature of the complexes, except the [ML1FeL2Cl2]Cl complex which is 1:1 electrolyte. An octahedral geometry is proposed for M‘ and square planer for M for the heterobinuclear complexes. The low value of magnetic moment and overlapping EPR signals are due to spin crossover since both of the metals have unpaired electrons with same molecular symmetry. The lowering of the magnetic moment has been discussed. The biological activity (antifungal and antibacterial of the represented compounds has been studied.

  3. Characterization and in vitro biological evaluation of mineral/osteogenic growth peptide nanocomposites synthesized biomimetically on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cen; Kong, Xiangdong [Bio-X Center, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zhang, Sheng-Min [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lee, In-Seop, E-mail: inseop@yonsei.ac.kr [Bio-X Center, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Institute of Natural Sciences, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mineral/OGP nanocomposite layers were synthesized biomimetically on Ti substrates. • Incorporated OGP affected the morphology and ultimate structure of mineral. • Incorporated OGP improved the MSCs adhesion, proliferation, and ALP activity. - Abstract: Nanocomposite layers of mineral/osteogenic growth peptide (OGP) were synthesized on calcium phosphate coated titanium substrates by immersing in calcium-phosphate buffer solution containing OGP. Peptide incorporated mineral was characterized by determining quantity loaded, effects on mineral morphology and structure. Also, the biological activity was investigated by cell adhesion, proliferation assay, and measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay revealed that OGP was successfully incorporated with mineral and the amount was increased with immersion time. Incorporated OGP changed the mineral morphology from sharp plate-like shape to more rounded one, and the octacalcium phosphate structure of the mineral was gradually transformed into apatite. With confocal microscopy to examine the incorporation of fluorescently labeled peptide, OGP was evenly distributed throughout mineral layers. Mineral/OGP nanocomposites promoted cell adhesion and proliferation, and also increased ALP activity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Results presented here indicated that the mineral/OGP nanocomposites formed on titanium substrates had the potential for applications in dental implants.

  4. Characterization and in vitro biological evaluation of mineral/osteogenic growth peptide nanocomposites synthesized biomimetically on titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Cen; Kong, Xiangdong; Zhang, Sheng-Min; Lee, In-Seop

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mineral/OGP nanocomposite layers were synthesized biomimetically on Ti substrates. • Incorporated OGP affected the morphology and ultimate structure of mineral. • Incorporated OGP improved the MSCs adhesion, proliferation, and ALP activity. - Abstract: Nanocomposite layers of mineral/osteogenic growth peptide (OGP) were synthesized on calcium phosphate coated titanium substrates by immersing in calcium-phosphate buffer solution containing OGP. Peptide incorporated mineral was characterized by determining quantity loaded, effects on mineral morphology and structure. Also, the biological activity was investigated by cell adhesion, proliferation assay, and measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay revealed that OGP was successfully incorporated with mineral and the amount was increased with immersion time. Incorporated OGP changed the mineral morphology from sharp plate-like shape to more rounded one, and the octacalcium phosphate structure of the mineral was gradually transformed into apatite. With confocal microscopy to examine the incorporation of fluorescently labeled peptide, OGP was evenly distributed throughout mineral layers. Mineral/OGP nanocomposites promoted cell adhesion and proliferation, and also increased ALP activity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Results presented here indicated that the mineral/OGP nanocomposites formed on titanium substrates had the potential for applications in dental implants

  5. Radiolabelled neurotensin analogues. I. Solid phase synthesis and biological characterization of [Trp11]-neurotensin precursor of an ionidated ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbe-Jullie, C.; Granier, C.; Van Rietschoten, J.; Kitabgi, P.; Vincent, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to generate highly labelled neurotensin analogues, synthesis has been performed of two types of precursors, one for iodination and one for tritiation. Iodination of native neurotensin occurs on both tyrosines in position 3 and 11 and thus affects greatly its binding capacities. Synthesis and chemical characterization of [Trp 11 ]-neurotensin are described which can be iodinated without loss of activity. Synthesis was by solid phase procedure on an experimental support, Pab-resin, α-(4-chloromethylphenylacetamido)-benzyl copoly (styrene 1 per cent divinylbenzene). The homogeneity of [Trp 11 ]-neurotensin was assessed by amino acid analysis, high voltage paper electrophoresis and high pressure liquid chromatography. Iodination by the lactoperoxydase method gave iodo-[Trp 11 ]-neurotensin iodinated on the Tyr 3 . Compared to neurotensin, potency of [Trp 11 ]-neurotensin and of iodo-[Trp 11 ]-neurotensin in competitive inhibition of tritiated neurotensin binding to rat brain synaptic membranes was respectively 93 per cent and 80 per cent, but in the biological test on the contractility of isolated longitudinal smooth muscle strips of guinea pig the relative activity for the two analogues was of 10 per cent [fr

  6. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    M. stenopetala is a deciduous tree 6-12m tall having more or less 60cm ... elongate, reddish with grayish bloom having grooved .... eastern lowland sites are characterized by hot to wa ..... more valuable than fruit trees due to the higher income.

  7. Original Researc Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    2009-09-17

    Sep 17, 2009 ... agriculture systems in Edo state, Nigeria and char ... were inferred as different varieties of the species of th ... tate, Nigeria and characterize them using molecular marker ... Article Information ... The development of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) ... Quarters, University of Benin Teaching Hospital.

  8. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, BIOLOGICAL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Solid state electrical conductivity of the complexes has been measured in their ..... coordinated to the thorium ion in a monodentate fashion [21]. .... investigation obeys the equation: σ = σo exp(-Ea/kT), the symbols having usual significance.

  9. The biological and structural characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis UvrA provides novel insights into its mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Franca; Khanduja, Jasbeer Singh; Bortoluzzi, Alessio; Houghton, Joanna; Sander, Peter; Güthlein, Carolin; Davis, Elaine O; Springer, Burkhard; Böttger, Erik C; Relini, Annalisa; Penco, Amanda; Muniyappa, K; Rizzi, Menico

    2011-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an extremely well adapted intracellular human pathogen that is exposed to multiple DNA damaging chemical assaults originating from the host defence mechanisms. As a consequence, this bacterium is thought to possess highly efficient DNA repair machineries, the nucleotide excision repair (NER) system amongst these. Although NER is of central importance to DNA repair in M. tuberculosis, our understanding of the processes in this species is limited. The conserved UvrABC endonuclease represents the multi-enzymatic core in bacterial NER, where the UvrA ATPase provides the DNA lesion-sensing function. The herein reported genetic analysis demonstrates that M. tuberculosis UvrA is important for the repair of nitrosative and oxidative DNA damage. Moreover, our biochemical and structural characterization of recombinant M. tuberculosis UvrA contributes new insights into its mechanism of action. In particular, the structural investigation reveals an unprecedented conformation of the UvrB-binding domain that we propose to be of functional relevance. Taken together, our data suggest UvrA as a potential target for the development of novel anti-tubercular agents and provide a biochemical framework for the identification of small-molecule inhibitors interfering with the NER activity in M. tuberculosis.

  10. Anisotropic polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel phantom for shear wave elastography in fibrous biological soft tissue: a multimodality characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelin, Simon; Bernal, Miguel; Deffieux, Thomas; Papadacci, Clément; Nahas, Amir; Boccara, Claude; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu; Flaud, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Shear wave elastography imaging techniques provide quantitative measurement of soft tissues elastic properties. Tendons, muscles and cerebral tissues are composed of fibers, which induce a strong anisotropic effect on the mechanical behavior. Currently, these tissues cannot be accurately represented by existing elastography phantoms. Recently, a novel approach for orthotropic hydrogel mimicking soft tissues has been developed (Millon et al 2006 J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B 305–11). The mechanical anisotropy is induced in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel by stretching the physical crosslinks of the polymeric chains while undergoing freeze/thaw cycles. In the present study we propose an original multimodality imaging characterization of this new transverse isotropic (TI) PVA hydrogel. Multiple properties were investigated using a large variety of techniques at different scales compared with an isotropic PVA hydrogel undergoing similar imaging and rheology protocols. The anisotropic mechanical (dynamic and static) properties were studied using supersonic shear wave imaging technique, full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) strain imaging and classical linear rheometry using dynamic mechanical analysis. The anisotropic optical and ultrasonic spatial coherence properties were measured by FFOCT volumetric imaging and backscatter tensor imaging, respectively. Correlation of mechanical and optical properties demonstrates the complementarity of these techniques for the study of anisotropy on a multi-scale range as well as the potential of this TI phantom as fibrous tissue-mimicking phantom for shear wave elastographic applications. (paper)

  11. Anisotropic polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel phantom for shear wave elastography in fibrous biological soft tissue: a multimodality characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelin, Simon; Bernal, Miguel; Deffieux, Thomas; Papadacci, Clément; Flaud, Patrice; Nahas, Amir; Boccara, Claude; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2014-11-01

    Shear wave elastography imaging techniques provide quantitative measurement of soft tissues elastic properties. Tendons, muscles and cerebral tissues are composed of fibers, which induce a strong anisotropic effect on the mechanical behavior. Currently, these tissues cannot be accurately represented by existing elastography phantoms. Recently, a novel approach for orthotropic hydrogel mimicking soft tissues has been developed (Millon et al 2006 J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B 305-11). The mechanical anisotropy is induced in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel by stretching the physical crosslinks of the polymeric chains while undergoing freeze/thaw cycles. In the present study we propose an original multimodality imaging characterization of this new transverse isotropic (TI) PVA hydrogel. Multiple properties were investigated using a large variety of techniques at different scales compared with an isotropic PVA hydrogel undergoing similar imaging and rheology protocols. The anisotropic mechanical (dynamic and static) properties were studied using supersonic shear wave imaging technique, full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) strain imaging and classical linear rheometry using dynamic mechanical analysis. The anisotropic optical and ultrasonic spatial coherence properties were measured by FFOCT volumetric imaging and backscatter tensor imaging, respectively. Correlation of mechanical and optical properties demonstrates the complementarity of these techniques for the study of anisotropy on a multi-scale range as well as the potential of this TI phantom as fibrous tissue-mimicking phantom for shear wave elastographic applications.

  12. Production and Characterization of Fengycin by Indigenous Bacillus subtilis F29-3 Originating from a Potato Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Yu Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fengycin, a lipopeptide biosurfactant, was produced by indigenous Bacillus subtilis F29-3 isolated from a potato farm. Although inhibiting the growth of filamentous fungi, the fengycin is ineffective against yeast and bacteria. In this study, fengycin was isolated from fermentation broth of B. subtilis F29-3 via acidic precipitation (pH 2.0 with 5 N HCl followed by purification using ultrafiltration and nanofiltration. The purified fengycin product was characterized qualitatively by using fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight, followed by quantitative analysis using reversed-phase HPLC system. This study also attempted to increase fengycin production by B. subtilis F29-3 in order to optimize the fermentation medium constituents. The fermentation medium composition was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM to increase fengycin production from B. subtilis F29-3. According to results of the five-level four-factor central composite design, the composition of soybean meal, NaNO3, MnSO4·4H2O, mannitol-mannitol, soybean meal-mannitol, soybean meal‑soybean meal, NaNO3-NaNO3 and MnSO4·4H2O-MnSO4·4H2O significantly affected production. The simulation model produced a coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.9043, capable of accounting for 90.43% variability of the data. Results of the steepest ascent and central composite design indicated that 26.2 g/L of mannitol, 21.9 g/L of soybean meal, 3.1 g/L of NaNO3 and 0.2 g/L of MnSO4·4H2O represented the optimal medium composition, leading to the highest production of fengycin. Furthermore, the optimization strategy increased the fengycin production from 1.2 g/L to 3.5 g/L.

  13. Design and implementation of optical imaging and sensor systems for characterization of deep-sea biological camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Justin Mathew

    The visual ecology of deep-sea animals has long been of scientific interest. In the open ocean, where there is no physical structure to hide within or behind, diverse strategies have evolved to solve the problem of camouflage from a potential predator. Simulations of specific predator-prey scenarios have yielded estimates of the range of possible appearances that an animal may exhibit. However, there is a limited amount of quantitative information available related to both animal appearance and the light field at mesopelagic depths (200 m to 1000 m). To mitigate this problem, novel optical instrumentation, taking advantage of recent technological advances, was developed and is described in this dissertation. In the first half of this dissertation, the appearance of mirrored marine animals is quantitatively evaluated. A portable optical imaging scatterometer was developed to measure angular reflectance, described by the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), of biological specimens. The instrument allows for BRDF capture from samples of arbitrary size, over a significant fraction of the reflectance hemisphere. Multiple specimens representing two species of marine animals, collected at mesopelagic depths, were characterized using the scatterometer. Low-dimensional parametric models were developed to simplify use of the data sets, and to validate the BRDF method. Results from principal component analysis confirm that BRDF measurements can be used to study intra- and interspecific variability of mirrored marine animal appearance. Collaborative efforts utilizing the BRDF data sets to develop physically-based scattering models are underway. In the second half of this dissertation, another key part of the deep-sea biological camouflage problem is examined. Two underwater radiometers, capable of low-light measurements, were developed to address the lack of available information related to the deep-sea light field. Quantitative comparison of spectral

  14. A rapid neutron activation method for the determination of traces of mercury. The mercury content of biological material of differing geographical and chronological origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, H.

    1975-08-01

    A rapid method based on activation analysis has been developed for the determination of mercury in biological material. The method employs the delayed gamma rays as prompt gamma rays have been shown to display insufficient sensitivity. The mercury content of 182 fish derived from the waters of the region of South Western Germany has been determined. Relatively high concentrations (> 1 ppm) have been measured in the muscle of Rhine fish. Similar mercury contents have been observed in aged biological material (birds feathers and human hair) and contemporary living organisms. (orig.) [de

  15. Structural characterization and discrimination of Chinese medicinal materials with multiple botanical origins based on metabolite profiling and chemometrics analysis: Clematidis Radix et Rhizoma as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lin-Xiu; Li, Rui; Liu, Ke; Yang, Jie; Li, Hui-Jun; Li, Song-Lin; Liu, Jian-Qun; Liu, Li-Fang; Xin, Gui-Zhong

    2015-12-18

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs)-based products are becoming more and more popular over the world. To ensure the safety and efficacy, authentication of Chinese medicinal materials has been an important issue, especially for that with multiple botanical origins (one-to-multiple). Taking Clematidis Radix et Rhizoma (CRR) as a case study, we herein developed an integrated platform based on metabolite profiling and chemometrics analysis to characterize, classify, and predict the "one-to-multiple" herbs. Firstly, the predominant constituents, triterpenoid saponins, in three Clematis CRR were rapid characterized by a novel UPLC-QTOF/MS-based strategy, and a total of 49 triterpenoid saponins were identified. Secondly, metabolite profiling was performed by UPLC-QTOF/MS, and 4623 variables were extracted and aligned as dataset. Thirdly, by using pattern recognition analysis, a clear separation of the three Clematis CRR was achieved as well as a total number of 28 variables were screened as the valuable variables for discrimination. By matching with identified saponins, these 28 variables were corresponding to 10 saponins which were identified as marker compounds. Fourthly, based on the relative intensity of the marker compounds-related variables, genetic algorithm optimized support vector machines (GA-SVM) was employed to predict the species of CRR samples. The obtained model showed excellent prediction performance with a prediction accuracy of 100%. Finally, a heatmap visualization was employed for clarifying the distribution of identified saponins, which could be useful for phytochemotaxonomy study of Clematis herbs. These results indicated that our proposed platform was a powerful tool for chemical profiling and discrimination of herbs with multiple botanical origins, providing promising perspectives in tracking the formulation processes of TCMs products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from Humans and a Comparison with İsolates of Animal Origin, in North Dakota, United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Velasco

    Full Text Available Different clones of methicillin-susceptible (MSSA and methicillin-resistant (MRSA Staphylococcus aureus have been found in humans as well as in animals and retail meat. However, more information about the genetic characteristics and similarities between strains is needed. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Staphylococcus aureus from humans, and to compare their characteristics with isolates of animal origin. A total of 550 nasal swabs were taken from healthy humans, and S. aureus was isolated and identified. Positive S. aureus isolates were subjected to molecular typing and susceptibility testing. In addition, 108 MRSA isolates recovered from clinical patients in the state of North Dakota and 133 S. aureus isolates from animals and meat previously analyzed were included. The nasal carriage of S. aureus in healthy people was 7.6% and, in general, clones were genetically diverse. None of the S. aureus strains obtained from healthy people were mecA- or PVL-positive. A total of 105 (97.2% MRSA isolates from clinical cases harbored the mecA gene and 11 (10.2% isolated from blood stream infections harbored the PVL gene. The most common resistance profile among S. aureus from healthy people was penicillin, and from clinical cases were erythromycin-penicillin-ciprofloxacin. The rate of multidrug resistance (MDR was 70% in humans. Most of the S. aureus harboring mecA and PVL genes were identified as ST5 and ST8, and exhibited MDR. However, S. aureus isolates of animal origin used for comparison exhibited a lower rate of MDR. The most common resistance profiles in isolates of animal origin were penicillin-tetracycline and penicillin-tetracycline-erythromycin, in animals and raw meat, respectively. The ST5 was also found in animals and meat, with ST9 and ST398 being the major clones. The genetic similarity between clones from humans and meat suggests the risk of spread of S. aureus in the food chain.

  17. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from Humans and a Comparison with İsolates of Animal Origin, in North Dakota, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Valeria; Buyukcangaz, Esra; Sherwood, Julie S; Stepan, Ryan M; Koslofsky, Ryan J; Logue, Catherine M

    2015-01-01

    Different clones of methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus have been found in humans as well as in animals and retail meat. However, more information about the genetic characteristics and similarities between strains is needed. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Staphylococcus aureus from humans, and to compare their characteristics with isolates of animal origin. A total of 550 nasal swabs were taken from healthy humans, and S. aureus was isolated and identified. Positive S. aureus isolates were subjected to molecular typing and susceptibility testing. In addition, 108 MRSA isolates recovered from clinical patients in the state of North Dakota and 133 S. aureus isolates from animals and meat previously analyzed were included. The nasal carriage of S. aureus in healthy people was 7.6% and, in general, clones were genetically diverse. None of the S. aureus strains obtained from healthy people were mecA- or PVL-positive. A total of 105 (97.2%) MRSA isolates from clinical cases harbored the mecA gene and 11 (10.2%) isolated from blood stream infections harbored the PVL gene. The most common resistance profile among S. aureus from healthy people was penicillin, and from clinical cases were erythromycin-penicillin-ciprofloxacin. The rate of multidrug resistance (MDR) was 70% in humans. Most of the S. aureus harboring mecA and PVL genes were identified as ST5 and ST8, and exhibited MDR. However, S. aureus isolates of animal origin used for comparison exhibited a lower rate of MDR. The most common resistance profiles in isolates of animal origin were penicillin-tetracycline and penicillin-tetracycline-erythromycin, in animals and raw meat, respectively. The ST5 was also found in animals and meat, with ST9 and ST398 being the major clones. The genetic similarity between clones from humans and meat suggests the risk of spread of S. aureus in the food chain.

  18. Synthesis, Crystal Structural Characterization and Biological Properties of Thiosemicarbazones of Schiff Bases Derived from 4-Acyl-2-pyrazoline-5-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjunsinh Rana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel synthesis, single crystal and biological activity of 4-acylthiosemicarbazone-3-methyl-1-(4`-methylphenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one by condensation of 4-acyl-3-methyl-1-(4`-methylphenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one with thiosemicarbazide was carried out. The compounds were characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, Mass, DSC and 13C NMR spectral data. The compounds were tested for their antibacterial activity against various gram +ve and -ve bacteria. The results were compared with the marketed drugs. The crystal structure was determined by single x-ray diffraction. 4-Acetyl thiosemicarbazone-3-methyl-1-(4`-methylphenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one(AcPTMP-ths crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P21/n with a=6.0828(7Å, b=29.547(4Å, c=7.9101(15Å, α=90°, γ=95.602(15°, γ=90°, V=1414.9(4 Å3, Z=4, Dc=1.429 mg/m3 and 4-Propionylthiosemicarbazone-3-methyl-1-(4`-methylphenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (PropPTMP-ths crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P21/c with a=13.5622(10Å, b=13.3671(12Å, c=22.151(2Å, α=90°, β=93.13(7°, γ=90°, V=4010.1(6 Å3, Z=8, Dc=1.310 mg/m3. The compounds were screened for antibacterial properties and exhibited potential activity.

  19. Differentiation of RPE cells from integration-free iPS cells and their cell biological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazim, Roni A; Karumbayaram, Saravanan; Jiang, Mei; Dimashkie, Anupama; Lopes, Vanda S; Li, Douran; Burgess, Barry L; Vijayaraj, Preethi; Alva-Ornelas, Jackelyn A; Zack, Jerome A; Kohn, Donald B; Gomperts, Brigitte N; Pyle, April D; Lowry, William E; Williams, David S

    2017-10-02

    Dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is implicated in numerous forms of retinal degeneration. The readily accessible environment of the eye makes it particularly suitable for the transplantation of RPE cells, which can now be derived from autologous induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), to treat retinal degeneration. For RPE transplantation to become feasible in the clinic, patient-specific somatic cells should be reprogrammed to iPSCs without the introduction of reprogramming genes into the genome of the host cell, and then subsequently differentiated into RPE cells that are well characterized for safety and functionality prior to transplantation. We have reprogrammed human dermal fibroblasts to iPSCs using nonintegrating RNA, and differentiated the iPSCs toward an RPE fate (iPSC-RPE), under Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compatible conditions. Using highly sensitive assays for cell polarity, structure, organelle trafficking, and function, we found that iPSC-RPE cells in culture exhibited key characteristics of native RPE. Importantly, we demonstrate for the first time with any stem cell-derived RPE cell that live cells are able to support dynamic organelle transport. This highly sensitive test is critical for RPE cells intended for transplantation, since defects in intracellular motility have been shown to promote RPE pathogenesis akin to that found in macular degeneration. To test their capabilities for in-vivo transplantation, we injected the iPSC-RPE cells into the subretinal space of a mouse model of retinal degeneration, and demonstrated that the transplanted cells are capable of rescuing lost RPE function. This report documents the successful generation, under GMP-compatible conditions, of human iPSC-RPE cells that possess specific characteristics of healthy RPE. The report adds to a growing literature on the utility of human iPSC-RPE cells for cell culture investigations on pathogenicity and for therapeutic transplantation, by

  20. Sequencing and characterizing the genome of Estrella lausannensis as an undergraduate project: training students and biological insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eBertelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With the widespread availability of high-throughput sequencing technologies, sequencing projects have become pervasive in the molecular life sciences. The huge bulk of data generated daily must be analyzed further by biologists with skills in bioinformatics and by embedded bioinformaticians, i.e., bioinformaticians integrated in wet lab research groups. Thus, students interested in molecular life sciences must be trained in the main steps of genomics: sequencing, assembly, annotation and analysis. To reach that goal, a practical course has been set up for master students at the University of Lausanne: the Sequence a genome class. At the beginning of the academic year, a few bacterial species whose genome is unknown are provided to the students, who sequence and assemble the genome(s and perform manual annotation. Here, we report the progress of the first class from September 2010 to June 2011 and the results obtained by seven master students who specifically assembled and annotated the genome of Estrella lausannensis, an obligate intracellular bacterium related to Chlamydia. The draft genome of Estrella is composed of 29 scaffolds encompassing 2,819,825 bp that encode for 2,233 putative proteins. Estrella also possesses a 9,136 bp plasmid that encodes for 14 genes, among which we found an integrase and a toxin/antitoxin module. Like all other members of the Chlamydiales order, Estrella possesses a highly conserved type III secretion system, considered as a key virulence factor. The annotation of the Estrella genome also allowed the characterization of the metabolic abilities of this strictly intracellular bacterium. Altogether, the students provided the scientific community with the Estrella genome sequence and a preliminary understanding of the biology of this recently-discovered bacterial genus, while learning to use cutting-edge technologies for sequencing and to perform bioinformatics analyses.

  1. Original Research doi:10.4102/http://www.indieskriflig.org.za ids.v48i2.722 An exploration of synthetic biology: A preliminary Christian ethical assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan A.L. Rheeder

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available On 20 May 2010, the Venter Institute in America announced that they have fully synthesised the genome of the organism Mycoplasma mycoides whilst in vitro by using a computer connected to a machine that synthesises genes. Thereafter, the genome was placed back into the casing of another organism (Mycoplasma capricolum and it was reported that the synthesised organism and the genome functioned normally. This synthesised organism was reconstructed to function as a minute little factory with the aim of producing and secreting fuel and medicine − something that is not the natural function of this organism. There are certain potential dangers inherent in this kind of technology. Scientists fear that this technology may contaminate or infect humans, animals or the environment, and that it can as such be extremely harmful, or even lead to the destruction of humans. Other scientists are concerned that terrorists can use this technology to kill innocent citizens. Some ethicists are of the opinion that the consequences of synthetic biology is currently unpredictable and that it is therefore risky. In opposition to the potential dangers, one has to mention that synthetic biology indeed can result in far-reaching positive outcomes such as the manufacturing of biofuel and medication. Most scientists and ethicists are of the opinion that the potential dangers involved in synthetic biology should be evaluated in light of the fact that genetic manipulation has not caused any biological devastation over the last 30 years. From a Christian point of departure, the opinion is currently that synthetic biology is not an irresponsible science and technology.

  2. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  3. Analysis of pairwise correlations in multi-parametric PET/MR data for biological tumor characterization and treatment individualization strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibfarth, Sara; Moennich, David; Thorwarth, Daniela [University Hospital Tuebingen, Section for Biomedical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany); Simoncic, Urban [University Hospital Tuebingen, Section for Biomedical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany); University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Welz, Stefan; Zips, Daniel [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany); Schmidt, Holger; Schwenzer, Nina [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this pilot study was to explore simultaneous functional PET/MR for biological characterization of tumors and potential future treatment adaptations. To investigate the extent of complementarity between different PET/MR-based functional datasets, a pairwise correlation analysis was performed. Functional datasets of N=15 head and neck (HN) cancer patients were evaluated. For patients of group A (N=7), combined PET/MR datasets including FDG-PET and ADC maps were available. Patients of group B (N=8) had FMISO-PET, DCE-MRI and ADC maps from combined PET/MRI, an additional dynamic FMISO-PET/CT acquired directly after FMISO tracer injection as well as an FDG-PET/CT acquired a few days earlier. From DCE-MR, parameter maps K{sup trans}, v{sub e} and v{sub p} were obtained with the extended Tofts model. Moreover, parameter maps of mean DCE enhancement, ΔS{sub DCE}, and mean FMISO signal 0-4 min p.i., anti A{sub FMISO}, were derived. Pairwise correlations were quantified using the Spearman correlation coefficient (r) on both a voxel and a regional level within the gross tumor volume. Between some pairs of functional imaging modalities moderate correlations were observed with respect to the median over all patient datasets, whereas distinct correlations were only present on an individual basis. Highest inter-modality median correlations on the voxel level were obtained for FDG/FMISO (r = 0.56), FDG/ anti A{sub FMISO} (r = 0.55), anti A{sub FMISO}/ΔS{sub DCE} (r = 0.46), and FDG/ADC (r = -0.39). Correlations on the regional level showed comparable results. The results of this study suggest that the examined functional datasets provide complementary information. However, only pairwise correlations were examined, and correlations could still exist between combinations of three or more datasets. These results might contribute to the future design of individually adapted treatment approaches based on multiparametric functional imaging.

  4. High-Resolution Wellbore Temperature Logging Combined with a Borehole-Scale Heat Budget: Conceptual and Analytical Approaches to Characterize Hydraulically Active Fractures and Groundwater Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Meyzonnat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to provide an overview of the thermal processes that shape wellbore temperature profiles under static and dynamic conditions. Understanding of the respective influences of advection and conduction heat fluxes is improved through the use of a new heat budget at the borehole scale. Keeping in mind the thermal processes involved, a qualitative interpretation of the temperature profiles allows the occurrence, the position, and the origin of groundwater flowing into wellbores from hydraulically active fractures to be constrained. With the use of a heat budget developed at the borehole scale, temperature logging efficiency has been quantitatively enhanced and allows inflow temperatures to be calculated through the simultaneous use of a flowmeter. Under certain hydraulic or pumping conditions, both inflow intensities and associated temperatures can also be directly modelled from temperature data and the use of the heat budget. Theoretical and applied examples of the heat budget application are provided. Applied examples are shown using high-resolution temperature logging, spinner flow metering, and televiewing for three wells installed in fractured bedrock aquifers in the St-Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec, Canada. Through relatively rapid manipulations, thermal measurements in such cases can be used to detect the intervals or discrete positions of hydraulically active fractures in wellbores, as well as the existence of ambient flows with a high degree of sensitivity, even at very low flows. Heat budget calculations at the borehole scale during pumping indicate that heat advection fluxes rapidly dominate over heat conduction fluxes with the borehole wall. The full characterization of inflow intensities provides information about the distribution of hydraulic properties with depth. The full knowledge of inflow temperatures indicates horizons that are drained from within the aquifer, providing advantageous information on the depth from which

  5. Genomic regression of claw keratin, taste receptor and light-associated genes provides insights into biology and evolutionary origins of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerling, Christopher A

    2017-10-01

    Regressive evolution of anatomical traits often corresponds with the regression of genomic loci underlying such characters. As such, studying patterns of gene loss can be instrumental in addressing questions of gene function, resolving conflicting results from anatomical studies, and understanding the evolutionary history of clades. The evolutionary origins of snakes involved the regression of a number of anatomical traits, including limbs, taste buds and the visual system, and by analyzing serpent genomes, I was able to test three hypotheses associated with the regression of these features. The first concerns two keratins that are putatively specific to claws. Both genes that encode these keratins are pseudogenized/deleted in snake genomes, providing additional evidence of claw-specificity. The second hypothesis is that snakes lack taste buds, an issue complicated by conflicting results in the literature. I found evidence that different snakes have lost one or more taste receptors, but all snakes examined retained at least one gustatory channel. The final hypothesis addressed is that the earliest snakes were adapted to a dim light niche. I found evidence of deleted and pseudogenized genes with light-associated functions in snakes, demonstrating a pattern of gene loss similar to other dim light-adapted clades. Molecular dating estimates suggest that dim light adaptation preceded the loss of limbs, providing some bearing on interpretations of the ecological origins of snakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The characterization of the soil biological quality of organic viticulture can be achieved by analyzing soil nematofauna

    OpenAIRE

    Coll, P; Le Cadre, E; Mérot, A; Villenave, C

    2013-01-01

    Soil nematofauna is a bioindicator that can highlight changes in biological functioning when changing agricultural practices. In the present study, the effects of conversion of vineyards to organic agriculture on biological soil quality were evaluated. Twenty four conventional plots and organic plots in Cruscades (Aude) were studied: they were divided into four groups: (1) conventional, (2) converted for 7 years (Bio 7 years), (3) converted for 11 years (Bio 11) and (4) converted for 17 (Bio ...

  7. Multi-isotopic composition (δ7Li-δ11B-δD-δ18O) of rainwaters in France: Origin and spatio-temporal characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millot, Romain; Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Guerrot, Catherine; Negrel, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → A contour map of France for δ 18 O was drawn after compiling data that included more than 400 values from all of France. → The seasonal effect (i.e. the month or rainfall amount) is not the main controlling factor for the Li and B isotopic variations. → Most Li and B in rainwaters does not have a marine origin. → Finally, this work also adds to the potential for use of Li and B isotopes as environmental tracers. - Abstract: In the present work, the first results are reported for both Li and B isotope ratios in rainwater samples collected over a long time period (i.e. monthly rainfall events over 1 a) at a national scale (from coastal and inland locations). In addition, the stable isotopes of the water molecule (δD and δ 18 O) are also reported here for the same locations so that the Li and B isotope data can be discussed in the same context. The range of Li and B isotopic variations in these rainwaters were measured to enable the determination of the origin of these elements in rainwaters and the characterization of both the seasonal and spatio-temporal effects for δ 7 Li and δ 11 B signatures in rainwaters. Lithium and B concentrations are low in rainwater samples, ranging from 0.004 to 0.292 μmol/L and from 0.029 to 6.184 μmol/L, respectively. δ 7 Li and δ 11 B values in rainwaters also show a great range of variation between +3.2 per mille and +95.6 per mille and between -3.3 per mille and +40.6 per mille over a period of 1 a, respectively, clearly different from the signature of seawater. Seasonal effects (i.e. rainfall amount and month) are not the main factors controlling element concentrations and isotopic variations. δ 7 Li and δ 11 B values in rainwaters are clearly different from one site to another, indicating the variable contribution of sea salts in the rainwater depending on the sampling site (coastal vs. inland: also called the distance-from-the-coast-effect). This is well illustrated when wind direction data

  8. Graphene oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes as nanofeatured scaffolds for the assisted deposition of nanohydroxyapatite: characterization and biological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues BV

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bruno VM Rodrigues,1,* Nelly CS Leite,1,* Bruno das Neves Cavalcanti,2 Newton S da Silva,3 Fernanda R Marciano,1 Evaldo J Corat,4 Thomas J Webster,5,6 Anderson O Lobo11Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology, Institute of Research and Development (IP&D, University of Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP, Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil; 2Department of Cardiology, Restorative Sciences and Endodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 3Laboratory of Cell Biology and Tissue, Institute of Research and Development (IP&D, University of Vale Do Paraiba (UNIVAP, 4Associated Laboratory of Sensors and Materials, National Institute for Space Research, Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil; 5Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 6Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp is an emergent bioceramic that shows similar chemical and crystallographic properties as the mineral phase present in bone. However, nHAp presents low fracture toughness and tensile strength, limiting its application in bone tissue engineering. Conversely, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs have been widely used for composite applications due to their excellent mechanical and physicochemical properties, although their hydrophobicity usually impairs some applications. To improve MWCNT wettability, oxygen plasma etching has been applied to promote MWCNT exfoliation and oxidation and to produce graphene oxide (GO at the end of the tips. Here, we prepared a series of nHAp/MWCNT-GO nanocomposites aimed at producing materials that combine similar bone characteristics (nHAp with high mechanical strength (MWCNT-GO. After MWCNT production and functionalization to produce MWCNT-GO, ultrasonic irradiation was employed to precipitate nHAp onto the MWCNT-GO scaffolds (at 1–3 wt%. We employed various techniques to

  9. The preparation and biological characterization of a new HL91-derivative for hypoxic imaging on stroke mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsia, C.-C. [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan (China); Huang, F.-L.; Lin, C.-H.; Shen, L.-H. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan (China); Wang, H.-E., E-mail: hewang@ym.edu.t [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China)

    2010-09-15

    Aim: {sup 99m}Tc-HL91 (Prognox, GE-Healthcare) was the first nonnitro-aryl-based radiotracer for evaluating hypoxic fraction in neoplasm, stroke and myocardium infarction regions. However, the high hydrophilicity of {sup 99m}Tc-HL91 might hamper its penetration into cells. In this study, we prepared a new ligand 4,4,11,11-tetramethyl- 5,10-diazatetradecane- 3,12-dionedioxime (HL91-ET) with higher lipophilicity but structurally similar compared with that of HL91. The chemical and biological characterizations of {sup 99m}Tc-HL91-ET as a scintigraphic probe for hypoxia were performed with a stroke-bearing mouse model. Materials and Methods: HL91-ET was synthesized and formulated with stannous chloride and buffer to afford kits. After mixing with {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate, {sup 99m}Tc-HL91-ET can be prepared in high yield and high radiochemical purity (both >96%). The partition coefficient of {sup 99m}Tc-HL91-ET was determined in n-octanol/PBS system. Cellular uptake assays under normoxic and hypoxic conditions were performed in an oxygen-controlled CO{sub 2} incubator. Brain stroke in the mouse model was induced by the electrocautery of the middle cerebral artery. After intravenous injection of {sup 99m}Tc-HL91-ET into the Balb/c mouse suffering brain stroke, small-animal SPECT images were acquired at designated time points and autoradiography of the brain slides was conducted. Parallel studies of {sup 99m}Tc-HL91 were also conducted at the same conditions for comparison. Results: The higher partition coefficient of {sup 99m}Tc-HL91-ET (0.294{+-}0.007) indicated higher lipophlicity compared with that of {sup 99m}Tc-HL91 (0.089{+-}0.005). The {sup 99m}Tc-HL91-ET preparation was stable at ambient temperature for 24 h. Cellular uptake assay showed that {sup 99m}Tc-HL91-ET was less selectively retained in hypoxic cells than {sup 99m}Tc-HL91. The target-to-normal brain ratios derived from the autoradiograms of the brains of stroke mice were 1.31{+-}0.02 and 17

  10. The preparation and biological characterization of a new HL91-derivative for hypoxic imaging on stroke mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsia, C.-C.; Huang, F.-L.; Lin, C.-H.; Shen, L.-H.; Wang, H.-E.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: 99m Tc-HL91 (Prognox, GE-Healthcare) was the first nonnitro-aryl-based radiotracer for evaluating hypoxic fraction in neoplasm, stroke and myocardium infarction regions. However, the high hydrophilicity of 99m Tc-HL91 might hamper its penetration into cells. In this study, we prepared a new ligand 4,4,11,11-tetramethyl- 5,10-diazatetradecane- 3,12-dionedioxime (HL91-ET) with higher lipophilicity but structurally similar compared with that of HL91. The chemical and biological characterizations of 99m Tc-HL91-ET as a scintigraphic probe for hypoxia were performed with a stroke-bearing mouse model. Materials and Methods: HL91-ET was synthesized and formulated with stannous chloride and buffer to afford kits. After mixing with 99m Tc-pertechnetate, 99m Tc-HL91-ET can be prepared in high yield and high radiochemical purity (both >96%). The partition coefficient of 99m Tc-HL91-ET was determined in n-octanol/PBS system. Cellular uptake assays under normoxic and hypoxic conditions were performed in an oxygen-controlled CO 2 incubator. Brain stroke in the mouse model was induced by the electrocautery of the middle cerebral artery. After intravenous injection of 99m Tc-HL91-ET into the Balb/c mouse suffering brain stroke, small-animal SPECT images were acquired at designated time points and autoradiography of the brain slides was conducted. Parallel studies of 99m Tc-HL91 were also conducted at the same conditions for comparison. Results: The higher partition coefficient of 99m Tc-HL91-ET (0.294±0.007) indicated higher lipophlicity compared with that of 99m Tc-HL91 (0.089±0.005). The 99m Tc-HL91-ET preparation was stable at ambient temperature for 24 h. Cellular uptake assay showed that 99m Tc-HL91-ET was less selectively retained in hypoxic cells than 99m Tc-HL91. The target-to-normal brain ratios derived from the autoradiograms of the brains of stroke mice were 1.31±0.02 and 17.47±0.10 (n=3), respectively, at 2 h post injection of 99m Tc-HL91-ET and 99m Tc-HL91

  11. A Photo-triggered and photo-calibrated nitric oxide donor: Rational design, spectral characterizations, and biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haihong; Liu, Yuxin; Zhou, Zhongneng; Guo, Chunlei; Wang, Hong-Yin; Wang, Zhuang; Wang, Xueli; Zhang, Ziqian; Wu, Fu-Gen; Wang, Haolu; Chen, Daijie; Yang, Dahai; Liang, Xiaowen; Chen, Jinquan; Zhou, Shengmin; Liang, Xin; Qian, Xuhong; Yang, Youjun

    2018-04-27

    Nitric oxide (NO) donors are valuable tools to probe the profound implications of NO in health and disease. The elusive nature of NO bio-relevance has largely limited the use of spontaneous NO donors and promoted the development of next generation NO donors, whose NO release is not only stimulated by a trigger, but also readily monitored via a judiciously built-in self-calibration mechanism. Light is without a doubt the most sensitive, versatile and biocompatible method of choice for both triggering and monitoring, for applications in complex biological matrices. Herein, we designed and synthesized an N-nitroso rhodamine derivative (NOD560) as a photo-triggered and photo-calibrated NO donor to address this need. NOD560 is essentially non-fluorescent. Upon irradiation by green light (532 nm), it efficiently release NO and a rhodamine dye, the dramatic fluorescence turn-on from which could be harnessed to conveniently monitor the localization, flux, and dose of NO release. The potentials of NOD560 for in vitro biological applications were also exemplified in in vitro biological models, i.e. mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) migration suppression. NOD560 is expected to complement the existing NO donors and find widespread applications in chemical biological studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of Odorant Receptors from a Non-ditrysian Moth, Eriocrania semipurpurella Sheds Light on the Origin of Sex Pheromone Receptors in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvaraj, Jothi Kumar; Corcoran, Jacob A; Andersson, Martin N; Newcomb, Richard D; Anderbrant, Olle; Löfstedt, Christer

    2017-11-01

    Pheromone receptors (PRs) are essential in moths to detect sex pheromones for mate finding. However, it remains unknown from which ancestral proteins these specialized receptors arose. The oldest lineages of moths, so-called non-ditrysian moths, use short-chain pheromone components, secondary alcohols, or ketones, so called Type 0 pheromones that are similar to many common plant volatiles. It is, therefore, possible that receptors for these ancestral pheromones evolved from receptors detecting plant volatiles. Hence, we identified the odorant receptors (ORs) from a non-ditrysian moth, Eriocrania semipurpurella (Eriocraniidae, Lepidoptera), and performed functional characterization of ORs using HEK293 cells. We report the first receptors that respond to Type 0 pheromone compounds; EsemOR3 displayed highest sensitivity toward (2S, 6Z)-6-nonen-2-ol, whereas EsemOR5 was most sensitive to the behavioral antagonist (Z)-6-nonen-2-one. These receptors also respond to plant volatiles of similar chemical structures, but with lower sensitivity. Phylogenetically, EsemOR3 and EsemOR5 group with a plant volatile-responding receptor from the tortricid moth Epiphyas postvittana (EposOR3), which together reside outside the previously defined lepidopteran PR clade that contains the PRs from more derived lepidopteran families. In addition, one receptor (EsemOR1) that falls at the base of the lepidopteran PR clade, responded specifically to β-caryophyllene and not to any other additional plant or pheromone compounds. Our results suggest that PRs for Type 0 pheromones have evolved from ORs that detect structurally-related plant volatiles. They are unrelated to PRs detecting pheromones in more derived Lepidoptera, which, in turn, also independently may have evolved a novel function from ORs detecting plant volatiles. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  13. Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella infantis isolates originating from different points of the broiler chicken-human food chain in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nógrády, N; Kardos, G; Bistyák, A; Turcsányi, I; Mészáros, J; Galántai, Zs; Juhász, A; Samu, P; Kaszanyitzky, J E; Pászti, J; Kiss, I

    2008-09-30

    During the 10-month study period Salmonella contamination of broiler houses and the flocks reared in three farms (A, B and C), the slaughter houses where the flocks were slaughtered, as well as the carcass and retail raw meat products originating from them was investigated. In the broiler farm A five consecutive flocks, in the B and C farms one flock was sampled. Environmental samples were taken prior to the introductions. Environmental, drinking water, feed and faecal samples were collected regularly using standard methods. Before and during processing of the flocks, environmental and carcass samples were taken at the abattoirs. Salmonella contamination of the carcass, retail meat, as well as stool samples of farm and abattoir workers and from human illnesses registered in the same period and region were also examined. Isolation, sero-, phage- and antibiotic resistance typing, class 1 integron and plasmid profiling of the strains were performed; their genetic relationship was assessed by PFGE. Although the broiler house and the faecal samples of the 5 flocks of the farm A were negative for Salmonella, S. infantis was isolated from 20-100% of the abattoir carcass samples. The retail raw meat samples were 0-100% S. infantis positive. The environmental samples of farm B were Salmonella negative, but the examined flock was contaminated: S. infantis was identified from 43% of the faecal samples. This serotype was identified in 100% of the carcass and retail raw meat samples. From environmental samples taken before the arrival of the 1-day-old chicks in the broiler house C, S. infantis was cultured. S. infantis prevalence in the faecal samples was 35% and all the carcass and retail raw meat samples were S. infantis contaminated. Altogether 164 S. infantis strains were isolated out of which 145 were further characterized. The vast majority (142/145) of the strains belonged to phage types 217 and 213. All but one were characterized by the nalidixic acid

  14. Patterns of symptom control and palliative care-focused original research articles in the International Journal of Radiation Oncology *Biology* Physics and the Radiotherapy and Oncology Journal, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Diana D; DiGiovanni, Julia; Skamene, Sonia; Noveroske Philbrick, Sarah; Wang, Yanbing; Barnes, Elizabeth A; Chow, Edward; Sullivan, Adam; Balboni, Tracy A

    2018-04-01

    A significant portion of radiation treatment (30-40%) is delivered with palliative intent. Given the frequency of palliative care (PC) in radiation oncology, we determined the patterns of research focusing on symptom control and palliative care (SCPC) in two prominent radiation oncology journals from 2005-2014. Original research manuscripts published from 2005-2014 in the International Journal of Radiation Oncology *Biology* Physics (Red Journal) and the Radiotherapy and Oncology Journal (Green Journal) were reviewed to categorize articles as PC and/or SCPC. Articles were categorized as PC if it pertained to any aspect of treatment of metastatic cancer, and as SCPC if symptom control in the metastatic cancer setting was the goal of the research inquiry and/or any domain of palliative clinical practice guidelines was the goal of research inquiry. From 2005-2014, 4.9% (312/6,386) of original research articles published in the Red Journal and 3.5% (84/2,406) published in the Green Journal pertained to metastatic cancer, and were categorized as PC. In the Red Journal, 1.3% (84/6,386) of original research articles were categorized as SCPC; 1.3% (32/2,406) of articles in the Green Journal were categorized as SCPC. There was no trend observed in the proportion of SCPC articles published over time in the Red Journal (P=0.76), the Green Journal (P=0.48), or both journals in aggregate (P=0.38). Despite the fact that palliative radiotherapy is a critical part of radiation oncology practice, PC and SCPC-focused original research is poorly represented in the Red Journal and the Green Journal.

  15. Characterization of Cefotaxime- and Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Commensal Escherichia coli Originating from Belgian Farm Animals Indicates High Antibiotic Resistance Transfer Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Ellen; Van Meervenne, Eva; Boon, Nico; Van de Wiele, Tom; Wattiau, Pierre; Herman, Lieve; Heyndrickx, Marc; Van Coillie, Els

    2017-11-17

    Food-producing animals represent one of the sources of antibiotic resistant commensal bacteria. There is an increasing awareness that these bacteria might have the potential to transfer their resistance genes to other (pathogenic) bacteria. In this study, 50 commensal Escherichia coli strains originating from food-producing animals and resistant to the "highest priority, critically important antibiotics" cefotaxime and/or ciprofloxacin, were selected for further characterization. For each strain (i) an antibiogram, (ii) the phylogenetic group, (iii) plasmid replicon type, (iv) presence and identification of integrons, and (v) antibiotic resistance transfer ratios were determined. Forty-five of these strains were resistant to 5 or more antibiotics, and 6 strains were resistant to 10 or more antibiotics. Resistance was most common to ampicillin (100%), sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin (82%), trimethoprim, tetracycline (74%), cefotaxime, (70%) and ceftazidime (62%). Phylogenetic groups A (62%) and B1 (26%) were most common, followed by C (8%) and E (4%). In 43 strains, more than 1 replicon type was detected, with FII (88%), FIB (70%), and I1 (48%) being the most encountered types. Forty strains, positive for integrons, all harbored a class I integron and seven of them contained an additional class II integron. No class III integrons were detected. The antibiotic resistance transfer was assessed by liquid mating experiments. The transfer ratio, expressed as the number of transconjugants per recipient, was between 10 -5 and 10 0 for cefotaxime resistance and between 10 -7 and 10 -1 for ciprofloxacin resistance. The results of the current study prove that commensal E. coli in food-production animals can be a source of multiple resistance genes and that these bacteria can easily spread their ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime resistance.

  16. Characterization of the parameters at the origin of the chemical species hideout process at the fuel rod surface in boiling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peybernes, J.; March, P.

    1999-01-01

    Current trends in nuclear power generation (and particularly in pressurized water reactors) are toward plant life extension and extended fuel burnup. A higher heat generation rate can induce local boiling regimes at the fuel rod surface in the hottest channels of the core, which can strongly modify the chemical environment of the cladding and influence the oxidation rate of zirconium alloys. Tests performed in out-of-pile loops under severe chemical and thermal-hydraulic conditions (nucleate boiling, higher lithium contents compared to PWRs) reveal two important phenomena: an increase of the oxidation rate of Zircaloy-4 cladding materials in 'high' lithiated environments; an enrichment of the chemical additives in the primary water (boron, lithium) at the surface of the cladding under nucleate boiling conditions. The latter phenomenon, also called 'hideout effect', is mainly controlled by some thermal hydraulic parameters such as bubble diameters and nucleation site density. These parameters strongly depend on the oxide morphology (roughness, porosity). The lack of reliable data in high temperature water environments has led to the development of a specific instrumentation based on visualization. The fitting of windows on the REGGAE out-of-pile loop provides an optical access to the two-phase flow regime under PWR operating conditions, allowing for the characterization of the parameters at the origin of the chemical species hideout process. These direct observations of the cladding surfaces subjected to nucleate boiling conditions provide information about the development of the boiling mechanisms in relation to the morphology of the oxide layers (porosity, thickness, roughness). (author)

  17. Characterization of an aquaporin-2 water channel gene mutation causing partial nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a Mexican family: evidence of increased frequency of the mutation in the town of origin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boccalandro, C.; Mattia, F.P. de; Guo, D.C.; Xue, L.; Orlander, P.; King, T.M.; Gupta, P.; Deen, P.M.T.; Lavis, V.R.; Milewicz, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    A Mexican family with partial congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) that resulted from a mutation in the aquaporin-2 water channel (AQP2) was characterized, and the source of this rare mutation was traced to the family's town of origin in Mexico. Affected individuals with profound polyuria

  18. The search for evolutionary developmental origins of aging in zebrafish: a novel intersection of developmental and senescence biology in the zebrafish model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Shuji

    2011-09-01

    regulation. We wish to ascertain whether we can identify such genes promptly in a comprehensive manner. The ease of manipulation using the zebrafish system allows us to conduct an exhaustive exploration of novel genes and small molecular compounds that can be linked to the senescence phenotype and thereby facilitates searching for the evolutionary and developmental origins of aging in vertebrates. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Size distributions and temporal variations of biological aerosol particles in the Amazon rainforest characterized by microscopy and real-time UV-APS fluorescence techniques during AMAZE-08

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Huffman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the AMAZE-08 campaign during the wet season in the rainforest of central Amazonia, an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UV-APS was operated for continuous measurements of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP. In the coarse particle size range (> 1 μm the campaign median and quartiles of FBAP number and mass concentration were 7.3 × 104 m−3 (4.0–13.2 × 104 m−3 and 0.72 μg m−3 (0.42–1.19 μg m−3, respectively, accounting for 24% (11–41% of total particle number and 47% (25–65% of total particle mass. During the five-week campaign in February–March 2008 the concentration of coarse-mode Saharan dust particles was highly variable. In contrast, FBAP concentrations remained fairly constant over the course of weeks and had a consistent daily pattern, peaking several hours before sunrise, suggesting observed FBAP was dominated by nocturnal spore emission. This conclusion was supported by the consistent FBAP number size distribution peaking at 2.3 μm, also attributed to fungal spores and mixed biological particles by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, light microscopy and biochemical staining. A second primary biological aerosol particle (PBAP mode between 0.5 and 1.0 μm was also observed by SEM, but exhibited little fluorescence and no true fungal staining. This mode may have consisted of single bacterial cells, brochosomes, various fragments of biological material, and small Chromalveolata (Chromista spores. Particles liquid-coated with mixed organic-inorganic material constituted a large fraction of observations, and these coatings contained salts likely from primary biological origin. We provide key support for the suggestion that real-time laser-induce fluorescence (LIF techniques using 355 nm excitation provide size-resolved concentrations of FBAP as a lower limit for the atmospheric abundance of biological particles in a pristine

  20. Geochemical characterization of the Jurassic Amran deposits from Sharab area (SW Yemen): Origin of organic matter, paleoenvironmental and paleoclimate conditions during deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Mohammed Hail; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Makeen, Yousif M.; Saeed, Shadi A.; Al-Hakame, Hitham; Al-Moliki, Tareq; Al-Sharabi, Kholah Qaid; Hatem, Baleid Ali

    2017-05-01

    Calcareous shales and black limestones of the Jurassic Amran Group, located in the Sharab area (SW Yemen), were analysed based on organic and inorganic geochemical methods. The results of this study were used to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic conditions during Jurassic time and their relevance to organic matter enrichment during deposition of the Amran calcareous shale and black limestone deposits. The analysed Amran samples have present-day TOC and Stotal content values in the range of 0.25-0.91 wt % and 0.59-4.96 wt %, respectively. The relationship between Stotal and TOC contents indicates that the Jurassic Amran deposits were deposited in a marine environment as supported by biomarker environmental indicators. Biomarker distributions also reflect that the analysed Amran deposits received high contributions of marine organic matter (e.g., algal and microbial) with minor amount of land plant source inputs. Low oxygen (reducing) conditions during deposition of the Jurassic Amran deposits are indicated from low Pr/Ph values and relatively high elemental ratios of V/Ni and V/(V + Ni). Enrichment in the pyrite grains and very high DOPT and high Fe/Al ratios further suggest reducing bottom waters. This paleo-redox (i.e., reducing) conditions contributed to preservation of organic matter during deposition of the Jurassic Amran deposits. Semi-arid to warm climatic conditions are also evidenced during deposition of the Amran sediments and consequently increased biological productivity within the photic zone of the water column during deposition. Therefore, the increased bio-productivity in combination with good preservation of organic matter identified as the major mechanisms that gave rise to organic matter enrichment. This contradicts with the low organic matter content of the present-day TOC values of less than 1%. The biomarker maturity data indicate that the analysed Amran samples are of high thermal maturity; therefore, the low present-day TOC

  1. Surface characterization and biological evaluation of silver-incorporated DLC coatings fabricated by hybrid RF PACVD/MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bociąga, Dorota; Jakubowski, Witold; Komorowski, Piotr; Sobczyk-Guzenda, Anna; Jędrzejczak, Anna; Batory, Damian; Olejnik, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Since the biological response of the body towards an implanted material is mainly governed by its surface properties, biomaterials are improved by various kinds of coatings. Their role is to provide good mechanical and biological characteristics, and exclude some disadvantages like post-implantation infections. This phenomenon may be reduced by introduction of silver as an antibacterial agent. This study evaluates the Ag-DLC films synthesized by the hybrid RF PACVD/MS method according to the patent number PL401955-A1 worked out inter alia by the authors. Such tests as XPS, SEM, EDS, AFM, FTIR, Raman and ICP-TOF-MS were used to determine surface properties of the coatings. The obtained results were correlated with the biological response estimated on the basis of cells viability assay (osteoblast cells line Saos-2) and bacterial colonization test (Escherichia coli strain DH5α). Results showed that the hybrid RF PACVD/MS method allows one to get tight coating preventing the diffusion of harmful elements from the metallic substrate. Ag concentration increases with the growing power density, it occurs in metallic state, does not create chemical bonds and is evenly dispersed within the DLC matrix in the form of nanoscale silver clusters. Increasing silver content above 2at.% improves bactericidal properties, but decreases cell viability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization and quantification by mass spectrometry of mobile organic matter from clay rock: influence of the origin and of the sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huclier-Markai, S.; Landesman, C.; Montavon, G.; Grambow, B.; Monteau, F.; Fernandez, A.M.; Vinsot, A.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In environmental studies, Natural Organic Matter (NOM) plays a key role on the bioavailability and the toxicity of metallic compounds. If one wants to evaluate the mobility of heavy metals / radionuclides, which is in natura in most of the cases dependant on their interactions with NOM. One part of the organic inventory in the Callovo-Oxfordian formation (COx) exists as small dissolved compounds in the pore water but the weak content and the weak porosity of the formation (∼ 8 % of water in weight) make the complexation study with metal ions difficult. One part of the organic matter attached to the sediment (∼ 1 % in weight) can be mobilized in a synthetic pore water 1 and can be considered as similar to in situ pore water dissolved organic matter (DOM) regarding its size distribution. The collection of clay pore water has been done through percolation experiment, a unique and original experimental process developed to get pore water from a core sample,that have been described previously. From these experiments, it was shown that mobile organic matter concentration could reach 0.01 mol C/L by application of a pressure gradient up to 100 bars. Since part of the OM from the COx is known to be sensitive to air oxidation, the characterization and quantification of DOM were then performed under anoxic conditions (about - 170 mV vs Standard Hydrogen Electrode SHE). In addition, the chemical composition of NOM contained in the pore water from the argillite clay rock has been determined in in-situ like conditions by ESI-MS and APCI-MS, which are suitable techniques to identify the chemical composition of NOM contained in the COx pore water available from boreholes. Mostly low molecular weight molecules were identified, of whom structural features observed were mainly acidic compounds, fatty acids as well as aldehydes and amino acids. Fulvic and Humic Acids have such low concentrations in the COx formation, leading to a

  3. Asymmetric PDLLA membranes containing Bioglass(R) for guided tissue regeneration: characterization and in vitro biological behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal, A.I.; Caridade, S.G.; Ma, J.; Yu, N.; Gomes, M.; Reis, R.L.; Jansen, J.A.; Walboomers, X.F.; Mano, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the treatment of periodontal defects, composite membranes might be applied to protect the injured area and simultaneously stimulate tissue regeneration. This work describes the development and characterization of poly(d,l-lactic acid)/Bioglass(R) (PDLLA/BG) composite membranes with

  4. Genomic characterization of a South American Phytophthora hybrid mandates reassessment of the geographic origins of Phytophthora infestans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Michael David; Garrett Vieira, Filipe Jorge; Ho, Simon Y. W.

    2016-01-01

    outbreak remains disputed, as does the New World center of origin of the species itself. Both Mexico and South America have been proposed, generating considerable controversy. Here, we readdress the pathogen's origins using a genomic data set encompassing 71 globally sourced modern and historical samples...

  5. Original Misunderstanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Humorist Josh Billings quipped, "About the most originality that any writer can hope to achieve honestly is to steal with good judgment." Billings was harsh in his view of originality, but his critique reveals a tension faced by students every time they write a history paper. Research is the essence of any history paper. Especially in high school,…

  6. Characterization of mechanical and biological properties of 3-D scaffolds reinforced with zinc oxide for bone tissue engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Feng

    Full Text Available A scaffold for bone tissue engineering should have highly interconnected porous structure, appropriate mechanical and biological properties. In this work, we fabricated well-interconnected porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP scaffolds via selective laser sintering (SLS. We found that the mechanical and biological properties of the scaffolds were improved by doping of zinc oxide (ZnO. Our data showed that the fracture toughness increased from 1.09 to 1.40 MPam(1/2, and the compressive strength increased from 3.01 to 17.89 MPa when the content of ZnO increased from 0 to 2.5 wt%. It is hypothesized that the increase of ZnO would lead to a reduction in grain size and an increase in density of the strut. However, the fracture toughness and compressive strength decreased with further increasing of ZnO content, which may be due to the sharp increase in grain size. The biocompatibility of the scaffolds was investigated by analyzing the adhesion and the morphology of human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells cultured on the surfaces of the scaffolds. The scaffolds exhibited better and better ability to support cell attachment and proliferation when the content of ZnO increased from 0 to 2.5 wt%. Moreover, a bone like apatite layer formed on the surfaces of the scaffolds after incubation in simulated body fluid (SBF, indicating an ability of osteoinduction and osteoconduction. In summary, interconnected porous β-TCP scaffolds doped with ZnO were successfully fabricated and revealed good mechanical and biological properties, which may be used for bone repair and replacement potentially.

  7. Graphene oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes as nanofeatured scaffolds for the assisted deposition of nanohydroxyapatite: characterization and biological evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Bruno VM; Leite, Nelly CS; Cavalcanti, Bruno das Neves; da Silva, Newton S; Marciano, Fernanda R; Corat, Evaldo J; Webster, Thomas J; Lobo, Anderson O

    2016-01-01

    Bruno VM Rodrigues,1,* Nelly CS Leite,1,* Bruno das Neves Cavalcanti,2 Newton S da Silva,3 Fernanda R Marciano,1 Evaldo J Corat,4 Thomas J Webster,5,6 Anderson O Lobo11Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology, Institute of Research and Development (IP&D), University of Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil; 2Department of Cardiology, Restorative Sciences and Endodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 3Laboratory of Cell Biology and Tis...

  8. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of novel diesters of 4,4'-dihydroxy azoxy benzene with long chain carboxylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehzadi, S.; Siddiqi, H.M.; Qasim, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of novel symmetrical azoxy diesters have been prepared by the reaction of 4,4'-dihydroxyazoxy benzene with aliphatic acid halides of varying chain lengths. The synthesized compounds have been characterized by spectral and analytical means. These symmetrical azoxy diesters exhibit good antifungal against six fungal strains (Mucor species, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria solani, Fusarium solani and Aspergillus fumigatus) and antitumor activities while no significant antibacterial activity has been observed. These synthesized compounds are also potent free radical scavengers. (author)

  9. Chemical and biological characterization of novel essential oils from Eremophila bignoniiflora (F. Muell) (Myoporaceae): a traditional Aboriginal Australian bush medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadgrove, Nicholas John; Hitchcock, Maria; Watson, Kenneth; Jones, Graham Lloyd

    2013-10-01

    Essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation from the traditional Australian medicinal plant Eremophila bignoniiflora, characterized chemically and then screened for bioactivity. Characterization and quantification were completed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-flame ionization detection, respectively. Antimicrobial capacity was assessed using disc diffusion and micro-titre plate broth dilution and further characterized using thin layer chromatography followed by bioautography to assign activity to separated individual active components. Antifungal capacity was investigated using micro-titre plate broth dilution against pathogenic Trichophyton species. Free radical scavenging ability was assessed using the diphenylpicrylhydradyl reaction in methanol. The predominant components of the essential oil were fenchyl-acetate and bornyl-acetate. However, bioautography indicated antimicrobial ability to be largely linked to the less abundant, more polar constituents. Oils displayed only modest antifungal ability against pathogenic Trichophyton species associated with dermatophytosis, but moderate to high antimicrobial activity, particularly against the yeast Candida albicans and the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis. Essential oils exhibited relatively low free radical scavenging ability. Speculation over the role of essential oils in the traditional medicinal applications of E. bignoniiflora follows, exploring correlations between traditional use and investigated bioactivities. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    2014-12-22

    Dec 22, 2014 ... Nekemte, Ethiopia. 2Department of Plant Biology and Biodiversity Management and Biodiversity Management and the National ... plants to ensure safety of consumption and economic benefits. ..... in making local beer. (tella) ...

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

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    1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, School of Biological Sciences, ... quacy ratio (NAR), body mass index (BMI), haemoglobin (Hb) level. risks of developing anaemia and binary .... work sites), private work sites, educational facilities.

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    Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Health ... ports have also justified the biological activities that ... Experimental design ..... spective search area for novel chemical drugs, VSP. 9 7 7 2 ...

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    Impact of physical activity levels and diet on central obesity among ... 1Department of Human Biology, 2Department of Community Nutrition, School of ..... Medicine and science in sports and exercise .... policy and intervention strategies. Lancet ...

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    the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) for stress assessment and State ... Almost all the pregnant women had no complication in the current pregnancy ... mous biological, psychological and social challenges.

  15. Characterization of relative biological effectiveness for conventional radiation therapy: a comparison of clinical 6 MV X-rays and 137Cs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Michelle; Beltran, Chris; Sarkaria, Jann; Herman, Michael G

    2017-09-01

    Various types of radiation are utilized in the treatment of cancer. Equal physical doses of different radiation types do not always result in the same amount of biological damage. In order to account for these differences, a scaling factor known as the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) can be used. 137Cesium (137Cs) has been used as a source of radiation in a significant body of radiation therapy research. However, high-energy X-rays, such as 6 MV X-rays, are currently used clinically to treat patients. To date, there is a gap in the literature regarding the RBE comparison of these two types of radiation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the RBE of 137Cs relative to that of 6 MV X-rays. To determine the RBE, five cell lines were irradiated [Chinese hamster ovary (CHO); human lung adenocarcinoma (A549); human glioma (U251); human glioma (T98); and human osteosarcoma (U2OS)] by both types of radiation and assessed for cell survival using a clonogenic assay. Three of the five cell lines resulted in RBE values of ~1.00 to within 11% for all survival fractions, showing the physical and biological dose for these two types of radiation were equivalent. The other two cell lines gave RBE values differing from 1.00 by up to 36%. In conclusion, the results show the range in biological effect seen between cell lines, and therefore cell type must be considered when characterizing RBE. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

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    Original Article. Prevalence of Gall Bladder Stones among Type 2 Diabetic ... Increasing age, female gender, overweight, familial history of the disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus is all associated ... GBS development in diabetics. An Italian ...

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    UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294. ORIGINAL ... Reproductive development and function in human and other ... sulting solution was filtered and left to stand for three days to ..... male rat brain and pituitary. Brain Res 164,.

  18. Original pedagogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christina Haandbæk

    Original pedagogues Distention between competences and originality By Christina Haandbæk Schmidt, ph. d. student Aarhus University, Denmark This presentation concerns a Ph.D. project (Sept. 2012 –Sept. 2015) about pedagogues in day care facilities and their struggles to develop and retain...... shall argue that it is necessary for the pedagogues to know how they are constituted by the regimes of power on one side and on the other side are forced to create themselves. This knowledge could transform pedagogues into what I suggest calling ‘original pedagogues’, who have an authentic, ethic...... and professional autonomy in exercising judgment concerning pedagogical situations. To understand how pedagogues can struggle the distention between being competent and being original the project draws on both Michel Foucault and Charles Taylor as two incompatible theories on modern identity. The study...

  19. Methods used to characterize the chemical composition and biological activity of environmental waters throughout the United States, 2012-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanok, Kristin M.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Barber, Larry B.; Boone, J. Scott; Buxton, Herbert T.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Hladik, Michelle; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Journey, Celeste A.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Loftin, Keith A.; Mills, Marc A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Orlando, James L.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2017-03-22

    A vast array of chemical compounds are in wide commercial use in the United States, and the potential ecological and human-health effect of exposure to chemical mixtures has been identified as a high priority in environme